WorldWideScience

Sample records for belgian nuclear decisions

  1. The Belgian nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is almost exclusively devoted to nuclear R and D and services and is able to generate 50% of its resources (out of 75 million Euro) by contract work and services. The main areas of research include nuclear reactor safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. The high flux reactor BR2 is extensively used to test fuel and structural materials. PWR-plant BR3 is devoted to the scientific analysis of decommissioning problems. The Centre has a strong programme on the applications of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine and industry. The centre has plans to develop an accelerator driven spallation neutron source for various applications. It has initiated programmes to disseminate correct information on issues of nuclear energy production and non-energy nuclear applications to different target groups. It has strong linkages with the IAEA, OECD-NEA and the Euratom. (author)

  2. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; D'Haeseleer, W.; Giot, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. In a country where a substantial part of electricity generation will remain of nuclear origin for a number of years, there is a need for well educated and well trained engineers in this area. Public authorities, regulators and industry brought their support to this initiative. In the framework of the new architecture of higher education in Europe, the English name for this 60 ECTS programme is 'Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering'. To be admitted to this programme, students must already hold a university degree in engineering or equivalent. Linked with university research, benefiting from the human resources and infrastructure of SCK-CEN, encouraged and supported by the partners of the nuclear sector, this programme should be offered not only to Belgian students, but also more widely throughout Europe and the world. The master programme is a demanding programme where students with different high level backgrounds in engineering have to go through highly theoretical subjects like neutron physics, fluid flow and heat transfer modelling, and apply them to reactor design, nuclear safety and plant operation and control. At a more interdisciplinary level, the programme includes some important chapters of material science, with a particular interest for the fuel cycle. Radiation protection belongs also to the backbone of the programme. All the subjects are taught by academics appointed by the partner universities, whereas the practical exercises and laboratory sessions are supervised by researchers of SCK-CEN. The final thesis offers an opportunity for internship in industry or in a research laboratory. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  3. History of the Belgian nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, E.

    2009-01-01

    Partly because nuclear energy technology continues to provoke profound controversy, the Flemish institute for technology assessment (viWTA) took the initiative to order a study aimed at mapping out the historical dynamics of the societal debate on nuclear energy. This study was carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN, under the research programme PISA) together with the Free university of Brussels (VUB, research group MEKO) in 2004. In 2007, the report was updated and published by Acco (Leuven) under the title Kernenergie (on)besproken. This study had three main objectives: 1) to discuss the societal debate on nuclear energy in Belgium in relation to major events (Chernobyl, TMI, etc.); 2) to elucidate the role of social actors in the controversy on both a national and international level and 3) to discuss possible alternatives for a better structuring of the debate in the future, building on existing approaches

  4. The Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network: Your way to the European Master in Nuclear Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; D'haeseleer, W.; Giot, M.

    2004-01-01

    BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear Higher Education Network has been created in 2001 by five Belgian universities and the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN) as a joint effort to maintain and further develop a high quality programme in nuclear engineering in Belgium. More information: http://www.sckcen.be/BNEN. (author)

  5. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclere, Robert; Van Landeghem, Yves

    2010-01-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No emotions: bring reason into a mainly emotional

  6. Inventory of nuclear liabilities - The Belgian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minon, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Like all countries that use radioactive materials for producing electricity or for other peaceful purposes, Belgium is faced with an important challenge: the safe management of all these materials, in both the short and long term. Of course there is a price to pay for this management, which in accordance with the ethical principle of inter-generational fairness should be borne mainly by the current generations. However, it is possible that when the moment has come, the financial resources to cover the costs of decommissioning and remediation of these installations, prove to be insufficient or even completely non-existent: this then results in a nuclear liability. This kind of situation can have several causes, such as an underestimation of the actual costs by the operator or the owner of the nuclear installation or by the holder or the owner of the radioactive materials, negligence, transfer of ownership of the nuclear installation or the nuclear site without transfer of the corresponding provisions, a reduction in the operating time, a bankruptcy as well as ignorance. Because it wishes to avoid the occurrence of new nuclear liabilities, the Belgian legislator, by virtue of article 9 of the programme law of 12.12.97, charged ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, with collecting all the elements that are necessary in order to examine to which degree the decommissioning and remediation costs can be actually covered when the time comes. ONDRAF/NIRAS was specifically charged with ascertaining all facts of a technical and financial nature which should enable the minister responsible for energy to verify whether every operator or owner of a nuclear installation and every holder or owner of radioactive materials have provided in time for the requisite financial resources to cover the future costs of decommissioning and remediation. This evaluation of course also serves to enable the government to take the necessary

  7. Belgian nuclear forum - launching the public debate on nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Robert [Belgian Nuclear Forum, Gulledelle, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Van Landeghem, Yves [Saatchi and Saatchi Belgium, Avenue Rogier, 1030 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    In the past decades, public opinion on nuclear power was dominated by a 'sleeping', indifferent majority. Nothing moved until (a minority of) opponents began to stir. Their activism strongly contrasted with the low-profile attitude of the nuclear players and pushed a considerable part of the indifferent majority towards a more negative attitude. A 2007 opinion poll (IFOP) confirmed this trend. The poll also revealed a major lack of objective and factual information. Incorrect and incomplete arguments tended to demonize nuclear energy, and 'nuclear' became a brand polarizing public opinion. This had a negative impact on decision-makers and culminated in the Belgian phase-out law of 2003. Based on the opinion poll, the members of the Belgian Nuclear Forum decided to launch a public information campaign, which they would jointly finance, with these goals: - In 3 to 4 years time, create greater public awareness on energy matters and move public opinion towards a more positive attitude. - Gain recognition of nuclear energy's legitimate place in the mix, and of the importance of peaceful nuclear applications. - Attract attention to the Belgian know-how and the importance of the industry on the scientific and economical level. - Optimize conditions for important nuclear issues such as long-term operation of NPPs, new nuclear research projects (MYRRHA),.. A 'push-pull' approach was adopted: push communication to the public (campaign) to pull (involve) decision-makers and get nuclear back on the political agenda. The Forum also opted for a sustained, long-term effort based on public campaigning, public relations and public affairs. Considering its long-time absence from the public debate, the Forum and its agency Saatchi and Saatchi agreed upon the following principles to underpin the campaign: - No 'pro-campaign'; that would be highly unrealistic and have a negative effect; - No taboos: bring up both the pros and cons; - No

  8. Open Access to the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, S.

    2005-01-01

    Under the name of the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network, five Belgian universities, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Universiteit Gent, Universite de Liege, Vrije Universiteit Brussel have established in 2002, in collaboration with the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, a common Belgian Interuniversity Programme of the third cycle leading to the academic degree of Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. Under the lead of the SCK-CEN a project to use and share the acquired experience of the Consortium BNEN - in order to support the realization of a common European Education Programme in Nuclear Engineering - has been accepted by the European Commission for funding under the EU's Sixth Research Framework Programme.The project wants to contribute actively to the development of a more harmonised approach for education in nuclear sciences and engineering in Europe. It brings the European higher Education Area closer to realization and helps to safeguard the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of nuclear energy and other uses of radiation in industry and medicine in Europe. The project foresees input and participation from stakeholders from different countries of the enlarged European Union (EU-25) and will therefore contribute to the integration of the new member states into the European Research Area and thus to the enlargement of Europe. The set-up of the project foresees an active role for female experts with the intention to reinforce the place and role of women in science

  9. The actual practice of air cleaning in Belgian nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, W.R. [PEGO, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-02-01

    With 60% of its power generation from nuclear stations Belgium has 7 nuclear power stations in operation with a total capacity of 5.4 MWe. Enriched uranium is imported and converted to fuel assemblies. The actinides of reprocessed fuel are recycled as MOX fuel. A main waste conditioning operation has been performed in the PAMELA vitrifier. The actual practice of nuclear air cleaning in the Belgian PWR station DOEL-4 and in the PAMELA -vitrification plant for high level liquid waste is reviewed.

  10. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merny, R. [Association Vincotte, Avenue du Roi 157, B-1060 Bruxelles/Brussels (Belgium)

    1986-02-15

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  11. Operating experience with diesel generators in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merny, R.

    1986-01-01

    Various problems have occurred on the diesel generators in the Belgian nuclear power plants, independently of the D.G. manufacturer or from the operating crew. Furthermore no individual part of the D.G. can be incriminated as being the main cause of the incidents. The incidents reported in this paper are chosen because of the importance for the safety or for the long repair period. The unavailability of a D.G. can only be detected by periodic tests and controls. Combined with a good preventive maintenance, the risks of incidents can be reduced. (author)

  12. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.; Farmer, F.R.; Gaines, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    In the Correspondence section of this issue of Nature three letters are published each of which has a bearing on the article by P. Taylor in the issue of 22 February. In that article Taylor calls for changes in the way decisions are taken on nuclear energy matters. The three articles are by H.J. Dunster of the UKAEA Health and Safety Executive, F.R. Farmer, Safety Adviser to the UKAEA, and M.J. Gaines, National Radiological Protection Board. (UK)

  13. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1991-01-01

    This attempts to identify the role of judgmental processes in various nuclear arms/war decisions. That task analysis is done with some confidence. The next two steps, diagnosing potential weaknesses in those judgments and suggesting ameliorative procedures, are done with increasing timidity. The empirical research base is not (ever) as large as one would like. It is particularly weak with regard to studies of experts forced to go beyond hard data and rely on intuitive judgments within their field of expertise. further evidence is needed to substantiate the claim that experts think like everyone else unless they have had the opportunity to master a particular kind of judgment as a learned skill. Although there is both theoretical and empirical reason to believe that various forms of decision aiding are possible, the high stakes involved mandate caution before proposing any intervention. Ineffective steps may make matters worse if they raise confidence without improving performance, or if they disrupt the cognitive ecology within which decision makers are accustomed to functioning, so that they lose touch with their own imperfect intuitions without acquiring viable alternatives

  14. The Belgian nuclear higher education network: the evolution of an academic programme in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkvens, T.; Coeck, M.

    2014-01-01

    The master-after-master in nuclear engineering provided by the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network (BNEN) is a one-year, 60 ECTS programme which combines the expertise of six Belgian universities and SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, which participates through its Academy for Nuclear Science and Technology. It was created in close collaboration with representatives of academia, research centres, industry and other nuclear stakeholders. The BNEN consortium Due to its modular programme, BNEN is accessible for both full-time students (mainly young engineering graduates) as well as young professionals already employed in the nuclear industry. The programme is offered in English to facilitate the participation of international students. One of the important aspects of the BNEN programme is the fact that exercises and hands-on sessions in the specialised laboratories of SCK.CEN complement the theoretical classes to bring the students into contact with all facets of nuclear energy. Several of SCK.CEN's researchers provide valuable contributions to the programme through seminars and practical exercises. From their daily practices and responsibilities they give an expert view on the subjects that are being taught. In 2012, in the framework of an official accreditation process all aspects of the BNEN programme were audited by an international visitation panel. The most important outcome of this process is the current reform of the academic programme, which will be implemented in the academic year 2014-2015, taking into account the recommendations by the visitation panel. In this paper, the history of the BNEN programme will be discussed, the new BNEN programme will be presented as well as the process that has led to its implementation. (authors)

  15. How does the average Belgian view nuclear technology? Barometer assesses knowledge and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.; Perko, T.

    2011-01-01

    Irrespective of the choices made in the future, questions about nuclear safety, radiation protection and waste management will always be of topical interest. SCK-CEN has consciously opted for social research on risk perception, sustainable development, and communication. SCK-CEN founded the Barometer in 2002 in order to keep both feet firmly planted in society: a regular, large-scale survey amongst the Belgian population on radiation and nuclear technology. The findings of the third edition were published in 2010.

  16. Waste disposal[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-07-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure.

  17. Reactor pressure vessel steels[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Velde, J.; Fabry, A.; Van Walle, E.; Chaouuadi, R.

    1998-07-01

    Research and development activities related to reactor pressure vessel steels during 1997 are reported. The objectives of activities of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN in this domain are: (1) to develop enhanced surveillance concepts by applying micromechanics and fracture-toughness tests to small specimens, and by performing damage modelling and microstructure characterization; (2) to demonstrate a methodology on a broad database; (3) to achieve regulatory acceptance and industrial use.

  18. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Sweeck, L.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Wannijn, J.; Van Hees, M.; Camps, J.; Olyslaegers, G.; Miliche, C.; Lance, B.

    2013-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h −1 . The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999–2008 or 2000–2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. -- Highlights: • Impact of radioactive discharges by the Belgian NPPs of Doel and Tihange on wildlife was evaluated. • Deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems performed with the ERICA tool. • NPP discharge limits do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. • Actual discharges, a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment

  19. 1997 Scientific Report[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, P

    1998-07-01

    The 1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN describes progress achieved in nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, radiation protection and safeguards. In the field of nuclear research, the main projects concern the behaviour of high-burnup and MOX fuel, the embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels, the irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals, and irradiation effects on materials of fusion reactors. In the field of radioactive waste management, progress in the following domains is reported: the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in a clay formation, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the study of alternative waste-processing techniques. For radiation protection and safeguards, the main activities reported on are in the field of site and environmental restoration, emergency planning and response and scientific support to national and international programmes.

  20. The nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power has now become highly controversial and there is violent disagreement about how far this technology can and should contribute to the Western energy economy. More so than any other energy resource, nuclear power has the capacity to provide much of our energy needs but the risk is now seen to be very large indeed. This book discusses the major British decisions in the civil nuclear field, and the way they were made, between 1953 and 1978. That is, it spans the period between the decision to construct Calder Hall - claimed as the world's first nuclear power station - and the Windscale Inquiry - claimed as the world's most thorough study of a nuclear project. For the period up to 1974 this involves a study of the internal processes of British central government - what the author terms 'private' politics to distinguish them from the very 'public' or open politics which have characterised the period since 1974. The private issues include the technical selection of nuclear reactors, the economic arguments about nuclear power and the political clashes between institutions and individuals. The public issues concern nuclear safety and the environment and the rights and opportunities for individuals and groups to protest about nuclear development. The book demonstrates that British civil nuclear power decision making has had many shortcomings and concludes that it was hampered by outdated political and administrative attitudes and machinery and that some of the central issues in the nuclear debate were misunderstood by the decision makers themselves. (author)

  1. The energy sources and nuclear energy - The point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenraet, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The problems related to the environment are reported regularly to the public by means of the newspapers, on radio and television. The story is the product of a journalistic process and in general does not bear much resemblance to the original event. The rate and type of reportage depend not only on the body of data available to the journalist but on the information sources the journalist chosen to use. The same story is reported in a positive or negative way. Finally people are overwhelmed by contradictory information and became uncertain or frightened. In order to provide the general public with objective information about nuclear energy in particular and to made a statement about the position of the Belgian Catholic Church concerning this matter, the results of the study were published in Dutch under the form of a book with the title 'The Energy Sources and Nuclear Energy - Comparative analysis and ethical thoughts written the same author. Thia paper is a short survey of the results of the study and to present the point of view of the Belgian Catholic Church in the energy debate

  2. Health effects[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented.

  3. Qualification of non-destructive examination for belgian nuclear reactor pressure vessel inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couplet, D.; Francoise, T.

    2001-01-01

    In Service Inspection (ISI) participates to the assessment of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity. The performance of Non Destructive Examination (NDE) techniques must be demonstrated according to predefined objectives. The qualification process is essential to trust the reliability of the information provided by NDE. In Belgian Nuclear Power Plants, the qualification was conducted through a collaboration between the vendor and a technical group from the Electricity Utility. The important facts of this qualification will be presented: - the detailed definition of the inspection and qualifications objectives, based on a combination of the ASME code and the European Methodology for Qualification; - the systematic verification of the NDE performance and limitations, for each ISI objective, through an adequate combination of tests on blocks and technical justification; - the continuous improvement of the NDE procedure; - the feedback and the lessons learnt from site experience; - the necessary multi-disciplinary approach (NDE, degradation mechanisms, structural integrity)

  4. Predicting the environmental risks of radioactive discharges from Belgian nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Sweeck, L; Vives I Batlle, J; Wannijn, J; Van Hees, M; Camps, J; Olyslaegers, G; Miliche, C; Lance, B

    2013-12-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed to evaluate the impact on non-human biota from liquid and atmospheric radioactive discharges by the Belgian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) of Doel and Tihange. For both sites, characterisation of the source term and wildlife population around the NPPs was provided, whereupon the selection of reference organisms and the general approach taken for the environmental risk assessment was established. A deterministic risk assessment for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems was performed using the ERICA assessment tool and applying the ERICA screening value of 10 μGy h(-1). The study was performed for the radioactive discharge limits and for the actual releases (maxima and averages over the period 1999-2008 or 2000-2009). It is concluded that the current discharge limits for the Belgian NPPs considered do not result in significant risks to the aquatic and terrestrial environment and that the actual discharges, which are a fraction of the release limits, are unlikely to harm the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic aspects related to the shallow land disposal of nuclear waste: The Belgian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunsch, P.L.; Zaccai, H.; Miegroet, J. van

    1993-01-01

    The Belgian concept for shallow land disposal of low-level short-lived waste is approaching maturity. The paper presents its main design features, the construction and operating phases, and the economics of the project. The conclusion is that this concept is economically interesting when compared to the geological option. The financial approach adopted by Belgium is presented. Pros and cons of timely operation are discussed. Although it may look economically attractive to adopt a slow pace in implementing the concept, the paper shows that deferring decisions would be a risky attitude, in contradiction with fairness to future consumers. Such a conclusion derives from economic and financial arguments, considering that cost uncertainties, especially in the front-end, and financial management risk might be of overwhelming importance

  6. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear utilities operate their plants at all times in an acceptably safe manner. In meeting this objective, the regulatory body should strive to ensure that its regulatory decisions are technically sound, consistent from case to case, and timely. In addition, the regulator must be aware that its decisions and the circumstances surrounding those decisions can affect how its stakeholders, such as government policy makers, the industry it regulates, and the public, view it as an effective and credible regulator. In order to maintain the confidence of those stakeholders, the regulator should make sure that its decisions are transparent, have a clear basis in law and regulations, and are seen by impartial observers to be fair to all parties. Based on the work of a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) expert group, this report discusses some of the basic principles and criteria that a regulatory body should consider in making decisions and describes the elements of an integrated framework for regulatory decision making. (author)

  7. Safety culture in a Belgian nuclear research centre from a social science point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucks, I.; Hardeman, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the result of a reflection within the framework of a Ph.D. research at SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre) in collaboration with the University of Liege. The starting point of the work was the 'safety culture' model presented in the IAEA report 75-INSAG-4. This model is applied to the working organization of the SCK-CEN, also considering the safety culture as an open concept given its multi dimensionality. The methodology is based on three methods: observations, focus groups and interviews. The fieldwork was limited to two main installations: a research reactor, and a dismantling site. The preliminary findings are based on the data resulting from 4 Focus Groups. The most prominent components of a safety culture and the multiplicity of safety cultures in a large organization such as SCK-CEN will be discussed. (author)

  8. Transposition of the SQUG methodology to the Belgian NPP(nuclear power station)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detroux, P.; Aelbrecht, D.; Naisse, J.C.; Greer, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The units of a Belgian Nuclear PowerStation had to be seismically reassessed after ten years of operation because the seismic requirements were upgraded from 0.1g to 0.17g free field ground acceleration. Seismic requalification of the active equipment was a critical problem as the current classical methods were too conservative and their application would have lead to unacceptable replacement or reinforcement of a lot of equipment. The approach based on the use of past experience of seismic behavior of non nuclear equipment was chosen; this methodology was developed by the Seismic Qualification Utility Group (SQUG); a group of U.S. utilities and had to be transposed to the Belgian N.P.P. This transposition is described in this paper. It affects different aspects of the methodology. First, the impact of specific requests of the Safety Authorities on the elaboration of the Safe Shutdown Equipment List (SSEL) shall be examined. Then it is explained why the tedious work of specific relay screening was avoided by taking advantage of initial design features for both Instrumentation and Control (I and C) and Electrical power distribution system; the impact on the Electrical SSEL is also described. Afterwards, it is presented how it was possible to conduct a specific existing seismic qualification at 0.1 g free field ground acceleration. Finally, the resolution of specific important problems that arose from the application of the SQUG methodology, is presented such as the definition of the grade level and the conservatism of the classical Amplified Floor Spectra (criterion 1), the calculation of the nozzle loads on mechanical equipment connected to long unbraced piping and the transfer of these loads to the anchorage. (author)

  9. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2011-01-01

    The scientific considerations upon which the nuclear regulations are based provide objective criteria for decisions on nuclear safety matters. However, the decisions that a regulatory agency takes go far beyond granting or not an operating license based on assessment of compliance. It may involve decisions about hiring experts or research, appeals, responses to other government agencies, international agreements, etc.. In all cases, top management of the regulatory agency should hear and decide the best balance between the benefits of regulatory action and undue risks and other associated impacts that may arise, including issues of credibility and reputation. The establishment of a decision framework based on well established principles and criteria ensures performance stability and consistency, preventing individual subjectivity. This article analyzes the challenges to the decision-making by regulatory agencies to ensure coherence and consistency in decisions, even in situations where there is uncertainty, lack of reliable information and even divergence of opinions among experts. The article explores the basic elements for a framework for regulatory decision-making. (author)

  10. Training Activities to Maintain Competences in Nuclear Safety and Security: A Case Study of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesteloot, N.; Clarijs, T.; Coeck, M.; Vermeersch, F.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK•CEN, is one of the largest research centers in Belgium. More than 700 employees advance research into nuclear energy and ionizing radiation for civilian use, and develop nuclear technologies for socially valuable purposes. Next to independent fundamental and applied research SCK-CEN provides advice, training, services and products. This paper describes the general approach towards the continuous professional development of all SCK-CEN personnel. The objective of these training activities is to maintain and increase the required competences, in order to optimize the output and the wellbeing on the work floor. Given the nature of the SCK-CEN activities, special attention is given to themes like radiation protection, security and industrial safety. A combination of classical face-to-face training, e-learning and on-the-job training is offered during the onboarding and further career path of an SCK-CEN employee. (author

  11. Doses of radioiodine administered for hyperthyroidism: a sampling of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur Dejonckheere, Marianne; Glinoer, Daniel; Verelst, Jean; Sand, Alain; Ham, Hamphrey

    2005-01-01

    Full text: While radioiodine (RI) is a well established treatment for hyperthyroidism, there is no consensus regarding the administration of fixed or calculated doses. Guidelines from scientific societies do not specify the preferable approach, nor the parameters to be used in order to calculate the latter. Therefore, the doses might, for the same patient, be different with regard to the chosen procedure. This study was undertaken to assess the variability of RI amounts administered in Belgium in various cases of hyperthyroidism. 21 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians issued from different departments and universities participated into the study. They received a file with clinical and biological data, iodine turnover rate, scintigraphic images and calculated thyroid surfaces from 10 patients (8 females, 2 males), 30-77 yrs suffering from hyperthyroidism of various etiologies: 7 patients had clinically overt hyperthyroidism and 3 subclinical hyperthyroidism; 7 patients had toxic goiters of various size (Graves' disease), 2 multi nodular goiter and 1 toxic nodule. None suffered from cardiac anomalies or ophthalmopathy. Participants were asked to define the amount of RI they would give in each case. Answers were received during a 8-week period. Analysing data from case 1 to case 10, the ranges of the proposed doses varied between 8 and 22 milli Curies (mCi) (sd : 2.4 - 6.07). Considering all the patients, the proposed doses varied between 2 mCi and 25 mCi. Analysing answers among the 21 participants, mean proposed doses varied between 4.5 and 17.3 mCi (sd: 0.69 - 7.99). Conclusion: These results demonstrate a wide variability among nuclear medicine physicians in the proposed RI doses and confirm that in Belgium there is no uniformity in the procedure used to determine the amount of RI to administer for various causes of hyperthyroidism. This emphasizes the notion that the determination of the amount of RI to be administered remains a matter of debate. (author)

  12. Scintigraphic examinations during pregnancy and in breast-feeding women: a survey of Belgian nuclear medicine physician's attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, M.; Ham, H.; Sand, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection is of major importance in pregnant and breast feeding women. This work was undertaken to assess the practices of Belgian nuclear medicine physicians towards performing diagnostic tests during pregnancy and in breast feeding women. A questionnaire was sent to 201 Belgian nuclear medicine physicians; 82 answers (41 %) were received. 51 % of the responding physicians agree to perform lung perfusion scan during pregnancy provided a reduced dose is administered, 33% refuse to perform it during first three months and 24% refuse to perform it for pregnancies older than three months. For the Tc-99m ventilation scan 79% and 66% refuse to perform it before and after first three months. Better agreement was observed for other Tc-99m scintigraphies or tests using other radionuclides. In breast feeding women 89% agree to perform Tc-99m tests provided a breast feeding break; however, the duration of this break appears variable. The need for obtaining a written informed consent appears controversial. Given the variability of the attitudes of nuclear medicine physicians, official guidelines for nuclear medicine diagnostic tests during pregnancy is needed. (authors)

  13. Belgian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, J.

    1998-01-01

    Status of Belgian nuclear power plants includes licensing, in-service inspection programs, state of electrical equipment and predictive maintenance. In terms of life management of NPPs degradation phenomena affect the design life of each component. Combination of in-service inspection, periodic testing, specific measurements, qualification test and overall experience supports maintenance programs and enable repairs and replacements in due time. These programs are part of continuous safety assessments performed. Managing NPP life encompasses technical aspects for safe and reliable operation and economical aspects. The approach of Belgian authorities resulted in high availability, competitive cost and reasonable long-term perspectives

  14. The Belgian experience on the backfitting and safety upgrading of old operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brognon, T.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology for backfitting and safety upgrading during the reevaluation of the Belgian NPP's: first generation (Doel-1, Doel-2, Tihange-1) and second generation plants (Doel-3, Doel-4, Tihange-2 and Tihange-3). A list of essential safety subjects and topics is given. The experience has proved the feasibility of a safety upgrading of operating NPP without injury to its availability, the benefit of a close cooperation between owner, engineering company and safety authorities throughout the project. A global approach to solving numerous specific deficiencies along with the optimization of the investments regarding the safety improvement of the NPP is suggested. Further increase of the know-how will be achieved through the present Belgian programme along with similar activities abroad. (R.I.)

  15. Information Sources as Explanatory Variables for the Belgian Health-Related Risk Perception of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyncke, Bart; Perko, Tanja; Van Gorp, Baldwin

    2017-03-01

    The media play an important role in risk communication, providing information about accidents, both nearby and far away. Each media source has its own presentation style, which could influence how the audience perceives the presented risk. This study investigates the explanatory power of 12 information sources (traditional media, new media, social media, and interpersonal communication) for the perceived risk posed by radiation released from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant on respondents' own health and that of the population in general. The analysis controlled for attitude toward nuclear energy, gender, education, satisfaction with the media coverage, and duration of attention paid to the coverage. The study uses a large empirical data set from a public opinion survey, which is representative for the Belgian population with respect to six sociodemographic variables. Results show that three information sources are significant regressors of perceived health-related risk of the nuclear accident: television, interpersonal communication, and the category of miscellaneous online sources. More favorable attitudes toward nuclear power, longer attention to the coverage, and higher satisfaction with the provided information lead to lower risk perception. Taken together, the results suggest that the media can indeed have a modest influence on how the audience perceives a risk. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Belgian class II nuclear facilities such as irradiators and accelerators. Regulatory Body attention points and operating experience feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minne, Etienne; Peters, Christelle; Mommaert, Chantal; Kennes, Christian; Cortenbosch, Geert; Schmitz, Frederic; Haesendonck, Michel van [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium); Carlier, Pascal; Schrayen, Virginie; Wertelaers, An [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the Regulatory Body attention points and the operating experience feedback from Belgian ''class IIA'' facilities such as industrial and research irradiators, bulk radionuclides producers and conditioners. Reinforcement of the nuclear safety and radiation protection has been promoted by the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) since 2009. This paper is clearly a continuation of the former paper [1] presenting the evolution in the regulatory framework relative to the creation of Bel V, the subsidiary of the FANC, and to the new ''class IIA'' covering heavy installations such as those mentioned above. Some lessons learnt are extracted from the operating experience feedback based on the events declared to the authorities. Even though a real willingness to meet the new safety requirements is observed among the ''class IIA'' licensees, promoting the safety culture, the nuclear safety and radiation protection remains an endless challenge for the Regulatory Body.

  17. Ageing management of baffle former bolts in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somville, F.; Gerard, R.; Bosch, R.W.; Bertolis, D.; Vissers, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Pressurized Water Reactors internals support the reactor core, distribute the coolant flow through the core, and guide and protect the rod control cluster assemblies and in-core instrumentation. The baffle-to-former bolts are used in Pressurized Water Reactors to attach the baffle plates to the former plates in the reactor vessel lower internals. The resulting structure forms a boundary for the flow of coolant and provides lateral support to the fuel assemblies. Some edge bolts are also present, assembling together the baffle plates. After an operating time of the order of 120.000 hours, some bolts exhibit cracking at the junction of the head and the shank of the bolt. Examinations of failed bolts have made it possible to identify the cause of cracking as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Up to now, baffle bolt cracking has been detected in units older than 15 years, where the baffle bolts are not cooled (no holes in the former to allow a water flow on the bolt shank). In Belgium, the concerned units are Tihange 1 and Doel 1-2. The paper summarizes the experience with baffle bolts cracking in Belgian units and the strategy implemented to mitigate this problem, consisting of structural integrity analyses, baffle bolts inspections and replacement, and research programs in the field of IASCC, including examinations of highly irradiated replaced bolts. (authors)

  18. Public involvement in nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferte, J. De La

    1993-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the environment has gained an understandable degree of political prominence, drawing attention to the concept of direct participation of the public in decision-making. As part of that process, the first World Environmental Conference in Stockholm in 1972, the final act of the 1975 Helsinki Conference, the Global Nature Charter of the UN General Assembly of 1982 and the 1992 Rio conference have all increased the obligation of governments to inform their publics, and to give individuals and all categories of the public some degree of involvement in decisions that will directly affect their surroundings. The use of nuclear energy fits clearly into this process. Uncertainty in the public mind about the scientific foundation of nuclear-energy exploitation often motivates the public to intervene in the decision-making process, as does fear of catastrophic consequences. There can also be a specific reaction -crystallizing on nuclear energy - against uncontrolled technological and unlimited industrial development. In any event, there is a direct relationship between public pressure for participation and the perception of the ability - or inability - of the relevant authorities to act with a genuine sense of the wider interest. But, although the nuclear industry has often been taken as a scapegoat, the problems of public acceptance and government management that it raises are not substantially different from those in other branches of heavy industry, particularly in their social and environmental impacts. Indeed, in a large number of countries (France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States are examples) the mechanisms for public participation are broadly similar for both conventional industrial and nuclear installations

  19. Aggregated systems model for nuclear safeguards decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This report summarizes a general analytical tool designed to assist nuclear safeguards decision-makers. The approach is based on decision analysis--a quantitative procedure for evaluating complex decision alternatives with uncertain outcomes. The report describes the general analytical approach in the context of safeguards decisions at a hypothetical nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

  20. The SCK-CEN Barometer 2011 - Perception and attitudes towards nuclear technologies in the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcanu, C.; Perko, T.; Schroeder, J.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of the SCK-CEN Barometer was established in May-June 2011. It continued the historical follow-up of topics such as risk perception and confidence in authorities, and addressed a number of issues in detail, among which: attitude towards nuclear technologies, confidence in the management of nuclear technologies, stakeholder participation, the accident at Fukushima and the management of high level radioactive waste. This report presents a general overview of the results.

  1. Risk decisions and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, S.O.

    1987-11-01

    The risk concept is multidimensional, and much of its contents is lost in the conventional reduction to a unidimensional and quantifiable term. Eight major dimensions of the risk concept are discussed, among them the time factor and the lack-of-knowledge factor. The requirements of a rational discourse are discussed, in general and in relation to risk issues. It is concluded that no single method for the comparison and assessment of risks can be seen as the only rational method. Different methods can all be rational, although based on different values. Risk evaluations cannot be performed as expert assessments, divorced from the political decision process. Instead, risk evaluation must be seen as an essentially political process. Public participation is necessary in democratic decision-making on risks as well as on other issues. Important conclusions can be drawn for the management of nuclear waste, concerning specifications for the technical solution, the need for research on risk concepts, and the decision-making process. (orig.)

  2. 27 September 1991-Royal Order establishing an emergency plan for nuclear risks on Belgian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This emergency plan is to serve as guidance for the protection measures to be taken whenever necessary. It establishes the duties of the different services and bodies, in accordance with their responsibilities under the national laws and regulations. The plan, which describes the general organisation, must be supplemented by intervention plans at the different action levels: by the provincial authorities, the communal authorities and the various services and institutions concerned. This plan mainly concerns large nuclear installations and transport of nuclear fuels and radioactive materials; however, lower risks from other activities are also covered. (NEA)

  3. Education and Training possibilities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeck, M.

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to its thorough experience in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology SCK-CEN has garnered a reputation as an outstanding centre of not only research, but also education and training (E and T). The E and T activities at SCK-CEN cover a. o. reactor physics, reactor operation, reactor engineering, radiation protection, decommissioning and waste management. Our courses are directed to the nuclear industry, the medical and the non-nuclear industry, national and international policy organizations, the academic world and the general public. E and T programs are also organized in cooperation with universities, technical universities, nuclear power plants and public and private health services. In addition, the SCK-CEN is involved in international E and T research networks and programs such as ENETRAP, EUTERP, EUNDETRAF, CETRAD, BNEN and ENEN. Next to courses, SCK-CEN also offers students the possibility to perform their research work at our laboratories. Final-year students and Ph.D. candidates can enter a programme defined by an SCK-CEN mentor, in close collaboration with a university promotor. Post-docs are mainly recruited in specialised research domains that reflect the priority programmes and R and D topics of our institute

  4. Siting of nuclear power plants on artificial islands: the Belgian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The building of nuclear stations on the national territory involves reticences of an ecological nature which have induced technicians to consider other siting facilities. The creation of artificial islands, in particular nuclear stations, is therefore suggested. In the present state of the law of the sea, such construction gives rise to some intricate legal problems and leads to consideration of every notion, from the territorial sea to the exclusive economic zone. Especially regarding Belgium, the problem is to know where the legal competence for these facilities will lie. After analysis, it has been estimated that regional bodies have no specific powers in this regard and that no norm with a restricted territorial scope may be applied. (Auth) [fr

  5. Ageing Management of the reactor internals in Belgian nuclear units in view of Long Term Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.; Bertolis, D.; Vissers, S.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor internals support the reactor core, distribute the coolant flow through the core, and guide and protect the rod control cluster assemblies and in-core instrumentation. Their integrity must be guaranteed in all operating and accident conditions. They are exposed to specific degradation mechanisms linked to the intense neutron irradiation, like Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) or potentially void swelling, in addition to more classical mechanisms like fatigue, wear and stress corrosion cracking. A rigorous follow-up of in-service degradation and an effective ageing management is therefore of crucial importance and contributes to the safe and economical operation of nuclear PWR units. (author)

  6. Multi-criteria group decision support with linguistic variables in long-term scenarios for Belgian energy policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Da; Lu, Jie; Laes, Erik; Zhang, Guangquan; Ma, Jun; Meskens, Gaston

    2010-01-01

    Real world decisions often made in the presence of multiple, conflicting, and incommensurate criteria. Decision making requires multiple perspectives of different individuals as more decisions are made now in groups than ever before. This is particularly true when the decision environment becomes more complex such as sustainability policies study in environmental and energy sectors. Group decision making processes judgments or solutions for decision problems based on the input and feedback of...

  7. Chemical operational experiences in the Belgian nuclear power plants of Doel and Tihange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roofthooft, R.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear program in Belgium started in 1962 with the commissioning of a small reactor BR3 and continued with Chooz, Doel and Tihange. This report gives a survey of the chemical experiences in Doal and Tihange. All these units are of the PWR type constructed by Westinghouse. The chemical specifications for the secondary circuit are very severe and difficult to maintain without condensate polishing system for units such as Doel 1 and 2, cooled with estuary brackish water. The condensate polishing system of Doel is described and the main results are given. The big problem of this station has been the behaviour of the condenser tubes. After 1 and 2 years of operation severe corrosion developed and a retubing became necessary. In the steam generators of Doel and Tihange deposits of a few cm are found. The denting problem has also started. Tihange has worked nearly one year with a leak in one of the steam generators. The blow down was treated on ion exchangers. The fuel elements have had a good behaviour especially in Doel 1. During shut down periods for refuelling H 2 O 2 is injected in the primary circuit. This gives a quick release of corrosion products. The activity of 58 Co increases to about 0,4 Ci/m 3 . A precoat filter with pulverised resins gives a good decontamination factor in this case. The liquid waste treatment of Doel has been modified in order to cope with the quantities of effluents. In Tihange it has been necessary to decontaminate a primary pump. This has been done with Turco products. Very good results have been obtained. (orig.) [de

  8. The decision making in the nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document describes some parameters and fundamental criteria which should be taken into account by the safety authorities in the decision making. Added to these principles, internal procedures, devoted to an integrated framework of decision making, should be implemented. This presentation is based on the study realized by an experts Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency. (A.L.B.)

  9. Pressure Vessel Steel Research: Belgian Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.; Fabry, A.; Ait Abderrahim, H.; Chaouadi, R.; D'hondt, P.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Van Ransbeeck, T.; Gerard, R.

    1994-03-01

    A review of the Belgian research activities on Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels (RPVS) and on related Neutron Dosimetry Aspects is presented. Born out of the surveillance programmes of the Belgian nuclear power plants, this research has lead to the development of material saving techniques, like reconstitution and miniaturization, and to improved neutron dosimetry techniques. A physically- justified RPVS fracture toughness indexation methodology, supported by micro-mechanistic modelling, is based on the elaborate use of the instrumented Charpy impact signal. Computational tools for neutron dosimetry allow to reduce the uncertainties on surveillance capsule fluences significantly

  10. Pressure Vessel Steel Research: Belgian Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E; Fabry, A; Ait Abderrahim, H; Chaouadi, R; D` hondt, P; Puzzolante, J L; Van de Velde, J; Van Ransbeeck, T [Centre d` Etude de l` Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Gerard, R [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)

    1994-03-01

    A review of the Belgian research activities on Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels (RPVS) and on related Neutron Dosimetry Aspects is presented. Born out of the surveillance programmes of the Belgian nuclear power plants, this research has lead to the development of material saving techniques, like reconstitution and miniaturization, and to improved neutron dosimetry techniques. A physically- justified RPVS fracture toughness indexation methodology, supported by micro-mechanistic modelling, is based on the elaborate use of the instrumented Charpy impact signal. Computational tools for neutron dosimetry allow to reduce the uncertainties on surveillance capsule fluences significantly.

  11. Decision making about nuclear energy, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of the various influences on the process of making decisions at the governmental level in the Netherlands on nuclear power, covering the last 20 years. The conflicting statements in memoranda, the role of the industry, the lack of public information and the coloured information generated by different ministries as an answer to extra-parliamentary opposition to nuclear power, are in turn put into focus

  12. Nuclear plant life - A business decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosten, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Regarding the future of the nuclear power option, many scenarios have been put forth over the years. The most commonly accepted projections for installed nuclear capacity show it growing at a rate of about 2% per year throughout the next few decades. These projections appear modes on the surface. However, underlying the projections are critical assumptions and sometimes misconceptions about the lifetimes of existing reactors and how they are determined. The notion of a 40 year plant life is very common. Consequently, many projections start either with the assumption that no plants will be retired in the near terms or with the assumption that each retired plant will be replaced by another nuclear plant after 40 years. Effectively, these assumptions yield future projections for installed capacity that might be characterized as low growth, medium growth and high growth scenarios - or grow, grow, grow. The question remains as to whether or not these assumptions accurately model the driving forces and constraints to nuclear development. After all, there is no scientific basis for believing that all plants, PWRs BWRs, RBMKs, etc., should have the same 40 year life. Most power plant owners purchase the plant for the main reason of supplying electrical power to their consumer. For these owners, electricity production is a day to day commercial activity with various alternatives on how to achieve the prime objective. The decision of which electricity generation alternative to select (gas, coal, nuclear or renewable energy) and how long to operate the plant before replacing it with a new one is essentially a business decision. The paper discusses ageing, the nuclear plant life decision process, the factors which influence the decision and their ramifications regarding the near term growth of nuclear power capacity. The modelling of nuclear plant lifetimes is also discussed. (author). 5 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  13. Defense against nuclear weapons: a decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orient, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Response to the public health threat posed by nuclear weapons is a medical imperative. The United States, in contrast to other nations, has chosen a course that assures maximal casualties in the event of a nuclear attack, on the theory that prevention of the attack is incompatible with preventive measures against its consequences, such as blast injuries and radiation sickness. A decision analysis approach clarifies the risks and benefits of a change to a strategy of preparedness

  14. Effective combination of DIC, AE, and UPV nondestructive techniques on a scaled model of the Belgian nuclear waste container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N.; Areias, Lou; Pyl, Lincy; Vantomme, John; Van Marcke, Philippe; Coppens, Erik; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the environment and future generations against the potential hazards arising from high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern. Following this direction, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the reference design which considers the geological disposal of the waste in purely indurated clay. In this design the wastes are first post-conditioned in massive concrete structures called Supercontainers before being transported to the underground repositories. The Supercontainers are cylindrical structures which consist of four engineering barriers that from the inner to the outer surface are namely: the overpack, the filler, the concrete buffer and possibly the envelope. The overpack, which is made of carbon steel, is the place where the vitrified wastes and spent fuel are stored. The buffer, which is made of concrete, creates a highly alkaline environment ensuring slow and uniform overpack corrosion as well as radiological shielding. In order to evaluate the feasibility to construct such Supercontainers two scaled models have so far been designed and tested. The first scaled model indicated crack formation on the surface of the concrete buffer but the absence of a crack detection and monitoring system precluded defining the exact time of crack initiation, as well as the origin, the penetration depth, the crack path and the propagation history. For this reason, the second scaled model test was performed to obtain further insight by answering to the aforementioned questions using the Digital Image Correlation, Acoustic Emission and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity nondestructive testing techniques.

  15. Nuclear power: the decision makers speak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.L.; Lichter, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1980, the authors surveyed selected scientific experts, decision-makers in financial and regulatory communities and Congress, and directors of major activist groups for national environmental organizations. Questions concerned policy preferences for and general attitudes toward nuclear energy, problems, energy resources, and considerations important to most influential groups in nuclear development. The survey revealed, surprisingly, that most regulators, congressional leaders, outside experts, and financiers are as united in their support of nuclear energy development as are industry executives, Three Mile Island notwithstanding. The antinuclear perspective is represented almost entirely by the heads of activist groups and a few scattered allies in Congress, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Energy. A relatively few dissenters have played a major role in blocking nuclear development. Implications for the regulatory process from these survey results are that cost-benefit analyses and empirical findings on nuclear power issues will not convince activists and their followers; it appears that they have acquired a kind of veto over nuclear development. Through actively political behavior in the contest for nuclear energy's future, and through sympathetic media, activists have won the American public to their side. 7 tables

  16. Proposal optimization in nuclear accident emergency decision based on IAHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Jing

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of establishing the multi-layer structure of nuclear accident emergency decision, several decision objectives are synthetically analyzed, and an optimization model of decision proposals for nuclear accident emergency based on interval analytic hierarchy process is proposed in the paper. The model makes comparisons among several emergency decision proposals quantified, and the optimum proposal is selected out, which solved the uncertain and fuzzy decision problem of judgments by experts' experiences in nuclear accidents emergency decision. Case study shows that the optimization result is much more reasonable, objective and reliable than subjective judgments, and it could be decision references for nuclear accident emergency. (authors)

  17. Initiatives of the Belgian SCK•CEN Academy to attract young talent in nuclear research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeck, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    Our aim: • Explain/refresh basics of radioactivity; • Discuss several examples of nuclear applications → In nuclear, medical, non-nuclear industry, daily life, … • Present research activities of SCK•CEN, justify why nuclear research is important, how does it contribute to well-being of society in general; • Discuss with teachers how the standard education programs can integrate a pluralistic approach to complex technical issues such as applications of radioactivity. Conclusions: • Focus on knowledge, understanding, skills, attitudes, … and show “real-life” situations = added value; • Mention the whole picture: → ALL application fields, ALL issues; • Motivate to choose for scientific or technical studies can be one aim, but equally (or more) important: discuss risks and benefits of nuclear applications in general, develop an open and critical mind in order to gain more insight in multi-facetted issues such as risks and benefits of radioactivity and nuclear technology, and contribute in serene way to the societal debate; • Contribution to critical-intellectual nuclear capacities for society

  18. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  19. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  20. Belgian Firms Visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen Belgian firms visited CERN last 2 and 3 April to present their know-how. Industrial sectors ranging from precision machining to electrical engineering and electronics were represented. And for the first time, companies from the Flemish and Brussels regions of the country joined their Walloon compatriots, who have come to CERN before. The visit was organised by Mr J.-M. Warêgne, economic and commercial attaché at the Belgian permanent mission for the French-speaking region, Mr J. Van de Vondel, his opposite number for the Flemish region, and Mrs E. Solowianiuk, economic and commercial counsellor at the Belgian permanent mission for the Brussels-Capital region.

  1. Probability and uncertainty in nuclear safety decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate-Cornell, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, we examine some problems posed by the use of probabilities in Nuclear Safety decisions. We discuss some of the theoretical difficulties due to the collective nature of regulatory decisions, and, in particular, the calibration and the aggregation of risk information (e.g., experts opinions). We argue that, if one chooses numerical safety goals as a regulatory basis, one can reduce the constraints to an individual safety goal and a cost-benefit criterion. We show the relevance of risk uncertainties in this kind of regulatory framework. We conclude that, whereas expected values of future failure frequencies are adequate to show compliance with economic constraints, the use of a fractile (e.g., 95%) to be specified by the regulatory agency is justified to treat hazard uncertainties for the individual safety goal. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear biomedical and hospital waste management at the University of Brussels (VUB): optimization in the Belgian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.; Covens, P.

    2002-01-01

    Low level nuclear waste (LLW) from biomedical research laboratories and from hospitals has specific characteristics, requiring a different management than the LLW from nuclear energy. Biomedical waste generally does not contain emitters and essentially consists of short-lived β/γ-emitters and a range of pure β-emitters, which are difficult to measure. Except for 3 H and 1 4C , the radionuclides found in biomedical waste have half-lives less then 100 days and hence do not require nuclear disposal. Limited quantities of accelerator activation products (mainly 6 5Z n and 6 0C o) and compact sealed sources of 6 0C o, 1 37C s, 2 26R a and 1 92I r form the only exceptions. National nuclear waste agencies typically do not have a specific policy for treatment and disposal of this type of LLW. In 2001 new price increases were announced for specific categories of this waste. They were implemented by NIRAS/ONDRAF early 2002. The major universities and academic hospitals expressed concern. The Health Council has considered the problem and has recently recommended to the authorities a set of measures to prevent non authorised liberation of this waste. Moreover non-nuclear waste companies have noticed a considerable growing inventory of radioactivity in incoming waste transports before treatment. A variety of radionuclides and activities were found in a diversity of origins from municipal waste over medical waste to industrial waste. Dismantling of accelerators and their shielding could add considerable amounts of waste. Due to the escalating costs and the lack of acceptance of near-surface disposal facilities, the university of Brussels (VUB) and its hospital, have developed a successful on-site waste decay storage program in collaboration with Canberra Europe, which is discussed hereafter

  3. A quality control exercise of radionuclide calibrators among Belgian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reher, D.F.G.; Merlo, P.

    1990-01-01

    On the initiative of the Belgian Association of Hospital Physicists, eleven Belgian hospitals participated in a quality control of radionuclide calibrators conducted in collaboration with the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements of the Commission of the European Communities. For practical reasons the nuclide 57 Co was chosen. The results from 20 different radionuclide calibrators show a fair agreement with a similar comparison carried out in 1980 in the UK. (orig.)

  4. Last developments in the Belgian disposal programme for low and intermediate short-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyazis, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    After an historical reminder of the several phases of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level short-lived waste since the creation of ONDRAF/NIRAS and the bad results obtained in the 90's by using a pure technical approach, the presentation will explain the main lines of the new methodology developed, as a consequence of the government decision of 16 January 1998 in ONDRAF/NIRAS to improve local acceptance for the disposal project. The way local partnerships were created with four nuclear municipalities under the form of a non-profit organization with a clear mission, the functioning, on a voluntary base, of the different partnerships during four to six years and the concrete results obtained until now using this very innovative method will be addressed. The last developments of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level and short-lived waste will be presented, including the recent and very important decision of the Belgian government of 23 June 2006 to dispose of the low and medium active short-lived waste in a surface disposal installation on the territory of the municipality Dessel. (author)

  5. Arrangement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the Belgian Government for Exchange of Technical Information in Regulatory Matters and in Cooperation in Safety Research and in Standards Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Arrangement was concluded on 6 June 1978 between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Belgian Government for exchange of technical information in regulatory matters and in co-operation in safety research and in standards development. Both Parties agree to exchange, as available, technical information related to the regulation of safety and the environmental impact of designated nuclear energy facilities and to safety research of designated types of nuclear facilities. As regards co-operation in safety research, the execution of joint programmes and projects under which activities are divided between the two Parties will be agreed on a case by case basis. The Parties further agree to co-operate in the development of regulatory standards applicable to the designated nuclear facilities. The Arrangement is valid for 5 years and may be extended. (NEA) [fr

  6. Decision Strategy Research: Policy Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to perform research on relevant topics that might have an important impact on decision making related to nuclear applications, including social and economic sciences. Main achievements in this area in 1999 are described

  7. The implications of the Supreme Court's California nuclear moratorium decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F.; Davis, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A decision of 20 April 1983 of the US Supreme Court, upholding a moratorium imposed by the State of California against new construction of nuclear plants until certain conditions are met, is being hailed by critics of nuclear power as a defeat for the nuclear and electric utility industries. The authors in their commentary of the decision disagree with this interpretation and believe that its impact is limited in scope and there are some positive aspects with respect to the decision. They furthermore consider that the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act at the federal level would seem to satisfy state requirements for the availability of nuclear waste disposal and that the future of nuclear power will depend more on its relative economics than on this court decision. (NEA) [fr

  8. Methodology and preliminary models for analyzing nuclear-safeguards decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, B.R.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-11-01

    This report describes a general analytical tool designed with Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in making nuclear safeguards decisions. The approach is based on decision analysis - a quantitative procedure for making decisions under uncertain conditions. The report: describes illustrative models that quantify the probability and consequences of diverted special nuclear material and the costs of safeguarding the material; demonstrates a methodology for using this information to set safeguards regulations (safeguards criteria); and summarizes insights gained in a very preliminary assessment of a hypothetical reprocessing plant

  9. Decision making in the digital age: the nuclear industry response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, G. [Energy Group, Kepner-Tregoe, Inc. (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Ten years ago, the consequences of a prolonged outage - or of choosing a costly alternative - could usually be recovered from the ratepayers without major difficulty. But today, as in the rest of industrial America, poorly crafted decisions have very real economic consequences. This paper discusses the decision making process within the nuclear industry in the age of industry deregulation.

  10. Decision making in the digital age: the nuclear industry response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, G.

    2002-01-01

    Ten years ago, the consequences of a prolonged outage - or of choosing a costly alternative - could usually be recovered from the ratepayers without major difficulty. But today, as in the rest of industrial America, poorly crafted decisions have very real economic consequences. This paper discusses the decision making process within the nuclear industry in the age of industry deregulation

  11. Business environment change and decision making mechanism of nuclear generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    Change magnitude of business environment for Japanese nuclear generators is significant. It is rapidly growing in the last several years. There are possibilities that the change might impact to management model of nuclear generators. In the paper, the impact to management model, especially, decision making mechanism of the generators is discussed. (author)

  12. Methodology and preliminary models for analyzing nuclear safeguards decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This report describes a general analytical tool designed to assist the NRC in making nuclear safeguards decisions. The approach is based on decision analysis--a quantitative procedure for making decisions under uncertain conditions. The report: describes illustrative models that quantify the probability and consequences of diverted special nuclear material and the costs of safeguarding the material, demonstrates a methodology for using this information to set safeguards regulations (safeguards criteria), and summarizes insights gained in a very preliminary assessment of a hypothetical reprocessing plant

  13. A safety decision analysis for Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Abdul-Fattah, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Establishment of a nuclear research facility should be the first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors from USA are selected for the present study. The IFDA computer code, based on the fuzzy set theory is applied. Results reveal that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best. 17 refs

  14. EC initiatives promise mixed blessings: a Belgian utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraix, J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential effects on nuclear power of European Community initiatives are analysed from the viewpoint of a Belgian utility. The initiatives fall under the three broad headings of: East-West co-operation; completing the internal market; and carbon dioxide emission. (Author)

  15. Introduction of mixed oxide fuel elements in the belgian cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, A.F.; Hollasky, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    The important amount of plutonium recovered from the reprocessing of spent fuel on the one hand, the national and international experience of the use of mixed oxide UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel in power reactors on the other hand, have led Belgian utilities to decide the introduction of Mixed-Oxide fuel in Doel unit 3 and Tihange unit 2 cores. The 'MOX' project has shown that it was possible without reducing safety or requiring modifications of the plant equipment. It has been approved by the Belgian 'Nuclear Safety Commission'. (authors). 1 tab., 2 figs

  16. Safety-related decision making at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    The decision making environment of an operating nuclear power plant is presented. The organizations involved, their roles and interactions as well as the main influencing factors and decision criteria are described. The focus is on safety-related decisions, and the framework is based on the situation at Loviisa power station. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is illustrated with decisions concerning plant modifications, optimization, acceptance of temporary configurations and extended repair times. Suggestions are made for rational and flexible risk-based control of allowed times to operate the plant with some components out of service. (orig.)

  17. Digital image correlation, acoustic emission and ultrasonic pulse velocity for the detection of cracks in the concrete buffer of the Belgian nuclear supercontainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis; Tsangouri, Eleni; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Pyl, Lincy; Areias, Lou; Vrije Univ., Brussels

    2014-01-01

    The long term management of high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern, as it directly influences the environment and future generations. To address this issue, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the conceptual design of a massive concrete structure called Supercontainer. The feasibility to construct these structures is being evaluated through a number of scaled models that are tested using classical as well as state of the art measurement techniques. In the current paper, the results obtained from the simultaneous application of the Digital Image Correlation (DIC), the Acoustic Emission (AE) and the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) nondestructive testing techniques on the second scaled model for the detection and monitoring of cracks will be presented.

  18. Nuclear fuel reprocessing: A time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, A.J.; Sandbery, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Availability of adequate supplies of energy at an affordable cost is essential to continued growth of the world's economics. The tie between economic growth and electricity usage is particularly strong and the pervasive wordwide trend toward increasing electrification shows no signs of abating. Very few viable alternatives are available for supplying the projected increase in baseload electric generating capacity in the next several decades, and most industrialized nations have chosen nuclear power to play a major role. Sustained growth of nuclear power can only be achieved, however, by reprocessing spent fuel to recover and utilize the residual uranium and plutonium energy values

  19. Two Belgian University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huylebrouck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bevacizumab (BEV, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that inhibits VEGF has demonstrated activity against recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG in phase II clinical trials. Patients and Methods. Data were collected from patients with recurrent HGG who initiated treatment with BEV outside a clinical trial protocol at two Belgian university hospitals. Results. 19 patients (11 M/8 F were administered a total of 138 cycles of BEV (median 4, range 1–31. Tumor response assessment by MRI was available for 15 patients; 2 complete responses and 3 partial responses for an objective response rate of 26% for the intent to treat population were observed on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images; significant regressions on T2/FLAIR were documented in 10 out of 15 patients (67%. A reduced uptake on PET was documented in 3 out of 4 evaluable patients. The six-month progression-free survival was 21% (95% CI 2.7–39.5. Two patients had an ongoing tumor response and remained free from progression after 12 months of BEV treatment. Conclusions. The activity and tolerability of BEV were comparable to results from previous prospective phase II trials. Reduced uptake on PET suggests a metabolic response in addition to an antiangiogenic effect in some cases with favorable clinical outcome.

  20. Application of fuzzy decision-making method in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhixin; Xi Shuren; Qu Jingyuan

    2005-01-01

    Protective actions such as evacuation, sheltering and iodine administration can be taken to mitigate the radiological consequence in the event of an accidental release. In general, decision-making of countermeasures involves both quantitative and qualitative criteria. The conventional approaches to assessing these criteria tend to be less effective when dealing with those qualitative criteria that are imprecise or vague. In this regard, fuzzy set method is an alternative tool. It can cope with vague assessment in a better way. This paper presents the application of fussy methodology to decision-making of protective actions in nuclear emergencies. In this method linguistic terms and fuzzy triangular numbers are used to represent decision-maker's subjective assessment for different decision criteria considered and decision alternatives versus the decision criteria. Following the assessment performed by specialists, corresponding evaluations can be synthesized and ranked. Finally, the optimal strategy for implementing protective actions can be recommended. (authors)

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  3. Nuclear Fallout Decision Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, E. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-11

    If terrorists detonated an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an urban area, thousands of people would die from the blast, and many more would become sick or die from exposure to fallout radiation. Proper sheltering and evacuation can protect people from fallout and save lives. This project provides guidance to first responders as to when to evacuate and what route to take to protect themselves against fallout radiation.

  4. Autonomous dynamic decision making in a nuclear fuel cycle simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelakauskas, Martynas; Auzans, Aris; Schneider, Erich A.; Tkaczyk, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Objective criteria based decision making in a nuclear fuel cycle simulator. • Simulation driven by an evolving performance metric. • Implementation of the model in a nuclear fuel cycle simulator. • Verification of dynamic decision making based on uranium price evolution. -- Abstract: Growing energy demand and the push to move toward carbon-free ways of electricity generation have renewed the world's interest in nuclear energy. Due to the high technical and economic uncertainties related to nuclear energy, simulation tools have become a necessity in order to plan and evaluate possible nuclear fuel cycles (NFCs). Most of the NFC simulators today work by running the simulation with a user-defined set of facility build orders and preferences. While this allows for a simple way to change the simulation conditions, it may not always lead to optimal results and strongly relies on the user defining the correct parameters. This study looks into the possibility of using the expected cost of electricity (CoE) as the driving build decision variable instead of relying on user-defined build orders. This is a first step toward a more general decision making strategy in dynamic fuel cycle simulation. For this purpose, additional modules were implemented in an NFC simulator, VEGAS, with the consumption dependent price of uranium as a time-varying NFC cost component that drives the cost competitiveness of available NFC options. The model was demonstrated to verify the correct operation of a CoE-driven NFC simulator

  5. Decision analysis for dynamic accounting of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Effective materials accounting for special nuclear material in modern fuel cycle facilities will depend heavily on sophisticated data analysis techniques. Decision analysis, which combines elements of estimation theory, decision theory, and systems analysis, is a framework well suited to the development and application of these techniques. Augmented by pattern-recognition tools such as the alarm-sequence chart, decision analysis can be used to reduce errors caused by subjective data evaluation and to condense large collections of data to a smaller set of more descriptive statistics. Application to data from a model plutonium nitrate-to-oxide conversion process illustrates the concepts

  6. Decision aid systems for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, J.M.; Martinez, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The development of new techniques, especially in the field of artificial intelligence, makes it possible to design more powerful computerized systems, supporting tasks related to the design and operation of nuclear power plants. The potential contribution and perspectives for the integration of such systems depend upon whether the improvement of existing plants, the design of next generation reactors or future projects are concerned. We present four systems which show the state-of-the-art as regards knowledge-based systems. The first system is related to the automatic generation of procedures dealing with loss of electrical sources. The second one aims at assisting the power plant utility in following the technical specifications during maintenance operations. Finally, the last two are designed to help an emergency team evaluate and forecast the evolution of an accidental situation in a nuclear reactor. Perspectives for on-line operator assistance are then discussed, as well as the main technical themes which will make it possible to design such systems. We conclude with the difficulties which are encountered upon the integration of these tools: their validation and task sharing between man and machine

  7. Guidance Tools for Use in Nuclear Material Management Decisions Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G. V.; Baker, D. J.; Sorenson, K. B.; Boeke, S. G.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the results of Recommendation 14 of the Integrated Nuclear Materials Management Plan (INMMP) which was the product of a management initiative at the highest levels of the Department of Energy responding to a congressional directive to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials, with the principal focus on excess materials. The INMMP provided direction to ''Develop policy-level decision support tools to support long-term planning and decision making.'' To accomplish this goal a team from the Savannah River Site, Sandia National Laboratories, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the U.S. Department of Energy experienced in the decision-making process developed a Guidebook to Decision-Making Methods. The goal of the team organized to implement Recommendation 14 was to instill transparency, consistency, rigor, and discipline in the DOE decision process. The guidebook introduces a process and a selection of proven methods for disciplined decision-making so that the results are clearer, more transparent, and easier for reviewers to understand and accept. It was written to set a standard for a consistent decision process.

  8. Conflicts about nuclear power safety: a decision theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D.V.; Rios, M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of psychological studies indicate that people's judgements of risks from energy production in general and nuclear power plants in particular deviate from technical and statistical estimates because social and psychological variables influence people's risk perception. After reviewing these studies a decision analytic methodology is outlined which incorporates such social and psychological variables in a formal analysis of the risks and benefits of nuclear energy production. The methodology is intended to identify groups with differing risk-benefit perceptions and to elicit and quantify their values and concerns. Such group and value structures are presented for the problem of choosing between a nuclear plant, a coal plant, and a conservation strategy

  9. Assessment of major nuclear technologies with decision and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D. von

    1995-01-01

    Selecting technologies for major nuclear programs involves several complexities, including multiple stakeholders, multiple conflicting objectives, uncertainties, and risk. In addition, the programmatic risks related to the schedule, cost, and performance of these technologies often become major issues in the selection process. This paper describes a decision analysis approach for addressing these complexities in a logical manner

  10. Nuclear Waste Management Decision-Making Support with MCDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schwenk-Ferrero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA framework for a comparative evaluation of nuclear waste management strategies taking into account different local perspectives (expert and stakeholder opinions. Of note, a novel approach is taken using a multiple-criteria formulation that is methodologically adapted to tackle various conflicting criteria and a large number of expert/stakeholder groups involved in the decision-making process. The purpose is to develop a framework and to show its application to qualitative comparison and ranking of options in a hypothetical case of three waste management alternatives: interim storage at and/or away from the reactor site for the next 100 years, interim decay storage followed in midterm by disposal in a national repository, and disposal in a multinational repository. Additionally, major aspects of a decision-making aid are identified and discussed in separate paper sections dedicated to application context, decision supporting process, in particular problem structuring, objective hierarchy, performance evaluation modeling, sensitivity/robustness analyses, and interpretation of results (practical impact. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the application of the MCDA framework developed to a generic hypothetical case and indicate how MCDA could support a decision on nuclear waste management policies in a “small” newcomer country embarking on nuclear technology in the future.

  11. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1998-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  12. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  13. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  14. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1998-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1997 to September 1998 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described

  15. Some consideration on decision-making in a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Wang, H.

    1996-01-01

    In various phases of a disaster, the result of decision-making should finally reach the local public of interest, and the detriment among the public should be minimized optimized according to the proper response by the public who receive the result. The decision involves the proper selection among countermeasures, and should reach each one of the public. The expression to be informed to the public should be quite understandable in its meaning. After Hanshin big earthquake (Jan. 17, 1995), the basic plan for countermeasures against disasters which is the foundation for the basic law for disasters has been largely revised and reissued in July 1995. For preparedness and countermeasures outside a nuclear facility, there are many useful experiences that have to be learnt from natural disasters. In Japan and China, there have been no major nuclear accidents affecting the public in the environment. However, preparedness for nuclear emergency derived from natural disasters is important. (author)

  16. Economical and industrial impact of nuclear power stations construction in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrique, J.; Klees, P.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief introduction the paper analyses the employment in the Belgian nuclear sector with regard to construction, the operation, the engineering of nuclear power plants as well as fuel reprocessing. In the economical section a comparison of the kWh cost of different sources is presented as well as the seasibility of this cost to the raw material price. The future installation of nuclear power plants is discussed and the impact of its delay on the Belgian economy by an absence of decision is analyzed. (AF)

  17. Informing the Romanian decision makers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Sandru, P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the 'pro-nuclear' sector of the Romanian civil society activity to better inform the Romanian Decision Makers on nuclear power issues. The 'Romanian Nuclear Energy Association' - AREN and the Romanian Radioprotection Society - SRRp, having the support of the 'Romanian General Association of Engineers' - AGIR, started on December 1996 a strong campaign to form a correct opinion among the new elected bodies and the new Government of the country, related to the future development of the Romanian Nuclear Program as a national priority and to expedite the restart of the Cernavoda NPP-Unit 2 completion. The paper describes the strategy of this lobby campaign, the objectives assumed and the results. The authors have taken advantage of the OECD - Nuclear Energy Agency information exchange about the Decision Makers informing process about nuclear energy and have the intention to share their experience with other sister societies dealing with similar conditions. This could be also a good experience for other areas of activity. (authors)

  18. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants. Which factors influence the decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this project has been to propose a model for how operational readiness decisions are made and to identify important factors influencing these decisions. The project has also studied the support from the management system for decision making, and made a comparison to how decisions are made in practice. This is mainly an explorative study, but it also deals with relevant research and theories about decision making. The project consists of several parts. The first part is composed of descriptions of important notations and terms, and a summary of relevant research about decision making and its relation to the management system. The project proposes a model for the decision making process. The second part consists of analyses of reports from SKI about operational readiness decisions. The last part is a case study at a nuclear power plant. The case study describes the support from work method theories at the nuclear power plant to the decision maker. Decision makers with different roles in the safety management system were interviewed to give a description of the decision making process and of factors influencing the decisions made in practice. The case study also consists of an analysis of decisions in some real events at the nuclear power plant, as well as of making interviews in connection with these. To sum up, this report presents a model for the decision process and describes the work method theories that support the different parts in the process, how the different parts are applied in practice and circumstances that influence the decision process. The results of the project give an understanding for decision making in operational readiness decisions and the factors that influence the decision. The results are meant to be used as a basis for further studies in other nuclear power plants. The results indicate that the decision process is facilitated if there are clear criteria and work methods, if the work methods are well established and if the

  19. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described

  20. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moons, F.; Bogaerts, W.; Decreton, M.; Biver, E.; Coenen, S.; Benoit, Ph.; Coheur, L.; Deboodt, P.; Andreev, D.

    1996-09-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State for Fusion. The period October 1995 to September 1996 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg company, is described.

  1. Stakeholder involvement facilitates decision making for UK nuclear accident recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C; Burt, R; Nisbet, A F

    2005-01-01

    The importance of major stakeholders participating in the formulation of strategies for maintaining food safety and agricultural production following a nuclear accident has been successfully demonstrated by the UK 'Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group' (AFCWG). The organisation, membership and terms of reference of the group are described. Details are given of the achievements of the AFCWG and its sub-groups, which include agreeing management options that would be included in a recovery handbook for decision-makers in the UK and tackling the disposal of large volumes of contaminated milk, potentially resulting from a nuclear accident.

  2. Procurement in the Nuclear Industry, Quality, Safety and Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Marianne; Svenson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka

    2010-03-01

    The major purpose of the present study is partly to map and partly to make an analysis of the decision processes in the procurement routines in the nuclear industry in order to provide a basis for: 1. further development of safety inspections about procurements for Swedish Radiation Safety Authority 2. improvements of safety management in connection with procurement within a nuclear-power plant, 3 improvements of procurement routines in general in a nuclear power plant. The procurement processes at a nuclear power plant were analyzed from a decision theoretic perspective. Key staff at the plant was interviewed and written instructions as well as digitalized processes were used in the analysis. The results illustrate the most important moments during the procurement process with descriptions from interviews and documents. The staff at the nuclear power plant used a multi-attribute utility decision theory MAUT-inspired model in evaluation of alternatives and both compensatory (in which negative aspects can be compensated by positive aspects) and non-compensatory (in which certain 'pass' levels of attributes have to be exceeded for a choice) decision rules were used in the procurement process. Not surprising, nuclear safety was evaluated in a non-compensatory manner following regulatory criteria while costs were evaluated in trade-off compensatory rules, which means that a weakness in one consideration might be compensated by strength in another consideration. Thus, nuclear safety above the regulator's and law requirements are not integrated in a compensatory manner when procurement alternatives are evaluated. The nuclear plant assessed an organization's safety culture at an early stage of the purchasing process. A successful and a less successful procurement case were reported with the lessons learned from them. We find that the existing written instructions for purchase were well elaborated and adequate. There is a lack of personal resources when procurement teams

  3. Pitfalls on the way towards the acceptance of a disposal site of LLW in a densely populated country. The Belgian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.; Decamps, F.

    2000-01-01

    Until the international moratorium of 1983, Belgium relied on sea disposal for its low-level waste. Since then, ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian waste management agency, has launched studies to look for land-based solutions. These studies, which are still on-going, have gone through various phases. The sometimes harsh reactions in public opinion and the recommendations of independent experts, however, progressively led ONDRAF/NIRAS to question its work methodology. January 16, 1998 was a milestone in Belgian's nuclear waste management. On that day, the Belgian federal government opted for a final, or potentially final, solution for the long-term management of short-lived, low-level radioactive waste, a solution that also had to be progressive, flexible, and reversible. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAF/NIRAS in particular that of developing methods to enable the integration of final repository project proposals at the local level and restricted the number of potential sites for final disposal to the four already existing nuclear sites in Belgium and to possibly interested local districts. The government's decision of January 16, 1998, forced ONDRAF/NIRAS to change its strategy. It set up a new work programme and worked out an innovative methodology. This new methodology aims to generate, at the level of the interested towns and villages, draft projects for a final repository supported by a wide public consensus. (author)

  4. Data warehouse based decision support system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadinic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Safety is an important element in business decision making processes in nuclear power plants. Information about component reliability, structures and systems, data recorded during the nuclear power plant's operation and outage periods, as well as experiences from other power plants are located in different database systems throughout the power plant. It would be possible to create a decision support system which would collect data, transform it into a standardized form and store it in a single location in a format more suitable for analyses and knowledge discovery. This single location where the data would be stored would be a data warehouse. Such data warehouse based decision support system could help make decision making processes more efficient by providing more information about business processes and predicting possible consequences of different decisions. Two main functionalities in this decision support system would be an OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) and a data mining system. An OLAP system would enable the users to perform fast, simple and efficient multidimensional analysis of existing data and identify trends. Data mining techniques and algorithms would help discover new, previously unknown information from the data as well as hidden dependencies between various parameters. Data mining would also enable analysts to create relevant prediction models that could predict behaviour of different systems during operation and inspection results during outages. The basic characteristics and theoretical foundations of such decision support system are described and the reasons for choosing a data warehouse as the underlying structure are explained. The article analyzes obvious business benefits of such system as well as potential uses of OLAP and data mining technologies. Possible implementation methodologies and problems that may arise, especially in the field of data integration, are discussed and analyzed.(author)

  5. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste and/or long-living nuclear waste in a clay formation in the Belgian-Dutch border region; Definitieve berging van hoogradioactief en/of langlevend kernafval in een kleiformatie in de Belgisch-Nederlandse grensstreek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyns, W.

    2010-10-15

    Recently, the Belgian organization NIRAS presented its 'Draft Waste Plan'. In this plan NIRAS chooses clay as the reference option for final geological disposal of high-level radioactive and/or long-living nuclear waste (b and C waste). The author presents an overview of the current state of affairs in scientific research on underground storage of radioactive waste in Belgian clay layers. [Dutch] Recent presenteerde het Belgische NIRAS het 'Ontwerp Afvalplan'. In dit plan kiest NIRAS als referentieoptie voor definitieve geologische berging van hoogradioactief en/of langlevend kernafval (B- en C-afval) in klei. De auteur geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken van wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar ondergrondse opslag van radioactief afval in Belgische kleilagen.

  6. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues that are

  7. RISCOM Applied to the Belgian Partnership Model: More and Deeper Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaerts, Gunter; Bovy, Michel; Laes, Erik [SCKCEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    Technology participation is not a new concept. It has been applied in different settings in different countries. In this article, we report a comparing analysis of the RISCOM model in Sweden and the Belgian partnership model for low and intermediate short-lived nuclear waste. After a brief description of the partnerships and the RISCOM model, we apply the latter to the first and come to recommendations for the partnership model. The strength of the partnership approach is at the community level. In one of the villages, up to one percent of the population was motivated to discuss at least once a month for four years the nuts and bolts of the repository concept. The stress on the community level and the lack of a guardian includes a weakness as well. First of all, if communities come into competition, the inter-community discussions can start resembling local politics and can become less transparent. Local actors are concerned actors but actors at the national level are concerned as well. The local decisions influence how the waste will be transported. The local decisions also determine an extra cost of electricity. We therefore recommend a broad (in terms of territory) public debate on the participation experiments preceding and concluding the local participation process in which this local process maintains an important position. The conclusions of our comparative analysis are: (1) The guardian of the process at the national level is missing. Since the Belgian nuclear regulator plays a controlling role after the process, we recommend a technology assessment institute at the federal level. (2) We state that stretching in the partnership model can happen more profoundly and recommend a 'counter institute' at the European level. The role of non-participative actors should be valued. (3) Recursion levels can be taken as a point of departure for discussion about the problem framing. If people accept them, there is no problem. If people clearly mention issues

  8. Valuing modular nuclear power plants in finite time decision horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shashi; Roelofs, Ferry; Oosterlee, Cornelis W.

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs, (according to IAEA, ‘small’ refers to reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfront expenditure, enhanced safety, and easy integration with small sized grids. Large reactors on the other hand have been an attractive option due to the economy of scale. In this paper we focus on the economic impact of flexibility due to modular construction of SMRs. We demonstrate, using real option analysis, the value of sequential modular SMRs. Numerical results under different considerations of decision time, uncertainty in electricity prices, and constraints on the construction of units, are reported for a single large unit and for modular SMRs. - Highlights: ► Real option value of modular construction in finite time decision horizon. ► Stochastic grid method is used to value the real option. ► Decisions in finite time can differ significantly from infinite decision time. ► Decisions depend on length of decision horizon and price volatilities

  9. Evaluation of decision support systems for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, G.; Mueck, K.

    1998-05-01

    In order to adopt countermeasures to protect the public after an accident in a nuclear power plant in an appropriate and optimum way, decision support systems offer a valuable assistance in supporting the decision maker in choosing and optimizing protective actions. Such decision support systems may range from simple systems to accumulate relevant parameters for the evaluation of the situation over prediction models for the rapid evaluation of the dose to be expected to systems which permit the evaluation and comparison of possible countermeasures. Since the establishment of a decision support systems obviously is also required in Austria, an evaluation of systems available or in the state of development in other countries or unions was performed. The aim was to determine the availability of decision support systems in various countries and to evaluate them with regard to depth and extent of the system. The evaluation showed that in most industrialized countries the requirement for a decision support system was realized, but in only few countries actual systems are readily available and operable. Most systems are limited to early phase consequences, i.e. dispersion calculations of calculated source terms and the estimation of exposure in the vicinity of the plant. Only few systems offer the possibility to predict long-term exposures by ingestion. Few systems permit also an evaluation of potential countermeasures, in most cases, however, limited to a few short-term countermeasures. Only one system which is presently not operable allows the evaluation of a large number of agricultural countermeasures. In this report the different systems are compared. The requirements with regard to an Austrian decision support system are defined and consequences for a possible utilization of a DSS or parts thereof for the Austrian decision support system are derived. (author)

  10. Belgian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, J.

    1995-01-01

    At last IWG-LMNPP meeting, the approach on nuclear power plant life management in Belgium was presented. The present report focuses on results of in-service monitoring of major equipment, specifically reactor internals, reactor top-head penetrations and steam generators. Status of major backfitting on steam generators and balance of plant is developed as well as developments in the field of thermal stratification and qualification of ultrasonic inspection methods and personnel for in-service inspection. (author). (Abstract only)

  11. 76 FR 51358 - National Nuclear Security Administration Amended Record of Decision: Disposition of Surplus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Nuclear Security Administration Amended Record of Decision... National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a semi- autonomous agency within the U.S. Department of... Manager, Office of Fissile Materials Disposition, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S...

  12. Fair play in energy policy decisions: Procedural fairness, outcome fairness and acceptance of the decision to rebuild nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M.; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To raise public acceptance of new energy policies, promoting the fairness of the outcomes and of the decision-making procedure has been suggested. Very few studies have examined the role of fairness in public acceptance of rebuilding nuclear power plants. Therefore, using a large mail survey, we investigated the public’s acceptance of the decision to rebuild nuclear power plants in Switzerland by 2020. The study examined the influence of procedural fairness and outcome fairness on the acceptance of this decision, as well as other factors such as risk perception and benefit perception. Additionally, we investigated the moderating influence of general attitudes towards nuclear power on the relation between fairness and decision acceptance. Results indicated that outcome fairness strongly increased decision acceptance, along with general attitudes towards nuclear power and perceived economic benefits. Procedural fairness had only a small impact on decision acceptance. The influence of fairness on decision acceptance did not seem to depend on general nuclear attitudes. Our findings imply that, in the case of rebuilding nuclear power plants, perceived benefits and outcome fairness are important determinants of acceptance of the decision, while procedural fairness only has a limited impact. - Highlights: ► We investigated the role of fairness in the acceptance of a nuclear policy decision. ► Outcome fairness strongly influenced decision acceptance regarding nuclear power plants. ► The role of procedural fairness was relatively small in this respect. ► Also, nuclear attitudes and perceived economic benefits affected decision acceptance. ► Outcome fairness seems more relevant for decision acceptance than procedural fairness.

  13. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    2004-10-01

    This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation

  14. Decision on the fifth nuclear unit in Finland - 17 years of decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaholma, Juhani [Perusvoima Oy (Finland)

    1993-07-01

    This paper shows the process of decision making on the fifth nuclear power plants in Finland that took 17 years. The opinion polls show that about 50% of the Finns are opposing the construction of the fifth NPP, 30% are in favour and 20% don't know or have no firm opinion. This situation has lasted for more than two years. The opinion of the Finnish industry and power utilities is, however, that if the decision makers have courage to make positive decision it will not lead to a revolution in Finland. The industry and the utilities have for many years done systematic work with the media, both the press and the electronic. The media debate has been rather low key reporting, but any incidents get a lot of space, especially events at the Russian and Baltic plants near the Finnish borders. There is a constant flow of reporting from Chernobyl and Chelyabinsk and other questionable Russian facilities in the Finnish media. The five Swedish reactors shut-down for repair have been widely reported. It also seems that false reports and articles in the leading international media, press and TV, find their way to Finnish media, as well. In other respects, the media climate in Finland is rather businesslike. It is evident that the sensational TV programmes have an effect on the Finnish nuclear opinion, both within the public and the political decision makers. The antinuclear lobbying in Finland is rather low key. There has been no big demonstrations as the ordinary people do not participate in them. The nuclear opponents have, however, a well working and sympathy arousing organization within the political parties and to a limited extend within the media. They also work in a very professional way in the environmental voluntary organizations. The politically, the industry is waiting for positive signals from the Government. The nuclear decision is considered as one of the most important in this respect. the situation is rather complex, but the industry and the utilities are

  15. Decision on the fifth nuclear unit in Finland - 17 years of decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, Juhani

    1993-01-01

    This paper shows the process of decision making on the fifth nuclear power plants in Finland that took 17 years. The opinion polls show that about 50% of the Finns are opposing the construction of the fifth NPP, 30% are in favour and 20% don't know or have no firm opinion. This situation has lasted for more than two years. The opinion of the Finnish industry and power utilities is, however, that if the decision makers have courage to make positive decision it will not lead to a revolution in Finland. The industry and the utilities have for many years done systematic work with the media, both the press and the electronic. The media debate has been rather low key reporting, but any incidents get a lot of space, especially events at the Russian and Baltic plants near the Finnish borders. There is a constant flow of reporting from Chernobyl and Chelyabinsk and other questionable Russian facilities in the Finnish media. The five Swedish reactors shut-down for repair have been widely reported. It also seems that false reports and articles in the leading international media, press and TV, find their way to Finnish media, as well. In other respects, the media climate in Finland is rather businesslike. It is evident that the sensational TV programmes have an effect on the Finnish nuclear opinion, both within the public and the political decision makers. The antinuclear lobbying in Finland is rather low key. There has been no big demonstrations as the ordinary people do not participate in them. The nuclear opponents have, however, a well working and sympathy arousing organization within the political parties and to a limited extend within the media. They also work in a very professional way in the environmental voluntary organizations. The politically, the industry is waiting for positive signals from the Government. The nuclear decision is considered as one of the most important in this respect. the situation is rather complex, but the industry and the utilities are

  16. Liability for the nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.; Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L.; Spriet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs

  17. Study of factors governing US utility nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Under DOE contract No. DE-AC02-79ET34009, The S.M. Stoller Corporation has conducted a study of US utility attitudes toward nuclear power. In the course of this study SMSC carried out a utility survey the objectives of which were: (1) to identify and rank in importance the governing considerations in actions taken in the past three years to cancel or defer nuclear projects, and (2) to gain insight into the circumstances and attitudes likely to govern new base-load commitments over the next several years. During the survey, contacts were made at the senior management level with utilities representing approximately half of the country's total electric capacity and two-thirds of its present nuclear commitment. Analysis of the responses led to the conclusion that most, if not all, of the decisions reached by the respondent utilities in the past several years to cancel or defer nuclear projects were triggered by one or a combination of the following four considerations: financial constraints; reduction in expected system load growth; schedule delay in licensing and construction and/or unpredictability; and adverse state government policies or attitudes regarding nuclear power

  18. Risk concepts in UK nuclear safety decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brighton, P.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of risk as understood in the UK, with particular reference to the use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in nuclear safety decision making. The way 'risk' appears in UK fundamental legislation means that the concept cannot be limited to evaluation of numerical probabilities of physical harm. Rather the focus is on doing all that is reasonably practicable to reduce risks: this entails applying relevant good practice and then seeking further safety measures until the money, time and trouble required are grossly disproportionate to the residual risk. PSA is used to inform rather than dictate such decisions. This approach is reinforced by considering how far any practical PSA can be said to measure risk. The behaviour of complex socio-technical systems such as nuclear power stations does not meet the conditions under which probability theory can be applied in an absolutely objective statistical sense. Risk is not an intrinsic real property of such systems. Rather PSA is a synthesis of data and subjective expert judgements, dependent on the extent of detailed knowledge of the plant. There are many other aspects of engineering judgement involved in safety decisions which cannot be so captured. (author)

  19. Emergency plan belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clymans, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions [fr

  20. Nuclear power plant system environmental design and decision methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zendehrouh, Z.; Shinozuka, M.; Schauer, F.P.

    1975-01-01

    The methodology described is concerned with a system reliability analysis by which the correlation among the level of design for the environmental and natural phenomena (earthquake, flood, tornado, etc.), reasonable practical measure of safety (such as conventional safety factor), and damage (radioactivity release) probability are established. In fact, the methodology indicates how the risk of environmental and natural hazard is combined with a specific design in order to evaluate damage probability associated with the design. This leads to the optimum design decision when combined further with the cost considerations involving the radioactivity release. This fundamental approach is essential in the design of nuclear plant structures, because, unlike the convential structures, the architectural considerations and structural analysis requirements alone cannot, by themselves, result in a balanced design in the framework of social requirements. The proposed methodology incorporates the different methods of environmental load determinations with their respective probabilistic formulations as well as detailed and advanced multi-discipline (structural, mechanical, soil, nuclear physics, biology, etc.) theoretical and empirical analysis including the effect of probabilistic nature of design variables, to establish a sound and reasonable design decision model for nuclear power plants. The information required for the analysis is also described and the areas for which further research is desirable are pointed out. Furthermore, the proposed methodology can very well be utilized to determine the requirements of standardized plants to facilitate the speed of their design and review process

  1. Canada's imminent decision on nuclear fuel management: decision making at the intersection of science, politics, and society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper outlines the science, politics and the decision making process in implementing a nuclear fuel management program. It discusses the issues in the light of Canada's imminent decision on nuclear fuel management. The paper discusses the technical as well as the institutional challenge in nuclear waste management. It discusses some of the key elements of the Canadian approach and concludes with some key recommendation in the way forward.

  2. Decision process regarding nuclear generation: the Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Countries face a constant need to expand their electricity generation capacities. Electricity sources in a country and the respective generation technologies have different technical, economic, environmental, social and political characteristics. The evaluation criteria of the generating sources and their technologies must not be restricted to the supply of the increased demand at the lowest cost. Compliance with other public policies must be considered in the decision process of the expansion, for instance, maximize local acquisition and minimize foreign fuel purchase. Countries have different energy resources, as well as different levels of technology and development in their industrial parks. Brazil has many mineral reserves, besides the hydraulic potential, for supporting the expansion. The decision process in this sector, which includes nuclear energy as a sub-sector, requires analyzing and evaluating various information and data. In this stage, a quantitative model providing a first approach for the decision may be applied. The new institutional structure adopted in the sector during the 1990s and 2000s brought about new conditions into an already complex decision process. In such context of methodology complexity, political aspects gain relevance, becoming of increased importance. The political environment is described and the players are identified. One conclusion and a few recommendations are provided. (author)

  3. Legal claims against Belgian reactors?; Rechtsmittel gegen belgische Reaktoren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The Belgian reactors Tihange 2 and Doel 3 have been restarted in November 2015 after the problem of hydrogen flakes in the reactor pressure vessels had been investigated. The permission to restart has been the object both of critical statements by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMUB) and of lawsuits filed with Belgian law courts by a group of German municipalities led by the city of Aachen and by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia. According to a general principle of the law of nations, a state is not permitted to operate installations near its border, which cause significant environmental damage in a neighbouring state. However, it is not quite clear how this principle applies to the issue of potential accidents of nuclear power plants. According to the author, a tangible threat of an accident is required; mere doubts and concerns about the extent of safety margins are not sufficient.

  4. The Impact of Severe Nuclear Accidents on National Decision for Nuclear Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Young A; Hornibrook, Carol; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Many researchers have tried to identify the impact of severe nuclear accidents on a country's or international nuclear energy policy [2-3]. However, there is little research on the influence of nuclear accidents and historical events on a country's decision to permanently shutdown an NPP versus international nuclear decommissioning trends. To demonstrate the correlation between a nuclear severe accident and the impact on world nuclear decommissioning, this research reviewed case studies of individual historical events, such as the St. Lucens, TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima accidents and the series of events leading up to the collapse of the Soviet Union. For validation of the results of these case studies, a statistical analysis was conducted using the R code. This will be useful in explaining how international and national decommissioning strategies are affected by shutdown reasons, i.e. world historical events. The number of permanently shutdown NPPs was selected as an indicator because any relationship between the number of permanently In conclusion, nuclear severe accidents and historical events have an impact on the number of international NPPs that shutdown permanently and cancelled NPP construction. This directly impacts international nuclear decommissioning policy and nuclear energy policy trends. The number of permanently shutdown NPPs was selected as an indicator because any relationship between the number of permanently.

  5. The Impact of Severe Nuclear Accidents on National Decision for Nuclear Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Young A; Hornibrook, Carol; Yim, Man Sung

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers have tried to identify the impact of severe nuclear accidents on a country's or international nuclear energy policy [2-3]. However, there is little research on the influence of nuclear accidents and historical events on a country's decision to permanently shutdown an NPP versus international nuclear decommissioning trends. To demonstrate the correlation between a nuclear severe accident and the impact on world nuclear decommissioning, this research reviewed case studies of individual historical events, such as the St. Lucens, TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima accidents and the series of events leading up to the collapse of the Soviet Union. For validation of the results of these case studies, a statistical analysis was conducted using the R code. This will be useful in explaining how international and national decommissioning strategies are affected by shutdown reasons, i.e. world historical events. The number of permanently shutdown NPPs was selected as an indicator because any relationship between the number of permanently In conclusion, nuclear severe accidents and historical events have an impact on the number of international NPPs that shutdown permanently and cancelled NPP construction. This directly impacts international nuclear decommissioning policy and nuclear energy policy trends. The number of permanently shutdown NPPs was selected as an indicator because any relationship between the number of permanently

  6. Intelligent decision aids for abnormal events in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.; Polke, H.

    1988-01-01

    German nuclear power plants are characterized by a high degree of automation, not only for normal operation but also for abnormal events. Therefore the role of the operating personnel is mainly a supervisory function. Nevertheless, for a spectrum of unexpected events the operating personnel have to react with manual recovery actions. In order to minimize human error in such recovery actions, different kinds of intelligent decision aid support the operators today. In this paper such aids are discussed and one of them is described in more detail. (author)

  7. Heuristic decision model for intelligent nuclear power systems design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassersharif, B.; Portal, M.G.; Gaeta, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate intelligent nuclear power systems design. A theoretical model of the design process has been developed. A fundamental process in this model is the heuristic decision making for design (i.e., selection of methods, components, materials, etc.). Rule-based expert systems do not provide the completeness that is necessary to generate good design. A new method, based on the fuzzy set theory, has been developed and is presented here. A feedwater system knowledge base (KB) was developed for a prototype software experiment to benchmark the theory

  8. Model for nuclear proliferation resistance analysis using decision making tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2003-06-01

    The nuclear proliferation risks of nuclear fuel cycles is being considered as one of the most important factors in assessing advanced and innovative nuclear systems in GEN IV and INPRO program. They have been trying to find out an appropriate and reasonable method to evaluate quantitatively several nuclear energy system alternatives. Any reasonable methodology for integrated analysis of the proliferation resistance, however, has not yet been come out at this time. In this study, several decision making methods, which have been used in the situation of multiple objectives, are described in order to see if those can be appropriately used for proliferation resistance evaluation. Especially, the AHP model for quantitatively evaluating proliferation resistance is dealt with in more detail. The theoretical principle of the method and some examples for the proliferation resistance problem are described. For more efficient applications, a simple computer program for the AHP model is developed, and the usage of the program is introduced here in detail. We hope that the program developed in this study could be useful for quantitative analysis of the proliferation resistance involving multiple conflict criteria

  9. Model for nuclear proliferation resistance analysis using decision making tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2003-06-01

    The nuclear proliferation risks of nuclear fuel cycles is being considered as one of the most important factors in assessing advanced and innovative nuclear systems in GEN IV and INPRO program. They have been trying to find out an appropriate and reasonable method to evaluate quantitatively several nuclear energy system alternatives. Any reasonable methodology for integrated analysis of the proliferation resistance, however, has not yet been come out at this time. In this study, several decision making methods, which have been used in the situation of multiple objectives, are described in order to see if those can be appropriately used for proliferation resistance evaluation. Especially, the AHP model for quantitatively evaluating proliferation resistance is dealt with in more detail. The theoretical principle of the method and some examples for the proliferation resistance problem are described. For more efficient applications, a simple computer program for the AHP model is developed, and the usage of the program is introduced here in detail. We hope that the program developed in this study could be useful for quantitative analysis of the proliferation resistance involving multiple conflict criteria.

  10. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  11. Individual feature identification method for nuclear accident emergency decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingfeng; Wang Jianlong; Lin Xiaoling; Yang Yongxin; Lu Xincheng

    2014-01-01

    According to the individual feature identification method and combining with the characteristics of nuclear accident emergency decision-making, the evaluation index system of the nuclear accident emergency decision-making was determined on the basis of investigation and analysis. The effectiveness of the nuclear accident emergency decision-making was evaluated based on the individual standards by solving the individual features of the individual standard identification decisions. The case study shows that the optimization result is reasonable, objective and reliable, and it can provide an effective analysis method and decision-making support for optimization of nuclear accident emergency protective measures. (authors)

  12. Online Decision Support System (IRODOS) - an emergency preparedness tool for handling offsite nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod Kumar, A.; Oza, R.B.; Chaudhury, P.; Suri, M.; Saindane, S.; Singh, K.D.; Bhargava, P.; Sharma, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    A real time online decision support system as a nuclear emergency response system for handling offsite nuclear emergency at the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has been developed by Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) under the frame work of 'Indian Real time Online Decision Support System 'IRODOS'. (author)

  13. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas, W.A. [Quantum Technologies, Inc., Oak Brook, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  14. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills

  15. The application of the assessment of nuclear accident status in emergency decision-making during nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ling

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear accident assessment is one of the bases for emergency decision-making in the situation of nuclear accident in NPP. Usually, the assessment includes accident status and consequence assessment. It is accident status assessment, and its application in emergency decision-making is introduced here. (author)

  16. Decision conferencing on countermeasures after a large nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, S.; Walmod-Larsen, O.; Sinkko, K.

    1993-01-01

    The conference addressed the following objectives. 1. To achieve a common understanding between decision makers and local government officials on the one hand and the radiation protection community on the other of the issues that arise in decisions in the aftermath of a major nuclear accident. 2. To identify issues which need to be considered in preparing guidance on intervention levels. 3. To explore the use of decision conferencing as a format for major decision making. To achieve these objectives the participants were invited to consider a scenario of a hypothetical radiation accident. The scenario assumed that appropriate early protective actions (sheltering, issuing of iodine tablets, etc.) had been taken and that the conference was meet ng some eight days into the accident to consider medium and longer term protective actions, particularly the need for relocation of certain areas. By the end of the conference, considerable consensus on the general form of the strategy had emerged. Moreover, there was a better understanding of the evaluation criteria against which such a strategy needed to be developed. Many felt that it was important to retain flexibility in the strategy of protective actions, even if this increased the uncertainty for the affected population, who would not know exactly what would be done for several months. This emphasised even more the need for good communication and understandable presentations of the adopted strategy. All felt that more research and advice is needed on the psychological effects of such accidents and the effects of protective actions. It was felt that the exercise had illustrated the problems inherent in radiation emergencies. However, a different situation with larger populations could have led to different results. It was agreed that the exercise had been useful in meeting the need to think about the issues before an accident happens. (au) (12 tabs., 5 ills., 8 refs.)

  17. New Statute of the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN), copy of Act No. 1429, amended by Act No. 1145 and Act No. 5652, respectively published in the annexes of the Belgian Official Gazette of 28 March 1963, 3 March 1966 and 17 September 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    The Statute of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (CEN) lays down the objects of the Centre which consist of undertaking research on the applications of nuclear energy, promoting scientific and technical studies of such applications, carrying out advanced technological research on other topics in the country's scientific and technological programmes; and at the public authorities' request co-ordinating such research by all means available to it. The CEN is run by a Board of Directors selected by representatives of the nuclear industry, scientific and university circles as well as by the Government. The Statute also provides for the rules of procedure of the Board as well as for the Centre's budget and management under the responsibility of a Director General appointed by the Board. Finally, the CEN is declared as being an establishment created in the public interest, and any amendment to its Statute must obtain the prior approval of the King. (NEA) [fr

  18. Considerations about decision processes in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In all the countries of the world, official energy policies and programs are criticized by experts from the academic community and by the population at large. It is quite normal that people censure their government, but under the cloak of scientific arguments, one can usually find political objectives. The parameters which are an influence in this power game: up to what point can or should technocrats decide in the name of the people when and how can or should the people demonstrate their preference are presented. As this is a vast and polemic theme, and in order that some concrete conclusion could be drawn, we tried to concentrate our analysis on a specific case: the Brazilian decision to use nuclear energy. (Author) [pt

  19. Public involvement in decision making process in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.; Diaconu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Decision Making Process (DMP) in nuclear field is influenced by multiple factors such as: complex technical aspects, diversity of stakeholders, long term risks, psychological stresses, societal attitudes, etc. General public is sometimes considered as the only one of stakeholders, the involvement of the public being seen as a factor to obtain the acceptance in the late phase of DMP. Generally it is assessed by public consultation on the environment impact studies and by approval of the sitting through the local authorities decision. Modern society uses methods to involve public from the beginning of DMP. The paper shows a general view of the methods and tools used in Europe for public involvement in DMP. The process of construction of a continuous democratic dialog inside of Romanian Stakeholder Group (RSG) in the frame of the FP6-COWAM2 and CIP projects is presented with a focusing of the barriers and factors of disturbing the trust and collaboration between stakeholders. The influence on the public acceptance is also discussed. (authors)

  20. Decision support for selecting exportable nuclear technology using the analytic hierarchy process: A Korean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok Joo; Hwang, Jooho

    2010-01-01

    The Korean government plans to increase strategically focused R and D investment in some promising nuclear technology areas to create export opportunities of technology in a global nuclear market. The purpose of this paper is to present a decision support process for selecting promising nuclear technology with the perspective of exportability by using the AHP based on extensive data gathered from nuclear experts in Korea. In this study, the decision criteria for evaluating the export competitiveness of nuclear technologies were determined, and a hierarchical structure for the decision-making process was systematically developed. Subsequently relative weights of decision criteria were derived using AHP methodology and the export competitiveness of nuclear technology alternatives was quantified to prioritize them. We discuss the implications of our results with a viewpoint toward national nuclear technology policy.

  1. The labelling and reporting of euthanasia by Belgian physicians: a study of hypothetical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, T.; Cohen, J.; Bilsen, J.; van Wesemael, Y.; Rurup, M.L.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Belgium legalized euthanasia in 2002. Physicians must report each euthanasia case to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee. This study examines which end-of-life decisions (ELDs) Belgian physicians label 'euthanasia', which ELDs they think should be reported and the physician

  2. The role of women in nuclear - attracting public participation in regulatory decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Jais, Azlina; Hassan, Najwa

    2018-01-01

    Public participation is vital in demonstrating transparency and enhancing effectiveness of a nuclear regulatory process. As such, it is necessary for nuclear practitioners to involve the public in key nuclear delivery milestones. This paper specifically discusses challenges faced in attracting public participation throughout the nuclear regulatory decision-making process, and highlights the roles of women in nuclear (WiN) in initiating the said public discourse.

  3. Survey of the natural radiation of Belgian territory as determined by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.P.; Slegers, W.; Gillard, J.; Flemal, J.M.; Culst, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the environmental exposure to natural radiation was performed by the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology and the Nuclear Research Centre in Mol. The aim of the study was the estimation of the external doses from natural radioactivity received by the Belgian population and the setting up on a map of the territory of natural exposure rates measured using different methods. (author)

  4. Reliability of decision-support systems for nuclear emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, Tudor B.

    2013-08-15

    Decision support systems for nuclear emergency management (DSNE) are currently used worldwide to assist decision makers in taking emergency response countermeasures in case of accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The present work has been motivated by the fact that, up until now, DSNE systems have not been regarded as safetycritical software systems, such as embedded software currently being used in vehicles and aircraft. The core of any DSNE system is represented by the different simulation codes linked together to form the dispersion simulation workflow. These codes require input emission and meteorological data to produce forecasts of the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive pollutants and other substances. However, the reliability of the system not only depends on the trustworthiness of the measured (or generated) input data but also on the reliability of the simulation codes used. The main goal of this work is to improve the reliability of DSNE systems by adapting current state of the art methods from the domain of software reliability engineering to the case of atmospheric dispersion simulation codes. The current approach is based on the design by diversity principle for improving the reliability of codes and the trustworthiness of results as well as on a flexible fault-tolerant workflow scheduling algorithm for ensuring the maximum availability of the system. The author's contribution is represented by (i) an acceptance test for dispersion simulation results, (ii) an adjudication algorithm (voter) based on comparing taxonomies of dispersion simulation results, and (iii) a feedback-control based fault-tolerant workflow scheduling algorithm. These tools provide means for the continuous verification of dispersion simulation codes while tolerating timing faults caused by disturbances in the underlying computational environment and will thus help increase the reliability and trustworthiness of DSNE systems in missioncritical

  5. Reliability of decision-support systems for nuclear emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Tudor B.

    2013-08-01

    Decision support systems for nuclear emergency management (DSNE) are currently used worldwide to assist decision makers in taking emergency response countermeasures in case of accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The present work has been motivated by the fact that, up until now, DSNE systems have not been regarded as safetycritical software systems, such as embedded software currently being used in vehicles and aircraft. The core of any DSNE system is represented by the different simulation codes linked together to form the dispersion simulation workflow. These codes require input emission and meteorological data to produce forecasts of the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive pollutants and other substances. However, the reliability of the system not only depends on the trustworthiness of the measured (or generated) input data but also on the reliability of the simulation codes used. The main goal of this work is to improve the reliability of DSNE systems by adapting current state of the art methods from the domain of software reliability engineering to the case of atmospheric dispersion simulation codes. The current approach is based on the design by diversity principle for improving the reliability of codes and the trustworthiness of results as well as on a flexible fault-tolerant workflow scheduling algorithm for ensuring the maximum availability of the system. The author's contribution is represented by (i) an acceptance test for dispersion simulation results, (ii) an adjudication algorithm (voter) based on comparing taxonomies of dispersion simulation results, and (iii) a feedback-control based fault-tolerant workflow scheduling algorithm. These tools provide means for the continuous verification of dispersion simulation codes while tolerating timing faults caused by disturbances in the underlying computational environment and will thus help increase the reliability and trustworthiness of DSNE systems in missioncritical

  6. Application of improved topsis method to accident emergency decision-making at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin; Cai Qi; Zhang Fan; Chang Ling

    2009-01-01

    Given the complexity in multi-attribute decision-making on nuclear accident emergency, and by integrating subjective weight and impersonal weight of each evaluating index, a decision-making model for emergency plan at nuclear power stations is established with the application of improved TOPSIS model. The testing results indicated that the improved TOPSIS-based multi-attribute decision-making has a better assessment results. (authors)

  7. Maintenance planning support method for nuclear power plants based on collective decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Shoji; Takaoka, Kazushi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Fukutomi, Shigeki

    1992-01-01

    Inspection and maintenance planning in nuclear power plants is conducted by decision making based on experts' collective consensus. However, since a great deal of time and effort is required to reach a consensus among expert judgments, the establishment of effective decision making methods is necessary. Therefore, the authors developed a method for supporting collective decision making, based on a combination of three types of decision making methods; the Characteristic Diagram method, Interpretative Structural Modeling method, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. The proposed method enables us to determine the evaluation criteria systematically for collective decision making, and also allows extracting collective decisions using simplified questionnaires. The proposed method can support reaching a consensus of groups effectively through the evaluation of collective decision structural models and their characteristics. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated through its application to the decision making problem concerning whether or not the improved ultrasonic testing equipment should be adopted at nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Importance of loss-of-benefits considerations in nuclear regulatory decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehring, W.A.; Peerenboom, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper identifies and discusses some of the important consequences of nuclear power plant unavailability, and quantifies a number of technical measures of loss of benefits that may help the Nuclear Regulatory Commission make decisions involving nuclear power plant licensing and operation. The loss-of-benefits analysis presented here is based on the results of a series of case studies developed by Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with four electric utilities on hypothetical nuclear plant shutdowns

  9. Liability for the nuclear risk; Aansprakelijkheid voor het nucleaire risico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, M. [ed.] [Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands); Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Spriet, B. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Inst. voor Strafrecht; Heldeweg, M.; Hertogs, M.; Van Maanen, G.; De Roos, T.; Seerden, R. [Maastrichts Europees Instituut voor Transnationaal Rechtswetenschappelijk Onderzoek METRO, Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    1993-12-31

    Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs.

  10. From pralines to multinationals: The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Johan F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  11. G8 decision on fusion would herald nuclear future

    CERN Multimedia

    Starck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear fusion as a future abundant energy source would receive a boost if G8 leaders agree next month on the site for the world's first fusion test reactor, two nuclear scientists said on Wednesday (1 page)

  12. Pro nuclear power - is it a decision governed by reason and common sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, P.; Koslowski, P.; Loew, R.

    1982-01-01

    The articles contributed to this book deal with the following topics: Safety of nuclear reactors - Radiation exposure and the radiation hazard to the population - Nuclear power and preventive measures - Nuclear waste - Nuclear power and terrorism - Energy supply and nuclear power, a discussion from the economic point of view - What is a nuclear society. - Is the decision pro nuclear power compatible with a free and democratic constitution. - Nuclear power and the social system - Prospects of a transitional development towards a future without nuclear power - Nuclear power as problem in practical philosophy. The authors according to the order of the titles mentioned are as follows: von Ehrenstein, Gofmann, Jacobi, Koslowski, Lippschutz, Gaul, Frey, Meyer-Abich, Altner, Hofmann, Weinberg, Spaemann. (orig./HP) [de

  13. The application of VR-GIS to decommissioning decision support system (DDSS) of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bo

    2005-01-01

    Advanced management technique and Decision Support System (DSS) are needed to solve the problems of the nuclear reactor decommissioning decision-making. In this study, a kind of new DSS technique for nuclear reactor decommissioning is introduced. It is based on the Virtual Reality (VR) and Geography Information System (GIS), which combine with the scientific management method, operational research, cybernetics and behavior science. The proposed DDSS (Decommissioning Decision Support System) can provide decision-maker the real time 3-D virtual Environment, GIS information and background material of the decommissioning reactor, help to ascertain the decision-making target, modify the decision module and optimize the dismantling plan. The data from three modules (VR Environment Module, VR-DOSE Management Module and Route Layout GIS Module) are used to continuously update and show the statistic at the same time, and the final advice will be given to decision-maker. (authors)

  14. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants. Which factors influence the decisions?; Driftklarhetsbeslut i kaernkraftanlaeggningar. Vilka faktorer paaverkar beslutsfattandet?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara (MTO Psykologi, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this project has been to propose a model for how operational readiness decisions are made and to identify important factors influencing these decisions. The project has also studied the support from the management system for decision making, and made a comparison to how decisions are made in practice. This is mainly an explorative study, but it also deals with relevant research and theories about decision making. The project consists of several parts. The first part is composed of descriptions of important notations and terms, and a summary of relevant research about decision making and its relation to the management system. The project proposes a model for the decision making process. The second part consists of analyses of reports from SKI about operational readiness decisions. The last part is a case study at a nuclear power plant. The case study describes the support from work method theories at the nuclear power plant to the decision maker. Decision makers with different roles in the safety management system were interviewed to give a description of the decision making process and of factors influencing the decisions made in practice. The case study also consists of an analysis of decisions in some real events at the nuclear power plant, as well as of making interviews in connection with these. To sum up, this report presents a model for the decision process and describes the work method theories that support the different parts in the process, how the different parts are applied in practice and circumstances that influence the decision process. The results of the project give an understanding for decision making in operational readiness decisions and the factors that influence the decision. The results are meant to be used as a basis for further studies in other nuclear power plants. The results indicate that the decision process is facilitated if there are clear criteria and work methods, if the work methods are well established and if the

  15. The decision-making process during accidents or incidents in the operational nuclear area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina Vanni [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: penhamartins@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: sjcvanni@yahoo.com.br; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: delvonei@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    This study reflects on one of the human behavior mediating factors that face nuclear facility operators during their decision-making process. It includes some mental processes used to determine the best course of action, based on intuitive and creative decisions, within a specific set of rational conditions which depend much more on perception about threats than on theoretical knowledge. A fast and efficient decision, in an unstable and ongoing changing scenario/environment, is extremely complex. The decision-making process goes beyond the purely rational level and many times is influenced by intuition. The importance of the decision-making process leads the study to also review human factors. The methodology used in this paper is based on cognitive aspects which are focused essentially on studies such as: decision process models, decision types and human rationality limits (time) versus individual decisions. Lastly, it makes assessments on how reason, emotion and being under stress relate to the decision-making process (author)

  16. The decision-making process during accidents or incidents in the operational nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina Vanni; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2009-01-01

    This study reflects on one of the human behavior mediating factors that face nuclear facility operators during their decision-making process. It includes some mental processes used to determine the best course of action, based on intuitive and creative decisions, within a specific set of rational conditions which depend much more on perception about threats than on theoretical knowledge. A fast and efficient decision, in an unstable and ongoing changing scenario/environment, is extremely complex. The decision-making process goes beyond the purely rational level and many times is influenced by intuition. The importance of the decision-making process leads the study to also review human factors. The methodology used in this paper is based on cognitive aspects which are focused essentially on studies such as: decision process models, decision types and human rationality limits (time) versus individual decisions. Lastly, it makes assessments on how reason, emotion and being under stress relate to the decision-making process (author)

  17. Sweden goes back on its decision to ban nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 2009 the centre-right Swedish government has announced that the law on the progressive banning of nuclear energy and the law on the interdiction of building new nuclear power plants are going to be abolished. Moreover licenses will be given for the replacement of current operating reactors when they reach their time limit. The center party has not changed its mind concerning nuclear energy but is now deeply convinced that nuclear energy will be indispensable in the energy mix of tomorrow. A recent opinion poll has showed that almost half of the population favor the construction of new nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  18. Use of decision analytic methods in nuclear safety. An international survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1996-12-01

    This report reviews applications of formal decision analysis methods in resolving nuclear safety related issues. The review is based on selected published reports and a questionnaire sent to the members of the Principal Working Group 5 on risk analysis (PWG5) of OECD/NEA/CSNI. In the report, decision analysis methodology is shortly described. The applications discussed in this review are related to probabilistic safety goals of safety criteria, operational safety management, nuclear waste management and emergency management. The experiences from the application decision analysis methodology have been mainly positive. The advantages provided by the decision analytical thinking are the structured view over the problem under consideration and the explicit statements on uncertainties, values and preferences. The decision analysis methodology is rather mature to be applied in solution of nuclear safety issues. Although the applications have been mainly research oriented, it can be expected that the practical use of the methodology shall be more common in future. (orig.) (27 refs.).

  19. Use of decision analytic methods in nuclear safety. An international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1996-12-01

    This report reviews applications of formal decision analysis methods in resolving nuclear safety related issues. The review is based on selected published reports and a questionnaire sent to the members of the Principal Working Group 5 on risk analysis (PWG5) of OECD/NEA/CSNI. In the report, decision analysis methodology is shortly described. The applications discussed in this review are related to probabilistic safety goals of safety criteria, operational safety management, nuclear waste management and emergency management. The experiences from the application decision analysis methodology have been mainly positive. The advantages provided by the decision analytical thinking are the structured view over the problem under consideration and the explicit statements on uncertainties, values and preferences. The decision analysis methodology is rather mature to be applied in solution of nuclear safety issues. Although the applications have been mainly research oriented, it can be expected that the practical use of the methodology shall be more common in future. (orig.) (27 refs.)

  20. Operational readiness decisions at nuclear power plants - part 2. Which factors influence the decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena; Petterson, Sara

    2008-04-01

    The first report contained a summary of relevant research of decision making, a case study at Ringhals power plant and an analysis of some real cases of operational readiness decisions. In this report two case studies in the Swedish power plants, OKG and Forsmark are presented. The case study description consists of three parts; a description of the support from the management system for the decision making process, interviews with decision makers and an analysis of real cases of operational readiness decisions. The purpose of the project has been to increase the understanding of the decision process in operational readiness decisions as well as the support given from the management system and what factors influence the decisions. From a general point of view the circumstances where the decision must be taken varies, but situations and events that lead to questioning of the operational readiness are often easy to identify. There are often support documents such as procedures, rules and technical documents which specify operational limitations which give explicit decision criteria. These decisions are easy. When needed colleagues can be consulted for support. In unclear situations and/or when the technical criteria is not clear, e.g. when the rules and regulations are vague or even in conflict or when it is not evident that you need to question the operational readiness, the decision is more difficult to make. The results from the study shows that such decisions in general are not made by the shift crew manager but handed over to the next management level. The decision making process differs between the power plants. At one of the power plants the decision process is organised in specific meetings where decision made are reviewed by the next higher management level. At another plant the decisions are often made in groups or in consultation with colleagues. The management system makes a distinction between decisions made in consultation and when decisions already

  1. Tacit Knowledge - The Key for Decision Making in Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2008-01-01

    knowledge cannot or will not be totally converted into explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge management is a significant challenge in the business world. But not all tacit knowledge is valuable or even accurate. Although we may not be able to judge the knowledge itself, tacit knowledge is a big resource for all activities, especially for innovation. This article presents some outlines in order to understand potential, complexity and the role of tacit knowledge in decision making processes, especially in nuclear industry.(author)

  2. A deep knowledge architecture for intelligent support of nuclear waste transportation decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, D.; Bowen, W.M.; Hill, T.R.; Weeks, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of intelligent decision support has been discussed and explored in several recent papers, one of which has suggested the use of a Deep Knowledge Architecture. This paper explores this concept through application to a specific decision environment. The complex problems involved in nuclear waste disposal decisions provide an excellent test case. The resulting architecture uses an integrated, multi-level model base to represent the deep knowledge of the problem. Combined with the surface level knowledge represented by the database, the proposed knowledge base complements that of the decision-maker, allowing analysis at a range of levels of decisions which may also occur at a range of levels

  3. Is there a need for hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Heling, R.; Zheleznyak, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies. In particular, most recent developments such as, the radionuclide transport models integrated in to the decision support system RODOS will be explored. Recent progress in the implementation of physically-based distributed hydrological models for operational forecasting in national and supranational centres, may support a closer cooperation between national hydrological services and therefore, strengthen the use of hydrological and radiological models implemented in decision support systems. (authors)

  4. Economic evaluation of reprocessing - Indicative Belgian position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the final Working Group 4 report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative national position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for Belgium is presented. Other factors which influence the Belgian viewpoint and which are not included on the phase diagram are given

  5. Performance communication of the Belgian railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form of

  6. the french nuclear bet: political history of the main decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.

    2003-01-01

    The double french nuclear bet was an ultimate political choice of an old nation which did not wanted to renounce its glamour. but the world had changed. Is it always possible to conceive a national energy policy, knowing that the french military nuclear strategy is opposed to the rules of the next International Penal Court? (A.L.B.)

  7. Decision-support tool for assessing future nuclear reactor generation portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shashi; Roelofs, Ferry; Oosterlee, Cornelis W.

    2014-01-01

    Capital costs, fuel, operation and maintenance (O and M) costs, and electricity prices play a key role in the economics of nuclear power plants. Often standardized reactor designs are required to be locally adapted, which often impacts the project plans and the supply chain. It then becomes difficult to ascertain how these changes will eventually reflect in costs, which makes the capital costs component of nuclear power plants uncertain. Different nuclear reactor types compete economically by having either lower and less uncertain construction costs, increased efficiencies, lower and less uncertain fuel cycles and O and M costs etc. The decision making process related to nuclear power plants requires a holistic approach that takes into account the key economic factors and their uncertainties. We here present a decision-support tool that satisfactorily takes into account the major uncertainties in the cost elements of a nuclear power plant, to provide an optimal portfolio of nuclear reactors. The portfolio so obtained, under our model assumptions and the constraints considered, maximizes the combined returns for a given level of risk or uncertainty. These decisions are made using a combination of real option theory and mean–variance portfolio optimization. - Highlights: • Decisions to continue or abandon the construction of NPPs • Mean–variance portfolio of nuclear reactors • Sensitivity study of mean–variance portfolio of nuclear reactors

  8. Decisions on the safety of using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janka, P.

    1992-01-01

    A new nuclear energy law came into force in Finland in 1988. This law defines general principles, conditions and requirements concerning the use of nuclear power. The law expects the use of nuclear power to be safe and the safety and contingency systems to be sufficient. General rules for the safety of using nuclear power and for safety arrangements and contingency plans are laid down by the government. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has proposed the various rules to be adopted by the government and come into force by 1991. The rules for the safety of nuclear power plants and final waste storage plants contain limits for emissions of radioactive substances and radiation exposure and requirements for the safety in planning, building and using nuclear power plants and final waste storage plants. They observe international experience and research on risks linked to the use of nuclear power from the last few years as well as means and measures to contain these risks under all conditions. Safety arrangements at nuclear power plants contain measures required to be taken by the owner of the plants to thwart unlawful activities aimed at the plant. Most important of these are the rules for actions to be taken in dangerous situations. The proposed contingency plans contain measures to be taken by the owner of the plants in order to contain nuclear damages resulting from an accident. Most important of these are the rules for planning contingency arrangements, keeping these arrangements operable and actions to be taken in emergency situations. (author)

  9. Cognitive skills and nuclear power plant operational decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, Isabelle

    1998-01-01

    The author reports a project research which aimed at identifying cognitive skills required for severe accident management. It is based on an analytical model of decision making for severe accident conditions. Moreover, scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision making difficulties and to test cognitive skills associated with each of the model's elements. The model used to identify cognitive skills comprised six general processes to describe decision-making performance: monitor/detect, interpret current state, determine implications, plan, control, feedback. For each of these processes, situational factors, cognitive limitations and biases, individual cognitive skills and team cognitive skills have been identified

  10. Use of visualization technology to improve decision-making performance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, Lewis F.; Naser, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This paper contains a description of modern 2.5-D and 3-D visualization technology that may be applied to improve human situation awareness and decision-making in nuclear power plants. Visualization technology is being applied widely and successfully in several industries. Examples are presented of successful applications in the military, aviation, medical, entertainment, and nuclear industries. Additional opportunities are identified in the nuclear industry that may benefit from improved visualization

  11. Nuclear and radiation emergency evaluation and decision-making support system for ministry of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Huiguo; Lin Quanyi; Zhang Jiangang

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the design features and main functions of The Nuclear and Radiation Emergency Evaluation and Decision Support System. The Ministry of Environmental Protection will construct a complete set of evaluation and decision-making system at the Nuclear Safety Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection to cope with the sudden event. The system will provide a comprehensive technical support for the consequence evaluation and decision-making of anti-terrorism event according to the responsibility of MEP in the sudden event, with the data provided by the MEP's anti-terrorism information platform. (authors)

  12. Decision in Principle of the Council of State on the organisation of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Decision, which came into force on the date of its publication, contains general guidelines to be followed for nuclear waste management in nuclear facilities until the entry into force of special legislation on the organisational and economic aspects of such management. It provides in particular that radioactive waste 'producers' will bear financial responsibility for the waste they produce and must collect funds for waste management from the time their installation operates, while ensuring that the real value of these funds is maintained. During the period preceding the entry into force of the above-mentioned legislation, the terms of the Decision will be included in all permits for nuclear facilities. (NEA) [fr

  13. Assessment of decision making models in sensitive technology: the nuclear energy case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eduardo Ramos Ferreira da

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a bibliographic review is proceeded on the decision making processes approaching the sensitive technologies (the military and civilian uses as well), and the nuclear technology herself. It is made a correlation among the development of the nuclear technology and the decision making processes, showing that from 70 decade on, such processes are connected to the national security doctrines influenced by the Brazilian War College. So, every time that the national security is altered, so is the master line of the decision making process altered. In the Brazil case, the alteration appeared from the World War II up to the new proposals coming out from the Ministry of Defense are shown related to the nuclear technology. The existent models are analysed with a conclusion that such models are unveiling at the present situation of the moment, concerning to the nuclear technology

  14. The Decision-Makers' Forum on a new paradigm for nuclear energy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The Decision-Makers' Forum on a New Paradigm for Nuclear Energy was created in response to the challenge by Sen. Pete V. Domenici to begin, ''a new dialogue with serious discussion about the full range of nuclear technologies.'' Sponsored by the Senate Nuclear Issues Caucus, the Forum was organized and facilitated by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The participants were decision-makers and key staff from industry, government, the national laboratories, academia and professional societies. Overall, the Forum was designed to capture the ideas of a large number of decision-makers about the high priority actions recommended to help set a new national agenda for nuclear energy. The Forum recommended 10 priority actions toward this end

  15. A prototype nuclear emergency response decision making expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Shih, C.; Hong, M.; Yu, W.; Su, M.; Wang, S.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype of emergency response expert system developed for nuclear power plants, has been fulfilled by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. Key elements that have been implemented for emergency response include radioactive material dispersion assessment, dynamic transportation evacuation assessment, and meteorological parametric forecasting. A network system consists of five 80386 Personal Computers (PCs) has been installed to perform the system functions above. A further project is still continuing to achieve a more complicated and fanciful computer aid integral emergency response expert system

  16. Development of the assessment of nuclear accident consequences and decision support system in China: status, requirement and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Wang Xingyu

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the status of nuclear accident consequence assessment/development of decision-making support system in China. The basic functions and roles of the consequence assessment/decision-making support system for three levels of nuclear emergency response organization (i.e. national, local offsite and nuclear power plant operator) in China are presented in the paper

  17. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both ''clean'' and ''dirty''; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs

  18. Current issues in nuclear power projects decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.; Rogner, H.

    2011-01-01

    Concluding Comments: Firm government commitment and support - imminent; New financing approaches/models are emerging, repackaging existing methods and combination of project finance/co-operative mode; Global financial crisis will make financing for investors very challenging, especially for large scale infrastructure projects like NNP –financial regulators to impose tougher rules (Basel III, UK bank levy, US Financial Regulatory Bill, etc; Pure project finance is still challenging for nuclear projects - the availability of finance for new NPPs will depend on the initial government support. This presentation presents a “free market” view on investment in nuclear power projects; If the public sector (governments) wishes to invest in nuclear power as part of its socioeconomic development priorities, finance is not a real obstacle; It becomes an issue in the presence of other equally important development needs and private sector participation is sought

  19. Risk perception, trust and public engagement in nuclear decision-making in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Hills, Peter; Tao, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy can be a feasible energy option has re-emerged as a subject of widespread debate following the Fukushima accident in Japan. However, relatively little is known about how public inputs can improve nuclear decision-making. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of public opinions regarding nuclear energy by examining its risk perception, trust and public engagement dimensions. Based on a survey of Hong Kong residents (n=509), we make some observations. Firstly, we offer empirical evidence that affirms the theoretical connections between risk perception, trust, and public engagement in the context of nuclear energy. Secondly, our logistic regression analysis indicates that demographics, trust, and perceptions of the efficacy of public engagement are factors explaining perceptions of greater risks and nuclear opposition. Thirdly, our conceptual model sheds light on the complexity of the trust concept, and specifies aspects of trust that are influential in the contexts of risk perception and nuclear choices. Our findings suggest that the Hong Kong government must ensure trust building receives prominent attention in nuclear decision-making, and that it should avoid excessive reliance on the business sector and should assume a key role for itself in enhancing trust in nuclear decision-making. - Highlights: • Risk perception, trust and public engagement matter to nuclear decision-making. • Our logistic regression analysis found that demographics, trust and perception of public engagement are the factors that explain risk perception and nuclear choice in Hong Kong. • Our conceptual model specifics aspects of trust that are influential

  20. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  1. KASAM project for detailed study of the decision making process and basis for decisions in the nuclear waste area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bjoern

    2008-01-01

    The idea of the transparency programme is that it should increase the transparency, and thereby the quality, of the decision process and the document basis for the up coming decisions related to the SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company) license applications for a final repository for high level nuclear waste and an encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. KASAM (Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste) was in charge of the transparency program. The pre-study proposes that KASAM uses the RISCOM-model to support the transparency programme. During the pre-study a number of stakeholders were approached to give their views about the format and contents of the transparency programme and a large number of new issues were raised that could be included in transparency creating activities. Among these issues we got for instance: the role of responsible authorities, on what basis for site selection? or socio-economic issues or critical assumptions in the safety assessment or safety philosophy. Recurrent elements in the transparency programme would then be: -) a clear description of the background for the issue being addressed, -) knowledge building activities, and -) a hearing where the KASAM committee members and staff meet the stakeholders to discuss the issue

  2. Belgian guidelines for economic evaluations: second edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Nancy; Neyt, Mattias; Van De Sande, Stefaan; Cleemput, Irina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present the updated methodological guidelines for economic evaluations of healthcare interventions (drugs, medical devices, and other interventions) in Belgium. The update of the guidelines was performed by three Belgian health economists following feedback from users of the former guidelines and personal experience. The updated guidelines were discussed with a multidisciplinary team consisting of other health economists, assessors of reimbursement request files, representatives of Belgian databases and representatives of the drugs and medical devices industry. The final document was validated by three external validators that were not involved in the previous discussions. The guidelines give methodological guidance for the following components of an economic evaluation: literature review, perspective of the evaluation, definition of the target population, choice of the comparator, analytic technique and study design, calculation of costs, valuation of outcomes, definition of the time horizon, modeling, handling uncertainty and discounting. We present a reference case that can be considered as the minimal requirement for Belgian economic evaluations of health interventions. These guidelines will improve the methodological quality, transparency and uniformity of the economic evaluations performed in Belgium. The guidelines will also provide support to the researchers and assessors performing or evaluating economic evaluations.

  3. French policy in the nuclear industry and last governmental decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    1999-01-01

    In the wake of the first oil shock, France embarked on an energy policy aimed at strengthening the long-term security of its supplies. French Government has confirmed the continuation of the nuclear power option as an essential component of French energy policy and in the interests of energy self-sufficiency and environmental concerns. The Government is also ready to work actively and seriously on diversifying France's electricity supply

  4. Independence in regulatory decision making - INSAG-17. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report is intended to promote a common understanding among legislators and other political decision makers, nuclear safety regulators and licensees of the concept of independence in regulatory decision making and how to achieve it. Other interest groups, such as non-governmental organizations and members of the public interested in the regulation of nuclear safety, may also find the report useful. The principles concerning the independence of regulatory organizations are developed and discussed in publications in the IAEA's Safety Standards Series. Although the principles relating to protecting the independence of the regulatory body provide the necessary basis for independence in regulatory decision making, there are additional factors and features that require attention to ensure independence in the decision making by the regulatory body. This INSAG report highlights and discusses a number of such factors and features

  5. Did the Italian Decision Makers Understand that Nuclear Is Not Business as Usual?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the 1950s, the confrontation on the nationalization of the electricity power system and the belief that nuclear energy would reach a dominant share in electric power production induced many Italian players to enter the nuclear business. After the nationalization of the electricity power system in 1962, even ENEL was not interested in continuing building nuclear plants. After the 1973 oil crisis, an ambitious nuclear program was issued, which omitted any choice on technologies, any information on plant siting and on the sharing of responsibilities among operators. The only decision taken was the commissioning of a boiling water reactor plant, which was never completed: after the 1987 referendum the Italian Parliament, besides stopping the building of new nuclear plants, closed the existing units. The 2008 farcical attempt to revamp nuclear power was defeated by the 2011 referendum.

  6. Nuclear emergency response exercises and decision support systems - integrating domestic experience with international reference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnicu, D.S.; Vamanu, D.V.; Gheorghiu, D.; Acasandrei, V.T.; Slavnicu, E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper glosses on the experience of a research-oriented team routinely involved in emergency preparedness and response management activities, with the assimilation, implementation, and application of decision support systems (DSS) of continental reference in Europe, and the development of supportive, domestic radiological assessment tools. Two exemplary nuclear alert exercises are discussed, along with solutions that emerged during drill planning and execution, to make decision support tools of various origins and strength to work synergistically and complement each other. (authors)

  7. Decision making process and emergency management in different phases of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.

    2005-01-01

    EVATECH, Information Requirements and Countermeasure Evaluation Techniques in Nuclear Emergency Management, was a research project in the key action 'Nuclear Fission' of the fifth EURATOM Framework Programme (FP5). The overall objective of the project was to enhance the quality and coherence of response to nuclear emergencies in Europe by improving the decision support methods, models and processes in ways that take into account the expectations and concern of the many different parties involved - stake holders both in managing the emergency response and those who are affected by the consequences of nuclear emergencies. The project had ten partners from seven European countries. The development of the real-time online decision support system RODOS has been one of the major items in the area of radiation protection within the European Commission's Framework Programmes. The main objectives of the RODOS project have been to develop a comprehensive and integrated decision support system that is generally applicable across Europe and to provide a common framework for incorporating the best features of existing decision support systems and future developments. Furthermore the objective has been to provide greater transparency in the decision process to: improve public understanding and acceptance of off-site emergency measures, to facilitate improved communication between countries of monitoring data, predictions of consequences, etc., in the event of any future accident, and to promote, through the development and use of the system, a more coherent, consistent and harmonised response to any future accident that may affect Europe. (authors)

  8. Decision-making behavior of experts at nuclear power plants. Regulatory focus influence on cognitive heuristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this research project was to examine factors, on the basis of regulatory focus theory and the heuristics and biases approach, that influence decision-making processes of experts at nuclear power plants. Findings show that this group applies anchoring (heuristic) when evaluating conjunctive and disjunctive events and that they maintain a constant regulatory focus characteristic. No influence of the experts' characteristic regulatory focus on cognitive heuristics could be established. Theoretical and practical consequences on decision-making behavior of experts are presented. Finally, a method for measuring the use of heuristics especially in the nuclear industry is discussed.

  9. Recent decision of the Constitutional Court concerning the admissibility of the referendum on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomodoro, Sergio.

    1981-01-01

    This paper provides a thorough analysis of the decision of the Constitutional Court on 13 February 1981 ruling that a request for a referendum whose purpose was to have adopted a partial annulment of Act no. 393 of 1975 on nuclear power plant siting was inadmissible. The decision is based on the ground that, firstly the Constitution does not allow a referendum for annulment of an Act to be held and secondly, this request ran counter to the objectives fixed by the Euratom Treaty (Community nuclear power development) to which Italy, as a Party, was committed. (NEA) [fr

  10. Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, N.; Walle, B. van de; Hardeman, F.; Sohier, A.; Soudan, K.

    1996-01-01

    The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

  11. Decision making during an early phase of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grlicarev, I.

    2004-01-01

    The optimisation of protective actions is a process which requires previous planning. The optimisation might not be performed in all the cases, but, at least, justification of the protective action is required. Striving for ideal solution could lead that the action is delayed and protective action becomes inappropriate. The process of decision making must be simple and transparent due to time constraints, and the sources of important information shall be reliable and identified in advance in order to save time and avoid stress. (author)

  12. Abundant natural gas delays nuclear decision for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasser, P.J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The energy situation in the Netherlands is discussed. A decrease in natural gas reserves and a rise in energy demand will mean a relative decline in the share of natural gas in the economy. The share of primary energy sources in total energy consumption and the development of electricity consumption are shown. Two scenarios for future energy supply are worked out, one assuming cumulative growth and the other considering the case of gradual stabilization. Possible ways of meeting future demand are illustrated and factors to be considered in making a choice, such as the role of nuclear power, are indicated. (UK)

  13. Nuclear site selection and environmental protection. The decision making methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, G.; Lacourly, G.; Fitoussi, L.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of the site of a nuclear plant most often comes to seek out and compound between two trends: that of the operator who will try and reduce the cost price of his product to the lowest and that of the protectionist who will try and reduce to the minimum the hazards resulting from the plant operation. Such a compromise is the result of a more or less empirical choice, which enters within the frame of a cost-benefit analysis, in which theoretically, the choice between several possible solutions is made of the selection giving the higher advantage [fr

  14. Perspective decisions of WWER nuclear fuel: Implementation at Russian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The scientific and technical policy pursued by JSC TVEL has managed to create a new generation of fuel assembly design on the basis of solutions tested at various units of Russian NPPs - Kola NPP, Kalinin NPP, Unit 1, Balakovo NPP Unit 1. The requirements set for the new generation nuclear fuel for WWER are: 1) High fuel burnup - up to 70 MWxdays/kgU; 2) Extended operation cycle - up to 6 years; 3) Increase of uranium charge to the core; 4) Increased lateral stability - bow not more than 7 mm; 5) High level of operating reliability - fuel rod leakage not worse than 10-5 1/year; 6) Demountable fuel assembly design. Post-irradiation examination results of fuel assemblies discharged from WWER-1000 reactors demonstrate that fuel rods have substantial reserve in general characteristics including that of dealing with planned burnup. In order to meet the requirements, trials are started for: implementation of rigid skeleton (WWER-1000); fuel column length extension (WWER-1000 and WWER-440); increase of UO 2 charge (WWER-1000 and WWER-440); enhancing of operational reliability and demountable design. It is concluded that the Russian nuclear fuel for WWER-type reactors is competitive and enables the implementation of state-of-the-art cost effective fuel cycles

  15. Extended value-impact decision making methodology for nuclear power plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Value-impact is the term used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to define what is traditionally known as cost-benefit analysis; values measure the beneficial consequences of a proposed action, impacts measure the adverse consequences, i.e. costs of the proposed action. In the regulatory framework, value-impact or cost-benefit is but one input to decision making. The present study was performed in order to illustrate how decision makers can utilize a more structured method for determining nuclear regulatory policy. In order to be useful, the method must treat all dominant factors that influence a decision; including economic, as well as societal factors such as environmental, health and safety. The method must also allow decisions to be consistent with the preferences of the decision maker as well as other interested groups. Major problems in decision making are how to incorporate non-quantifiable attributes in the method and how to reach consensus between opposing viewpoints. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) can attack these issues by making it possible to structure the decision in a way that subjective input can be included. In this paper, the AHP is developed and used to rank the value/impact ratios of alternative decay heat removal systems. It is believed that use of the AHP can decrease limitations present in a current value-impact analysis

  16. Tactical and strategic decision-making aids for nuclear power plant emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the prospective role of computer-based decision aids for nuclear power plant emergency response. The role of these systems is subordinate to human activities, but in a complementary manner these systems process decision logic more accurately and foster a more thorough understanding of emergency situations than might other wise be possible. Within this context two decision support systems being developed are discussed. Both of these systems utilize technology derived from artificial intelligence, focussing on two different facets of emergency response. An automated emergency operating procedures (EOP) tracking expert system is described as a tactical aid for control room operator response. A reactor emergency action level monitor (REALM) expert system is proposed as a strategic decision aid for site emergency response. The discrimination between tactical and strategic decision-making is an intrinsic part of this examination

  17. Model-Based Calculations of the Probability of a Country's Nuclear Proliferation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David N.

    2007-01-01

    explain the occurrences of proliferation decisions. However, predicting major historical proliferation events using model-based predictions has been unreliable. Nuclear proliferation decisions by a country is affected by three main factors: (1) technology; (2) finance; and (3) political motivation [1]. Technological capability is important as nuclear weapons development needs special materials, detonation mechanism, delivery capability, and the supporting human resources and knowledge base. Financial capability is likewise important as the development of the technological capabilities requires a serious financial commitment. It would be difficult for any state with a gross national product (GNP) significantly less than that of about $100 billion to devote enough annual governmental funding to a nuclear weapon program to actually achieve positive results within a reasonable time frame (i.e., 10 years). At the same time, nuclear proliferation is not a matter determined by a mastery of technical details or overcoming financial constraints. Technology or finance is a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition for nuclear proliferation. At the most fundamental level, the proliferation decision by a state is controlled by its political motivation. To effectively address the issue of predicting proliferation events, all three of the factors must be included in the model. To the knowledge of the authors, none of the exiting models considered the 'technology' variable as part of the modeling. This paper presents an attempt to develop a methodology for statistical modeling and predicting a country's nuclear proliferation decisions. The approach is based on the combined use of data on a country's nuclear technical capability profiles economic development status, security environment factors and internal political and cultural factors. All of the information utilized in the study was from open source literature. (authors)

  18. SAFIR-2 and the Belgian methodological R and D programme on deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, Peter de

    2002-01-01

    Peter de Preter (NIRAS/ONDRAF, Belgium) provided an overview of the Belgian programme of research and development on deep disposal. The planned submission in December 2001 of SAFIR 2 (the second Safety Assessment and Feasibility Interim Report) would mark an important milestone, as the report would inform a decision by the Belgian government on the nature of future research. An independent committee of scientists established by NIRAS/ONDRAF had reviewed a draft version of the report. The committee was generally in agreement with the technical R and D priorities proposed in the report but suggested that there should be more integration of technical and societal aspects. The committee also recommended that a future research programme should compare the option of deep disposal with other strategies for long-term management of radioactive wastes. It was suggested that a strategic environmental assessment might provide an appropriate mechanism for comparing alternative management strategies, and would enable societal dimensions also to be addressed

  19. Bavarian Constitutional Court, decision of August 14, 1987 (Referendum on sites of nuclear installations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In the dissenting opinion of one of the judges of the Bavarian Constitutional Court concerning the decision of August 14, 1987, the Land Bavaria has a competence according to the constitution to decide about sites of nuclear installations. Hence it follows that a referendum on this problem has to be permitted. (CW) [de

  20. Study of arcview GIS application in the nuclear power plant emergency response decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Chen Lin; Dong Binjiang

    2003-01-01

    It is very significant to apply the technique of GIS to the development of the Nuclear Power Plant Emergency Response Decision Support System. On the basis of the software system ArcView. This paper investigate the framework, the function and the development methods of the system. (authors)

  1. Environmental decision support system on base of geoinformational technologies for the analysis of nuclear accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, T.C.; Maigan, M.; Arutyunyan, R.V.; Bolshov, L.A.; Demianov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The report deals with description of the concept and prototype of environmental decision support system (EDSS) for the analysis of late off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents and analysis, processing and presentation of spatially distributed radioecological data. General description of the available software, use of modem achievements of geostatistics and stochastic simulations for the analysis of spatial data are presented and discussed

  2. Licensing method for new nuclear power plant: A study on decision making modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, N; Ohaga, E. O.; Jung, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a study on decision making modeling for a licensing method of a new nuclear power plant. SWOT analysis provides the licensing alternatives attributes, then the expectation from either COL or two step licensing method is decided by inputting the output from the Hurwitz mathematical model. From the analysis, COL shows the best candidate for both optimistic and pessimistic conditions

  3. Licensing method for new nuclear power plant: A study on decision making modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N; Ohaga, E. O.; Jung, J. C. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This work provides a study on decision making modeling for a licensing method of a new nuclear power plant. SWOT analysis provides the licensing alternatives attributes, then the expectation from either COL or two step licensing method is decided by inputting the output from the Hurwitz mathematical model. From the analysis, COL shows the best candidate for both optimistic and pessimistic conditions.

  4. Flexible decision making in the wake of large scale nuclear emergencies: Long-term response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Yumashev (Dmitry); Johnson, P. (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a decision-making model that describes optimal protection and recovery strategies for a single economic location affected by radioactive release from the nearby Nuclear Power Plant. The initial period of release and deposition is characterised by high degrees of uncertainty,

  5. Defining criteria related to wastes for use in multi-criteria decision tool for nuclear accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: dneves@biof.ufrj.br, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; De Luca, Christiano, E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: christiano_luca@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Rochedo, Pedro R.R., E-mail: rochedopedro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia

    2013-07-01

    The selection of protective measures and strategies for remediation of contaminated areas after a nuclear accident must be based on previously established criteria in order to prevent stress of the population and the unnecessary exposure of workers. After a nuclear accident resulting in environmental contamination, decisions on remediation of areas is complex due to the large numbers of factors involved in decontamination processes. This work is part of a project which aims to develop a multi-criteria tool to support a decision-making process in cases of a radiological or a nuclear accident in Brazil. First, a database of remediation strategies for contaminated areas was created. In this process, the most relevant aspects for the implementation of these strategies were considered, including technical criteria regarding aspects related to the generation of wastes in a reference urban area, which are discussed in this paper. The specific objective of this study is to define criteria for the aspects of radioactive wastes, resulted by the implementation of some urban measures, in order to be incorporated in a multi-criteria decision tool. Main aspects considered were the type, the amount and the type of treatment necessary for each procedure. The decontamination procedures are then classified according to the selected criteria in order to feed the multi-criteria decision tool. This paper describes the steps for the establishment of these criteria and evaluates the potential for future applications in order to improve predictions and to support the decisions to be made. (author)

  6. Mathematical optimization of incore nuclear fuel management decisions: Status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear fuel management involves making decisions about the number of fresh assemblies to purchase and their Attributes (e.g. enrichment and burnable poison loading), burnt fuel to reinsert, location of the assemblies in the core (i.e. loading pattern (LP)), and insertion of control rods as a function of cycle exposure (i.e. control rod pattern (CRP)). The out-of-core and incore nuclear fuel management problems denote an artificial separation of decisions to simplify the decisionmaking. The out-of-core problem involves multicycle analysis so that levelized fuel cycle cost can be evaluated; whereas, the incore problem normally involves single cycle analysis. Decision variables for the incore problem normally include all of the above noted decisions with the exception of the number of fresh assemblies, which is restricted by discharge burnup limits and therefore involves multicycle considerations. This paper reports on the progress that is being made in addressing the incore nuclear fuel management problem utilizing formal mathematical optimization methods. Advances in utilizing the Simulating Annealing, Genetic Algorithm and Tabu Search methods, with applications to pressurized and boiling water reactor incore optimization problem, will be reviewed. Recent work on the addition of multiobjective optimization capability to aide the decision maker, and utilization of heuristic rules and incorporation of parallel algorithms to increase computational efficiency, will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Defining criteria related to wastes for use in multi-criteria decision tool for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; De Luca, Christiano; Rochedo, Pedro R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The selection of protective measures and strategies for remediation of contaminated areas after a nuclear accident must be based on previously established criteria in order to prevent stress of the population and the unnecessary exposure of workers. After a nuclear accident resulting in environmental contamination, decisions on remediation of areas is complex due to the large numbers of factors involved in decontamination processes. This work is part of a project which aims to develop a multi-criteria tool to support a decision-making process in cases of a radiological or a nuclear accident in Brazil. First, a database of remediation strategies for contaminated areas was created. In this process, the most relevant aspects for the implementation of these strategies were considered, including technical criteria regarding aspects related to the generation of wastes in a reference urban area, which are discussed in this paper. The specific objective of this study is to define criteria for the aspects of radioactive wastes, resulted by the implementation of some urban measures, in order to be incorporated in a multi-criteria decision tool. Main aspects considered were the type, the amount and the type of treatment necessary for each procedure. The decontamination procedures are then classified according to the selected criteria in order to feed the multi-criteria decision tool. This paper describes the steps for the establishment of these criteria and evaluates the potential for future applications in order to improve predictions and to support the decisions to be made. (author)

  8. Assimilation of public opinions in nuclear decision-making using risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, K.Y.; Yang, J.W.; Kang, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    A method of assimilating public opinions in the decision-making process has been developed in this study. The proposed method will resolve the major shortcomings of existing decision-making models, which are deficient in, or missing public participation during the process. In the nuclear-related decision-making process, a particular concern of the public is nuclear safety, which is numerically characterized by risk. In reality, it is the risk that each individual perceives that is very important. Hence, the public perception of risk has been employed as a key decision-making element in representing public opinions. To quantify the public perception of risk, the psychometric model is used. Psychological risk dimensions are first assessed using factor analysis and a set of factors is identified for optimized computation. Expert opinions formulated by a group of selected professionals and experts are then aggregated with the public opinions. To gather public and expert opinions, separate polls were conducted in this study. In the aggregation, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-attribute utility analysis (MAUA) were employed, and for uncertainty analysis, a fuzzy set based approach was adopted. This method has been applied to analyze six options for spent fuel management in Korea for a case study. As expected, the results of the case study show that public risk perception is an important element in nuclear-related decision-making processes

  9. Proposal for the decision making in sensitive technology: application to the nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eduardo Ramos Ferreira da

    2007-01-01

    In a previous article, a correlation is made among the phases of the nuclear technology development and the decision making processes, showing that from the 70's decade, such processes are connected to the national security doctrines, influenced by the Brazilian War College. In this paper it is shown the developed model for the decision making when the sensitive technologies are involved that in our special case will be specific oriented to the nuclear technology. An assessment are made for such decisions must having the the population approval, showing the main existent obstacles and how the present model, although defined at the end of the year 2003, will not be succeeded in a short period of time. It is mainly shown that the linear models must be abandoned, essential since the Word War II, for a holistic model more realistic with a new global state of affairs

  10. Belgian Workshop (November 2003) - Executive Summary and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The fourth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste Management and enriched fissile materials. The central theme of the workshop was 'Dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk' within the Belgian context of local partnerships for the long term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The four-day workshop started with a half-day session in Brussels giving a general introduction on the Belgian context and the local partnership methodology. This was followed by community visits to three local partnerships, PaLoFF in Fleurus-Farciennes, MONA in Mol, and STOLA in Dessel. After the visits, the workshop continued with two full-day sessions in Brussels. One hundred and nineteen registered participants, representing 13 countries, attended the workshop or participated in the community visits. About two thirds were Belgian stakeholders; the remainder came from FSC member organisations. The participants included representatives of municipal governments, civil society organisations, government agencies, industrial companies, the media, and international organisations as well as private citizens, consultants and academics. The four-day meeting was structured as follows: Day 1 morning was devoted to introductory presentations. Information was given on the general radioactive waste management context in Belgium. Regarding the management of LLW, and in particular the search for a disposal facility site, the workshop heard about the local partnership methodology developed by university researchers of the University of Antwerp and the Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgeoise (FUL). These partnerships between the potential host municipalities and the radwaste agency have the mission to develop an integrated facility proposal adapted to local conditions. Community visits took place on Day 1 afternoon and Day 2. Visits offered an opportunity for

  11. Decision of the Federal Constitutional Court on the nuclear fuel tax. A threefold big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    With the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG, file number 2 BvL 6/13) published on 7 June the Federal Constitutional Court has ''tipped'' the so-called nuclear fuel tax levied by nuclear power plant operators from 2011 to the end of 2016 (tax revenues approx. 6.285 billion Euros). According to the court the Federal legislature does not has any legislative competence for the introduction of this tax. Including interest rates, the current tax debtors E.ON, RWE and EnBW are now refunded a total of just under Euro 7 billion of wrongly levied taxes for the years 2011 to 2016. In substance, the decision on the unconstitutionality and invalidity of the nuclear fuel tax is a threefold big bang.

  12. Measurement of the natural radiation of the Belgian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, J.; Flemal, J.M.; Deworm, J.P.; Slegers, W.

    1989-01-01

    A measurement campaign of natural occuring radionuclides was set up on the Belgian territory in order to assess the doses received by the Belgian population. The results of the measurements are published together with a map of natural occuring radionuclides and exposure rates. (L.D.C.)

  13. Decision-based model development for nuclear material theft, smuggling, and illicit use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear material is vulnerable to a range of theft, sabotage, smuggling and illicit use scenarios. These scenarios are dependent on the choices of individuals and organizations involved in these activities. These choices, in turn; are dependent on the perceived payoff vectors of the involved players. These payoff vectors can include monetary gain, ability to avoid detection, penalties for detection, difficulty of accomplishment, resource constraints, infrastructure support, etc. Threat scenarios can be developed from these individual choices, and the set of worst-case threat scenarios can be compiled into a threat definition. The implementation of physical protection controls is dependent on the developed threat scenarios. The analysis of the composition of the postulated threat can be based on the analysis of the postulated decisions of the individuals and organizations involved on theft, smuggling, and illicit use. This paper proposes a model to systematically analyze the significant decision points that an individual or organization addresses as result of its goals. The model's dependence on assumptions is discussed. Using these assumptions, a model is developed that assigns probabilities to a set of decisions performed by the individuals involved in theft/smuggling. The individual and organisation's decisions are based on the perceived cost/benefit of the decisions and the resource constraints. Methods for functionally obtaining decision probabilities from perceived cost/benefit are proposed. The treatment of high-consequence/low-probability events is discussed in terms of analysis of precursor events, and the use of sensitivity analysis is discussed. An example of a simplified model for nuclear material theft, smuggling, and illicit use is presented, and the results of this simplified model are evaluated. By attempting to model the potential distribution of nuclear material theft/smuggling events, this model increases the analytical tools available

  14. Ergonomics and risk management in high risk organizations: nuclear power plant operator decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de

    2003-08-01

    Nuclear power plants are high hazard environments where emergency situations can have devastating effects. The operator crew has the ultimate responsibility to control the energy production process with safety. The outcome of a crisis is consequently dependent on the crew's judgement, decision making and situation awareness. In such way we should know how operators make their decisions in order to develop safety strategies. The aim of this thesis is to examine the cognitive processes through which operators make decisions when dealing with micro incidents during their actual work, and to determine whether they use a naturalistic or normative decision making strategy. That is, do they try to recognize the micro incident as familiar and base decisions on condition-action rules (naturalistic), or do they need to concurrently compare and contrast options before selecting the best possible (normative). The method employed for data collection was the Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) and Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The main findings of this thesis were that decision making is primarily based on naturalistic strategies, such as condition-action rules and recognition. In new situations rules are created ad hoc. These rules appear derived from experience and training rather than from Standard Operating Procedures and contrast normative competence standards used by nuclear industry. (author)

  15. A method for analysis of nuclear power plant operators' decision making in simulated disturbance situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    An analysis method has been developed for analysis of nuclear power plant operators' decision making in simulated disturbance situations. The aim of the analysis is to investigate operators' orientation which is expected to manifest itself as collective strategies in utilization of resources of decision making. Resources analyzed here are different information sources and, in addition, collaborative resources like communication and participation. The cognitive approach on the basis of the method considers decision making as collective construction of common interpretation of available information. Utilization of information is evaluated with respect to operative context. This is made with help of conceptualization of the disturbance situation from the decision making point of view and by construction of operative reference for activity. The latter means conceptualization of the situation from the safety point of view and also consideration of other boundary constraints of decision making, i.e. economical and technical aspects. The analysis method is intended to be used in routine simulator training in nuclear power plants. By virtue of its contextual and dynamical approach it makes the developing nature of activity visible. Cumulation and distribution of knowledge of decision making as developing activity, controlled by orientation and boundary constraints of process control, is expected to improve operational culture of a plant organization. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig

  16. Status and perspective on the research and development of the chinese decision support system for nuclear emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jingyuan; Cao Jianzhu; Liu Lei; Xue Dazhi; Xi Shuren

    2001-01-01

    The research and development of the Chinese decision support system for nuclear emergency management is now under the way. The framework of the European decision support system for nuclear emergencies is taken as the platform for the development of the Chinese system. The objective of the Chinese project is to provide technical support to decision-makers in the decision-making of protective actions in the event of a major nuclear accident. The author presents the organization, current status and future prospect on the Chinese effort

  17. A decision support system for identifying abnormal operating procedures in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Min-Han; Hwang, Sheue-Ling; Liu, Kang-Hong; Liang, Sheau-Farn Max; Chuang, Chang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A decision support system has been constructed and verified. ► The operator's decision-making time was decreased by about 25%. ► The accuracy was increased by about 18%. ► The system prevents overlooking important information. ► Fewer erroneous solutions were implemented, and the mental workload was reduced. - Abstract: In order to prevent safety hazards that can result from inappropriate decisions made by the operators of a nuclear power plant (NPP), this study was undertaken to develop a decision support system to reduce the complexity of the decision-making process by aiding operators’ cognitive activities, integrating unusual symptoms, and identifying the most suitable abnormal operating procedure (AOP) for operators. The study was conducted from the perspective of human factors engineering in order to compare the process that operators originally used to select an AOP with a process that included a support system for AOP identification. The results of the study indicated that the existence of a support system reduces errors by quickly suggesting likely AOPs. With such a support system in place, there were clear improvements in human performance, i.e., decision-making time decreased by about 25%, and the accuracy of the operators’ decisions, judged by the successful resolution of specific problems, increased by about 18%. In addition, there were fewer erroneous solutions implemented, and the mental workload was reduced. Hence, the decision support system is proposed as a training tool in identifying AOPs in the main control room (MCR).

  18. Risk-return of Belgian SRI funds

    OpenAIRE

    Van Liedekerke, Luc; De Moor, Lieven; Vanwalleghem, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the risk-return profile of Belgian SRI funds versus conventional investment funds. We apply a four-factor conditional Carhart model to establish whether there are significant differences in risk-return profile between an SRI portfolio and a conventional portfolio and test for learning effects in SRI funds. We show that there is no difference in risk-return profile between SRI and conventional funds. If return is not the problem, then what is it that limits the development of an SRI...

  19. Euthanasia: a "kit" sold in Belgian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    (1) In France, legislation adopted in 2005 recognises the right of dying patients to refuse further treatment, and the right of physicians to ease their suffering with treatments that, due to adverse effects, may shorten their life. Measures deliberately aimed at hastening death are forbidden. (2) In Belgium, medical euthanasia was decriminalised in 2002, and can now be carried out either in hospital or at home. Nearly 20 cases of euthanasia are reported per month in Belgium. (3) A Belgian pharmacy chain now markets a "euthanasia kit".

  20. What is the subject of decision-making in the management of development and operation of a nuclear power complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahny, M.

    1986-01-01

    Decision-making in the nuclear power complex is described in context with the respective process of management. Basic concepts are defined, the course of an elementary decision-making process described and basic knowledge is generalized for more complex actual cases. Conditions are studied which determine the quality of adopted decisions. Special attention is devoted to working papers for the decision-making process and to the compilers of such papers. Items of decision-making in the nuclear power complex are classified in time sequence and system hierarchy. (author)

  1. Nuclear waste management and sustainable development: the complexity of a decision in a controversial universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dars, A.

    2002-01-01

    This PhD dissertation intends to demonstrate in what extent the concept of sustainable development applied to nuclear waste management requires a novel scientific approach. High-level and long-lived radioactive waste management needs to make decisions in taking into account multiple dimensions, characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, and long term, and which are much debated. These scientific controversies often induce social conflicts due to the divergence in stakeholders point of views, values or interests. Therefore, nuclear waste management in a sustainable development constitutes a complex decision-making problem. This thesis focuses on high-level and long-lived radioactive waste management in the French context because this country is confronted with the most severe conflicts. Researches are operating in the 30 December 1991 law framework, and in 2006 a Parliament decision could be made concerning the choice of a long-term nuclear waste management solution. This survey studies in what extent economics can open to other scientific disciplines in using evaluation tools and decision-making procedures which better integrate several conflicting criteria. This work deals with the criticism of the epistemological and methodological foundations of economic evaluation, notably in questioning the realism of its hypothesis, and a qualitative survey directly made close to stakeholders goes deeper into the analysis of their complex relationships. The first part of this thesis puts in evidence the complexity of a sustainable nuclear waste management. Chapter 1 shows that sustainable nuclear waste management is a health and ecological problem irreducible to a technical solution, and Chapter 2 explains why sustainable nuclear waste management constitutes a social choice problem irreducible to an economic evaluation. The second part of this thesis shows that a concerted decision-making process seems to be a good procedure to overcome this complexity. Chapter 3 analyses

  2. Analyzing the reprocessing decision: plutonium recycle and nuclear proliferation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; Connolly, T.J.

    1978-11-01

    The United States decision to defer indefinitely the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is examined in this thesis. Bayesian decision analysis is applied to develop a rational framework for the assessment of alternatives. Benefits and costs for each alternative are evaluated and compared in dollar terms to determine the optimal decision. A fuel cycle simulation model is constructed to assess the economic value of reprocessing light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and recycling plutonium. In addition, a dynamic fuel substitution model is used to estimate the economic effects of the reprocessing decision's influence on the introduction date of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). The analysis of benefits and costs is extended to include the social costs due to technological risks, such as accident risk, nuclear theft and/or sabotage, and international nuclear proliferation. These social costs are expressed in dollar terms for comparison with the conventional economic values. Results of the analysis indicate that the domestic social costs are less than the economic benefits by more than three orders of magnitude, and that the permit option dominates those of delay or prohibit. An examination of proliferation risk indicates a factor of approximately 7 between cost-benefits. Thus, on the basis of this analysis, it appears that to permit reprocessing is optimal over delaying or prohibiting the technology

  3. Cabinet decision concerning the application of certain regulations provided in Nuclear Third Party Legislation of 21 June 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order was made in implementation of the Act of 8th June 1972 on Nuclear Liability. Its purpose is to implement in Finland, the exclusion of certain small quantities of nuclear substances in course of transport from the liability of the nuclear operator in accordance with the corresponding Decision of the NEA Steering Committee concerning the Paris Convention. This Decision is based on the low hazard entailed by such substances. Furthermore, the Order stipulates that the Minister of Commerce and Industry is the competent authority to decide, under the Act of 1972, that the carrier shall be liable for nuclear damage in place of the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  4. Applications of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Application of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants is being investigated under a US Department of Energy sponsored program at the University of Tennessee. Projects include the feasibility of using neural networks for the following tasks: (1) diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants, (2) detection of the change of mode of operation of the plant, (3) validating signals coming from detectors, (4) review of ''noise'' data from TVA's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant, and (5) examination of the NRC's database of ''Letter Event Reports'' for correlation of sequences of events in the reported incidents. Each of these projects and its status are described briefly in this paper. This broad based program has as its objective the definition of the state-of-the-art in using neural networks to enhance the performance of commercial nuclear power plants

  5. Use of the Safety Monitor in operational decision-making at a nuclear generating facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Shan H.; Hook, Thomas G.; Lee, Roger J.

    1998-01-01

    The utilization of Safety Monitor at a nuclear generating facility in 1994 revolutionized the way US nuclear power plants manage configuration risks. At Southern California Edison (SCE) Company's San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, it transformed probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) from a retrospective tool for understanding past risk into a prospective tool for controlling future risk. Since that time, many other nuclear utilities have taken aggressive steps in using PRA better to understand and manage risks associated with plant operation and maintenance. These utilities have employed a variety of methods ranging from systems similar to San Onofre's Safety Monitor to systems dramatically different in both technology and philosophy. In the development and use of its Safety Monitor, SCE has been guided by two philosophical goals: (1) maximize the objectivity of PRA-informed decision-making relative to managing configuration risks, and (2) ensure that risks are managed conservatively

  6. Decision support systems in nuclear emergencies: A scenario-based comparison of domestic and reference tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamanu, D.; Slavnicu, S. D.; Slavnicu, E.; Vamanu, B.

    2004-01-01

    The article reports selective results of a comparison between RODOS - an emerging decision support system for the management of nuclear emergencies in Europe developed by an international research consortium under EEC aegis, and a resident software package developed and maintained for similar purposes at IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Reproducible similarity patterns obtained in the output data distributions provide for simple normalising procedures that may ensure convergent radiological assessments. When properly consolidated on a sufficient scenario casuistry, such procedures could lend a certain resilience to domestic decision support tools over the interim lead time required by the full implementation of RODOS, or other major league, internationally accepted reference systems. (authors)

  7. Design of nuclear emergency decision-making support system based on the results of radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiyan; Zhang Lijun; Huang Weiqi; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    For nuclear emergency decision-making support system based on the results of radiation monitoring, its main assignment is receiving radiation monitoring data and analyzing them, to accomplish some works such as environment influence evaluation, dose assessment for emergency responder, decision-making analyzing and effectiveness evaluation for emergency actions, etc.. This system is made up of server, communication terminal, data-analyzing terminal, GPRS modules, printer, and so on. The whole system make of a LAN. The system's software is made up of six subsystems: data-analyzing subsystem, reporting subsystem, GIS subsystem, communication subsystem, user-managing subsystem and data-base. (authors)

  8. Decision making under risk in the case of nuclear power system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, M.; Szakats, A.; Ursu, I.

    1981-01-01

    The theory of risk preference as applied to decision making in the case of a nuclear power system consisting of PHWRs and PWRs integrated with LMFBRs, is examined. An econometric model of the system offers the cost price of annual energy generated by the system at the end of a given time interval for every possible state of any of nine development alternatives. Optimal development alternatives of the nuclear system in three cases: risk-preference, risk-indifference and risk-aversion are obtained and the solution in the last case is discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  9. A methodology for supporting decisions on the establishment of protective measures after severe nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Kollas, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate the use of a methology supporting decisions on protective measures following severe nuclear accidents. A multicriteria decision analysis approach is recommended where value tradeoffs are postponed until the very last stage of the decision process. Use of efficient frontiers is made to exclude all technically inferior solutions and present the decision maker with all nondominated solutions. A choice among these solutions implies a value trade-off among the multiple criteria. An interactive computer packge has been developed where the decision maker can choose a point on the efficient frontier in the consequence space and immediately see the alternative in the decision space resulting in the chosen consequences. The methodology is demonstrated through an application on the choice among possible protective measures in contaminated areas of the former USSR after the Chernobyl accident. Two distinct cases are considered: First a decision is to be made only on the basis of the level of soil contamination with Cs-137 and the total cost of the chosen protective policy; Next the decision is based on the geographic dimension of the contamination ant the total cost. Three alternative countermeasure actions are considered for population segments living on soil contaminated at a certain level or in a specific geographic region: (a) relocation of the population; (b) improvement of the living conditions; and, (c) no countermeasures at all. This is final deliverable of the CEC-CIS Joint Study Project 2, Task 5: Decision-Aiding-System for Establishing Intervention Levels, performed under Contracts COSU-CT91-0007 and COSU-CT92-0021 with the Commission of European Communities through CEPN

  10. The building of strategic information service in nuclear field facing to decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yong; Xue Enjie; Yuan Huibin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the structure of strategic information service system in nuclear field for decision making supporting. Methods: Investigating and studying the strategic information systems at different levels-domestic and overseas, regional and national, governmental and industrial as well as information departmental, putting forward the envisioning of strategic information service system in nuclear field. Results: The system is consisted of three parts: data part, data operating part using IT technology and service function part. The system can produce varied information outputs automatically based on rich information resources and IT technology under mathematical models. The information workers can analyze and study special strategic information needed based on this system. Conclusions: The envisioning for the system structure is feasible and it can be realized at present technology level. The service effect will be visible and the supporting to decision making will be weighty. (authors)

  11. Impediments for the application of risk-informed decision making in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, L.

    2001-01-01

    A broad application of risk-informed decision making in the regulation of safety of nuclear power plants is hindered by the lack of quantitative risk and safety standards as well as of precise instruments to demonstrate an appropriate safety. An additional severe problem is associated with the difficulty to harmonize deterministic design requirements and probabilistic safety assessment. The problem is strengthened by the vulnerability of PSA for subjective influences and the potential of misuse. Beside this scepticism the nuclear community is encouraged to intensify the efforts to improve the quality standards for probabilistic safety assessments and their quality assurance. A prerequisite for reliable risk-informed decision making processes is also a well-defined and transparent relationship between deterministic and probabilistic safety approaches. (author)

  12. Judicial problems in connection with preliminary decision and construction design approval in nuclear licensing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, K.

    1977-01-01

    Standardization in nuclear engineering makes two demands on a legal instrument which is to make this standardization possible and which is to promote standardization in the nuclear licensing practice: On the basis of just one licence for a constructional part or a component, its applicability in any number of subsequent facility licensing procedures has to be warranted, and by virtue of its binding effect, standardization has to create a sufficiently big confidence protection with manufacturers, constructioneers and operators to offer sufficiently effective incentives for standardization. The nuclear preliminary decision pursuant to section 7 a of the Atomic Energy Act in the form of the component preliminary decision appears to be unsuitable as a legal instrument for standardization, as the preliminary decision refers exclusively to the construction of a concrete facility. For standardization in reactor engineering, the construction design approval appears to be basically the proper legal instrument on account of its legal structure as well as its economic effect. Its binding effect encouters a limitation with regard to third parties in so far that this limitation could question again the binding effect in a subsequent site-dependent nuclear licence procedure. The legal structure of the extent of the binding effect, which is decisive for the suitability of the construction design approval, lies with the legislator. The following questions have to be regulated: Ought the applicant to have a legal claim on the granting of a construction design approval, or ought it to be at the discretion of the authorities, and secondly, the extent of the binding effect in terms of time on the basis of the fixation of a time limit, or on the basis of the possibility of subsequent conditions to be imposed, or the revocation. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Developments in the JRodos decision support system for off-site nuclear emergency management and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, Claudia [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pro-Science GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany); Raskob, Wolfgang; Trybushnyi, Dmytro [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    JRodos is a non-commercial computer-based decision support system for nuclear accidents. The simulation models for assessing radiological and other consequences and the system features and components allow real-time operation for off-site emergency management as well as the use as a tool for preparing exercises and pre-plannng of countermeasures. There is an active user community that takes influence on further developments.

  14. Biased Decision Making in Realistic Extra-Procedural Nuclear Control Room Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Emil; Kozin, Igor; Maier, Anja

    In normal operations and emergency situations, operators of nuclear control rooms rely on procedures to guide their decision making. However, in emergency situations, where several interacting problems can cause unpredictable adverse effects, these procedures may be insufficient in guiding...... improve safety by creating procedures that bear the risks of these biases in mind, or by specifically aiming to debias the users. Avenues for debiasing through design are discussed....

  15. Staffing decision processes and issues: Case studies of seven US Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melber, B.; Roussel, A.; Baker, K.; Durbin, N.; Hunt, P.; Hauth, J.; Forslund, C.; Terrill, E.; Gore, B.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this report is to identify how decisions are made regarding staffing levels and positions for a sample of U.S. nuclear power plants. In this report, a framework is provided for understanding the major forces driving staffing and the implications of staffing decisions for plant safety. The focus of this report is on driving forces that have led to changes in staffing levels and to the establishment of new positions between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Processes used at utilities and nuclear power plants to make and implement these staffing decisions are also discussed in the report. While general trends affecting the plant as a whole are presented, the major emphasis of this report is on staffing changes and practices in the operations department, including the operations shift crew. The findings in this report are based on interviews conducted at seven nuclear power plants and their parent utilities. A discussion of the key findings is followed by a summary of the implications of staffing issues for plant safety

  16. An extended value-impact approach for nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an extended value-impact methodology with aids decision makers in ranking various alternative actions for reducing the risk associated with nuclear power reactors. It extends the state-of-the-art value-impact methodology by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a formalized decision making tool for ranking alternatives based on judgement. The AHP reduces some of the limitations present in current value-impact work, such as the inability to include subjective factors in a structured approach, as well as controversial questions such as the importance of onsite versus offsite accident costs averted, uncertainty, and impact of public opinion. In the paper, the method is applied to include a value-impact study of the implementation of either a vented-containment system or an alternative decay heat removal system as a means for reducing risk at the Grand Gulf nuclear power plant. The results of this analysis show that the method provides considerable insight to the solution of topics of interest in the decision making area of nuclear power risk management. (orig.)

  17. Proposals on the establishment of the decision support systems for nuclear emergency management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jingyuan; Wang Xingyu; Xue Dazhi; Shi Zhongqi; Xi Shuren; Cao Jianzhu

    2003-01-01

    As an important part of Chinese three-level nuclear emergency management system, decision support/accident consequence assessment systems have primarily been established at national, provincial and licensee levels. Valuable experience has been accumulated in the development, operation and maintenance of these systems. At the same time, more and more attention has been paid to their performance regarding to accurate judgment and forecast as well as the application of the information provided by them in a decision-making in the event of an accident. This paper briefly presents current status of the development and application of the systems in China. Then it discusses the need to establish a comprehensive network of decision support/accident consequence assessment systems based on the current systems built up at national, provincial and licensee levels. Finally, the way by which this ultimate goal can be achieved is proposed in this paper

  18. Development of an investment decision tool for aged nuclear power plants under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Nagano, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear power generating stock in Japan, which provides 30% or more of the nationwide electricity supply in recent years, is heading into the era of plant aging as those units over 40 years of operation emerge in 2010 and onward. Under accumulating uncertainties surrounding investment decisions, one of the key questions is how best to manage the existing capacity by choosing a wisest option among dismantling, refurbishment, and replacement. This report attempts to develop a methodology to analyze investment decision on aged nuclear units based on real-option analysis, and then presents illustrative simulation runs to demonstrate functions of the numerical models. Major findings are summarized as follows: a) When compared with the conventional net present value (NPV) method, the proposed model is capable to deal with uncertainty explicitly by taking volatility in the formula. Also, for the replacement option, one can choose optimal timings of the dismantling the new plant independently. b) As the profitability increases, the model suggests different investment option as optimal, starting from dismantling to replacement, further to refurbishment, and again to replacement as the most basic pattern. Additionally, where two of the strategies have similar values, postponement of both decisions can be optimal. Through these exercises, the proposed methodology proved itself capable for raising valuable implications to investment decisions in managing the production fleet. (author)

  19. Decision-making guide for management of agriculture in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourrie, Laetitia; Grosjean, Francois; Adam, Didier; Pretet, Caroline; Michel, Aurelie; Fostier, Bernard; Bertrand, Sophie; Cessac, Bruno; Reales, Nicolas IRSN; Aubert, Claude

    2007-05-01

    For several years, agricultural and nuclear professionals in France have been working on how to manage the agricultural situation in the event of a nuclear accident. This work resulted in measures at both the national (Aube nuclear safety exercises in 2003, INEX3 in 2005) and international levels (EURATOM Programmes). Following on from the European FARMING (FP5) and EURANOS (FP6) works, ACTA', IRSN and six agricultural technical institutes which are specialized in agricultural production and processing network (arable crop [especially cereals, maize, pulses, potatoes and forage crops], fruits and vegetables, vine and wine, livestock farming [cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry]), created a resource adapted to the French context: the Decision-aiding Tool for the Management of Agriculture in case of a Nuclear Accident. Devised for the Ministry of Agriculture services supporting state officials in a radiation emergency, this manual focuses on the early phase following the accident when the state of emergency would make discussion on countermeasures with a large stakeholder panel impossible. Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and the French Nuclear Safety Authority, this project increased knowledge of post-accident management strategies and made an important contribution to the national think tank set up within the framework of the French Steering Committee for managing the post-event phase of a nuclear accident (CODIRPA). This article describes how the manual evolved throughout the project and the development of new resources

  20. Decision-making guide for management of agriculture in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reales, N.; Fourrie, L.; Quinio, C.; Grastilleur, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    For several years, agricultural and nuclear professionals in France have been working on how to manage the agricultural situation in the event of a nuclear accident. This work resulted in measures at both the national (Aube nuclear safety exercises in 2003, INEX3 in 2005) and international levels (EURATOM Programmes). Following on from the European FARMING (FP5) and EURANOS (FP6) works, ACTA', IRSN and six agricultural technical institutes which are specialized in agricultural production and processing network (arable crop [especially cereals, maize, pulses, potatoes and forage crops], fruits and vegetables, vine and wine, livestock farming [cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry]), created a resource adapted to the French context: the Decision-aiding Tool for the Management of Agriculture in case of a Nuclear Accident. Devised for the Ministry of Agriculture services supporting state officials in a radiation emergency, this manual focuses on the early phase following the accident when the state of emergency would make discussion on countermeasures with a large stakeholder panel impossible. Supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and the French Nuclear Safety Authority, this project increased knowledge of post-accident management strategies and made an important contribution to the national think tank set up within the framework of the French Steering Committee for managing the post-event phase of a nuclear accident (CODIRPA). This article describes how the manual evolved throughout the project and the development of new resources. (authors)

  1. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have...

  2. Nuclear proliferation in the Third World: an analysis of decision making in Indiana and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdaia, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The causes of nuclear proliferation in the Third World are analyzed by examining the motives and forces that went into the nuclear decisions of India and Pakistan. A comprehensive framework is used that consists of five levels of analysis: international, societal, governmental, bureaucratic, and individual factors. The study examines how various potential motives that might impel a nation to acquire nuclear weapons operated through the different levels of analysis. It is concluded that the security motive was the primary determinant in each case as opposed to other motives such as desire for international status or economic considerations. However, security motives were joined by other values and constraints. Regional conflict combined with the lack of a superpower guarantee of security to persuade both countries to pursue nuclear weapons. Such domestic factors as the type of political systems, public opinion, and mass media seemed to play a very limited role in the decisions, although a larger role in India than in Pakistan. Finally, strong individual leadership was a relatively powerful determinant of policy in both countries

  3. Design of the decision aiding system for the control of the research nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adda, F.; Allek, M.; Larbes, C.

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent and decision aiding systems as support to operators are becoming increasingly a necessity in nuclear installations and in nuclear reactors in particular, specially after the Tree Mile Island. Development of new technologies based on linguistic approaches such as fuzzy logic has given rise to much interest during the last years. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) has many advantage compared to conventional controllers using classical techniques. The aim of the present work is to use a fuzzy logic controller in parallel to actual semi-automatic controller in order to supervise in real time the operation of the research nuclear reactor. The principal of this controller is based on rules which are established previous from experiment using the semi-automatic controller and from the knowledge of the operators. (authors)

  4. Economics of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.

    1997-01-01

    On the sites of Tihange and Doel in Belgium, a total of seven nuclear generating units with an aggregate installed power of 5807 MWe are operated. Construction of another unit at Doel was postponed indefinitely in 1988 after the Chernobyl accident. Electrabel holds a 25% interest in the Chooz B-1 and B-2 nuclear generating units under construction in France near the Belgian border. In terms of gross installed nuclear generating capacity worldwide, Belgium holds twelfth place; when ranked according to the contribution to public electricity supply, the country holds third place with a 57% share. Before decisions are taken about future nuclear power plants, above all the fuel costs of gas-fired cogeneration plants and the capital costs of nuclear power plants must be weighed. Current evaluation of all costs shows the use of nuclear power for electricity generation to be ten percent more expensive than that of natural gas. However, those responsible in the power supply industry feel that this short-term competitive situation is only one factor out of many others, such as safety issues, diversification in sourcing and deliveries, climatic influences, and employment. The development and construction of advanced reactors will result in the desired cost reduction and lead to a new era of nuclear power, also in Europe. (orig.) [de

  5. The attitudes of Belgian adolescents towards peers with disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossaert, Goele; Colpin, Hilde; Pijl, Sip Jan; Petry, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Belgian adolescents' attitudes towards peers with disabilities and to explore factors associated with these attitudes. Based on the theory of persuasive communication, this study focused on receiver variables (the "whom"), characteristics of students with disabilities

  6. The Health Risks of Belgian Illicit Indoor Cannabis Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Cuypers, Eva; Bonneure, Arne-Jan; Gotink, Joachim; Stassen, Mirna; Tytgat, Jan; Van Damme, Patrick

    2018-04-10

    We assessed the prevalence of potential health hazards to intervention staff and cannabis growers in Belgian indoor cannabis plantations. Surface mold swab samples were taken at 16 Belgian indoor plantations contained mostly Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. However, their precise health impact on intervention staff and illicit growers is unclear as no molds spore concentrations were measured. Atmospheric gas monitoring in the studied cannabis plantations did not reveal dangerous toxic substances. Health symptoms were reported by 60% of 221 surveyed police, but could not be linked to specific plantation characteristics. We conclude that Belgian indoor cannabis plantations pose a potential health threat to growers and intervention staff. AS there are currently no clear safety guidelines for seizure and dismantling of Belgian indoor cannabis plantations, we recommend first responders to follow strict safety rules when entering the growth rooms, which include wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Analyzing the decision making process of certifying digital control systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yih, Swu; Fan, Chin-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have performed basic research in analyzing certification process and developed a regulatory decision making model for nuclear digital control system certification. The model views certification as an evidence–confidence conversion process. ► We have applied this model to analyze previous nuclear digital I and C certification experiences and obtained valuable insights. ► Furthermore, a prototype of a computer-aided licensing support system based on the model has been developed to enhance regulatory review efficiency. - Abstract: Safety-critical computing systems need regulators’ approval before operation. Such a permit issue process is called “certification”. Digital instrumentation and Control (I and C) certification in the nuclear domain has always been problematic and lengthy. Thus, the certification efficiency has always been a crucial concern to the applicant whose business depends on the regulatory decision. However, to our knowledge, there is little basic research on this topic. This study presents a Regulatory Decision-Making Model aiming at analyzing the characteristics and efficiency influence factors in a generic certification process. This model is developed from a dynamic operational perspective by viewing the certification process as an evidence–confidence conversion process. The proposed model is then applied to previous nuclear digital I and C certification experiences to successfully explain why some cases were successful and some were troublesome. Lessons learned from these cases provide invaluable insights regarding to the regulatory review activity. Furthermore, to utilize the insights obtained from the model, a prototype of a computer-aided licensing support system has been developed to speed up review evidence preparation and manipulation; thus, regulatory review efficiency can be further improved.

  8. Risk perception and strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system

  9. Decision support systems in nuclear emergencies: harmonizing domestic and reference tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamanu, D.; Mateescu, Gh.; Berinde, A.; Slavnicu, D.; Acasandrei, V.; Slavnicu, E.

    2001-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of securing the compatibility and inter-operability of computer packages designed to perform as decision support tools in the management of radiological emergencies, over the transition times towards the implementation and uniform acceptance and uniform acceptance of internationally-shared reference tools such as the European Union's RODOS (Real Time On-Line Decision Support System for Off-Site Nuclear Emergencies in Europe). One submits that a harmonization between the currently operational, domestic, and the reference tool can be contemplated, based on extensive code comparison and benchmarking. A case in point is presented, paralleling selected RODOS applications on simulated abnormal nuclear events, and the concurrent application of a resident software package, NOTEPAD, developed to emulate RODOS-wise function at IFIH-HH Bucharest. The reproducible similarity may make domestic decision support system (DSS) facilities useful as both practical tools and factors promoting the emergency preparedness awareness, during the interim time laps till the full development and deployment of RODOS as a reference DSS in Europe. (authors)

  10. Public participation in the decision making process in the nuclear field in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierantoni, F.

    1993-01-01

    In Italy, the decision making process to localize, construct and operate electronuclear power stations have been restructured and such a process today must follow the rules enacted by three laws: the Act of 2 August 1975 about the procedures for choosing the site; the Act of 8 July 1986 about the rules for the environmental impact evaluation, the so-called VIA which in italian means GO; the Act of 10 August 1988 which states that the construction of nuclear waste processing plants and nuclear waste storage plants must pass the Environment Impact Evaluation. In Italy there are three levels of Local government,'Regioni', 'Provincie' and 'Comuni', that are free to compete among themselves and with the Central government, so that it is very sticky to implement any decision. The Public Inquiry is a strongly innovative instrument. The Environmental Impact Evaluation procedure guarantees the transparency of the decision making process and supplies a real communication channel between the public opinion and the authorities. In the Public Inquiry any association, organization, union or group of people have the right to verify any part of the project under the Environmental Impact Evaluation and to express their consideration and observation on the subject

  11. Nuclear weapons decision-making; an application of organization theory to the mini-nuke case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problem of constructing and developing normative theory responsive to the need for improving the quality of decision-making in the nuclear weapons policy-making. Against the background of a critical evaluation of various paradigms in the literature (systems analysis and opposed-systems designed, the bureaucratic politics model, and the cybernetic theory of decision) an attempt is made to design an alternative analytic framework based on the writings of numerous organization theorists such as Herbert Simon and Kenneth Arrow. The framework is applied to the case of mini-nukes, i.e., proposals in the mid-1970s to develop and deploy tens of thousands of very low-yield (sub-kiloton), miniaturized fission weapons in NATO. Heuristic case study identifies the type of study undertaken in the dissertation in contrast to the more familiar paradigmatic studies identified, for example, with the Harvard Weapons Project. Application of the analytic framework developed in the dissertation of the mini-nuke case resulted in an empirical understanding of why decision making concerning tactical nuclear weapons has been such a complex task and why force modernization issues in particular have been so controversial and lacking in policy resolution

  12. Intellectual decision-making system in the context of potentially dangerous nuclear power facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilov Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with intelligent operation decision support system under condition of potentially hazardous nuclear facilities. The proposed system is referred to the class of advising systems and does not make final decisions in case of deviations of parameters to be analyzed, but generates general ways to solve an encountered problem and issues a set of recommendations for the plant personnel. In the article a fuzzy logic tool is used as mathematic tool. Lessons learnt from operation of nuclear facilities demonstrate that existing critical components (parts, areas, welding joints are subject to increased failure under conditions of high operational loads, including beyond design loads and negative environmental impact. Usually in that situation there is probability of equipment integrity failure, when the unit is at power, with severe defect downing. For instance, the coolant leak and potential development of initial penetration defect to critical dimensions. In other words, in fact, the final observable result is always one – formation and development of operational crack which jeopardizes design integrity of the component and, accordingly, seriously compromises the nuclear power unit operation. The proposed situational model is linked with real knowledge data base where generated situational pairs are stored. The expert system is used for knowledge data base formation. Actually the proposed system consists of two independent fuzzy systems. From mathematical tool point of view, the advantage of such systems combination is lack of defuzzification unit in the first system and fuzzification unit in the second one.

  13. A logic flowgraph-based concept for decision support and management of nuclear plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The architecture of an automated decision support system for nuclear plant operators is presented and discussed. The system is based on the use of 'logic flowgraph' process models and is designed in a hierarchical fashion. Its functionality spans from 'function oriented' plant status and alternative success path information displayed to the plant operators at its higher access levels to 'process oriented' diagnostic and recovery information deduced and displayed at its lowest. The design basis for this architecture is the 'defense in depth' plant safety concept. The decision support system goal is to provide plant operators, in the presence of an unforeseen transient, with the best and safest alternative between plant stabilization after shutdown and recovery of normal operation based on early diagnosis. Examples of the system capability to interpret and diagnose abnormal plant conditions and of the information that it can supply to the operators at its three access levels are presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Decision support system for the dismantling of building in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiher, M.

    2009-01-01

    In case of decommissioning and dismantling the complex structure of nuclear facilities requires a thorough selection of dismantling methods and a detailed operations planning. The decision for an appropriate technology with respect to economic, environmental and radiation protection aspects has to take into account that the different procedural steps are coordinated. Component specific boundary conditions and process parameters have to be considered. A data base was established that includes the process parameters for different dismantling methodologies. The next step is the determination of specific requirements of plant operators and engineers in order to identify the tasks in the frame of the dismantling process. The authors describes the decision support algorithm that allows to enhance the dismantling efficiency.

  15. New decisions on the nonpayment of electric power from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, W.

    1981-01-01

    The author documents some decisions on the nonpayment of electricity from nuclear power plants that are difficult to be found out elsewhere, and discusses their tendencies. There are decisions of the Amtsgericht (District Court) Gelsenkirchen-Buer of the 30th of March, 1981-7C758/80, the Landgericht (Provincial Court) Stuttgart of the 18th of December, 1980-100164/80, the Amtsgericht Hamburg of the 14th of November, 1979-9C774/79, the Amtsgericht Marburg of the 27th of June, 1980-10C197/80 and the Landgericht Koeln of the 2nd of April, 1981-1S32/81. (HSCH) [de

  16. Decision Tree and Survey Development for Support in Agricultural Sampling Strategies during Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Amelia Lee Zhi; Dercon, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    In the event of a severe nuclear or radiological accident, the release of radionuclides results in contamination of land surfaces affecting agricultural and food resources. Speedy accumulation of information and guidance on decision making is essential in enhancing the ability of stakeholders to strategize for immediate countermeasure strategies. Support tools such as decision trees and sampling protocols allow for swift response by governmental bodies and assist in proper management of the situation. While such tools exist, they focus mainly on protecting public well-being and not food safety management strategies. Consideration of the latter is necessary as it has long-term implications especially to agriculturally dependent Member States. However, it is a research gap that remains to be filled.

  17. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when applied

  18. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when

  19. Noneconomic factors influencing scrap metal disposition decisions at DOE and NRC-licensed nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewen, M.D.; Robinson, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing radiation protection standards for scrap metal, which will establish criteria for the unconditional clearance of scrap from nuclear facilities. In support of this effort, Industrial Economics, Incorporated is assessing the costs and benefits attributable to the rulemaking. The first step in this analysis is to develop an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing scrap disposition decisions, so that one can predict current and future practices under existing requirements and compare them to the potential effects of EPA`s rulemaking. These baseline practices are difficult to predict due to a variety of factors. First, because decommissioning activities are just beginning at many sites, current practices do not necessarily provide an accurate indicator of how these practices may evolve as site managers gain experience with related decisions. Second, a number of different regulations and policies apply to these decisions, and the interactive effects of these requirements can be difficult to predict. Third, factors other than regulatory constraints and costs may have a significant effect on related decisions, such as concerns about public perceptions. In general, research suggests that these factors tend to discourage the unconditional clearance of scrap metal.

  20. The decision-making process and EIA in connection with the siting of nuclear waste facilities - a municipal perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Torsten [Oskarshamn Municipality (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Past experiences from siting of nuclear facilities at Oskarshamn, Sweden are reviewed. This siting were carried out in a traditional manner for that time, i e it was decided to locate the facility at a particular site, then this decision was made public, and finally the decision was defended. New plans now exists for locating nuclear waste facilities to Oskarshamn, and this contribution discusses what the local communities demand from the EIA and EIS processes for producing a meaningful basis for decision-making. 9 refs.

  1. Uncertainty, causality and decision: The case of social risks and nuclear risk in particular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahidji, R.

    2012-01-01

    Probability and causality are two indispensable tools for addressing situations of social risk. Causal relations are the foundation for building risk assessment models and identifying risk prevention, mitigation and compensation measures. Probability enables us to quantify risk assessments and to calibrate intervention measures. It therefore seems not only natural, but also necessary to make the role of causality and probability explicit in the definition of decision problems in situations of social risk. Such is the aim of this thesis.By reviewing the terminology of risk and the logic of public interventions in various fields of social risk, we gain a better understanding of the notion and of the issues that one faces when trying to model it. We further elaborate our analysis in the case of nuclear safety, examining in detail how methods and policies have been developed in this field and how they have evolved through time. This leads to a number of observations concerning risk and safety assessments.Generalising the concept of intervention in a Bayesian network allows us to develop a variety of causal Bayesian networks adapted to our needs. In this framework, we propose a definition of risk which seems to be relevant for a broad range of issues. We then offer simple applications of our model to specific aspects of the Fukushima accident and other nuclear safety problems. In addition to specific lessons, the analysis leads to the conclusion that a systematic approach for identifying uncertainties is needed in this area. When applied to decision theory, our tool evolves into a dynamic decision model in which acts cause consequences and are causally interconnected. The model provides a causal interpretation of Savage's conceptual framework, solves some of its paradoxes and clarifies certain aspects. It leads us to considering uncertainty with regard to a problem's causal structure as the source of ambiguity in decision-making, an interpretation which corresponds to a

  2. A nuclear decision support system built with a real-time process control AI shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Managing large nuclear power plants is generally approached by creating separate management teams to handle major functional areas such as operations, maintenance, training and engineering. While this approach facilitates a general understanding of the specific functions and problem areas of a nuclear plant, such broad definitions diminish the integration of information needed to understand the overall problem domain. One solution utilizes a decision support system that integrates a real-time process control AI shell, relational database manager, graphic depiction of the real-time events, and distributed knowledge bases that reside within each of the departments. The goal is to create a living model between plant components, procedures, tech specs, specific functions, maintenance and training requirements. This paper describes such a model, called Engineering Model and Simulation System (EMASS)

  3. Financial protection against nuclear hazards: implications of the Supreme Court's decision in Silkwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockett, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The study evaluates the operation of the Price-Anderson Act in the light of 10 years of experience and the changes that have occurred during the period in the law and regulations and in the nuclear and insurance industries. It provides an independent analysis of various proposals to extend or amend the Act prior to its 1987 expiration. The five chapters deal with historical background and scope, financial protection under the Act, financial protection without the Act, legislative goals and issues, and alternative proposals. The report concludes that no scheme can fully satisfy all of the criteria, bu a careful balancing will depend upon congressional decision on the extent to which federal policy should encourage continued participation by private industry in the nuclear field. Selected footnotes follow each chapter

  4. Emergency environmental monitoring for the decision-aiding on public protective actions during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Choi, Geun Sik; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo

    2005-01-01

    In a nuclear emergency, protective actions for the public should be taken in time. It is internationally proposed that Generic Intervention Levels (GILs) and generic action levels, determined based on cost-benefit analyses, be used as the decision criteria for protective actions. Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) are directly or easily measurable quantities corresponding to these generic levels. To assess the necessity of protective actions in a nuclear emergency, it is important that the environmental monitoring data required for applying and revising OILs should be promptly produced. It is discussed what and how to do for this task in the course of the emergency response. For an emergency environmental monitoring to be performed effectively, a through preparedness has to be made including maintenance of the organization and equipments, establishment of various procedure manuals, development of a supporting computer system and periodical training and exercises. It is pointed out that Korean legal provisions concerning GILs and OILs need to be amended or newly established

  5. Decision of December 11, 1981 - 7 B 22/81 (Wyhl nuclear power station)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Federal Administrative Court has rejected a complaint as in admissable which was directed against non-admission of appeal. After the suit against first partial licensing for the Whyl nuclear power plant had been rejected in the second instance also - this decision was based on the nuclear installations regulations, section 3, sub-section 1, rule of exclusion of objection - the plaintiff demanded clarification of the usage of the preclusionary ordinance and its constitutionality in regards to its admissability in a situation of advanced court actions. The Federal Administrative Court rejected the fundamental significance of this question, according to section 132, sub-section 2, number 1 of the administrative rules of the court. Based on its legal interpretation of these regulations, the court was unable to arrive at a judgement for an appeal, as of section 2, sub-section 2, number 2 of the nuclear installations regulations, which might have opened avenues for revisions, see administrative rules of court, section 132, sub-section 2, number 2. The Court confirmed that only an action of intention would represent an objection, according to the nuclear installations regulations, section 2, sub-section 2. (GA) [de

  6. An application of the value tree analysis methodology within the integrated risk informed decision making for the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, Mieczysław; Kowal, Karol; Potempski, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    A new framework of integrated risk informed decision making (IRIDM) has been recently developed in order to improve the risk management of the nuclear facilities. IRIDM is a process in which qualitatively different inputs, corresponding to different types of risk, are jointly taken into account. However, the relative importance of the IRIDM inputs and their influence on the decision to be made is difficult to be determined quantitatively. An improvement of this situation can be achieved by application of the Value Tree Analysis (VTA) methods. The aim of this article is to present the VTA methodology in the context of its potential usage in the decision making on nuclear facilities. The benefits of the VTA application within the IRIDM process were identified while making the decision on fuel conversion of the research reactor MARIA. - Highlights: • New approach to risk informed decision making on nuclear facilities was postulated. • Value tree diagram was developed for decision processes on nuclear installations. • An experiment was performed to compare the new approach with the standard one. • Benefits of the new approach were reached in fuel conversion of a research reactor. • The new approach makes the decision making process more transparent and auditable

  7. Mechanical degradation processes: The Belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafaille, J.P.; Hennart, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Design life is merely used in Belgium as a requirement in the 'Design Specification' of some components subjected to known degradation processes, such as stress induced fatigue, embrittlement (irradiation or other), various types of corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal aging (electrical insulation, ...), etc. Design life is in no way directly related to the duration of the plant operation. In that sense design life for the Belgian NPP components includes the values of 20, 30 and 40 years. The oldest plant (20 years design life) has been decommissioned in 1991. The most recent units (40 years design life) have still a good time to go. The intermediate units (30 years design life) started around 1975. Consequently components of these plants need be looked at to determine whether or not deteriorations have occurred. The paper presents the various known mechanical degradation processes and how they affect various components. Emphasis is laid on prevention, mitigation or repair measures that have been or are being taken to avoid that the 'Equipment design life' be the limiting factor in the duration of the plant operation. (author)

  8. Antimicrobial use in Belgian broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, Davy; Dewulf, Jeroen; Smet, Annemieke; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Martel, An; Catry, Boudewijn; Butaye, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2012-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in production animals has become a worldwide concern in the face of rising resistance levels in commensal, pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria. In the years 2007 and 2008 antimicrobial consumption records were collected during two non consecutive production cycles in 32 randomly selected Belgian broiler farms. Antimicrobials were used in 48 of the 64 monitored production cycles, 7 farms did not use any antimicrobials in both production cycles, 2 farms only administered antimicrobials in one of the two production cycles, the other 23 farms applied antimicrobial treatment in both production cycles. For the quantification of antimicrobial drug use, the treatment incidences (TI) based on the defined daily doses (the dose as it should be applied: DDD) and used daily doses (the actual dose applied: UDD) were calculated. A mean antimicrobial treatment incidence per 1000 animals of 131.8 (standard deviation 126.8) animals treated daily with one DDD and 121.4 (SD 106.7) animals treated daily with one UDD was found. The most frequently used compounds were amoxicillin, tylosin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide with a mean TI(UDD) of 37.9, 34.8, and 21.7, respectively. The ratio of the UDD/DDD gives an estimate on correctness of dosing. Tylosin was underdosed in most of the administrations whereas amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide were slightly overdosed in the average flock. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. What next steps in nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    1991-01-01

    Following the political changes in Czechoslovakia in the late 1989, preparation of a new energy policy began in the second half of 1990. The principles of this new policy include an increase in the share of electricity in the energy balance, based on an increase in the contribution of nuclear power plants. This new nuclear policy should be oriented to the use of state-of-the-art technologies from world's foremost manufacturers such as Framatome, Siemens-KWU, ABB - Combustion Engineering, Mitsubishi and Westinghouse. In February 1991, companies associated in a consortium, viz. the Czech Power Company, the Slovak Power Company, the Czechoslovak Uranium Industry and Energoprojekt, sent the world manufacturers a preliminary invitation of tenders. The bids are now being evaluated by the Belgian company Belgatom and by the Czechoslovak company Energoprojekt. The completion of the feasibility study is conditional on the decision concerning the siting of a new nuclear power plant. (Z.S.). 1 tab

  10. Review of decision methodologies for evaluating regulatory actions affecting public health and safety. [Nuclear industry site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; McDonald, C.L.; Schilling, A.H.

    1976-12-01

    This report examines several aspects of the problems and choices facing the governmental decision maker who must take regulatory actions with multiple decision objectives and attributes. Particular attention is given to the problems facing the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and to the decision attribute of chief concern to NRC, the protection of human health and safety, with emphasis on nuclear power plants. The study was undertaken to provide background information for NRC to use in refining its process of value/impact assessment of proposed regulatory actions. The principal conclusion is that approaches to rationally consider the value and impact of proposed regulatory actions are available. These approaches can potentially improve the decision-making process and enable the agency to better explain and defend its decisions. They also permit consistent examination of the impacts, effects of uncertainty and sensitivity to various assumptions of the alternatives being considered. Finally, these approaches can help to assure that affected parties are heard and that technical information is used appropriately and to the extent possible. The principal aspects of the regulatory decision problem covered in the report are: the legal setting for regulatory decisions which affect human health and safety, elements of the decision-making process, conceptual approaches to decision making, current approaches to decision making in several Federal agencies, and the determination of acceptable risk levels.

  11. Development and application of a decision methodology for the planning of nuclear research and development in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    The thesis adapts two formal decision methodologies for the planning and development of a Nuclear Research Center for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The methodologies are useful for the selection of alternative nuclear energy strategies. Multiattribute utility theory (MUT) and fuzzy set theory (FST) are selected to accommodate for decision makers' preferences and quick decision. MUT is employed to evaluate four appropriate research center facilities to determine the optimal choice therefrom in order to meet the needs of the proposed center. FST is used to handle site selection decision for the center. Procurement and siting decisions in Saudi Arabia for equipment are based on the demonstrated performance of operating units. Certain procedures discussed in detail in the dissertation reflect this modus operandi. 106 refs

  12. Decision in principle of 10 November 1983 on the objectives to be observed in carrying out research, surveys and planning in the field of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Council of State of Finland, in order to have the necessary resources to implement the nuclear waste management measures required from the viewpoint of safety, adopted this Decision in principle on nuclear waste management. The Decision provides for three main objectives to be achieved in the areas of spent fuel management, reactor waste management and nuclear power plant decommissioning. (NEA) [fr

  13. SCK-CEN 2006 barometer on risk perception of the Belgian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with 2000, the expert group Society and Policy Support carries out research on various aspects of risk governance. Measuring several risk perception items at regular intervals with the Belgian population is an important part of this research. SCK-CEN has organised a first risk perception barometer in 2002 and a second one in 2006. The 2006 barometer is based on 1063 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, with a duration of approximately 35 minutes. The large scale of the survey ensures that general trends can be detected and allows specific and detailed analysis on subgroups of the population. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain a sample representative for the Belgian 18+ population (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), several questions were included assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. A series of questions on risk perception, confidence in authorities and specific nuclear topics were repeated in 2006 and constitute a fixed core, allowing comparison over time in Belgium, as well as with the results from the IRSN French barometer. In addition, a number of topics such as acceptance of legal norms and management options for radioactively contaminated milk, energy, nuclear waste and the perception of the Chernobyl accident were covered in detail in the 2006 edition of the SCK-CEN barometer

  14. The worldwide nuclear industry and its markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2000-06-01

    The world nuclear industry has entered a phase of low activity since the beginning of the 90's. The opening of electricity markets to competition, the reserve of part of the public opinion with respect to nuclear energy and the competition of other power production sources explain the lack of dynamism of nuclear markets. In this context of uncertainties, the nuclear sector has started a re-structuration in depth with new strategic trends which will be decisive for the perenniality of the nuclear industry. The front-end of the fuel cycle is disturbed by production over-capacities which lead to strong tensions on prices. The veering of the German and Belgian policies has had strong impacts on the spent fuels reprocessing activity and the reactor construction activity is in decline in Europe and in the US. On the other hand, services are developing with the extension of the service life of nuclear plants and the waste management and dismantling markets are emerging. The main stakes that the occidental nuclear actors have to face today are: improving the competitiveness of nuclear industry, mastering the management of long-living radioactive wastes, proving the safeness of nuclear power, countering the arrival of Asian competitors. In front of these stakes, the nuclear actors have to take initiatives such as: concentration, vertical integration, technological innovation, communication, diversification etc.. This study examines the overall segments of the world nuclear industry. It comprises also a behaviour and strategy analysis of 13 major actors of this sector. (J.S.)

  15. Accidental release of iodine 131 by the IRE of the Fleurus site: return on experience by the Belgian safety authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Sonck, M.; Degueldre, D.

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the activities of the IRE, the Belgian National Institute of Radio-elements, i.e. the production of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, this report describes the process and chemical reaction which caused an accidental release of iodine 131. It analyzes the causes of this incident, and how the incident has been managed by the Belgian safety authority. It discusses the first assessment of radiological consequences, describes how the incident has been managed at the federal level, and how population and media have been informed. It discusses the actual radiological consequences through measurements performed on grass and vegetables (graphs and maps indicate contamination levels and contaminated areas), and through the assessment of exposure of adults and children by different ways. Lessons learned are then discussed

  16. Harnessing monitoring measurements in urban environments for decision making after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.C.; Proehl, G.

    2007-01-01

    This article gives an overview on the conceptual design of the Inhabited Areas Monitoring Module IA MM which will be introduced into European decision support systems for nuclear emergencies. It will improve the use of monitoring data of radioactive contamination in urban environments for decision making. IAMM converts the dated gamma dose rate (GDR) measurements from geo-referenced locations into maps of surface contamination with an enhanced spatial resolution. Depending on the availability of the monitoring data, IAMM relies on two modes of operation. If there are only a few measurements, these are taken to improve the maps from a deposition model using data assimilation. If the number of measurements is sufficient to apply spatial interpolation IAMM will rely entirely on monitoring data. Suitable geo-referenced data points will be interpreted by IAMM with respect to their detector environment using the concept of location factors. The endpoints of IAMM can be used directly for decision making or dose calculations with either simple dose models or the more refined EuRopean Model for INhabited areas (ERMIN). (orig.)

  17. Euthanasia embedded in palliative care. Responses to essentialistic criticisms of the Belgian model of integral end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Jan L; Raus, Kasper

    2017-08-01

    The Belgian model of 'integral' end-of-life care consists of universal access to palliative care (PC) and legally regulated euthanasia. As a first worldwide, the Flemish PC organisation has embedded euthanasia in its practice. However, some critics have declared the Belgian-model concepts of 'integral PC' and 'palliative futility' to fundamentally contradict the essence of PC. This article analyses the various essentialistic arguments for the incompatibility of euthanasia and PC. The empirical evidence from the euthanasia-permissive Benelux countries shows that since legalisation, carefulness (of decision making) at the end of life has improved and there have been no significant adverse 'slippery slope' effects. It is problematic that some critics disregard the empirical evidence as epistemologically irrelevant in a normative ethical debate. Next, rejecting euthanasia because its prevention was a founding principle of PC ignores historical developments. Further, critics' ethical positions depart from the PC tenet of patient centeredness by prioritising caregivers' values over patients' values. Also, many critics' canonical adherence to the WHO definition of PC, which has intention as the ethical criterion is objectionable. A rejection of the Belgian model on doctrinal grounds also has nefarious practical consequences such as the marginalisation of PC in euthanasia-permissive countries, the continuation of clandestine practices and problematic palliative sedation until death. In conclusion, major flaws of essentialistic arguments against the Belgian model include the disregard of empirical evidence, appeals to canonical and questionable definitions, prioritisation of caregiver perspectives over those of patients and rejection of a plurality of respectable views on decision making at the end of life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Development of a multi-criteria decision tool for remediation after a nuclear or radiological accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Christiano de; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Ferreira, Nadya M.P.D., E-mail: christiano_luca@hotmail.com, E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: nadya@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The review of accidents involving Nuclear Power Plants or facilities that use or process radioactive sources have raised issues related to the decision-making processes and to the procedures used to reestablish the normal living conditions in the affected areas. Due to the large complexity of the decision processes after accidents, a multi-criteria approach has been recommended to support the choice among the several procedures that may improve the environmental conditions. As part of the process of developing a multi-criteria decision support tool, a questionnaire was created to be fulfilled by experts to derive the relevance of the technical criteria to be considered in the model. At this stage, only the technical criteria related to radiation protection of the public will be focused; legal aspects, costs and public opinion, although relevant in the decision-making process, are beyond the scope of this work. The questionnaire contains 12 questions, each containing 5 degrees of importance. The answers are statically analyzed to generate a multiplicative factor to be included in the multicriteria model. To facilitate the process of distributing the questionnaire to the selected experts and then for a better processing and ordering of the information gathered, a program based on the Hypertext Preprocessor language (PHP) was created; this methodology has been chosen because of its compatibility and security in existing operating systems. The relevance rank showed the long-term dose reduction and the generation of wastes as the most relevant aspects to be considered in selecting remediation strategies for a contaminated area. (author)

  19. Development of a multi-criteria decision tool for remediation after a nuclear or radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Christiano de; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Ferreira, Nadya M.P.D.

    2013-01-01

    The review of accidents involving Nuclear Power Plants or facilities that use or process radioactive sources have raised issues related to the decision-making processes and to the procedures used to reestablish the normal living conditions in the affected areas. Due to the large complexity of the decision processes after accidents, a multi-criteria approach has been recommended to support the choice among the several procedures that may improve the environmental conditions. As part of the process of developing a multi-criteria decision support tool, a questionnaire was created to be fulfilled by experts to derive the relevance of the technical criteria to be considered in the model. At this stage, only the technical criteria related to radiation protection of the public will be focused; legal aspects, costs and public opinion, although relevant in the decision-making process, are beyond the scope of this work. The questionnaire contains 12 questions, each containing 5 degrees of importance. The answers are statically analyzed to generate a multiplicative factor to be included in the multicriteria model. To facilitate the process of distributing the questionnaire to the selected experts and then for a better processing and ordering of the information gathered, a program based on the Hypertext Preprocessor language (PHP) was created; this methodology has been chosen because of its compatibility and security in existing operating systems. The relevance rank showed the long-term dose reduction and the generation of wastes as the most relevant aspects to be considered in selecting remediation strategies for a contaminated area. (author)

  20. Security and Privacy Improvements for the Belgian eID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Pieter; Lapon, Jorn; de Decker, Bart; Naessens, Vincent; Verslype, Kristof

    The Belgian Electronic Identity Card enables Belgian citizens to prove their identity digitally and to sign electronic documents. At the end of 2009, every Belgian citizen older than 12 years will have such an eID card. In the future, usage of the eID card may be mandatory. However, irresponsible use of the card may cause harm to individuals.

  1. Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, ter T.L.; Kooij, P.J.F.; Tolkamp, H.; Hofman, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments.

  2. Credible decision-making regarding the management of spent nuclear fuel -four key questions concerning the decision-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaaberger, T. [Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The author starts by questioning the need for an EIA, since he sees a common attitude that the EIA is a tool for getting the community to accept the implementation of decisions that have already been made, and not a rational, organized way of achieving a basis for decision-making. A question of decisive importance for the relevancy of an EIA is whether (or not) the decisions already have been made, and the author points at indications which he believes support this view. Finally, arguments for delegating the EIA process to an external body are given.

  3. Credible decision-making regarding the management of spent nuclear fuel -four key questions concerning the decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaberger, T.

    1995-01-01

    The author starts by questioning the need for an EIA, since he sees a common attitude that the EIA is a tool for getting the community to accept the implementation of decisions that have already been made, and not a rational, organized way of achieving a basis for decision-making. A question of decisive importance for the relevancy of an EIA is whether (or not) the decisions already have been made, and the author points at indications which he believes support this view. Finally, arguments for delegating the EIA process to an external body are given

  4. Protection of nuclear power plants against external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinet, P.; Roch, R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the methodology of the safety design of nuclear power plants against external events with particular emphasis of the Belgian Plants. The site analysis and potential hazards evaluation are explained. The different designs incorporating various combinations of reinforced structures and dedicated systems are analysed. The particular lay-out and systems of the Belgian Plants are explained. (author)

  5. Development of a decision support system for off-site emergency management in the early phase of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, D.; Sharma, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Experience gained after the Chernobyl accident clearly demonstrated the importance of improving administrative, organizational and technical emergency management arrangements in India. The more important areas where technical improvements were needed were early warning monitoring, communication networks for the rapid and reliable exchange of radiological and other information and decision support systems for off-site emergency management. A PC based artificial intelligent software has been developed to have a decision support system that can easily implement to manage off-site nuclear emergency and subsequently analyze the off-site consequences of the nuclear accident. A decision support tool, STEPS (source term estimate based on plant status), that provides desired input to the present software was developed. The tool STEPS facilitates meta knowledge of the system. The paper describes the details of the design of the software, functions of various modules, tuning of respective knowledge base and overall its scope in real sense in nuclear emergency preparedness and response

  6. Risk perception & strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system.

  7. A CO2-strategy for BTC [Belgian Development Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, J. [Prospect C and S, Brussels (Belgium); Hanekamp, E. [Partners for Innovation, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    The CO2 footprint is determined the CO2 strategy is developed for the Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). BTC is the Belgian agency for development cooperation, and finances development projects in 23 partner countries. The CO2 footprint covered BTC's activities in 2007 in all their offices worldwide. Footprint and strategy were finalised and adopted by the Executive Board at the end of 2008. Meanwhile, the BTC began with the introduction of the proposed strategy. Partners for Innovation and Prospect were asked to support the introduction of the strategy and to determine the CO2 footprint of 2008.

  8. Piping design and analysis: Comparison between the Belgian applications of French and American rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, P.H.; Geraets, L.H.; Lafaille, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    In the process of a feasibility study of a new nuclear power plant in Belgium, the French and American rules for piping design have been compared. The Belgian method rests on the American nuclear set of rules and uses the ASME code. French rules were initially based on the American rules (1978). Subsequent individual development led to a differentiation of the rules. Presently the mechanical part of the French rules is mainly contained in the RCC-P ('Regles de Conception et de Construction relatives aux Procedes') and the RCC-M ('Regles de Conception et de Construction des Materiels Mecaniques'). This paper compares the piping design rules from a general point of view; examples of applications allow to identify benefits or drawbacks of the use of ASME or RCCM codes. (orig.)

  9. Piping design and analysis: comparison between the Belgian applications of French and American rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoust, Ph.; Geraets, L.H.; Lafaille, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    In the process of a feasibility study of a new nuclear power plant in Belgium, the French and American rules for piping design have been compared. The Belgian method rests on the American nuclear set of rules and uses the ASME code. French rules were initially based on the American rules (1978). Subsequent individual development led to a differentiation of the rules. Presently, the mechanical part of the French rules is mainly contained in the RCCP ('Regles de Conception et de Construction relatives aux Procedes') and the RCCM ('Regles de Conception et de Construction des materiels Mecaniques'). This paper compares the piping design rules from a general point of view; examples of applications allow benefits or drawbacks of the use of ASME or RCCM codes to identified. (author)

  10. A decision support system based on hybrid knowledge approach for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.O.; Chang, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic expert system, HYPOSS (Hybrid Knowledge Based Plant Operation Supporting System), which has been developed to support operators' decision making during the transients of nuclear power plant. HYPOSS adopts the hybrid knowledge approach which combines shallow and deep knowledge to couple the merits of both approaches. In HYPOSS, four types of knowledge are used according to the steps of diagnosis procedure: structural, functional, behavioral and heuristic knowledge. Frames and rules are adopted to represent the various knowledge types. Rule-based deduction and abduction are used for shallow and deep knowledge based reasoning respectively. The event-based operational guidelines are provided to the operator according to the diagnosed results

  11. Role of seismic PRA in seismic safety decisions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Kennedy, R.P.; Sues, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights the important roles that seismic probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) can play in the seismic safety decisions of nuclear power plants. If a seismic PRA has been performed for a plant, its results can be utilized to evaluate the seismic capability beyond the safe shutdown event (SSE). Seismic fragilities of key structures and equipment, fragilities of dominant plant damage states and the frequencies of occurrence of these plant damage states are reviewed to establish the seismic safety of the plant beyond the SSE level. Guidelines for seismic margin reviews and upgrading may be developed by first identifying the generic classes of structures and equipment that have been shown to be dominant risk contributors in the completed seismic PRAs, studying the underlying causes for their contribution and examining why certain other items (e.g., piping) have not proved to be high-risk-contributors

  12. Methods used to seismically upgrade. The safety related components of Belgian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafaille, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Belgian nuclear power amounts to about 6,000 MW, generated by seven plants that started operation as early as 1967. The latest plant started in 1985. Some of these plants were designed with no seismic requirements whatsoever. Even for those that had seismic requirements at the design stage, seismic demand was raised after design had been frozen (late during construction or at the 10 years revision). As a consequence all the plants had to undergo, to a variable extent, a seismic reevaluation and/or backfitting. Civil structures were concerned as well as electro-mechanical equipment and piping systems. The present paper deals with the mechanical aspect of the problem (equipment and piping). In order to minimize hardware modifications, advanced analytical techniques were used throughout the process, starting with the elaboration of a site specific spectrum, and using a full soil-structure interaction in order to get as 'realistic' as possible floor response spectra. In some instances, non linear elasto-plastic time history analysis was performed on piping-systems in order to qualify them without hardware modifications. In other cases a 'Load Coefficient Method' was used. Sometimes stresses or displacements taken from the original stress reports and scaled by comparison of applicable spectra, allowed to assess the seismic validity of the system under investigation. Seismic acceptability of installed active equipment is more difficult to demonstrate, as this is usually done by testing. This problem is a generic issue in the US, identified under the label USI-A-46 (Unresolved Safety Issue). It is treated by. a group of Utilities (SQUG = Seismic Qualification Utilities Group). The Belgian Utility is member of that group since 1985. The application of this program is starting in the US. SQUG methodology has been applied to three Belgian plants starting in 1988 and is now completed. The required fixes are being implemented. Experience gained in the process has been applied

  13. Managing Nuclear Knowledge: a challenge for SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruyssen, M.-L.

    2005-01-01

    All innovation in nuclear science and nuclear technology for either power or non-power applications relies on knowledge. Preserving and enhancing nuclear knowledge accumulated in the past has become a timely subject of strategic importance. In recent years, political, economical and societal trends urged the need for an efficient management of nuclear knowledge. Foremost, the Belgian government has decided to phase-out nuclear power plants. Privatisation and deregulation rules of the energy market in the European Union drives the nuclear industry to compete in the immediate and near term with other sources of electrical energy. This might result in a reduction of work force and budgets allocated to research and development. These two decisions have as a side effect that fewer young people are attracted by studying nuclear science and nuclear engineering, making the issue of the replacement of the aging nuclear workforce even worse. This changing environment requires therefore the pro-active retention and preservation of our comprehensive nuclear knowledge base and the sustainment of our nuclear education and training efforts. SCK-CEN's initiatives concerning preserving and sharing Nuclear Knowledge and sustaining nuclear education and training are discussed

  14. Decision on the Exclusion of Small Quantities of Nuclear Substances outside a Nuclear Installation from the Application of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (This Decision was adopted at the 133. Session of the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held on 3-4 November 2016.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The steering committee, having regard to the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964, by the Protocol of 16 November 1982 and by the Protocol of 12 February 2004, and, in particular, Article 1(b) thereof; considering that, by virtue of that Article, the Steering Committee may, if in its view the small extent of the risks involved so warrants, exclude any nuclear installation, nuclear fuel or nuclear substances from the application of the Paris Convention; considering that nuclear substances in transport or use outside a nuclear installation, within defined limits and under specifically prescribed conditions during transport, should, in view of the small extent of the risks involved, be excluded from the application of the Paris Convention; having regard to its Decision of 18 October 2007 on the Exclusion of Small Quantities of Nuclear Substances outside a Nuclear Installation from the Application of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960 as amended; considering that the 2005 Edition of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the International Atomic Energy Agency referred to in the Annex to the above-mentioned Decision, has been replaced by revised editions, the most recent of which is the 2012 Edition, which is used as the basis for corresponding national and international regulations in this field; considering the need for a decision the annex of which is in line with the 2012 Edition of those Regulations; decides: 1. Nuclear substances which are consigned by an operator to a recipient for use shall be excluded from the application of the Paris Convention for the period during which they are outside a nuclear installation provided that the consignment, when leaving a nuclear installation, complies with the provisions set forth in the Annex to this Decision and with other relevant

  15. Evaluation of the need for stochastic optimization of out-of-core nuclear fuel management decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Work has been completed on utilizing mathematical optimization techniques to optimize out-of-core nuclear fuel management decisions. The objective of such optimization is to minimize the levelized fuel cycle cost over some planning horizon. Typical decision variables include feed enrichments and number of assemblies, burnable poison requirements, and burned fuel to reinsert for every cycle in the planning horizon. Engineering constraints imposed consist of such items as discharge burnup limits, maximum enrichment limit, and target cycle energy productions. Earlier the authors reported on the development of the OCEON code, which employs the integer Monte Carlo Programming method as the mathematical optimization method. The discharge burnpups, and feed enrichment and burnable poison requirements are evaluated, initially employing a linear reactivity core physics model and refined using a coarse mesh nodal model. The economic evaluation is completed using a modification of the CINCAS methodology. Interest now is to assess the need for stochastic optimization, which will account for cost components and cycle energy production uncertainties. The implication of the present studies is that stochastic optimization in regard to cost component uncertainties need not be completed since deterministic optimization will identify nearly the same family of near-optimum cycling schemes

  16. Application of fuzzy decision making to countermeasure strategies after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Ruan, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, any decision on countermeasures to protect the public should be made based upon the basic principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The application of these principles requires that there is a balance between the cost and the averted radiation dose, taking into account many subjective factors such as social/political acceptability, psychological stress, and the confidence of the population in the authorities etc. In the framework of classical methods, it is difficult to quantify human subjective judgements and the uncertainties of data efficiently. Hence, any attempt to find the optimal solution for countermeasure strategies without deliberative sensitivity analysis can be misleading. However, fuzzy sets, with linguistic terms to describe the human subjective judgement and with fuzzy numbers to model the uncertainties of the parameters, can be introduced to eliminate these difficulties. With fuzzy rating, a fuzzy multiple attribute decision making method can rank the possible countermeasure strategies. This paper will describe the procedure of the method and present an illustrative example

  17. RODOS and RESY: two integrated real time on-line decision support systems for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Fischer, F.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Schuele, O.; Benz, G.; Rafat, M.

    1993-01-01

    Based on the experience gained with the development of the German real-time system RESY for near range and early phase decision support KfK has developed the hardware and software framework of RODOS, the EC real-time on-line decision support system for nuclear emergencies. The first prototype version of RODOS incorporates models for atmospheric dispersion, for external and internal dose and dose-rate assessments, for simulating sheltering, evacuation and milk interdiction, for estimating health effects and economic costs, and for evaluating action alternatives by means of a rule based system containing components of multi-attribute value techniques. The specially designed operating system has been developed on the basis of the client-server model as a transportable package to run on workstations with a standard based UNIX operating system, and an X-Window system. One of its key features is the support of integrated external software products developed by the contractors by providing standardized services, such as system control, data management and graphical presentation. A data base of geographical structures (e.g. landscape, buildings, traffic network) with an accuracy of 30 m stored as vector data and population distribution stored in a 1 kmx1 km grid allows the presentation and evaluation of results down to a high local resolution by a special graphics subsystem. (orig./DG)

  18. MMPI-based employment decisions for high-risk positions in nuclear power settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilikofsky, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    To asses the feasibility of using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as a personnel screening device for high-risk occupations, the test protocols of 735 applicants to and employees of the nuclear facilities owned by a southeastern utility were obtained. Institutional information on initial screening, hiring, and follow-up status was provided. MMPI data were processed to yield pass-and-fail screening decisions using a commercially available computer-based test interpretation system and a locally developed (NC) clerical interpretive system. The latter method was applied both with and without K corrections to component scores. The clerical system using K-corrected scores produced the largest number of true and false positives. The same rules, using uncorrected scores, produced the greatest number of false negatives. The computer-based system produced the most-acceptable set of decisions overall, striking a balance between these two kinds of errors. It was concluded that, when assessed against the available criterion information, the MMPI could not be recommended as a screening device. However, due to serious limitations inherent in these data, further study is needed.

  19. MMPI-based employment decisions for high-risk positions in nuclear power settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilikofsky, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    To asses the feasibility of using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as a personnel screening device for high-risk occupations, the test protocols of 735 applicants to and employees of the nuclear facilities owned by a southeastern utility were obtained. Institutional information on initial screening, hiring, and follow-up status was provided. MMPI data were processed to yield pass-and-fail screening decisions using a commercially available computer-based test interpretation system and a locally developed (NC) clerical interpretive system. The latter method was applied both with and without K corrections to component scores. The clerical system using K-corrected scores produced the largest number of true and false positives. The same rules, using uncorrected scores, produced the greatest number of false negatives. The computer-based system produced the most-acceptable set of decisions overall, striking a balance between these two kinds of errors. It was concluded that, when assessed against the available criterion information, the MMPI could not be recommended as a screening device. However, due to serious limitations inherent in these data, further study is needed

  20. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  1. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  2. The Belgian regulatory framework for NORM industries : test-case of a phosphate production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, Stephane; Dehandschutter, Boris; Poffijn, Andre; Michel Sonck

    2008-01-01

    According to the Belgian radiation protection regulatory framework, some categories of NORM industries must register to the competent Belgian radiation protection authority (FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control). The facilities must provide a set of information which allows the authority to assess the radiological impact of the industrial activity on the workers, the population and the environment. If the dose exceeds or is likely to exceed 1 mSv/y, corrective measures have to be implemented. FANC has issued a methodology in order to define more precisely the data needed to evaluate the radiological impact. The methodology lists also the exposure pathways which have to be taken into account and the relevant parameters for the evaluation of the doses. The case of a phosphate production plant is discussed in more details: although the exposure of the workers in the production process as such is rather limited, the specific activity of some residues (calcium fluoride sludge) reaches around 10 kBq/kg of Ra-226. This sludge is disposed off in a specific landfill for which a program of radiological monitoring has been implemented. It includes periodic measurements of dose rate and radon concentration on the landfill. (author)

  3. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden: The evolving role for KASAM when society is preparing for important decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glimelius, Kristina; Hedberg, Bjoern; Norrby, Soeren; Soederberg, Olof

    2006-01-01

    KASAM, the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste, is an independent scientific council attached to the Ministry of Sustainable Development. The members of KASAM are independent scientists within a wide range of areas of importance for the final disposal of radioactive waste, not only within technology and natural sciences but also within areas such as ethics and social sciences. Swedish nuclear waste management policy and implementation is currently in a protracted phase of planning and decisions. Starting in 2006 , the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Co (SKB) is expected to submit the necessary applications for permits to construct an encapsulation facility and a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel (in crystalline bedrock about 500 meters below the ground). According to Swedish legislation, basic permits have to be granted by the Government, but the Government will not grant such permits unless the concerned host municipality accepts the proposal. The Government decision will form the basis for detailed licensing decisions by the regulatory authorities. KASAM has an important role as an independent advisory body to the Ministry of Sustainable Development. Also, KASAM will continue its function of creating forums for dialogue that could contribute to increase knowledge and understanding and improve the knowledge base for decision-making. There are a number of questions that are relevant. Examples are: Will society have a satisfactory basis for decision-making? What happens if society is not capable of making necessary decisions? Does the decision-making process enable society to postpone important decisions if more time is needed, to avoid obstacles if they appear, and - if needed - reverse decisions? Considering issues like this, KASAM has set up a plan for its activities in the next few years. These activities are meant to contribute to the ability of society as a whole to arrive at a well-founded decision that is widely accepted. Based on facts

  4. An approach to siting nuclear power plants: the relevance of earthquakes, faults and decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.; Brogan, G.E.; Cluff, L.S.; Idriss, I.M.; Mao, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    The regional approach to nuclear power plant siting described in this paper identifies candidate sites within the region and ranks these sites by using decision-analysis concepts. The approach uses exclusionary criteria to eliminate areas from consideration and to identify those areas which are most likely to contain candidate sites. These areas are then examined in greater detail to identify candidate sites, and the number of sites under consideration is reduced to a reasonably manageable number, approximately 15. These sites are then ranked using concepts of decision analysis. The exclusionary criteria applied relate primarily to regulatory-agency safety requirements and essential functional requirements. Examples of such criteria include proximity to population centres, presence of active faults, and the availability of cooling water. In many areas of the world, the presence of active faults and potential negative effects of earthquakes are dominant exclusionary criteria. To apply the 'active fault' criterion the region must be studied to locate and assess the activity of all potentially active faults. This requires complementary geologic (including geomorphic), historical, seismological, geodetic and geophysical investigations of the entire region. Site response studies or empirical attenuation correlations can be used to determine the relevant parameters of anticipated shaking from postulated earthquakes, and analytical testing and evaluation can be used to assess the potential extent of ground failure during an earthquake. After candidate sites are identified, an approach based on decision analysis is used to rank them. This approach uses the preferences and judgements of consumers, utility companies, the government, and other groups concerned with siting and licensing issues in the ranking process. Both subjective and objective factors are processed in a logical manner, as are the monetary and non-monetary factors and achievement of competing environmental

  5. The RODOS system: decision support for nuclear off-site emergency management in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Ehrhardt, J.

    2000-01-01

    The integrated and comprehensive real-time on-line decision support system, RODOS, for off-site emergency management of nuclear accidents has been developed with support of the European Commission and the German Ministry of Environment. About 40 West and East European institutes have been involved in the development of the existing version for (pre-) operational use. This paper gives an overview of the structure, the content, the main functions and the development status of the RODOS system. It describes how the system has been and is being installed in emergency centres of a number of European counties. Designed as a generic tool, the RODOS system is applicable from the very early stages of an accident up to many year after the release and from the vicinity of a site to far distant areas, unperturbed by national boundaries. Decision support is provided by the system at various levels, ranging from the largely descriptive with information on the present and future radiological situation, to an evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of different countermeasures' options and their feasibility. This includes ranking them according to the decision-makers' expressed preferences and weights with due consideration of subjective arguments on socio-psychological and political influences. The capability of the RODOS software framework for integrating models, methods and database in a modular way and the flexibility of the user interface will be addressed in the paper. Their functionalities offer the possibility of adapting RODOS to local, regional and national conditions, in particular to the corresponding meteorological and radiological monitoring networks, the geographical and economic structures, different plant types and accident conditions. A hierarchy of user interfaces allows adaptation of the system to the needs and qualifications of users in real emergencies and in training and exercises. The potential role of RODOS for improving emergency response in Europe

  6. Bayesian-statistical decision threshold, detection limit, and confidence interval in nuclear radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, K.

    1998-01-01

    When a contribution of a particular nuclear radiation is to be detected, for instance, a spectral line of interest for some purpose of radiation protection, and quantities and their uncertainties must be taken into account which, such as influence quantities, cannot be determined by repeated measurements or by counting nuclear radiation events, then conventional statistics of event frequencies is not sufficient for defining the decision threshold, the detection limit, and the limits of a confidence interval. These characteristic limits are therefore redefined on the basis of Bayesian statistics for a wider applicability and in such a way that the usual practice remains as far as possible unaffected. The principle of maximum entropy is applied to establish probability distributions from available information. Quantiles of these distributions are used for defining the characteristic limits. But such a distribution must not be interpreted as a distribution of event frequencies such as the Poisson distribution. It rather expresses the actual state of incomplete knowledge of a physical quantity. The different definitions and interpretations and their quantitative consequences are presented and discussed with two examples. The new approach provides a theoretical basis for the DIN 25482-10 standard presently in preparation for general applications of the characteristic limits. (orig.) [de

  7. Safe-air view: a decision support system for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triacchini, G.; D'Alberti, F.; Canepa, E.

    2004-01-01

    It was therefore necessary to implement a PC based software for the prediction of the radiological impact on the environment and on the population around the JRC Ispra site caused by any accident occurring at any nuclear facilities within the site. For this reason the SSRP unit has developed with other partners a specific decision PC based support tool, whose characteristics are described in this paper. The developed SW is the first implementation of GIS technology applied to an existing MS-DOS trademark model validated model for wind field definition, calculation of atmospheric dispersion and concentration of pollutants at receptors. The software has been designed as to be able to superimpose, for each point in an area of 50 km radius from the JRC Ispra, layers of information coming from customisable databases. The result is a user-friendly Windows trademark based software, able to quickly calculate and display values of ground and air radioactive contamination around JRC Ispra, following an accidental release of radioactive substances from within a JRC Ispra nuclear installation. (orig.)

  8. Management and storage of nuclear fuel from Belgian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    1996-01-01

    Experiences and problems with the storage of irradiated fuel at research reactors in Belgium are described. In particular, interim storage problems exist for spent fuel elements at the BR2 and the shut down BR3 reactors in Mol. (author). 1 ref

  9. Experience with titanium condensers in Belgian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laire, C.; Graeve, R. de; Comptdaer, Y.; Gilbert, P.

    2006-01-01

    At Tihange, one unit is equipped with a replaced condenser in titanium, although the cooling water is less aggressive compared to Doel. At some units, small leaks have occurred during service and the causes of these leaks could be related to the following mechanisms: Steam droplet erosion at the tube outer surface; inspections with eddy current and a visual inspection have drastically reduced the occurrence of small leaks at the Tihange 1 unit. Mechanical wear due to foreign objects blocking the tube entrance on the raw water side. Small debris coming from the cooling tower has generated wear and this type of degradation has resulted in the installation of protective short sleeves at one unit (Doel 4). After 8 years of operation with these sleeves, the absence of degradation was verified on pulled tubes. Despite the aggressive water, no corrosion under the sleeves has occurred, and erosion behind the sleeves - possibly due to local turbulence - has not been observed. This experience confirms the excellent corrosion resistance of titanium. The paper summarizes the results of the different inspections and investigations on pulled tubes. (orig.)

  10. Decomposing dynamic profit inefficiency of Belgian dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, Frederic; Lansink, Alfons Oude

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a nonparametric framework for analysing dynamic profit inefficiency and applies this to a sample of Belgian, specialised dairy farms from 1996 to 2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into technical and allocative inefficiency. The paper also decomposes profit inefficiency

  11. Positioning and role of public relations in large Belgian organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, B. van; Pauwels, L.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the position and role of public relations in the hierarchical structure of Belgian organizations of at least 50 employees. Empirical data was collected from a web survey (n = 750) to find out to what extent principles of excellence in public relations are applied in Belgium. The

  12. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  13. Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management and Rehabilitation Strategies: Towards a EU approach for decision support tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Gering, F.; Lochard, J.; Nisbet, A.; Starostova, V.; Tomic, B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → European emergency management and rehabilitation was strengthened. → Development of generic European handbooks for urban and agricultural areas. → Decision support systems became more operational. → Harmonisation of tools in Europe has been promoted. - Abstract: The 5-year multi-national project EURANOS (European Approach to Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management and Rehabilitation Strategies), funded by the European Commission and 23 European Member States, started in April 2004. Integrating 17 national emergency management organisations with 33 research institutes, it brings together best practices, knowledge and technology to enhance the preparedness for Europe's response to any radiation emergency and long term contamination. Key objectives of the project are to collate information on the likely effectiveness and consequences of a wide range of countermeasures, to provide guidance to emergency management organisations and decision makers on the establishment of an appropriate response strategy and to further enhance advanced decision support systems (DSS), in particular, RODOS (Real-time On-line Decisions Support) decision support system), through feedback from their operational use. Further, the project aims to create regional initiatives leading to information exchange based on state-of-the-art information technologies, to develop guidance which assists Member States in developing a framework for the sustainable rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated areas and to maintain and enhance knowledge and competence through emergency exercises, training and education, thus fostering best practice in emergency response. The project is divided into three major research activities and a set of demonstration projects which are split in two phases lasting over two and three years, respectively. The research activities address specific issues previously identified by the users or by previous research in the area. They are focused

  14. Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management. Planning for Effective Decision Making; Consequence Management and Transition to Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The collective experience of the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), and in particular, the experience from the International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, has shown that it is important to plan and to implement emergency response actions based on a guiding strategic vision. Within this context, Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management presents a framework of strategic planning elements to be considered by national emergency management authorities when establishing or enhancing processes for decision making, and when developing or implementing protection strategies. The focus is on nuclear or radiological emergency situations leading to complex preparedness and response conditions, involving multiple jurisdictions and significant international interfaces. The report is aimed at national emergency management authorities, international organisations and those who are seeking to improve the effectiveness of emergency management. Its goal is to provide insights into decision-making processes within existing emergency planning arrangements. It also highlights common areas of good practice in decision making. Specific areas for improvement, identified during the INEX-3 consequence management exercise, are included, particularly in support of decision making for countermeasures for consequence management and the transition to recovery. (authors)

  15. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff practice and procedure digest. Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board Decision, July 1972 - June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This is the seventh edition of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. It contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to June 1995 interpreting the NRC rules of practice in 10 CFR part 2

  16. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - regulatory system and roles of different actors during the decision process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    In November 2006 Swedish Nuclear Fuels Co. applied for a license to build a plant for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuels at Oskarshamn, Sweden. The company also have plans to apply, in 2009, for a license to construct a underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. KASAM arranged a seminar in November 2006 in order to describe and discuss the licensing rules and regulations and the roles of different parties in the decision making. Another objective of the seminar was to point out possible ambiguities in this process. Another interesting question under discussion was in what ways the basic data for the decision should be produced. The seminar covered the part of the process beginning with the application for a license and ending with the government approval/rejection of the application. Most time was spent on the legal aspects of the process

  17. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuel - regulatory system and roles of different actors during the decision process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In November 2006 Swedish Nuclear Fuels Co. applied for a license to build a plant for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuels at Oskarshamn, Sweden. The company also have plans to apply, in 2009, for a license to construct a underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. KASAM arranged a seminar in November 2006 in order to describe and discuss the licensing rules and regulations and the roles of different parties in the decision making. Another objective of the seminar was to point out possible ambiguities in this process. Another interesting question under discussion was in what ways the basic data for the decision should be produced. The seminar covered the part of the process beginning with the application for a license and ending with the government approval/rejection of the application. Most time was spent on the legal aspects of the process

  18. Final disposal of spent nuclear fuels - regulations and the roles of different stakeholders during the decision making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    In November 2006 Swedish Nuclear Fuels Co. applied for a license to build a plant for encapsulation of spent nuclear fuels at Oskarshamn, Sweden. The company also have plans to apply, in 2009, for a license to construct a underground repository for spent nuclear fuels. KASAM arranged a seminar in November 2006 in order to describe and discuss the licensing rules and regulations and the roles of different parties in the decision making. Another objective of the seminar was to point out possible ambiguities in this process. Another interesting question under discussion was in what ways the basic data for the decision should be produced. The seminar covered the part of the process beginning with the application for a license and ending with the government approval/rejection of the application. Most time was spent on the legal aspects of the process

  19. A study on the degree of deliberation and meditation of cyber poll respondents for nuclear-related decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Joo Hyun; Kang, Chang Sun

    2006-01-01

    Public participation is essential in each step of the nuclear-related decision-making process. Recently, the electronic systems using the Internet have become quite popular, and have emerged as a good medium for communicating with the public. In this study, a comprehensive utilization of electronic public participation was used to analyze public opinion on a given nuclear-related decision-making process. The degree of deliberation and meditation of the public participating in an electronic poll survey was evaluated, and the decision-making factors representing the personal characteristics of the poll respondents such as age, income, education, residence, degree of knowledge and concern were carefully incorporated when preparing the poll-survey questionnaire for its evaluation. Fuzzy analysis was used to assess and aggregate the responses to each decision-making factor. As a case study, this procedure was used to analyzing public opinion on the location of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility on the campus of Seoul National University. The results show that there is a tendency of respondents who are on the negative side of the argument to be more deliberate and meditative in their decision-making process than those on the positive side. Knowledge and residence were found to be important decision-making factors

  20. A study on the degree of deliberation and meditation of cyber poll respondents for nuclear-related decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Soo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: insrec1@freechal.com; Moon, Joo Hyun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Sun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shilim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    Public participation is essential in each step of the nuclear-related decision-making process. Recently, the electronic systems using the Internet have become quite popular, and have emerged as a good medium for communicating with the public. In this study, a comprehensive utilization of electronic public participation was used to analyze public opinion on a given nuclear-related decision-making process. The degree of deliberation and meditation of the public participating in an electronic poll survey was evaluated, and the decision-making factors representing the personal characteristics of the poll respondents such as age, income, education, residence, degree of knowledge and concern were carefully incorporated when preparing the poll-survey questionnaire for its evaluation. Fuzzy analysis was used to assess and aggregate the responses to each decision-making factor. As a case study, this procedure was used to analyzing public opinion on the location of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility on the campus of Seoul National University. The results show that there is a tendency of respondents who are on the negative side of the argument to be more deliberate and meditative in their decision-making process than those on the positive side. Knowledge and residence were found to be important decision-making factors.

  1. Making the decision-making basis for nuclear waste management transparent - A pre-study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2007-04-01

    in the safety assessment. A first event in this suggested series of activities within the transparency programme took place in March 2007, when KASAM arranged a hearing about deep bore holes as a possible alternative method for final disposal. Technical feasibility, long term safety and safety philosophy were among the topics addressed. The hearing will be reported in a KASAM report, to be published in 2007. Realistically, at most two issues can be covered per year, therefore maximum five issues can be dealt with until SKB has submitted its licence application, however, in principle the transparency programme can continue also during the licensing process. The timing of the KASAM activities will be crucial considering the SKB programme, the review work of the authorities as well as the municipality involvement. The transparency programme should prepare KASAM for its advisory role to the Swedish government but it should also be a resource for all stakeholders, the political decision makers and concerned citizens who wish to deepen their insight into the issues addressed. Besides contributing in a constructive way to the Swedish nuclear waste management programme, the KASAM transparency programme can contribute to the development of nuclear waste management in a wider context including research and development work that takes place in Europe about public participation and transparency, as well as to other sectors in society

  2. Allocation of responsibilities between central and local authorities concerning nuclear power plant licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines Belgian regulations on licences to construct and operate nuclear power plants in the context of implementation of the 1980 Act concerning regionalisation. It also reviews the relevant nuclear legislation in certain other countries. (NEA) [fr

  3. Computerized system of team make-up and work allocation in the Belgian Zolder mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustanowicz, M.

    1979-01-01

    System of work allocation introduced in 1974 in the Zolder Coal Mine (NV Kempense Steenkolenmijnen) in Belgium is evaluated. The system is based on an IBM 370/158 computer. An information management system supervises the programing work. There are approximately 30 programs. Absenteeism in the Belgian coal mines is generally high at approximately 24% and some months as high as 40%. Therefore, introducing a computerized system of work allocation and team make-up was advantageous. Operation of the system is described on the levels of foreman, engineers and director of the mine. Advantages of the system are numerous. It enables optimization of team make-up and work allocation, shortens the time of allocation of work by a foreman, increases efficiency of foremen's work and provides the director with the means and information necessary for efficient decision making in improving the productivity of the mine. (5 refs.) (In Polish)

  4. Searching for Methods on Evaluation Alternatives and Studying Decision Making System Regarding Enhancing Publicity of Nuclear Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Choi, Seungho; Kim, Hyerim; Song, Jiyeon; Lee, Yoonsup; Sohn, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was done in order to anticipate the aspect of publicity enhancement on nuclear spent fuel so that it can find the evaluation methods of alternative ways of management which could applied actually and make the decision making system of Publicity Enhancement Committee in advance. In Korea, the nuclear spent fuel is temporarily stored inside of the nuclear facility field, and it is expected that Gori nuclear facility is going to be saturated since 2016 but the solutions are still incomplete. The problem of management of nuclear spent fuel is an important issue in terms of not only the nuclear power policy but also of safe management of the already made nuclear spent fuel. This study has its meaning to draw the evaluation criteria of the management alternatives on nuclear spent fuel which can be applied in Korean case, and to find the necessity of verifying the evaluation of management alternatives through Publicity Enhancement because of different stands according to the interests. As a result, rather than technological engineering safety evaluation, qualitative analysis in terms of social costs, quantitative evaluation in terms of economic costs, this study advises the methods of public hearings and citizen juries which are effective, which makes it meaningful

  5. Media content analysis of the Fukushima accident in two Belgian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Geenen, D.; Mamane, N.; Van Rooy, L.

    2011-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, the media play a major role in communicating with the public. It is therefore crucial to know what messages are the media delivering in a nuclear emergency and how do they frame the event. Analysing the media reporting on the Fukushima nuclear accident can benefit nuclear emergency management in two major aspects. On the one hand, such analysis shows how to deliver risk messages effectively through the media and on the other hand, it brings insights into the information that has to be communicated by the emergency managers to the mass media. The media analysis of the nuclear accident in Fukushima reported here was done by means of discourse and content analysis. The coding method followed explicit rules of coding and enabled large quantities of data to be categorized. The newspapers included in the analysis were the Belgian newspapers Le Soir (French language) and De Standaard (Dutch language). The media news were obtained from press clippings by Media data base at University Antwerp - MEDIARGUS for the period between 11th of March to 11th of May, 2011.

  6. Divergent views on a possible nuclear waste repository in the community: Social aspects of decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in two interview studies conducted in the communities of Storuman and Malaa in northern Sweden, 1995 and 1997. It highlights the similarities and differences with respect to the public participation and decision processes which preceded the respective referenda in the two communities. The presentation includes the arguments used by proponents and opponents, the changes over time, as well as the time frame and the information involved in the processes. It is concluded e.g. that local cultures, life-styles, knowledge of similar events, and the time for and management of the participation process are important and salient factors in the resulting social dynamics. Factors of possibly more fundamental importance were also discerned, however, including overall attitude to and valuation of nuclear power, perceptions of development, solidarity, power and power distribution in relation to current as well as future situations. It is furthermore concluded that the extended public participation process is primarily a political process following the rules of political debates and societal change rather than an effective means of informing the public. It may involve a high degree of exposure to technical details and other kinds of information, but the process should not be understood as an extended basis for exclusively assessing technological accuracy. A discussion of the short and the potential long term effects of active participation of various influential interest groups on representative democracy concludes the paper

  7. A decision support system for emergency response to major nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Christou, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    A methodology for the optimization of the short-term emergency response in the event of a nuclear accident is presented. The method seeks an optimum combination of protective actions in the presence of a multitude of conflicting objectives and under uncertainty. Conflicting objectives arise in the attempt to minimize simultaneously the potential adverse effects of an accident and the associated socioeconomic impacts. Additional conflicting objectives arise whenever an emergency plan tends to decrease a particular health effect, such as acute deaths, while it increases another, such as latent deaths. The uncertainty is due to the multitude of possible accident scenarios and their respective probability of occurrence, the stochastic variability in the weather conditions, and the variability and/or lack of knowledge of the parameters of the risk assessment models. A multiobjective optimization approach is adopted. An emergency protection plan consists of defining a protective action at each spatial cell around the plant. Three criteria are used as the objective functions of the problem, namely, acute fatalities, latent effects, and socioeconomic cost. The optimization procedure defines the efficient frontier, i.e., all emergency plans that are not dominated by another in all three criteria. No value trade-offs are necessary up to this point. The most preferred emergency plan is then chosen among the set of efficient plans. Finally, the methodology is integrated into a computerized decision support system, and its use is demonstrated in a realistic application

  8. The impact of economic uncertainty on the energy decision making process: Nuclear energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargur, J.

    1984-01-01

    The study presented here is based on an analysis undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of establishing nuclear power plants in Israel. While the actual figures for the various sensitivity tests are somewhat disguised because of the sensitivity of the topic, the relative impact of moving from one assumption to another is presented and analysed. A matrix of qualitative results has been formulated for this analysis and, once these relationships have been established qualitatively, subjective weights have been applied to the various assumptions of the three most relevant parameters, the deviations from the most probable coal price, discount rate and level of investment. The analysis evaluates the impact of these weights on the decision as to whether the project prospects are most favourable, are of marginal value, or should be rejected. The significance of this analysis is its demonstration of the major role to be played by the economic planner within each country, and his responsibility to provide macro-economic guidelines for evaluating major infrastructural undertakings such as energy projects

  9. Participation of the public in nuclear energy decisions: what are the conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1993-01-01

    To resume the different points of view, we can say that there are two levels: the local and the national. At the local level, it is mainly a question of the siting and licensing of an industrial facility. At the national level, the question about the future of nuclear power in general is raised. Industrial development and technological progress have led the State taking on a role as guardian of public safety as well as security. During the last twenty years, we have seen a new trend. The environmental protection interests have appeared. At the international level, we can see a clear development from the Stockholm declaration of 1972, and the Global Nature Charter of the U N General Assembly of 1982, to define first the obligation to inform the public, to give individuals a feeling for their responsibilities, and to stress that all categories of the public have a responsibility to contribute to the protection and improvement of the environment and that every person should have the possibility to participate, individually or with others, in decisions that concern his environment. National legislation has developed in parallel in many countries with much the same content and the same objectives

  10. Divergent views on a possible nuclear waste repository in the community: Social aspects of decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Department of Psychology

    1999-12-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained in two interview studies conducted in the communities of Storuman and Malaa in northern Sweden, 1995 and 1997. It highlights the similarities and differences with respect to the public participation and decision processes which preceded the respective referenda in the two communities. The presentation includes the arguments used by proponents and opponents, the changes over time, as well as the time frame and the information involved in the processes. It is concluded e.g. that local cultures, life-styles, knowledge of similar events, and the time for and management of the participation process are important and salient factors in the resulting social dynamics. Factors of possibly more fundamental importance were also discerned, however, including overall attitude to and valuation of nuclear power, perceptions of development, solidarity, power and power distribution in relation to current as well as future situations. It is furthermore concluded that the extended public participation process is primarily a political process following the rules of political debates and societal change rather than an effective means of informing the public. It may involve a high degree of exposure to technical details and other kinds of information, but the process should not be understood as an extended basis for exclusively assessing technological accuracy. A discussion of the short and the potential long term effects of active participation of various influential interest groups on representative democracy concludes the paper.

  11. Ministerial Decision No. 512/78 of 22 June 1978 on a Certificate under Section 40 of the Nuclear Liability Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Decision No. 512/78 of the Ministry of Trade and Industry was made by virtue of Section 40 of the Nuclear Liability Act of 8 June 1972. The certificate of financial security for the transport of nuclear substances complies very closely with the model certificate elaborated by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Steering Committee. (NEA) [fr

  12. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  13. Decision making on population protection in a large-scale radioactive contamination following a nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, Yu. O.

    1993-01-01

    Since the first years of development of nuclear power the most serious attention has been given to the planning of measures of population protection in the event of a radioactive release to atmosphere from a nuclear reactor. In the 60s 'Criteria for urgent decision making in the event of an accidental radioactive release into the environment' were developed in the USSR. When substantiating numerical values of potential radiation doses reasoning the implementation of countermeasures, specific conditions of emergency situations, characteristics of countermeasures and the real possibilities of timely dosimetric estimation of the situation were considered. The 'Criteria' were designed for urgent decision making at an early stage, in the first hours and days following the emergency. After the start of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986, decisions on measures of protection of the population living in proximity to the site of the accident, including relocation of residents of the town of Pripyat on May 27, 1986, were taken on the basis of this document, as well as decisions for iodine prophylaxis and for relocation of other settlements within the 30 km zone. The decisions were taken by the result of the estimation prediction of the radiation situation which showed a possibility of an excess of criteria levels by external gamma radiation and by inhalation of radioiodine

  14. Structure and functions of SWD-WJ/RODOS -the decision support system in case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Furtek, A.; Potempski, S.; Wojciechowicz, H.; Zelazny, R.

    1999-01-01

    The paper described the fundamental structure and functions of the decision support system in the case of nuclear emergency SWD-WJ/RODOS. The system has been implemented at the Institute of Atomic Energy and be installed in the Centre for Radiological Events CEZAR of the National Atomic Energy Agency. The system is based on the RODOS system (real-time on-line decision support system), which is being developed within the European Union programmes by some 30 European institutions from the most European countries. All the main elements of the system, including description of the input and output data, have been described and additionally presented in graphical form. (author)

  15. The Mandate System for the Belgian Public Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno BROUCKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The law of 22 December 1998 introduced the mandate system for the heads of the Public Prosecution offices, which were appointed permanent before that. Theoretically, such a system needs to enhance, within the organization, effectiveness, efficiency, responsabilisation, and goal-orientation. However, the mandate system within the Belgian Public Prosecution was introduced prematurely, for dubious reasons and in a precipitate manner. In the current situation, the position of the mandate holder is uncertain, with a bounded autonomy and a low wage increase. Moreover, it remains impossible to intervene in the policy of appointed heads of office (during their mandate, the efficiency and effectiveness is only increased in some prosecution offices and a contract containing actual management responsibilities is absent. In sum: there is a large gap between the theoretical principles of mandate systems and the way it is introduced in the Belgian Public Prosecution.

  16. Acceptability and Perceived Benefits and Risks of Public and Patient Involvement in Health Care Policy: A Delphi Survey in Belgian Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina; Christiaens, Wendy; Kohn, Laurence; Léonard, Christian; Daue, François; Denis, Alain

    2015-06-01

    In systems with public health insurance, coverage decisions should reflect social values. Deliberation among stakeholders could achieve this goal, but rarely involves patients and citizens directly. This study aimed at evaluating the acceptability, and the perceived benefits and risks, of public and patient involvement (PPI) in coverage decision making to Belgian stakeholders. A two-round Delphi survey was conducted among all stakeholder groups. The survey was constructed on the basis of interviews with 10 key stakeholders and a review of the literature on participation models. Consensus was defined as 65% or more of the respondents agreeing with a statement and less than 15% disagreeing. Eighty stakeholders participated in both rounds. They were defined as the Delphi panel. Belgian stakeholders are open toward PPI in coverage decision processes. Benefits are expected to exceed risks. The preferred model for involvement is to consult citizens or patients, within the existing decision-making structures and at specific milestones in the process. Consulting citizens and patients is a higher level of involvement than merely informing them and a lower level than letting them participate actively. Consultation involves asking nonbinding advice on (parts of) the decision problem. According to the Delphi panel, the benefits of PPI could be increasing awareness among members of the general public and patients about the challenges and costs of health care, and enriched decision processes with expertise by experience from patients. Potential risks include subjectivity, insufficient resources to participate and weigh on the process, difficulties in finding effective ways to express a collective opinion, the risk of manipulation, and lobbying or power games of other stakeholders. PPI in coverage decision-making processes is acceptable to Belgian stakeholders, be it in different ways for different types of decisions. Benefits are expected to outweigh risks. Copyright © 2015

  17. Procurement in the Nuclear Industry, Quality, Safety and Decision Making; Upphandling inom kaernkraftsindustrin, kvalitet, saekerhet och beslutsfattande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, Marianne; Svenson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka (PSA Psykologi och beslutsfattande, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The major purpose of the present study is partly to map and partly to make an analysis of the decision processes in the procurement routines in the nuclear industry in order to provide a basis for: 1. further development of safety inspections about procurements for Swedish Radiation Safety Authority 2. improvements of safety management in connection with procurement within a nuclear-power plant, 3 improvements of procurement routines in general in a nuclear power plant. The procurement processes at a nuclear power plant were analyzed from a decision theoretic perspective. Key staff at the plant was interviewed and written instructions as well as digitalized processes were used in the analysis. The results illustrate the most important moments during the procurement process with descriptions from interviews and documents. The staff at the nuclear power plant used a multi-attribute utility decision theory MAUT-inspired model in evaluation of alternatives and both compensatory (in which negative aspects can be compensated by positive aspects) and non-compensatory (in which certain 'pass' levels of attributes have to be exceeded for a choice) decision rules were used in the procurement process. Not surprising, nuclear safety was evaluated in a non-compensatory manner following regulatory criteria while costs were evaluated in trade-off compensatory rules, which means that a weakness in one consideration might be compensated by strength in another consideration. Thus, nuclear safety above the regulator's and law requirements are not integrated in a compensatory manner when procurement alternatives are evaluated. The nuclear plant assessed an organization's safety culture at an early stage of the purchasing process. A successful and a less successful procurement case were reported with the lessons learned from them. We find that the existing written instructions for purchase were well elaborated and adequate. There is a lack of personal resources when

  18. Combined prediction model for supply risk in nuclear power equipment manufacturing industry based on support vector machine and decision tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunsheng; Meng Dapeng

    2011-01-01

    The prediction index for supply risk is developed based on the factor identifying of nuclear equipment manufacturing industry. The supply risk prediction model is established with the method of support vector machine and decision tree, based on the investigation on 3 important nuclear power equipment manufacturing enterprises and 60 suppliers. Final case study demonstrates that the combination model is better than the single prediction model, and demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of this model, which provides a method to evaluate the suppliers and measure the supply risk. (authors)

  19. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances: Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders, July 1 - December 31, 1996. Volume 44, Pages 1 - 432

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The hardbound edition of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances is a final compilation of the monthly issuances. It includes all of the legal precedents for the agency within a six-month period. Any opinions, decisions, denials, memoranda and orders of the Commission inadvertently omitted from the monthly softbounds and any corrections submitted by the NRC legal staff to the printed softbound issuances are contained in the hardbound edition. Cross references in the text and indexes are to the NRCI page numbers which are the same as the page numbers in this publication. Issuances are referred to as follows: Commission--CLI, Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards--LBP, Administrative Law Judges--ALJ, Directors' Decisions--DD, and Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking--DPRM

  20. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances: Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders, July 1--December 31, 1996. Volume 44, Pages 1--432

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The hardbound edition of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances is a final compilation of the monthly issuances. It includes all of the legal precedents for the agency within a six-month period. Any opinions, decisions, denials, memoranda and orders of the Commission inadvertently omitted from the monthly softbounds and any corrections submitted by the NRC legal staff to the printed softbound issuances are contained in the hardbound edition. Cross references in the text and indexes are to the NRCI page numbers which are the same as the page numbers in this publication. Issuances are referred to as follows: Commission--CLI, Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards--LBP, Administrative Law Judges--ALJ, Directors` Decisions--DD, and Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking--DPRM.

  1. Iron microbial communities in Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds

    OpenAIRE

    Boulvain, F.; De Ridder, C.; Mamet, B.; Preat, A.; Gillan, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds occur in three stratigraphic levels in an overall backstepping succession. Petit-Mont and Arche Members form the famous red and grey “marble” exploited for ornamental stone since Roman times. The evolution and distribution of the facies in the mounds is thought to be associated with ecologic evolution and relative sea-level fluctuations. Iron oxides exist in five forms in the Frasnian mounds; four are undoubtedly endobiotic organized structures: (1) micro...

  2. Dynamic Profit Inefficiency: A DEA Application to Belgian Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Frederic; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Using a nonparametric framework, we analyze dynamic profit inefficiency for a sample of Belgian, specialized dairy farms from 1996–2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into contributions of output, input, and investment. Moreover, we identify the contributions of technical and allocative inefficiency in each input and output. The results suggest substantial profit inefficiency under the current dairy-quota system, mainly driven by an average underproduction of approximately 50 percent and ...

  3. Estimation of the furan contamination across the Belgian food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl , Georges; Scippo , Marie-Louise; Eppe , Gauthier; De Pauw , Edwin; Saegerman , Claude

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The current paper provides the estimate of the furan content in Belgian foods. The objective of the study was to achieve the best food chain coverage with a restrictive number of samples (n=496). The geographic distribution, the different market chains and labels, but also the consumption frequencies were taken into account for the sampling plan construction. Weighting factors on contamination levels, consumption frequency and diversity of food items were applied to set ...

  4. Aarhus and Espoo Conventions: The role in promoting effective public participation in nuclear decision-making. The role of the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions in promoting effective public participation in nuclear decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanush, Maryna; Jendroska, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Ms Yanush and Mr Jendroska highlighted the role and importance of the Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention) and that of the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (the Espoo Convention). These two conventions are open for global accession and, at present, have been ratified mainly by European and Central Asian countries within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) region. Those two conventions, which apply to a wide range of activities including nuclear, are the only two binding international instruments setting minimum standards for public access to environmental information and public participation in decision making. The Maastricht Recommendations on Promoting Effective Public Participation in Decision-Making in Environmental Matters under the Aarhus Convention and the Good Practice Recommendations on the Application of the Convention to Nuclear Energy-related Activities under the Espoo Convention are instrumental in advancing the implementation in this area. Public participation under the Aarhus Convention goes beyond information or consultation: the decision maker must take into account the views of the 'public concerned' (i.e. the members of the public affected or likely to be affected by the decision making or having an interest in it). As the 'public concerned' is assessed through the potential impact of the proposed activity, including in the case of an accident, the obligation to notify and provide opportunity for public participation is not limited to the territory of the country hosting the proposed activity. Mr Jendroska indicated a particular finding of the Espoo Convention Implementation Committee that decisions regarding modifications, upgrades or extensions to the lifetime/operation of a nuclear installation would be subject to these obligations even though the activity remains exactly

  5. The Odd One Out? Revisiting the Belgian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cor Wagenaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Ryckewaert publication Building the Economic Backbone of the Belgian Welfare State. Infrastructure, planning and architecture 1945-1973 describes the evolution of the welfare state and Belgium, more specifically its spatial characteristics. This by now historical socio-political model had decidedly collectivist traits, culminating in the provision of social security networks and a vast expansion of the public domain. If collectivism was one of the key elements of the welfare state, the absence of centralized planning appears to make the Belgian variant somewhat problematic.Whereas in countries like the Netherlands, Germany and France, modernism became the house style of the welfare state, thanks to the massive investments in public housing, this did not happen in Belgium. Here, the De Taeye Act of 1948 sponsored the construction of individual, detached houses; not surprisingly, most clients preferred traditional architecture and refrained from modern experiments. Industrial parks, office buildings and shops, on the other hand, developed into the cornerstones of Belgian modern architecture after 1945. Both the low-density sprawl and the industrial parks depend heavily on the use of the car, which was accommodated by the construction of a network of highways.

  6. A methodology for supporting decisions on the establishment of protective measures after severe nuclear accidents. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Kollas, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    Full text: The objective of this report is to demonstrate the use of a methodology supporting decisions on protective measures following severe nuclear accidents. A multicriteria decision analysis approach is recommended where value tradeoffs are postponed until the very last stage of the decision process. Use of efficient frontiers is made to exclude all technically inferior solutions and present the decision maker with all non-dominated solutions. A choice among these solutions implies a value trade-off among the multiple criteria. An interactive computer package has been developed where the decision maker can choose a point on the efficient frontier in the consequence space and immediately see the alternative in the decision space resulting in the chosen consequences. The methodology is demonstrated through an application on the choice among possible protective measures in contaminated areas of the former USSR after the Chernobyl accident. Two distinct cases are considered: First a decision is to be made only on the basis of the level of soil contamination with Cs-137 and the total cost of the chosen protective policy; Next the decision is based on the geographic dimension of the contamination and the total cost. Three alternative countermeasure actions are considered for population segments living on soil contaminated at a certain level or in a specific geographic region: (a) relocation of the population; (b) improvement of the living conditions; and, (c) no countermeasures at all. This is the final deliverable of the CEC-CIS Joint Study Project 2, Task 5: Decision-Aiding-System for Establishing Intervention Levels, performed under Contracts COSU-CT91-0007 and COSU-CT92-0021 with the Commission of European Communities through CEPN. (author)

  7. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances. Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders: July 1, 1992--December 31, 1992, Volume 36, Pages 1--396

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This is the thirty-sixth volume of issuances (1-396) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, Administrative Law Judges, and Office Directors. It covers the period from July 1, 1992-December 31, 1992. Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards are authorized by Section 191 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. These Boards, comprised of three members conduct adjudicatory hearings on applications to construct and operate nuclear power plants and related facilities and issue initial decisions which, subject to internal review and appellate procedures, become the final Commission action with respect to those applications. Boards are drawn from the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, comprised of lawyers, nuclear physicists and engineers, environmentalists, chemists, and economists. The Atomic Energy Commission first established Licensing Boards in 1962 and the Panel in 1967.

  8. Nuclear energy and sustainable development: Towards a better support for decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, E.

    2007-01-01

    It is a well-known problem for decision makers to clearly indicate what is meant by 'sustainable development'. Scientific research approaches in the field seem to be divided between the 'objective' approach of the subject (argued to be based on 'hard' scientific facts, e.g. risk assessment, environmental impact assessment, various indicator systems, etc.) and more 'subjective' or 'participatory' approaches (argued to incorporate 'ethical values', 'worldviews', 'cultural perspectives', etc.). Another (related) division seems to be between approaches which acknowledge and conceptualise their role in the political sphere, and others which deny, pass over or minimise such a role. In this PhD research project, we go beyond this unproductive distinction between 'objective' and 'subjective' approaches. Our approach is based on the insight (and demonstration) that actually both approaches represent a particular interpretation of more general schemes of justification (and are both inherently political). This does not mean that we abandon every hope of a rational discussion, but rather that we have to abandon all pretensions of one 'transcendental' and 'correct' viewpoint (i.e. based on 'hard' criteria and targets) from which we could judge whether or not a certain development is sustainable. In order to substantiate this point of view, we investigate the relevant literature on both 'objective' and 'participatory' approaches, and consider concrete applications in the context of the nuclear energy debate. Throughout these different research phases, we aim not only to evaluate present-day practices in the context of energy policy making (concerning both 'processes', i.e. rules of interaction, participation, etc. - and 'products' - i.e. the results), but also propose a new combined scientific/political practice. The overarching research objective was finding an answer to the following overarching question: Can nuclear energy contribute to a development process leading to

  9. Decree No. 79-623 of 13 July 1979 publishing the Decision on the exclusion of certain categories of nuclear substances from the scope of the Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Decision (with an annex) on the exclusion of small quantities of nuclear substances from the scope of the Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, adopted on 27 October 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This decree lays down that certain specified quantities and categories of nuclear substances are excluded from the nuclear operator's liability. This implements in France two Decisions taken by the NEA Steering Committee under the Paris Convention which enables the Committee to exclude from the operator's liability, nuclear installations, fuel or substances if the small extent of the risks involved so warrants. Both Decisions are reproduced in the Decree. (NEA) [fr

  10. Levels of uncertainty, decision making and risk communication: the siting of nuclear waste in France and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poumadere, M.

    1999-01-01

    The social demand for increased risk control is considered here as it applies to nuclear waste management. Britain's Sellafield Repository Project and France's Mediation Mission to site underground research laboratories are compared. While both management approaches show evolution away from an authoritarian model of decision making and towards implementation of a more socially responsive model, distinct methods of dealing with scientific and social uncertainty appear as well. (author)

  11. Present supply and demand on the world uranium market and decision of the nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luqing

    1994-01-01

    The present supply and demand relationship on the world uranium market due to the change of international situation in the last years is described and the falling price on the world uranium market is estimated. It is pointed out that the falling price would continue for a long time. Based on it the three different policy decisions on the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed

  12. Levels of uncertainty, decision making and risk communication: the siting of nuclear waste in France and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumadere, M

    1999-11-01

    The social demand for increased risk control is considered here as it applies to nuclear waste management. Britain`s Sellafield Repository Project and France`s Mediation Mission to site underground research laboratories are compared. While both management approaches show evolution away from an authoritarian model of decision making and towards implementation of a more socially responsive model, distinct methods of dealing with scientific and social uncertainty appear as well. (author)

  13. Is there a need for hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Heling, R.; Zheleznyak, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Potential releases from nuclear installations may contaminate both the terrestrial and the aquatic environment. Significant dose contributions via the aquatic pathways were shown for releases from Oak Ridge Laboratory (on the Clinch River-Tennessee River basin), for releases from the 'Mayak' plant (on the Techa River - Ob River system) and finally for releases from Chernobyl (on the Dnieper River basin and on the Scandinavian lake system via atmospheric fallout). Of highest concern was the contamination of drinking water, as the public is very sensitive to the quality of this essential nutrient. Consumption of aquatic food products and contamination of terrestrial crops via irrigation are potential exposure pathways which have to be considered in addition in case of a contamination of the aquatic environment. National hydrological services were, among others, responsible for the surveillance of the national water ways. This includes also monitoring of radioactive substances on a routine basis. Besides taking measurements at various locations, models might be available to predict the water discharge and to some extend also the concentration of pollutants in some of the most important river systems. Therefore, one can argue that these services, as they are part of the emergency management team in case of a nuclear emergency, should be able to support decision making to the extend necessary. However, the advice from the hydrological services might be limited to the analysis of the present situation including only limited prediction capabilities mainly focusing on the behaviour of radionuclides in the main river systems in relation to the preduction of drinking water. Contrary to this, a complete hydrological model chain has been established in the RODOS system, covering all relevant processes from the runoff from contaminated areas, transport in river systems and reservoirs, behaviour of radionuclides in lakes and finally the modelling of coastal areas. To

  14. Cognitive decision errors and organization vulnerabilities in nuclear power plant safety management: Modeling using the TOGA meta-theory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, M.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepiellis, M.; Wronikowska, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety modeling, the perception of the role of socio-cognitive engineering (SCE) is continuously increasing. Today, the focus is especially on the identification of human and organization decisional errors caused by operators and managers under high-risk conditions, as evident by analyzing reports on nuclear incidents occurred in the past. At present, the engineering and social safety requirements need to enlarge their domain of interest in such a way to include all possible losses generating events that could be the consequences of an abnormal state of a NPP. Socio-cognitive modeling of Integrated Nuclear Safety Management (INSM) using the TOGA meta-theory has been discussed during the ICCAP 2011 Conference. In this paper, more detailed aspects of the cognitive decision-making and its possible human errors and organizational vulnerability are presented. The formal TOGA-based network model for cognitive decision-making enables to indicate and analyze nodes and arcs in which plant operators and managers errors may appear. The TOGA's multi-level IPK (Information, Preferences, Knowledge) model of abstract intelligent agents (AIAs) is applied. In the NPP context, super-safety approach is also discussed, by taking under consideration unexpected events and managing them from a systemic perspective. As the nature of human errors depends on the specific properties of the decision-maker and the decisional context of operation, a classification of decision-making using IPK is suggested. Several types of initial situations of decision-making useful for the diagnosis of NPP operators and managers errors are considered. The developed models can be used as a basis for applications to NPP educational or engineering simulators to be used for training the NPP executive staff. (authors)

  15. Cognitive decision errors and organization vulnerabilities in nuclear power plant safety management: Modeling using the TOGA meta-theory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Gadomski, A. M. [ECONA, Centro Interuniversitario Elaborazione Cognitiva Sistemi Naturali e Artificiali, via dei Marsi 47, Rome (Italy); Sepiellis, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Wronikowska, M. W. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Poznan School of Social Sciences (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety modeling, the perception of the role of socio-cognitive engineering (SCE) is continuously increasing. Today, the focus is especially on the identification of human and organization decisional errors caused by operators and managers under high-risk conditions, as evident by analyzing reports on nuclear incidents occurred in the past. At present, the engineering and social safety requirements need to enlarge their domain of interest in such a way to include all possible losses generating events that could be the consequences of an abnormal state of a NPP. Socio-cognitive modeling of Integrated Nuclear Safety Management (INSM) using the TOGA meta-theory has been discussed during the ICCAP 2011 Conference. In this paper, more detailed aspects of the cognitive decision-making and its possible human errors and organizational vulnerability are presented. The formal TOGA-based network model for cognitive decision-making enables to indicate and analyze nodes and arcs in which plant operators and managers errors may appear. The TOGA's multi-level IPK (Information, Preferences, Knowledge) model of abstract intelligent agents (AIAs) is applied. In the NPP context, super-safety approach is also discussed, by taking under consideration unexpected events and managing them from a systemic perspective. As the nature of human errors depends on the specific properties of the decision-maker and the decisional context of operation, a classification of decision-making using IPK is suggested. Several types of initial situations of decision-making useful for the diagnosis of NPP operators and managers errors are considered. The developed models can be used as a basis for applications to NPP educational or engineering simulators to be used for training the NPP executive staff. (authors)

  16. Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NEA Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy adopted the Decision and Recommendation Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned on 30 October 2014. The purpose of this Decision and Recommendation is to provide updated technical exclusion criteria, replacing the 1990 criteria that were in force. The criteria are relatively conservative, and some nuclear installations in the process of decommissioning will not, at first, be eligible for exclusion. However, at some point during the decommissioning process, the nuclear installation would meet the criteria and could be excluded from the Paris Convention nuclear liability regime, relieving the operator from the obligation to have and maintain the specific, high level nuclear liability insurance coverage. The Decision and Recommendation's Appendix and Explanatory Note are included in the document

  17. Belgian experience with radiation technologies for sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Dardenne, P.; Herier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Belgium pioneered in non energetic applications of nuclear science. In 1970, the National Institute for Radioisotopes (IRE) was founded on the ground of the experience acquired at the CEN/SCK, for developing nuclear techniques oriented to the well-being of population. In 1978 IRE started operation of 2 γ-irradiation units with a 2.25 million Ci Co 60 , source having a capacity for sterilization of more than 100 m 3 of product per day. this installation is currently operated by Griffith-Mediris (Group Griffith Micro Science) and has accumulated 20 years of experience for irradiation of foodstuffs, medical appliances and pharmaceuticals. In 1986, IRE was producing radioisotopes from accelerators and joined UCL for founding Ion Beam Applications (IBA) company which shortly became the world leader for design and delivery of cyclotrons. More recently, on the basis of French CEA patent, IBA developed the Rhodotron, an e-beam accelerator, with an X-ray option, which is now facing commercial success i area of ionization of food and medical appliances. IRE developed also expertise for the back-end of these activities i.e. final disposal of radioactive sealed source and dismantling of the installations. (author)

  18. Geological disposal in the Belgian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremans, R.H.; Baetsle, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The way of studying the high-level and α-bearing waste burial problem can vary from one country to another. In Belgium, if the electronuclear power represents about 60% of the total electricity production, the installed capacity is however limited to 5500 MWe. Furthermore, Belgium is a small country, densely populated, and its geology does not allow a large choice of underground formations acceptable for safe waste disposal. In 1974, site specific investigations were started on a 700 hectares area in the NE part of the country where Belgium's main nuclear research center and some nuclear fuel cycle facilities are located. The formation considered is a tertiary age clay layer underlying the Mol-Dessel area. Study and research works were organized in the frame of successive five year programs. The main objectives of the research are presented. After 10 years of intensive field, laboratory and desk work the obtained results allowed to start of the drafting of Preliminary Safety and Feasibility report in view of the construction of a demonstration facility. The project was performed by the CEN/SCK in the frame of shared financing contracts with the CEC and ONDRAF/NIRAS

  19. A decision analysis framework to support long-term planning for nuclear fuel cycle technology research, development, demonstration and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowder, A.G.; Machiels, A.J.; Dykes, A.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    To address challenges and gaps in nuclear fuel cycle option assessment and to support research, develop and demonstration programs oriented toward commercial deployment, EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) is seeking to develop and maintain an independent analysis and assessment capability by building a suite of assessment tools based on a platform of software, simplified relationships, and explicit decision-making and evaluation guidelines. As a demonstration of the decision-support framework, EPRI examines a relatively near-term fuel cycle option, i.e., use of reactor-grade mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) in U.S. light water reactors. The results appear as a list of significant concerns (like cooling of spent fuels, criticality risk...) that have to be taken into account for the final decision

  20. Stakeholder Involvement in Nuclear Decision Making, NEA Workshop, 17-19 January 2017. Workshop wrap-up and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclachlan, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The NEA workshop in January 2017 gathered representatives of governments, specialists of most aspects of the operation, management and oversight of the full nuclear fuel cycle, and other actors and experts from across the world. Stakeholder involvement in almost all types of nuclear decision making was addressed, and findings were underlined in other technology sectors. The plenary talks and topical presentations provided an overview of major considerations, while dialogue sessions enabled workshop attendees to deepen their understanding and exchange experience. Even considering the specificity of each context, some take-away were clearly supported by presentations, dialogues and exchanges. They constitute a part of the collective wisdom developed when participants from across member countries and sectors come together at such a unique, cross-cutting workshop. It was beneficial to sit together, talk and compare experience with persons from different backgrounds and areas of competence. Stakeholder involvement is not only about what decision is made. It is also about achieving decisions that visibly and transparently reflect stakeholder concerns and input. Stakeholder involvement is 'a process or a tool to reach a decision that is better-informed, sound and widely accepted'. Stakeholder involvement is viewed also as a principle of democracy. There is no one-approach-fits-all: the stakeholder involvement process needs to be adapted to the country-specific context. Across nations, there are different political systems and legal frameworks that are reflected in the mind-sets of populations and approaches to stakeholder involvement. The shape of involvement will be different in the case of a general, policy-type decision or a project or site-specific decision. The involvement process may respond strictly to legal requirements or it may go beyond this minimum. Societal expectations are that stakeholder involvement will go beyond the sharing of information or consultation

  1. Situation concerning public information about and involvement in the decision-making processes in the nuclear sector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G.; Vaillant, L.; Schneider, T.; Paterson, J.; Dawson, M.; Borg Barthet, J.; Prades, A.; Lopez, M.; Sala, R.

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport (EC DGTREN) launched a study on 'the situation concerning public information about and involvement in decision-making processes in the nuclear sector' in January 2005. The main goal of this project was to inform the EC DGTREN and interested parties of recent developments in the Member States and to provide opportunities for decision-makers and stakeholders at local, national and EU level to exchange views. This study is based on the analysis of opinion polls, regulation and case studies where public information and involvement are a key dimension in the decision-making process and where innovative approaches have been observed. The research material and proposals were presented and discussed at a workshop with 50 delegates, representing the various stakeholders concerned by nuclear activities in Europe. As testified by recent opinion polls and feedback from case studies, there is a strong public demand for more participation in decision-making processes relating to the environment, and nuclear issues specifically. There is an increasing expectation that the phase of decision-framing which determines the scope and objectives of a regulation or of a decision on an industrial facility, involves not only experts and politics, but also NGOs, independent experts, local actors, etc. This expectation is now supported by significant legislation at EU and national levels, the foundation stone of which is the 'Aarhus Convention on the Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters' (1998). One can find different but convergent rationales behind these developments. On the one hand, there is a consideration that nuclear technologies have a potential impact on the public and accordingly require that their development involves affected parties. On the other hand, the problems raised by nuclear activities have an impact at several levels (local

  2. Situation concerning public information about and involvement in the decision-making processes in the nuclear sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadbois, S.; Heriard Dubreuil, G. [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France); Vaillant, L.; Schneider, T. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire - CEPN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Paterson, J.; Dawson, M.; Borg Barthet, J. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom); Prades, A.; Lopez, M.; Sala, R. [CIEMAT, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport (EC DGTREN) launched a study on 'the situation concerning public information about and involvement in decision-making processes in the nuclear sector' in January 2005. The main goal of this project was to inform the EC DGTREN and interested parties of recent developments in the Member States and to provide opportunities for decision-makers and stakeholders at local, national and EU level to exchange views. This study is based on the analysis of opinion polls, regulation and case studies where public information and involvement are a key dimension in the decision-making process and where innovative approaches have been observed. The research material and proposals were presented and discussed at a workshop with 50 delegates, representing the various stakeholders concerned by nuclear activities in Europe. As testified by recent opinion polls and feedback from case studies, there is a strong public demand for more participation in decision-making processes relating to the environment, and nuclear issues specifically. There is an increasing expectation that the phase of decision-framing which determines the scope and objectives of a regulation or of a decision on an industrial facility, involves not only experts and politics, but also NGOs, independent experts, local actors, etc. This expectation is now supported by significant legislation at EU and national levels, the foundation stone of which is the 'Aarhus Convention on the Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters' (1998). One can find different but convergent rationales behind these developments. On the one hand, there is a consideration that nuclear technologies have a potential impact on the public and accordingly require that their development involves affected parties. On the other hand, the problems raised by nuclear activities have an impact at several

  3. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  4. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2006-01-01

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality now matched

  5. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Matti [Univ. of Tampere (Finland). Dept. of Political Science and International Relations

    2006-09-15

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality

  6. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  7. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-01-01

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  8. A Framework for an Integrated Risk Informed Decision Making Process. INSAG-25. A Report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    There is general international agreement, as reflected in various IAEA Safety Standards on nuclear reactor design and operation, that both deterministic and probabilistic analyses contribute to reactor safety by providing insights, perspective, comprehension and balance. Accordingly, the integration of deterministic and probabilistic analyses is increasing to support design, safety evaluation and operations. Additionally, application of these approaches to physical security is now being considered by several Member States. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses yield outputs that are complementary to each other. There is thus a need to use a structured framework for consideration of deterministic and probabilistic techniques and findings. In this process, it is appropriate to encourage a balance between deterministic approaches, probabilistic analyses and other factors (see Section 3) in order to achieve an integrated decision making process that serves in an optimal fashion to ensure nuclear reactor safety. This report presents such a framework - a framework that is termed 'integrated risk informed decision making' (IRIDM). While the details of IRIDM methods may change with better understanding of the subject, the framework presented in this report is expected to apply for the foreseeable future. IRIDM depends on the integration of a wide variety of information, insights and perspectives, as well as the commitment of designers, operators and regulatory authorities to use risk information in their decisions. This report thus focuses on key IRIDM aspects, as well considerations that bear on their application which should be taken into account in order to arrive at sound risk informed decisions. This report is intended to be in harmony with the IAEA Safety Standards and various INSAG reports relating to safety assessment and verification, and seeks to convey an appropriate approach to enhance nuclear reactor safety

  9. Site selection process for new nuclear power plants - a method to support decision making and improving public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Vivian B.; Cunha, Tatiana S. da; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F.

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian Energy Plan (PNE 2030) that guides the Government in formulating its strategy for expanding energy supply by 2030 highlights the need for the Brazilian electrical system have more than 4,000 MW from nuclear sources by 2025. Therefore, the Government presented a proposal to build four more nuclear power plants with capacity of 1,000 MW each, at first, two in the Northeast and two in Southeast. The selection and site assessment are key parts of the installation process of a nuclear plant and may significantly affect the cost, public acceptance and safety of the facility during its entire life cycle. The result of this initial stage, it can even seriously affect program success. Wrong decisions in the process of site selection may also require a financial commitment to higher planned in a later phase of the project, besides causing extensive and expensive downtime. Select the location where these units will be built is not a trivial process, because involves the consideration of multiple criteria and judgments in addition to obtaining, organizing and managing a diverse range of data, both qualitative and quantitative, to assist in decision making and ensure that the site selected is the most appropriate in relation to safety and technical, economic and environmental feasibility. This paper presents an overview of the site selection process and its stages, the criteria involved in each step, the tools to support decision making that can be used and the difficulties in applying a formal process of decision making. Also discussed are ways to make the process more transparent and democratic, increasing public involvement as a way to improve acceptance and reduce opposition from various sectors of society, trying to minimize the expense and time involved in the implementation of undertakings of this kind. (author)

  10. A Framework for an Integrated Risk Informed Decision Making Process. INSAG-25. A Report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    There is general international agreement, as reflected in various IAEA Safety Standards on nuclear reactor design and operation, that both deterministic and probabilistic analyses contribute to reactor safety by providing insights, perspective, comprehension and balance. Accordingly, the integration of deterministic and probabilistic analyses is increasing to support design, safety evaluation and operations. Additionally, application of these approaches to physical security is now being considered by several Member States. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses yield outputs that are complementary to each other. There is thus a need to use a structured framework for consideration of deterministic and probabilistic techniques and findings. In this process, it is appropriate to encourage a balance between deterministic approaches, probabilistic analyses and other factors (see Section 3) in order to achieve an integrated decision making process that serves in an optimal fashion to ensure nuclear reactor safety. This report presents such a framework - a framework that is termed 'integrated risk informed decision making' (IRIDM). While the details of IRIDM methods may change with better understanding of the subject, the framework presented in this report is expected to apply for the foreseeable future. IRIDM depends on the integration of a wide variety of information, insights and perspectives, as well as the commitment of designers, operators and regulatory authorities ers, operators and regulatory authorities to use risk information in their decisions. This report thus focuses on key IRIDM aspects, as well considerations that bear on their application which should be taken into account in order to arrive at sound risk informed decisions. This report is intended to be in harmony with the IAEA Safety Standards and various INSAG reports relating to safety assessment and verification, and seeks to convey an appropriate approach to enhance nuclear reactor safety

  11. A grounded typology of vacation decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decrop, A.; Snelders, H.M.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a typology of vacationers based on decision-making variables and processes. Employing a naturalistic perspective, the (summer) vacation decision-making process of 25 Belgian households was followed for a year. In-depth interview and observation data were analyzed and interpreted

  12. Powered by technology or powering technology?---Belief-based decision-making in nuclear power and synthetic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Jen

    , indeterminate, and relatively impotent, which explains the hesitancy in the government's synfuel endeavors. In retrospect, it is not difficult to see that many of the pivotal decisions were "belief-based". Due to the long-term nature of energy planning and the inherent unpredictability of the distant future, important energy investment decisions are inevitably based on decision-makers' beliefs. Unfortunately, many generally agreed views about the future turned out to be wrong. Shared beliefs are socially constructed and reflect particular zeitgeists. Another important finding is a recurrent herding phenomenon in the forecasters' community. This phenomenon largely explains the repeated forecasting fallacies. As history reveals itself, shared beliefs about the long-term future have been repeatedly proven wrong. Nevertheless, mistakes caused by misguided beliefs often survive. As culture evolves over the long-term, an old belief system, i.e. a worldview/zeitgeist, may be challenged by a new one. Two competing worldviews underlay the pro- and antinuclear controversies: one embraces modernism while the other is skeptical of it. Long-lived, large-scale capital-intensive energy facilities, such as nuclear power plants, are inevitably encumbered with unique "outlived-zeitgeist" jeopardy. Understanding this peculiar but pervasive characteristic teaches important lessons for today's decision-making about hydrogen and other energy technologies, and the stakes, if anything, are even higher than before.

  13. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances. Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders, July 1, 1994--December 31, 1994. Volume 40, Pages 1--387

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The hardbound edition of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances is a final compilation of the monthly issuances. It includes all of the legal precedents for the agency within a six-month period. Any opinions, decisions, denials, memoranda and orders of the Commission inadvertently omitted from the monthly softbounds and any corrections submitted by the NRC legal staff to the printed softbound issuances are contained in the hardbound edition. Cross references in the text and indexes are to the NRCI page numbers which are the same as the page numbers in this publication. This book covers the following: issuances of the NRC; issuances of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards; and issuances of Directors' decisions

  14. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances. Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders, July 1, 1994--December 31, 1994. Volume 40, Pages 1--387

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The hardbound edition of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances is a final compilation of the monthly issuances. It includes all of the legal precedents for the agency within a six-month period. Any opinions, decisions, denials, memoranda and orders of the Commission inadvertently omitted from the monthly softbounds and any corrections submitted by the NRC legal staff to the printed softbound issuances are contained in the hardbound edition. Cross references in the text and indexes are to the NRCI page numbers which are the same as the page numbers in this publication. This book covers the following: issuances of the NRC; issuances of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards; and issuances of Directors` decisions.

  15. Development of RODOS (Real-Time, On-Line Decision Support System), a comprehensive decision support system for nuclear emergencies in Europe - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Schuele, O.

    1993-01-01

    Within its Radiation Protection Research Programme, the Commission of the European Communities has embarked on a major project aiming at the development of an integrated and comprehensive real-time on-line decision support system (RODOS) for nuclear emergencies in Europe, applicable for the vicinity of the release and the early phase up to far distant areas and the later stages of an accident. At present, the project is organised as a joint venture of some 18 European institutes closely cooperating with several Russian and Ukrainian laboratories. The main purpose of the project is to provide the methodological basis, develop models and data and install the hardware and software framework of RODOS. The paper describes the key features, the overall design and the software structure broadly accepted by the contractors. The paper sketches the present status of RODOS and gives an overview of the important tasks of R and D work for the next project phases. (author)

  16. On intervention levels for nuclear or radiological emergency and decision-making on protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengde; Nakashima, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The intervention principles and intervention levels newly recommended by ICRP and IAEA are introduced, the necessarily of determining site specific intervention levels is discussed, the method of estimating intervention levels with human capital approach by an example of Japan case is described, and finally decision-making issues are discussed and a decision-making chain is given

  17. Decision analysis for the siting of nuclear power plants: the relevance of multiattribute utility theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L; Nair, K.

    1975-01-01

    The necessity for improved decision making concerning the siting and licensing of major power facilities has been accelerated in the past decade by the increased environmental consciousness of the public and by the energy crisis. These problems are exceedingly complex due to their multiple objective nature, the many interest groups, the long-range time horizons, and the inherent uncertainties of the potential impacts of any decision. Along with the relatively objective economic and engineering concerns, clearly the more subjective factors involving safety, environmental, and social issues are crucial to the problem. Hence, the professional judgments and knowledge of experts in these areas should be utilized in analyses of siting decisions. Likewise, the preferences of the general public, as consumers, the utility companies, as builders and operators of power plant facilities, and environmentalists and the government must be accounted for in analyzing power plant siting and licensing issues. We advocate an approach for formally articulating the experts' judgments and the decision makers' preferences, both of which are clearly subjective, and processing these along with the more objective considerations in a logical manner to acquire the implications for decision making. The appropriateness and application of decision analysis for power plant location decisions is discussed and illustrated. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of the decision maker's preferences and tradeoffs concerning multiple objectives. (U.S.)

  18. The situation of nuclear rower after Fukushima. Public perception and political decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego Carrera, Diana; Hampel, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    When nuclear power was introduced for electricity production in the mid-1950s, the access to nearly unlimited energy reserves it promised was expected to make the scarcity of energy supply a problem of the past. In the light of such expectations, the first nuclear reactors for electricity generation were built in Germany in the 1960s and in Switzerland in the late 1960s. Only a few years later, as early as in the 1970s, nuclear power developed into one of the present technologies discussed most controversially. While nuclear proponents considered the risks associated with the use of nuclear power low, nuclear opponents insisted mainly on debating the extent to which the risks of nuclear power were acceptable even if the probability of occurrence was low. History shows that there is no straight path in the development of nuclear power. While France made nuclear power the backbone of electricity production, other countries were much more reluctant to use nuclear power. After quite dramatic discussions in the 1970s and 1980s nuclear power seemed to develop into an unpopular but necessary evil to be accepted temporarily - whatever the definition of temporarily may be - until alternative sources of energy would replace it. Also in the social sciences, attention from the 1990s on concentrated on other topics, moving nuclear power into the background of interest. At present, the future of nuclear power looks rather bleak, at least in Germany and in Switzerland. The probability of change in the near future is discussed in this article. Attitudes towards nuclear power are analyzed first. A number of opinion polls, some of them permitting international comparison, allow public attitudes towards nuclear power in Europe, Germany, and Switzerland to be assessed. A next step deals with the cognitive background to attitudes, looking at risks and risk perception from a scientific perspective of risk studies. Another point considered is the identity of societally visible players

  19. BNAIC 2008 : Proceedings of BNAIC 2008, the twentieth Belgian-Dutch Artificial Intelligence Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Pantic, Maja; Poel, Mannes; Hondorp, Hendri

    2008-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 20th edition of the Belgian-Netherlands Conference on Artificial Intelligence. The conference was organized by the Human Media Interaction group of the University of Twente. As usual, the conference was under the auspices of the Belgian-Dutch Association for

  20. Improving the Reliability of Decision-Support Systems for Nuclear Emergency Management by Leveraging Software Design Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor B. Ionescu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel method of continuous verification of simulation software used in decision-support systems for nuclear emergency management (DSNE. The proposed approach builds on methods from the field of software reliability engineering, such as N-Version Programming, Recovery Blocks, and Consensus Recovery Blocks. We introduce a new acceptance test for dispersion simulation results and a new voting scheme based on taxonomies of simulation results rather than individual simulation results. The acceptance test and the voter are used in a new scheme, which extends the Consensus Recovery Block method by a database of result taxonomies to support machine-learning. This enables the system to learn how to distinguish correct from incorrect results, with respect to the implemented numerical schemes. Considering that decision-support systems for nuclear emergency management are used in a safety-critical application context, the methods introduced in this paper help improve the reliability of the system and the trustworthiness of the simulation results used by emergency managers in the decision making process. The effectiveness of the approach has been assessed using the atmospheric dispersion forecasts of two test versions of the widely used RODOS DSNE system.

  1. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  2. Impact of a VAP bundle in Belgian intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadot, Laurent; Huyghens, Luc; De Jaeger, Annick; Bourgeois, Marc; Biarent, Dominique; Higuet, Adeline; de Decker, Koen; Vander Laenen, Margot; Oosterlynck, Baudewijn; Ferdinande, Patrick; Reper, Pascal; Brimioulle, Serge; Van Cromphaut, Sophie; De Clety, Stéphane Clement; Sottiaux, Thierry; Damas, Pierre

    2018-05-21

    In order to decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in Belgium, a national campaign for implementing a VAP bundle involving assessment of sedation, cuff pressure control, oral care with chlorhexidine and semirecumbent position, was launched in 2011-2012. This report will document the impact of this campaign. On 1 day, once a year from 2010 till 2016, except in 2012, Belgian ICUs were questioned about their ventilated patients. For each of these, data about the application of the bundle and the possible treatment for VAP were recorded. Between 36.6 and 54.8% of the 120 Belgian ICUs participated in the successive surveys. While the characteristics of ventilated patients remained similar throughout the years, the percentage of ventilated patients and especially the duration of ventilation significantly decreased before and after the national VAP bundle campaign. Ventilator care also profoundly changed: Controlling cuff pressure, head positioning above 30° were obtained in more than 90% of cases. Oral care was more frequently performed within a day, using more concentrated solutions of chlorhexidine. Subglottic suctioning also was used but in only 24.7% of the cases in the last years. Regarding the prevalence of VAP, it significantly decreased from 28% of ventilated patients in 2010 to 10.1% in 2016 (p ≤ 0.0001). Although a causal relationship cannot be inferred from these data, the successive surveys revealed a potential impact of the VAP bundle campaign on both the respiratory care of ventilated patients and the prevalence of VAP in Belgian ICUs encouraging them to follow the guidelines.

  3. Impact of the disturbances of the nuclear cycle on the robustness of the strategic decisions in the long run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteille, Cedric

    2003-01-01

    The work of this thesis is placed within the framework of the studies of nuclear power scenarios. The search for scenarios answering a given problem does not undertake towards a single scenario but to a whole of scenarios potentially solutions. These studies are multi-criterion studies. In order to be able to compare and classify the scenarios between them, it is necessary that those are accompanied by calculations of uncertainties. The objective of this thesis is to develop methods for research of optimal scenarios for a given problem of strategy and to help a decision maker to make a final choice among these scenarios and to take into account certain uncertainties. These methods were concretized by the realization of a software which was used to solve a problem of strategy. We thus modelled a nuclear park with a closed fuel cycle and close to balance with all the components of the cycle (nuclear reactors and the associated fuel cycle facilities). Moreover, we developed a model of propagation of error based on a limited development of the equations of the model and the integration of the differential system obtained. The research of the scenarios solutions is carried out using a genetic algorithm in order to obtain the zone of Pareto of the problem and a Rough Sets method is used for multi-criteria decision-making aid. (author)

  4. Decision to choose nuclear power before and after Three Mile Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannenbach, S.F.

    The author says the lesson from TMI is clear: we must reassess our national policy favoring nuclear power. He feels the regulatory and statutory incentives which have played such a significant role in boosting the role of nuclear power now appear to be off-track. Neither utilities nor regulators have been able to adequately quantify the substantial risks inherent in nuclear power. Consequently, the consideration of these strong disincentives have been artificially removed through regulatory and statutory incentives, and it was left to TMI to expose the deficiencies of the rate of return and indemnification systems. The present rate-of-return system favors nuclear power due to its captial-intensive nature. The present indemnification system is simply unable to equitably compensate the many victims of a large-scale nuclear power plants accident. The author suggests that a new national policy favoring nonuclear alternatives should combine incentives for nonnuclear alternatives with disincentives against nuclear power. This would encourage utilities to decelerate the pace of nuclear power development until effective methods exist to protect against nuclear-accident risks and their attendant social and economic costs. Such an approach will assure that fewer TMIs will occur in the future. 57 references.

  5. Decision to choose nuclear power before and after Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannenbach, S.F.

    1981-01-01

    The author says the lesson from TMI is clear: we must reassess our national policy favoring nuclear power. He feels the regulatory and statutory incentives which have played such a significant role in boosting the role of nuclear power now appear to be off-track. Neither utilities nor regulators have been able to adequately quantify the substantial risks inherent in nuclear power. Consequently, the consideration of these strong disincentives have been artificially removed through regulatory and statutory incentives, and it was left to TMI to expose the deficiencies of the rate of return and indemnification systems. The present rate-of-return system favors nuclear power due to its captial-intensive nature. The present indemnification system is simply unable to equitably compensate the many victims of a large-scale nuclear power plants accident. The author suggests that a new national policy favoring nonuclear alternatives should combine incentives for nonnuclear alternatives with disincentives against nuclear power. This would encourage utilities to decelerate the pace of nuclear power development until effective methods exist to protect against nuclear-accident risks and their attendant social and economic costs. Such an approach will assure that fewer TMIs will occur in the future. 57 references

  6. Support system development for evacuation plan decision in nuclear plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Masahiko; Takayama, Jun-ichi; Nakayama, Sho-ichiro; Ushiba, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    These days, our interest in nuclear plant accidents has increased, and civic actions for them have also been activated. Therefore, improvement of the disaster prevention planning to nuclear plant accidents is requested. In this study, we developed a microscopic traffic simulation system for evacuation plan near the nuclear plant as a system which supports to examine the disaster prevention planning, and applied the system to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear plant area. Furthermore, the risk of each region near the nuclear plant disaster from the viewpoint of wind direction and the population was considered, the importance of each evacuation simulation was examined. As a result, we found that the present plan Kashiwazaki-Kariwa made has the problem on evacuation routes and others. (author)

  7. Support for decision making and problem solving in abnormal conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.; Humphreys, P.

    1985-01-01

    Under abnormal plant condition effective decision support has to take into account the operator's or other decision maker's mental model of the plant, derived from operating experience. This will be different from the engineering model incorporated in Disturbance Analysis Systems. Recently developed approaches for gaining access to the structure of this mental model provided the basis for the development of an interactive computer system capable of representing and exploring expert knowledge concerning inferences about causal patterns, starting from the information available to the operator in the control room. This system has potential application as an interactive diagnostic aid in support of decision making and problem solving during abnormal conditions. (Auth.)

  8. The investment decision and its funding in an evolving institutional environment: application of the real options theory to the case of nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, Marie-Laure

    2002-01-01

    This research thesis aims at analysing the investment behaviour of an electric company in a European market which becomes uncertain due to opening to competition. The author studies the problem of company which has the opportunity to invest in nuclear equipment, must take an irreversible investment decision in, and must choose the share of debt with respect to its internal capital. Before addressing these issues, the author discusses the impact of deregulation of the investment rule and develops methodological principles of investment and funding. Then she discusses the influence of the industrial structure of nuclear investments decision, examines the investment decision and its optimal funding in a sector which is being deregulated

  9. A method and application study on holistic decision tree for human reliability analysis in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Feng; Zhong Shan; Wu Zhiyu

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a human reliability analysis method mainly used in Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment and the Holistic Decision Tree (HDT) method and how to apply it. The focus is primarily on providing the basic framework and some background of HDT method and steps to perform it. Influence factors and quality descriptors are formed by the interview with operators in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and HDT analysis performed for SGTR and SLOCA based on this information. The HDT model can use a graphic tree structure to indicate that error rate is a function of influence factors. HDT method is capable of dealing with the uncertainty in HRA, and it is reliable and practical. (authors)

  10. Nuclear Chemistry and Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevelde, L.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of research activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the field of nuclear analytical techniques are summarized. Major efforts in 1999 went to a project on the qualification of radioanalytical routines for the determination of alpha-emitting nuclides in conditioned radioactive waste; the ARIANE project; and the provision of radiochemical and chemical analytical services to internal and external clients

  11. Fuzzy logics acquisition and simulation modules for expert systems to assist operator's decision for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averkin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    A new type of fuzzy expert system for assisting the operator's decisions in nuclear power plant system in non-standard situations is proposed. This expert system is based on new approaches to fuzzy logics acquisition and to fuzzy logics testing. Fuzzy logics can be generated by a T-norms axiomatic system to choose the most suitable to operator's way of thinking. Then the chosen fuzzy logic is tested by simulation of inference process in expert system. The designed logic is the input of inference module of expert system

  12. Improvment, extension and integration of operational decision support systems for nuclear emergency management (DSSNET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    2005-07-01

    The DSSNET network was established in October 2000 with the overall objective to create an effective and accepted framework for better communication and understanding between the community of institutions involved in operational off-site emergency management and the many and diverse RTD institutes further developing methods and tools in this area, in particular decision support systems (DSS), for making well informed and consistent judgements with respect to practical improvements of emergency response in Europe. 37 institutions from 21 countries of East and West Europe have been members of the network with about half of them responsible for operational emergency management. The objectives of the network have been numerous and the more important ones include: to ensure that future RTD is more responsive to user needs, to inform the user community of new developments and their potential for improving emergency response, to improve operational decision support systems from feedback of operational experience, to identify how information and data exchange between countries can be improved, to promote greater coherence among operational decision support systems and to encourage shared development of new and improved decision support systems features, and to improve the practicability of operational decision support systems. To stimulate the communication and feedback between the operational and the RTD community, problem-oriented emergency exercises were performed, which covered the various time phases of an accident and which extended from the near range to farther distances with frontier crossing transport of radionuclides. The report describes the objectives of the DSSNET, the five emergency exercises performed and the results of their evaluation. They provided valuable insight and lessons for operators and users of decision support systems, in particular the need for much more intensive training and exercising with decision support systems and their interaction with

  13. Review of selected cost drivers for decisions on continued operation of older nuclear reactors. Safety upgrades, lifetime extension, decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    Lately, the approach to the operation of relatively old NPPs has become an important issue for the nuclear industry for several reasons. First, a large part of operating NPPs will reach the planned end of their lives relatively soon. Replacing these capacities can involve significant investment for the concerned countries and utilities. Second, many operating NPPs while about 30 years old are still in very good condition. Their continued safe operation appears possible and may bring about essential economic gains. Finally, with the costs of new NPPs being rather high at present, continued operation of existing plants and eventually their lifetime extension are viable options for supporting the nuclear share in power generation. This is becoming especially important in view of the growing attention to the issue of global warming and the role of nuclear energy in greenhouse gas mitigation. This report is a review of information related to three cost categories that are part of such cost-benefit analysis: costs of safety upgrades for continued operation of a nuclear unit, costs of lifetime extension and costs of decommissioning. It can serve as a useful reference source for experts and decision makers involved in the economics of operating NPPs

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and feed on the Belgian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widely distributed plant toxins with species dependent hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, genotoxic and pneumotoxic risks. In a recent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion, only two data sets from one European country were received for honey, while one feed data set was included. No data are available for food or feed samples from the Belgian market. We developed an LC-MS/MS method, which allowed the detection and quantification of 16 PAs in a broad range of matrices in the sub ng g(-1) range. The method was validated in milk, honey and hay and applied to honey, tea (Camellia sinensis), scented tea, herbal tea, milk and feed samples bought on the Belgian market. The results confirmed that tea, scented tea, herbal tea and honey are important food sources of pyrrolizidine alkaloid contamination in Belgium. Furthermore, we detected PAs in 4 of 63 commercial milk samples. A high incidence rate of PAs in lucerne (alfalfa)-based horse feed and in rabbit feed was detected, while bird feed samples were less contaminated. We report for the first time the presence of monocrotaline, intermedine, lycopsamine, heliotrine and echimidine in cat food.

  15. Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema in Belgian Draught Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Peeters, L M; Foqué, N; Gasthuys, F; Oosterlinck, M; Buys, N

    2014-12-01

    Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL)-associated traits in Belgian Draught Horses were estimated, using a multitrait animal model. Clinical scores of CPL in the four limbs/horse (CPLclin ), skinfold thickness and hair samples (hair diameter) were studied. Due to CPLclin uncertainty in younger horses (progressive CPL character), a restricted data set (D_3+) was formed, excluding records from horses under 3 years from the complete data set (D_full). Age, gender, coat colour and limb hair pigmentation were included as fixed, permanent environment and date of recording as random effects. Higher CPLclin certainty (D_3+) increased heritability coefficients of, and genetic correlations between traits, with CPLclin heritabilities (SE) for the respective data sets: 0.11 (0.06) and 0.26 (0.05). A large proportion of the CPLclin variance was attributed to the permanent environmental effect in D_full, but less in D_3+. Date of recording explained a proportion of variance from 0.09 ± 0.03 to 0.61 ± 0.08. Additive genetic correlations between CPLclin and both skinfold thickness and hair diameter showed the latter two traits cannot be used as a direct diagnostic aid for CPL. Due to the relatively low heritability of CPLclin , selection should focus on estimated breeding values (from repeated clinical examinations) to reduce CPL occurrence in the Belgian Draught Horse. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Posiva's application for a decision in principle concerning a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. STUK's statement and preliminary safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruokola, E.

    2000-03-01

    In May 1999, Posiva Ltd submitted to the Government an application, pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, for a Decision in Principle on a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The Ministry of Trade and Industry requested the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to draw up a preliminary safety appraisal concerning the proposed disposal facility. In the beginning of this report, STUK's statement to the Ministry and Industry concerning the proposed disposal facility is given. In that statement, STUK concludes that the Decision in Principle is currently justified from the standpoint of safety. The statement is followed by a safety appraisal, where STUK deems, how the proposed disposal concept, site and facility comply with the safety requirements included in the Government's Decision (478/1999). STUK's preliminary safety appraisal was supported by contributions from a number of outside experts. A collective opinion by an international group of ten distinguished experts is appended to this report. (orig.)

  17. "Nuclear Deterrence" as an Adaptive Game Frame for Crisis Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, David S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the simulation game "Nuclear Deterrence," which was developed to model an international relations crisis situation involving a bargaining framework potentially applicable to crisis modeling in other disciplines. Eight references are listed. (Author/LLS)

  18. Taking a Dive for a Friend - The Decision to Transfer Nuclear Submarine Technology to Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brubaker, Gerald L

    1990-01-01

    .... national security bureaucracy: President Reagan had approved the transfer of U.S.-developed nuclear submarine propulsion technology to Canada and would inform Prime Minister Brian Mulroney during his visit to Washington later that month...

  19. The history of decisions on creation of nuclear and metallurgical complex on the basis of the Kola nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrin B. I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Some reasons for the choice of directions for using electric and thermal energy of the Kola nuclear power plant located beyond the Arctic Circle have been presented. The regions of the country and their large-scale industrial productions based on metallurgical enterprises have been indicated; the electrical supply of these enterprises is implemented from the Kola NPP. The results of research of energy inputs for the production of a ton of steel and cast iron have been presented. It has been determined that the main direction of technological modernization in the steel industry is avoiding the use of organic fuels (particularly in coke-blast furnace production as the most energy-intensive and its replacement with the technology of direct reduction of iron with hydrogen. As an alternative energy source for organic fuels the creation of a fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been proposed. The principal scheme of the fuel-free nuclear-metallurgical electrified complex has been described, here the main novelty has a reducing gases preparation block giving the potential ability for creating waste-free process. It has been noted that this technology requires using high temperatures and solving technical problems related to heat resistance of constructions. Some examples of world research on the implementation of similar projects have been presented. It has been determined that the use of new technology will cause the need for optimization of power consumption structure due to the redistribution of capacity and electrical consumption between productions. The introduction of new technologies requires solving a number of problems on electric power supply and electrical equipment designing. It has been observed that on the Kola NPP large-scale reconstruction was carried out during the working period, it helped to increase its project capacity and extend the operation life. Nowadays the region has excess installed capacity that can be

  20. On the spot ethical decision-making in CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear event) response: approaches to on the spot ethical decision-making for first responders to large-scale chemical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebera, Andrew P; Rafalowski, Chaim

    2014-09-01

    First responders to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) events face decisions having significant human consequences. Some operational decisions are supported by standard operating procedures, yet these may not suffice for ethical decisions. Responders will be forced to weigh their options, factoring-in contextual peculiarities; they will require guidance on how they can approach novel (indeed unique) ethical problems: they need strategies for "on the spot" ethical decision making. The primary aim of this paper is to examine how first responders should approach on the spot ethical decision-making amid the stress and uncertainty of a CBRN event. Drawing on the long-term professional CBRN experience of one of the authors, this paper sets out a series of practical ethical dilemmas potentially arising in the context of a large-scale chemical incident. We propose a broadly consequentialist approach to on the spot ethical decision-making, but one which incorporates ethical values and rights as "side-constraints".

  1. Empowering the Legitimacy of Municipal Decision-Making - Three Swedish Municipalities Facing the Nuclear Waste Management Issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, Olof

    2001-01-01

    This paper is focussed on how municipal elected leaders in three Swedish feasibility study municipalities - Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp - have tried to ensure that future decisions by their respective municipalities will be based both on factual knowledge and on existing opinions held by the general public. These efforts have contributed to an empowerment of the legitimacy of municipal decision-making within the nuclear waste management field and, probably, also served as a factor contributing to trust building with regard to these issues. The three cases show three ways to handle the problem, although there are also common features. The municipalities of Nykoeping and Oskarshamn have been facing these issues since 1995. In the case of Tierp, the municipality was confronted in late 1998 with the task to choose a strategy for its involvement in the site selection process and then, immediately, implement that strategy. A decision to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel has an obvious local dimension. It is not enough that an implementer is capable of developing a method that is considered to be safe enough by the regulatory authorities and by the Government. Nor is it enough that the implementer has succeeded to choose a site that these institutions consider to be suitable. A vital condition for a successful result is also that the general public, especially people living close to the site, have trust in the process leading up to the decision - and of course also that the general public is confident that the implementer and the regulator have agreed on a sound technical solution of the disposal problem. In other words, decisions in this area by Government and regulatory authorities do not only have to comply with existing legislation (obviously decisions by such bodies have to be 'legal'); they also should have a democratic legitimacy. In a representative democracy like Sweden, with high voting participation, it may seem self-evident that the

  2. Empowering the Legitimacy of Municipal Decision-Making - Three Swedish Municipalities Facing the Nuclear Waste Management Issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Olof [Ministry of the Environment, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is focussed on how municipal elected leaders in three Swedish feasibility study municipalities - Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp - have tried to ensure that future decisions by their respective municipalities will be based both on factual knowledge and on existing opinions held by the general public. These efforts have contributed to an empowerment of the legitimacy of municipal decision-making within the nuclear waste management field and, probably, also served as a factor contributing to trust building with regard to these issues. The three cases show three ways to handle the problem, although there are also common features. The municipalities of Nykoeping and Oskarshamn have been facing these issues since 1995. In the case of Tierp, the municipality was confronted in late 1998 with the task to choose a strategy for its involvement in the site selection process and then, immediately, implement that strategy. A decision to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel has an obvious local dimension. It is not enough that an implementer is capable of developing a method that is considered to be safe enough by the regulatory authorities and by the Government. Nor is it enough that the implementer has succeeded to choose a site that these institutions consider to be suitable. A vital condition for a successful result is also that the general public, especially people living close to the site, have trust in the process leading up to the decision - and of course also that the general public is confident that the implementer and the regulator have agreed on a sound technical solution of the disposal problem. In other words, decisions in this area by Government and regulatory authorities do not only have to comply with existing legislation (obviously decisions by such bodies have to be 'legal'); they also should have a democratic legitimacy. In a representative democracy like Sweden, with high voting participation, it may seem self-evident that

  3. A decision theoretic approach to an accident sequence: when feedwater and auxiliary feedwater fail in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenson, Ola

    1998-01-01

    This study applies a decision theoretic perspective on a severe accident management sequence in a processing industry. The sequence contains loss of feedwater and auxiliary feedwater in a boiling water nuclear reactor (BWR), which necessitates manual depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel to enable low pressure cooling of the core. The sequence is fast and is a major contributor to core damage in probabilistic risk analyses (PRAs) of this kind of plant. The management of the sequence also includes important, difficult and fast human decision making. The decision theoretic perspective, which is applied to a Swedish ABB-type reactor, stresses the roles played by uncertainties about plant state, consequences of different actions and goals during the management of a severe accident sequence. Based on a theoretical analysis and empirical simulator data the human error probabilities in the PRA for the plant are considered to be too small. Recommendations for how to improve safety are given and they include full automation of the sequence, improved operator training, and/or actions to assist the operators' decision making through reduction of uncertainties, for example, concerning water/steam level for sufficient cooling, time remaining before insufficient cooling level in the tank is reached and organizational cost-benefit evaluations of the events following a false alarm depressurization as well as the events following a successful depressurization at different points in time. Finally, it is pointed out that the approach exemplified in this study is applicable to any accident scenario which includes difficult human decision making with conflicting goals, uncertain information and with very serious consequences

  4. Integration of gamma measuring equipment into an Agusta A109BA helicopter of the Belgian Armed Forces for use in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.

    2007-01-01

    In case of a nuclear emergency, accidental releases of radioactive material might cause large scale environmental contamination. After the emergency has been brought under control, and the radioactive releases have settled on the ground, it is essential to map as quickly as possible the extent of the contaminated area and to evaluate the severity of the contamination. Airborne gamma measurements are known to be an effective means for quickly and safely mapping and evaluating large scale contaminations of gamma-emitting radio nuclides. We wanted to integrate gamma measuring equipment, based on a NaI detector, into an Agusta A109BA helicopter of the Belgian armed forces. This was done within the framework of ''Aid to the Nation'', a special program developed by the Belgian Armed Forces for facilitating cooperation between the armed forces and civilian organisations, for projects that are to the benefit of the Belgian Nation. Working in this framework, we also want to develop the necessary procedures that will allow quick and efficient deployment of the measuring capability in case of an emergency

  5. Techniques and decision making in the assessment of off-site consequences of an accident in a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Guide is intended to complement the IAEA's existing technical guidance on emergency planning and preparedness by providing information and practical guidance related to the assessment of off-site consequences of an accident in a nuclear or radioactive materials installation and to the decision making process in implementing protective measures. This Guide contains information on emergency response philosophy, fundamental factors affecting accident consequences, principles of accident assessment, data acquisition and handling, systems, techniques and decision making principles. Many of the accident assessment concepts presented are considerably more advanced than some of those that now pertain in most countries. They could, if properly interpreted, developed and applied, significantly improve emergency response in the early and intermediate phases of an accident. Furthermore, they are considered to be applicable to a broad range of serious nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. The extent of their application is governed by both the scale of the accident and by the availability of preplanned resources for accident assessment and emergency response. 68 refs, 28 figs, 14 tabs

  6. Decision model incorporating utility theory and measurement of social values applied to nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litchfield, J.W.; Hansen, J.V.; Beck, L.C.

    1975-07-01

    A generalized computer-based decision analysis model was developed and tested. Several alternative concepts for ultimate disposal have already been developed; however, significant research is still required before any of these can be implemented. To make a choice based on technical estimates of the costs, short-term safety, long-term safety, and accident detection and recovery requires estimating the relative importance of each of these factors or attributes. These relative importance estimates primarily involve social values and therefore vary from one individual to the next. The approach used was to sample various public groups to determine the relative importance of each of the factors to the public. These estimates of importance weights were combined in a decision analysis model with estimates, furnished by technical experts, of the degree to which each alternative concept achieves each of the criteria. This model then integrates the two separate and unique sources of information and provides the decision maker with information as to the preferences and concerns of the public as well as the technical areas within each concept which need further research. The model can rank the alternatives using sampled public opinion and techno-economic data. This model provides a decision maker with a structured approach to subdividing complex alternatives into a set of more easily considered attributes, measuring the technical performance of each alternative relative to each attribute, estimating relevant social values, and assimilating quantitative information in a rational manner to estimate total value for each alternative. Because of the explicit nature of this decision analysis, the decision maker can select a specific alternative supported by clear documentation and justification for his assumptions and estimates. (U.S.)

  7. History of the great decisions concerning the nuclear fuel cycle in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a brief review of the major activities and programmes of the CEA since its foundation in 1945, up to the adoption of the first five-year plan in 1952. Then, the important decisions taken in France up to the present are summarized, explaining their effects on the fuel cycle development in terms of political commitment and of technological development, illustrating their impact by reviewing the major strategies such as those for reprocessing, plutonium fuels, enrichment, and LWR fuel element development. This review also refers to the strategy adopted for waste management, and the main decisions and measures taken within the evolution of the waste management regime. (orig.)

  8. Decision no. 2011-DC-0219 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the SOCATRI company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the SOCATRI company, operator of the nuclear dismantling and waste processing plants of the Tricastin site (France). (J.S.)

  9. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-07-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study {sup S}ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector{sup ,} contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the {sup n}uclear EBs{sup u}ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs.

  10. Public participation in political decisions on nuclear energy: the Swiss practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, I.; Bucher, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Swiss system is based on the principles of federalism and direct democracy. First, any decision is made at the most basic and the most local level feasible. Second, neither Government nor Parliament have the last word to say on matters considered important. For important decisions like an amendment of the constitution, a plebiscite or referendum is compulsory. Other decisions like the amendment of a law, are subject to an optional referendum. A plebiscite takes place only when a minimum number of voters have signed a referendum petition against the decision. On the federal level only 50 000 signatures are sufficient, i.e. only about 1% of the electorate. Only about 2% or 100 000 signatures are required on a national level for releasing the second instrument of direct democracy, the so-called peoples initiative an initiative is a proposal for the amendment to the constitution. Usually, it takes 4-5 years from the collection of the first signature to the plebiscite vote. The proposal passes if it wins the majority of all voters on the national level as well as the majority of the voters in at least half of the cantons ('states')

  11. Application of stochastic optimization to nuclear power plant asset management decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, D.; Koc, A.; Hess, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the development and application of stochastic optimization models and algorithms to address an issue of critical importance in the strategic allocation of resources; namely, the selection of a portfolio of capital investment projects under the constraints of a limited and uncertain budget. This issue is significant and one that faces decision-makers across all industries. The objective of this strategic decision process is generally self evident - to maximize the value obtained from the portfolio of selected projects (with value usually measured in terms of the portfolio's net present value). However, heretofore, many organizations have developed processes to make these investment decisions using simplistic rule-based rank-ordering schemes. This approach has the significant limitation of not accounting for the (often large) uncertainties in the costs or economic benefits associated with the candidate projects or in the uncertainties in the actual funds available to be expended over the projected period of time. As a result, the simple heuristic approaches that typically are employed in industrial practice generate outcomes that are non-optimal and do not achieve the level of benefits intended. In this paper we describe the results of research performed to utilize stochastic optimization models and algorithms to address this limitation by explicitly incorporating the evaluation of uncertainties in the analysis and decision making process. (authors)

  12. Application of stochastic optimization to nuclear power plant asset management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, D. [Graduate Program in Operations Research and Industrial Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States); Koc, A. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Business Analytics and Mathematical Sciences Dept., 1101 Kitchawan Rd., Yorktown Heights, NY, 10598 (United States); Hess, S. M. [Electric Power Research Institute, 300 Baywood Road, West Chester, PA, 19382 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We describe the development and application of stochastic optimization models and algorithms to address an issue of critical importance in the strategic allocation of resources; namely, the selection of a portfolio of capital investment projects under the constraints of a limited and uncertain budget. This issue is significant and one that faces decision-makers across all industries. The objective of this strategic decision process is generally self evident - to maximize the value obtained from the portfolio of selected projects (with value usually measured in terms of the portfolio's net present value). However, heretofore, many organizations have developed processes to make these investment decisions using simplistic rule-based rank-ordering schemes. This approach has the significant limitation of not accounting for the (often large) uncertainties in the costs or economic benefits associated with the candidate projects or in the uncertainties in the actual funds available to be expended over the projected period of time. As a result, the simple heuristic approaches that typically are employed in industrial practice generate outcomes that are non-optimal and do not achieve the level of benefits intended. In this paper we describe the results of research performed to utilize stochastic optimization models and algorithms to address this limitation by explicitly incorporating the evaluation of uncertainties in the analysis and decision making process. (authors)

  13. Rationality and ritual participation and exclusion in nuclear decision-making

    CERN Document Server

    Wynne, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In Rationality and Ritual, internationally renowned expert Brian Wynne offers a profound analysis of science and technology policymaking. By focusing on an episode of major importance in Britain's nuclear history - the Windscale Inquiry, a public hearing about the future of fuel reprocessing - he offers a powerful critique of such judicial procedures and the underlying assumptions of the rationalist approach. This second edition makes available again this classic and still very relevant work. Debates about nuclear power have come to the fore once again. Yet we still do not h

  14. Act of 20 July 1978 establishing provisions enabling the International Atomic Energy Agency to undertake inspections and verifications on Belgian territory, in implementation of the International Agreement of 5 April 1973 made in application of 1 and 4 paragraphs of Article III of the Treaty of 1 July 1968 on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), Belgium concluded a safeguards agreement with the IAEA which enables the latter to verify the fulfilment of the obligations assumed by Belgium in accordance with the NPT, with a view to preventing diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. All non-nuclear weapon States party to the NPT enter into such agreements. (NEA) [fr

  15. Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Julien

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate serum vitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations are associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss, which increase fracture risk. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of inadequate serum 25(OHD concentrations in postmenopausal Belgian women. Opinions with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and adequate vitamin D status vary widely and there are no clear international agreements on what constitute adequate concentrations of vitamin D. Methods Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone was performed in 1195 Belgian postmenopausal women aged over 50 years. Main analysis has been performed in the whole study population and according to the previous use of vitamin D and calcium supplements. Four cut-offs of 25(OHD inadequacy were fixed : Results Mean (SD age of the patients was 76.9 (7.5 years, body mass index was 25.7 (4.5 kg/m2. Concentrations of 25(OHD were 52.5 (21.4 nmol/L. In the whole study population, the prevalence of 25(OHD inadequacy was 91.3 %, 87.5 %, 43.1 % and 15.9% when considering cut-offs of 80, 75, 50 and 30 nmol/L, respectively. Women who used vitamin D supplements, alone or combined with calcium supplements, had higher concentrations of 25(OHD than non-users. Significant inverse correlations were found between age/serum PTH and serum 25(OHD (r = -0.23/r = -0.31 and also between age/serum PTH and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.29/r = -0.15. There is a significant positive relation between age and PTH (r = 0.16, serum 25(OHD and femoral neck BMD (r = 0.07. (P Vitamin D concentrations varied with the season of sampling but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion This study points out a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, even among subjects receiving vitamin D supplements.

  16. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2000-12-01

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc.

  17. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2000-12-01

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc

  18. Managing the 'gaps' in a regimen of control - operational decision making in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power performance has significantly improved over the last thirty years. This improvement has been based on a philosophy of control. That is, for each issue that must be managed to achieve safe performance, a pre-determined constraint must be established. In addition to the barriers that were designed into the plant, a large range of programs, processes and procedures have been developed to direct the activities of anyone associated with the plant. The premise is that following pre-determined procedures, in a diligent way, will support ongoing plant safety. But what if an issue arises for which there is no procedure? For serious situations, emergency procedures exist to guide operations personnel to place the plant in a safe state. However, the vast majority of issues are much more mundane and form a part of the daily life in the plant. In these cases the nuclear industry has been encouraging the use of an 'Operational Decision Making' (ODM) process. This paper will review ODM as practiced within the context of the governing paradigm of control. The paper will show the strengths of the process and areas for development. ODM is an important tool for managers within the complex socio-technical system that is nuclear power today. This paper summarises key points from a research thesis completed by the author to meet the requirements of an MSc program in 'Human Factors and System Safety'. (author)

  19. Managing the 'gaps' in a regimen of control - operational decision making in nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, S.J. [Leading Safety Culture Inc., Port Elgin, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear power performance has significantly improved over the last thirty years. This improvement has been based on a philosophy of control. That is, for each issue that must be managed to achieve safe performance, a pre-determined constraint must be established. In addition to the barriers that were designed into the plant, a large range of programs, processes and procedures have been developed to direct the activities of anyone associated with the plant. The premise is that following pre-determined procedures, in a diligent way, will support ongoing plant safety. But what if an issue arises for which there is no procedure? For serious situations, emergency procedures exist to guide operations personnel to place the plant in a safe state. However, the vast majority of issues are much more mundane and form a part of the daily life in the plant. In these cases the nuclear industry has been encouraging the use of an 'Operational Decision Making' (ODM) process. This paper will review ODM as practiced within the context of the governing paradigm of control. The paper will show the strengths of the process and areas for development. ODM is an important tool for managers within the complex socio-technical system that is nuclear power today. This paper summarises key points from a research thesis completed by the author to meet the requirements of an MSc program in 'Human Factors and System Safety'. (author)

  20. Turning point of U.S. government decision in US-Japan nuclear fuel reprocessing negotiation in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    U.S. President Carter's Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy, announced in April 1977, which terminated federal funding for reprocessing, was a shock to the Atomic Energy Authority of the Japanese Government that had promoted the construction of Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). After that, it became necessary to negotiate the 'Joint Determination for the Effective Safeguardability of TRP' subject to the 1968 Agreement for cooperation between the Government of Japan and the Government of the United States of America concerning civil use of Atomic Energy. Negotiations for the 'Joint Determination for the Effective Safguardability of TRP' were conducted in the U.S.-Japan Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Negotiation and Joint Field Work meetings from April to September 1977. Both governments agreed to the TRP operation's terms and conditions including 'Joint Determination for the Effective Safeguardability of TRP' in the third negotiation. In spite of the hard position on reprocessing stated in the Nuclear Nonproliferation Policy enacted by President Carter, these negotiations concluded accepting the operation of TRP with condition. In this paper, I will explore the reasons for the abovementioned political decision by the U.S. government based on its disclosure documents. (author)

  1. Decision-support tool for assessing future nuclear reactor generation portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jain (Shashi); F Roelofs; C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractCapital costs, fuel, operation and maintenance (O&M) costs, and electricity prices play a key role in the economics of nuclear power plants. Often standardized reactor designs are required to be locally adapted, which often impacts the project plans and the supply chain. It then becomes

  2. The Quality of Work in the Belgian Service Voucher System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousaid, Sarah; Huegaerts, Kelly; Bosmans, Kim; Julià, Mireia; Benach, Joan; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Several European countries implemented initiatives to boost the growth of the domestic cleaning sector. Few studies investigated the quality of work in these initiatives, although effects on workers' health and on social health inequalities can be expected. This study contributes to the scant research on this subject, by investigating the quality of work in the Belgian service voucher system - a subsidized system for domestic work. The applied research methodology includes a qualitative content analysis of parliamentary debates, legislation and previous research about the service voucher system and of 40 in-depth interviews with service voucher workers. The study shows that the legal framework that regulates the system must be further enhanced in order to improve the quality of work in the service voucher system. In addition, the actors involved must be better controlled, and sanctioned in case of non-compliance with legislation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. RECRUITING OLDER VOLUNTEERS: FINDINGS FROM THE BELGIAN AGEING STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah DURY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a significant body of work concerning voluntary work, hardly any attention is given to volunteering of older individuals. Moreover, the potential volunteers among older adults is even less examined. Next to volunteering among olde r adults, the neighbou rhood becomes more salient when people age and this due to their more intense use and time spent in the neighbourhood. In response to these lacunae, the main purpose of this contribution is to examine the impact of subjective neighbourhood features on the recruitment potential for volunteering among older people. This study uses data collected from the Belgian Ageing Studies. 59.977 adults aged sixty and over living self-reliantly in 127 Flemish municipalities in Belgium participated in this study. A binary logistic regression is ap plied to analyse the key va riables characterizing potential volunteers. Our findings stress the need for recognizing the crucial importance of the locality when recruiting older adults for volunteer activities.

  4. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  5. A predictive model of nuclear power plant crew decision-making and performance in a dynamic simulation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Kevin Anthony

    The safe operation of complex systems such as nuclear power plants requires close coordination between the human operators and plant systems. In order to maintain an adequate level of safety following an accident or other off-normal event, the operators often are called upon to perform complex tasks during dynamic situations with incomplete information. The safety of such complex systems can be greatly improved if the conditions that could lead operators to make poor decisions and commit erroneous actions during these situations can be predicted and mitigated. The primary goal of this research project was the development and validation of a cognitive model capable of simulating nuclear plant operator decision-making during accident conditions. Dynamic probabilistic risk assessment methods can improve the prediction of human error events by providing rich contextual information and an explicit consideration of feedback arising from man-machine interactions. The Accident Dynamics Simulator paired with the Information, Decision, and Action in a Crew context cognitive model (ADS-IDAC) shows promise for predicting situational contexts that might lead to human error events, particularly knowledge driven errors of commission. ADS-IDAC generates a discrete dynamic event tree (DDET) by applying simple branching rules that reflect variations in crew responses to plant events and system status changes. Branches can be generated to simulate slow or fast procedure execution speed, skipping of procedure steps, reliance on memorized information, activation of mental beliefs, variations in control inputs, and equipment failures. Complex operator mental models of plant behavior that guide crew actions can be represented within the ADS-IDAC mental belief framework and used to identify situational contexts that may lead to human error events. This research increased the capabilities of ADS-IDAC in several key areas. The ADS-IDAC computer code was improved to support additional

  6. The basis for decisions in the nuclear waste issue. Experiences of the legislative basis and the EIA process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskitalo, Carina; Nordlund, Annika; Lindgren, Urban

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the multi-level governance process in conjunction with the siting and design of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Since no similar activities have ever been implemented in Sweden, there is no available practice for how different laws should be coordinated and interpreted. The study sheds light on three general questions: 1) What is the formal decision-making mandate and what are the decision-making bodies at different levels (municipal level, regional or county level, and national level) according to the legislation, and what interpretation problems have these actors experienced with regard to the legislation and the EIA process? 2) What 'broader public' and organizations besides groups within the formal decision-making mandate have participated in the consultations, and what viewpoints have they expressed regarding the EIA process and consultations? 3) How have judgements and understanding of, and reactions to, risk related to the final repository been handled in the process? The study is mainly based on two different sources of material. A literature review with a focus on nuclear fuel management has been carried out within the social sciences field. Special interest has been devoted to discussing the content of legislation in relation to the EIA process and licensing, and the background and design of the EIA process. The EIA process is of special interest here, since it brings in both formal decision-making bodies and participation by broader groups. Furthermore, the literature review deals with theoretical perspectives regarding perceptions and communication of risk assessments. Literature reviews have also been conducted on minutes from EIA consultations during the period 2001 to 2007. The main source of the material used in the study is interview studies. The interview subjects represent both government authorities and non governmental organizations at the national, regional and local level. The results

  7. Treatment adherence in multiple sclerosis: a survey of Belgian neurologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decoo D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny Decoo,1 Mathieu Vokaer2 1Department of Neurology and Neurorehab, AZ Alma, Sijsele, Belgium; 2Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, Edith Cavell Hospital, CHIREC group, Brussels, Belgium Background: Poor treatment adherence is common among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. This survey evaluated neurologists’ perception of treatment adherence among MS patients.Materials and methods: This questionnaire-based survey of Belgian neurologists treating MS patients was conducted between June and July 2014. Face-to-face interviews with the neurologists were based on a semistructured questionnaire containing questions regarding the perception of the treatment-adherence level.Results: A total of 41 neurologists participated in the survey. Of these, 88% indicated frequent discussions about treatment adherence as beneficial for treatment efficacy. The mean time spent on the treatment-adherence discussion during the initial consultation was 11 minutes, with 24% of doctors spending 5 minutes and 24% of doctors spending 10 minutes discussing this issue. The majority of neurologists (56% perceived the adherence level in MS as good, and 12% perceived it as excellent. The majority of neurologists (64% indicated intolerance as a main cause of poor adherence, and all neurologists reported insufficient efficacy as a consequence of nonadherence. The importance of adherence in the neurologists’ practice was evaluated on a scale of 1–10, with 1= “not very important” and 10= “very important”: 44% of doctors indicated a score of 10, and the mean score was 9.0.Conclusion: Belgian neurologists consider treatment adherence in MS as essential for the benefits of therapies. However, although neurologists are aware of the consequences of nonadherence, they generally spend limited time discussing the importance of treatment adherence with their patients. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, treatment adherence, physician survey

  8. Decision-theoretic methodology for reliability and risk allocation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.; El-Bassioni, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating reliability and risk to various reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures in a consistent manner, based on a set of global safety criteria which are not rigid. The problem is formulated as a multiattribute decision analysis paradigm; the multiobjective optimization, which is performed on a PRA model and reliability cost functions, serves as the guiding principle for reliability and risk allocation. The concept of noninferiority is used in the multiobjective optimization problem. Finding the noninferior solution set is the main theme of the current approach. The assessment of the decision maker's preferences could then be performed more easily on the noninferior solution set. Some results of the methodology applications to a nontrivial risk model are provided and several outstanding issues such as generic allocation and preference assessment are discussed

  9. Safety or efficiency?: strategies and conflicting interests in Belgian road-safety policy, 1920-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald

    2015-04-01

    After World War I, automobile ownership became a mass phenomenon in Belgium, as in most other industrialized countries. Unfortunately, road-casualty figures soon followed. By the mid-1930s, traffic accidents had become the main cause of accidental deaths. There was clearly a need for a renewed road-safety policy. Public authorities in Belgium, however, were suspiciously reluctant to take new measures. While there was a public outcry for more severe regulation of motorized traffic and several MPs backed bills to this effect, motoring associations lobbied against traffic legislation reforms. In order to understand the Belgian government's hesitation, this article looks at the key strategies of the actors involved in the decision-making process concerning traffic policy. Such strategies included, among others: the creation of detailed traffic-accident statistics, revision of traffic legislation, and support for mass traffic-education campaigns. Eventually, public officials stepped in and created a new technocratic traffic regime in the 1930s, yet their prime concern was not road-user safety, but the efficiency of traffic streams.

  10. Nuclear power plant personnel errors in decision-making as an object of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reer, B.

    1993-09-01

    The integration of human error - also called man-machine system analysis (MMSA) - is an essential part of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). A new method is presented which allows for a systematic and comprehensive PRA inclusions of decision-based errors due to conflicts or similarities. For the error identification procedure, new question techniques are developed. These errors are shown to be identified by looking at retroactions caused by subordinate goals as components of the overall safety relevant goal. New quantification methods for estimating situation-specific probabilities are developed. The factors conflict and similarity are operationalized in a way that allows their quantification based on informations which are usually available in PRA. The quantification procedure uses extrapolations and interpolations based on a poor set of data related to decision-based errors. Moreover, for passive errors in decision-making a completely new approach is presented where errors are quantified via a delay initiating the required action rather than via error probabilities. The practicability of this dynamic approach is demonstrated by a probabilistic analysis of the actions required during the total loss of feedwater event at the Davis-Besse plant 1985. The extensions of the ''classical'' PRA method developed in this work are applied to a MMSA of the decay heat removal (DHR) of the ''HTR-500''. Errors in decision-making - as potential roots of extraneous acts - are taken into account in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Five additional errors are identified. However, the probabilistic quantification results a nonsignificant increase of the DHR failure probability. (orig.) [de

  11. A lattice-valued linguistic decision model for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, D.; Liu, J.; Carchon, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we focus our attention on decision making models to process uncertainty-based information directly without transforming them into any particular membership function, i.e., directly using linguistic information (linguistic values) instead of numbers (numerical values). By analyzing the feature of linguistic values ordered by their means of common usage, we argue that the set of linguistic values should be characterized by a lattice structure. We propose the lattice structure based on a logical algebraic structure i.e., lattice implication algebra. Finally, we obtain a multi-objective decision-making model by extending Yager's multi-objective model from the following aspects: (1) extension of linguistic information: from a set of linear ordered linguistic labels (values) to that of lattice-valued linguistic labels; (2) extension of the combination function M, which is used to combine the individual ratings with the weights of criteria. We propose an implication operation form of M. The implication operation can be drawn from lattice implication algebra. As an illustration, we will finally apply this decision model to the evaluation problem in safeguard relevant information. (orig.)

  12. Temas (Version 2.1): Decision Tool for Environmental Restoration: After Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, C.; Moraleda, M.; Montero, M.; Claver, F.

    2001-01-01

    TEMAS (Techniques and Management Strategies for Environmental Restoration) is a user friendly decision aiding computerised system to help in th e selection of the best local strategy of restoration when a post-accidental environmental contamination with long lived radionuclides (''137 Cs, ''134 Cs and ''90 Sr) must be faced. TEMAS provides answer for complex scenarios (urban, agricultural and forest) with different specific levels of contamination, uses and dimensions. The computerized system is structured in three main modules: Databases containing those parameters required to identify and to provide results for typical potential cases of intervention (elemental cases); the evaluation module that uses a limited number of inputs to compose a virtual representation of the real contaminated scenario, in terms of elemental cases, and then calculates the required decision factors (residual individual doses, averted collective doses, costs and other secondary effects after each applicable intervention options); and the decision module which manages these factors according to a certain criteria to select and rank interventions as the recommended strategy. This document describes the contain of the databases, the main calculations of the different procedures and its correlation with databases, schematic draws of the fluxes of calculations, and one simulation of intervention to exemplify inputs and outputs of the system. (Author)

  13. UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - Value framework, its development and role in decision making - 16399

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, Mark

    2009-01-01

    As part of its day to day business NDA must be able to demonstrate that it is delivering value for money across its entire estate, as this is essential to securing funding from government and demonstrating to stakeholders that NDA is delivering on its mission. Value comes in many forms such as an improved environment, hazard reduction, changes in sky line, social amenities, money, employment etc. Depending on the perspective of the receiver, and their closeness to the affected area, the relative weighting they place on the different aspects of value will vary. Therefore the challenge to NDA has been how to get a consistent approach to measuring value that is broadly acceptable to stakeholders and allows the different aspects of value to be compared and decisions made on a national basis. This paper describes the work undertaken by NDA to develop a Value Framework to support decision making at both the strategic and tactical level and addresses the following topics: - The relationship between the value framework and UK government guidance on business case development and options appraisal - The development of the value framework tool kit including previous work on the NDA prioritisation process and the derivation of Safety and Environmental Detriment scores - How NDA uses the value framework in its decision making processes. (author)

  14. NEA Workshop on Stakeholder Involvement in Nuclear Decision Making, 17-19 January 2017, OECD Conference Centre, Paris, Room CC9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Stephen G.; Yanush, Maryna; Jendroska, Jerzy; Beyens, Marc; Emmerechts, Sam; Touitou-Durand, Florence; Crosland, Martha; Ziakova, Marta; Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic; Nuclear Regulation Authority; Ferapontov, Alexey; Hayano, Ryugo; Boyd, Mike; Mayall, Andrew; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Kawabuchi, Hideo; Kuenzi, Pascale; Shaver, Kathryn; Yngve Toernqvist, Johanna; Bjoerklund, Sara; Gerhardsson, Ansi; Kuenzi, Pascale; Birkhaeuser, Philip; Smith, Katherine; Katz, Sharonne; Vanhatalo, Hanna; Thome-Jassaud, Pierre-Franck; Bae, Su Hwan; Straub, Ralf; Gadano, Julian; Wolsink, Maarten; Komendantova, Nadejda; Kalaydjian, Francois; Harrington, Holly; Bouchot, Emmanuel; Runyon, Timothy; Gonzalez Herrero, Eva; Maclachlan, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear issues are embedded with broader societal issues such as the environment, risk management, energy and health policies, and sustainability. As such, nuclear projects often generate considerable interest and concern from stakeholders. In this context 'stakeholder' is intended to be taken in its broadest sense and should include concerned public, businesses, economic actors, NGOs, local, regional and national authorities, nuclear regulators, etc. Anyone who has relevant information, experience or concerns may seek to participate in the decision making process, and to interact with other stakeholders. Nuclear regulators, governments, operators, and other decision makers have a responsibility to ensure a high degree of transparency and to make clear and well-reasoned decisions. In this respect, there is an increasing demand for stakeholder involvement, participation and engagement. Across NEA member countries, many different approaches are taken to stakeholder involvement as decisions are made and implemented. Well-informed decisions broadly reflect the input of stakeholder views in a balanced fashion, the achievement of which can be difficult to assess. Attempts to achieve such broad understanding of views and acceptance of resulting decisions are an important part of building public confidence. Additionally, interested citizens, other stakeholders, and non-governmental organisations often call upon decision processes to be conducted in a manner that maintains public confidence. This workshop was not about what decision is made. Rather, it was about decision making processes used to reflect stakeholder concerns and input. How does one effectively involve stakeholders? How does one build and assess public confidence? How can broader stakeholder involvement help decision makers to make well-informed decisions that effectively address stakeholder views? On 17-19 January 2017, the NEA hosted a workshop on Stakeholder Involvement in Nuclear Decision Making

  15. Situation Concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector. Public Opinion Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Sala, R.; Lopez, M.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the CIEMAT's contribution to the study S ituation concerning Public Information about and Involvement in the Decision-Making Processes in the Nuclear Sector , contract number TREN/ 04/NUC/ S07.39556 between the European Commission and Mutadis Consultants. The research was composed by Mutadis Consultants and CEPN (Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre) (France), University of Aberdeen (UK) and CIEMAT (Spain). The objective of the project was to build a detailed overview of the EU situation regarding information and participation practices in the nuclear domain, provide an elaborated assessment, and to produce reporting and recommendations in the field. CIEMAT contribution' focused on the review of public opinion polis. Thus, Eurobarometers Standard Surveys (EBs) were analysed to report about the European citizens' public opinion regarding public Information and participation in the nuclear field. Additionally, the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), and some additional national polis were analysed. In terms of the EU public opinion, the follow up of the public information and participation domains receiving as much attention as necessary. Extremely few questions dealing with the subject were identified in the Eurobarometers, the national polis and the ISSP (International Social Survey Program) surveys reviewed in this study. An unambiguous illustration of this lack of attention is the fact that no questions dealing with public participation issues emerged in the n uclear EBs u ntil 1998. Even though, Eurobarometers (EBs) still provide an invaluable source of information on the topics we are interested on at the EU allowing longitudinal descriptions (trend analysis) of some key issues in our area of interest. (Author) 11 refs

  16. Personal computer based decision support system for routing nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Bobic, S.M.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1989-01-01

    An approach has been formulated to route nuclear spent fuel over the US Interstate highway network. This approach involves the generation of alternative routes so that any potential adverse impacts will not only concentrate on regions along the shortest path between the nuclear power plant and repository. Extensive literature research on the shortest path finding algorithms has been carried out. Consequently, an extremely efficient shortest path algorithm has been implemented and significantly increases the overall system performance. State-of-the-art interactive computer graphics is used. In addition to easy-to-use pop-up menus, full color mapping and display capabilities are also incorporated. All of these features have been implemented on commonly available personal computers. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Decision of the Swiss Federal Council of 22 August 1979 (nuclear power station Leibstadt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    On the occasion of an appeal in administrative matters, launched by private persons domiciled in the Federal Republic of Germany against two part-construction permits for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant, the Swiss Bundesrat decided that these private persons do have the right to launch an appeal, in accordance with section 48 a of the Rules of administrative proceedings. The appeal may, however, only be based on infringement of rights protected by Swiss national law. (HP) [de

  18. Economic analysis of nuclear power plant for decision making in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri-Udomrat, Thawee

    2002-01-01

    According to National Economic and Social Development's forecast, electricity demand in Thailand from now up to the year 2011 will rise more than 147 %. So, the Eighth-Ninth National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDP) (1997-2006) has launched the main energy resources, imported oil, coal, imported coal, natural gas and hydro. From the Tenth NESDP up (2007-) may launch the energy option more, such as liquid natural gas and nuclear. Although Thailand has reserved lignite and natural gas enough for more than two centuries, we have found that the energy resources are inadequate and expected to be imported for over 60%. So nuclear energy is necessary and suitable for alternative source of energy. The main factors used for power generating cost calculation of nuclear power plant are capital investment cost, nuclear fuel cycle cost, operation and maintenance cost, and infrastructure cost. Consequently, the parameter which indicating the performance of power plant and power generation cost are load factor, net power rating, and economic life. Another variable group are interest rate, escalation rate, and discount rate. The overhead and operation cost are always changed due to the economic or other variants of interest rate, and out of schedule operation or the changing of fuel cost. In order to compare each type of power plant, we had to use present worth value analytical technique to calculate the the levelized energy cost (mills/kWh) by giving present worth value of average power generation cost equal to present worth value of total cost of the project and operation of power plant. The economic parameter will affect exchange rate and discount rate calculation. To assess the economic analysis of cost and cost benefit of Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) project, real interest rate for discount rate (social discount rate) will be calculated. By the year 1992-1998, the social discount rate of Thailand is estimated at about 7.59%. For studying

  19. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny [SCK.CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Turcanu, Catrinel [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. F. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Christian [FANC, Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Ravensteinstraat 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and

  20. Improved Emergency Preparedness For Management Of The Food chain Via Stakeholder Involvement: Belgian and European Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, Frank; Carle, Benny; Turcanu, Catrinel; Vandecasteele, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Initiatives involving stakeholder engagement have gained increasing importance in sustainable decision making for many risk-related issues. This paper describes a Belgian experience within a European context related to food management options in the event of a radioactive contamination of the food chain. Under the auspices of the European Commission's 5. Framework Programme, the F.A.R.M.I.N.G. (F.A.R.M.I.N.G. 2000) project (co-ordinated by H.P.A.) a stakeholder network was established in a number of European countries, following a successful approach originally adopted in the UK. In a comparable approach, national working groups were thus established in Belgium, Finland, France and Greece in order to organise stakeholder panels and to discuss the outcomes of scientific and technical research related to management options for the food chain. The results of these panels were exchanged between participating Member States and on a wider international basis at the W.I.S.D.O.M.2. workshop in 2003. The F.A.R.M.I.N.G. project had many achievements and there were also several important lessons learned for Belgium (Vandecasteele et al., 2005): Firstly, many stakeholders showed a real interest in tackling problems relating to food chain contamination; Secondly, the Belgian agricultural system is very intensive and technically and economically optimised, making many of the options envisaged difficult to implement; thirdly, the applicability of management options is also limited by political and legal issues (e.g. competencies, environmental legislation), operational constraints (e.g. waste treatment, supplies of materials), societal and ethical aspects (e.g. milk disposal to sea, animal welfare), and economics (e.g. who pays the intervention cost?); fourthly, there is a now a greater awareness of these problems in both the food production sector and among the experts involved in emergency management; Fifthly, increased attention is now given in Belgium to the medium and long

  1. Assessment of doses received by the Belgian population due to the Chernobyl releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, P.; Fieuw, G.; Deworm, J.P.; Zeevaert, Th.

    1986-01-01

    The consequences of the exposure during the first year and beyond the first year after the Chernobyl accident in terms of radiation effects on the Belgian population are discussed as well as some uncertainties in these evaluations. (A.F.)

  2. Biodosimetry: Medicine, Science, and Systems to Support the Medical Decision-Maker Following a Large Scale Nuclear or Radiation Incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C. Norman; Koerner, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The public health and medical response to a radiological or nuclear incident requires the capability to sort, assess, treat, triage and to ultimately discharge, refer or transport people to their next step in medical care. The size of the incident and scarcity of resources at the location of each medical decision point will determine how patients are triaged and treated. This will be a rapidly evolving situation impacting medical responders at regional, national and international levels. As capabilities, diagnostics and medical countermeasures improve, a dynamic system-based approach is needed to plan for and manage the incident, and to adapt effectively in real time. In that the concepts and terms can be unfamiliar and possibly confusing, resources and a concept of operations must be considered well in advance. An essential underlying tenet is that medical evaluation and care will be managed by health-care professionals with biodosimetry assays providing critical supporting data. (authors)

  3. Situation-assessment and decision-aid production-rule analysis system for nuclear plant monitoring and emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvillo, D.; Ragheb, M.; Parker, M.; Swartz, S.

    1987-01-01

    A Production-Rule Analysis System is developed for Nuclear Plant Monitoring. The signals generated by the Zion-1 Plant are considered. A Situation-Assessment and Decision-Aid capability is provided for monitoring the integrity of the Plant Radiation, the Reactor Coolant, the Fuel Clad, and the Containment Systems. A total of 41 signals are currently fed as facts to an Inference Engine functioning in the backward-chaining mode and built along the same structure as the E-Mycin system. The Goal-Tree constituting the Knowledge Base was generated using a representation in the form of Fault Trees deduced from plant procedures information. The system is constructed in support of the Data Analysis and Emergency Preparedness tasks at the Illinois Radiological Emergency Assessment Center (REAC)

  4. Situation-Assessment And Decision-Aid Production-Rule Analysis System For Nuclear Plant Monitoring And Emergency Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvillo, D.; Ragheb, M.; Parker, M.; Swartz, S.

    1987-05-01

    A Production-Rule Analysis System is developed for Nuclear Plant Monitoring. The signals generated by the Zion-1 Plant are considered. A Situation-Assessment and Decision-Aid capability is provided for monitoring the integrity of the Plant Radiation, the Reactor Coolant, the Fuel Clad, and the Containment Systems. A total of 41 signals are currently fed as facts to an Inference Engine functioning in the backward-chaining mode and built along the same structure as the E-Mycin system. The Goal-Tree constituting the Knowledge Base was generated using a representation in the form of Fault Trees deduced from plant procedures information. The system is constructed in support of the Data Analysis and Emergency Preparedness tasks at the Illinois Radiological Emergency Assessment Center (REAC).

  5. Against the wearing of anti-nuclear buttons by teachers. Hamburg Administrative Court, decision of March 6, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    In its decision the Administrative Court of Hamburg confirms the interdiction of the Hamburg School Board, directed to a mistress of a secondary school, from wearing the button 'Nuclear power - No, thanks' at school and in classrooms, and it dismisses the teacher's appeal. According to the Hamburg Law on Civil Servants, and as a civil servant, she has to exercise restraint with regard to political activities, i.e., she has to stop wearing this button. Considering carefully both, her duties with regard to the educational task incumbent on schools, and her basic right to express her opinion freely, it has to be considered that this restraint only refers to the service rendered by her in school. In addition, she may express her views during classroom discussions, too, or when she deals with this problem in class.

  6. Empty pledges: A content analysis comparing Belgian and Dutch child-targeting food websites

    OpenAIRE

    Neyens, Evy; Smits, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the EU Pledge, the food industry has vowed to retain from unhealthy food promotion to children under the age of twelve. Nonetheless, food brands increasingly lure children to branded websites packed with unhealthy food and beverage advertising. This study first explores the prevalence of online marketing strategies on 49 Belgian and Dutch child-targeting food websites. Second, it examines the nutrient content of the advertised foods. Third, it scrutinizes whether Belgian and Du...

  7. Maintenance Energy Requirements of Double-Muscled Belgian Blue Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Fiems, Leo O.; De Boever, Johan L.; Vanacker, José M.; De Campeneere, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Double-muscled Belgian Blue animals are extremely lean, characterized by a deviant muscle fiber type with more fast-glycolytic fibers, compared to non-double-muscled animals. This fiber type may result in lower maintenance energy requirements. On the other hand, lean meat animals mostly have a higher rate of protein turnover, which requires more energy for maintenance. Therefore, maintenance requirements of Belgian Blue cows were investigated based on a zero body weight gain. T...

  8. Use of decision trees for evaluating severe accident management strategies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclerar Engineering; Lee, Yongjin; Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2016-07-15

    Accident management strategies are defined to innovative actions taken by plant operators to prevent core damage or to maintain the sound containment integrity. Such actions minimize the chance of offsite radioactive substance leaks that lead to and intensify core damage under power plant accident conditions. Accident management extends the concept of Defense in Depth against core meltdown accidents. In pressurized water reactors, emergency operating procedures are performed to extend the core cooling time. The effectiveness of Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) became an important issue. Severe accident management strategies are evaluated with a methodology utilizing the decision tree technique.

  9. Decision no. 2011-DC-0216 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the Laue Langevin Institute to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of its basic nuclear facility (high flux reactor - INB no. 67) in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the Laue Langevin Institute, operator of the high flux research reactor (RHF) of Grenoble (France). (J.S.)

  10. Decision no. 2011-DC-0215 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering ITER Organization to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of its basic nuclear facility in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the ITER Organization, operator of the ITER tokamak facility of Cadarache (France). (J.S.)

  11. Decision no. 2011-DC-0222 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the Comurhex company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to Comurhex company, operator of the Tricastin uranium conversion plant (France). (J.S.)

  12. Decision no. 2011-DC-0223 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the MELOX SA company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to MELOX SA company, operator of the Melox MOX fuel fabrication plant of Marcoule (France). (J.S.)

  13. Decision no. 2011-DC-0218 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the EURODIF SA company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the EURODIF SA company, operator of the George Besse I uranium enrichment plant of the Tricastin site (France). (J.S.)

  14. Decision no. 2011-DC-0224 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the French atomic energy and alternative energies commission (CEA) to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the French atomic energy commission (CEA). (J.S.)

  15. Decision no. 2011-DC-0214 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering CIS bio international company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of its basic nuclear facility in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to CIS bio international company, operator of the radiopharmaceuticals fabrication facility (INB 29) of Saclay (France). (J.S.)

  16. Multicriteria decision analysis based on analytic hierarchy process in GIS environment for siting nuclear power plant in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abudeif, A.M.; Abdel Moneim, A.A.; Farrag, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The binary overlay method was used in Phase I through OR operator for selecting the candidate areas. • The WLC and AHP methods was used to screen and select the potential sites (phase II) in Arc GIS 10.1 software. • In phase III, four sites, all located on the North western coast and Red Sea, of highest scores were chosen as Candidate sites after eliminating the lowest score sites. • The AHP method was applied to select preferred candidate site and calculating the eigenvectors in Expert Choice Software Package. - Abstract: Due to increasing demand of electrical energy and freshwater in Egypt, it is safe to assume that the decision makers will turn to nuclear power as the feasible alternative for energy. However, as time goes by, fewer sites will be available and suitable for nuclear power plant development. Site selection is a key phase of the siting process of a nuclear plant and may significantly affect the safety and cost of the facility during its entire life cycle. The siting of nuclear power plants is one of multi-criteria problems, which makes it complex. Many interrelated factors affect the process. Six constraints and twenty-two factors corresponding to safety, environment and socio-economy were considered in the siting study presented in this paper. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis was applied during the selection of nuclear power plants site using GIS software. Three spatial decision making models were applied in this paper during site selection stage. The binary overlay (Boolean logic) with Low Risk approach in which the logical OR operator is used to determine the candidate areas. All constraints were represented in binary maps, combined and a masking layer was created to eliminate the lands considered as constraints in Arc GIS Software. The 22 factors were represented in normalized maps after unifying all of them to 0–1 score scales based on the philosophy of suitability criteria (factors) using the Weighted Linear Combination

  17. A logic flowgraph based concept for decision support and management of nuclear plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the US the evolution of automated decision support tools for plant operators has spanned from ''event-oriented'' diagnostic systems to ''symptom-oriented'' computer-based emergency operating procedures. A problem common to both kind of systems is in the initial level of effort required for development of the associated models and software. In the following we will discuss some of the general issues that arise in the development and application of these decision-support systems. We will also propose and discuss an approach founded on the application of an event diagnosis and plant stabilization philosophy. This approach is based on the use of logic flowgraph process-oriented models - arranged in a modular architecture and developed with the aid of an expert-system model builder - as a possible means of achieving the development of an automated and integrated plant management system. This approach should allow the developer to achieve a high process recovery and management capability with a focused and controlled expenditure of development time and resources

  18. Clustering and retrieving information in nuclear science for decision-support techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulin, S.K.; Kiselev, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper covers the problem of storing and retrieving information from big data bases, where the information does not have an exact structure and different object have very thin (or weak) relations each with other. It is one of the biggest problems in decision-support systems, especially in those environments, where the information is complicated and very changeable. One of the way to solve this problem could be the building a semiotic model of the environment according to our goals. One of the important parts of systems based on semiotic modelling is the active knowledge base supplied with the special concordance mechanism of structural consistency. This paper deals with an active knowledge base condition considered by means of connections structure analysis of knowledge base components. Thereby the dominant attribute of any component is supposed to be the connections structure of knowledge base component (object). A set of objects with connections that have a binary existence estimate is examined. Consonant, dissonant and assonant sets are distinguished, depending on the satisfiability of the consonance criterion. An algorithm is proposed and realised for reducing assonant and dissonant sets to a consonance state with minimum expenditures in the sense of the general number variable estimates of the connections. This way of decision has been applied to arrays of variable information stored on CD-ROM disks

  19. Cooking up a culinary identity for Belgium. Gastrolinguistics in two Belgian cookbooks (19th century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parys, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The notion of cookbooks as socio-historic markers in a society is generally accepted within food studies. As both representations and prescriptions of food practices, perceived habits and attitudes towards food, they represent a certain identity for their readers. This paper investigates the nature of the identity that Belgian cookbooks constructed through their rhetoric. An important part of this study is to explore how and to what extent explicit reference to Belgium was made. To this end recipe titles/labels and recipe comments used in two leading bourgeois cookbooks from nineteenth-century Belgium were subjected to a quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The analysis showed that clear attention was paid to national culinary preferences. In terms of a domestic culinary corpus, it became apparent that both the Dutch and French editions of these cookbooks promoted dishes that were ascribed a Belgian origin. Internationality, however, was also an important building block of Belgian culinary identity. It was part of the desire of Belgian bourgeoisie to connect with an international elite. It fit into the 'search for sophistication', which was also expressed through the high representation of the more costly meats and sweet dishes. In addition, other references associated with bourgeois norms and values, such as family, convenience and frugality, were additional building blocks of Belgian culinary identity. Other issues such as tradition, innovation and health, were also matters of concerns to these Belgian cookbooks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The decision concerning the nuclear investment: influence of the industrial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, M.L.

    2000-10-01

    This report aims to analyze the investment behavior of an enterprise producing nuclear origin electric power in an european market opening to the competition. In this context, the industrial structure controlled by the governor decides the investment in a marginal equipment: either an integrated monopole structure which leads to a regulation at the cost price rate of return; or a pool structure in which the governor intervene to fix the cost price at the marginal cost level given by the main technology of the gas combined cycles. (A.L.B.)

  1. Construction status report: nuclear power plants, data for decisions. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The document is the 28th edition summarizing the results of a management information system established by the Executive Director for Operations on the construction/fuel load activities of nuclear power plants. The report uses data collected from applicants sponsoring these projects, Office of Inspection and Enforcement, and the Office of Standards Development; and analyzed by the Office of Management Information and Program Control in the implementation of Management Information Systems. The status of 87 plants authorized to engage in construction in Region I through V is summarized in this document. This total includes (4) plants with construction exemptions, and (14) plants with an LWA

  2. Nuclear power plants. Construction status report, data as of June 30, 1977. Data for decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The report is designed to provide the necessary information for monitoring the progress of construction of nuclear power plants. It provides data for synchronizing the licensing process with predicted fuel loading dates, as well as providing a central federal government report for commercial reactor construction. It utilizes data collected from the utilities sponsoring these projects and the Office of Inspection and Enforcement, NRC, and analyzed by the Office of Management Information and Program Control in the implementation of Management Information Systems. The status of the 92 plants authorized to engage in construction activities is summarized. This total includes 4 plants with construction exemptions, and 18 plants with Limited Work Authorization Permits

  3. Fuzzy algorithmic and knowledge-based decision support in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, H. J.

    1996-01-01

    Fuzzy Set Theory was originally conceived as a means to model non- stochastic uncertainty. In the meantime it has matured to Fuzzy Technology and - together with Neural Nets and Genetic Algorithms - to Computational Intelligence. The goals have expanded considerably. In addition to uncertainty modeling, relaxation, compactification and meaning preserving reasoning have become major objectives. Nuclear engineering is one of the areas with a large potential for applications of Fuzzy Technologies, in which, however, the development is still at the beginning. This paper tries to survey applications and point to some potential applications which have not yet been realized

  4. Decision Strategy: Radiological Evaluations: Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohier, A

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on off-site emergency management are (1) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological impact to the population and the environment during a nuclear emergency; (2) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation in normal and accidental conditions; (3) to organise training courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in 1999 are reported on.

  5. Decision Strategy: Radiological Evaluations: Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohier, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on off-site emergency management are (1) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological impact to the population and the environment during a nuclear emergency; (2) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation in normal and accidental conditions; (3) to organise training courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in 1999 are reported on

  6. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress

  7. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  8. A quantitative impact analysis of sensor failures on human operator's decision making in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    In emergency or accident situations in nuclear power plants, human operators take important roles in generating appropriate control signals to mitigate accident situation. In human reliability analysis (HRA) in the framework of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the failure probabilities of such appropriate actions are estimated and used for the safety analysis of nuclear power plants. Even though understanding the status of the plant is basically the process of information seeking and processing by human operators, it seems that conventional HRA methods such as THERP, HCR, and ASEP does not pay a lot of attention to the possibilities of providing wrong information to human operators. In this paper, a quantitative impact analysis of providing wrong information to human operators due to instrument faults or sensor failures is performed. The quantitative impact analysis is performed based on a quantitative situation assessment model. By comparing the situation in which there are sensor failures and the situation in which there are not sensor failures, the impact of sensor failures can be evaluated quantitatively. It is concluded that the impact of sensor failures are quite significant at the initial stages, but the impact is gradually reduced as human operators make more and more observations. Even though the impact analysis is highly dependent on the situation assessment model, it is expected that the conclusions made based on other situation assessment models with be consistent with the conclusion made in this paper. (author)

  9. Preventive maintenance: optimization of time - based discard decisions at the bruce nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.K.; Jardine, A.K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The use of various maintenance optimization techniques at Bruce has lead to cost effective preventive maintenance applications for complex systems. As previously reported at ICONE 6 in New Orleans, 1996, several innovative practices reduced Reliability Centered Maintenance costs while maintaining the accuracy of the analysis. The optimization strategy has undergone further evolution and at the present an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) is in place where an Expert Panel consisting of all players/experts proceed through each system in a disciplined fashion and reach agreement on all items under a rigorous time frame. It is well known that there are essentially 3 maintenance based actions that can flow from a Maintenance Optimization Analysis: condition based maintenance, time based maintenance and time based discard. The present effort deals with time based discard decisions. Maintenance data from the Remote On-Power Fuel Changing System was used. (author)

  10. Microprocessor-based, on-line decision aid for resolving conflicting nuclear reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.

    1981-01-01

    We describe one design for a microprocessor-based, on-line decision aid for identifying and resolving false, conflicting, or misleading instrument indications resulting from certain systems interactions for a pressurized water reactor. The system processes sensor signals from groups of instruments that track together under nominal transient and certain accident conditions, and alarms when they do not track together. We examine multiple-casualty systems interaction and formulate a trial grouping of variables that track together under specified conditions. A two-of-three type redundancy check of key variables provides alarm and indication of conflicting information when one signal suddenly tracks in opposition due to multiple casualty, instrument failure, and/or locally abnormal conditions. Since a vote count of two of three variables in conflict as inconclusive evidence, the system is not designed to provide tripping or corrective action, but improves the operator/instrument interface by providing additional and partially digested information

  11. Methodology for decision making in environmental restoration after nuclear accidents: temas system (version 2.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, M.; Moraleda, M.; Claver, F.; Vazquez, C.; Gutierrez, J.

    2001-01-01

    TEMAS is an user-friendly decision aiding computerised system to help in the selection of the best local strategy of restoration when a post-accidental environmental contamination with long lived radionuclides (''137 Cs and ''90 Sr) must be faced TEMAS provides answer for complex scenarios on whichever place of the European Community territory ( urban agricultural and forest) with different specific levels of contamination, uses and dimensions. The initial version was the result of the TEMAS project (Techniques and Management Strategies for Environmental Restoration) supported by the EU during the 4th Framework Program. Some Aspects of the methodology are at present being improved. This document applies to the computerised version 2.1 (VAZ01). (Author)

  12. Making nuclear power plant operational decisions using probabilistic safety assessment information and personal computers. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    PRISIM described in this case study makes a PSA useful to decision makers like plant managers, operational personnel or safety assessors because it provides a rapid access to specific information and the ability to generate updated PSA results that reflect the plant status at a particular time. From the capabilities of PRISIM one can conclude that the ability of a user friendly update of the system model in the PC or changes in the data files at the computer is not realized to data. Also the calculation of averaged probabilities instead of time dependent instantaneous probabilities is a sort of a restriction and will be changed in the future. 5 refs, 34 figs, 3 tabs

  13. A pragmatic pairwise group-decision method for selection of sites for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    A pragmatic pairwise group-decision approach is applied to compare two regions in order to select the more suitable one for construction of nulcear power plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The selection methodology is based on pairwise comparison by forced choice. The method facilitates rating of the regions or sites using simple calculations. Two regions, one close to Dhahran on the Arabian Gulf and another close to Jeddah on the Red Sea, are evaluated. No specific site in either region is considered at this stage. The comparison is based on a set of selection criteria which include (i) topography, (ii) geology, (iii) seismology, (iv) meteorology, (v) oceanography, (vi) hydrology and (vii) proximetry to oil and gas fields. The comparison shows that the Jeddah region is more suitable than the Dhahran region. (orig.)

  14. Risk-informed decision making in the nuclear industry: Application and effectiveness comparison of different genetic algorithm techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjorgiev, Blaže; Kančev, Duško; Čepin, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multi-objective optimization of STI based on risk-informed decision making. ► Four different genetic algorithms (GAs) techniques are used as optimization tool. ► Advantages/disadvantages among the four different GAs applied are emphasized. - Abstract: The risk-informed decision making (RIDM) process, where insights gained from the probabilistic safety assessment are contemplated together with other engineering insights, is gaining an ever-increasing attention in the process industries. Increasing safety systems availability by applying RIDM is one of the prime goals for the authorities operating with nuclear power plants. Additionally, equipment ageing is gradually becoming a major concern in the process industries and especially in the nuclear industry, since more and more safety-related components are approaching or are already in their wear-out phase. A significant difficulty regarding the consideration of ageing effects on equipment (un)availability is the immense uncertainty the available equipment ageing data are associated to. This paper presents an approach for safety system unavailability reduction by optimizing the related test and maintenance schedule suggested by the technical specifications in the nuclear industry. Given the RIDM philosophy, two additional insights, i.e. ageing data uncertainty and test and maintenance costs, are considered along with unavailability insights gained from the probabilistic safety assessment for a selected standard safety system. In that sense, an approach for multi-objective optimization of the equipment surveillance test interval is proposed herein. Three different objective functions related to each one of the three different insights discussed above comprise the multi-objective nature of the optimization process. Genetic algorithm technique is utilized as an optimization tool. Four different types of genetic algorithms are utilized and consequently comparative analysis is conducted given the

  15. The development of Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) for Soils - A decision support tool in nuclear and radiological emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Zhi Yi, Amelia; Dercon, Gerd; Blackburn, Carl; Kheng, Heng Lee

    2017-04-01

    In the event of a large-scale nuclear accident, the swift implementation of response actions is imperative. For food and agriculture, it is important to restrict contaminated food from being produced or gathered, and to put in place systems to prevent contaminated produce from entering the food chain. Emergency tools and response protocols exist to assist food control and health authorities but they tend to focus on radioactivity concentrations in food products as a means of restricting the distribution and sale of contaminated produce. Few, if any, emergency tools or protocols focus on the food production environment, for example radioactivity concentrations in soils. Here we present the Operational Intervention Levels for Soils (OIL for Soils) concept, an optimization tool developed at the IAEA to facilitate agricultural decision making and to improve nuclear emergency preparedness and response capabilities. Effective intervention relies on the prompt availability of radioactivity concentration data and the ability to implement countermeasures. Sampling in food and agriculture can be demanding because it may involve large areas and many sample types. In addition, there are finite resources available in terms of manpower and laboratory support. Consequently, there is a risk that timely decision making will be hindered and food safety compromised due to time taken to sample and analyse produce. However, the OILs for Soils concept developed based on experience in Japan can help in this situation and greatly assist authorities responsible for agricultural production. OILs for Soils - pre-determined reference levels of air dose rates linked to radionuclide concentrations in soils - can be used to trigger response actions particularly important for agricultural and food protection. Key considerations in the development of the OILs for Soils are: (1) establishing a pragmatic sampling approach to prioritize and optimize available resources and data requirements for

  16. Nuclear power plants: data for decisions. Construction status report: data as of July 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    This management report is designed to provide the necessary information for monitoring the progress of construction of nuclear power plants. It provides data for synchronizing the licensing process with predicted fuel loading dates, as well as providing a central federal government report for commercial reactor construction. It utilizes data collected from the utilities sponsoring these projects and the Office of Inspection and Enforcement, NRC, and analyzed by the Office of Management Information and Program Control in the implementation of Management Information Systems. The status of the 91 plants authorized to engage in construction activities in Regions I thru V is summarized in this document. This total includes (4) plants with construction exemptions, and (10) plants with Limited Work Authorization Permits

  17. Issues and decisions for nuclear power plant management after fuel damage events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Experience has shown that the on-site activities following an incident that results in severely damaged fuel at a nuclear power plant required extraordinary effort. Even in cases that are not extreme but in which fuel damage is greater than mentioned in the specifications for operation, the recovery will require extensive work. This publication includes information from several projects at the IAEA since 1989 that have resulted in a Technical Report, a TECDOC and a Workshop. While the initial purpose of the projects was focused on providing technical information transfer to the experts engaged in recovery work at the damaged unit of Chernobyl NPP, the results have led to a general approach to managing events in which there is substantial fuel damage. This TECDOC summarizes the work to focus on management issues that may be encountered in any such event whether small or large. 11 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Decision-Makers' Forum on a Unified Strategy for Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    An abundant and secure energy supply is critical to our country’s prosperity, and energy supply is now a central issue in global stability and security. Unfortunately, the Unites States continues to steadily increase the fraction of energy it imports from foreign sources. In May 2001, the National Energy Policy noted that this imbalance, "if allowed to continue, will inevitably undermine our economy, our standard of living, and our national security." In addition to these serious impacts, growing concern about air pollution and atmospheric carbon levels hold the potential for global climate change. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth’s surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past two decades. The current energy supply situation clearly demands coordinated action. Nuclear energy is preeminent in its ability to deliver affordable energy today and meet the growing imperatives for clean air and energy supplies in the future.

  19. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Paridaens, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2006-07-01

    The Belgian phosphate industry processes huge amounts of phosphate ore (1.5 to 2 Mton/year) for a wide range of applications, the most important being the production of phosphoric acid, fertilizers and cattle food. Marine phosphate ores show high specific activities of the natural uranium decay series (usually indicated by Ra-226) (e.g. 1200 to 1500 Bq/kg for Moroccan ore). Ores of magmatic origin generally contain less of the uranium and more of the thorium decay series (up to 500 Bq/kg). These radionuclides turn up in by-products, residues or product streams depending on the processing method and the acid used for the acidulation of the phosphate rock. Sulfuric acid is the most widely used, but also hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are applied in Belgium. For Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, we already have a clear idea of the production processes and waste streams. The five Flemish phosphate plants, from 1920 to 2000, handled 54 million ton of phosphate ore containing 65 TBq of radium-226 and 2.7 TBq of thorium- 232. The total surface area of the phosphogypsum and calcium fluoride sludge deposits amounts to almost 300 ha. There is also environmental contamination along two small rivers receiving the waste waters of the hydrochloric production process: the Winterbeek (> 200 ha) and the Grote Laak (12 ha). The data on the impact of the phosphate industry in the Walloon provinces in Belgium is less complete. A large plant produced in 2004 0.8 Mton of phosphogypsum, valorizing about 70 % of the gypsum in building materials (plaster, cement), in fertilizers, and in other products such as paper. The remainder was stored on a local disposal site. The radiological impact of the Belgian phosphate industry on the local population will be discussed. At present most contaminated areas are still recognizable as waste deposits and inaccessible to the population. However as gypsum deposits and other contaminated areas quickly blend in with the landscape, it is

  20. The Relationship of Science Knowledge, Attitude and Decision Making on Socio-Scientific Issues: The Case Study of Students' Debates on a Nuclear Power Plant in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Hunkoog; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Mijung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of students' understanding of science knowledge, attitude and decision making on socio-scientific issues (SSI), especially on the issues of nuclear energy in Korea. SSI-focused instructions were developed to encourage students to understand and reflect on knowledge, attitude and…

  1. Decision making on remedial actions after a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    Guidance developed at an international level for longer term countermeasures (e.g. relocation, decontamination, restoration of contaminated areas, removal of countermeasures, etc) is largely outline in nature. The considered view is that, for such countermeasures, sufficient time will be available for the benefits and disadvantages of different options to be carefully weighed and balanced in the circumstances then prevailing. The wide range of circumstances that might be encountered after an accident is also judged to constrain the degree to which detailed, practicable guidance can be prepared in advance. The availability of more time, however, is unlikely to make the process of deciding what remedial measures to adopt easier, indeed probably the reverse. Various approaches and techniques are available to aid the development of more detailed guidance in advance of an accident and/or decisions on intervention following an accident. These are summarized with particular reference to their relative strengths and weaknesses. Consideration is also given to whether these techniques should find greater application in advance of an accident with a view to facilitating the development of more detailed, practical guidance should the need ever arise. (author)

  2. Improvement, extension and integration of operational decision support systems for nuclear emergency management (DSSNET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    2007-01-01

    The DSSNET network was established in October 2000 with the overall objective to create an effective and accepted framework for better communication and understanding between the community of institutions involved m operational off-site emergency management and the many and diverse Research and Technological Development (RTD) institutes further developing methods and tools in this area, in particular decision support systems (DSS), for making well informed and consistent judgements with respect to practical improvements of emergency response in Europe. 37 institutions from 21 countries of East and West Europe have been members of the network with about half of them responsible for operational emergency management. To stimulate the communication and feedback between the operational and the RTD community, problem-oriented emergency exercises were performed, which covered the various time phases of an accident and which extended from the near range to farther distances with frontier crossing transport of radionuclides. This paper concentrates on the five emergency exercises conducted in the frame of the project. (orig.)

  3. Decision and Recommendation Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy to Nuclear Installations for the Disposal of Certain Types of Low-level Radioactive Waste (This Decision and Recommendation was adopted at the 133. Session of the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held on 3-4 November 2016.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The steering committee, having regard to the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964, by the Protocol of 16 November 1982 and by the Protocol of 12 February 2004, and in particular Article 1(b) thereof; Considering that, by virtue of that Article, the Steering Committee may, if in its view the small extent of the risks involved so warrants, exclude any nuclear installation, nuclear fuel or nuclear substances from the application of the Paris Convention; having regard to Article 8(b) and Article 10(b) of the Statute of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency; considering that nuclear installations for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste are covered by the provisions of the Paris Convention; considering that it should be made possible for Contracting Parties to cease the application of the Paris Convention to a nuclear installation for the disposal of certain types of low-level radioactive waste where the risks involved are so limited; noting the attached Explanatory Note; decides that any Contracting Party may cease to apply the Paris Convention to a nuclear installation for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, provided that the provisions set out in the Appendix to this Decision and Recommendation and any additional conditions which the Contracting Party may judge appropriate to establish are met; recommends that the Contracting Parties which make use of this option notify the other Contracting Parties, as well as the Nuclear Energy Agency; and recommends that the Nuclear Energy Agency, as appropriate, analyses periodically the experience gained by the Contracting Parties which use this option and reports back to all the Contracting Parties. (authors)

  4. NEA Workshop on Stakeholder Involvement in Nuclear Decision Making. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haage, Monica; Henderson, David; Mays, Claire

    2017-01-01

    The present report summarises the NEA workshop proceedings. Chapter 1 recalls the setting in which the 2017 workshop was organised, the development of the workshop and the audience it gathered. Subsequent chapters are based on rapporteurs' accounts of the plenary and keynote talks (Chapter 2) and topical presentations (Chapter 3), as well as the dialogues among attendees which were then reported in plenary (Chapter 4). Quotes highlighted throughout the report were drawn from speakers' material or from the dialogues. In this way the publication reports the kaleidoscope of views and practices brought by NEA member countries and their experts from almost all nuclear areas as well as from some other energy technology sectors. It documents best practice and lessons learnt. Furthermore, Chapter 5 singles out the commonalities and differences found across the countries and sectors, as well as tangible take-away from the workshop. The reader will find that certain major messages are repeated in different parts of the report, as a sign of the convergence between different contexts, experts, sessions and discussions. Chapter 6 reports the attendees' evaluation of the workshop and the actions requested to progress. The annexes provide further resources: other NEA publications of interest; instructions for facilitating dialogue; and the list of participants

  5. HIV positive asylum seekers receiving the order to leave the Belgian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Remy; Legrand, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    In a human rights based approach, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has recently released a resolution about migrants and refugees and the fight against HIV (1). It states that "an HIV positive migrant should never be expelled when it is clear that he will not receive adequate health care and assistance in the country to which he is being sent back. To do otherwise would amount to a death sentence for that person." Nevertheless, in Belgium, for the last 2 years, none of the HIV-infected migrants in care in the AIDS Reference Centers (ARC) received the right to stay in Belgium for medical reasons. We identified all HIV-infected asylum seekers in care between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2014 in the ARC of Charleroi, Belgium, and we analyzed their medical and social files. Among the 302 patients in active follow up in our ARC, 45 HIV positive asylum seekers were in care during the last 2 years. Male/female ratio was 0/96. Mean age was 35 years. Countries of origin and reasons for migration are detailed in the Table 1. 18% (8/45) knew their seropositivity before arriving in Europe. All the patients introduced an asylum request, 29 (64%) have received a negative answer and an order to leave the territory, 4 (9%) were regularized for non-medical reasons (see Table 1), 4 (9%) are waiting for an answer and for 8 (18%) outcome is unknown due to lost follow up (LFU). 31 (69%) patients have also introduced a request to stay for medical reasons: 18 (58%) have received a refusal, 7 (23%) are still waiting for an answer, and 6 (19%) are LFU. Only 23 (51%) patients are still in care in our ARC on 1 July 2014 (see Table 1). The immigration office bases its decisions on availability of the treatment in the country even if accessible only to a limited number of patients. Decisions taken by the Belgian authorities for the last two years concerning HIV-infected asylum seekers do not guarantee the continuity of care of those patients and push them towards illegality. Such

  6. Decision of the Federal Constitutional Court on the nuclear fuel tax. A threefold big bang; Entscheidung des Bundesverfassungsgerichts zur Kernbrennstoffsteuer. Dreifacher Paukenschlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidinger, Tobias [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    With the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG, file number 2 BvL 6/13) published on 7 June the Federal Constitutional Court has ''tipped'' the so-called nuclear fuel tax levied by nuclear power plant operators from 2011 to the end of 2016 (tax revenues approx. 6.285 billion Euros). According to the court the Federal legislature does not has any legislative competence for the introduction of this tax. Including interest rates, the current tax debtors E.ON, RWE and EnBW are now refunded a total of just under Euro 7 billion of wrongly levied taxes for the years 2011 to 2016. In substance, the decision on the unconstitutionality and invalidity of the nuclear fuel tax is a threefold big bang.

  7. Variability of patient safety culture in Belgian acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlayen, Annemie; Schrooten, Ward; Wami, Welcome; Aerts, Marc; Barrado, Leandro Garcia; Claes, Neree; Hellings, Johan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to measure differences in safety culture perceptions within Belgian acute hospitals and to examine variability based on language, work area, staff position, and work experience. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed to hospitals participating in the national quality and safety program (2007-2009). Hospitals were invited to participate in a comparative study. Data of 47,136 respondents from 89 acute hospitals were used for quantitative analysis. Percentages of positive response were calculated on 12 dimensions. Generalized estimating equations models were fitted to explore differences in safety culture. Handoffs and transitions, staffing, and management support for patient safety were considered as major problem areas. Dutch-speaking hospitals had higher odds of positive perceptions for most dimensions in comparison with French-speaking hospitals. Safety culture scores were more positive for respondents working in pediatrics, psychiatry, and rehabilitation compared with the emergency department, operating theater, and multiple hospital units. We found an important gap in safety culture perceptions between leaders and assistants within disciplines. Administration and middle management had lower perceptions toward patient safety. Respondents working less than 1 year in the current hospital had more positive safety culture perceptions in comparison with all other respondents. Large comparative databases provide the opportunity to identify distinct high and low scoring groups. In our study, language, work area, and profession were identified as important safety culture predictors. Years of experience in the hospital had only a small effect on safety culture perceptions.

  8. Estimation of furan contamination across the Belgian food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, G; Scippo, M-L; De Pauw, E; Eppe, G; Saegerman, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of the furan content of Belgian foods. The objective of the study was to achieve the best food chain coverage with a restricted number of samples (n = 496). The geographic distribution, different market chains and labels, and consumption frequencies were taken into account in the construction of the sampling plan. Weighting factors such as contamination levels, consumption frequency and the diversity of food items were applied to set up the model. The very low detection capabilities (CC(β)) of the analytical methods used (sub-ppb) allowed reporting of 78.2% of the overall dataset above CC(β) and, in particular, 96.7% for the baby food category. The highest furan levels were found in powdered roasted bean coffee (1912 µg kg(-1)) with a mean of 756 µg kg(-1) for this category. Prepared meat, pasta and rice, breakfast cereals, soups, and baby food also showed high mean furan contents ranging from 16 to 43 µg kg(-1). Comparisons with contamination surveys carried out in other countries pointed out differences for the same food group and therefore contamination levels are related to the geographical origin of food items.

  9. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.

  10. Severe polysaccharide storage myopathy in Belgian and Percheron draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Credille, K M; Lavoie, J P; Fatone, S; Guard, C; Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J

    1997-05-01

    A severe myopathy leading to death or euthanasia was identified in 4 Belgian and 4 Percheron draught horses age 2-21 years. Clinical signs ranged from overt weakness and muscle atrophy in 2 horses age 2 and 3 years, to recumbency with inability to rise in 6 horses age 4-21 years. In 5 horses there was mild to severe increases in muscle enzyme levels. Clinical diagnoses included equine motor neuron disease (2 horses), post anaesthetic myopathy (2 horses), exertional myopathy (2 horses), myopathy due to unknown (one horse), and equine protozoal myelitis (one horse). Characteristic histopathology of muscle from affected horses was the presence of excessive complex polysaccharide and/or glycogen, revealed by periodic acid-Schiff staining in all cases and by electron microscopy in one case. Evaluation of frozen section histochemistry performed on 2 cases indicated that affected fibres were Type 2 glycolytic fibres. Subsarcolemmal and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were most prominent in 3 horses age 2-4 years, and excessive glycogen, with little or no complex polysaccharide, was the primary compound stored in affected muscle in these young horses. Myopathic changes, including fibre size variation, fibre hypertrophy, internal nuclei, and interstitial fat infiltration, were most prominent in 5 horses age 6-21 years, and the accumulation of complex polysaccharide appeared to increase with age. Mild to moderate segmental myofibre necrosis was present in all cases.

  11. Recovery and resilience after a nuclear power plant disaster: a medical decision model for managing an effective, timely, and balanced response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, C Norman; Blumenthal, Daniel J; Casto, Charles A; Alfant, Michael; Simon, Steven L; Remick, Alan L; Gepford, Heather J; Bowman, Thomas; Telfer, Jana L; Blumenthal, Pamela M; Noska, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Resilience after a nuclear power plant or other radiation emergency requires response and recovery activities that are appropriately safe, timely, effective, and well organized. Timely informed decisions must be made, and the logic behind them communicated during the evolution of the incident before the final outcome is known. Based on our experiences in Tokyo responding to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant crisis, we propose a real-time, medical decision model by which to make key health-related decisions that are central drivers to the overall incident management. Using this approach, on-site decision makers empowered to make interim decisions can act without undue delay using readily available and high-level scientific, medical, communication, and policy expertise. Ongoing assessment, consultation, and adaption to the changing conditions and additional information are additional key features. Given the central role of health and medical issues in all disasters, we propose that this medical decision model, which is compatible with the existing US National Response Framework structure, be considered for effective management of complex, large-scale, and large-consequence incidents.

  12. Decisive role of nuclear quantum effects on surface mediated water dissociation at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Yair; Donadio, Davide; Ceriotti, Michele; Rossi, Mariana

    2018-03-01

    Water molecules adsorbed on inorganic substrates play an important role in several technological applications. In the presence of light atoms in adsorbates, nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) influence the structural stability and the dynamical properties of these systems. In this work, we explore the impact of NQEs on the dissociation of water wires on stepped Pt(221) surfaces. By performing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with van der Waals corrected density functional theory, we note that several competing minima for both intact and dissociated structures are accessible at finite temperatures, making it important to assess whether harmonic estimates of the quantum free energy are sufficient to determine the relative stability of the different states. We thus perform ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) in order to calculate these contributions taking into account the conformational entropy and anharmonicities at finite temperatures. We propose that when adsorption is weak and NQEs on the substrate are negligible, PIMD simulations can be performed through a simple partition of the system, resulting in considerable computational savings. We then calculate the full contribution of NQEs to the free energies, including also anharmonic terms. We find that they result in an increase of up to 20% of the quantum contribution to the dissociation free energy compared with the harmonic estimates. We also find that the dissociation process has a negligible contribution from tunneling but is dominated by zero point energies, which can enhance the rate of dissociation by three orders of magnitude. Finally we highlight how both temperature and NQEs indirectly impact dipoles and the redistribution of electron density, causing work function changes of up to 0.4 eV with respect to static estimates. This quantitative determination of the change in the work function provides a possible approach to determine experimentally the most stable configurations of water

  13. Safety Assessment for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities - From Methodology to the Use of Results in Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Ferch, R.; Joubert, A.; Kaulard, J.; Manson, P.; Percival, K.; Thierfeldt, St.

    2008-01-01

    approach for reviewing safety assessments for decommissioning activities and as a basis for the regulatory decision making; - To provide a forum for exchange of experience in evaluation and demonstration of safety during decommissioning of various types of nuclear facilities. The project has involved over one hundred interested experts, of which fifty were actively involved throughout, from thirty plus countries working in eight working groups over the period 2004-2007. The experts presented and analyzed their experiences and on this basis developed recommendations on good practice in the development and review of safety assessments for decommissioning. According to the objectives, the project initially focused on the development of a harmonized methodology to undertake safety assessment. Later on the project entailed working groups testing out the methodology by applying it to a number of test cases representative of the typical facilities presently undergoing decommissioning. These included a nuclear power plant, a research reactor and a plutonium laboratory. The outcomes from the project and the key lessons learned are presented below. (authors)

  14. Informational system to assist decision making at spent nuclear fuel transportation from VVER-440, VVER-1000 and RBMK-1000 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuryndin, A.V.; Kirkin, A.M.; Stroganov, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The developed informational system provides an automated estimations of nuclear and radiation safety parameters during spent nuclear fuel transportation from WWER-440 and WWER-1000 and RBMK-1000 nuclear power plants to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and allows us to determine the optimum cask loading from the dose rates distribution outside of protection point of view [ru

  15. The usefulness of Belgian formulae in third molar-based age assessment of Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Biyas; Acharya, Ashith B; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G

    2013-03-10

    The third molars are one of few useful predictors for assessing the degree of maturity in adolescence and young adulthood. It has application in age estimation in the age group of 14-23 years, in general, and in juvenile/adult status prediction, in particular. Using a 10-stage grading of third molars, Gunst et al. developed regression formulae on a large sample of Belgians (n=2513) for estimating age. Their research has been recommended as a 'reference study' in age estimation guidelines. The present study has ventured to determine if estimating age in Indians using the Belgian formulae produced results comparable to those reported in the Belgian study; in addition, this study attempts to determine if the same formulae predicted juvenile/adult status (age aged between 14 and 23 years. The OPGs included a mix of one, two, three and four third molars. In total, 916 teeth were assessed using the same 10-stage grading. Age in each OPG was estimated by applying the relevant Belgian regression formulae (regression formulae are available for one, two, three and four third molars). To determine if the formulae produced age estimates comparable to those in the Belgian study, the percentage of Indian subjects whose actual age fell within the 68% confidence interval (CI) (calculated from the ± 1 S.D. value available for each Belgian formula) was ascertained. If ≥ 68% of Indian subjects' age fell inside this interval, it indicates that the Belgian formulae are applicable in Indians. To assess the suitability of the Belgian formulae in predicting juvenile/adult status in Indians, the accuracy of the age estimation per se was not considered, rather, the number of correct age predictions only was noted. Overall, ≈ 74% of Indian subjects' actual age fell within the 68% CI; with regards to the Belgian formulae being able to correctly predict juvenile/adult status, 78% of all subjects were categorized to the correct age group (age estimation per se of Indians; however, the

  16. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff practice and procedure digest: Commission, Appeal Board and Licensing Board decisions, July 1972--December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This Revision 10 of the fourth edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board, and Atomic Safety and licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to December 31, 1987 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This Revision 10 replaces in part earlier editions and supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the amendments to the Rules of Practice effective through December 31, 1987. The Digest is roughly structured in accordance with the chronological sequence of the nuclear facility licensing process as set forth in Appendix A to 10 CFR Part 2. Those decisions which did not fit into that structure are dealt with in a section on ''general matters.'' Where appropriate, particular decisions are indexed under more than one heading. Some topical headings contain no decision citations or discussion

  17. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J

    2018-01-01

    Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.

  18. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoof, J van [State University of Ghent, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gent (Belgium); Maghuin-Rogister, G [Universite de Liege, Brussels (Belgium)

    1986-07-01

    Contaminated air masses reached the Belgian territory from the South during the night of the first to the second of May. At this stage however the origin of this contamination was already identified through earlier observations over the Scandinavian area and the subsequent message about the reactor accident at the Chernobyl site. Later on radioactive clouds were also detected over the central part of Europe, demonstrating the persistent nature of the emissions from the damaged reactor. Consequently the influence on the Belgian territory was not unexpected. The authorities called on the SCK/CEN at Mol, and the IRE at Fleurus to assist the IHE at Brussels in collecting the necessary data for judging the radiological situation in our country. The KMI/IRM at Brussels was involved for the follow-up of meteorological conditions and analysis of the trajectories of contaminated air masses. Early detection possibilities for the arrival of contaminated air were provided by the continuous environmental monitoring apparatus for ambient {gamma}-dose rate or for {beta} activity of airborne dust, available at nuclear institutions and nuclear power plants. On detection of enhanced air radioactivity, the sampling period of routine air dust samplers was significantly shortened to allow for the hour to hour renewal of data for gross {beta} activity as a general indication of the evolution of the air contamination. {gamma}-spectrometric analysis of those filters provided the necessary data for the estimation of the dose equivalent due to inhalation. Ground deposition data at the location of the participating institutions were obtained by daily analysis of the radioactivity contents of a water container collecting both dust and rainwater. Field gamma spectrometry was used later on at a number of other locations, to estimate the integrated ground deposition of radioactivity and its distribution over the country. As the grazing season was just started or was about to be started in the

  19. Contamination levels observed on the Belgian territory subsequent to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoof, J. van; Maghuin-Rogister, G.

    1986-01-01

    Contaminated air masses reached the Belgian territory from the South during the night of the first to the second of May. At this stage however the origin of this contamination was already identified through earlier observations over the Scandinavian area and the subsequent message about the reactor accident at the Chernobyl site. Later on radioactive clouds were also detected over the central part of Europe, demonstrating the persistent nature of the emissions from the damaged reactor. Consequently the influence on the Belgian territory was not unexpected. The authorities called on the SCK/CEN at Mol, and the IRE at Fleurus to assist the IHE at Brussels in collecting the necessary data for judging the radiological situation in our country. The KMI/IRM at Brussels was involved for the follow-up of meteorological conditions and analysis of the trajectories of contaminated air masses. Early detection possibilities for the arrival of contaminated air were provided by the continuous environmental monitoring apparatus for ambient γ-dose rate or for Β activity of airborne dust, available at nuclear institutions and nuclear power plants. On detection of enhanced air radioactivity, the sampling period of routine air dust samplers was significantly shortened to allow for the hour to hour renewal of data for gross Β activity as a general indication of the evolution of the air contamination. γ-spectrometric analysis of those filters provided the necessary data for the estimation of the dose equivalent due to inhalation. Ground deposition data at the location of the participating institutions were obtained by daily analysis of the radioactivity contents of a water container collecting both dust and rainwater. Field gamma spectrometry was used later on at a number of other locations, to estimate the integrated ground deposition of radioactivity and its distribution over the country. As the grazing season was just started or was about to be started in the following days for

  20. Ergonomics and risk management in high risk organizations: nuclear power plant operator decision making; A ergonomia e a gestao de risco em organizacoes que lidam com tecnologias perigosas: tomada de decisao de operadores de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de

    2003-08-15

    Nuclear power plants are high hazard environments where emergency situations can have devastating effects. The operator crew has the ultimate responsibility to control the energy production process with safety. The outcome of a crisis is consequently dependent on the crew's judgement, decision making and situation awareness. In such way we should know how operators make their decisions in order to develop safety strategies. The aim of this thesis is to examine the cognitive processes through which operators make decisions when dealing with micro incidents during their actual work, and to determine whether they use a naturalistic or normative decision making strategy. That is, do they try to recognize the micro incident as familiar and base decisions on condition-action rules (naturalistic), or do they need to concurrently compare and contrast options before selecting the best possible (normative). The method employed for data collection was the Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) and Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The main findings of this thesis were that decision making is primarily based on naturalistic strategies, such as condition-action rules and recognition. In new situations rules are created ad hoc. These rules appear derived from experience and training rather than from Standard Operating Procedures and contrast normative competence standards used by nuclear industry. (author)