Perra, Oliver; Fletcher, Adam; Bonell, Chris; Higgins, Kathryn; McCrystal, Patrick
Objective: To examine whether students' school engagement, relationships with teachers, educational aspirations and involvement in fights at school are associated with various measures of subsequent substance use. Methods: Data were drawn from the Belfast Youth Development Study (n = 2968). Multivariate logistic models examined associations…
Ryan, David; Wilson, Joanne
A unique talent development project took place in Belfast, Northern Ireland over the autumn (fall) term of 2007 that developed 60 young people from ten diverse schools (Special, Secondary, Grammar, Controlled (state schools) and Catholic Maintained). The project culminated in Manchester on 3 December 2007 when the Young People undertook a journey…
Full Text Available Substance misuse persists as a major public health issue worldwide with significant costs for society. The development of interventions requires methodologically sound studies to explore substance misuse causes and consequences. This Cohort description paper outlines the design of the Belfast Youth Development (BYDS, one of the largest cohort studies of its kind in the UK. The study was established to address the need for a long-term prospective cohort study to investigate the initiation, persistence and desistance of substance use, alongside life course processes in adolescence and adulthood. The paper provides an overview of BYDS as a longitudinal data source for investigating substance misuse and outlines the study measures, sample retention and characteristics. We also outline how the BYDS data have been used to date and highlight areas ripe for future work by interested researchers.The study began in 2000/1 when participants (n = 3,834 were pupils in their first year of post-primary education (age 10/11 years, school year 8 from over 40 schools in Northern Ireland. Children were followed during the school years: Year 9 (in 2002; aged 12; n = 4,343, Year 10 (in 2003; aged 13; n = 4,522, Year 11 (in 2004; aged 14; n = 3,965 and Year 12 (in 2005; aged 15; n = 3,830 and on two more occasions: 2006/07 (aged 16/17; n = 2,335 and 2010/11 (aged 20/21; n = 2,087. Data were collected on substance use, family, schools, neighbourhoods, offending behaviour and mental health. The most novel aspect of the study was the collection of detailed social network data via friendship nominations allowing the investigation of the spread of substance use via friendship networks. In 2004 (school year 11; respondents aged 14, a sub-sample of participants' parents (n = 1,097 and siblings (n = 211 also completed measures on substance use and family dynamics.The most recent wave (in 2010/2011; respondents aged 20/21 years indicated lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco and
Williams, Brendan; Foley, Walter; Shahumyan, Harutyun
Transport infrastructure improvements are frequently dealt without adequate consideration of land use management issues. Theoretically this would not appear to be consistent with urban economic theory which prioritises the critical role that transportation plays in all urban economic spatial land...... and planning systems need to be better aligned. In this paper we examine policy evolution and recent policy outcomes and trends in the Belfast-Dublin corridor in light of the major infrastructure investment which occurred based upon official data within the time period mid 1990s (when many investments...... commenced) to 2012 (completion and use of those investments). It will investigate recent trends in terms of emerging economic development patterns since the creation of the M1 motorway and improved rail links. The research will incorporate spatial analytic modelling of current and future development trends...
Yeon, Asmah Laili; Azhar, Alias; Ayub, Zainal Amin; Abdullah, Siti Alida John; Arshad, Rozita; Suhaimi, Safiah
Lack of awareness and understanding of youth development law amongst youth and policy makers is quite significant. Among the reasons that have been identified to be the root cause of this weakness is due to the failure or less priority given by the youth societies and related organization which are responsible in providing quality programmes for youth. In light of the above gap, the paper examines youth awareness on youth development law from the perspective of policy makers and youth themse...
Ware, Felicity; Walsh-Tapiata, Wheturangi
Despite the innovative approach of the Youth Development Strategy Aotearoa and the applicability of its Rangatahi Development Package, the diverse realities and experiences of Maori youth are still presenting unique challenges to national policy in Aotearoa New Zealand. A Maori youth research approach that utilised a combination of action research…
Mohamed, Inca A.; Wheeler, Wendy
This report focuses on leadership development, especially on efforts that promote youth engagement as a youth development strategy. Part 1 is an edited version of the publication, "Youth Leadership for Development: Civic Activism as a Component of Youth Development Programming." It provides an overview of youth development theory, including an…
Rea I M
Full Text Available Abstract Nonagenarians are the fastest growing sector of populations across Western European and the developed world. They are some of the oldest members of our societies and survivors of their generation and may help us understand how to age not only longer, but better. The Belfast Longevity Group enlisted the help of 500 community-living, mobile, mentally competent, 'elite' nonagenarians, as part of an ongoing study of ageing. We assessed some immunological, cardiovascular, nutritional and genetic factors and some aspects of their interaction in this group of 'oldest old'. Here we present some of the evidence related to genetic and nutritional factors which seem to be important for good quality ageing in nonagenarians from the Belfast Elderly Longitudinal Free-living Ageing STudy (BELFAST.
Jobs For the Future, 2016
Youth unemployment has been a cause for concern in the United States for years. Youth unemployment costs society--through the loss of talent and costs of social supports and subsidies. Jobless young people are more vulnerable to a range of challenges, including the ills already plaguing their communities: high rates of unplanned pregnancy,…
Hamilton, Stephen F.
Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…
The members of the network have been working in the field of youth ... a Canadian youth capacity development organization - to develop and test two tools for ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.
Malik, Bijaya Kumar
This paper explores the differentials in youth development patterns determined by the economic condition of the household in India. The wealth index is used to glean youth development differentials in the different economic categories of the household. The findings suggest that youth from the bottom 20 per cent (poorest) of households are deprived in education, employment, labour force and are not working currently compared to youth from the middle and rich households. The states differ in yo...
Full Text Available Religiosity has a profound role and influence on youth development within a community. Religiosity promotes risk reduction and positive moral characteristics and thus remains an avenue of opportunity for transformation in considering the lived experiences of vulnerable young people living on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape, South Africa. The Cape Flats is an area that is overwhelmed with unemployment, poverty, gang violence, chemical substance abuse and a general societal abandonment of young people. It is out of dire hopelessness that a meaningful relationship with God can be experienced by youth. The Cape Flats is, therefore, a fertile space for an intervention of religiosity. This article will research how the agency of youth ministry as a positive youth development can assist in youth development within a community in tension like that of the Cape Flats. While youth development is a broad category for consideration and research, this article will primarily focus on identity formation of young people, in particular, the vulnerable youth living on the Cape Flats.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The agency of youth ministry, in an evangelical epistemology, should seek to address the influencers on adolescent identity formation, as one�s identity has a direct bearing on faith formation. The potential outcome of the article would allow the youth ministry to take serious the impact of the lived realities of youth and adjust their programmatic designs and outcomes, in relation to youth faith formation.
Janet E. Fox
Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the perceived level of competence among 4-H Youth Development Agents from a Southern state in the United States. The findings will be used to identify gaps in and opportunities for professional training and development experiences in supporting the competence and growth of youth professionals. Based on the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competency Model (Stone & Rennekamp, 2004, youth development professionals rated their youth development competence in nine youth development core competency areas. Utilizing a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1=no knowledge to 5=expert, youth development professionals rated their youth development competence ranging from 3.12 to 3.54. According to an interpretive scale, youth development professionals rated their competence as intermediate. Staff felt most competent in the areas of current youth issues, career opportunities for youth, and family structures/relationships. Staff felt least competent in the area of mental development of youth. No one identified themselves as an expert in the areas of psychological development, emotional development, and current youth issues.
Silvia Blitzer Golombek
Full Text Available A growing number of studies show connections between youth participation in service and service-learning opportunities and positive behavior outcomes. Building on this data, the article presents National Youth Service Day (NYSD as a program that can be incorporated into ongoing activities to enhance youth development goals. The paper describes the program’s components– building a network of support organizations, offering project planning grants, providing service-learning materials, and developing a media and advocacy campaign. Examples of NYSD projects show how project planners are using the program to learn and practice academic and non-academic skills. A review of evaluations to date indicates the program is annually increasing its output measures. Participants’ responses show that the program is also contributing to positive behavioral changes, in particular related to young people’s increasing awareness about specific community issues and their own competency in addressing them.
Stieglitz, Kimberly A
Transgender youth face unique and complex issues as they confront cultural expectations of gender expression and how these fit with what is natural for them. Striving for balance, learning to cope, questioning, and eventually becoming comfortable with one's gender identity and sexual orientation are of paramount importance for healthy growth and development. Ineffective management of intense challenges over time without adequate social support places youth at risk for a number of unhealthy behaviors, including risk behaviors associated with acquiring HIV. This article explores early foundations of gender identity development, challenges in the development of transgender youth, and the limited data that exist on transgender youth and HIV risks. The concept of resilience is introduced as a counterbalancing area for assessment and intervention in practice and future research with transgender youth.
Full Text Available It is shown the results of study of indexes of physical development of youths - freshmen. It is conducted the estimation of builds on the methods of Pinye and development of thorax on the methods of Erisman. By means of indexes the individual proper indexes of physical development are expected. Set, that all youths have insufficient development of skeletal musculature. Indexes which require the correction of physical education facilities are certain.
Howard, A N; Thurnham, D I
In 1995 we reported that mean plasma lutein concentrations in salaried men and women from Toulouse in Southern France were double those in subjects recruited from general practitioner lists in Belfast, Northern Ireland. At the time incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Southern France was among the lowest in Europe and was much higher in Northern Ireland. Plasma lutein is a biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake and evidence suggests that high concentrations are generally associated with better cardiometabolic health. At the time we speculated like others that role of the carotenoids may well have been to prevent oxidation of lipid in the lipoproteins and so reduce the uptake of oxidised lipid by macrophages and its deposition within the intimal layers of the major arteries as plaque. It is now widely accepted that CHD is an inflammatory disease and that macrophages within plaque together with tissue damage contribute to this inflammation. Stimulated macrophages release cytokines to activate the immune system both locally and systemically. Precursor complement proteins in the blood are activated to assist immune cells in phagocytosis and cell repair. Individuals with a history of arteriosclerosis display significantly higher concentrations of complement factors C3 and C3a than subjects without such a history. Metabolism of C3 via the alternate complement pathway can give rise to the membrane attack complex (MAC) which creates a hole or pore in pathogens or host cells, killing the cell. Recent studies in patients with early age related macular disease (AMD) who also exhibit similar elevated concentrations of complement proteins in their blood, showed supplementation with lutein progressively decreased the amount of the MAC and other complement factors in the blood. Lutein was used in the supplementation experiments because it is an important constituent of macular pigment. Thus the healthier cardiometabolic features displayed by the people in Toulouse may
... Development: The Case of Zanzibar Technology and Business Incubator. ... Elders, Youth, Women and children in collaboration with COSTECH, Dar es Salaam ... start up business and incubating start up business to increase their success ...
Walker, Kathrin C.
The roles that program leaders establish in their relationships with youth structure how leaders are able to foster youth development. This article examines the complex roles program leaders create in youth programs and investigates how they balanced multiple roles to most effectively respond to the youth they serve. Analyses of qualitative data…
Craig M. Ross
Full Text Available The USPORT-Kyrgyzstan project was an ambitious initiative of public diplomacy, sports diplomacy, cross-cultural exchange, in-country grassroots projects, and international cooperation. The project consisted of three phrases which included youth recreational sport programming, youth leadership and development training, and youth tolerance training. Overall, it proved to be an extremely effective form of intervention that provided youth in this region of the Middle East with many positive and constructive youth sports and leadership development opportunities.
Gibberd Cbe, Felix
Full Text Available An outstanding feature of the buildings which constitute the modern Ulster Hospital, at Dundonald, Belfast, is the elevated tank which supplies the hospital with water. The shape of this tank is pleasant and it provides a charming and smooth outline against the sky: it is reminiscent of a large sized drinking cup. The structure, made of reinforced concrete, is of straighforward design. The central support is used as the chimney stack for the boiler room. The water tank has an overall height of 32.5 m and will hold 450 cubic metres of water. The tank itself is 15.5 m high and has a maximum diameter of 10 m. The walls vary in thickness between 0.32 and 0.15 m. The hoop reinforcement is provided by 19 mm bars, whilst the radial reinforcement consists of 9 mm wires. The central column, or stack, has a wall thickness of 0.15 m, and is of circular cross section. Vertical 35 mm rods provide the metal reinforcement. Externally, this central column has eight ribs, 20 cm wide and 30 cm deep. The whole structure rests on an octogonal slab, with a maximum horizontal dimension of 9 m and is 2 m thick. The maximum tensile strength allowed for the concrete, when working in the most unsatisfactory conditions, is 12 kg/cm2.Entre las distintas construcciones que constituyen el moderno hospital Ulster de Dundonald, en Belfast (Irlanda del Norte, destaca, particularmente, el depósito elevado para el suministro y reserva de agua. Desde el punto de vista arquitectónico, su forma es de plástica agradable y de línea suave y graciosa, puesto que reproduce la silueta de una copa, de gran tamaño, muy utilizada. Su estructura, de hormigón armado, es sencilla y ha permitido aprovechar el núcleo central o soporte, hueco, para chimenea de la sala, de calderas. La altura total del depósito es de 33,50 m y su capacidad de 450 m3. El depósito propiamente dicho tiene 15,5 m de altura y 10 m de diámetro máximo. El espesor de las paredes varía de 0,33 a 0,15 m. Las
Background. Internationally, the development of partnerships between institutions of higher learning and the communities they serve is stressed as a priority. The Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF) is an educational model developed in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as a response to the scarcity of ...
Jeong Woong Cheon
Full Text Available In recent years, increased attention has been paid to the development and application of the strengths perspective and positive youth development. This paper develops youth promotion practice as a convergence of a strengths perspective and youth development principles. Historical and contemporary contexts of a problem-focused perspective in social work with adolescents are reviewed and a critique developed with emphasis on the evolution of strengths-focused practices. The importance and possibility of combining the strengths perspective and youth development toward youth promotion practice are addressed. Youth promotion is defined as a process of enhancing youth strengths and resources to promote positive outcomes and help young people be healthy adults. Complementary aspects of the two perspectives are expected to support and supplement the strengths and weaknesses of each perspective in synergistic ways. Several advantages of youth promotion practice are discussed as well as its implications for improved social work practices with adolescents.
Zeldin, Shepherd; Gauley, Josset; Krauss, Steven Eric; Kornbluh, Mariah; Collura, Jessica
Across the world, community-based youth organizations are engaging youth as partners with adults to promote youth civic development. A sample of 528 youth from the United States, Portugal, and Malaysia were surveyed to explore associations between youth-adult partnership (youth voice in decision making; supportive adult relationships) and two key…
... Assets Profile measure have also suggested that the youth are indeed endowed with a number of developmental assets and these assets are significantly better for females than they are for males. Key-words: Ethiopian youth, Ethiopian adolescents, developmental assets, positive youth development, youth participation.
Brian J. Higginbotham
Full Text Available Integrating mentoring into existing youth programs has been suggested as a promising approach to youth development. This article discusses a theoretical rationale underlying the integration of one-on-one mentoring into established youth development programs. From an ecological perspective, the addition of mentoring into traditional programs should theoretically enhance the youth development experience. Mentoring, in addition to programs like 4-H, enriches the context in which developing youth are supported and encouraged by non-parental adults to develop competencies, to take on leadership responsibilities, and to integrate into positive peer groups (i.e., 4-H clubs. A multi-component program that involves at-risk youth in both mentoring and 4-H activities is highlighted. Results from at-risk youth and their parents indicate that Utah’s 4-H/ Mentoring: Youth and Families with Promise program strengthens the protective factors of academic achievement, social competence, and family bonds.
Martha Frías Armenta
Full Text Available Adolescence is a crucial developmental phase that shapes people´s futures. Positive psychology investigates the variables that promote the optimal development of human beings. It recognizes that all children and adolescents have strengths that will develop once these strengths match the resources needed to achieve this in the various settings in which they live. The aim of this study was to analyze from a multidisciplinary perspective (e.g. psychological, sociological, and economic the effect of resources that promote positive youth development. The sample consisted of 200 middle school students (15 to 19 years. EQS statistical software was used to analyse a structural equation model in which the study variables comprised 4 factors: one for each resource (economic, psychological, sociological, and one for positive youth development. The results showed a direct association between psychological and social resources and positive development, and between social resources and psychological assets. However, no association was found between economic resources and positive youth development. These results suggest that the main influences on positive youth development are psychological and social resources.
Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.
Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...
Empowering Nigerian youths for national economic development: the role of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... the aid of test of proportion that entrepreneurship education imparts entrepreneurial skills ... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.
Osher, David; Kendziora, Kimberly; Spier, Elizabeth; Garibaldi, Mark L.
Schools play a key role in child and youth development as both social microcosms of the broader society and reciprocally influencing people and communities. As such, schools can function as a protective factor that promotes safety, motivation, relationships, and support for positive student outcomes. However, schools may also function as a risk…
Kay, Tess; Bradbury, Steven
This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and…
. This is because they are major stakeholders in the development process. This study investigates youth involvement in rural development activities in Ogba district of Rivers state, Nigeria. Data was collected from 120 randomly selected youths ...
... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) Sunsetted/For Reference ... page is not being updated . The Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) began as the ...
... encourage youths to participate more in rural development projects. Also, training in the form of participatory seminars and workshops would help the youths to be more proactive. Keywords: Youths attitude, rural development projects, Ogba communities, Rivers State, Nigeria Global Approaches to Extension Practice Vol.
Moore, Kristin A
Evidence has accumulated that confirms the success of a positive youth development (PYD) approach. Importantly, a positive development approach is just that-an approach. It is not a particular program or curriculum but a set of practices designed to achieve one or more positive outcomes. As such, PYD practices can be added onto other programs to make positive outcomes more likely. For example, a tutoring program can work hard to hire and train staff to work with students in a trusting, respectful relationship. Camp counselors can be encouraged to build rapport and positive bonds among the campers. © 2017 The Author. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
McLaughlin, Milbrey; London, Rebecca A.
A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific…
Charlene S. Shannon
Full Text Available Many youth programs are delivered to provide opportunities for youth to acquire the assets deemed essential to their development into caring, responsible adults. Engaging as a volunteer is considered an experience that provides access to the acquisition of key developmental assets. To date, research has focused on the positive outcomes that can result for adolescent volunteers with little attention being paid to volunteers younger than age 15. This research explored whether and in what ways being a volunteer contributed to the development of youth ages 8 to 12. Interviews were conducted with 73 Boys and Girls Club youth and seven Club Executive Directors in Atlantic Canada. Results indicated that volunteering offered youth an opportunity to serve their communities, care for its members, and feel valued. Younger youth also developed various skills and experienced enhanced self-esteem and self-confidence.
Stout, R W
Undergraduate teaching at the Queen's University, Belfast, takes place in the fourth year of a five year curriculum. It lasts three weeks and this is divided into two parts. First, held within the university department, is topic-based teaching including seminars, discussions, case histories and visits. The second phase of two weeks consists of attachment of two to four students to geriatric medical units both in and outside Belfast. The whole of this module is situated within a combined course involving community medicine, general practice, geriatric medicine and mental health lasting 12 weeks and involving one-third of the year of 150 students each time. In addition to the three weeks teaching in geriatrics, joint discussion groups are held.
McHale, Susan M; Dotterer, Aryn; Kim, Ji-Yeon
From an ecological perspective, daily activities are both a cause and a consequence of youth development. Research on youth activities directs attention to the processes through which daily activities may have an impact on youth, including: (a) providing chances to learn and practice skills; (b) serving as a forum for identity development; (c) affording opportunities to build social ties; (d) connecting youth to social institutions; and (e) keeping youth from engaging in other kinds of activities. Youth's daily activities, in turn, both influence and are influenced by the multi-layered ecology within which their lives are embedded, an ecology that ranges from the proximal contexts of everyday life (e.g., family, peer group) to the larger political, economic, legal and cultural contexts of the larger society. The paper concludes with consideration of methodological issues and directions for research on the media and youth development.
Full Text Available Results of a study aimed at determining the factors affecting the level of inclusiveness of youth voice in the decision-making process of the 4-H youth development program are discussed in this paper. State and field level 4-H professionals identified potential factors which affect youth voice in the decision-making process. The information gathered was utilized to identify the degree to which youth voice was incorporated in the decision-making process, to better understand how to suit youth’s needs, identify promising practices, and diagnose barriers towards fostering youth voice within the 4-H youth development program. This feature article presents the findings of the study, and discusses potential ramifications and remedies.
Educating incarcerated youthful offenders is described from the perspective of a teacher who incorporates W. Glasser's (1998) counseling philosophy into her relationships with students. She reveals the results of her caring, encouraging, and goal-directed behavior with sex offenders and other young inmates.
Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F
Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.
Ward, Peter J.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.
Family leisure involvement may provide the first and most essential context for positive youth development in today's society. Similar to the broader ecological perspective used in the youth development literature, family systems theory suggests that each individual in the family influences the whole, while the whole family also influences each…
Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed
For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were conducted with 100 ethnically diverse youth (ages 14–21) in 10 urban and rural arts and leadership programs. Qualitative analysis focused on narrative accounts from the 44 youth who reported experiencing a positive turning point in their motivation or engagement. For 38 of these youth, this change process involved forming a personal connection. Similar to processes suggested by self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), forming a personal connection involved youth's progressive integration of personal goals with the goals of program activities. Youth reported developing a connection to 3 personal goals that linked the self with the activity: learning for the future, developing competence, and pursuing a purpose. The role of purpose for many youth suggests that motivational change can be driven by goals that transcend self-needs. These findings suggest that youth need not enter programs intrinsically engaged--motivation can be fostered--and that programs should be creative in helping youth explore ways to form authentic connections to program activities.
Karla A. Henderson
Full Text Available Youth development specialists advocate that well designed, implemented, and staffed youth centered programs result in positive outcomes for young people. Youth organizations have provided opportunities for young people to participate in camping experiences for over a century. The purpose of this paper is to describe what program components were related to camp environments and positive youth development. We describe these program components related to positive youth development based on a large scale national study of ACA (American Camp Association accredited camps that included independent, religiously affiliated, government, and not-for-profit organizations. Based on the responses given by camp directors, contact and leadership from trained staff and the supportive relationships they provided were essential elements of camp. Other aspects leading to positive youth development in camps were program mission and structure along with elements of accountability, assessment of outcomes, and opportunities for skill building.
Bruner, Mark W.; Balish, Shea M.; Forrest, Christopher; Brown, Sarah; Webber, Kristine; Gray, Emily; McGuckin, Matthew; Keats, Melanie R.; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Christopher A.
An emerging area of research has focused on understanding how the group dynamics of a sport team influence positive youth development (PYD). The identities that youth form through their membership in sport teams (i.e., social identities) have been found to influence teammate behavior and team performance. Yet, minimal work exists on social…
Dr. Rob Kitchin and Dr. Karen Lysaght
In this paper we use data from interviews and focus groups with gay men, lesbians and bisexuals living in Belfast to provide a queer reading of the city. Drawing on the work of queer theory, we argue, contrary to much of the literature on sexuality and space, that space is neither purely encoded as ‘heterosexual’ or ‘gay’. Instead we posit that all space is queered, that the sexing of space is always partial and contested, always in a process of becoming; that heterosexist spatiality, for exa...
Chris Trikalis; Zisis Papanikolaou; Sofia Trikali
Present study firstly investigated the goals and objectives of youth football academies in Greece, according to the different sector that they operate (public, private, voluntary) and secondly created proposals for future youth football academies development. Research was conducted in Greece, at the period of 2010-2011. Fourteen youth football academies participated in this study and divided into three categories (five academies in commercial sector, four academies in public sector, and five ...
Whether they are in a leadership program, participate in an organization, or engage in school-based extra-curricular activities, there does not appear to be a shortage of leadership development opportunities for youth. Despite the prominence of these experiences, the lack of youth leadership development models available for educators can pose a…
The problems associated with youth behaviours in the Niger Delta region necessitated the study. The specific objectives were to collate the current agricultural development intervention programmes; compare the attitude of youth leaders and non-leaders to agricultural development intervention programmes, and examine ...
Camping Magazine, 2001
Youth development moves beyond risk reduction by turning a narrow negative focus on at-risk factors into positive action strategies. Critical components of youth development are providing positive ways for young people to meet their needs and building competencies. Physical, social, cognitive, vocational, and moral competence are described, and…
Full Text Available Research on intersectionality of marginalized youth is generally situated in the assumption that non-normative identity leads to pathology and victimization. Further, most research to date has studied marginalized youth using a traditional nuclear family paradigm. In this paper we discuss how intersectionality addresses the combination of strengths and challenges of living with stigmatizing identities and family processes, towards developing successful youth adjustment. We apply the three-step intersectionality approach to study findings among a group of racial/ethnic minority and sexual minority identified youth and discuss the particular role of familism and extended kinship support beliefs that are unique to these youth as a promoter of successful adjustment.
This Master’s Thesis presents the theory behind a contemporary perspective called positive youth development. This perspective, paradigm, approach or concept touches different fields and draws from interdisciplinary research, philosophy, policy formation, Youth program description and others. Its theoretical background consists of developmental system theories combined with the idea that the fundamental process of development is marked by mutually influential relations between the developing ...
of many Nigerian youth especially the Igbo negatively. Consequently, some ... of life and times of our people in different areas… Above all, they ... can be used to unite mankind more remotely than sports or the internet is currently doing every .... “The Use of Folklore in the Humanistic Management of Youth in a. Pluralistic ...
Oshri, Assaf; Topple, Trasie A; Carlson, Matthew W
Maltreated children are a vulnerable population, yet many of these youth follow positive developmental pathways. The primary aim was to identify social skills growth trajectories among at-risk youth to understand processes underlying resilience. Nationally representative, longitudinal data from 1,179 families investigated for child maltreatment (M age = 12.75) were obtained from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Four trajectories were identified-stress-resistant, emergent resilience, breakdown, and unresponsive-maladaptive. Protective resources from multiple levels of the youth ecology (individual, family, school, and social service) predicted positive growth social skills trajectories. Resilience process and attendant positive outcomes in multiple domains of functioning were evident among the stress-resistant and emergent resilience trajectories. Results underscore the saliency of social skills development for resilient outcomes in youth. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Full Text Available This paper presents a formative evaluation of an afterschool program that combined positive youth development and school garden curricula. Novel approaches were used to teach elementary school children about gardening and nutrition, and to engage them in advocacy for healthy community physical activity and nutrition environments. The youth development curriculum included sessions on team building, community pride, healthy eating, physical activity, and advocacy. Photovoice methods were used to allow participants to assess their community and communicate findings with community leaders. The school garden curriculum included nutrition and gardening lessons. Formative evaluation was conducted for each session. Themes of the evaluation were: successful methods for engaging youth, issues in the social environment, and implications for program management. Evaluation results are discussed in relationship to relevant youth development literature to provide recommendations that will strengthen future programs.
The Forum for Youth Investment has partnered with Corporate Voices for Working Families to support a Youth Transitions Task Force charged with identifying and promoting the corporate and public policies necessary to ensure that young people ages 14-21 have the opportunities to develop the skills and knowledge needed to be successful in work and in…
The study investigated the role of youths in agricultural development in Makurdi Local Government area (LGA) of Benue State. Interview schedules were used to collect data from 120 youths selected through random sampling procedure from Makurdi LGA. Descriptive and inferential statistics namely, mean and factor ...
Maslow, Gary R; Hill, Sherika N; Pollock, McLean D
Adolescents with childhood-onset chronic condition (COCC) are at increased risk for physical and psychological problems. Despite being at greater risk and having to deal with traumatic experiences and uncertainty, most adolescents with COCC do well across many domains. The Positive Youth Development (PYD) perspective provides a framework for examining thriving in youth and has been useful in understanding positive outcomes for general populations of youth as well as at-risk youth. This study aimed to compare levels of PYD assets between youth with COCC and youth without illness. Participants with COCC were recruited from specialty pediatric clinics while healthy participants were recruited from a large pediatric primary care practice. Inclusion criteria for participants included being (1) English speaking, (2) no documented intellectual disability in electronic medical record, and (3) aged between 13 and 18 years during the recruitment period. Univariate and bivariate analyses on key variables were conducted for adolescents with and without COCC. Finally, we performed multivariable linear regressions for PYD and its subdomains. There were no significant differences between overall PYD or any of the subdomains between the two groups. Multivariable linear regression models showed no statistically significant relationship between chronic condition status and PYD or the subdomains. The findings from this study support the application of the PYD perspective to this population of youth. The results of this study suggest that approaches shown to benefit healthy youth, could be used to promote positive outcomes for youth with COCC. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... be largely excluded from participating in policy and governance-related decisions. ... will work with caste and religious minority youth in India and sexual minority ... to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, ...
This article reflects critically on "The Social Dynamics of Art Research: Contemporary Photography in Belfast", an engaged research project conducted with photographers, community activists, academics and visual artists in Belfast. Through a critical examination of the project's theoretical architecture and methodological framework this…
Rana, Sheetal; Baumgardner, Briana; Germanic, Ofir; Graff, Randy; Korum, Kathy; Mueller, Megan; Randall, Steve; Simmons, Tim; Stokes, Gina; Xiong, Will; Peterson, Karen Kolb
An ongoing, innovative youth worker professional development is described in this article. This initiative began as youth worker professional development and then transcended to personal and organizational development. It grew from a moral response of Saint Paul Parks and Recreation staff and two faculty members of Youth Studies, University of Minnesota to offer higher-quality services to youth for their healthy development. Its underlying philosophies and ethos included building and sustaining meaningful relationships, cocreating a space for learning and change, becoming a reflecting practitioner, and community organizing. This professional development responded to the participants' interests and needs or to local situations in that moment, that space, and the discussions, and took on different shapes at different times. There were many accomplishments of, challenges and barriers to, and lessons learned from this professional development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
This article describes the Make-A-Difference: Guard East New York program, a sports-based youth development program that utilizes the holistic teaching approach of teaching for personal and social responsibility.
Janet E. Fox
Full Text Available As society grows increasingly diverse, it is critical that youth development professionals are equipped with cultural core competencies. This descriptive study gauged the perceived level of cultural competence among 4-H Youth Development professionals from a Southern state in the United States. Based on the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competency (PRKC Model (Stone & Rennekamp, 2004, youth development professionals rated their cultural competence (equity, access, and opportunity in eight core competency areas. Based on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 0 = No knowledge to 4 = Expert, youth development professionals evaluated their cultural competence ranging from 0.66 to 4.00. According to an interpretive scale, most youth development professionals rated their competence as intermediate. Participants reported the skills of active listening and an open attitude as areas in which they felt most competent. Areas of least competence were community outreach policies and procedures. No significant relationships existed between the demographic variables of gender, degree earned, and field of study when compared to perceived cultural competence. The findings will be used to detect deficiencies and create opportunities for professional training and development experiences in supporting the cultural competence and growth of youth professionals.
Schwartz, Kelly D; Theron, Linda C; Scales, Peter C
A cross-sectional study explored the presence and power of developmental assets in a sample of youth from rural South African townships. Learners (female = 58%; M age = 17.1; N = 505) attending three township high schools completed self-report measures of developmental assets and thriving outcomes. Participants reported contextual assets (e.g., family, school, community) in the vulnerable ranges, with gender, family structure, and school type accounting for some differences. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that five asset contexts (family, school, community, personal, social) were uniquely predictive of thriving outcomes. Discussion focuses on contextual expressions of positive youth development among Zulu township youth in challenging environments. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena
We argue that video game play may meet Larson's (2000) criteria for fostering initiative in youth, and thus, may be related to positive outcomes such as flow, cooperation, problem solving, and reduced in-group bias. However, developmental and social psychologists examining adolescent video game use have focused heavily on how video games are…
Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K; Jaccard, James
This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development reported high levels of femininity and anxiety symptoms. Youth who reported high levels of masculinity had low levels of anxiety symptoms as reported by both youths and parents. The estimated effects of pubertal development, femininity, and masculinity on youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly moderated by biological sex. Pubertal development and gender role orientation appear to be important in explaining levels of youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth.
Baillie, Colin P T; Galaviz, Karla I; Emiry, Kevin; Bruner, Mark W; Bruner, Brenda G; Lévesque, Lucie
Physical activity (PA) programs are a promising strategy to promote positive youth development (PYD). It is not known if published reports provide sufficient information to promote the implementation of effective PYD in indigenous youth. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which published literature on PA programs that promote PYD in indigenous youth report on RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) indicators. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify articles reporting on PA programs that promote PYD in indigenous youth. The search yielded 8084 articles. A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool assessing internal and external validity factors was used to extract data from 10 articles meeting eligibility criteria. The most commonly reported dimensions were effectiveness (73 %), adoption (48 %), and maintenance (43 %). Reach (34 %) and implementation (30 %) were less often reported. Published research provides insufficient information to inform real-world implementation of PA programs to promote PYD in indigenous youth.
Kalish, Robin E; Voigt, Bridget; Rahimian, Afsaneh; Dicara, Joseph; Sheehan, Karen
To identify key elements that contribute to the effectiveness of a youth development program, interviews were conducted with 35 former Chicago Youth Programs (CYP) participants who remained in the program until age 18 years and went on to attend college, and 25 participants who left the program (and are currently older than age 18). Of the college participants who remained in CYP until age 18, 97% reported that the program had helped them by providing tutoring, mentoring, and financial support. In comparison, only 56% of the CYP dropouts had completed some college, and nearly 50% reported being involved in illegal activities. Many of the CYP dropouts were drawn to illegal activities for financial reasons or because they felt there was inadequate adolescent programming. All reported benefiting from their CYP participation. Incorporating financial incentives or specific adolescent programming may lead to longer youth program participation and, perhaps, more positive outcomes.
Beamish, A J; Gokani, V; Radford, P; Sinclair, P; Fitzgerald, J E F
The Association of Surgeons in Training (ASiT) is a professional body and registered charity working to promote excellence in surgical training for the benefit of junior doctors and patients alike. ASiT is independent of the National Health Service (NHS), Surgical Royal Colleges, and specialty associations and represents trainees in all ten surgical specialties. ASiT was delighted to welcome all four surgical Royal College Presidents and over 650 delegates to Belfast for ASiT 2014. With a theme of Marginal Gains, the conference programme explored collaboration, simulation training and human factors, complimented by debates including the Shape of Training Review (ShOT), several focussed parallel sessions and ten subsidised pre-conference training courses. Almost £4000 was awarded by the incoming President, Mr Vimal Gokani, to delegates across more than 30 prizes for delegates who presented the highest scoring academic work from over 1200 submitted abstracts. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brumbaugh, Laura; Cater, Melissa
A successful component of programs designed to deliver youth leadership develop programs are youth educators who understand the importance of utilizing research-based information and seeking professional development opportunities. The purpose of this study was to determine youth educator's perceived confidence in leading youth leadership…
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available The concept of spirituality as a positive youth development construct is reviewed in this paper. Both broad and narrow definitions of spirituality are examined and a working definition of spirituality is proposed. Regarding theories of spirituality, different models pertinent to spiritual development and the relationship between spirituality and positive youth development are highlighted. Different ecological factors, particularly family and peer influences, were found to influence spirituality. Research on the influence of spirituality on adolescent developmental outcomes is examined. Finally, ways to promote adolescent spirituality are discussed.
Sukarieh, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart
The field of youth development, long given over to discussions of youth as a time of storm and stress, raging hormones and problem behavior, has increasingly turned to look at the "sunny side" of youth--at their agency, insights, capabilities and contributions. Youth, we are now regularly told, are not problems but resources and assets. In this…
Lerman, Robert I.; Pouncy, Hillard
Developing a youth apprenticeship in the United States would boost productivity, improve the preparation of youths for the skill demands of a global economy, and simultaneously offer minority youth an avenue into the economic mainstream. Germany's "dual system" of youth apprenticeship could be adopted to form a national skill-building…
Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James
This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…
Character is vital force for positive development and societal well-being. Character strengths play important roles in positive youth development, not only as broad-protective factors, preventing or mitigating psychopathology and problems, but also as enabling conditions that promote thriving and flourishing. Recent research findings show that…
The focused on participation in community development activities, constraints to and benefits derived from participation. It compared rural and urban youth participation in community development activities in Ido local government area of Oyo State. Proportionate random sampling was used to select 2 rural, 1 urban ...
Full Text Available Universities across the nation face the charge of enhancing their intellectual capital as a learning institution while also contributing to the greater social good. While there is great potential for university-community partnerships to generate lessons for youth workers and policy makers, create powerful new knowledge for the academic field, and provide transformative experiences for community members, partnerships often fail to produce such meaningful results. In the San Francisco Bay Area, community residents who have been involved in such unsuccessful initiatives frequently perceived that university partners spent insufficient time learning about the community context, prioritized research objectives over community needs and did not make long-term commitments. Despite these challenges, community-university partnerships can be useful strategies for advancing the field of youth development by strengthening research and practice in local contexts. This paper presents how the design and implementation of model youth programs served as an effective strategy in developing a partnership between a university-based center and two local communities over a 5-year period. It also describes essential lessons that other communities, research institutions or universities may use to launch, implement, expand and sustain their own successful partnerships to build local capacity to implement youth development practices, promote positive outcomes for young people, and generate knowledge about the impact of youth development approaches.
Full Text Available Volunteering is one of manifestations of citizenship. It indicates the individual’s quality in terms of citizenship and the readiness to take an active part in public activities. The current paper analyses the phenomenon of volunteering (its place and role in ensuring public development and sustainability. The influence of volunteer - ing on the youth socialization and personal development of competences (in particular, social, professional and communicative is disclosed in the article. The article also highlights the motives and factors that promote and prevent the youth participation in voluntary activities.
Full Text Available This paper presents the main characteristics of the youth labour market, with a special view on mobility, career development and incomes. The paper is substantiated by and continues the researches of the authors on the topic of labour force mobility and on the one of adaptability, respectively on youths' beahviour on labour market (with particular consideration of young graduates highlighting the factors that adjust choices regarding taking up a job, career advancement, labour motivation, professional and personal satisfaction opportunities which are provided by the labour market at local level, in country and abroad. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are presented about Romanian youths' labour market within the European context during the transition period. The impact of the crisis on youths' labour market is analysed, highlighting the challenges and opportunities, the particularities of the newly created jobs and especially the knowledge, skills and competencies requirements (KSC. The authors propose both the improvement of the systems of indicators for defining the potential and presence of youth on the labour market, the economic and social impact of external mobility of young graduates and an integrated scheme of policy measures for promoting adaptability and performance integration on Romanian labour market of youth. Particular attention is paid to presenting policy instruments for halting/diminishing the brain drain and brain shopping phenomena by promoting an attractive (professionally and monetary supply for employment in Romania's local economy. The authors succeed in highlighting the functional links between the education market (labour force supply and labour market (employment demand of the business environment underpinning the requirement of integrated management of labour potential in the years preceding studies' finalization and up to the post-insertion years by multi-criteria analysis models and graduate career tracking
Brenda S. Allen
Full Text Available Research suggests 4-H programs build Life Skills such as leadership, communication, citizenship and learning. However, 4-H programs vary from long-term on-going experiences to shorter, more intense opportunities. This paper discusses a program evaluation articulating the life skill development of participants in a 3-day residential State 4-H Conference on a Midwestern college campus. The Life Skills assessed were in the areas of leadership, citizenship, communication, and learning as part of overall Life Skill development. Participants were youth ages 14-18 years. A retrospective pretest-posttest was used to evaluate skill development and understanding. Analysis, including paired sample t-tests, indicated growth in each of the 12 common outcome measures evaluated. This study supports the importance of purposeful planning and youth engagement in the learning process to achieve desired life skill outcomes.
Middaugh, Ellen; Clark, Lynn Schofield; Ballard, Parissa J
Research on the social implications of adolescent technology use often focuses on identifying and preventing risk. However, adolescence is also a time of rapidly expanding capacities, expectations of autonomy, and identity exploration. In this article, we highlight findings from research in the field of youth civic development, which point to the importance of youth civic engagement during adolescence for later adult civic engagement as well as for promoting positive developmental outcomes. Researchers suggest that certain forms of Internet use (such as information seeking, social network site use, media production, and participation in online communities) promote civic engagement and that digital tools play an important role in youth empowerment efforts. In this article, we suggest a need for greater attention to efforts to promote digital media competencies among adolescents and for greater coordination of research on adolescent risk and adolescent autonomy and empowerment related to Internet use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
For this purpose, 400 female high school students of Kerman responded to the scale of parenting style perception, school climate perception, and positive youth development. The results of correlation analysis indicated a positive and significant correlation between school climate dimensions (teacher support, autonomy ...
te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris
te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated
This manual is designed to help teachers, businesses, Chambers of Commerce, and students start their own economic development activities and youth ventures. It describes a two-step plan to economic development through youth: development of an in-school student chamber of commerce program and development of a youth-owned venture. The first part of…
Truckenmiller, James L.
The former HEW National Strategy for Youth Development model was a community-based planning and procedural tool to enhance and to prevent delinquency through a process of youth needs assessments, needs targeted programs, and program impact evaluation. The program's 12 Impact Scales have been found to have acceptable reliabilities, substantial…
This paper argues for the foregrounding of improvisation and education "in the moment" within youth workers' professional development. Devised in collaboration with third-year Youth and Community Work students and lecturers at a university in Birmingham, this participatory action research project drew on work of jazz ethnomusicologists…
Eys, Mark; Loughead, Todd; Bray, Steven R; Carron, Albert V
The purpose of the current study was to initiate the development of a psychometrically sound measure of cohesion for youth sport groups. A series of projects were undertaken in a four-phase research program. The initial phase was designed to garner an understanding of how youth sport group members perceived the concept of cohesion through focus groups (n = 56), open-ended questionnaires (n = 280), and a literature review. In Phase 2, information from the initial projects was used in the development of 142 potential items and content validity was assessed. In Phase 3, 227 participants completed a revised 87-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses further reduced the number of items to 17 and suggested a two-factor structure (i.e., task and social cohesion dimensions). Finally, support for the factorial validity of the resultant questionnaire was provided through confirmatory factor analyses with an independent sample (n = 352) in Phase 4. The final version of the questionnaire contains 16 items that assess task and social cohesion in addition to 2 negatively worded spurious items. Specific issues related to assessing youth perceptions of cohesion are discussed and future research directions are suggested.
Sdunzik, Jennifer; Leon, Rocio; Yaryyeva, Annagul
“Global Education and Professional Development of Minority Youth" was developed to establish connections between the Purdue student body and the Frankfort community. By engaging high school students in workshops that focus on identities, students are encouraged to identify and market the talents they contribute to an increasingly globalized world. Students participate in workshops to develop their professional skills and articulate their transnational social location. The workshops were desig...
Bruner, Mark W; Balish, Shea M; Forrest, Christopher; Brown, Sarah; Webber, Kristine; Gray, Emily; McGuckin, Matthew; Keats, Melanie R; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Christopher A
An emerging area of research has focused on understanding how the group dynamics of a sport team influence positive youth development (PYD). The identities that youth form through their membership in sport teams (i.e., social identities) have been found to influence teammate behavior and team performance. Yet, minimal work exists on social identity and PYD in youth sport. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social identity and PYD in sport. Youth engaged in recreational sport (N = 219; M age = 11.61 years, SD = 1.39 years) completed measures of social identity and PYD in sport. The social identity measure assessed 3 dimensions including ingroup ties (IGT; perceptions of similarity, bonding, belongingness), cognitive centrality (importance of being a team member), and ingroup affect (IGA; feelings associated with group membership). A regression analysis was performed separately for 4 PYD outcomes (personal and social skills, goal setting, initiative, negative experiences) with the 3 dimensions of social identity entered as predictors. Regression analyses revealed that IGT and IGA were positively associated with personal and social skills (R 2 Adj. = .29). Further, IGT predicted initiative (R 2 Adj. = .16), whereas IGA was positively associated with goal setting (R 2 Adj. = .17) and negatively associated with negative experiences (R 2 Adj. = .08). The findings extend previous research highlighting the benefits of social identity on teammate behavior and team performance and demonstrate how social identity may contribute to PYD through sport.
Christens, Brian D.; Dolan, Tom
Community organizing groups that have built coalitions for local change over the past few decades are now involving young people as leaders in efforts to improve quality of life. The current study explores a particularly effective youth organizing initiative through review of organizational documents and collection and analysis of qualitative…
Snowshoe, Angela; Crooks, Claire V; Tremblay, Paul F; Craig, Wendy M; Hinson, Riley E
Despite a growing recognition of cultural connectedness as an important protective factor for First Nations (FN) peoples' health, there remains a clear need for a conceptual model that organizes, explains, and leads to an understanding of the resiliency mechanisms underlying this concept for FN youth. The current study involved the development of the Cultural Connectedness Scale (CCS) to identify a new scale of cultural connectedness. A sample of 319 FN, Métis, and Inuit youths enrolled in Grades 8-12 from reserve and urban areas in Saskatchewan and Southwestern Ontario, Canada, participated in the current study. A combination of rational expert judgments and empirical data were used to refine the pool of items to a set that is a representative sample of the indicators of the cultural connectedness construct. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the latent structure of the cultural connectedness items, and a confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of a more parsimonious version of the final EFA model. The resulting 29-item inventory consisted of 3 dimensions: identity, traditions, and spirituality. Criterion validity was demonstrated with cultural connectedness dimensions correlating well with other youth well-being indicators. The conceptualization and operationalization of the cultural connectedness has a number of potential applications both for research and prevention. This study provides an orienting framework that guides measurement of cultural connectedness that researchers need to further explore the role of culture in enhancing resiliency and well-being among FN youth in Canada. 2015 APA, all rights reserved
Crocetti, Elisabetta; Erentaitė, Rasa; Zukauskienė, Rita
Identity formation is a core developmental task of adolescence. Adolescents can rely on different social-cognitive styles to seek, process, and encode self-relevant information: information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant identity styles. The reliance on different styles might impact adolescents' adjustment and their active involvement in the society. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents with different identity styles report differences in positive youth development (analyzed with the Five Cs-Competence, Confidence, Character, Connection, and Caring-model) and in various forms of civic engagement (i.e., involvement in school self-government activities, volunteering activities, youth political organizations, and youth non-political organizations). The participants were 1,633 (54.1 % female) 14-19 year old adolescents (M age = 16.56, SD age = 1.22). The findings indicated that adolescents with different identity styles differed significantly on all the Five Cs and on two (i.e., involvement in volunteering activities and in youth non-political organizations) forms of civic engagement. Briefly, adolescents with an information-oriented style reported high levels of both the Five Cs and civic engagement; participants with a normative style reported moderate to high scores on the Five Cs but low rates of civic engagement; diffuse-avoidant respondents scored low both on the Five Cs and on civic engagement. These findings suggest that the information-oriented style, contrary to the diffuse-avoidant one, has beneficial effects for both the individual and the community, while the normative style has quite beneficial effects for the individual but not for his/her community. Concluding, adolescents with different identity styles display meaningful differences in positive youth development and in rates of civic engagement.
Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Budge, Stephanie L.; Fugate, Ellen; Flanagan, Kaleigh; Touloumtzis, Currie; Rood, Brian; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Leibowitz, Scott
Background A growing body of research has examined transgender identity development, but no studies have investigated developmental pathways as a transactional process between youth and caregivers, incorporating perspectives from multiple family members. The aim of this study was to conceptualize pathways of transgender identity development using narratives from both transgender and gender nonconforming (TGN) youth and their cisgender (non-transgender) caregivers. Methods The sample included 16 families, with 16 TGN youth, ages 7–18 years, and 29 cisgender caregivers (N = 45 family members). TGN youth represented multiple gender identities, including trans boy (n = 9), trans girl (n = 5), gender fluid boy (n = 1), and girlish boy (n = 1). Caregivers included mothers (n = 17), fathers (n = 11), and one grandmother. Participants were recruited from LGBTQ community organizations and support networks for families with transgender youth in the Midwest, Northeast, and South regions of the United States. Each family member completed a one-time in-person semi-structured qualitative interview that included questions about transgender identity development. Results Analyses revealed seven overarching themes of transgender identity development, which were organized into a conceptual model: Trans identity development, sociocultural influences/societal discourse, biological influences, family adjustment/impact, stigma/cisnormativity, support/resources, and gender affirmation/actualization. Conclusions Findings underscore the importance of assessing developmental processes among TGN youth as transactional, impacting both youth and their caregivers. PMID:29527139
Culture Youth of Kazakhstan, namely professional competence and culture are one of the important tasks of youth policy. The article described what purpose has this policy and what the priorities for the development of a society and the state.
Full Text Available The efficacy levels of workers in the youth development field can significantly impact the work done with youth. These levels may be impacted by workers’ perceptions of administrative occupational support at their organization. To date, limited research exists that examines youth work efficacy levels, and no research studies exist analyzing the relationship between youth workers’ efficacy levels and perceived organizational support. The current study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and the perceived organizational support felt by workers in a youth development setting. A total of 198 surveys were completed; results indicated that youth work efficacy was significantly related to perceived organizational support. This study is important to enhancing the body of knowledge regarding self-efficacy levels of workers in a youth development setting, as well as understanding motivation and self-confidence of youth development professionals.
Stephen T. Russell
Full Text Available As we commemorate 100 years of youth development programs whose origins are traced to organizations founded in the United States, we consider key insights as well as strategies relevant for diversity and inclusion. Many of the large, mainstream youth development organizations and programs that were founded over a century ago now primarily serve youth in the “mainstream”: youth from the middle classes, traditional families, and dominant cultural groups. A growing body of scholarship considers the positive development of youth who are marginalized due to their social class, ability, sexuality, citizenship status, race, ethnicity, or culture. We draw insights from studies of youth and families who are immigrants, or who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT. These findings provide a vantage point for considering ways that contemporary youth development organizations might stretch the margins, or adapt their practices, in order to reach and include all youth.
Mat D. Duerden
Full Text Available While the development of life skills (e.g., communication, problem solving, etc. is a commonly targeted youth program outcome, the lack of standardized conceptualizations and instrumentation make it difficult to compare impacts across programs and develop validated best practices. In order to promote a more unified approach to life skill development, literature reviews were conducted for 10 life skill domains to identify common definitions and, if available, appropriate outcome measures. Data were then collected from an ethnically diverse sample (N = 758 of elementary, middle, and high school aged youth for the 10 identified instruments. Analyses were conducted to ascertain the psychometric qualities of each measure, the interrelationships among measures, and the measures’ relationships with gender, ethnicity, and school level. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to life skill theory and measurement.
Truckenmiller, James L.
The former HEW (Health, Education, and Welfare) National Strategy for Youth Development Model proposed a community-based program to promote positive youth development and to prevent delinquency through a sequence of youth needs assessments, needs-targeted programs, and program impact evaluation. HEW Community Program Impact Scales data obtained…
Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Conn, Michael
This commentary discusses the emergence of youth development research and evaluation in the nonprofit arena over the past 10 to 15 years. Included in this discussion is the establishment of the context for youth development research in nonprofits, a brief description of key examples of research from three youth nonprofits that illustrate the…
Full Text Available This article describes the pilot evaluation of two Positive Youth Development (PYD programs for youth with child onset chronic illness (COCI, reporting how the programs influenced participants’ character development. College students with COCI led high school students with COCI through activities pertaining to different aspects of growing up with a chronic illness. Participants completed the Positive Youth Development Inventory-Short Form (PYDI-S, which measures seven domains of youth perceptions of the contribution to their development from the program. Participants reported that both programs helped them the most with personal standards, which corresponds well to character development on the full version of the Positive Youth Development Inventory (PYDI. They also had high scores on prosocial behavior and future orientation, both important domains for character development. We discuss the idea that interventions promoting character development for youth with COCI are critical for promoting a positive narrative for chronically-ill youth, their parents, and society.
Education. ... speaking engagements, and the media and will integrate the findings of the dialogue and summit into its policy research ... Digital solidarity, key to Africa's development — interview with Mr Abdoulaye Wade, President of Senegal.
This qualitative study used a life-history methodology to explore the educational ... Compulsory academic and peer mentoring promoted academic and social ... the model developed, Tinto added pre-university factors that may influence.
Truckenmiller, James L.
The former HEW National Strategy for Youth Development Model was a community-based planning and procedural tool designed to enhance positive youth development and prevent delinquency through a process of youth needs assessment, development of targeted programs, and program impact evaluation. A series of 12 Impact Scales most directly reflect the…
Truckenmiller, James L.
The Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) Office of Youth Development's National Strategy for Youth Development model was promoted as a community-based planning and procedural tool for enhancing positive youth development and reducing delinquency. To test the applicability of the model as a function of delinquency level, the program's Impact Scales…
Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Bajwa, Jasmine; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lalonde, Richard N; Quon, Elizabeth C; Safdar, Saba; Pike, Ian
Acculturation is a multidimensional process involving changes in behaviour and beliefs. Questionnaires developed to measure acculturation are typically designed for specific ethnic populations and adult experiences. This study developed a questionnaire that measures acculturation among ethnically diverse populations of youth that can be included as a module in population surveys. Questionnaires measuring acculturation in youth were identified in the literature. The importance of items from the existing questionnaires was determined using a Delphi process and this informed the development of our questionnaire. The questionnaire was then pilot tested using a sample of 248 Canadians aged 18-25 via an online system. Participants identified as East and South East Asian (27.8%), South Asian (17.7%) and Black (13.7%). The majority were 1st (33.5%) or 2nd generation immigrants (52.0%). After redundant items were eliminated, exploratory factor analysis grouped items into domains, and, for each domain, internal consistency, and convergent validity with immigrant generation then age at immigration estimated. A subset of participants re-completed the questionnaire for reliability estimation. The literature review yielded 117 articles that used 13 questionnaires with a total of 440 questions. The Delphi process reduced these to 32 questions. Pilot testing occurred in 248 Canadians aged 18-25. Following item reduction, 16 questions in three domains remained: dominant culture, heritage language, and heritage culture. All had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas > .75). The mean dominant domain score increased with immigrant generation (1st generation: 3.69 (95% CI: 3.49-3.89), 2nd: 4.13 (4.00-4.26), 3rd: 4.40 (4.19-4.61)), and mean heritage language score was higher among those who immigrated after age 12 than before (p = .0001), indicative of convergent validity. This Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire has demonstrated validity. It can be incorporated into
Larson, Reed W.; Angus, Rachel M.
This research examines how youth in arts and leadership programs develop skills for organizing actions over time to achieve goals. Ethnically diverse youth (ages 13-21) in 11 high-quality urban and rural programs were interviewed as they carried out projects. Qualitative analyses of 712 interviews with 108 youth yielded preliminary grounded theory…
Baker, Thomas A., III.; Byon, Kevin K.
A scale was developed to measure perceptions of sexual abuse in youth sports by assessing (a) the perceived prevalence of sexual abuse committed by pedophilic youth sport coaches, (b) the perceived likelihood that a coach is a pedophile, (c) perceptions on how youth sport organizations should manage the risk of pedophilia, and (d) media influence…
Ben M. F. Law
Full Text Available Recognition for positive behavior is an appropriate response of the social environment to elicit desirable external behavior among the youth. Such positive responses, rendered from various social systems, include tangible and intangible reinforcements. The following theories are used to explain the importance of recognizing positive behavior: operational conditioning, observational learning, self-determination, and humanistic perspective. In the current work, culturally and socially desirable behaviors are discussed in detail with reference to Chinese adolescents. Positive behavior recognition is especially important to adolescent development because it promotes identity formation as well as cultivates moral reasoning and social perspective thinking from various social systems. The significance of recognizing positive behavior is illustrated through the support, tutorage, invitation, and subsidy provided by Hong Kong’s social systems in recognition of adolescent volunteerism. The practical implications of positive behavior recognition on youth development programs are also discussed in this work.
Berrington, K.A.; Kingston, A.E.; Sawey, P.M.J.
The Belfast Atomic Data Bank holds data for the excitation and ionisation of atoms and ions by electrons and photons, and provides recommended data; electron excitation data recommended at regular Atomic Data Workshops is summarised. Photoabsorption data for all elements up to Fe have been calculated in the international Opacity Project, and a summary is given of the atomic data expected from the Project
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if youth and adult participants in the 4-H Environmental Impact program perceive youth?adult partnerships as an effective means to enhance the youths’ development of life skills. The study further sought to discover the perceived obstacles that may keep youth and adults from participating in equal partnerships. The life skills of: Leadership, Cooperation, Service Learning, and Planning and organizing were enhanced through the youths’ participation in the youth-adult partnership. Through this research there was evidence that many of the youth participants did perceive themselves as equal team members when participating in this youth-adult partnership. The research indicated the greatest perceived obstacle that kept youth from engaging was not much time after homework and other activities. It is recommended that all participants in newly formed youth-adult partnerships receive training on how to implement this type of program, and how to participate equally.
Vierimaa, Matthew; Bruner, Mark W; Côté, Jean
Competence, confidence, connection, and character are regarded as outcomes of positive youth development (PYD) in sport. However, the specific athlete behaviors associated with different PYD profiles are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between athletes' observed behavior during sport competitions and their perceptions of PYD outcomes. Cross-sectional study with systematic behavioral observation. Sixty-seven youth athletes were observed during basketball games near the end of their season, and the content of their behavior was systematically coded. Athletes also completed measures of the 4 Cs (competence, confidence connection, and character). A person-centered analysis approach was used to examine the relationship between PYD profiles and observed behavior. A cluster analysis identified two homogenous groups of athletes characterized by relatively high and low perceptions of confidence, connection, and character. A MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for gender and years of playing experience, the high Cs group engaged in more frequent sport communication with their coaches. Results re-affirm the critical role that coaches play in the developmental experiences of young athletes, and highlight the importance of contextual factors of the youth sport environment.
Full Text Available Competence, confidence, connection, and character are regarded as outcomes of positive youth development (PYD in sport. However, the specific athlete behaviors associated with different PYD profiles are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between athletes' observed behavior during sport competitions and their perceptions of PYD outcomes.Cross-sectional study with systematic behavioral observation.Sixty-seven youth athletes were observed during basketball games near the end of their season, and the content of their behavior was systematically coded. Athletes also completed measures of the 4 Cs (competence, confidence connection, and character. A person-centered analysis approach was used to examine the relationship between PYD profiles and observed behavior.A cluster analysis identified two homogenous groups of athletes characterized by relatively high and low perceptions of confidence, connection, and character. A MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for gender and years of playing experience, the high Cs group engaged in more frequent sport communication with their coaches.Results re-affirm the critical role that coaches play in the developmental experiences of young athletes, and highlight the importance of contextual factors of the youth sport environment.
Diemer, Matthew A
This study examines the roles of parental political socialization and the moral commitment to change social inequalities in predicting marginalized youths' (defined here as lower-SES youth of color) political participation. These issues are examined by applying structural equation modeling to a longitudinal panel of youth. Because tests of measurement invariance suggested racial/ethnic heterogeneity, the structural model was fit separately for three racial/ethnic groups. For each group, parental political socialization: discussion predicted youths' commitment to produce social change and for two groups, longitudinally predicted political participation. This study contributes to the literature by examining civic/political participation among disparate racial/ethnic groups, addresses an open scholarly question (whether youths' commitment to create social change predicts their "traditional" participation), and emphasizes parents' role in fostering marginalized youths' civic and political participation.
Full Text Available The relationship between coach- and peer-created motivational climates and Positive Youth Development is largely unexplored. This is especially true for the latter and in particular with regard to disadvantaged girls. The present study was designed to examine the relationships between perceived coach- and peer-created climates and reported developmental gains among disadvantaged girls participating in sports programmes, and to determine whether these relationships were moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 12 and 22 completed a questionnaire which included the ‘Youth Experience Survey for Sport’ (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012, the ‘Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports’ (Smith, Cumming, & Smoll, 2008, the ‘Peer Motivational Climate in Youth Sport Questionnaire’ (Ntoumanis & Vazou, 2005, and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. The analysis revealed that a mastery-oriented coach climate is a very strong predictor of perceived Positive Youth Development. This is based on both the number of developmental domains on which it had a significant impact and the explained variance based on the PRV values of the multi-level models. Unlike previous research on disadvantaged youth in general and disadvantaged girls in particular, the observed interaction effects did not show that disadvantaged girls necessarily gain more from their involvement in organised activities such as sport.
M. Phil. (Sport Management) Youth football development has developed into an important, integral part of professional football world-wide. Countries such as Spain, Brazil and the Netherlands have proven that an investment in youth football development has resulted in them becoming the world’s best football playing countries as ranked by International Football Association (FIFA). The investment in youth football development by these countries has resulted in sustained football success. The ...
2011, Human Rights Watch (2012) estimated that over 15 000 youths were killed in violence ... on the emergence of youth violence in contemporary Ilorin. Existing ... This was heightened between 2001 and 2003 during the administration.
Tak Yan Lee
Full Text Available The concept of resilience is reviewed from a range of disciplinary perspectives in this paper. Both broad and narrow definitions of resilience are highlighted and a working definition of resilience is proposed to inform research, policy and practice. Different psychological, social and ecological protective factors, particularly competence, optimism, and bonding to family and cultural beliefs are highlighted. Theoretical relationships between resilience and positive youth development are examined with an attempt to erase misunderstandings. Finally, how schools can promote resilience among students is discussed.
Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Bajwa, Jasmine; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lalonde, Richard N.; Quon, Elizabeth C.; Safdar, Saba; Pike, Ian
Objectives Acculturation is a multidimensional process involving changes in behaviour and beliefs. Questionnaires developed to measure acculturation are typically designed for specific ethnic populations and adult experiences. This study developed a questionnaire that measures acculturation among ethnically diverse populations of youth that can be included as a module in population surveys. Methods Questionnaires measuring acculturation in youth were identified in the literature. The importance of items from the existing questionnaires was determined using a Delphi process and this informed the development of our questionnaire. The questionnaire was then pilot tested using a sample of 248 Canadians aged 18–25 via an online system. Participants identified as East and South East Asian (27.8%), South Asian (17.7%) and Black (13.7%). The majority were 1st (33.5%) or 2nd generation immigrants (52.0%). After redundant items were eliminated, exploratory factor analysis grouped items into domains, and, for each domain, internal consistency, and convergent validity with immigrant generation then age at immigration estimated. A subset of participants re-completed the questionnaire for reliability estimation. Results The literature review yielded 117 articles that used 13 questionnaires with a total of 440 questions. The Delphi process reduced these to 32 questions. Pilot testing occurred in 248 Canadians aged 18–25. Following item reduction, 16 questions in three domains remained: dominant culture, heritage language, and heritage culture. All had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alphas > .75). The mean dominant domain score increased with immigrant generation (1st generation: 3.69 (95% CI: 3.49–3.89), 2nd: 4.13 (4.00–4.26), 3rd: 4.40 (4.19–4.61)), and mean heritage language score was higher among those who immigrated after age 12 than before (p = .0001), indicative of convergent validity. Conclusions This Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire has
Partee, Glenda L.
At the international Youth Employment Summit, September 7-11, 2002, representatives from over 140 countries gathered in Alexandria, Egypt to share knowledge and experience and to advance the cause of better preparation of youth for entry into, and success in, their respective national economies. At the Summit, for the benefit of those with little…
As part of our inquiry into how youth development and 4-H programming can affect the development of social capital for youth and for the community, we engaged youth in ripple mapping. Based on this information, we provide a typology of participation structures in youth development activities and the expected bridging and bonding social capital outcomes for each type. This article outlines the key factors underlying the typology and discusses strategies for using the typology to expand the impact of youth development and 4-H programming on young people and communities. It also outlines potential implications for increasing opportunities for fostering social capital leading to a spiraling-up effect for youth, volunteers, and the community. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Rosemary V. Barnett
Full Text Available As non-profits, volunteer groups, and nongovernmental organizations take on increasingly larger roles in contributing to local well-being, the active collaboration between youth and adults is vital to the long-term success of community development efforts. Similarly, as service activities become standardized components of high-school programs, youth are empowered to becoming long-term contributors to local development efforts. Through this process youth engage in shared citizenship, leading to greater investment in their communities. This research was based on the premise that youth, acting as central parts of the community development process, have the capacity to improve local well-being. It reflects input from 12 key informants and 418 youth who participated in a survey conducted on the development issues contributing to their involvement. The findings of this study provide insights into the factors most directly shaping youth attitudes and involvement in their communities, as well as presenting direct implications for applied use.
Nansel, Tonja R.; Rovner, Alisha J.; Haynie, Denise; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Wysocki, Timothy; Anderson, Barbara; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Laffel, Lori
Objective To develop and test a youth-report measure of collaborative parent involvement in type 1 diabetes management. Methods Initial item development and testing were conducted with 81 youths; scale refinement and validation were conducted with 122 youths from four geographic regions. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach's α, and factor analyses were conducted to select items comprising the scale. Correlations with parenting style and parent diabetes responsibility were examined. Multiple regr...
Lawrence R. Allen
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to begin a dialogue of developing a integrated and comprehensive system for youth in Kenya by identifying factors impacting the creation of a youth development system and exploring recommendations supporting and advancing such a system. The results of two collaborative assessments of the needs and strengths of Kenyan youth and the youth-serving programs based on the perspectives of practitioners, policy-makers, and scholars of youth-development are presented. The study was framed from the perspective of a systems approach to youth development in Kenya (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006; Overton & Lerner, 2012. Osgood (2012 identifies four steps for developing a systems approach for serving the needs of youth: (1 self-assessment, (2 goal identification, (3 planning, and (4 networking. The first step, self-assessment, was initiated through a SWOT analysis with two different groups of youth development professionals across a 2-year period (2014-2015. The 2014 SWOT analysis presented the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats related to developing a youth development system from a national level, whereas the 2015 SWOT analysis focused on these same factors but from a more local level of youth development programs and services. The results of these two analyses are presented and initial recommendations for building a more integrated and comprehensive youth development system in Kenya are presented. The need for further input and investigation is also discussed. This is a correction to the original article. For information about the changes made, please see the erratum http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2017.498.
Yang, Julie; Kurdyak, Paul; Guttmann, Astrid
When the Government of Ontario launched a comprehensive mental health and addictions strategy, the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) was tasked with developing a scorecard for ongoing monitoring of the child and youth mental health system. Using existing administrative and survey-based healthcare and education data, researchers at ICES developed a scorecard consisting of 25 indicators that described at-risk populations, child and youth mental healthcare and relevant outcomes. This scorecard is the first in Canada to report on performance indicators for the child and youth mental health system and provides a model for monitoring child and youth mental health using routinely collected administrative data.
Noam, Gil G.; Shah, Ashima
This chapter highlights the fit between youth-development-oriented programming and informal science activities in out-of-school time (OST) and illustrates how science and youth development can and should co-occur. The clover model and Dimensions of Success tool are introduced as lenses for designing and assessing science program quality in OST.…
The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…
Bartlett, Jennifer; Domene, José F.
Little is known about the career development of youth with a history of criminal activity and the factors that influence their career development. The ability to secure employment is important in predicting successful outcomes for this population, but unfortunately youth who have been involved in crime are likely to face a myriad of obstacles to…
Hermens, N.J.; Super, Sabina; verkooijen, kirsten; Koelen, Maria
Purpose: Despite the strong belief in sports programs as a setting in which socially vulnerable youth can develop life skills, no overview exists of life skill development in sports programs serving this youth group. Therefore, the present systematic review provides an overview of the evidence on
Hermens, Niels; Super, Sabina; Verkooijen, Kirsten T.; Koelen, Maria A.
Despite the strong belief in sports programs as a setting in which socially vulnerable youth can develop life skills, no overview exists of life skill development in sports programs serving this youth group. Therefore, the present systematic review provides an overview of the evidence on life skill
Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema
Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed.
Kramer, Jessica; Barth, Yishai; Curtis, Katie; Livingston, Kit; O'Neil, Madeline; Smith, Zach; Vallier, Samantha; Wolfe, Ashley
This paper describes a participatory research process in which six youth with disabilities (Youth Panel) participated in the development and evaluation of a manualized advocacy training, Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications). Project TEAM teaches youth with disabilities how to identify environmental barriers, generate solutions, and request accommodations. The Youth Panel conducted their evaluation after the university researcher implemented Project TEAM with three groups of trainees. The Youth Panel designed and administered a survey and focus group to evaluate enjoyment and usefulness of Project TEAM with support from an advocate/researcher. Members of the Youth Panel analyzed survey response frequencies. The advocate/researcher conducted a content analysis of the open-ended responses. Sixteen of 21 Project TEAM trainees participated in the evaluation. The evaluation results suggest that the trainees found the interactive and individualized aspects of the Project TEAM most enjoyable and useful. Some instructional materials were difficult for trainees with cognitive disabilities to understand. The Youth Panel's involvement in the development of Project TEAM may explain the relatively positive experiences reported by trainees. Project TEAM should continue to provide trainees with the opportunity to apply concepts in real-life situations. Project TEAM requires revisions to ensure it is enjoyable and useful for youth with a variety of disabilities. • Group process strategies, picture-based data collection materials, peer teamwork, and mentorship from adults with disabilities can enable youth with disabilities to engage in research. • Collaborating with youth with disabilities in the development of new rehabilitation approaches may enhance the relevance of interventions for other youth with disabilities. • Youth with cognitive disabilities participating in advocacy and environment-focused interventions may prefer interactive and
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how young people in Serbia are using free time and how their activities are beneficial, from the standpoint of a positive development. We have analyzed the amount of time youth daily spend in a different categories of activities, based on the degree of mental and physical engagement, the primary purpose of the activities and the degree of structured ness. The 24-hour time diary method was applied: subjects chronologically described, at half-hourly intervals, their activities in one working and one weekend day. The data analysis was based on a typical day reconstruction approach. The research was conducted on a representative sample of high school students (N = 922, stratified by region, age and type of school. The analysis revealed that young people spend most of their leisure time in activities that do not require a particular mental or physical engagement. In a hypothetical average day of Serbian teenagers, the most represented activities are aimed at fun and relaxation, as well as unstructured socializing with peers. Far less time is spent in individual or organized activities, aimed at the actualization of creative potentials and development of interests and competencies (extracurricular activities, hobbies, volunteering, etc.. It is evident that young people spend most of their free time in unstructured activities, without supervision and systematic guidance by adults. We believe that a gloomy picture of youth leisure time could be, at least partly, attributed to the lack of socio-cultural support for more developmentally enriching ways of spending time, in the form of organized activities at school and in the community.
te Wierike, Sanne C M; de Jong, Mark C; Tromp, Eveline J Y; Vuijk, Pieter J; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Malina, Robert M; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris
Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14-19 years of age (16.1 ± 1.7 years). Players were observed on 6 occasions during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 seasons. Three following basketball-specific field tests were administered on each occasion: the shuttle sprint test for RSA, the vertical jump for lower body explosive strength (power), and the interval shuttle run test for interval endurance capacity. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated (percent fat, lean body mass). Multilevel modeling of RSA development curve was used with 32 players (16.0 ± 1.7 years) who had 2 or more observations. The 16 players (16.1 ± 1.8 years) measured on only 1 occasion were used as a control group to evaluate the appropriateness of the model. Age, lower body explosive strength, and interval endurance capacity significantly contributed to RSA (p ≤ 0.05). Repeated sprint ability improved with age from 14 to 17 years (p ≤ 0.05) and reached a plateau at 17-19 years. Predicted RSA did not significantly differ from measured RSA in the control group (p ≥ 0.05). The results suggest a potentially important role for the training of lower body explosive strength and interval endurance capacity in the development of RSA among youth basketball players. Age-specific reference values for RSA of youth players may assist basketball coaches in setting appropriate goals for individual players.
McMillen, J Curtis; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; Robinson, Debra; Havlicek, Judy; Fedoravicius, Nicole; Bertram, Julie; McNelly, David
Older youth in out-of-home care often live in restrictive settings and face psychiatric issues without sufficient family support. This paper reports on the development and piloting of a manualized treatment foster care program designed to step down older youth with high psychiatric needs from residential programs to treatment foster care homes. A team of researchers and agency partners set out to develop a treatment foster care model for older youth based on Multi-dimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC). After matching youth by mental health condition and determining for whom randomization would be allowed, 14 youth were randomized to treatment as usual or a treatment foster home intervention. Stakeholders were interviewed qualitatively at multiple time points. Quantitative measures assessed mental health symptoms, days in locked facilities, employment and educational outcomes. Development efforts led to substantial variations from the MTFC model and a new model, Treatment Foster Care for Older Youth was piloted. Feasibility monitoring suggested that it was difficult, but possible to recruit and randomize youth from and out of residential homes and that foster parents could be recruited to serve them. Qualitative data pointed to some qualified clinical successes. Stakeholders viewed two team roles - that of psychiatric nurse and skills coaches - very highly. However, results also suggested that foster parents and some staff did not tolerate the intervention well and struggled to address the emotion dysregulation issues of the young people they served. Quantitative data demonstrated that the intervention was not keeping youth out of locked facilities. The intervention needed further refinement prior to a broader trial. Intervention development work continued until components were developed to help address emotion regulation problems among fostered youth. Psychiatric nurses and skills coaches who work with youth in community settings hold promise as important
Gonzalez, Laura M.; Eades, Mark P.; Supple, Andrew J.
It has been projected that 33% of all school children will be from immigrant households by the year 2040 (Suarez-Orozco et al., 2010). For school personnel (e.g., administrators, counselors, teachers) working with immigrant youth and adolescents, understanding ethnic identity development is an essential cultural competency. In this essay, the…
Weitzenkamp, Deborah; Dam, Karna; Chichester, Lindsay
The 4-H Livestock Quality Assurance course is a mobile Extension course for youth and youth leaders. In 3 years of implementation, over 6,600 participants from 16 states have learned about good production practices for animal agriculture through the innovative online Nebraska Livestock Quality Assurance course. By evaluating the needs of our youth…
Jan 14, 2011 ... They spoke about the impact of Punto J in the lives of Peruvian youth, the origins of ... Right now, we are also looking at using interactive games. ... This positive exchange of caring between us, our volunteers, and our visitors is ... A video highlighting Punto J, "Punto J — Youth and the Internet in the Fight ...
Brittany L. Adams-Pope
Full Text Available Interesting and innovative youth development programs are important to further youth education. Programs focused on developing leadership skills in youth, specifically at-risk youth, are important when thinking of the future of our communities. The primary purpose of the study was to determine the impact of an equine facilitated, authentic leadership program on at-risk youth. Youth participated in a three-day equine facilitated learning program based on authentic leadership with focus groups conducted three days before and three days after the program. In this article, we describe the development and methodology of the program and specific implications for practice.
Nathaniel, Keith C.; Kinsey, Sharon B.
The Multi-State North Central Extension Research Activity (NCERA), Contributions of 4-H Participation to the Development of Social Capital, identified a strategy to pilot a research method that incorporates an inquiry-based approach to understanding community level impact of youth programs. This article focuses on how youth engagement educators…
Carter, Erik W.; Trainor, Audrey A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Swedeen, Beth; Owens, Laura A.
Equipping youth with and without disabilities for the world of work has been the focus of ongoing legislative and policy initiatives. The authors examined the extent to which career development and vocational activities were available to and accessed by youth with severe disabilities or emotional and behavioral disorders attending 34 urban,…
Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin Gregory; Welty, Leah J.; Abram, Karen M.; Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Paskar, Leah D.
Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a serious public and mental health concern. Understanding how well conduct disorder (CD) and other mental disorders predict the development of APD among youths involved in the juvenile justice system is critical for prevention. The authors used a stratified random sample of 1,112 detained youths to examine…
Bearss, Karen; Taylor, Christopher A.; Aman, Michael G.; Whittemore, Robin; Lecavalier, Luc; Miller, Judith; Pritchett, Jill; Green, Bryson; Scahill, Lawrence
Anxiety is common in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Despite this common co-occurrence, studies targeting anxiety in this population are hindered by the under-developed state of measures in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Content validity (the extent to which an instrument measures the domain of interest) and an instrument's relevance to…
Holt, Nicholas L.; Sehn, Zoe L.; Spence, John C.; Newton, Amanda S.; Ball, Geoff D. C.
Background: School-based recreational opportunities for youth from low-income inner-city neighbourhoods are often lacking. School programs represent an ideal location for promoting youth development in low-income areas because they can provide safe, supervised, and structured activities. Such activities should include not only physical education…
Bers, Marina Umaschi
In a digital era in which technology plays a role in most aspects of a child's life, having the competence and confidence to use computers might be a necessary step, but not a goal in itself. Developing character traits that will serve children to use technology in a safe way to communicate and connect with others, and providing opportunities for children to make a better world through the use of their computational skills, is just as important. The Positive Technological Development framework (PTD), a natural extension of the computer literacy and the technological fluency movements that have influenced the world of educational technology, adds psychosocial, civic, and ethical components to the cognitive ones. PTD examines the developmental tasks of a child growing up in our digital era and provides a model for developing and evaluating technology-rich youth programs. The explicit goal of PTD programs is to support children in the positive uses of technology to lead more fulfilling lives and make the world a better place. This article introduces the concept of PTD and presents examples of the Zora virtual world program for young people that the author developed following this framework.
Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sandra K. M. Tsang
Full Text Available The escalating youth drug abuse problem in Hong Kong has attracted intense attention from the government, schools, and youth service professionals. Most preventive efforts have focused directly on positive youth development, very often through school programs delivered to secondary school students. There have been limited efforts to engage parents even though it is obvious that the family is actually the primary context of children and youth development. This paper will assert the importance of parental engagement in youth drug-prevention work, discuss some barriers in such parental involvement, present some promising local attempts and their strengths and limitations, and propose that sustained efforts are needed to build up theory-driven and evidence-based resources for Chinese communities on the subject.
Nansel, Tonja R; Rovner, Alisha J; Haynie, Denise; Iannotti, Ronald J; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Wysocki, Timothy; Anderson, Barbara; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Laffel, Lori
To develop and test a youth-report measure of collaborative parent involvement in type 1 diabetes management. Initial item development and testing were conducted with 81 youths; scale refinement and validation were conducted with 122 youths from four geographic regions. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha, and factor analyses were conducted to select items comprising the scale. Correlations with parenting style and parent diabetes responsibility were examined. Multiple regression analyses examining associations with quality of life, adherence, and glycemic control were conducted to assess concurrent validity. The measure demonstrated strong internal consistency. It was modestly associated with parenting style, but not with parent responsibility for diabetes management. A consistent pattern of associations with quality of life and adherence provide support for the measure's concurrent validity. This brief youth-report measure of parent collaborative involvement assesses a unique dimension of parent involvement in diabetes management associated with important youth outcomes.
Full Text Available The idea of what has been termed an Ulster Renaissance to refer to the surge of new poetry in the North of Ireland in the late 1960s and 1970s together with what is known as the Belfast Group is often dismissed by the poets themselves and serious critics as a mere shorthand and inaccurate way to describe the vitality of that decade. Heather Clark’s study, originally a PhD dissertation, challenges this and argues for the significant impact of Hobsbaum’s group, later Heaney’s group, as well as ...
Hershberg, Rachel M; DeSouza, Lisette M; Warren, Amy E A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M
Theory and research in adolescent development have emphasized that contributing to self, others, and community is important to the success of society and predictive of positive youth and later adult development. Despite this emphasis, there is a lack of qualitative and youth-centered research exploring whether adolescents themselves value contribution as part of their daily lives or future goals. Understandings of contribution are, thus, limited in their generalizability. To lessen this gap, we implemented qualitative analyses of open-ended responses from youth in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. We addressed questions about what is meaningful to youth and about their future goals through descriptive and thematic analyses of responses from 56 youth (66% female) who participated in the 4-H Study in each of three grades (6, 9, and 12). Findings indicated that most youth in this study valued acts and/or ideologies of contribution at some point in their adolescence, and several were committed to facets of contribution across grades. The analyses also identified other aspects of these youth experiences (e.g., athletics, family relationships, and academic competencies) that were described as meaningful across adolescence. Findings are discussed in relationship to youth programming aimed at encouraging well-being and contribution in adolescence.
Barraza, Rachelle; Bartgis, Jami
The Fresno American Indian Health Project (FAIHP) Youth Council developed and pilot tested a strength-based, holistic, and youth-friendly self-assessment tool grounded in the Medicine Wheel, a framework and theoretical orientation for teaching wellness in many tribal communities. This paper summarizes the development of the Youth Personal Balance Tool and the methods used for tool revisions through two separate pilot studies and ongoing process evaluations across 3 years. Using a community-based participatory evaluation model, FAIHP leveraged community resources to implement an annual youth Gathering of Native Americans to support youth in healing from historical and intergenerational trauma and restoring communities to balance by making them a part of the solution. This tool is one of many outcomes of their work. The Youth Council is offering the tool as a gift (in line with the cultural value of generosity) to other Indigenous communities that are searching for culturally competent self-assessment tools for youth. The authors believe this tool has the potential to progress the field in strength-based, holistic, youth-friendly assessment as a culturally competent method for Indigenous evaluation and research.
Alicea, Stacey; Pardo, Gisselle; Conover, Kelly; Gopalan, Geetha; McKay, Mary
African American and Latino youth who reside in inner-city communities are at heightened risk for compromised mental health, as their neighborhoods are too often associated with serious stressors, including elevated rates of poverty, substance abuse, community violence, as well as scarce youth-supportive resources, and mental health care options. Many aspects of disadvantaged urban contexts have the potential to thwart successful youth development. Adolescents with elevated mental health needs may experience impaired judgment, poor problem-solving skills, and conflictual interpersonal relationships, resulting in unsafe sexual behavior and drug use. However, mental health services are frequently avoided by urban adolescents who could gain substantial benefit from care. Thus, the development of culturally sensitive, contextually relevant and effective services for urban, low-income African American and Latino adolescents is critical. Given the complexity of the mental health and social needs of urban youth, novel approaches to service delivery may need to consider individual (i.e., motivation to succeed in the future), family (i.e., adult support within and outside of the family), and community-level (i.e., work and school opportunities) clinical components. Step-Up, a high school-based mental health service delivery model has been developed to bolster key family, youth and school processes related to youth mental health and positive youth development. Step-Up (1) intervenes with urban minority adolescents across inner-city ecological domains; (2) addresses multiple levels (school, family and community) in order to target youth mental health difficulties; and (3) provides opportunities for increasing youth social problem-solving and life skills. Further, Step-Up integrates existing theory-driven, evidence-based interventions. This article describes Step-Up clinical goals, theoretical influences, as well as components and key features, and presents preliminary data on
Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Hermens, Daniel F; Groote, Inge; Lagopoulos, Jim
Childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with enhanced risk of psychiatric illness and reduced subcortical grey matter in adulthood. The hippocampus and amygdala, due to their involvement in stress and emotion circuitries, have been subject to extensive investigations regarding the effect of CM. However, the complex relationship between CM, subcortical grey matter and mental illness remains poorly understood partially due to a lack of longitudinal studies. Here we used segmentation and linear mixed effect modelling to examine the impact of CM on hippocampal and amygdala development in young people with emerging mental illness. A total of 215 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from 123 individuals (age: 14-28 years, 79 female), 52 of whom were scanned twice or more. Hippocampal and amygdala volumes increased linearly with age, and their developmental trajectories were not moderated by symptom severity. However, exposure to CM was associated with significantly stunted right hippocampal growth. This finding bridges the gap between child and adult research in the field and provides novel evidence that CM is associated with disrupted hippocampal development in youth. Although CM was associated with worse symptom severity, we did not find evidence that CM-induced structural abnormalities directly underpin psychopathology. This study has important implications for the psychiatric treatment of individuals with CM since they are clinically and neurobiologically distinct from their peers who were not maltreated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daniel T.L. Shek
Full Text Available The Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs is a positive youth development program that attempts to promote holistic development in adolescents in Hong Kong. In the Tier 2 Program of this project, social workers are expected to develop positive youth development programs for adolescents having greater psychosocial needs. They are required to submit proposals that will be evaluated in terms of whether the proposals are evidence based, and appropriate evaluation mechanisms are included. With reference to the literature on parental control processes that Chinese parents may be loose in their behavioral control and they tend to overemphasize academic excellence, it is argued that improvement of the parenting skills of parents of Chinese adolescents is an important area to be addressed. To facilitate social workers to prepare the related proposals, a sample proposal on how to improve the parenting skills of Chinese parents is described, including its conceptual framework, proposed program, and evaluation plan. It is argued that this supportive approach (i.e., preparation of a sample proposal can help social workers to develop quality proposals on positive youth development programs in Hong Kong.
Koller, Silvia H; Verma, Suman
There is a growing focus on youth positive development issues among researchers and practitioners around the world. In this special issue of Child Development, each of the international authors provides new perspectives and understanding about youth developmental assets in different cultural settings. The present commentary (a) examines some of the cross-cultural themes that emerge from the four articles by international authors in this issue with implications for positive youth development (PYD) and (b) how intervention science can benefit by incorporating a PYD approach. As evident, youth involved in contexts that provide positive resources from significant others not only were less likely to exhibit negative outcomes, but also were more likely to show evidence of positive development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Mary E. Arnold
Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on science learning in 4-H and other youth development programs. In an effort to increase science capacity in youth, it is easy to focus only on developing the concrete skills and knowledge that a trained scientist must possess. However, when science learning is presented in a youth-development setting, the context of the program also matters. This paper reports the development and testing of the Science Process Skills Inventory (SPSI and its usefulness for measuring science inquiry skill development in youth development science programs. The results of the psychometric testing of the SPSI indicated the instrument is reliable and measures a cohesive construct called science process skills, as reflected in the 11 items that make up this group of skills. The 11 items themselves are based on the cycle of science inquiry, and represent the important steps of the complete inquiry process.
Telzer, Eva H; van Hoorn, Jorien; Rogers, Christina R; Do, Kathy T
Susceptibility to social influence is associated with a host of negative outcomes during adolescence. However, emerging evidence implicates the role of peers and parents in adolescents' positive and adaptive adjustment. Hence, in this chapter we highlight social influence as an opportunity for promoting social adjustment, which can redirect negative trajectories and help adolescents thrive. We discuss influential models about the processes underlying social influence, with a particular emphasis on internalizing social norms, embedded in social learning and social identity theory. We link this behavioral work to developmental social neuroscience research, rooted in neurobiological models of decision making and social cognition. Work from this perspective suggests that the adolescent brain is highly malleable and particularly oriented toward the social world, which may account for heightened susceptibility to social influences during this developmental period. This chapter underscores the need to leverage social influences during adolescence, even beyond the family and peer context, to promote positive developmental outcomes. By further probing the underlying neural mechanisms as an additional layer to examining social influence on positive youth development, we will be able to gain traction on our understanding of this complex phenomenon. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rea, Jennifer Nicola M; Carvalho, Ashley; McNerlan, Susan E; Alexander, H Denis; Rea, Irene Maeve
Understanding how to 'Age Longer and Age Well' is a priority for people personally, for populations globally and for government policy. Nonagenarians are the oldest members of our societies and survivors of their generation. Approximately 10 % of nonagenarians reach 90 years and beyond in good condition and seem to have a combination of both age-span and health-span. But what are the factors which help people reach their ninetieth birthday and beyond in good condition? Are they genetics, as in 'nature', or do they depend on 'nurture' and are related to environment, or are both factors inextricably intertwined within the concept of behavioural genetics? Nonagenarians have rich life experiences that can teach us much about ageing well; they are reservoirs of genetic, life-style and behavioural information which can help dissect out how to live not only longer but better. Personal family history and narrative are powerful tools that help to determine familial traits, beliefs and social behaviours and when used in parallel with new biotechnology methods inform and elaborate causality. Here we present themes and insights from personal narrative enquiry from nonagenarian participants from the Belfast Elderly Longitudinal Free-living Ageing STudy (BELFAST) about factors they consider important for good quality ageing and relate these insights to the emerging genetics and life-style evidence associated with healthy longevity.
Halsall, Tanya; Forneris, Tanya
First Nations, Métis, and Inuit (FNMI) youth experience many health disparities in comparison with their mainstream Canadian peers. Researchers have recommended that interventions developed to enhance health and well-being for FNMI youth apply a strengths-based approach that acknowledges contextual challenges. This article uses a qualitative…
van Baardewijk, Y.; Andershed, H.; Stegge, G.T.M.; Nilsson, K.W.; Scholte, E.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.
The adolescent Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) and its child version (YPI-CV) are sound but lengthy instruments for measuring psychopathic traits in youths. The current study develops psychometrically strong short versions of these instruments. Samples used for item reduction were
Lauren C Ng
Full Text Available This study developed and validated the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda (YCPS-R. Qualitative free listing (n = 74 and key informant interviews (n = 47 identified local conduct problems, which were compared to existing standardized conduct problem scales and used to develop the YCPS-R. The YCPS-R was cognitive tested by 12 youth and caregiver participants, and assessed for test-retest and inter-rater reliability in a sample of 64 youth. Finally, a purposive sample of 389 youth and their caregivers were enrolled in a validity study. Validity was assessed by comparing YCPS-R scores to conduct disorder, which was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children, and functional impairment scores on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule Child Version. ROC analyses assessed the YCPS-R's ability to discriminate between youth with and without conduct disorder. Qualitative data identified a local presentation of youth conduct problems that did not match previously standardized measures. Therefore, the YCPS-R was developed solely from local conduct problems. Cognitive testing indicated that the YCPS-R was understandable and required little modification. The YCPS-R demonstrated good reliability, construct, criterion, and discriminant validity, and fair classification accuracy. The YCPS-R is a locally-derived measure of Rwandan youth conduct problems that demonstrated good psychometric properties and could be used for further research.
Present collection comprises of materials of Republic Scientific-practical Conference 'The Youth Role in the Development of National Science'. Present collection is intended for scientific and technical staff, postgraduates, and students of institutes of higher education.
Noor Azimah Muhammad; Khadijah Shamsuddin; Rahmah Mohd Amin; Khairani Omar; Ramayah Thurasamy
Background From the Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective, sexual intention is determined by a permissive attitude, perception of social norms and perceived self-efficacy in performing sexual activity. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Youth Sexual Intention Questionnaire (YSI-Q), which was designed to measure sexual intention among youths in Malaysia. Methods A total of 25 items were developed based on literature reviews encompassing four main constructs: sexual intenti...
Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J
Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers.
Shek, Daniel T L
Several adolescent developmental issues and problems in Hong Kong are examined in this paper. First, the changing adolescent substance abuse patterns are described. Second, although the overall youth crime trend was relatively stable in the past decade, shoplifting and stealing crimes deserve our concern. Third, adolescent mental health problem is a growing problem. Fourth, statistics show that unhealthy life styles, such as smoking, early sex and moral confusion are issues of concern. Fifth, the proportion of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage has increased. Sixth, youth unemployment and non-engaged youth are growing problems when the economy of Hong Kong is undergoing re-structuring. Seventh, family and parenting problems in families with adolescents deserve our attention. Finally, the Social Development Index showed that the development of young people has gradually deteriorated in the past decade. These adolescent issues and problems provide useful pointers for designing the positive youth development program financially sponsored by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.
Jasper E Nyaura
Full Text Available The inception of the Youth Enterprise Development Fund has seen the rise of youth groups in rural areas. This paper is thus aimed at understanding the impact of the fund towards the youth establishment of small scale enterprises in Turbo Division. A descriptive research design was used in this paper. Data was collected using focused group discussion and self-administered questionnaires thus they were administered to the selected youth groups found in selected parts of the Turbo Division. Purposive technique was used in the specific youth of aged bracket 18 year to 35 years. Further, purposive and stratified sampling techniques were used in targeted youth groups. The sample size used was 147 drawn from Turbo Division. The salient findings of the study are that indeed the youth joined the small scale enterprises to obtain benefits through collaborative efforts, to gain and obtain skills and experiences, obtaining start-up capital and finally due to the unemployment. Moreover, impact made by the fund on individual life included; promoting togetherness, promoting income and sustained livelihoods thus improved economic statues, and eventually enhanced skills and experience that led to acquiring of more skills by joining polytechnics. Furthermore the fund had enhanced group development and participation. It is recommended that there should be enhanced youth group sustainability towards proper utilization of the fund.
The article deals with scientific and applied topicality of studying the problem of children and youth social activity. Spheres of social activity display in European tradition, in particular, the European Charter, Great Britain, have been revealed. Comparative analysis of understanding the essence of such a phenomenon in Western theories and…
Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.
The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of…
Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas; Radford, Linda; Yazdanian, Shenin; Norris, Tracy
Students are bombarded daily with print, visual, and digital media. Whether it is on a billboard, listening to an iPod on the way to school, or text messaging a friend during class, youth culture is hardwired into these multiple forms of communication technologies. Nonetheless, the daily life and respective experiences of students are often still…
This report identifies the strategic factors that should propel the African youth to benefit from the opportunities that lie ahead, in particular, economic growth, ... In addition, better focus on information and communications technology could bridge the digital divide between sub-Saharan Africa and the West while making the ...
In the contemporary Nigerian society, many youths are faced with various challenges. The inability of these young people to cope with these challenges result in all-risk behavior such as lack of confidence, low self-esteem, low motivation, etc. Over the years, indulging in music program has proved to yield positive results in ...
... non-governmental organizations in project planning and implementation to reduce the burdens of embarking on some of these projects alone. Youth associations should be encouraged to cooperate with donor agencies and play other critical roles other than finance, such as providing labour and security at project sites.
Mary Sara Wells
Full Text Available A primary component of any youth program is documenting and promoting the results through evaluation. Frequently, however, administrators in youth development programs struggle to find meaningful ways of evaluating the impacts they have on the lives of youth. It is often difficult to capture the unique benefits these programs offer to participants, especially when traditional methods such as focus groups and interviews may be too time consuming and questionnaires may yield poor response rates. This article presents a creative form of evaluation targeted at demonstrating the success of programs in outcomes that are historically more difficult to measure. A “mind map” is designed to be a pictorial representation of the impact of programs in areas such as connections to community organization and adult role models. Employing this technique can enable administrators in youth development programs to demonstrate to stakeholders the benefits they provide in a non-traditional, but highly effective, way.
Full Text Available Music is central to youth culture. Central to this study is the question: what type of music do youth listen to and why do they listen to such music? Identifying the music preference of the Nigerian youth is the focus of this paper. The aim is to assess some moral challenges that are inherent in the types of music listened to by students in Nigerian tertiary institutions which by implication represent Nigerian youth. Questionnaire was used to find out the type of music most preferred by the students. Findings reveal that the most preferred music by students especially between ages 18 and 25 is the popular music genre and in particular hip pop and fuji music. Textual analyses of some of the music show that they are agents of socialization and cultural identity but most unsuitable for moral development. Implications of this on moral values include developing wrong emotions which may lead to violent life and wrong associations.
We investigated a sample of 3,098 randomly chosen youth-owned enterprises (YOEs) in Tanzania and studied their access to business development support (BDS) services. YOEs are defined as enterprises owned and run by young entrepreneurs, aged between sixteen and thirty-five, according to the Tanzanian definition of youth. We analyzed which BDS services affect the performance of YOEs in terms of (i) number of employees, (ii) whether the enterprise keeps financial record...
Delia, Jesse; Krasny, Marianne E
This paper addresses the issue of how to provide affordances for youth development in the context of environmental stewardship in cities. Urban environmental education encompasses place-based and action-oriented stewardship practices, including community gardening and vegetable production, often with the dual goals of developing youth and community assets. Yet in-depth understanding of how these goals are achieved is lacking. Using narrative inquiry, we explored participant experiences in a multi-year agriculture internship program conducted by the food justice organization East New York Farms! (ENYF) in Brooklyn, NY. Emerging from our conversations with youth were five themes defining their intern experience: ENYF as somewhere to belong, to be pushed, to grapple with complexity, to practice leadership, and to become yourself. We propose a theory of change that emphasizes politicized notions of caring as a foundation for cultivating developmental assets, including competence, contribution, and critical consciousness, among youth who participate in ENYF programs multiple years. This paper extends the literature on socio-environmental affordances to encompass urban environmental education programs, which incorporate physical and social features that act as affordances. Further, this paper describes a feedback loop in which youth afforded opportunities to develop assets through contributing to their community in turn create affordances for additional youth and adults.
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of how to provide affordances for youth development in the context of environmental stewardship in cities. Urban environmental education encompasses place-based and action-oriented stewardship practices, including community gardening and vegetable production, often with the dual goals of developing youth and community assets. Yet in-depth understanding of how these goals are achieved is lacking. Using narrative inquiry, we explored participant experiences in a multi-year agriculture internship program conducted by the food justice organization East New York Farms! (ENYF in Brooklyn, NY. Emerging from our conversations with youth were five themes defining their intern experience: ENYF as somewhere to belong, to be pushed, to grapple with complexity, to practice leadership, and to become yourself. We propose a theory of change that emphasizes politicized notions of caring as a foundation for cultivating developmental assets, including competence, contribution, and critical consciousness, among youth who participate in ENYF programs multiple years. This paper extends the literature on socio-environmental affordances to encompass urban environmental education programs, which incorporate physical and social features that act as affordances. Further, this paper describes a feedback loop in which youth afforded opportunities to develop assets through contributing to their community in turn create affordances for additional youth and adults.
Wexler, Lisa; Gubrium, Aline; Griffin, Megan; DiFulvio, Gloria
Using a positive youth development framework, this article describes how a 3-year digital storytelling project and the 566 digital stories produced from it in Northwest Alaska promote protective factors in the lives of Alaska Native youth and serve as digital "hope kits," a suicide prevention approach that emphasizes young people's reasons for living. Digital stories are short, participant-produced videos that combine photos, music, and voice. We present process data that indicate the ways that digital stories serve as a platform for youth to reflect on and represent their lives, important relationships and achievements. In so doing, youth use the digital storytelling process to identify and highlight encouraging aspects of their lives, and develop more certain and positive identity formations. These processes are correlated with positive youth health outcomes. In addition, the digital stories themselves serve as reminders of the young people's personal assets--their reasons for living--after the workshop ends. Young people in this project often showed their digital stories to those who were featured positively within as a way to strengthen these interpersonal relationships. Evaluation data from the project show that digital storytelling workshops and outputs are a promising positive youth development approach. The project and the qualitative data demonstrate the need for further studies focusing on outcomes related to suicide prevention.
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the relationship between bullying, cyberbullying and Internet usage in the post-conflict city of Belfast, using the conceptual framework of social capital theory. Observing the results of a survey we conducted among young people, with the help of local partners, we found a paradox, according to which moderate Internet users claimed to have been more exposed to cyberbullying than heavy Internet users. In the observed context, cyberspace seems to be a more suitable place for verbal offences, in particular for vulgar messages, the high level of occurrence of which, compared to the offline environment, explains the high levels of cyberbullying. Moreover, our findings confirmed a gender pattern according to which males constitute a slight majority of bullying victims, while females are a significant majority among cyberbullying victims.
Maslow, Gary R; Chung, Richard J
The Positive Youth Development (PYD) framework has been successfully used to support at-risk youth. However, its effectiveness in fostering positive outcomes for adolescents with chronic illness has not been established. We performed a systematic review of PYD-consistent programs for adolescents with chronic illness. Data sources included PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychINFO. Guided by an analytic framework, we searched for studies of PYD-consistent programs serving adolescents and young adults aged 13 through 24 with chronic illness. References were screened iteratively with increasing depth until a focused cohort was obtained and reviewed in full. The authors separately reviewed the studies using structured analysis forms. Relevant study details were abstracted during the review process. Fifteen studies describing 14 programs were included in the analysis. Three comprehensive programs included all 3 core components of a PYD program, including opportunities for youth leadership, skill building, and sustained connections between youth and adults. Four programs were primarily mentoring programs, and 7 others focused on youth leadership. Programs served youth with a variety of chronic illnesses. The quality and type of evaluation varied considerably, with most reporting psychosocial outcomes but only a few including medical outcomes. The PYD-consistent programs identified in this review can serve as models for the development of youth development programs for adolescents with chronic illness. Additional study is needed to evaluate such programs rigorously with respect to both psychosocial and health-related outcomes. PYD-consistent programs have the potential to reach youth with chronic illness and promote positive adult outcomes broadly.
Fenton, A F.G.
Smoke, solids fall-out and SO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured at a number of stations in the Belfast area. Using the data available from these stations an investigation of the lichen flora was undertaken during May 1962. No lichens of any sort exist within half a mile to the south of the center of pollution. This lichen desert zone extends from one and a half to two miles on the northern, eastern, and western sides. From the known levels at these distances it is established that no lichen species will tolerate smoke and SO/sub 2/ concentrations in excess of 25-30 mg per 100 cubic meters, and 3.5 parts per 100 million respectively. Outside this lichen desert zone crustaceous lichens are the first to appear and in the Belfast area are represented by a single species, Leconora pityrea. This lichen remains the only one present for a distance of one and a half to two miles on the southern side and for up to four miles distant in the other directions. Foliaceous lichens only enter at distances greater than this from the main concentration. The smoke pollution level at which foleaceous species enter does not exceed 10 mg pr 100 cubic meters, and the SO/sub 2/ concentration is probably not in excess of 0.5 parts per 100 million. The use of lichens as indicators of pollution could be considerably extended as a cheap and positive method for preliminary investigations of areas of suspected pollution. 8 references.
Donaghy, Grainne; McKeever, Kris; Flanagan, Catherine; O'Kane, Donal; McQuillan, Bernie; Cash, Johnny; Jack, Cathy; Lundy, Claire
Medical engagement in healthcare organisations can improve service development and patient experience. Doctors in training have limited opportunities to engage in service improvement work and develop leadership skills. We describe the Specialist Trainees Engaged in Leadership Programme (STEP) , a programme developed to introduce concepts of medical leadership and quality improvement skills in the Belfast Trust. STEP started in 2013 and over 140 trainees have now participated in the programme. Over 42 quality improvement projects have been completed with the support of the programme. Evaluation of STEP has demonstrated an improvement across all domains explored throughout the duration of the programme, with benefits for the individual trainee and the wider organisation. We describe the programme in detail. The STEP curriculum can easily be adapted to meet the needs of NHS trainees, allowing them to understand the objectives and strategy of their employers and improve their ability to plan and deliver safe, effective, patient-centred care.
Flanagan, Constance A; Martínez, M Loreto; Cumsille, Patricio; Ngomane, Tsakani
The authors use examples of youth civic engagement from Chile, South Africa, Central/Eastern Europe, and the United States--and also emphasize diversities among youth from different subgroups within countries--to illustrate common elements of the civic domain of youth development. These include the primacy of collective activity for forming political identities and ideas and the greater heterogeneity of civic compared to other discretionary activities, the groupways or accumulated opportunities for acting due to the groups (social class, gender, ethnic, caste, etc.) to which a young person belongs, and the role of mediating institutions (schools, community-based organizations, etc.) as spaces where youths' actions contribute to political stability and change. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a meeting report for the 2nd Summer School in Computational Biology organized by the Queen's University of Belfast. We describe the organization of the summer school, its underlying concept and student feedback we received after the completion of the summer school.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available With higher education, university graduates are important elements of the labor force in knowledge-based economies. With reference to the mental health and developmental problems in university students, there is a need to review university’s role in nurturing holistic development of students. Based on the positive youth development approach, it is argued that promoting intrapersonal competencies is an important strategy to facilitate holistic development of young people in Hong Kong. In The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, a course entitled Tomorrow’s Leader focusing on positive youth development constructs to promote student well-being will be offered on a compulsory basis starting from 2012/13 academic year under the new undergraduate curriculum structure. The proposed course was piloted in 2010/11 school year. Different evaluation strategies, including objective outcome evaluation, subjective outcome evaluation, process evaluation, and qualitative evaluation, are being carried out to evaluate the developed course. Preliminary evaluation findings based on the piloting experience in 2010/11 academic year are presented in this paper.
Olson-Kennedy, J; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Kreukels, B.P.C; Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L; Garofalo, R; Meyer, W; Rosenthal, S.M.
This review summarizes relevant research focused on prevalence and natural history of gender non-conforming / transgender youth, and outcomes of currently recommended clinical practice guidelines. This review identifies gaps in knowledge, and provides recommendations foci for future research. Recent findings Increasing numbers of gender nonconforming youth are presenting for care. Clinically useful information for predicting individual psychosexual development pathways is lacking. Transgender youth are at high risk for poor medical and psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal data examining the impact of early social transition and medical interventions are sparse. Existing tools to understand gender identity and quantify gender dysphoria need to be reconfigured in order to study a more diverse cohort of transgender individuals. Increasingly, biomedical data are beginning to change the trajectory of scientific investigation. Summary Extensive research is needed to improve understanding of gender dysphoria, and transgender experience, particularly among youth. Recommendations include identification of predictors of persistence of gender dysphoria from childhood into adolescence, and a thorough investigation into the impact of interventions for transgender youth. Finally, examining the social environments of transgender youth is critical for the development of appropriate interventions necessary to improve the lives of transgender people. PMID:26825472
Riley, B; Wong, K; Manske, S
Youth Excel was a 3-year pan-Canadian initiative to advance youth health through improving knowledge development and exchange (KDE) capacity. KDE capacity refers to an improvement cycle linking evidence and action. Capacities include local surveillance of youth behaviours; knowledge exchange; skills, resources and a supportive environment to use knowledge; and evaluation. Interviews were conducted with Youth Excel members, including 7 provincial teams and 2 national organizations. Interviews explored participant experiences with building KDE capacity. Local surveillance systems were considered the backbone to KDE capacity, strengthened by co-ordinating surveys within and across jurisdictions and using common indicators and measures. The most effective knowledge exchange included tailored products and opportunities for dialogue and action planning. Evaluation is the least developed KDE component. Building KDE capacity requires frequent dialogue, mutually beneficial partnerships and trust. It also requires attention to language, vision, strategic leadership and funding. Youth Excel reinforces the need for a KDE system to improve youth health that will require new perspectives and sustained commitment from individual champions and relevant organizations.
Olson-Kennedy, Johanna; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Garofalo, Robert; Meyer, Walter; Rosenthal, Stephen M
The review summarizes relevant research focused on prevalence and natural history of gender nonconforming/transgender youth, and outcomes of currently recommended clinical practice guidelines. This review identifies gaps in knowledge, and provides recommendations foci for future research. Increasing numbers of gender nonconforming youth are presenting for care. Clinically useful information for predicting individual psychosexual development pathways is lacking. Transgender youth are at high risk for poor medical and psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal data examining the impact of early social transition and medical interventions are sparse. Existing tools to understand gender identity and quantify gender dysphoria need to be reconfigured to study a more diverse cohort of transgender individuals. Increasingly, biomedical data are beginning to change the trajectory of scientific investigation. Extensive research is needed to improve understanding of gender dysphoria, and transgender experience, particularly among youth. Recommendations include identification of predictors of persistence of gender dysphoria from childhood into adolescence, and a thorough investigation into the impact of interventions for transgender youth. Finally, examining the social environments of transgender youth is critical for the development of appropriate interventions necessary to improve the lives of transgender people.
Full Text Available This paper discusses a national study designed to identify and describe obstacles to youth voice in the decision-making process in the 4-H youth development program from the perception of three distinct populations - State 4-H Program Leaders, 4-H State Youth Development Specialists, and 4-H Youth Agents/Educators. When examining these professionals’ views on the barriers affecting youth voice in the decision-making process, time and scheduling seem to consistently present the largest barrier to youth voice. Involvement in the decision-making process provides a wide range of hurdles including the opportunity structures, involvement procedures, representation and dynamics within the process. Adult power and control provides a significant hurdle to authentic engagement of youth voice in the decision-making progress. Respect barriers were described by concepts such as preconceived notions, trust and valuing input. Additional barriers were identified including organizational culture, lack of transportation, lack of knowledge/experience, lack of preparation, lack of training, fear, misguided leadership, unclear expectations, participation, staffing and lack of resources.
Full Text Available A study to determine what job responsibilities Extension 4-H youth development professionals (n=241 chose to spend their work time doing and how the workload related to their job satisfaction and burnout is discussed in this paper. Workload was determined using the 4-H Professional, Research, Knowledge, and Competencies (4-H PRKC. Professionals identified their level of job satisfaction and burnout. Based on the previous research on workload, burnout, and job satisfaction, 4-H youth development professionals are prime candidates for experiencing low job satisfaction and increased burnout, which may lead to professionals leaving the organization early. 4-H youth development professionals reported being satisfied with their job and felt very little burnout. Even with the positive job satisfaction and low burnout, there are strategies shared for each of the 4-H PRKC domains to help 4-H professionals continue to have a high level of job satisfaction and low burnout. Many of the strategies that are shared in this paper are applicable to not only 4-H youth development professionals but to any professional who works in the field of youth development.
Hartshorne, Timothy S.; Schmittel, Megan C.
Social-emotional development is important to personal adjustment and well-being. Little has been written about social-emotional development in children and youth who are deafblind. The authors discuss factors in typical social-emotional development--attachment, empathy, and friendships--and how they may be challenged in children who are deafblind.…
Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy
Examining traditional and contemporary professional development practices of youth-serving organizations can inform practices across Extension, particularly in light of the barriers that have been noted for effectively developing the professional competencies of Extension educators. With professional development systems changing quickly,…
Kirk A. Astroth
Full Text Available Positive youth development outcomes are influenced by a competent, highly trained work force that enjoys their work with young people. The youth work field has struggled with how to keep and motivate front line youth workers given the heavy workloads, low pay, lack of recognition and irregular time demands to compete with family responsibilities. Professional development is a key strategy for retaining and motivating youth workers. A model of professional development called the Western 4-H Institute has been developed and held now for two sessions. Results from participants indicate that this strategy can have a positive influence on job satisfaction, competencies, and retention. In fact, only 10 percent of participants had left during the intervening 5 years, and job satisfaction had increased significantly over time. Organizational loyalty among participants is not high, but with early career professionals, they may still be trying to find their niche. A regional training model has shown itself to be effective in supporting 4-H youth professionals and is building a sustainable workforce for the future.
Ma, Hing Keung
Moral competence refers to the orientation to perform altruistic behavior and the ability to judge moral issues logically, consistently and at an advanced level of development. A brief review of the concepts of altruism and justice is presented. The gender and cultural issues are also discussed. The contents of moral competence program units include four major topics: (1) Fairness, (2) Proper conduct (mainly altruistic and prosocial orientation), (3) Responsibility and altruistic orientation, and (4) Integrity and fairness. The general goal is to help students to develop an altruistic orientation and a judgment structure of a high level of justice. This paper is part of the development of the positive youth development program in Hong Kong.
Full Text Available Youth with disabilities face difficulties resulting from attitudinal, environmental, and organizational barriers not only in initially accessing and entering school (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011, but also as they transition from school age youth to working adults. With a focus on facilitating a better understanding of the issues, challenges, and solutions associated with the design and implementation of career development services for youth with disabilities, this article describes the status quo for students with disabilities in South Korea and then discusses career development services that potentially reduce variation, help facilitate optimal career development, and promote future employment opportunities. To accomplish this task, we explore the intersection of culture, theory, and policy in the Korean transition service delivery system.
Toroyan, Tamitza; Reddy, Priscilla S
In response to an increasing incidence in HIV prevalence among South Africa's youth, a group of interdisciplinary professionals have developed a series of photocomics to address issues around HIV/AIDS communication and sexually transmitted diseases. This article examines the theory behind the use of photocomics in health, and the way the stories work to influence behavior. Results from evaluation of the comics support their use as tools with which to increase information and knowledge while role modeling desirable behavior. Lastly, the article describes the participatory process by which youth were involved in the process of developing and producing the comics. This method of developing culturally relevant and appealing health media is recommended for use in future health promotion strategies that seek to transcend a narrower approach of provision of health information and work to address the social factors that influence youth's decision making.
Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Howard, Rick; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Williams, Craig A; Best, Thomas M; Alvar, Brent A; Micheli, Lyle J; Thomas, D Phillip; Hatfield, Disa L; Cronin, John B; Myer, Gregory D
The concept of developing talent and athleticism in youth is the goal of many coaches and sports systems. Consequently, an increasing number of sporting organizations have adopted long-term athletic development models in an attempt to provide a structured approach to the training of youth. It is clear that maximizing sporting talent is an important goal of long-term athletic development models. However, ensuring that youth of all ages and abilities are provided with a strategic plan for the development of their health and physical fitness is also important to maximize physical activity participation rates, reduce the risk of sport- and activity-related injury, and to ensure long-term health and well-being. Critical reviews of independent models of long-term athletic development are already present within the literature; however, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive examination and review of the most prominent models does not exist. Additionally, considerations of modern day issues that may impact on the success of any long-term athletic development model are lacking, as are proposed solutions to address such issues. Therefore, within this 2-part commentary, Part 1 provides a critical review of existing models of practice for long-term athletic development and introduces a composite youth development model that includes the integration of talent, psychosocial and physical development across maturation. Part 2 identifies limiting factors that may restrict the success of such models and offers potential solutions.
Ma, Hing Keung
Behavioral competence refers to the ability to use non-verbal and verbal strategies to perform socially acceptable and normative behavior in social interactions. The main objective is to teach our children to be courteous, graceful, and fair so that they behave with respect and responsibility in social interactions with others. The importance of behavioral competence is discussed and it is emphasized that the competence to behave or act effectively must be based on a positive or prosocial motivation or disposition. The behavioral program units cover the following three types of behaviors: applause, criticism, and apology. The general goal is to foster the development of socially acceptable character, manner, and normative behavior. This paper is part of the development of the positive youth development program in Hong Kong.
Imbriaco, Joseph J.
How can we inspire our youth to consistently do what is right? Lectures and readings on ethics could help, but are unlikely to spur intrinsic motivation. A more comprehensive option is to aid in the development of a characterbased moral identity which will stay with them as they grow. The development of a moral identity is desirable because it can…
Whitley, Meredith A.; McGarry, Jennifer Bruening; Martinek, Thomas; Mercier, Kevin; Quinlan, Melissa
In recent years, a substantial surge has occurred in the number of initiatives, events and organizations focused on using sport as a tool for development, peacebuilding and humanitarian efforts. This has created a growing need for educated leaders in the sport-based youth development field as the job market in this field continues to expand. The…
Hayden, Laura; Cook, Amy; Scherer, Alexandra; Greenspan, Scott; Silva, Meghan Ray; Cadet, Melanie; Maki, Erik
Given the social, emotional, and academic benefits of physical activity related to youth development (Hellison, 2011), coupled with the minimal research regarding how school counselors can use physical activity for life skill development, this article focuses on school counselors' beliefs about collaborating with coaches and using physical…
Kirk A. Astroth
Full Text Available For the past 15 years, a list of eight critical elements has provided a strong foundation for articulating the positive youth development focus of 4-H programs and efforts. Now it is time to revisit this list and update the critical elements for positive youth development. Interdependence is proposed as a 9th critical element that should be included. Research is cited for the importance of this element that was not included in the original list in 1998, and a call is made for a national think tank to update the critical elements.
Full Text Available An Empowerment Evaluation process served to engage staff and campers and foster integration of authentic assessment methods into youth camp programming over a three-year period. Key elements to the process included program planning, staff training, timing and balance of action and reflection activities, data collection and management. Camp staff involved for 2-3 years reported improved focus and staff who served in the third year achieved mastery in communication, leadership, teaching, and management skills. A purposive sample of three different camp venues evaluated in Year 3 indicated that campers improved significantly in outdoor and life skills. Over 70% felt safe, supported, and enabled to build skills. Implications for practice, research, and policy are discussed.
Embleton, Lonnie; Lee, Hana; Gunn, Jayleen; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula
A systematic compilation of children and youth's reported reasons for street involvement is lacking. Without empirical data on these reasons, the policies developed or implemented to mitigate street involvement are not responsive to the needs of these children and youth. To systematically analyze the self-reported reasons why children and youth around the world become street-involved and to analyze the available data by level of human development, geographic region, and sex. Electronic searches of Scopus, PsychINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, PubMed, ERIC, and the Social Sciences Citation Index were conducted from January 1, 1990, to the third week of July 2013. We searched the peer-reviewed literature for studies that reported quantitative reasons for street involvement. The following broad search strategy was used to search the databases: "street children" OR "street youth" OR "homeless youth" OR "homeless children" OR "runaway children" OR "runaway youth" or "homeless persons." Studies were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1) participants were 24 years of age or younger, (2) participants met our definition of street-connected children and youth, and (3) the quantitative reasons for street involvement were reported. We reviewed 318 full texts and identified 49 eligible studies. Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. We fit logistic mixed-effects models to estimate the pooled prevalence of each reason and to estimate subgroup pooled prevalence by development level or geographic region. The meta-analysis was conducted from February to August 2015. We created the following categories based on the reported reasons in the literature: poverty, abuse, family conflict, delinquency, psychosocial health, and other. In total, there were 13 559 participants from 24 countries, of which 21 represented developing countries. The most commonly reported reason for street involvement was poverty, with a pooled-prevalence estimate of 39% (95% CI, 29
Daria V. Sidorova
Full Text Available To consider tendencies and problems of development of youth travel in Russia in general and in Krasnodar region in particular, and also possible solutions of the revealed problems. Methods. The comparative and geographical method, statistical processing, population poll were applied. Results. Data on current trends of development of youth travel in Russia and in Krasnodar region are submitted and factors, constraining his full development are revealed. The description of the actions directed to promoting of this type of tourism in Krasnodar region is given. Recommendations about the solution of the problems existing in the sphere of youth travel of Krasnodar region are provided. Conclusions. In the modern world more and more popular is a youth travel. His popularity is caused by such qualities of youth as activity, aspiration to training and knowledge, the need for new feelings. Relevance of a research of this type of tourism is caused by the increasing youth share in tourist streams, and also insufficiency of methodical developments of a problem of complex development of system of youth travel. Krasnodar region is the most perspective from the point of view of development of all types of tourism, including youth. The region has a unique environment, modern infrastructure, the developed tourist and recreational complex. At the same time during the research a number of the problems constraining development of this type of tourism is revealed.
Williams, Joanna L.; Deutsch, Nancy L.
In this article, we explore how researchers can more fully consider and conceptualize the role of race and ethnicity in studies of youth development programs, with an emphasis on positive youth development (PYD). Such a focus can be integrated in a more meaningful way through the application of a theoretical model that provides a framework for…
This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of 4-H Youth Development Educators to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. There were 498 Oregon adult 4-H volunteers randomly selected to participate. Participants rated the leadership style of their 4-H Youth Development Educator (YDE) using Bass…
Full Text Available One of the most popular sub-genres of Northern Irish Troubles fiction is the so called ‘Romance-across-the-divide’, a narrative in which two characters from different religious, cultural and social backgrounds struggle to overcome the region’s sectarian divide. As the centre of the Northern Irish conflict, Belfast epitomises the obstacles posed by the political situation for lovers attempting to defy socio-cultural and denominational boundaries. Joe Cleary argues that in the Northern Irish context the romance narrative is employed to illustrate the possibility of a reconciliation of opposed political camps. This article attempts to refute Cleary’s view. Focussing on Naomi May’s Troubles (1976, Dermot Healy’s A Goat’s Song (1994 and Kate O’Riordan’s Involved (1995 it sets out to demonstrate that unhappy unions of lovers cutting across sectarian lines serve instead largely to depict the ongoing political division within Northern Irish society and the breach between the North and the South of Ireland.
Maslow, Gary; Adams, Cathleen; Willis, Matthew; Neukirch, Jodie; Herts, Kate; Froehlich, Wendy; Calleson, Diane; Rickerby, Michelle
Youth with chronic illness often struggle transitioning to adulthood and adult medical care. This article examines the outcomes of a group mentoring program called The Adolescent Leadership Council (TALC) that brings together high school participants and college mentors, all with chronic illness. TALC uses a positive youth development (PYD) approach, emphasizing strong relationships between youth and adults in an environment where youth can learn important life skills and take a leadership role. A pre-/postprogram participant survey was conducted for high school participants using a loneliness scale and a transition readiness survey. An alumni survey was conducted with all high school and college mentor graduates to assess educational-, vocational-, and health care-related outcomes. Program records review and the alumni survey indicated that TALC was consistent with the PYD program model. Twenty high school students participated in the pre-/postprogram outcomes evaluation, which demonstrated a decrease in loneliness from 46 to 38.5 (p < .001) and an increase in health care self-advocacy from 3.8 to 4.2 (p < .001). Thirty-four alumni participated in the alumni survey. All high school and college mentor alumni had graduated from high school and college, respectively, and all were either currently in school or working. The majority of alumni were seeing adult providers for medical care. The TALC program applies the principles of PYD to support positive educational, vocational, and health care outcomes for youth with chronic illness. Program development using the PYD perspective is an important new approach for supporting adult development of youth with chronic illness. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Zimbabwe is basically endowed in agricultural resources. As a result agricultural activities have a large bearing on developmental issues in the country. Employment is one such economic issue that hinges much on agricultural development. Over the past decade employment levels have reduced as a result of low investment in the country. Masvingo Province has not been spared. This scenario has seen many youths being out of employment as the sector employed less labour. The study found out that economic woes that Zimbabwe experienced over the past half decade have contributed significantly to youth unemployment in agriculture in Masvingo Province as a result of low investment in the sector. The study recommends that heavy investment be put in agriculture and agriculture related projects to enhance employment levels of the Zimbabwean youths in Masvingo province.
Bethea, Sharon L.
The present investigation considers the program outcomes of one community youth project, Leadership Excellence Inc., Oakland Freedom Schools. Oakland Freedom Schools are culturally relevant 6-week summer Language Arts enrichment programs for primarily inner-city African American youth aged 5 to 14 years. In this study, 79 African American youth…
Partee, Glenda L.; Halperin, Samuel
At the international Youth Employment Summit, September 7-11, 2002, representatives from 140 countries gathered in Alexandria, Egypt to share knowledge and experience and to advance the cause of better preparation of youth for entry into, and success in, their respective national economies. At the Summit, for the benefit of those with little…
Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael
Sport talent identification and development (TI and TD) in youth continues to attract strong interest among coaches, sport scientists and sport administrators. TI for sport in youth with the anticipation of future elite level sport achievement is both an art and a science, and is strongly influenced by within athlete and extraneous-to-athlete factors (ecosystem of support or the lack of). The returns from investment on current TI and TD models of sport in youth are subpar in that few continue in the sport to achieve podium positions at the elite sport level in adulthood. Why, where and how one succeeds in sport, and what that success means to the athlete and stakeholders are dependent on the culture and context of the country. We advocate harnessing the power of sport to help in youth development, to be holistic in its nurturance, to allow for individual idiosyncratic expressions of the athletes, to provide for talent transfer across sport, and to facilitate key stakeholders to 'join' hands to work for the common interest and understanding for as many youth and adults so as to provide them with opportunities through support and coaching to compete at the different levels of competition in sport. Governments, policy makers and administrators of sport must decide, within their specific circumstances, if TI and TD in sport in youth is serving a meaningful purpose and is a viable return on investment; in short, is it mission possible or is it… a quest for the Holy Grail for a podium finish in elite level sport competition? Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Dionigi, Rylee A; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Stone, Rachael C; Gayman, Amy M
Although sport participation is encouraged throughout the lifespan, little research has been conducted on the role of sport in development later in life. This qualitative study explored adults' experiences of development within the context of Masters sport. We interviewed 14 adults (nine men and five women) aged 46-61 years involved in Masters sport. Data was interpreted drawing upon frameworks from youth sport (i.e., Personal Assets Framework for Sport; Côté, J., Bruner, M., Strachan, L., Erickson, K., & Fraser-Thomas, J. (2010). Athletes' development and coaching. In J. Lyle & C. Cushion (Eds.), Sport coaching: Professionalism and practice (pp. 63-83). Oxford, UK: Elsevier, Côté, J., Turnnidge, J., & Evans, M. B. (2014). The dynamic process of development through sport. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 20(3), 14-26, Côté, J., Turnnidge, J., & Vieerima, M. (2016). A personal assets approach to youth sport. In K. Green & A. Smith (Eds.), Routledge handbook of youth sport (pp. 243-255). New York, NY: Routledge; 4/5Cs of positive youth development; Lerner, R. M., Fisher, C. B., & Weinberg, R. A. (2000). Toward a science for and of the people: Promoting civil society through the application of developmental science. Child Development, 71(1), 11-20. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00113; Vierimaa, M., Erickson, K., Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2012). Positive youth development: A measurement framework for sport. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 7(3), 601-614. doi:10.1260/1747-95188.8.131.521), combined with past research on mid-life and older athletes. Six key themes emerged as contributing to adults' personal development through sport: competence and confidence, character, commitment, connection, cognition, and challenge. Masters sport contexts appeared to facilitate changes in assets (i.e., 6Cs) similar to those within youth sport, but assets often held different meanings within the context of later life. Applying frameworks from youth sport and developmental
Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.
Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…
Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L.; Dinson, Ay-Laina
The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the…
This paper examines the effect of adaptive skill acquisition on youth development in the Niger delta area of Nigeria with emphasis on Bayelsa State. A structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from 99 respondents, which cut across four stakeholder institutions in the study area. Data analysis was by ...
Fankhanel, Edward H.
The purpose of this study was to gather basic exploratory-descriptive data regarding the self-perceptions and behaviors of Puerto Rican gay youth (16 to 24 years old) during their gay identity development and coming out process. The study was conducted in Puerto Rico to eliminate ethnic minority influences that may be present in Puerto Rican gay…
Subramaniam, Aarti; Dasher, Harry Steve; Young, Jane Chin
In response to budgetary constraints, a new staffing structure, the Pilot Leadership Plan, was proposed for California's 4-H Youth Development Program. County clusters were formed, each led by a coordinator. The plan was piloted for 2 years to provide insight into how county clustering could support Extension staff to increase and enhance program…
Larson, Reed; Hansen, David
Human systems, including institutional systems and informal social networks, are a major arena of modern life. We argue that distinct forms of pragmatic reasoning or "strategic thinking" are required to exercise agency within such systems. This article explores the development of strategic thinking in a youth activism program in which young people…
Årdal, Elisabeth; Holsen, Ingrid; Diseth, Åge; Larsen, Torill
The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of the Five Cs of Positive Youth Development (PYD) on the relationship between students' perceived school empowerment and school satisfaction, as well as gender differences in these relationships. The data stemmed from a cross-sectional survey of 997 adolescents from four upper secondary…
Wojcikiewicz, Steven K.; Mural, Zachary B.
In this piece, we put forth a Deweyian framework for youth development activities in outdoor and adventure education programs, and we show how such a framework may be exemplified by activities in sail training and sailing instruction. The paper begins with a discussion of the theoretical features of Deweyian educational experiences and makes…
Elferink-Gemser, MT; Visscher, C; van Duijn, MAJ; Lemmink, KAPM
Objectives: To gain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie the development of interval endurance capacity in talented youth field hockey players in the 12-19 age band. Methods: A total of 377 measurements were taken over three years. A longitudinal model for interval endurance capacity was
Harris, LaNita W.; Cheney, Marshall K.
A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the utility of Positive Youth Development (PYD) concepts in promoting positive sexual health behaviors in young minority adolescents (n = 12 studies). Interventions reported significant associations between PYD-focused interventions and ever having sex, sexual partners in the last 30 days,…
Gupta, Niodita; Chandak, Aastha; Gilson, Glen; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Goldsworthy, Richard; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Fisher, Christopher
Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations are in a unique position to interact with the adolescents because they are neither parents/guardians nor teachers. The objectives of this study were to explore qualitatively what sexual health issues adolescents discuss with YDPs and to describe those issues using the…
Armour, Kathleen; Sandford, Rachel
In 2006, Sandford, Armour and Warmington undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on the role of physical activity/sport and physical education in promoting positive development for disaffected youth. This paper revisits the findings of the literature review in light of data from a four-year evaluation of one corporate-sponsored physical…
Harvey, Stephen; Kirk, David; O'Donovan, Toni M.
The purpose of this paper is to consider four pedagogical applications within the Sport Education model to examine the ways in which a young person can become a literate sports person and develop ethical behaviour through engagement in physical education and youth sport. Through a systematic review of the Sport Education research literature we…
Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte
The aim of this article is to shed light on how environmental standards in the life of youths influence the development of self. We propose the concept of ‘subjectified subjectivity’ to grasp these person-environment dialectics in a general form. By elaborating on these conceptual understandings ...
Mistry, Jayanthi; Li, Jin; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Tseng, Vivian; Tirrell, Jonathan; Kiang, Lisa; Mistry, Rashmita; Wang, Yijie
The diversity of circumstances and developmental outcomes among Asian American children and youth poses a challenge for scholars interested in Asian American child development. This article addresses the challenge by offering an integrated conceptual framework based on three broad questions: (a) What are theory-predicated specifications of contexts that are pertinent for the development of Asian American children? (b) What are the domains of development and socialization that are particularly relevant? (c) How can culture as meaning-making processes be integrated in conceptualizations of development? The heuristic value of the conceptual model is illustrated by research on Asian American children and youth that examines the interconnected nature of specific features of context, pertinent aspects of development, and interpretive processes. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Cairney, John; Clark, Heather J; Kwan, Matthew Y W; Bruner, Mark; Tamminen, Katherine
Despite the proliferation of studies examining youth sport participation, there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the impact of youth sport participation on health and development. These gaps are not new, but have persisted due to limitations with how sport participation is measured. Much of the research to date has measured sport participation as binary (yes/no) or count measures. This has been especially true in survey-based research. Yet, at the same time, research has investigated youths' experiences in sport such as the influence of coaches, teammates, and parents. The ability to measure these experiences is constrained by the need to use a number of measures along with gaps in the content covered in existing measures. We propose to develop and test the Sport Experiences Measure: Children and Youth (SEM:CY) as a population survey-based measure that captures the salient aspects of youths' experience in sport. The SEM:CY will be developed and tested across three phases. Phase I includes qualitative research with members of the sport community and engagement with an expert group to generate and obtain feedback on the initial item pool. In Phase II will recruit two consecutive samples of students from schools to complete the draft measure. Analysis will focus on assessing the items and factor structure of the measure. Factor structure will be assessed first with exploratory factor analysis and then confirmatory factor analysis. In phase III we will test the association between the SEM:CY with a measure of perceived competence, sport anxiety, and positive youth development to assess construct validity. We will also examine whether the structure of the measure varies by age or gender. The SEM:CY measure will provide a meaningful contribution to the measurement and understanding of youth sport participation. The SEM:CY can be used as a stand-alone measure to understand youth experiences in sport programs, or in combination with other health and development
Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David
Community-based models have become increasingly prominent in prevention, and have special relevance for suicide prevention in circumpolar Indigenous communities. It follows that outcomes from circumpolar suicide prevention programs might be more completely understood at the community level. We present here a methodology for analysis at this level. This paper seeks to understand a cultural prevention program for rural Yup'ik youth in Alaska targeting suicide and co-occurring alcohol abuse as a community development process through changes at the community level. Quasi-experimental design with assessment at pre- and post-intervention or at 4 time points. The community development process for this project began in October 2004. The first program baseline assessment began in November 2006, prior to prevention activities with youth and parents, and the post-intervention assessment concluded in March 2008. Five key informants pre- and post-intervention completed a community readiness assessment, which is a structured procedure assessing a community's awareness of suicide as an issue and its, organizational readiness for prevention programming. Forty-three adult caregivers or sponsors of youth in the prevention program completed an assessment of behaviours that contributed to community protective factors from youth suicide and alcohol abuse at 4 time points before, during and after the intervention. The 54 youth who participated in the prevention program completed an assessment of community protective factors, also at 4 time points before, during and after the intervention. The community protective factors from suicide that were assessed included safety, enforcement of alcohol prohibitions, role models, support and opportunities for youth. Community readiness for the prevention efforts increased to new developmental stages of readiness post-intervention, and a trend in the data suggested community protective factors increased in the amount of protective behaviours
Herbert, Linda Jones; Lin, Adora; Matsui, Elizabeth; Wood, Robert A; Sharma, Hemant
This study's aims are to identify factors related to allergen avoidance and epinephrine carriage among youth with food allergy, develop a tool to measure food allergy management facilitators and barriers, and investigate its initial reliability and validity. The Food Allergy Management Perceptions Questionnaire (FAMPQ) was developed based on focus groups with 19 adolescents and young adults with food allergy. Additional youth with food allergy (N = 92; ages: 13-21 years) completed food allergy clinical history and management questionnaires and the FAMPQ. Internal reliability estimates for the FAMPQ Facilitators and Barriers subscales were acceptable to good. Youth who were adherent to allergen avoidance and epinephrine carriage had higher Facilitator scores. Poor adherence was more likely among youth with higher Barrier scores. Initial FAMPQ reliability and validity is promising. Additional research is needed to develop FAMPQ clinical guidelines. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Versace, Amelia; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.
Objective: To study white matter (WM) development in youth at high familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD). WM alterations are reported in youth and adults with BD. WM undergoes important maturational changes in adolescence. Age-related changes in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics in healthy…
Jacobs, Jennifer M.; Wright, Paul M.
Research has demonstrated that many quality sport-based youth development programs promote life skill acquisition (e.g., leadership, self-control) with the ultimate goal of facilitating positive outcomes in youth participants' social and academic environments. Researchers call this "transfer of life skills" (i.e., the idea that physical,…
Olufunmilayo T. Iyunade, Ph.D
Full Text Available Recent empirical evidences on higher technical education at a national scale focused on the relevance, student’s poor perception, low enrolment and progression rates, and the growing impact of globalization on the management of higher technical and vocational education with little or no reference point to the factor of quality assurance. This paper therefore correlates quality assurance factors in higher technical education and the context of youth empowerment for sustainable development. A survey of public technical colleges was done in Ogun State. From an estimate population of 637 final year students and 28 instructors and management staff, a simple of 376 students and 17 instructors and management staff were selected using the stratify random sampling technique. A 4-point rating scale validated questionnaires tagged: ‘Higher Technical Education, Youth Empowerment and Sustainable Development Scale (HTEYESDS (r=0.79, complemented with focus Group Discussion (FGD was used for data collection. Three research questions were raised and answered. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics of Pearson correlation, multiple regression and analysis of variance at 0.05 apha level. Results showed that poor quality assurance limits the capacity of higher technical education in the empowerment of youth for sustainable development (82.6%. Quality assurance factors significantly correlated with higher technical education in the empowerment of youth for sustainable development (r=0.188; P < 0.05. It was therefore recommended that government should neither neglect nor compromise the factors of quality assurance in higher technical education as they predicts youth empowerment drive in the system.
Michelle J. Garwood
Full Text Available Technology is changing the way youth learn and lead. This paper illustrates a successful case study of a program that actively engaged youth in the decision-making process through the use of an online community and virtual conferencing. Synergy was generated when the youth were mentored (virtually and in-person by members of a parallel adult committee. Utilizing technology resources proved to be the key to building a vibrant, innovative and inclusive program that could overcome the barriers of time and travel constraints.
Yazel-Smith, Lisa G; Pike, Julie; Lynch, Dustin; Moore, Courtney; Haberlin, Kathryn; Taylor, Jennifer; Hannon, Tamara S
The obesity epidemic has led to an increase in prediabetes in youth, causing a serious public health concern. Education on diabetes risk and initiation of lifestyle change are the primary treatment modalities. There are few existing age-appropriate health education tools to address diabetes prevention for high-risk youth. To develop an age-appropriate health education tool(s) to help youth better understand type 2 diabetes risk factors and the reversibility of risk. Health education tool development took place in five phases: exploration, design, analysis, refinement, and process evaluation. The project resulted in (1) booklet designed to increase knowledge of risk, (2) meme generator that mirrors the booklet graphics and allows youth to create their own meme based on their pancreas' current mood, (3) environmental posters for clinic, and (4) brief self-assessment that acts as a conversation starter for the health educators. Patients reported high likability and satisfaction with the health education tools, with the majority of patients giving the materials an "A" rating. The process evaluation indicated a high level of fidelity and related measures regarding how the health education tools were intended to be used and how they were actually used in the clinic setting.
Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah; Omar, Khairani; Thurasamy, Ramayah
From the Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective, sexual intention is determined by a permissive attitude, perception of social norms and perceived self-efficacy in performing sexual activity. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Youth Sexual Intention Questionnaire (YSI-Q), which was designed to measure sexual intention among youths in Malaysia. A total of 25 items were developed based on literature reviews encompassing four main constructs: sexual intention, attitude, social norms and self-efficacy. The YSI-Q then underwent a validation process that included content and face validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), reliability analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). This study was conducted on unmarried youths aged 18 to 22 years who were studying in colleges around Klang Valley, Malaysia. EFA supported the four factor structure, but five items were removed due to incorrect placement or low factor loading (social norms (six items) and self-efficacy (four items) of practicing sexual activity. YSI-Q was shown to be a reliable and valid tool to be used among Malaysian youths.
Andrew L. Luk
Full Text Available With the rapid change to society after the opening of the gaming licensure by the government and the potential attraction to youth caused by the casinos, a well-tested and comprehensive adolescent development program previously established in Hong Kong was adopted and modified to be used in Macau. It is expected to help our adolescents achieve positive growth and be better prepared for future challenges. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the modified positive youth development program for Secondary 1 Students in Macau. Specifically, two research questions will be asked: (1 How does the positive youth development program affect positive growth for youth in Macau?; and (2 Is youth growth related to different factors such as gender, age, family financial condition, and parents' marital status? A mixed research method with a quantitative approach using a pre- and post-test pre-experimental design, and a qualitative approach using a focus group for the participants is carried out. The study sample included 232 Secondary 1 Students in two schools. The objective outcome evaluation showed that, overall, 123 (53% of the participants had significant improvement on the total scores of the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYDS and the two composite scores. However, there were some increases in the behavioral intention of alcohol drinking and participation in gambling activities. The “happiness of the family life” was found to have significant differences in the score of the CPYDS, which was shown to be the factor related to youth growth. The focus group interviews revealed that both positive and negative feedback was obtained from the discussion; however, the majority of the participants perceived benefits to themselves from the program. With reference to the principle of triangulation, the present study suggests that, based on both quantitative and qualitative evaluation findings, it should be concluded that there is
Siu, Andrew M H; Cheng, Howard C H; Leung, Mana C M
Prosocial norms are clear, healthy, ethical standards, beliefs, and behavior guidelines that promote prosocial behavior and minimize health risks. The promotion of prosocial norms like altruism, solidarity, and volunteerism is an important aspect of positive youth development programs. From the literature, it is evident that a prosocial orientation is encouraged in traditional Chinese philosophy. Longitudinal studies have shown that prosocial behavior increases gradually over adolescence, and that the development of prosocial behavior is closely linked to the development of moral reasoning, perspective taking, and regulation of personal distress. It is noteworthy that females have a higher prosocial orientation than males, and peer influence could be a major mediating factor of interventions to foster prosocial norms and behavior during adolescence. This review also analyzes the mechanism underlying prosocial behavior using the cost-reward model, social cognitive theory, and stages of moral development. Role modeling, social reinforcements and evaluations, discussion of moral dilemmas, empathy skills training, and foot-in-the-door procedures are identified as useful strategies for fostering prosocial norms and behavior.
Bannon, Finian; Devlin, Anne; McElwee, Gerry; Gavin, Anna
In April 2007, smoke-free legislation was enacted in workplaces throughout N. Ireland. The effects of this legislation on bar workers' health and their exposure to second-hand smoke at home, work and social environment, and their attitudes to the legislation before and after its implementation remain to be documented. A self-completed questionnaire of bar staff in 35 Belfast bars, before (March 2007, n = 110) and after the legislation (July 2007, n = 110). Smokers (excluding 'social smokers') made up 41.6% of respondents. After the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, the reductions in the proportion of bar workers reporting various respiratory symptoms ranged from 1.3% to 18.6% for smokers and from 21.9% to 33.2% for non-smokers. Likewise, the reductions for various sensory symptoms ranged from 7.3% to 17.7% for smokers and from 29.6% to 46.8% for non-smokers. Reduction in wheeze, cough and throat symptoms after the legislation were much greater for non-smokers than smokers. The proportion of bar staff who reported satisfaction with the legislation remained unchanged across the surveys. Decreases in perceived exposure to second-hand smoke occurred at work, home and in social settings. After the legislation's enactment, a majority of bar workers felt the workplace was healthier (98%). These first findings show reduced reported symptoms among bar workers, both smokers and non-smokers, after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in N. Ireland, though greater among non-smokers. There was also a reported fall in the hours of second-hand smoke exposure in the home for this group of workers which has a high prevalence of smokers.
Eisman, Andria B; Stoddard, Sarah A; Bauermeister, José A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A
Relational aggression among early adolescents is a pervasive problem that negatively influences the health and well-being of youth. Strength-based approaches such as positive youth development (PYD) are a promising way to reduce risk of detrimental outcomes such as relational aggression. Participation in organized activities is a key way that youth build assets related to PYD. Yet, few researchers have examined empirically assets related to PYD as a mechanism by which organized activity participation may help reduce risk of relational aggression. In this study, we used structural equation modeling to investigate if assets associated with PYD mediate the relationship between organized activity participation and relational aggression using survey data from a diverse, school-based sample of early adolescents (N = 196; mean age = 12.39 years; SD = 0.52; 60% female; 45% African American, 27% White, 21% multiracial, and 7% other, 71% economically disadvantaged). We tested 2 competing models, 1 with decomposed PYD factors and 1 with an integrated PYD factor. Our results suggest that PYD better fit as an integrated versus decomposed construct, providing support for the notion that youth benefit most from assets related to PYD when they operate collectively. Our results also provide support for PYD-related factors as a mechanism by which participation may reduce risk of relational aggression. Limitations of this study, and implications for prevention are discussed.
Eva van Baren
Full Text Available The Duke of Edinburgh’s International Award is a youth achievement Award program that aims to engage young people in purposeful activities focused on gaining knowledge, broadening horizons and accumulating a diversity of experiences. The program promotes positive youth development through an experienced based learning approach and is known to play a vital role in providing opportunities for young people to develop essential life skills, complementing their formal education. Comprised of three levels (Bronze, Silver and Gold and four sections (Service, Skills, Physical Recreation and Adventurous Journey the Award is designed to provide a balanced programme of personal development. The Award operates worldwide in over 140 countries and territories, through the International Award Association. This article will discuss The Duke of Edinburgh’s International Award program and its non-formal educational framework. Participants reported that it has enabled them to grow in confidence and in their ability to contribute positively to their communities.
Wallace, Gregory L.; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura; Pugliese, Cara E.; Orionzi, Bako; Clasen, Liv; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.; Martin, Alex; Raznahan, Armin; Kenworthy, Lauren
Although social-communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors are hallmark features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and persist across the lifespan, very few studies have compared age-related differences in these behaviors between youth with ASD and same-age typically developing (TD) peers. We examined this issue using SRS-2 (Social…
Burns, Sharyn K; Maycock, Bruce; Hildebrand, Janina; Zhao, Yun; Allsop, Steve; Lobo, Roanna; Howat, Peter
This study aimed to develop and validate an online instrument to: (1) identify common alcohol-related social influences, norms and beliefs among adolescents; (2) clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents; (3) describe the characteristics of social connections that contribute to the transmission of alcohol norms; and (4) identify the influence of alcohol marketing on adolescent norm development. The online Youth Alcohol Norms Survey (YANS) was administered in secondary schools in Western Australia PARTICIPANTS: Using a 2-week test-retest format, the YANS was administered to secondary school students (n=481, age=13-17 years, female 309, 64.2%). The development of the YANS was guided by social cognitive theory and comprised a systematic multistage process including evaluation of content and face validity. A 2-week test-retest format was employed. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the underlying factor structure of the instrument. Test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's kappa. A five-factor structure with meaningful components and robust factorial loads was identified, and the five factors were labelled as 'individual attitudes and beliefs', 'peer and community identity', 'sibling influences', 'school and community connectedness' and 'injunctive norms', respectively. The instrument demonstrated stability across the test-retest procedure (ICC=0.68-0.88, Cohen's kappa coefficient=0.69) for most variables. The results support the reliability and factorial validity of this instrument. The YANS presents a promising tool, which enables comprehensive assessment of reciprocal individual, behavioural and environmental factors that influence alcohol-related norms among adolescents. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise
Kothari, Brianne H; McBeath, Bowen; Lamson-Siu, Emilie; Webb, Sara Jade; Sorenson, Paul; Bowen, Hannah; Waid, Jeff; Bank, Lew
Due to their ubiquity and possible influence on youth mental health, academic, and other outcomes, sibling-focused intervention strategies may be important for the development and implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare. However, there is no rigorous evidence as to either the best methods for, or feasibility of, incorporating the sibling link within existing clinical treatments for foster youth. This paper applies the literature on evidence-based practices (EBP) and implementation research in child welfare to sibling-focused intervention; and presents data concerning the development, delivery, cost, and feasibility of a novel sibling-focused intervention program, Supporting Siblings in Foster Care (SIBS-FC). Results suggest that despite the challenges and costs involved with delivering SIBS-FC, the program catered to the diverse needs of pre-adolescent and adolescent siblings living together and apart, was viewed positively by youth, and was implemented with a high degree of fidelity. These findings underscore the importance of attending to the early-stage development of psychosocial interventions in child welfare and highlight the role of interagency collaboration, program planning, staff training and supervision, and fidelity tracking for EBP development in child welfare. Implications for prevention research and sibling-focused intervention programming in child welfare are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article offers a critical analysis of the Arab Human Development Report (AHDR 2016, that was released by the United Nations Development Programme in November 2016. AHDR 2016 represents the return of the Arab Human Development project, that had been interrupted by the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011. It also epitomizes the Arab youth paradigm that has increasingly come to frame development and security discourse in the region. While there is much that is familiar in AHDR 2016, there are also concerning developments: a historical revisionism that holds Arab youth responsible for the Arab Spring, and the Arab Spring responsible for the Arab Winter that followed; and a new trend that views not just Arab youth deficits as a dangerous threat to regional and global security, but Arab youth abilities and surfeits as well.
Full Text Available The subjects of the research are mentally-retarded children and youth, and their possibilities in overcoming the programme contents from educational-upbringing area-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. The research has been conducted in Sremcica-Home for Mentally Disrupted Children and Youth. Results of the research presents approximately 50 percent of the positive accomplishments.The research has indicated to us that knowledge learned from a narrow environment (home, family are much better than ones learned from an expansive environment. By these facts we came to the conclusion that the adequate attention hasn’t been paid in realization of the programme contenses concerning familiarizing the expansive environment, especially in the charter SOCIAL INITIATIVE. We know that two basic goals in rehabilitation is not achieved too. However, the results of the research approve us that socialization has essential influence on the knowledge development of the medium mentally retarded
This short paper presents a new refrigerant developed by Quiri Refrigeration company in collaboration with Electricite de France (EdF), which can replace the no-longer produced R-12 CFC. This substitute, called `youth elixir` is a mixture of HCFCs and has similar physical characteristics, is compatible with the R-12 and can be used in a similar pressure range. Its use requires to modify the existing installation but with a reasonable cost. (J.S.)
Feurer, Cope; Woody, Mary L; Tsypes, Aliona; Burkhouse, Katie L; Champagne, Katelynn; Gibb, Brandon E
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) has been established as a risk factor for depression in both youth and adults, but questions remain as to how OGM develops. Although theorists have proposed that the experience of stressful life events may contribute to the development of OGM, no studies have examined the impact of negative life events on prospective changes in OGM. The goal of the current study was to address this gap in the literature. Participants included 251 mothers and their biological children (aged 8-14 years old at the initial assessment). Using a multi-wave prospective design with assessments every 6 months for 2 years, we found that episodic life stress predicted prospective decreases in youths' autobiographical memory specificity to positive, but not negative, cues. This study supports theories proposing that negative life events may contribute to the development of OGM, but suggest that, in youth, the impact of life stress on OGM may be specific to positive rather than negative memories.
Pike, Ian; Piedt, Shannon; Davison, Colleen M; Russell, Kelly; Macpherson, Alison K; Pickett, William
The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey is one of very few cross-national health surveys that includes information on injury occurrence and prevention within adolescent populations. A collaboration to develop a Canadian youth injury report using these data resulted in, Injury among Young Canadians: A national study of contextual determinants. The objective of this study was to develop specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations arising from the national report, using a modified-Delphi process with a panel of expert stakeholders. Eight injury prevention experts and a 3-person youth advisory team associated with a Canadian injury prevention organization (Parachute Canada) reviewed, edited and commented on report recommendations through a three-stage iterative modified-Delphi process. From an initial list of 27 draft recommendations, the modified-Delphi process resulted in a final list of 19 specific recommendations, worded to resonate with the group(s) responsible to lead or take the recommended action. Two recommendations were rated as "extremely important" or "very important" by 100 % of the expert panel, two were deleted, a further two recommendations were deleted but the content included as text in the report, and four were merged with other existing recommendations. The modified-Delphi process was an appropriate method to achieve agreement on 19 specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations to complement the national youth injury report. In providing their input, it is noted that the injury stakeholders each acted as individual experts, unattached to any organizational position or policy. These recommendations will require multidisciplinary collaborations in order to support the proposed policy development, additional research, programming and clear decision-making for youth injury prevention.
Medina, Alberto Hernandez; And Others
The education/employment situations of young people in Mexico and South Asia are examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in developing nations. In Mexico, economic growth between 1940 and 1970 was considerably greater than achievement of social goals such as full employment and…
Cater, Melissa; Jones, Kimberly Y.
The literature regarding teamwork has supported the idea that the key to improving team performance is to understand team processes. Early work within the realm of teamwork focused on quantifiable measures of team performance, like number of products developed. The measure of a successful team hinged on whether or not the team accomplished the end…
Mirela Ionela Aceleanu
Full Text Available Currently, at the European Union level, there has been an increase in unemployment, especially youth unemployment, as a result of certain imbalances in the labor market, exacerbated by the current financial and economic crisis. The sustainable economic development of each country is strongly influenced by the human resource in the context in which it is sought the creation of a strong, competitive and prosperous Europe. The human resource and especially young people are the most precious wealth of a nation. Therefore, solving the problem of youth unemployment is a matter of great concern and requires bringing to the forefront modern employment policies correlated with the economic reality, to which the EU attaches increasingly more importance, namely promoting green employment in a green economy. Our paper begins by analyzing the evolution, causes and differences recorded at the European Union level on the size and structure of youth unemployment and it ends with identifying some measures to reduce it, in the context of European sustainable development. The conclusions in our research highlight the importance of employment policies at both the micro and macro level and show the positive role of active policies, investment in education and green employment.
Full Text Available The Study the matter of the meaning of the family in the self development of the youth. The authoress analyses the present situation of Polish families, often difficult and leading to the dysfunction. The meaning of Socialization analyses in the family then, and the basic dimension of the young man self – realization brings more closer. Treating to own investigations he undertakes the test of the answer on the question: What do the pupils of Wroclaw aw average schools undertake workings for the own development? Considerations drawing the painting of the self - realization of the citizens of Wroclaw aw young generation finish the text. The main conclusions: the present youth be subject to civilization changeability and to her adjusts on her way. Broadcasting money transfer important is in the family, but the plurality of elections gives the unrestricted range of the possibility of functioning in the adult life to young people. The family stimulates to younger members self – realization her in two dimensions: sensible and unaware. The present youth knows social ploughlands, which maybe (he should fulfil yet he still lasts in the period of the moratorium (more pragmatic than rebellious not undertaking rash decisions on the future, trying pit with the plurality of the offers of the present world. Creating the new areas of the own activity, seeking the own place in the changing world the teenage generation can so support family values, broadcasting examples in the future
Full Text Available While there are excellent models of knowledge mobilisation (KMb that address the opportunity for co-production and sharing of best practice knowledge among human service professionals, it remains unclear whether these models will work in less formal settings like community-based non-government organisations (NGOs where there are fewer resources for KMb. For three days, 65 policy-makers, senior staff of NGOs, mental health professionals, KMb specialists and youth participated in a set of simulation exercises to problem solve how to mobilise knowledge in less formal settings that provide services to children and youth in challenging contexts (CYCC. Based on simulation exercises used in other settings (such as the deployment of international aid workers, participants were first provided with reports synthesising best practice knowledge relevant to their workplaces. They then engaged in an appreciative inquiry process, and were finally tasked with developing innovative strategies for KMb. Observation notes and exit interviews were used to evaluate the process and assess impact. Findings related to the process of the simulation exercises show the technique of simulation to be useful but that it requires effort to keep participants focused on the task of KMb rather than the content of best practices within a focal population. With regard to developing innovative KMb strategies, findings suggest that service providers in less formal community-based services prefer KMb activities that promote one-to-one relationships, including the participation of youth themselves, who can speak to the effectiveness of the interventions they have experienced. Unexpectedly, the use of electronic communication, including social media, was not viewed very positively by participants. These results suggest that the use of simulation to search for innovative KMb strategies and to problem solve around barriers to KMb has the potential to inform new ways of co-producing and
Noor Azimah Muhammad
Full Text Available Abstract Background From the Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective, sexual intention is determined by a permissive attitude, perception of social norms and perceived self-efficacy in performing sexual activity. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Youth Sexual Intention Questionnaire (YSI-Q, which was designed to measure sexual intention among youths in Malaysia. Methods A total of 25 items were developed based on literature reviews encompassing four main constructs: sexual intention, attitude, social norms and self-efficacy. The YSI-Q then underwent a validation process that included content and face validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA, reliability analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. This study was conducted on unmarried youths aged 18 to 22 years who were studying in colleges around Klang Valley, Malaysia. Results EFA supported the four factor structure, but five items were removed due to incorrect placement or low factor loading (<0.60. Internal reliability using Cronbach’s alpha ranged between 0.89 and 0.94. The CFA further confirmed the construct, convergent and discriminant validity of the YSI-Q with χ 2 = 392.43, df = 164, p < 0.001, χ 2/df = 2.40, CFI = 0.93 and TLI = 0.92 and RMSEA = 0.08. Conclusion The final set of YSI-Q consisted of 20 items measuring sexual intention (five items, attitude (five items, social norms (six items and self-efficacy (four items of practicing sexual activity. YSI-Q was shown to be a reliable and valid tool to be used among Malaysian youths.
Full Text Available This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1 disturbance of adaptive functions, (2 virtual life orientation, (3 withdrawal, and (4 tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r = .49. For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI = .943, TLI = .902, CFI = .902, RMSEA = .034. Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.
Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju
This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r = .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI = .943, TLI = .902, CFI = .902, RMSEA = .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.
Full Text Available This investigation was deigned to develop a teacher’s handbook for desirable characteristic creation from heritable literature for Thai youth in schools in Bangkok. The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing four pieces of heritable literature: Ramayana (King Rama I Issue, I-nao (King Rama II Issue, Khun Chang – Khun Phan (National Library Issue and Phra Aphai Mani (Sunthorn Phu Issue. The research results found that there are nine current problems that need to be overcome in order to develop desirable characteristics for youths in schools. There are additionally eight desirable characteristics that need to be developed among youths, based on the statement of the Office of the Basic Education Commission. The investigation found that families, social media, community and religious leaders and schools all have an important role in promoting or creating desirable characteristics for youths. The content analysis found that all but one piece of heritable literature analysed contained content according to the eight desirable characteristics for youths. The handbook developed from the four pieces of heritable literature could be divided into four books for each piece of literature, which can be used as classroom teaching materials to create desirable characteristics for youths.
Full Text Available Arizona’s first Teen Institute (TI program, Youth Empowered for Success, began in July 2004. It is the first TI-based project to focus on nurturing resilience via Health Realization (Pransky, 2007. The YES program’s design to “create conditions for success” in high schools is discussed. YES utilizes a strengths-based, multi-faceted approach of (1 teaching participants how to access their innate resilience and common sense (Health Realization, (2 training them in community development for school culture change and (3 helping them develop meaningful partnerships with adults. YES also expands upon the TI model by providing staff support for community development throughout the academic year. It is hypothesized that these efforts ultimately will increase overall well-being and reduce the incidence of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (ATOD as well as depression and suicide among youth.
Vincent, John; Glamser, Francis D
A large body of research has shown that a disproportionate number of elite youth male soccer players competing in age-segmented competition are born early in the selection year. The advantage of being born early in a cohort has been termed the "relative age effect". Although there has been an exponential growth in women's soccer, few studies have examined the relative age effect in female youth soccer. This study compared the relative age effect of 1,344 female and male youth soccer players considered by the US Olympic Development Program (ODP), in 2001, to be the most talented soccer players born in 1984. The birth dates were taken from the women's state and regional ODP, and national team rosters, and were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Results revealed only a marginal relative age effect for female ODP regional and national team players and no relative age effect for female ODP state team players. In comparison, a strong relative age effect was found in male state, regional and national team players. The results suggest that there are gender differences in the relative age effect of 17-year-old elite female and male soccer players. The gender differences may be explained by a complex interaction of biological and maturational differences with socialization influences.
Gavin, Loretta E; Catalano, Richard F; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Gloppen, Kari M; Markham, Christine M
Positive youth development (PYD) may be a promising strategy for promoting adolescent health. A systematic review of the published data was conducted to identify and describe PYD programs that improve adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Eight databases were searched for articles about PYD programs published between 1985 and 2007. Programs included met the following criteria: fostered at least one of 12 PYD goals in multiple socialization domains (i.e., family, school, community) or addressed two or more goals in at least one socialization domain; allocated at least half of the program activities to promoting general PYD outcomes (as compared with a focus on direct sexual health content); included youth younger than 20 years old; and used an experimental or quasi-experimental evaluation design. Thirty programs met the inclusion criteria, 15 of which had evidence of improving at least one adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcome. Program effects were moderate and well-sustained. Program goals addressed by approximately 50% or more of the effective programs included promoting prosocial bonding, cognitive competence, social competence, emotional competence, belief in the future, and self-determination. Effective programs were significantly more likely than those that did not have an impact to strengthen the school context and to deliver activities in a supportive atmosphere. Effective programs were also more likely to build skills, enhance bonding, strengthen the family, engage youth in real roles and activities, empower youth, communicate expectations, and be stable and relatively long-lasting, although these differences between effective and ineffective programs were not statistically significant. PYD programs can promote adolescent sexual and reproductive health, and tested, effective PYD programs should be part of a comprehensive approach to promoting adolescent health. However, more research is needed before a specific list of program
Wainryb, Cecilia; Bourne, Stacia
War creates a multifaceted web of inequities that encompass most levels of the ecology of youth development. These include psychosocial inequities bearing on war-exposed youth's limited access to medical and educational services and job-training and employment opportunities, as well as some of the unique psychological sequelae of trauma exposure. In this chapter we put forth a twofold argument. First, we argue that the protracted hardships of war also create enduring psychological inequities that go beyond the well-documented psychosocial needs and psychological trauma, and encompass other aspects of youths' healthy development; these are inequities inasmuch as they represent profound alterations of the developmental pathways available to war-affected youth. Second, we maintain that the psychological sciences must strive to understand such longstanding developmental inequities even if we do not, at this time, have the tools to fully address them. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neblett, Enrique W; Sosoo, Effua E; Willis, Henry A; Bernard, Donte L; Bae, Jiwoon; Billingsley, Janelle T
Racism constitutes a significant risk to the healthy development of African American youth. Fortunately, however, not all youth who experience racism evidence negative developmental outcomes. In this chapter, we examine person-centered analysis (PCA)-a quantitative technique that investigates how variables combine across individuals-as a useful tool for elucidating racial and ethnic protective processes that mitigate the negative impact of racism. We review recent studies employing PCA in examinations of racial identity, racial socialization, and other race-related experiences, as well as how these constructs correlate with and impact African American youth development. We also consider challenges and limitations of PCA and conclude with a discussion of future research and how PCA might be used to promote equity and justice for African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth who experience racism. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The politics of the Soviet authority in business of introduction physical training in an education system is shined. The condition of process of physical development is considered within the limits of school educational institutions. The place of physical training in structure of the general education of youth is found out. Diffculties of an initial stage are analyzed. Shift and dynamics of process are traced. It is marked, that already at the end of frst half of 1920 to process of physical development the most part of schools of Donbass has joined.
Michelle D. Klem
Full Text Available Camping is generally believed to be a context for positive youth development. The 4-H Camp environments presumably focus on the development of life skills including managing and thinking; relating and caring; giving and working and; living and being. However, the effectiveness of the Missouri 4-H Camp environments in developing life skills among campers had never been evaluated in a consistent manner across the multiple camping programs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of these camp programs, resident campers within the 10-13 year age range were surveyed about their camping experience during the summer of 2005 and a similar group was surveyed in 2006. Parents of campers were also surveyed both years to gather their perceptions of 4-H Camp’s impact on their children in developing the life skill areas identified above. Parents and youth agreed strongly that the 4-H Camp experience was substantially valuable in developing the life skills identified in the Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1998.
Siu, Andrew M H; Shek, Daniel T L; Law, Ben
Prosocial norms like reciprocity, social responsibility, altruism, and volunteerism are ethical standards and beliefs that youth development programs often want to promote. This paper reviews evolutionary, social-cognitive, and developmental theories of prosocial development and analyzes how young people learn and adopt prosocial norms. The paper showed that very few current theories explicitly address the issue of how prosocial norms, in form of feelings of moral obligations, may be challenged by a norm of self-interest and social circumstances when prosocial acts are needed. It is necessary to develop theories which put prosocial norms as a central construct, and a new social cognitive theory of norm activation has the potential to help us understand how prosocial norms may be applied. This paper also highlights how little we know about young people perceiving and receiving prosocial norms and how influential of school policies and peer influence on the prosocial development. Lastly, while training of interpersonal competence (e.g., empathy, moral reasoning, etc.) was commonly used in the youth development, their effectiveness was not systematically evaluated. It will also be interesting to examine how computer and information technology or video games may be used in e-learning of prosocial norms.
Andrew M. H. Siu
Full Text Available Prosocial norms like reciprocity, social responsibility, altruism, and volunteerism are ethical standards and beliefs that youth development programs often want to promote. This paper reviews evolutionary, social-cognitive, and developmental theories of prosocial development and analyzes how young people learn and adopt prosocial norms. The paper showed that very few current theories explicitly address the issue of how prosocial norms, in form of feelings of moral obligations, may be challenged by a norm of self-interest and social circumstances when prosocial acts are needed. It is necessary to develop theories which put prosocial norms as a central construct, and a new social cognitive theory of norm activation has the potential to help us understand how prosocial norms may be applied. This paper also highlights how little we know about young people perceiving and receiving prosocial norms and how influential of school policies and peer influence on the prosocial development. Lastly, while training of interpersonal competence (e.g., empathy, moral reasoning, etc. was commonly used in the youth development, their effectiveness was not systematically evaluated. It will also be interesting to examine how computer and information technology or video games may be used in e-learning of prosocial norms.
Waibel-Duncan, Mary Katherine; Benner, Eleanor; Weeks, Meghan
Y.O.O. Rock Columbia County Youth Outreach Opportunities for Families Children, and Youth (Waibel-Duncan & Gillam, 2009) represents our nonurban county's first organized effort to systematically identify and promote awareness of volunteer and outreach opportunities for families, children, and youth. In addition to describing Y.O.O. Rock's development, this article summarizes feedback from parents, professionals, and paraprofessionals and outlines their recommendations for the second edition of the guide. Issue briefs from the Corporation for National & Community Service (2005, 2006, 2008) suggest the need for reference guides like Y.O.O. Rock insofar as they document limited volunteer and outreach opportunities for young children as well as the family's role in engaging children in service to others. This article will inform others who seek to increase families', children's, and youth's awareness of volunteer activities and outreach opportunities in their communities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Stewart, Catherine; Robbins, Regina; Riggs, Cara; Mayberger, Susan; Cervantes, Alberto; Huang, Terry T-K
Childhood obesity rates in minority populations continue to rise despite leveling national trends. Although interventions that address social and environmental factors exist, processes that create demand for policy and environmental change within communities have not been identified. We developed a pilot program in South Omaha, a Nebraska Latino community, based on the community readiness model (CRM), called SaludableOmaha. We used CRM to explore the potential of youth advocacy to shift individual and community norms regarding obesity prevention in South Omaha and to advocate for health-promoting community environments. We used CRM to assess supply and demand for health programs, engage the community, determine the community's baseline readiness to address childhood obesity, and guide youth advocacy program development. We conducted our project in 2 phases. In the first, we trained a cohort of youth. In the second, the youth cohort created and launched a Latino health movement, branded as SaludableOmaha. A third phase, which is currently under way, is directed at institutionalizing youth advocacy in communities. At baseline, the community studied was at a low stage of readiness for change. Our program generated infrastructure and materials to support the growth and institutionalization of youth advocacy as a means of increasing community readiness for addressing obesity prevention. CRM is an important tool for addressing issues such as childhood obesity in underserved communities because it provides a framework for matching interventions to the community. Community partnerships such as SaludableOmaha can aid the adoption of obesity prevention programs.
Carolyn R. Bates
Full Text Available Children from low-income families are increasingly growing up in urban areas with limited access to nature. In these environments, strategies that promote access to natural outdoor spaces, such as green schoolyards, may enhance positive youth development outcomes by promoting physical activity (PA and prosocial behavior, as well as increasing perceptions of safety. The current study examines children’s PA and social interactions, as well as caregiver and teacher perceptions of safety, injuries, teasing/bullying, and gang activity on three newly renovated green schoolyards in low-income urban neighborhoods. A multi-method strategy, including behavioral mapping and caregiver- and teacher-reported surveys, was utilized at three time points to examine positive youth development outcomes and maintenance of effects over time. Analyses revealed that children evidenced a range of PA on the green schoolyards and demonstrated significant decreases in sedentary activity over time. The majority of children were engaged in social interactions with peers on the green schoolyards when observed. Less than 3% of interactions were negative and follow-up analyses found significant increases in positive interactions on the green schoolyards up to 24 months post-renovation. Caregivers and teachers reported increased perceptions of safety, fewer injuries, less teasing/bullying, and less gang-related activity on the renovated green schoolyards in comparison to the pre-renovation schoolyards, and these effects were maintained up to 32 months post-renovation. Overall, the study suggests that green schoolyards may promote positive development outcomes among youth living in urban, low-income neighborhoods by providing natural and safe spaces for PA and prosocial behavior.
Logie, Carmen H; Lys, Candice
Youth in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT) experience sexual and mental health disparities. Higher rates of sexual and mental health concerns among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) youth in comparison with heterosexual and cisgender peers have been associated with stigma and discrimination. Although LGBTQ youth in the NWT are situated at the nexus of Northern and LGBTQ health disparities, there is little known about their health, well-being and experiences of stigma. This short communication discusses the process of developing a LGBTQ youth community-based research programme in the NWT. We developed an interdisciplinary research team of LGBTQ and allied young adults, including indigenous and non-indigenous researchers, community organisers and service providers in the NWT. We conducted meetings in Yellowknife with LGBTQ youth (n=12) and key stakeholders (n=15), including faculty, students, community groups and health and social service providers. Both meetings included LGBTQ and allied participants who were LGBTQ, indigenous, youth and persons at the intersection of these identities. LGBTQ youth participants discussed community norms that devalued same sex identities and stigma surrounding LGBTQ-specific services and agencies. Stigma among LGBT youth was exacerbated for youth in secondary schools, gender non-conforming and transgender youth and young gay men. In the stakeholder meeting, service providers discussed the importance of integrating LGBTQ issues in youth programmes, and LGBTQ community groups expressed the need for flexibility in service delivery to LGBTQ youth. Stakeholders identified the need to better understand the needs of indigenous LGBTQ youth in the NWT. Community-based LGBTQ groups, researchers and health and social service providers are interested in addressing LGBTQ youth issues in the NWT. The emergence of LGBTQ community building, support groups and activism in Northern Canada suggests that this is an opportune time
Carmen H. Logie
Full Text Available Background: Youth in Canada's Northwest Territories (NWT experience sexual and mental health disparities. Higher rates of sexual and mental health concerns among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ youth in comparison with heterosexual and cisgender peers have been associated with stigma and discrimination. Although LGBTQ youth in the NWT are situated at the nexus of Northern and LGBTQ health disparities, there is little known about their health, well-being and experiences of stigma. This short communication discusses the process of developing a LGBTQ youth community-based research programme in the NWT. Methods: We developed an interdisciplinary research team of LGBTQ and allied young adults, including indigenous and non-indigenous researchers, community organisers and service providers in the NWT. We conducted meetings in Yellowknife with LGBTQ youth (n=12 and key stakeholders (n=15, including faculty, students, community groups and health and social service providers. Both meetings included LGBTQ and allied participants who were LGBTQ, indigenous, youth and persons at the intersection of these identities. Results: LGBTQ youth participants discussed community norms that devalued same sex identities and stigma surrounding LGBTQ-specific services and agencies. Stigma among LGBT youth was exacerbated for youth in secondary schools, gender non-conforming and transgender youth and young gay men. In the stakeholder meeting, service providers discussed the importance of integrating LGBTQ issues in youth programmes, and LGBTQ community groups expressed the need for flexibility in service delivery to LGBTQ youth. Stakeholders identified the need to better understand the needs of indigenous LGBTQ youth in the NWT. Conclusions: Community-based LGBTQ groups, researchers and health and social service providers are interested in addressing LGBTQ youth issues in the NWT. The emergence of LGBTQ community building, support groups and activism
Full Text Available According to UNESCO, the number of ‘out-of-school’ children and youth in Thailand is the fifth in Asia and second in ASEAN. Currently, the accumulated number is about 1.7 million people. The purposes of this research are to study ‘out-of-school’ children and youth situations and method of education provided for them from the related organizations and networks. The results of this study reveal that the problems of the ‘out-of-school’ children and youth include low quality of life, lack of life skills and social skills, and behavior problems. The causes are poverty, low achievement in school, and behavior issues which cause dismissal from school. What needs to be provided for them from related organizations are a suitable system of education and vocational skills training. The activities provided by related organizations can be categorized as 1 life skills, social skills and self-esteem enhancement activities 2 funding and resources, which help to open up educational opportunities, and 3 the development of local mechanism to develop them in each area.
Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Law, Bella C. M.
Self-efficacy denotes people's beliefs about their ability to perform in different situations. It functions as a multilevel and multifaceted set of beliefs that influence how people feel, think, motivate themselves, and behave during various tasks. Self-efficacy beliefs are informed by enactive attainment, vicarious experience, imaginal experiences, and social persuasion as well as physical and emotional states. These beliefs are mediated by cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes to generate actual performance. Self-efficacy development is closely intertwined with a person's experiences, competencies, and developmental tasks in different domains at different stages in life. This paper reviews the literature to outline the definition and theoretical conceptualizations of the construct originally devised by Bandura that have flourished since the 1990s. Drawing from the studies of the construct to assess self-efficacy, and to inform positive youth development, the paper will present the determinants of the development of self-efficacy beliefs and identify the connection between self-efficacy and adolescent developmental outcomes. The paper will conclude with strategies to enhance youth self-efficacy and proposals for future research directions. PMID:22645423
Lampe, Renée; Thienel, Anna; Mitternacht, Jürgen; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Alves-Pinto, Ana
Damage to the developing brain may lead to impairment of the hand motor function and negatively impact on patients’ quality of life. Development of manual dexterity and finger and hand motor function may be promoted by learning to play the piano. The latter brings together music with the intensive training of hand coordination and fine finger mobility. We investigated if learning to play the piano helped to improve hand motor skills in 18 youths with hand motor disorders resulting from damage during early brain development. Participants trained 35–40 minutes twice a week for 18 months with a professional piano teacher. With the use of a Musical Instrument Digital Interface piano, the uniformity of finger strokes could be objectively assessed from the timing of keystrokes. The analysis showed a significant improvement in the uniformity of keystrokes during the training. Furthermore, the youths showed strong motivation and engagement during the study. This is nevertheless an open study, and further studies remain needed to exclude effects of growth and concomitant therapies on the improvements observed and clarify which patients will more likely benefit from learning to play the piano. PMID:26345312
Sandra K. M. Tsang
Full Text Available Self-efficacy denotes people's beliefs about their ability to perform in different situations. It functions as a multilevel and multifaceted set of beliefs that influence how people feel, think, motivate themselves, and behave during various tasks. Self-efficacy beliefs are informed by enactive attainment, vicarious experience, imaginal experiences, and social persuasion as well as physical and emotional states. These beliefs are mediated by cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes to generate actual performance. Self-efficacy development is closely intertwined with a person's experiences, competencies, and developmental tasks in different domains at different stages in life. This paper reviews the literature to outline the definition and theoretical conceptualizations of the construct originally devised by Bandura that have flourished since the 1990s. Drawing from the studies of the construct to assess self-efficacy, and to inform positive youth development, the paper will present the determinants of the development of self-efficacy beliefs and identify the connection between self-efficacy and adolescent developmental outcomes. The paper will conclude with strategies to enhance youth self-efficacy and proposals for future research directions.
Mubea, K.; Kasera, K.; Maina, C.
SERVIR E&SA builds on the institutional partnerships and networks in Eastern and Southern Africa together with the network and partnerships associated with USAID country missions in the region. The RCMRD Space Challenge was meant to equip students from high/secondary schools and primary schools within Kenya and beyond with the necessary skills and awareness in relation to environmental degradation, climate change and its drivers. Furthermore, this contributes to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), developing the youth in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) and ultimately contributing to capacity building of the youth with the objective of promoting sustainable development. RCMRD partnered with GLOBE Program Kenya, 4-H Kenya and Esri Eastern Africa in this endeavor. The challenge involved students from seven schools analyzing data from automatic weather stations and plotting the results against other location of schools. The students were required to use TAHMO Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) normalized atmospheric data provided by GLOBE, TAHMO and RCMRD. The three parameters, humidity, precipitation and temperature were found to be very closely related. The students generated graphs that were obtained from the normalized data for the five climatic zones in Kenya. Nasokol Girls School located at Kishaunet in West Pokot County (Kenya) emerged the winners followed by St. Scholastica Catholic Primary School in Nairobi, and Moi Forces Academy Nairobi. The students were urged to utilize the knowledge acquired to address challenges related to climate change. RCMRD Space Challenge will be held annually in Kenya in collaboration with partners.
Full Text Available While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b 8 in-depth interviews with program personnel. Widespread conviction in the positive developmental benefits of surfing was evident, and that surfing had a “special” capacity to reform or heal those who participate in it. However, the ways in which individuals’ self-developments were promoted appear to be following the traditional sport/youth development path. They focus on policies aimed at improved life chances, equipping youth with the tools for self-improvement and self-management, inculcating self-governance and self-reliance. However, a counter narrative co-existed, highlighting surfing as a freeing experience, which, rather than restoring social order, works to instigate a personal transformation or awakening. Despite the range of challenges presented by surfing as a tool for positive development, surfing presents a potentially “critical alternative” which if sport-for-development programs are to be a form of social change, we should remain open to exploring.
Full Text Available This feature article shares the results of a national environmental scan conducted to identify professional development programs offered for school age providers across the nation through the Cooperative Extension System. A purposeful sample comprised of representatives from state extension offices throughout the country included 135 respondents from 48 states. Results showed 139 professional development programs for school age providers were offered through the Cooperative Extension System. The majority of programs offered professional development in the areas of health, nutrition, safety, youth development, and quality afterschool environments. This article summarizes the findings of the environmental scan, including number of contact hours, program scope, and program partners, as well as discussion and recommendations for future work in this area.
Taylor, Henry Louis; McGlynn, Linda Greenough
Universities, because of their vast human and fiscal resources, can play the central role in assisting in the development of school-centered community development programs that make youth development their top priority. The Futures Academy, a K-8 public school in the Fruit Belt, an inner-city neighborhood in Buffalo, New York, offers a useful model of community development in partnership with the Center for Urban Studies at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The goal of the project is to create opportunities for students to apply the knowledge and skills they learn in the classroom to the goal of working with others to make the neighborhood a better place to live. The efforts seek to realize in practice the Dewey dictum that individuals learn best when they have "a real motive behind and a real outcome ahead."
Allen, Michele L; Rosas-Lee, Maira; Ortega, Luis; Hang, Mikow; Pergament, Shannon; Pratt, Rebekah
Youth from immigrant communities may experience barriers to connecting with schools and teachers, potentially undermining academic achievement and healthy youth development. This qualitative study aimed to understand how educators serving Somali, Latino, and Hmong (SLH) youth can best promote educator-student connectedness and positive youth development, by exploring the perspectives of teachers, youth workers, and SLH youth, using a community based participatory research approach. We conducted four focus groups with teachers, 18 key informant interviews with adults working with SLH youth, and nine focus groups with SLH middle and high school students. Four themes emerged regarding facilitators to educators promoting positive youth development in schools: (1) an authoritative teaching approach where teachers hold high expectations for student behavior and achievement, (2) building trusting educator-student relationships, (3) conveying respect for students as individuals, and (4) a school infrastructure characterized by a supportive and inclusive environment. Findings suggest a set of skills and educator-student interactions that may promote positive youth development and increase student-educator connectedness for SLH youth in public schools.
Lam, Chun Bun; Stanik, Christine; McHale, Susan M
This research examined the longitudinal trajectories and family correlates of gender role attitudes in African American youth in a sample of 166 sibling pairs residing with their mothers and fathers. Multilevel modelling revealed that (1) girls and boys exhibited significant declines in gender attitude traditionality from ages 9 to 15 that levelled off through age 18, (2) mothers' (but not fathers') gender role attitude traditionality was positively related to youth's attitude traditionality, and (3) within-person variation in mothers' (but not fathers') racial discrimination experiences was negatively related to within-person variation in youth's gender role attitude traditionality. The utility of applying a cultural ecological framework within an ethnic homogenous, accelerated longitudinal design to understand African American family processes, in conjunction with the intersectionality between race and gender, is the focus of the discussion. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Gender role attitude traditionality declined for girls, but not for boys, in European and Mexican American families. Little is known about the roles of African American parents in shaping their children's gender development. What does this study add? For African American girls and boys, gender role attitude traditionality declined from ages 9 to 15 and then levelled off through age 18. At the between-person level, African American mothers', but not fathers', attitude traditionality was positively linked to that of their children. At the within-person level, African American mothers', but not fathers', experiences of racial discrimination were negatively linked to their children's attitude traditionality. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Seaton, Eleanor K
The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on the cognitive development measure, youth were categorized as having pre-formal or formal reasoning abilities. The results indicate no significant differences in perceptions of individual, cultural or collective/institutional racism between pre-formal reasoning and formal reasoning adolescents. However, the results do suggest that perceptions of collective/institutional racism were more harmful for the self-esteem of pre-formal reasoning youth than the self-esteem of formal reasoning youth. The implications for the racial discrimination literature among African American adolescents are discussed.
Albert Ruslanovich Atlaskirov
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the work is to identify and analyze existing mechanisms for realizing the potential of youth in the context of sustainable development in Kabardino-Balkaria and to identify ways to improve their effectiveness. Methodology. The research is based on mass and expert surveys of the population of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. The sample is stratified, structured by sex, age, nationality and place of residence, sample size of 1200 respondents; interviewing in focus groups. Results. It is established that several basic mechanisms for realizing the potential of youth are singled out: volunteer activity, training of management personnel, development of physical culture and sports. However, there is an imbalance in the priorities of the youth policy towards the development of physical culture and sports. In general, the youth policy of the republic is characterized by inconsistency and contradictions. Practical implications. The results of the research can be applied in the sphere of forecasting socio-political processes and designing youth policy programs in the region.
Garst, Barry A.; Gagnon, Ryan J.; Whittington, Anja
Understanding program components that contribute to positive youth outcomes following camp experiences can help program providers bring a greater level of intentionality to their efforts. The purposes of this study were twofold: (a) to develop reliable and valid measures of life skill development, elements of positive youth development (PYD), and…
Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Assouline, Susan G.; Kivlighan, D. Martin; Fosenburg, Staci; Cederberg, Charles; Nanji, Michelle
Contemporary models highlight the need to cultivate cognitive and psychosocial factors in developing domain-specific talent. This model was the basis for the current study where high ability youth with self-reported social difficulties (n = 28, 12 with a coexisting disability) participated in a social skills and talent development intervention…
Edmond P. Bowers
Full Text Available This article provides initial data about the reliability and validity of tools aimed at promoting youth intentional self regulation (ISR within mentoring programs. Based on the translation of the theory-based research about ISR and youth thriving conducted within the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (PYD, the GPS to Success tools use the metaphor of a car’s GPS navigational system to enhance goal-directed behaviors among youth. The core GPS tools are “growth grids,” designed to help mentors appraise ISR skill development and to link these skills to other grids assessing the Five Cs of PYD and Contribution. Data from 152 mentor and youth pairs from 4-H program sites in Oregon and North Carolina indicated that the growth grids were generally reliable. Although validity evidence was mixed, rubrics for “G” and “P” and for a global GPS score were related to a well-validated measure of ISR.
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Escher, Fabian J
This study compared three groups of various age and health status (total N = 732) with respect to their identity status, stress level, and parental behavior. As expected, patients were characterized by delayed identity development, particularly ruminative exploration. Further, patients experienced high identity stress and described high levels of anxious paternal rearing and intrusive maternal psychological control. The patients‘ levels of both internalizing and externalizing symptomatology were high, and the impact of externalizing symptoms on identity arrest was strong. Identity status was delayed, albeit age adequate in both groups of healthy youths, with comparably high levels of anxious parental monitoring. Compared to adolescents, young adults were particularly active in their identity development, showing a high level of identity stress but no increase in psychopathology.
González, Roberto; Lickel, Brian; Gupta, Manisha; Tropp, Linda R; Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Mora, Eduardo; De Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Valdenegro, Daniel; Cayul, Oscar; Miranda, Daniel; Saavedra, Patricio; Bernardino, Michelle
This article tests a longitudinal model of the antecedents and consequences of changes in identification with indigenous (Mapuche) among indigenous and nonindigenous youth in Chilean school contexts over a 6-month period (633 nonindigenous and 270 Mapuche students, M ages = 12.47 and 12.80 years, respectively). Results revealed that in-group norms supporting contact and quality of intergroup contact at Time 1 predicted student's changes in Mapuche identification at Time 2, which in turn predicted changes in support for adoption of Chilean culture and maintenance of Mapuche culture at Time 2; some of the relationships between these variables were found to be moderated by age and ethnicity. Conceptual and policy implications are addressed in the Discussion. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Timothy K. Kock
Full Text Available As Kyrgyzstan recovers from the collapse of the Soviet Union, the youth of this Newly Independent State (NIS face troubling times. Poverty has become all to familiar throughout the country; its people, including youth, are losing hope and question their ability to be productive members of society (Lines & Kock, 2004. Kyrgyzstan’s future leaders – like all nations - are found among its youth of today. Therefore, it behooves the government and citizens of Kyrgyzstan to develop youth centers designed to enhance the skills young people need to succeed now and in the future. This paper describes a program designed to teach Kyrgyz youth and adults teamwork, and civic responsibility through experiential learning activities. The paper outlines the steps taken and results derived from the hands-on trainings provided to the participants in one location in Kyrgyzstan. Findings from this study may have implications for other international youth development projects.
Pam Parrish; Mari Wilhelm; Yvette Florez-Urcadez; Daniel A. Jeffrey; James Roebuck; Bill B. Burnett
Arizona’s first Teen Institute (TI) program, Youth Empowered for Success, began in July 2004. It is the first TI-based project to focus on nurturing resilience via Health Realization (Pransky, 2007). The YES program’s design to “create conditions for success” in high schools is discussed. YES utilizes a strengths-based, multi-faceted approach of (1) teaching participants how to access their innate resilience and common sense (Health Realization), (2) training them in community development fo...
Full Text Available Renée Lampe,1,* Anna Thienel,2 Jürgen Mitternacht,1 Tobias Blumenstein,1 Varvara Turova,1 Ana Alves-Pinto1,* 1Research Unit for Paediatric Neuroorthopaedics and Cerebral Palsy, Orthopaedics Department, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 2Department Sonderpädagogik, Ludwig Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Damage to the developing brain may lead to impairment of the hand motor function and negatively impact on patients’ quality of life. Development of manual dexterity and finger and hand motor function may be promoted by learning to play the piano. The latter brings together music with the intensive training of hand coordination and fine finger mobility. We investigated if learning to play the piano helped to improve hand motor skills in 18 youths with hand motor disorders resulting from damage during early brain development. Participants trained 35–40 minutes twice a week for 18 months with a professional piano teacher. With the use of a Musical Instrument Digital Interface piano, the uniformity of finger strokes could be objectively assessed from the timing of keystrokes. The analysis showed a significant improvement in the uniformity of keystrokes during the training. Furthermore, the youths showed strong motivation and engagement during the study. This is nevertheless an open study, and further studies remain needed to exclude effects of growth and concomitant therapies on the improvements observed and clarify which patients will more likely benefit from learning to play the piano. Keywords: manual skill, cerebral palsy, neurodevelopmental disorder, music, rehabilitation
Music is central to youth culture. Central to this study is the question: what type of music do youth listen to and why do they listen to such music? Identifying the music preference of the Nigerian youth is the focus of this paper. The aim is to assess some moral challenges that are inherent in the types of music listened to by students in Nigerian tertiary institutions which by implication represent Nigerian youth. Questionnaire was used to find out the type of music most preferred by the s...
Shek, Daniel T L; Law, Moon Y M
This study examines how social workers collaborate with school teachers in implementing a school-based positive youth development program in Hong Kong. Individual and focus group interviews are conducted with social workers cooperating with school teachers in implementing the Project P.A.T.H.S. in a school context. Through the interviews, strategies for establishing inter-disciplinary collaboration and factors that hinder or facilitate program implementation are identified. This case study highlights factors that facilitate the collaboration between social workers and school teachers, including the following: 1) sufficient training for instructors, 2) sharing of the practice wisdom and teaching experiences, 3) building up mutual support among different parties, 4) use of proactive communication, and 5) demonstration of self-disclosure.
While empowerment has become a popular concept in working with adolescents, few attempts have been made to explore the possibilities for empowering school personnel to create an environment in which young people can make maximum use of the opportunity to learn and grow. Based on the field experiences of 15 Hong Kong school social workers, this article examines how practitioners use various strategies to interact with school personnel to generate empowering practices in the school setting: namely, (1) exerting influence on school personnel in daily conversations and interactions; (2) creating an environment conducive to the teacher-student relationship; (3) achieving consensus with school personnel through lobbying and negotiation; and (4) collaborating with school personnel to organize life education and positive youth development programs. The findings provide valuable reference materials to guide other practitioners in applying the empowerment approach in actual practice. It also helps fill the gap in existing literature on empowerment and school social work.
Lynette H. Bikos
Full Text Available This study investigated the acquisition, interpretation, and utilization of research evidence in the 4-H Youth Development Program from the frame of Social Cognitive Theory. Utilizing Consensual Qualitative Research, we interviewed twenty 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers from seven states. Results indicated four domains, which covered participants’ definitions of research utilization, their experiences utilizing research, the process of acquiring and distributing research, and barriers and facilitators to research utilization. Participants described research use primarily in terms of improving 4-H programs. They discussed their level of confidence (i.e. self-efficacy in finding and applying research evidence and their beliefs about the outcomes of research utilization (i.e. outcomes expectancy. Participants mentioned such barriers as not knowing where to look for research, lack of time, lack of funding, and difficulty applying research findings to their work. The facilitators included support from other 4-H colleagues and availability of 4-H specific conferences, publications, and curriculum databases.
Cushion, Chris; Ford, Paul R; Williams, A Mark
Coaches are central to talent development in youth soccer and what they say and do impacts on players' achievements and well-being. Researchers have systematically observed coach behaviour and practice activities within this setting (i.e. 'what coaches do'). We review this research in light of contemporary discussion that highlights a potential 'theory-practice' divide. Our main example focuses on the discrepancy between coaching behaviour and research from the sports science sub-discipline areas of motor learning and skill acquisition that relate to how best to design practice sessions and provide instruction (i.e., 'what coaches should probably do'). The underlying reasons for this discrepancy are discussed and recommendations made to address this disparity in research, education and coach behaviours.
The role of the state as regulator combined with policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that go beyond legal requirements to establishing programmes that promote development and good international business practice is an emerging new paradigm. In this paper, the example of a state-owned company, Statkraft A.S. of Norway, and its recent hydropower investment in central Laos illustrates how policy, implementation and follow-up can lead to benefits for local communities in the impacted area of the Theun-Hinboun Expansion Project (THXP). Programmes include both support for and improvement of existing government education programmes, employment opportunities and specific programmes for youth. They have been designed to mitigate possible negative effects of the influx of workers and rapid socio-economic change in the affected area. Young people continue to have a central role in the implementation of these programmes as peer educators under the supervision of project staff and non-governmental organisations (NGOs).
Arim, Rubab G; Shapka, Jennifer D; Dahinten, V Susan; Willms, J Douglas
Current health literature suggests that there has been a decline in the age of pubertal onset, and that pubertal development is influenced by social context. Unfortunately, contemporary Canadian-specific data have not been available. This study examined the odds of having entered puberty at various ages during adolescence, before and after controlling for the effects of family socio-economic status and family structure. Longitudinal data for this study were drawn from the first four cycles of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. The final sample consisted of 7977 adolescents ranging in age from 10 to 17. Pubertal status of the participants was identified based on pubic hair, facial hair growth, and voice change, for boys; and pubic hair, breast development, and menstruation, for girls. Trajectories of pubertal development were analyzed with HLM growth curve modelling techniques. The results indicated that, compared to boys, the odds of having entered puberty at age 13 were 6.45 times higher for girls and that girls go through puberty more quickly. Low family socio-economic status and living with a stepfather were found to predict early onset of pubertal development. Contextual factors are related to pubertal development. Additional research is needed to develop a more solid understanding of how psychosocial factors interact to predict gendered patterns of pubertal development.
Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull
Devine, Sharon; Bull, Sheana; Dreisbach, Susan; Shlay, Judith
To develop and pilot a theory-based, mobile phone texting component attractive to minority youth as a supplement to the Teen Outreach Program(®), a youth development program for reducing teen pregnancy and school dropout. We conducted iterative formative research with minority youth in multiple focus groups to explore interest in texting and reaction to text messages. We piloted a month-long version of TOP(®) Plus Text with 96 teens at four sites and conducted a computer-based survey immediately after enrollment and at the end of the pilot that collected information about teens' values, social support, self-efficacy, and behaviors relating to school performance, trouble with the law, and sexual activity. After each of the first three weekly sessions we collected satisfaction measures. Upon completion of the pilot we conducted exit interviews with twelve purposively selected pilot participants. We successfully recruited and enrolled minority youth into the pilot. Teens were enthusiastic about text messages complementing TOP(®). Results also revealed barriers: access to text-capable mobile phones, retention as measured by completion of the post-pilot survey, and a need to be attentive to teen literacy. Piloting helped identify improvements for implementation including offering text messages through multiple platforms so youth without access to a mobile phone could receive messages; rewording texts to allow youth to express opinions without feeling judged; and collecting multiple types of contact information to improve follow-up. Thoughtful attention to social and behavioral theory and investment in iterative formative research with extensive consultation with teens can lead to an engaging texting curriculum that enhances and complements TOP(®). Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sorhaindo, Annik; Mitchell, Kirstin; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Bonell, Chris
Purpose: Evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers (T&T) positive youth development (PYD) and teenage pregnancy prevention programme suggested that the intervention had minimal effectiveness partly due to its unclear theory of change. The purpose of this paper is to examine the lived experiences of young women participating in the programme to…
This paper draws on a case study of one youth activist, and explores connections between social media activism, identity development, and critical education. Justin Rodriguez, a 17-year-old high school student in Newark, New Jersey, leveraged social media and texting as organizing tools and garnered support for a school walkout to protest…
Scholten, Henk; Fruijtier, Steven; Dias, Eduardo; Hettinga, Sanne; Opmeer, Mark; van Leeuwen, Willemijn S.; Linde, Marianne; Bos, Steven; Vaughan, Rubio; van Kaam, Heidy; van Manen, Niels; Fruijtier, Ceciel
Purpose: In this paper we present Geocraft, a Geo-ICT framework meant to provide the information needed to support the development of smart cities in an accessible and user-friendly way. We explored whether Geocraft could be an effective way to get the people of the place, especially youth, involved
Mortimer, Jeylan T.
Grounded in social structure and personality, life course, and status attainment perspectives of social psychology, the Youth Development Study (YDS) has followed a cohort of teenagers from the beginning of high school through their mid-thirties. Evidence for the effective exercise of agency derives from diverse adolescent work patterns leading to…
Williams, Barbara Osborne
Describes a program developed by the Youth Services Division at the Queens Borough Public Library's Central Library to help teenagers maximize growth opportunities, build self-esteem, and see the library as a life resource. Highlights include securing funding through LSCA (Library Services and Construction Act), recruiting participants, and…
This critical, theoretical paper conceptualizes what determines an ethics for youth media production. Through discussions of media literacy, identity, and multimodality, I attempt to shift the question away from "What are the ethical ways in which youth use media?" toward the question "What are the ethics we have created as media literacy…
Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Hawkey, Kyle
The 4-H Program within Cooperative Extension is more than 100 years old. As we celebrate 100 years of Cooperative Extension, the foundation built by the 4-H Program serves as grounds to meet the needs of today's youth. The diversity of the youth who participate continues to grow, families continue to become less traditional, potential…
Empowerment has become a popular concept in working with adolescents in recent years. It challenges the deficit model of youth work and focuses on creating a facilitative climate in which young people can make maximum use of the opportunity to learn and grow. While many practitioners have adopted the empowerment approach in youth services,…
Schoenfelder, Erin N.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David
Fear of abandonment has been found to be associated with mental health problems for youth who have experienced a parent's death. This article examines how youth's fears of abandonment following the death of a parent lead to later depressive symptoms by influencing relationships with caregivers, peers, and romantic partners. Participants were 109…
Brooke-Weiss, Blaire; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Fagan, Abigail A.; Hawkins, J. David; Cady, Rick
Advances in prevention science in the past 25 years provide important direction for neighborhood and community efforts to improve the lives of youth. Prevention scientists have applied a public health approach to youth problems such as drug use and delinquency, and have shown that these problems can be prevented. The identification of risk and…
Bellino, Michelle J.
In this article, Michelle J. Bellino explores contrasting approaches to civic education in two rural schools serving indigenous Maya youth in post-civil war Guatemala. Through comparative ethnography, she examines how youth civic pathways intersect with legacies of authoritarianism while young people shape their identity as members of historically…
Riemer, Manuel; Lynes, Jennifer; Hickman, Gina
In this paper, we argue that a fundamental cultural shift is needed to effectively address anthropogenic causes of climate change. Evidence suggests that youth are well positioned to create such transformation. While various studies have contributed empirical evidence to numerous youth-based non-formal environmental engagement programmes, what is…
Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Trout, Alexandra; Wheaton, Nikki; Buddenberg, Laura; Howard, Brigid; Weigel, Megan
Minimal attention has been focused on difficulties for youth in residential care regarding building healthy dating relationships, despite the significant risks to this group of adolescents. This study provided a unique opportunity to conduct focus groups with youth in residential care on issues surrounding dating relationships. The majority of…
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, Tae Yeun; Pekelnicky, Dina Drankus; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, You Seung
Objectives This study examined how cultural orientations influence youth perception of family processes in Korean American families, and how these family processes in turn predict depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among youth. Family processes were examined separately for maternal and paternal variables. Methods This study used survey data from Korean American families living in the Midwest (256 youth and their parents) across two time periods, spanned over a year. At the time of the first interview, the average age of youth was 13 (SD=1.00). Using Structural Equation Modeling, this study tested the hypothesized associations concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier outcomes. Results and Conclusion Results show that identity and behavioral enculturation in one’s heritage culture are predictors of bonding with parents, which is notably protective for youth. The results highlight the critical effect of enculturation in enhancing youth perception of the parent-child relationship. Behavioral acculturation to mainstream culture, in contrast, predicts youth problems, although the effect may not necessarily always be via family processes. Similarly, Korean and English language proficiencies predict fewer youth problems, but not always by way of family processes. A few differences emerged across maternal and paternal variables, although there was much commonality in the hypothesized relationships. PMID:27429061
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, Tae Yeun; Pekelnicky, Dina Drankus; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, You Seung
This study examined how cultural orientations influence youth perception of family processes in Korean American families and how these family processes, in turn, predict depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among youth. Family processes were examined separately for maternal and paternal variables. This study used survey data from Korean American families living in the Midwest (256 youth and their parents) across 2 time periods, spanned over a year. At the time of the first interview, the average age of youth was 13 (SD = 1.00). Using structural equation modeling, this study tested the hypothesized associations concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier outcomes. Results show that identity and behavioral enculturation in one's heritage culture are predictors of bonding with parents, which is notably protective for youth. The results highlight the critical effect of enculturation in enhancing youth perception of the parent-child relationship. Behavioral acculturation to mainstream culture, in contrast, predicts youth problems, although the effect may not necessarily always be via family processes. Similarly, Korean and English language proficiencies predict fewer youth problems, but not always by way of family processes. A few differences emerged across maternal and paternal variables, although there was much commonality in the hypothesized relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Chun, Jina; Connor, Annemarie; Kosciulek, John F.; Landon, Trenton; Park, Jinhee
Youth with disabilities face difficulties resulting from attitudinal, environmental, and organizational barriers not only in initially accessing and entering school (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011), but also as they transition from school age youth to working adults. With a focus on facilitating a better understanding of the issues,…
Kathleen M. McTigue
Conclusions: Youth-onset severe obesity warrants particular concern in urban girls due to high prevalence and an increasing secular prevalence trend. Late childhood and early adolescence may represent a key developmental window for prevention and treatment, but is too late to prevent youth-onset severe obesity entirely.
This project will identify, develop, and field test creative and bold business models to help ... Research to improve young lives Much of the available evidence on youth ... youth entrepreneurs -develop and test practical business plans and pilot ...
Lindsay, Sally; McDougall, Carolyn; Sanford, Robyn; Menna-Dack, Dolly; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Adams, Tracey
To assess performance differences in a mock job interview and workplace role-play exercise for youth with disabilities compared to their typically developing peers. We evaluated a purposive sample of 31 youth (15 with a physical disability and 16 typically developing) on their performance (content and delivery) in employment readiness role-play exercises. Our findings show significant differences between youth with disabilities compared to typically developing peers in several areas of the mock interview content (i.e. responses to the questions: "tell me about yourself", "how would you provide feedback to someone not doing their share" and a problem-solving scenario question) and delivery (i.e. voice clarity and mean latency). We found no significant differences in the workplace role-play performances of youth with and without disabilities. Youth with physical disabilities performed poorer in some areas of a job interview compared to their typically developing peers. They could benefit from further targeted employment readiness training. Clinicians should: Coach youth with physical disability on how to "sell" their abilities to potential employers and encourage youth to get involved in volunteer activities and employment readiness training programs. Consider using mock job interviews and other employment role-play exercises as assessment and training tools for youth with physical disabilities. Involve speech pathologists in the development of employment readiness programs that address voice clarity as a potential delivery issue.
Full Text Available Benjamin Kwan,1 Debra J Rickwood,1,2 Nic R Telford2 1Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT, 2headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Purpose: Routine outcome measures are now being designed for session-by-session use, with emphasis on clinically meaningful items and sensitivity to change. Despite an increasing mental health service focus for young people aged 12–25 years, there is a lack of outcome measures that are designed to be used across this age group. Consequently, MyLifeTracker (MLT was developed as a brief mental health outcome measure designed for young people for routine use. It consists of the following five items targeting areas of importance to young people: general well-being, day-to-day activities, relationships with friends, relationships with family, and general coping. Participants and methods: The measure was tested with 75,893 young people aged 12–25 years attending headspace centers across Australia for mental health-related issues. Results: MLT showed a robust unidimensional factor structure and appropriate reliability. It exhibited good concurrent validity against well-validated measures of psychological distress, well-being, functioning, and life satisfaction. The measure was further demonstrated to be sensitive to change. Conclusion: MLT provides a psychometrically sound mental health outcome measure for young people. The measure taps into items that are meaningful to young people and provides an additional clinical support tool for clinicians and clients during therapy. The measure is brief and easy to use and has been incorporated into an electronic system that routinely tracks session-by-session change and produces time-series charts for the ease of use and interpretation. Keywords: MyLifeTracker, youth mental health, routine outcome measure, routine outcome monitoring, adolescent and young adult
Haller, Dagmar M; Narring, Françoise; Chondros, Patty; Pejic, Daliborka; Sredic, Ana; Huseinagic, Senad; Perone, Nicolas; Sanci, Lena A; Meynard, Anne
Young people face many barriers in accessing health services that are responsive to their needs. The World Health Organization has led a call to develop services that address these barriers, i.e. youth-friendly health services. Addressing the needs of young people is one of the priorities of Foundation fami, an organisation working in collaboration with the Swiss Federal Department of Development and Cooperation and Geneva University Hospitals to develop quality family medicine services in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper describes the design of a trial to assess the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention involving family medicine teams (primary care doctors and nurses) to improve the youth-friendliness of family medicine services in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This is a stratified cluster randomised trial with a repeated cross-sectional design involving 59 health services in 10 municipalities of the canton of Zenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Municipalities were the unit of randomisation: five municipalities were randomised to the intervention arm and five to a wait-list control arm. Family medicine teams in the intervention arm were invited to participate in an interactive training program about youth-friendly service principles and change processes within their service. The primary outcome was the youth-friendliness of the primary care service measured using the YFHS-WHO + questionnaire, a validated tool which young people aged 15 to 24 years complete following a family medicine consultation. A total of 600 young people aged 15 to 24 years were invited to participate and complete the YFHS-WHO + questionnaire: 300 (30 per municipality) at baseline, and 300 at follow-up, three to five months after the training program. The results of this trial should provide much awaited evidence about the development of youth-friendly primary care services and inform their further development both in Bosnia and Herzegovina and worldwide. Australian New Zealand
Theresa M. Ferrari
Full Text Available This article highlights a study which explored youths’ perspectives on their long-term involvement at Adventure Central, a comprehensive 4-H youth development program based at an urban park facility. We conducted four focus groups with 16 youth between the ages of 12 and 16 who had participated in the program between three and seven years. The youth experienced a wide range of opportunities including nature-related activities, jobs at park facilities, and travel. They spoke positively of their experiences and described how they benefited from their participation. Novelty, challenge, and leadership were key features of these opportunities. The youth noted the connection between learning and fun. In the process, they learned new skills, such as teamwork and public speaking, and developed personal qualities, such as responsibility, that helped them as they were growing up, transferred to other settings, and would benefit them in the future. Findings from this study suggest some clear implications for youth development professionals.
Duncan, Christina L; Walker, Heather A; Brabson, Laurel; Williford, Desireé N; Hynes, Lisa; Hogan, Mary Beth
Asthma action plans (AAPs) provide asthma management instructions to families; however, AAPs typically are written at a 7th-9th grade reading level, making them less useful in lower literacy families. There is a need to develop simpler AAP formats and content to optimize their utility across all families, including those who are rural and may be at a risk for literacy concerns. Because using pictures can simplify and enhance health education, our study's aim was to develop a pictorial AAP through a series of focus groups with key stakeholders - youth with asthma, caregivers, and physicians. Fourteen caregiver/youth dyads and four physicians participated in separate focus groups where their preferences for pictorial AAP structure and content were obtained. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, coded with ATLAS.ti, and analyzed for themes. Youth and their caregivers prefer that the AAPs include simple, cartoon-like pictures customized to the patient. Physicians emphasized AAP's capability to display pictures of controller medication given its importance in preventing asthma exacerbations. A stoplight format, currently used in most written AAPs, received positive reviews. Specific suggestions for pictures showing symptoms, medications, and how to take medication were suggested. Words and short phrases accompanying the pictures were thought to add clarity. Key stakeholders viewed pictorial AAPs as positive and potentially effective alternatives to standard written AAPs. It is expected that low literacy youth and caregivers would more easily understand a pictorial AAP presentation, which should facilitate better medication adherence and asthma outcomes in these children.
The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Redevelopment Tools (SMART). In the U.S., the SMART compilation is housed in a web-based, decision support tool called SMARTe. All tools within SMARTe that are developed specifically for...
Karchemskiy, Asya; Garrett, Amy; Howe, Meghan; Adleman, Nancy; Simeonova, Diana I; Alegria, Dylan; Reiss, Allan; Chang, Kiki
Children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), especially those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and symptoms of depression or mania, are at significantly high risk for developing BD. As we have previously shown amygdalar reductions in pediatric BD, the current study examined amygdalar volumes in offspring of parents (BD offspring) who have not yet developed a full manic episode. Youth participating in the study included 22 BD offspring and 22 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, handedness, and IQ. Subjects had no history of a manic episode, but met criteria for ADHD and moderate mood symptoms. MRI was performed on a 3T GE scanner, using a 3D volumetric spoiled gradient echo series. Amygdalae were manually traced using BrainImage Java software on positionally normalized brain stacks. Bipolar offspring had similar amygdalar volumes compared to the control group. Exploratory analyses yielded no differences in hippocampal or thalamic volumes. Bipolar offspring do not show decreased amygdalar volume, possibly because these abnormalities occur after more prolonged illness rather than as a preexisting risk factor. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether amygdalar volumes change during and after the development of BD. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rongen, Fieke; McKenna, Jim; Cobley, Stephen; Till, Kevin
Talent identification and development systems (TIDS) are commonly used in professional sport to convert youth athletes into sporting stars of the future. Acknowledging that only a few athletes can "make it," the necessity and healthiness of TIDS have recently been questioned based on their increased professionalism, high training, and competition volumes, but limited effectiveness. In this short communication, we suggest that the key issues associated with TIDS are not due to their overall concept, but with how they are designed and implemented. It is recommended that researchers and practitioners determine the worth and value of TIDS by also evaluating the positive health of the athlete rather than solely focusing on performance outcomes. To achieve this, TIDS staff should shape and develop their values, expectations, and day-to-day routines to achieve positive health outcomes focusing on personal development and an athlete-centered culture. In business, this has been termed the concept of "Deliberately Developmental Organisation." TIDS can deploy the factors (e.g., high-quality staff, expert support services, quality facilities, and learning routines) characteristic of such organizations, to concurrently ensure positive impacts and minimize predictable negative outcomes without losing focus on a drive for sporting performance.
Reidy, Dennis E; Krusemark, Elizabeth; Kosson, David S; Kearns, Megan C; Smith-Darden, Joanne; Kiehl, Kent A
Psychopathic traits are a manifestation of a personality pathology that comprises a core affective-interpersonal dysfunction (callous-unemotional traits) and an impulsive-antisocial behavioral component. Of particular importance, psychopathic traits are associated with the perpetration of some of the most severe acts of violence, and they appear to indicate a subset of youth at risk for earlier onset, greater frequency, and persistence of violent offending. Although these youth represent a minority of the population, they commit a significant proportion of the violence in the general community. In our review, we highlight evidence of a unique neurobiological predisposition that underlies the core affective deficits and describe contemporary accounts for the developmental processes leading to the antisocial behavior associated with psychopathy. Current evidence suggests that, for this subset of youth, the structure and function of neural circuitry supporting emotion processing, reward learning, decision making, and the development of emotion related to empathy may be crucial to understanding why they are at risk for violence. In particular, a reward dominant pattern of neurobehavioral conditioning may explain how these youth progress to some of the most severe and persistent forms of violence. However, this pattern of conditioning may also be essential to the primary prevention of such deleterious behavior. We suspect that effective strategies to prevent such violence may ultimately be informed by understanding these affective and motivational mechanisms.
Dell, Colleen Anne; Duncan, Charles Randy; DesRoches, Andrea; Bendig, Melissa; Steeves, Megan; Turner, Holly; Quaife, Terra; McCann, Chuck; Enns, Brett
Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory' outcomes of our team's program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services' Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk' student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program's goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS's work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. With improved understanding of the OWS's goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program's universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS's definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk' student population. It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of
Full Text Available The rights of young people to participate in decision-making processes that affect their lives has been encouraged since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989. Since then, policy-makers and planners have started to consider the views of youth, especially those aged 11–17. The size of the youth population and their feelings of social isolation are two important reasons to include them in the decision-making that affects their local built environment. Little is known about youth opinions of the built environment and in particular disused religious buildings which can become a significant part of local cultural heritage. This paper explores youth perceptions, place attachment and influence on identity of a prominent disused local Methodist church in the City of Belfast. The paper details the expressive methodological approach designed to encourage youth participation in the regeneration scheme. The findings of the study showcase the valuable connections that can be made between youth and heritage religious buildings through education programmes. The project conclusions also highlight the benefits to be gained from engaging youth in local built heritage and will be of interest to those involved in the design, planning and redevelopment processes.
Christine McCauley Ohannessian
Full Text Available The homes of today’s youth are filled with a variety of media options, ranging from televisions (71% and video game consoles (50% in their bedrooms to portable handheld devices (e.g., iPods/mp3 players, 76% and cell phones (71% that can accompany youth wherever they go. Of course, youth also have access to centralized media found in homes, such as televisions (99% of homes and computers with and without Internet access (93% and 84% of homes, respectively. Not surprisingly, youth consume media for about 7.5 hours per day, much of which involves using more than one media at the same time (i.e., multitasking, with adolescents consuming significantly more media than children (Lenhart, 2012; Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010.
.... Historically, programs designed to assist at-risk youth to attain employment and self-sufficiency were a patchwork of short-term, stand alone services delivered by a loosely coordinated network...
Conway, Ronan J; Heary, Caroline; Hogan, Michael J
There is growing recognition of the need to develop acceptable measures of adolescent's positive attributes in diverse contexts. The current study evaluated the measurement properties of the Five Cs model of Positive Youth Development (PYD) scale (Lerner et al., 2005) using a sample of 672 Irish adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a five-factor model provided a good fit to the data. The internal reliability and construct validity of the Five Cs model were supported, with character the strongest predictor of contribution, while connection was the strongest predictor of risky-behaviors. Notably, confidence was significantly negatively related to contribution, and positively related to risky-behaviors. Multi-group hierarchical nested models supported measurement invariance across early- (11-14 years) and late- (15-19 years) adolescent age groups, with partial invariance found across gender. Younger adolescents evinced higher PYD, while PYD was associated with higher contribution and lower depression and risk-behaviors across all groups. The application of the PYD framework as a measure of positive functioning across adolescence is discussed.
Andrew J. Ross
Full Text Available Background: Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim: The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting: Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods: This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results: The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1 contribution to service delivery; (2 professional development (3 the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4 the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion: Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be along-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs.
Sarah Levin Martin
Full Text Available NikeGO was initiated in 2002 by the Nike US Community Affairs Division to address a growing need: to provide youth a safe environment in which to be physically active. Nike collaborated with several organizations across the country and offered an array of programs to foster developmentally appropriate physical activity among youth through their influencers (e.g., teachers, coaches. These programs reached youth in underserved areas ranging from urban inner cities to rural Native lands through various channels and settings including schools, Boys and Girls Clubs, YMCA’s, youth sports organizations, and others. Objective and subjective measures were used to determine the reach of the program, the dose of physical activity, the “fun” level of the activities, changes in youths’ self-esteem and self-concept, and the likelihood of continued participation. Many older youth gained leadership skills in the process. Overall, the programs have been successful in reaching “hard to reach” youth and engaging them in the positive, developmentally sensitive, health behaviors.
Ezhov, Sergey G.; Komarova, Nataliya M.; Khairullina, Elmira R.; Rapatskaia, Liudmila, A.; Miftakhov, Radik R.; Khusainova, Liana R.
The research urgency is caused by the increase of social responsibility of universities for improvement of the quality of higher education and development of students' socio-professional values. In terms of the conflicting realities of modern society the youth policy at the University is the most important tool to form students' commitment to…
Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.
Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…
Howe, Deborah; Batchelor, Samantha; Coates, Dominiek; Cashman, Emma
Historically, the Australian health system has failed to meet the needs of young people with mental health problems and mental illness. In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) Health allocated considerable funds to the reform agenda of mental health services in NSW to address this inadequacy. Children and Young People's Mental Health (CYPMH), a service that provides mental health care for young people aged 12-24 years, with moderate to severe mental health problems, was chosen to establish a prototype Youth Mental Health (YMH) Service Model for NSW. This paper describes nine key principles developed by CYPMH to guide the development of YMH Service Models in NSW. A literature review, numerous stakeholder consultations and consideration of clinical best practice were utilized to inform the development of the key principles. Subsequent to their development, the nine key principles were formally endorsed by the Mental Health Program Council to ensure consistency and monitor the progress of YMH services across NSW. As a result, between 2008 and 2012 YMH Services across NSW regularly reported on their activities against each of the nine key principles demonstrating how each principle was addressed within their service. The nine key principles provide mental health services a framework for how to reorient services to accommodate YMH and provide a high-quality model of care. [Corrections added on 29 November 2013, after first online publication: The last two sentences of the Results section have been replaced with "As a result, between 2008 and 2012 YMH Services across NSW regularly reported on their activities against each of the nine key principles demonstrating how each principle was addressed within their service."]. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Staff, Jeremy
Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31–37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor’s and Associate’s degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate’s and Bachelor’s recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs. PMID:26973042
MacGregor, Gavin; Campbell, Laura
Introduction Staffing of rural and remote facilities is a challenge throughout the world. Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF) has been running a rurally based scholarship scheme since 1999. The aim of this review is to present data on the number of students selected, their progress, graduation and work placement from inception of the scheme until 2013. Methods Data were extracted from the UYDF data base using a data collection template to ensure all important information was captured. Results Since 1999, 430 rural students across 15 health disciplines have been supported by UYDF. The annual pass rate has been greater than 89%, and less than 10% of students have been excluded from university. All graduates have spent time working in rural areas (excluding the 32 currently doing internships) and 72% (52/73) of those with no work-back obligation continue to work in rural areas. Discussion and conclusion The UYDF model is built around local selection, compulsory academic and peer mentoring and social support, comprehensive financial support and experiential holiday work. The results are encouraging and highlight the fact that rural students can succeed at university and will come back and work in rural areas. With 46% of the South African population situated rurally, greater thought and effort must be put into the recruitment and training of rural scholars as a possible solution to the staffing of rural healthcare facilities. The UYDF provides a model which could be replicated in other parts of South Africa. PMID:26245594
Hing Keung Ma
Full Text Available Behavioral competence is delineated in terms of four parameters: (a Moral and Social Knowledge, (b Social Skills, (c Positive Characters and Positive Attributes, and (d Behavioral Decision Process and Action Taking. Since Ma’s other papers in this special issue have already discussed the moral and social knowledge as well as the social skills associated in detail, this paper focuses on the last two parameters. It is hypothesized that the following twelve positive characters are highly related to behavioral competence: humanity, intelligence, courage, conscience, autonomy, respect, responsibility, naturalness, loyalty, humility, assertiveness, and perseverance. Large-scale empirical future studies should be conducted to substantiate the predictive validity of the complete set of these positive characters. The whole judgment and behavioral decision process is constructed based on the information processing approach. The direction of future studies should focus more on the complex input, central control, and output subprocesses and the interactions among these sub-processes. The understanding of the formation of behavior is crucial to whole-person education and positive youth development.
Vuolo, Mike; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Staff, Jeremy
Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31-37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor's and Associate's degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate's and Bachelor's recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available The repertory grid test, based on personal construct psychology, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong. One hundred and four program participants (n=104 were randomly invited to complete a repertory grid based on personal construct theory in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative data for measuring self-identity changes after joining the program. Findings generally showed that the participants perceived that they understood themselves better and had stronger resilience after joining the program. Participants also saw themselves as closer to their ideal selves and other positive role figures (but farther away from a loser after joining the program. This study provides additional support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. in the Chinese context. This study also shows that the repertory grid test is a useful evaluation method to measure self-identity changes in participants in positive youth development programs.
Daniel T.L. Shek
Full Text Available This paper outlines the proposal for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a positive youth development program that attempts to promote the mental health of stressful Chinese adolescents using principles of Problem Solving Therapy (PST. There are two general aims of PST: to help clients identify life difficulties and resolve them, as well as to teach them skills on how to deal with future problems. The proposed project will utilize the principles of PST as the guiding framework to run two mental health promotion courses for adolescents who are experiencing disturbing stressful responses and students who want to improve their stress management style. Both objective and subjective outcome evaluation strategies will be carried out to assess the effectiveness of the intervention to promote the psychological well-being in adolescents who are experiencing stress. A related sample proposal is described that can give social workers some insight on how to prepare a proposal for developing the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs.
Andrade, E L; Evans, W D; Barrett, N D; Cleary, S D; Edberg, M C; Alvayero, R D; Kierstead, E C; Beltran, A
Immigrant Latino youth represent a high-risk subgroup that should be targeted with health promotion efforts. However, there are considerable barriers to engagement in health-related programming. Little is known about the engagement possibilities of social marketing campaigns and digital strategies for traditionally 'hard-to-reach' immigrants, underscoring the importance of testing these techniques with immigrant Latino adolescents. We developed and piloted a place-based social marketing campaign in coordination with the branded, Positive Youth Development-based (PYD) Adelante intervention targeting risk factors for co-occurring youth substance abuse, sexual risk and violence. Building on prior research, we conducted a four-phase formative research process, and planned the Adelante social marketing campaign based on findings from one group interview and ongoing consultation with Adelante staff (n=8) and four focus groups with youth (n=35). Participants identified four overarching campaign themes, and suggested portrayal of resilient, proud youth who achieved goals despite adversity. Youth guided selection of campaign features and engagement strategies, including message/visual content, stylistic elements, and a mixed language approach. We developed a 12-month campaign to be delivered via print ads, multi-platform social media promotion, contests, youth-generated videos, blog posts, and text messaging. We describe the process and outcome of campaign development and make recommendations for future campaigns.
Telander, Kyle; Hosek, Sybil G; Lemos, Diana; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane
Social context plays a significant role in adolescent identity development, particularly for youth lacking traditional systems of support. Using ecological and symbolic interactionism perspectives, this study qualitatively explored the psychosocial identity development of Black gay, bisexual, or transgendered youth participating in the House Ball Community (HBC). The HBC is a diverse network of family-like structures called 'houses', as well as a glamorous social outlet via pageant-like 'balls' in which participants compete. A series of focus groups were conducted with youth and leaders from the HBC (n = 37; age range = 17-24). Via cross-case and comparative analyses, specific motivating factors related to entry into and continued involvement in the community were identified. Factors related to entry into the community included lack of safe spaces, opportunities for acceptance, means of subsistence, and allure of the scene. Factors related to continued involvement included resilience and coping skills development, sexual identity acceptance and pride, prevalence of risky behaviour, and risk of exploitation. Discussion of these factors provides insight on how self-constructed, supplementary social contexts may provide both unique supports and risks to members, allowing for more focused and well-informed interventions and policies to enhance healthy development in such communities while mitigating risk.
Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.
In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…
This article offers a critical analysis of the Arab Human Development Report (AHDR) 2016, that was released by the United Nations Development Programme in November 2016. AHDR 2016 represents the return of the Arab Human Development project, that had been interrupted by the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011. It also epitomizes the Arab youth paradigm that has increasingly come to frame development and security discourse in the region. While there is much that is familiar in AHDR 2016, there are al...
Full Text Available The purposes of this research were: to make youths camp activities using environmental education process, to study and to compare the knowledge and attitude before and after the camp activities for conserving environment by using the process of environmental education. The sample were 30 youths in Mueng district, Sisaket province. The tools used in the research including activity manual, knowledge test, attitudes test and participation measurement. The data were analyzed by percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Paired t-test at significant level .05. The result showed that After camp activities for conserving environment by using the process of environmental education, the participats had mean score of knowledge and attitude toward environmental conservation at was higher than before the activities at statistical significantly level .05. And they had participation in youths camp activities for environmental conservation at the most level.
Sotuku, N.; Duku, N.
The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2, which is "Achieve Universal Education", puts emphasis on increasing enrolments and keeping children at school until they complete primary education. But the question continues to arise of the kind of education to which children are being given access: Is access commensurate with quality? This…
Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne
This article investigates some psychological aspects of South Asian diasporic youth in Denmark with focus on the socioeconomic strategies based on two empirical studies. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The original...... and their remittance to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalism and identity construction. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth...... in the country of origin. There are considerable temporal as well as qualitative differences in these strategies as compared to the parental generation....
Full Text Available Introduction: Staffing of rural and remote facilities is a challenge throughout the world. Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF has been running a rurally based scholarship scheme since 1999.The aim of this review is to present data on the number of students selected, their progress, graduation and work placement from inception of the scheme until 2013. Methods: Data were extracted from the UYDF data base using a data collection template to ensure all important information was captured. Results: Since 1999, 430 rural students across 15 health disciplines have been supported by UYDF. The annual pass rate has been greater than 89%, and less than 10% of students have been excluded from university. All graduates have spent time working in rural areas (excluding the 32 currently doing internships and 72% (52/73 of those with no work-back obligation continue to work in rural areas. Discussion and conclusion: The UYDF model is built around local selection, compulsory academic and peer mentoring and social support, comprehensive financial support and experiential holiday work. The results are encouraging and highlight the fact that rural students can succeed at university and will come back and work in rural areas. With 46% of the South African population situated rurally, greater thought and effort must be put into the recruitment and training of rural scholars as a possible solution to the staffing of rural healthcare facilities. The UYDF provides a model which could be replicated in other parts of South Africa.
Jeff R. Leiter
Full Text Available Background: Ice hockey is a fast, physical sport that requires high levels of muscular strength, muscular endurance and agility. Objectives: This study was conducted to create a profile including: anthropometric measurement, muscular strength, muscular endurance, lower body jump height and distance, and agility characteristics for elite youth hockey players. Methods: Pre-season off-ice testing results were retrospectively reviewed from a human performance database. Variables included height, weight, body fat percentage, grip strength, push-ups/bench press, supine rows, the plank test, vertical jump, standing long jump, hip adductor and abductor strength, and the 5-10-5 shuttle, and. One-way ANOVAs (1group x 4 time and Tukeys post-hoc tests were performed to determine changes in the immediately successive age group (p<0.05. Results: Participants included male Bantam-(age: 13-14 and Midget-(age: 15-17 AAA ice-hockey players (n=260. Age categories were grouped as 13 years old (yo(n=75, 14 yo (n=70, 15 yo (n=58, and 16-17 yo (n=57. Increases between successive age groups were observed in the following variables: weight (13, 14, 15 and 16-17 yo, height (13 and 14 yo, left and right grip strength (13, 14, 15, and 16-17 yo, bench press (15 and 16-17 yo, left and right hip abduction (14, 15, and 16-17 yo, and vertical and standing long jump (13, 14, and 15 yo. Total time for the 5-10-5 shuttle run test decreased from 13 to 14yo, and 14 to 15 yo. Conclusion: Changes with age in off-ice performance variables of elite amateur hockey players should be recognized, followed, and addressed during player development to maximize the potential for elite performance and reduce the risk of injury. Keywords: Athletic Performance, Training, Physical Fitness
Ho, Frederick Ka Wing; Louie, Lobo Hung Tak; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Chow, Chun Bong; Ho, Walter; Wong, William; Chan, Meanne; Chen, Eric Yu Hai; Cheung, Yiu Fai; Ip, Patrick
To assess the effectiveness of a positive youth development (PYD)-based sports mentorship program on the physical and mental well-being of adolescents recruited in a community setting. This is a randomized controlled trial in which we recruited students from 12 secondary schools in Hong Kong, China. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to an intervention or a control arm after stratification for school from October 2013 to June 2014. Participants were not blinded to allocation because of the nature of the intervention. Students in the intervention arm received an after-school, PYD-based sports mentorship for 18 weeks. Each weekly session lasted 90 minutes. Students in the control arm received exclusive access to a health education Web site. Six hundred and sixty-four students (mean age 12.3 years [SD 0.76]; 386 girls [58.1%]) completed baseline and postintervention assessments. The intervention improved students' mental well-being (Cohen's d , 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10 to 0.40; P = .001), self-efficacy (Cohen's d , 0.22; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.37; P = .01), resilience (Cohen's d , 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.34; P = .02), physical fitness (flexibility [Cohen's d , 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.43; P = .02], lower limb muscle strength [Cohen's d , 0.18; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.33; P = .03], and dynamic balance [Cohen's d , 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.37; P = .01]), and physical activity levels (Cohen's d , 0.39; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.55; P sports mentorship intervention improved healthy adolescents' mental well-being, psychological assets, physical fitness, and physical activity levels. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa
Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.
OECD Publishing, 2014
The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…
OECD Publishing, 2015
The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…
OECD Publishing, 2016
The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…
Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the
Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael
We propose civic youth work as a new craft orientation in the family of child and youth care, education, social work, recreation and other relevant semi-to-full professions. We envision this practice as based in the philosophies and practical sciences of pedagogy, politics, and human development. The ideal-type civic youth worker will have a…
Case, Kim A.; Meier, S. Colton
Lack of training regarding transgender youth leaves K-12 educators unprepared to become allies to this disenfranchised community and attend to their needs. This article explores the pedagogical strategies of two professional workshop models (GLSEN Houston training and the Gender Infinity practitioner training), which provide skills and resources…
Agans, Jennifer P.; Geldhof, G. John
In order to examine youth experiences in athletic activities with different characteristics, the present study explored the developmental outcomes associated with participation in three different types of sport (individual sports, team sports, and dance-type sports) as well as across six identified patterns of participation (no participation,…
Cutz, German; Campbell, Benjamin; Filchak, Karen K.; Valiquette, Edith; Welch, Mary Ellen
Dynamic programs that integrate science literacy and workforce readiness are essential to today's youth. The program reported here combined science literacy (gardening and technology) with workforce readiness to assess the impact of program type, prior program participation, and behavior/punctuality on knowledge gain. Findings show that past…
Melki, Jad P.
The role of new media in the Arab uprisings and the news of widespread surveillance of digital and mobile media have triggered a renewed interest in Arab audiences research, particularly as it pertains to these audiences' critical abilities and digital media literacy competencies. Taken for granted have been Arab youth's widespread use of social…
Kay, Joseph S; Shane, Jacob; Heckhausen, Jutta
Youth's career attainment is associated with socioeconomic background, but may also be related to their beliefs about causes of success. Relationships between 17-year-olds' socioeconomic status (SES) and causal beliefs about success, and whether these beliefs predict career attainment after completing a vocational or university degree were examined using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (n = 997, 48.5% female). Youth with higher SES parents and those who attended higher levels of high schools were less likely to believe that success in society is due to external causes, but SES was unrelated to the belief that success is due to personal merit or ability. Youth who believe that success is due to external causes attained lower income, occupational prestige, and job autonomy, and slower increases in income over time. There were also significant indirect effects of youth's parents' SES and their own high school levels on career attainment through such external causal beliefs; merit beliefs, by contrast, were largely unrelated to career attainment. These results suggest that beliefs about external causes of success may uniquely contribute to the transmission and maintenance of SES across generations and over time.
Scheef, Andrew R.; Barrio, Brenda L.; Poppen, Marcus I.
Under-employment for individuals with disabilities is a worldwide epidemic, which Singapore has addressed by significantly increasing employment rates for this population. Providing work experiences for youth with disabilities at community-based job sites has been shown to increase positive post-school employment outcomes. To provide these…
Identifying persistent media frames through a cognitive media analysis is an important step in the empirical measurement of public thinking about social issues. Based on a recent media analysis of racial disparities as they pertain to youth in major U.S. newspapers, this article explains three frames that were persistently evoked in media coverage…
Callahan, Rebecca M; Obenchain, Kathryn M
Prior research suggests that high school experiences shape young adult political behaviors, particularly among immigrant youth. The U.S. social studies classroom, focused on democratic citizenship education, proves an interesting socializing institution. Through qualitative inquiry, we interviewed Latino immigrant young adults and their former teachers regarding their high school social studies experiences and evolving political and civic engagement. indicate that armed with experience bridging the worlds of the school and home, immigrant students respond and relate to the content and pedagogy of the social studies classroom in such a way that they (1) participate in civic discourse and (2) nurture a disposition toward leadership through teachers' civic expectations of them and instructional emphasis on critical thinking skills. The ability to engage in civic discourse and a disposition toward leadership are both necessary to foster America's democratic ideals, and to take on leadership roles during adulthood. With focused effort on the unique perspective of immigrant youth, high school social studies teachers can nurture in these students the ability to become leaders in young adulthood, broadening the potential leadership pool. This study highlights how the social studies curriculum may be particularly salient to Latino immigrant youth as they transition from adolescence to young adulthood and develop their political and civic identities.
Mohamed, Hasan; Vaeyens, Roel; Matthys, Stijn; Multael, Marc; Lefevre, Johan; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philppaerts, Renaat
The first part of this study examined in which basic morphological and fitness measures Under-14 (n=34) and Under-16 (n=47) male youth handball players differ from reference samples of the same age (n=430 and n=570, respectively). To help develop a talent identification model, the second part of the study investigated which specific morphological and performance measures describe differences between elite (n=18) and non-elite (n=29) Under-16 youth handball players. The results showed that Under-16 handball players were significantly taller than the reference group; this was not the case in the Under-14 age group. Physical fitness in handball players was significantly better than in the reference groups. Multivariate analysis of covariance (maturation and chronological age as covariates) showed that the Under-16 elite players were heavier and had greater muscle circumferences than their non-elite peers. Elite players scored significantly better on strength, speed and agility, and cardiorespiratory endurance but not on balance, upper limb speed, flexibility or upper body muscular endurance. Maturation was a significant covariate in anthropometric measures but not in physical performance. Discriminant analysis between elite and non-elite players revealed that height, running speed, and agility are important parameters for talent identification. Specific anthropometric measures, in addition to some performance measures, are useful for talent identification in youth handball.
Hidalgo, Marco A; Chen, Diane; Garofalo, Robert; Forbes, Catherine
Purpose: Parental acceptance of gender identity/expression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) youth moderates the effects of minority stress on mental health outcomes. Given this association, mental health clinicians of gender-expansive adolescents often assess the degree to which these youth perceive their parents/primary caregivers as accepting or nonaffirming of their gender identity and expression. While existing measures may reliably assess youth's perceptions of general family support, no known tool aids in the assessment an adolescent's perceived parental support related to adolescent gender-expansive experiences. Methods: To provide both clinicians and researchers with an empirically derived tool, the current study used factor analysis to explore an underlying factor structure of a brief questionnaire developed by subject-matter experts and pertaining to multiple aspects of perceived parental support in gender-expansive adolescents and young adults. Respondents were gender-expansive adolescents and young adults seeking care in an interdisciplinary gender-health clinic within a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Results: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item questionnaire comprised of two subscales assessing perceived parental nonaffirmation and perceived parental acceptance. Internal consistency and construct validity results provided support for this new questionnaire. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness Scale for Youth (PAGES-Y). These findings demonstrate both the clinical and research utility of the PAGES-Y, a tool that can yield a more nuanced understanding of family-related risk and protective factors in gender-expansive adolescents.
Cheng, Howard C H; Siu, Andrew M H; Leung, Mana C M
Pro-social involvement programmes are significant and important for the healthy growth of adolescents as well as for the development of society. Pro-social involvement of adolescence refers to paid-job, volunteer works, sport and games. It serves the functions of making adolescents aware of and to accept the social norms and moral standard of the society, which would bring positive changes to the adolescents and consequently benefit the society as a whole. Past studies showed that adolescents who participated in pro-social involvement programmes tended to have positive self-perception, more social skills, and less anti-social behaviors. In Hong Kong, professionals in education and social services have fully recognized the benefits of pro-involvement programmes. They have organized multi-level and diverse pro-social involvement programmes and encouraged adolescents to participate. Through participation, adolescents could be helped to redefine their relationship with the society, and maximize their potentials for growth. The current programme described in this article is designed in the P.A.T.H.S. Project, support by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.
Full Text Available Youth unemployment is a problem that requires different diagnoses from different stakeholders, and informal business is important for local economic development. However, the youth are not much involved in the informal sector. Youth involvement in the informal sector will help address youth unemployment. This article aims to evaluate the impact of informal business development on reducing youth unemployment in the eThekwini Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Through in-depth interviews with eThekwini Municipality officials, business support organisations and unemployed youth, assessment of supporting documents and site visits, enough data were collected to support the notion that informal business development can work to address unemployment in the municipality. The findings showed that the informal economy does not have a significant impact on completely mitigating the unemployment problem in the municipality. However, the sector is very important for economic growth and development, as well as job creation, which will begin to alleviate the unemployment problem. Thus both the formal and informal sectors of the economy need to be examined as potentially providing the first steps to achieving the long-term employment goals for the eThekwini Municipality.
Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renee; West, Jennifer; Rappaport, Nancy
The goals of youth mentoring have broadened from redressing youth problems to promoting positive youth development. Yet, many of the principles associated with contemporary conceptualizations of development found in the positive youth development (PYD) and community psychology (CP) literature have yet to be fully integrated into mentoring research…
Full Text Available Trail Guards, a community-based organization in Minnesota, offers youth the opportunity to participate in park/trail maintenance and enhancement projects. Through these environmental service projects, Trail Guards seeks to foster the following developmental outcomes in youth participants: self-awareness of skills and strengths; self-worth; personal and social self-efficacy; sense of belonging and acceptance; team work and cooperation skills; and a sense of community responsibility. Trail Guards ultimately aims for youth to transfer these skills and socially appropriate behaviors to settings and activities beyond Trail Guards and to participate in the community in other positive ways. A program evaluation indicated Trail Guards seems to be achieving these youth development outcomes, and that the success of the program may be attributed to the program leader serving as a positive adult role model and providing a safe and caring environment, as well as to community involvement. Implications are discussed.
Full Text Available The sport for development and peace (SDP sector is made up of various development-focused policies and programs that seek to engage, stabilise, empower and create social and economic change. SDP projects, most often run by non-governmental organisations (NGOs, have been implemented in regions enduring physical conflicts, health pandemics, major gender divisions and other social crises that have a great impact on youth. In this context, sport has been accorded the difficult task of facilitating greater access for marginal, vulnerable or community groups whilst positively contributing to the attainment of diverse development objectives. While the ‘where’ and ‘why’ of SDP has been largely accounted for, the attention in this article is on the ‘who’ of SDP in relation to the notion of inclusion. Drawing on extensive research conducted in Jamaica, Kosovo, Rwanda and Sri Lanka, the idea of SDP as an inclusionary practice is critically investigated. While SDP may ‘give voice’ to participants, especially to individuals with athletic ability or sporting interests, the extent to which this creates social contexts that are fundamentally inclusive remains open to discussion. In this sense, while targeting populations, groups or individuals remains an attractive strategy to achieve specific goals, for example youth empowerment or gender equality, empirical assessments complicate the presumption that SDP programming leads to inclusion, particularly at a larger societal level. The article considers a matrix of inclusion criteria, potential outcomes, and the tensions arising between targeted SDP programming and the often-exclusionary dimensions of sport more broadly, with a focus on youth and gender issues.
Betancourt, Theresa S; Yang, Frances; Bolton, Paul; Normand, Sharon-Lise
This study aimed to refine a dimensional scale for measuring psychosocial adjustment in African youth using item response theory (IRT). A 60-item scale derived from qualitative data was administered to 667 war-affected adolescents (55% female). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) determined the dimensionality of items based on goodness-of-fit indices. Items with loadings less than 0.4 were dropped. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the scale's dimensionality found under the EFA. Item discrimination and difficulty were estimated using a graded response model for each subscale using weighted least squares means and variances. Predictive validity was examined through correlations between IRT scores (θ) for each subscale and ratings of functional impairment. All models were assessed using goodness-of-fit and comparative fit indices. Fisher's Information curves examined item precision at different underlying ranges of each trait. Original scale items were optimized and reconfigured into an empirically-robust 41-item scale, the African Youth Psychosocial Assessment (AYPA). Refined subscales assess internalizing and externalizing problems, prosocial attitudes/behaviors and somatic complaints without medical cause. The AYPA is a refined dimensional assessment of emotional and behavioral problems in African youth with good psychometric properties. Validation studies in other cultures are recommended. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further.
Goldwasser, Matthew L.
By establishing a set of theoretical frameworks to view and compare the work of youth organizers and youth commissioners, and through personal interviews, the authors of the paper "Youth Change Agents: Comparing the Sociopolitical Identities of Youth Organizers and Youth Commissioners" presented their explanation of the development of…
Pianta, Robert C; Hamre, Bridget K
The National Research Council's (NRC) statement and description of features of settings that have value for positive youth development have been of great importance in shifting discourse toward creating programs that capitalize on youth motivations toward competence and connections with others. This assets-based approach to promote development is consistent with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) framework for measuring and improving the quality of teacher-student interactions in classroom settings. This chapter highlights the similarities between the CLASS and NRC systems and describes the CLASS as a tool for standardized measurement and improvement of classrooms and their effects on children. It argues that the next important steps to be taken in extending the CLASS and NRC frameworks involve reengineering assessments of teacher and classroom quality and professional development around observations of teachers' performance. This might include using observations in policies regarding teacher quality or a "highly effective teacher" that may emanate from the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind and moving away from a course or workshop mode of professional development to one that ties supports directly to teachers' practices in classroom settings.
Madsen, Christian Ole Møller
This thesis describes the development of two badminton-specific tests to evaluate players' maximum movement speed and the endurance capacity using game-like movement patterns and intermittent game-like conditions. The badminton speed test (B-SPEED) is used to assess maximal movements during...... in adult players only. This thesis aims to enhance the existing research within the field by also evaluating badminton-specific speed and endurance in elite youth players in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal manner, and with reference to the physiological capacities of world top-50 single players....
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun; Hawkins, J David
Numerous studies have examined predictors of youth violence associated with the individual child, the family, school, and the surrounding neighborhood or community. However, few studies have examined predictors using a systematic approach to differentiate and compare risk and direct protective factors. This study examines risk and protective factors associated with youth violence in an ongoing longitudinal panel study of 808 students from 18 Seattle public elementary schools followed since 1985 when they were in 5th grade. Predictors span the individual, family, school, peer, and neighborhood domains. Data were collected annually, beginning in 1985, to age 16 years, and then again at age 18 years. This paper provides findings of analyses in which continuous predictor variables, measured at ages 10-12 years, were trichotomized to reflect a risk end of the variable, a direct protective end, and a middle category of scores. Youth violence was measured at ages 13-14 years and 15-18 years. Bivariate analyses of risk and direct protective factors identified the following predictors of violence at ages 13-14 years and 15-18 years. Risk for violence was increased by earlier antisocial behavior (e.g., prior violence, truancy, nonviolent delinquency), attention problems, family conflict, low school commitment, and living in a neighborhood where young people were in trouble. Direct protective factors at ages 10-12 years include a low level of attention problems, low risk-taking, refusal skills, school attachment, and low access and exposure to marijuana at ages 10-12 years. Multivariate regressions showed neighborhood risk factors to be among the most salient and consistent predictors of violence after accounting for all other variables in the tested models. Relatively few direct protective factors were identified in these statistical tests, suggesting the need for further review and possible refinement of the measures and methods that were applied. Implications provide
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Young people are major participants in contemporary intra-state armed conflicts. Since the end of the Cold War there has been a trend to portray these as criminal violence for private (economic ends, rather than politically or ideologically motivated. Hence, the perception of young people’s role has moved from “freedom fighters” to “violent criminals.” Our discursive and conceptual reconsideration based on a case study of Sierra Leone finds that the associated dichotomies (“new war/old war,” “greed/grievance,” “criminal/political violence” are grounded in traditional modernization assumptions and/or constructed for policy purposes, rather than reflecting reality on the ground. Urban and rural youth violence in developing countries cannot be separated from its political roots. Moreover, the violent dynamics in which urban youth violence is embedded challenge our conceptions of what an armed conflict is. Including this form of violence in mainstream conflict theory would open the way for a new interpretation and more effective policy interventions. Extrapolating the experience of Latin American cities plagued by drug violence, the recent and significant increase in drug trafficking on the West African seaboard could mark the beginning of another armed conflict with high youth involvement, this time playing out in urban settings.
Young people are major participants in contemporary intra-state armed conflicts. Since the end of the Cold War there has been a trend to portray these as criminal violence for private (economic ends, rather than politically or ideologically motivated. Hence, the perception of young people’s role has moved from “freedom fighters” to “violent criminals.” Our discursive and conceptual reconsideration based on a case study of Sierra Leone finds that the associated dichotomies (“new war/old war,” “greed/grievance,” “criminal/political violence” are grounded in traditional modernization assumptions and/or constructed for policy purposes, rather than reflecting reality on the ground. Urban and rural youth violence in developing countries cannot be separated from its political roots. Moreover, the violent dynamics in which urban youth violence is embedded challenge our conceptions of what an armed conflict is. Including this form of violence in mainstream conflict theory would open the way for a new interpretation and more effective policy interventions. Extrapolating the experience of Latin American cities plagued by drug violence, the recent and significant increase in drug trafficking on the West African seaboard could mark the beginning of another armed conflict with high youth involvement, this time playing out in urban settings.
Haltigan, John D; Roisman, Glenn I
Based on data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,149), the current article provides the first large-sample investigation of associations between different forms of infant attachment insecurity and dissociative symptomatology from childhood through midadolescence as measured by scales based on the mother, teacher, and youth self-report versions of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessments. Findings did not replicate the previously reported and highly cited evidence that infant attachment disorganization is associated with dissociative symptomatology. In contrast, correlations of small magnitude were observed between infant avoidance and dissociative symptomatology, as assessed by teachers and mothers (but not self-report). Results were not moderated by contextual risk. Limitations of the study included the absence of measures of maltreatment and interpersonal trauma, leaving open the possibility that infant attachment disorganization is a diathesis for later dissociation in the context of severe and/or chronic trauma. Nevertheless, the present results strongly indicate the need for additional research exploring the possible role of environmental factors in the development of dissociative symptomatology. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Deane, Kelsey L; Harré, Niki; Moore, Julie; Courtney, Matthew G R
A key issue for youth development programs is whether the learning they provide is transferred to participants' daily lives. It is also important that they are effective for the diverse range of participants they attract. This study used a randomized controlled trial design to measure the impact of Project K, a New Zealand-based youth development program, on academic and social self-efficacy. Project K combines a 3-week wilderness adventure, a 10 day community service component, and 1 year of mentoring to promote positive growth in 14-15 year olds with low self-efficacy. At baseline, the evaluation included 600 Project K (46 % female) and 577 Control participants (48 % female) and revealed that Project K was effective in improving both social and academic self-efficacy from pre- to post-program with effects being sustained 1 year later. Parents' perceptions of changes in the participants' interpersonal skills supported these findings. Differential program effects were found across participant subgroups, particularly 1 year after program completion. The implications of these differences are discussed.
From the development tendency of modern enterprise in combination with practical experience, the paper discusses the importance of youth culture construction in modern enterprise and how to bring the Communist Youth League into full play i the enterprise youth culture construction and presents the initial in the enterprise youth culture construction by the Communist Youth League of Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation. (author)
Full Text Available The primary factor to ensure economic and social development and also to build a healthy society is the education system which plays a significant role in human capital formation and shapes the social structure and its outputs. In this context, there are some risks threatening the youth that is trying to position itself on the education-employment line and some critical areas in need of national policy intervention as well. Hence, by analyzing indicators on education and labor force, this study aims to reveal the amount of youth under risk and to identify these critical areas, while targeting to highlight the urgent need for policy development focusing on youth in dead end. Within the study, it is emphasized that the education system causes youth to face with the problems of access and quality, and that there is a significant amount of youth not in education and employment, while underlining the necessity of bringing especially this inactive youth in economy in addition to equipping with required qualifications for their active participation in social life. Thus, in order to hinder human capital loss additionally, there is policy need in two directions, as focusing on the education system to prevent new hopeless generations on the one hand, and on the inclusion of the disadvantaged youth on the other.
Summarizes the chapters of this theme issue on youth participatory evaluation. The overarching theme from this collection is the shift from a focus on youth as defective to a view of youth as assets in community development. (SLD)
the outcome of youth's participation in music programs. The paper argues that .... decoding which is necessary for child's development. Involvement with music is ... in whichever way it involves some sort of movement. Youth. Youth is the time ...
Full Text Available This article investigates some psychological aspects of South Asian diasporic youth in Denmark with focus on the socioeconomic strategies based on two empirical studies. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The original investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of Indian and Pakistani background (n=5. The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani descendants in Denmark and their remittance to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalism and identity construction. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1 individual strategies involving professional, business related investment and direct remittances, 2 awareness of parents’ strategies, although few or no self-initiated strategies and 3 collective strategy through an organisation addressing their position as agents of development in the country of origin. There are considerable temporal as well as qualitative differences in these strategies as compared to the parental generation.
This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.
Shek, Daniel T L; Chak, Yammy L Y
To facilitate the implementation of the Secondary 1 to Secondary 3 program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong, systematic training programs are designed for the potential program implementers. The rationales, objectives and design of the Secondary 1 to Secondary 3 training programs are outlined in this paper. The training programs cover theories of adolescent development, positive youth development, background and curricula of the Project P.A.T.H.S., factors affecting program implementation quality and evaluation of the project. Besides introducing the curriculum units, the training programs also focus on nature of learning and related theories (particularly experiential learning), teaching methods and instructional techniques, motivating students, and classroom management.
Tak Yan Lee
Full Text Available In view of the high impact of materialistic orientation among children and adolescents, financial educational programs are provided as preventive measures. Without a clear framework, it is impossible to evaluate these programs. The goals of this paper are threefold. Firstly, the phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation and its associated problems in Hong Kong are examined. Secondly, the concept of financial education as a preventive measure is reviewed. Both board and narrow definitions of money literacy are examined. A framework on money literacy for children and adolescents as a founding stone for financial education is proposed. The framework finds its support from a typology proposed by the authors and results from an integration of research findings on dimensions of the concepts of money and success. Finally, curriculum units for Grades 7 to 9 students in a positive youth development program (the Project P.A.T.H.S. are developed using the framework.
Lee, Tak Yan; Law, Ben M. F.
In view of the high impact of materialistic orientation among children and adolescents, financial educational programs are provided as preventive measures. Without a clear framework, it is impossible to evaluate these programs. The goals of this paper are threefold. Firstly, the phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation and its associated problems in Hong Kong are examined. Secondly, the concept of financial education as a preventive measure is reviewed. Both board and narrow definitions of money literacy are examined. A framework on money literacy for children and adolescents as a founding stone for financial education is proposed. The framework finds its support from a typology proposed by the authors and results from an integration of research findings on dimensions of the concepts of money and success. Finally, curriculum units for Grades 7 to 9 students in a positive youth development program (the Project P.A.T.H.S.) are developed using the framework. PMID:22194664
Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather E; Wilson, Dawn K; Lyerly, Jordan E
This study obtained qualitative data from African American (AA) youth and caregiver dyads to inform the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss Trial. Focus groups were conducted with 55 AA parent and caregiver dyads to gather perspectives on facilitators and barriers, motivators, and program preferences for health and weight loss using a socio-ecological framework. Four main themes emerged: using a positive health promotion framework for weight loss programs, social support and the role of parents in providing positive support, using a socio-ecological approach to examine factors that contribute to weight, and creating programs that are convenient, fun, and reduce barriers to participation. The findings from this study were used to develop the FIT intervention and indicate important individual, interpersonal, and environmental factors to consider when developing weight management and healthy lifestyle programs for AA families.
Daniel Tan Lei Shek
Full Text Available This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies, life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior. Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families.
Economic strengthening through entrepreneurial and microenterprise development has been shown to mitigate poverty-based health disparities in developing countries. Yet, little is known regarding the impact of similar approaches on disadvantaged U.S. populations, particularly inner-city African-American male youth disproportionately affected by poverty, unemployment, and adverse health outcomes. A systematic literature review was conducted to guide programming and research in this area. Eligible studies were those published in English from 2003 to 2014 which evaluated an entrepreneurial and microenterprise initiative targeting inner-city youth, aged 15 to 24, and which did not exclude male participants. Peer-reviewed publications were identified from two electronic bibliographic databases. A manual search was conducted among web-based gray literature and registered trials not yet published. Among the 26 papers retrieved for review, six met the inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis. None of the 16 registered microenterprise trials were being conducted among disadvantaged populations in the U.S. The available literature suggests that entrepreneurial and microenterprise programs can positively impact youth's economic and psychosocial functioning and result in healthier decision-making. Young black men specifically benefited from increased autonomy, engagement, and risk avoidance. However, such programs are vastly underutilized among U.S. minority youth, and the current evidence is insufficiently descriptive or rigorous to draw definitive conclusions. Many programs described challenges in securing adequate resources, recruiting minority male youth, and sustaining community buy-in. There is an urgent need to increase implementation and evaluation efforts, using innovative and rigorous designs, to improve the low status of greater numbers of African-American male youth.
McMullen, Richie J.
Discusses the issues of child and adolescent prostitution, focusing on the youth prostitution situation in London, England. Briefly describes "Streetwise," a support and counseling program developed to aid London youth who have been involved in any form of prostitution. (NB)
Whitley, Meredith A.; Forneris, Tanya; Barker, Bryce
Many community-based sport and physical activity programs take a positive youth development approach when operating in underserved communities around the world (Forneris, Whitley, & Barker, 2013). However, one of the biggest challenges for these programs is sustainability (Lindsey, 2008). The purpose of this article is to present the 3…
Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Denny, Simon; Dorey, Enid; Ellis-Pegler, Mary; van Rooyen, Jaco; Rodgers, Anthony
While most young people who smoke want to quit, few access cessation support services. Mobile phone-based cessation programs are ideal for young people: mobile phones are the most common means of peer communication, and messages can be delivered in an anonymous manner, anywhere, anytime. Following the success of our text messaging smoking cessation program, we developed an innovative multimedia mobile phone smoking cessation intervention. The aim of the study was to develop and pilot test a youth-oriented multimedia smoking cessation intervention delivered solely by mobile phone. Development included creating content and building the technology platform. Content development was overseen by an expert group who advised on youth development principles, observational learning (from social cognitive theory), effective smoking cessation interventions, and social marketing. Young people participated in three content development phases (consultation via focus groups and an online survey, content pre-testing, and selection of role models). Video and text messages were then developed, incorporating the findings from this research. Information technology systems were established to support the delivery of the multimedia messages by mobile phone. A pilot study using an abbreviated 4-week program of video and text content tested the reliability of the systems and the acceptability of the intervention. Approximately 180 young people participated in the consultation phase. There was a high priority placed on music for relaxation (75%) and an interest in interacting with others in the program (40% would read messages, 36% would read a blog). Findings from the pre-testing phase (n = 41) included the importance of selecting "real" and "honest" role models with believable stories, and an interest in animations (37%). Of the 15 participants who took part in the pilot study, 13 (87%) were available for follow-up interviews at 4 weeks: 12 participants liked the program or liked it most
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).
This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…
... Employment Through Micro- and Small-Enterprise Development in Ethiopia. Youth unemployment has emerged as a key challenge facing developing and ... to youth to start small businesses and to youth-led micro- and small-enterprises. ... the barriers and challenges young Ethiopian men and women face in the labour ...
Strafford, Ben William; van der Steen, Pawel; Davids, Keith; Stone, Joseph Antony
Analyses of talent development in sport have identified that skill can be enhanced through early and continued involvement in donor sports which share affordances (opportunities for action) with a performer's main target sport. Aligning key ideas of the Athletic Skills Model and ecological dynamics theory, we propose how the sport of parkour could provide a representative and adaptive platform for developing athletic skill (e.g. coordination, timing, balance, agility, spatial awareness and muscular strength). We discuss how youth sport development programmes could be (re) designed to include parkour-style activities, in order to develop general athletic skills in affordance-rich environments. It is proposed that team sports development programmes could particularly benefit from parkour-style training since it is exploratory and adaptive nature shapes utilisation of affordances for innovative and autonomous performance by athletes. Early introduction to varied, relevant activities for development of athleticism and skill, in a diversified training programme, would provide impetus for a fundamental shift away from the early specialisation approach favoured by traditional theories of skill acquisition and expertise in sport.
Full Text Available Involving youth in community and organizational decision-making is widely believed to lead to stronger communities. A promising strategy to foster decision-making is youth-adult partnerships in which youth and adults work collaboratively, sharing their strengths, collective knowledge, and decision-making power. A qualitative study of eight youth organizations showed that those organizations employing youth-adult partnership strategies were most effective in increasing youth's contributions to their communities. This article explores the elements of youth-adult partnership that were evident among successful organizations including: mutual respect, meaningful roles for youth, unique contributions of adults and youth, and shared decision-making and implications for youth development programs.
Briggs, Harold Eugene; McBeath, Bowen
The lack of culturally appropriate health and mental health care has contributed to the large number of African American youth and families involved in the child welfare system. This article reviews the consequences of the insufficient access to culturally sensitive, evidence-supported interventions for African American foster youth. The authors…
Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon
Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.
This document launches a wide public consultation with all those involved in and with an interest in the European Union's (EU's) education, training, and youth programs called Socrates, Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, and Youth for Europe. It is the first step toward preparing the new generation of programs to start in 2007 and will inform the…
Margarida Gaspar de Matos
Full Text Available In addition to the empirical validation of ‘health and happiness’ determinants, theoretical models suggesting where to ground actions are necessary. In the beginning of the twentieth century, intervention models focused on evaluation and empirical validation were only concerned about overt behaviours (verbal and non-verbal and covert behaviours (cognitions and emotions. Later on in the middle of the century, there was a shift from treating the problems to a positive approach, focused on promoting assets and individual strengths. Thus, the role of social competences, self-regulation and resilience became salient. Researchers also highlighted the importance of social cohesion and social support, as active health and wellbeing facilitators. More recently, in the twentyfirst century, the population’s engagement (positive engagement has become crucial. This paper presents the evolution of this theoretical and scientific path, using Portugal as a case study, where early interventions focused on the positive aspects of both covert and overt behaviours, while more recent interventions included explicitly the perspective of youth engagement and participation, as is the case of the Dream Teens Project. It is expected that the political and professional understanding of this trajectory will allow professionals to provide better health and educational services, improving young people’s engagement, quality of life, health and wellbeing
O. M. Troitska
It is defined the systemic mistakes in the culturaleducational practices of youth organizations, which is connected with the poor level of worldview culture and that presented as a peculiar break in the formation of intercultural: often revealing of emotional, impulsive state in contrast to balanced civil position; the interests of the community not always articulated correctly in authorized and other documents; in the real process of communication and dialogue appears conflict factors, conditioned by psychology of «a crowd», elements of ochlocracy, anarchy and stereotypic thinking; contextual «immaturity» of the process of consolidation, connected with specific incompleteness of consolidation of Ukrainian political nation and etc. It is pointed out some warnings on the subject of implementation of ideas in real culturaleducational practice: in particular, when it is about the integration of the culture, about multyculture and etc. Constructivist approach in the research of mentioned process with the necessary requires making strategies and programmes of intercultural activity on the basis of intercultural universals and standards of cultural «code».
Brown, Laura S; Jellison, Judith A
Systematic reviews of research provide pertinent information to both practitioners and researchers. While there are several recent reviews of music research and children with specific disabilities (primarily autism), there is no current review of music research with children with a wide variety of disabilities. The aim of the current study is to identify and systematically review music research with children and youth published in peer reviewed journals for the years 1999 through 2009. Research questions focused on participant characteristics; research purposes, methodologies, and findings; as well as the presence of ideas from special education policies, and practices. We also asked how results have changed from those from an earlier review (Jellison, 2000). Using computer and hand-searches, we identified 45 articles that met our criteria for inclusion. Once identified, through a process of consensus we analyzed articles based on criteria, categories, and codes used in the earlier review. Additionally we analyzed measurement instruments and effectiveness of interventions as reported by the authors. Primary findings show a large majority of studies were experimental with most reporting effective or partially effective interventions, particularly for social variables. Compared to the earlier review, increases were found for participants with autism and for reports including ideas from special education. Percentages of articles measuring generalization and examining high-incident disability populations (specific learning disabilities) were low. The findings from this review and comparisons to the earlier review reveal important implications for practices with children with autism and preparation of researchers to design and conduct studies in inclusive music settings.
O'Connor, Donna; Larkin, Paul; Williams, A Mark
We used systematic observation tools to explore the structure (i.e., activity and inactivity) and sequencing (i.e., the types of activities used) of football coaching sessions in Australia following the implementation of a new National Curriculum. Youth soccer coaches (n = 34), coaching within the Skill Acquisition (U11-U13 n = 19) and Game Training (U14-U17 n = 15) phases of the Football Federation Australia National Curriculum participated. Participants were filmed during a regular coaching session, with systematic observation of the session undertaken to provide a detailed analysis of the practice activities and coach behaviours. Findings indicated a session comprised of Playing Form activities (40.9%), Training Form activities (22.3%), inactivity (31%), and transitions between activities (5.8%). Coaches prescribed more Training Form activities (e.g., individual (5.4%) and drills (15.1%)) early in the session and progressed to Playing Form activities (i.e., small-sided games (15.3%) then larger games (24.8%)) later in the session. Most inactivity reflected the players listening to the coach - either in a team huddle (9.9%) or frozen on the spot during an activity (16.5%). In addition, coaches generally spent over 3 min communicating to players prior to explaining and introducing an activity regardless of when in the session the activity was scheduled.
Golla, Gowtham Kumar; Carlson, Jordan A; Huan, Jun; Kerr, Jacqueline; Mitchell, Tarrah; Borner, Kelsey
Sedentary behavior of youth is an important determinant of health. However, better measures are needed to improve understanding of this relationship and the mechanisms at play, as well as to evaluate health promotion interventions. Wearable accelerometers are considered as the standard for assessing physical activity in research, but do not perform well for assessing posture (i.e., sitting vs. standing), a critical component of sedentary behavior. The machine learning algorithms that we propose for assessing sedentary behavior will allow us to re-examine existing accelerometer data to better understand the association between sedentary time and health in various populations. We collected two datasets, a laboratory-controlled dataset and a free-living dataset. We trained machine learning classifiers separately on each dataset and compared performance across datasets. The classifiers predict five postures: sit, stand, sit-stand, stand-sit, and stand\\walk. We compared a manually constructed Hidden Markov model (HMM) with an automated HMM from existing software. The manually constructed HMM gave more F1-Macro score on both datasets.
Jenifer K. McGuire
Full Text Available Through their participation in youth programs, young people have access to opportunities to learn and build important skills. A total of 214 youth between the ages of 10-19 (mean 15.5 years completed an online survey about characteristics of youth programs they participated in, didn’t participate in, and had participated in but quit. We found that youth participated in activities that provided a benefit to meet personal goals or develop skills. However, our findings suggest that youth may leave activities, or never join them, based on different sets of motivations than the reasons they stay in activities. There was variability across demographic groups: Males reported more problems with past activities, sexual minority youth were more likely to endorse social problems with past and never joined activities, and ethnic minorities reported less support for personal goals and connection to adults in current activities and more logistic barriers for activities never joined.
Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative research is to investigate the increased sense of materialism among youth. The main research question is to identify the factors which are causing materialism among youth. The sample of this research included 25 people, age group 18-25 years obtained from students that are enrolled in universities. The interpretive phenomenological approach was taken which was based on semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that materialistic trends are increasing among youth nowadays. Because thought patterns of youth and societal demands have changed totally. Factors that are increasing materialism include social media, brand consciousness; self-centeredness; fake personality development and desire to be socially accepted. The implications indicate that materialistic trend should stop by controlling the social media possession among youth which is the primary source of enhancing materialism among youth.
Full Text Available It has been suggested that group composition can influence the experiences of individual group members in social programmes (Weiss, 1998. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between peer group composition in sports programmes and positive youth development (PYD in disadvantaged girls, as well as to determine whether it was moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 10 and 24 completed a questionnaire including, among others, the “Youth Experience Survey for Sport” (YES-S (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012 and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics (i.e., nationality, education, family situation. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. At the group level, a higher percentage of girls from a low educational track and with a migration background predicted greater PYD, as indicated by higher levels of personal and social skills, cognitive skills and goal setting. Results showed interaction effects between the respondents’ family structures on the participant and team levels. The overall statistical models for the different developmental domains accounted for variance ranging from 14.7% (personal and social skills to 30.3% (cognitive skills. Results indicated that the extent to which disadvantaged girls derive benefits from their participation in sport also depends on the group composition. The interaction effects between the group composition and individual characteristics suggest that when girls participate in a group of similar peers, those from non-intact families will derive more benefits than their counterparts from intact families.
Bowers, Edmond P; Johnson, Sara K; Buckingham, Mary H; Gasca, Santiago; Warren, Daniel J A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M
Both parents and important non-parental adults have influential roles in promoting positive youth development (PYD). Little research, however, has examined the simultaneous effects of both parents and important non-parental adults for PYD. We assessed the relationships among youth-reported parenting profiles and important non-parental adult relationships in predicting the Five Cs of PYD (competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) in four cross-sectional waves of data from the 4-H Study of PYD (Grade 9: N = 975, 61.1% female; Grade 10: N = 1,855, 63.4% female; Grade 11: N = 983, 67.9% female; Grade 12: N = 703, 69.3% female). The results indicated the existence of latent profiles of youth-reported parenting styles based on maternal warmth, parental school involvement, and parental monitoring that were consistent with previously identified profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) as well as reflecting several novel profiles (highly involved, integrative, school-focused, controlling). Parenting profile membership predicted mean differences in the Five Cs at each wave, and also moderated the relationships between the presence of an important non-parental adult and the Five Cs. In general, authoritative and highly involved parenting predicted higher levels of PYD and a higher likelihood of being connected to an important non-parental adult. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research on adult influences of youth development and for programs that involve adults in attempts to promote PYD.
Full Text Available Focusing on the post-accord generation in Northern Ireland, this study aimed to examine the role of intergroup contact in promoting support for peacebuilding and youth civic engagement. The sample comprised 466 youth (aged 14-15; 51% Catholic, 49% Protestant who were born after the 1998 Good Friday/Belfast Agreement and therefore represent a ‘post-accord’ generation. Recruited through their schools, youth completed scales on intergroup contact (quality and quantity, support for peacebuilding, and civic engagement. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling and bootstrapped mediation in MPlus. Results found that support for peacebuilding partially mediated the association between higher quality and higher quantity contact and greater civic engagement (volunteering and political participation. Findings demonstrate that youth who are living with the legacy of protracted intergroup conflict can support peacebuilding and engage in constructive behaviours such as civic engagement. By recognising the peacebuilding potential of youth, especially in a post-accord generation, the findings may inform how to promote youth civic engagement and social reconstruction after conflict.
Sancassiani, Federica; Pintus, Elisa; Holte, Arne; Paulus, Peter; Moro, Maria Francesca; Cossu, Giulia; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Lindert, Jutta
The acquisition of social and emotional skills is associated with positive youth development, character education, healthy lifestyle behaviours, reduction in depression and anxiety, conduct disorders, violence, bullying, conflict, and anger. School-based interventions aimed to enhance these skills go beyond a problem-focused approach to embrace a more positive view of health; they could also improve the youth's wellbeing. To describe the main features and to establish the effectiveness of universal school-based RCTs for children and the youth, aimed to promote their psychosocial wellbeing, positive development, healthy lifestyle behaviours and/or academic performance by improving their emotional and social skills. Systematic review by searching for relevant papers in PubMed/Medline with the following key words: "mental health" OR "wellbeing" OR "health promotion" OR "emotional learning" OR "social learning" OR "emotional and social learning" OR "positive youth development" OR "life skills" OR "life skills training" AND "school". Interval was set from January 2000 to April 2014. 1,984 papers were identified through the search. Out of them 22 RCTs were included. While most interventions were characterized by a whole-school approach and SAFE practices, few studies only used standardized measures to assess outcomes, or had collected follow-up data after ≥ 6 months. The results of all these trials were examined and discussed. Universal school-based RCTs to enhance emotional and social skills showed controversial findings, due to some methodological issues mainly. Nevertheless they show promising outcomes that are relatively far-reaching for children and youth wellbeing and therefore are important in the real world.
In this article a detailed description is given of the subculture of a group of socially-excluded boys in The Netherlands. The relevance of some classical theories on youth subculture is assessed for understanding the lifestyles of today’s disadvantaged youth, especially in a developed welfare
More than 100 young people from 56 countries voiced their needs and concerns in a Youth Consultation held just before the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), August 31 to September 4, 1994. Many journalists from the international press followed the consultation and interviewed the youths, with a short film even produced on the proceedings. After discussing the main topics of the ICPD, participants produced a Youth Declaration with recommendations for action and conclusions for partnership. More than 20 participants remained in Cairo to present consultation conclusions in well-attended workshops and role play at the ICPD NGO Forum. One representative presented the Youth Declaration in ICPD plenary session. These young men and women from all regions of the world, from a diversity of cultural, religious, and political backgrounds found common ground on the need for population concerns to be explicitly and consistently integrated with development in the context of a just and equitable international economic system; a strong focus upon youth education and mobilization in the areas of adolescent health, sexual and reproductive health, the environment, human rights, and political and economic systems; and the sense that now is the time to act at the individual, organizational, national, and national levels. Education and safe sexual behavior do not encourage promiscuity. On the contrary, they promote and enhance healthy, responsible relationships, minimizing the incidence of unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections when sex does take place. Participants recommend promoting peer education; involving and educating peers through artistic activities such as music and drama; implementing peer counseling and raising awareness through one-on-one interaction, group discussions, printed media, and radio programs; organizing services for youths in a variety of settings; creating jobs for youths in cooperatives and businesses; educating
Martijn, Claudine; Sharpe, Louise
Research documents high levels of psychopathology among homeless youth. Most research, however, has not distinguished between disorders that are present prior to homelessness and those that develop following homelessness. Hence whether psychological disorders are the cause or consequence of homelessness has not been established. The aim of this study is to investigate causal pathways to homelessness amongst currently homeless youth in Australia. The study uses a quasi-qualitative methodology to generate hypotheses for larger-scale research. High rates of psychological disorders were confirmed in the sample 35 homeless youth aged 14-25. The rates of psychological disorders at the point of homelessness were greater than in normative samples, but the rates of clinical disorder increased further once homeless. Further in-depth analyses were conducted to identify the temporal sequence for each individual with a view to establishing a set of causal pathways to homelessness and trajectories following homelessness that characterised the people in the sample. Five pathways to homelessness and five trajectories following homelessness were identified that accounted for the entire sample. Each pathway constituted a series of interactions between different factors similar to that described by Craig and Hodson (1998. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1379-1388) as "complex subsidiary pathways". The major findings were that (1) trauma is a common experience amongst homeless youth prior to homelessness and figured in the causal pathways to homelessness for over half of the sample; (2) once homeless, for the majority of youth there is an increase in the number of psychological diagnoses including drug and alcohol diagnoses; and (3) crime did not precede homelessness for all but one youth; however, following homelessness, involvement in criminal activity was common and became a distinguishing factor amongst youth. The implications of these findings for future research and service
Mitchell, Fiona; Kirk, Alison; Robertson, Kenneth; Reilly, John J
The global incidence of type 1 diabetes is rising, and youths with type 1 diabetes continue to suffer poorer health than peers without diabetes. Evidence suggests youths with type 1 diabetes have physical activity (PA) levels well below the recommendations for health and have high levels of sedentary behaviour. An active lifestyle is therefore recommended to improve health. There is limited research showing effective lifestyle behaviour change in this population; therefore, an evidence gap exists between the need to promote physical activity in type 1 diabetes care and lack of understanding on how to do this. This protocol paper describes a feasibility and pilot study of the ActivPals programme-an intervention to support active lifestyles in youths with type 1 diabetes. Key intervention components have been identified from preliminary work (individual and family focus, peer mentoring, technology integration and improved communication and understanding) and are being developed into a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) supported by recruitment pathways. A steering group of health care professionals and managers will refine the intervention to patient needs. A pilot trial is providing data on intervention implementation, acceptability and feasibility. Twenty youths with type 1 diabetes are being recruited and randomised into an intervention or control group. Physical activity is being measured objectively using the Actigraph GT3X+ monitor at baseline and 1-month follow-up. Contextual factors associated with intervention delivery are being explored. This study will contribute to the development of evidence-based, user-informed and pragmatic interventions leading to healthier lifestyles in youths with type 1 diabetes.
Full Text Available During the stages of long-term athlete development (LTAD, resistance training (RT is an important means for (i stimulating athletic development, (ii tolerating the demands of long-term training and competition, and (iii inducing long-term health promoting effects that are robust over time and track into adulthood. However, there is a gap in the literature with regards to optimal RT methods during LTAD and how RT is linked to biological age.Thus, the aims of this scoping review were (i to describe and discuss the effects of RT on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes, (ii to introduce a conceptual model on how to appropriately implement different types of RT within LTAD stages, and (iii to identify research gaps from the existing literature by deducing implications for future research.In general, RT produced small-to-moderate effects on muscular fitness and athletic performance in youth athletes with muscular strength showing the largest improvement. Free weight, complex, and plyometric training appear to be well-suited to improve muscular fitness and athletic performance. In addition, balance training appears to be an important preparatory (facilitating training program during all stages of LTAD but particularly during the early stages. As youth athletes become more mature, specificity and intensity of RT methods increase. This scoping review identified research gaps that are summarized in the following and that should be addressed in future studies: (i to elucidate the influence of gender and biological age on the adaptive potential following RT in youth athletes (especially in females, (ii to describe RT protocols in more detail (i.e., always report stress and strain-based parameters, and (iii to examine neuromuscular and tendomuscular adaptations following RT in youth athletes.
Niepold, F., III; Johnston, E.; Rooney-varga, J. N.; Qusba, L.; Staveloz, W.; Poppleton, K.; Cloyd, E. T.; Kretser, J.; Bozuwa, J.; Edkins, M. T.
Today's youth are the first generation to come of age amid rapid climate change, and they have the most at stake in how society responds to it. Climate change will bring economic and environmental challenges as well as opportunities, and citizens who understand the issues at stake will be better prepared to respond. Climate education is a necessary foundation for them to understand and help tackle the complex issue of climate change. Many will become leaders with the skills, knowledge, and passion to push for and develop innovative solutions. As such, this topic requires interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches from a professionally diverse group of experts to effectively build the solid foundation for a low carbon and sustainable economy. Educators from all disciplines need to be enlisted to contribute their talents in building students knowledge and skills to limit human-induced climate change while being prepared for the projected impacts that will continue, and it will accelerate significantly if global emissions of heat-trapping gases continue to increase. This presentation will discuss the new youth and educator engagement partnerships that developed to achieve ways of addressing the problems and opportunities resulting from climate change. We will describe how the partnerships are helping lift up and raise the profile of effective programs that enable transdisciplinary solutions to societal issues. The #Youth4Climate and #Teach4Climate social media campaigns were organized by a flotilla of federal and non-federal partners to inspire young people around the world to take actions on climate change and inspire teachers to prepare students to be part of the solutions to climate change. The largest one, the #Youth4Climate campaign for COP21 youth engagement had over 33 million impressions and opened a discussion for all to join with youth for climate actions at COP21. Each of these three social media campaigns had a simple ask, give young people a voice
This response identifies several strengths of the article, "Pushing the Boundaries: What Youth Organizers at Boston's Hyde Square Task Force Have to Teach Us about Civic Engagement" and draws connections to recent developments in sibling fields, including social and emotional learning and internet activism. These developments offer ideas…
Maria Esther BAÑOS GARCÍA
Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies is widely spread in all fields, including education. In the case of young people and adults with intellectual disabilities, it seems obvious that applications should serve to improve those supports to provide in the different functional areas. In this manuscript, 56 computer applications, in English and/or in Spanish, have been found by means of the search and study of reviews, scientific articles and web pages. Then, its connection with the support areas was evaluated by identifying the link for each computer application with each of the nine support areas. The findings confirm that the digital divide continues to increase and, in some cases, the treatment of the proposed activities promoting a childlike picture of this group is maintained. We found a low level of awareness of the support areas among developers and an imbalance in the applications, since some areas have great coverage while others have a residual presence. Promoting the consideration of the support areas among developers and further training for both educators and youth and adults with intellectual disabilities in order to reach a more productive use of ICT is recommended.
Ecker, N; Smith, J
Planned Parenthood of Nassau County (PPNC) employs a wide range of local programs to assist young people in developing the skills necessary to make responsible decisions and help them become good leaders in the future. The mission that underpins their work with the youth is to help them recognize the powerful positive impact they can have on their peers, friends, loved ones, and families. For the last 16 years, peer education has played an essential role in the programs and services of PPNC for teens. The Teen Advocate Project (TAP) has trained and supported dozens of local youth who have in turn participated in several outreach and education activities. The PPNC also created the Teen Info Line, a telephone peer support service operated by and for teens. Along with the TAP, PPNC operates three other successful components of its education programs targeting the youth and their families: 1) male involvement program, 2) multicultural education program, and 3) substance awareness/sexual health education program. In recognizing that its mission to help the youth must not stop at the county border, PPNC established the Global Institute for Training in 1992 to develop youth leadership programs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe.
Full Text Available As online media has become an increasingly important part of youths’ daily lives, it is critical for the field to explore questions related to youth online media use in order to support youth workers, youth development practice and programming. Using a national sample of youth age 13-22 (N = 585, the current study explored demographic differences in youth online media use, and examined associations between youth demographics, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, and likelihood of being a frequent user of online activities. Although youth reported being frequent users of online media, Internet use was not the same for all youth. Online media use differed significantly by youth age, gender, race, and family relationship quality. The findings remind the field to consider the young people we are working with and how they use online media in their daily lives.
Lewis, Anne, Ed.
This volume contains 14 essays and commentaries on youth development penned by educators, policymakers, and leaders of youth development organizations. The papers, written to commemorate 10 years of American Youth Policy Forum's service, were originally presented at a forum in Washington, D.C., in January 2003. Following are the papers: "Genesis…
Dickson, H; Laurens, K R; Cullen, A E; Hodgins, S
Previous reviews have reported cognitive and motor deficits in childhood and adolescence among individuals who later develop schizophrenia. However, these reviews focused exclusively on studies of individuals with affected relatives or on population/birth cohorts, incorporated studies with estimated measures of pre-morbid intelligence, or included investigations that examined symptomatic at-risk participants or participants 18 years or older. Thus, it remains unclear whether cognitive and motor deficits constitute robust antecedents of schizophrenia. Meta-analyses were conducted on published studies that examined cognitive or motor function in youth aged 16 years or younger who later developed schizophrenia or a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) and those who did not. Twenty-three studies fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1) written in English; (2) prospective investigations of birth or genetic high-risk cohorts, or follow-back investigations of population samples; (3) objective measures of cognitive or motor performance at age 16 or younger; (4) results provided for individuals who did and who did not develop schizophrenia/SSD later in life; and (5) sufficient data to calculate effect sizes. Four domains of function were examined: IQ; Motor Function; General Academic Achievement; and Mathematics Achievement. Meta-analyses showed that, by age 16, individuals who subsequently developed schizophrenia/SSD displayed significant deficits in IQ (d=0.51) and motor function (d=0.56), but not in general academic achievement (d=0.25) or mathematics achievement (d=0.21). Subsidiary analysis indicated that the IQ deficit was present by age 13. These results demonstrate that deficits in IQ and motor performance precede the prodrome and the onset of illness.
Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.
Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…
Russell, Stephen T.; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn
In the field of positive youth development programs, "empowerment" is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led…
Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha
The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…
Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.
ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented. PMID:27695511
A pivotal theme (and discussion) in youth research is that youth transitions and young people’s perceptions of education and work is changing profoundly. The view is that the notion of linear, focused ’normal’ biographies increasingly is being outpaced by unpredictable, individualised and fragmen......A pivotal theme (and discussion) in youth research is that youth transitions and young people’s perceptions of education and work is changing profoundly. The view is that the notion of linear, focused ’normal’ biographies increasingly is being outpaced by unpredictable, individualised...... of the future (as grown ups). The longitudinal design furthermore makes it possible to get an insight into how the narratives– and not least the young people’s pathways – actually develop over time. Focusing on two of the young people’s narratives and actual pathways, I will illustrate some of the dilemmas...... and challenges that especially ‘youth a rick’ face as part of the life and educational pathways from primary school and onwards. Finally I will discuss to what extent the young people’s narratives can be said to support a movement towards choice biographies and yoyo transitions, or if alternative understandings...
Full Text Available This paper draws upon the findings of an evaluation of “More than a Game”, a sport-focused youth mentoring program in Melbourne, Australia that aimed to develop a community-based resilience model using team-based sports to address issues of identity, belonging, and cultural isolation amongst young Muslim men in order to counter forms of violent extremism. In this essay we focus specifically on whether the intense embodied encounters and emotions experienced in team sports can help break down barriers of cultural and religious difference between young people and facilitate experiences of resilience, mutual respect, trust, social inclusion and belonging. Whilst the project findings are directly relevant to the domain of countering violent extremism, they also contribute to a growing body of literature which considers the relationship between team-based sport, cross-cultural engagement and the development of social resilience, inclusion and belonging in other domains of youth engagement and community-building.
Hunt, Caroline; Peters, Lorna; Rapee, Ronald M.
The Personal Experiences Checklist (PECK) was developed to provide a multidimensional assessment of a young person's personal experience of being bullied that covered the full range of bullying behaviors, including covert relational forms of bullying and cyber bullying. A sample of 647 school children were used to develop the scale, and a 2nd…
Full Text Available Young people in the Arab world increasingly have to struggle with economic hardship and difficulties to start their own lives, although the majority is better educated than ever before. The problematic labor market situation combined with weak public schemes to support young careers force large sections of young people to postpone their ambitions to marry. This period of delayed marriage is captured as 'waithood'. I will argue that this term is misleading. Two points of critique apply: The social dimension of waiting exceeds the status of remaining inactive until something expected happens; the ever-changing present continuously generates new realities. Simultaneously uncertainties and insecurities have dramatically expanded since 2011 and further limit livelihood opportunities and future perspectives, particularly of the youth. Young people are hence becoming both, increasingly frustrated and disadvantaged the longer they "wait", and even more dependent on parents and kin networks. This hinders them to develop their personality – they rather have to accommodate with values that are not always suitable to master the present requirements of a globalizing world. In this paper I will inquire, in how far young people of the Arab world have thus to be considered as a “contained youth”.
Sukarieh, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart
Youth, and youth employment especially, have jumped to the forefront of the international development agenda, driven by new funding and reporting priorities of the World Bank and allied international and national aid organisations. Despite the seductive rhetoric of youth empowerment, however, we argue that the new turn to youth serves primarily to…
Full Text Available Youth tourism differentiated itself from the concept of traditional tourism by the distinctive profile of its participants. In the last 10 years this branch had a very rapid growth, contributingsignificantly to any countries’ economy due to the amount of money that was spent by young people on different types of tourism. The aim of this paper is to present the most practiced forms of youth tourism, and their development worldwide and also in Romania. The conclusions show the most practiced types on a European and on Romanian level.
In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research. PMID:28164070
Stephen M. Rosenthal
Full Text Available In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research.
van der Knaap, L.; Schulze, H.; Slot, N.W.; Feij, J.A.
Although in treating adolescents with problem behaviour emphasis is placed on teaching skills of immediate relevance to everyday prosocial functioning, instruments for assessing these skills have been lacking. This article describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument that
Sauerwein, Markus; Theis, Desiree; Fischer, Natalie
Research has shown that participation in extracurricular activities has a positive effect on adolescents' social behaviour and academic performance; however, the reciprocal influence of extracurricular activities and leisure on the development of adolescents' academic performance and social behaviour is unclear. In our study, we investigate the effect of school based and out-of-school leisure activities on adolescent's social and scholastic development. We also explore how students' gender, s...
Cornelius, Jack; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Tarter, Ralph
Stress is a well-documented factor in the development of addiction. However, no longitudinal studies to date have assessed the role of stress in mediating the development of substance use disorders (SUD). Our previous results have demonstrated that a measure called Transmissible Liability Index (TLI) assessed during pre-adolescent years serves as a significant predictor of risk for substance use disorder among young adults. However, it remains unclear whether life stress mediates the relationship between TLI and SUD, or whether stress predicts SUD. We conducted a longitudinal study involving 191 male subjects to assess whether life stress mediates the relationship between TLI as assessed at age 10-12 and subsequent development of SUD at age 22, after controlling for other relevant factors. Logistic regression demonstrated that the development of SUD at age 22 was associated with stress at age 19. A path analysis demonstrated that stress at age 19 significantly predicted SUD at age 22. However, stress did not mediate the relationship between the TLI assessed at age 10-12 and SUD in young adulthood. These findings confirm that stress plays a role in the development of SUD, but also shows that stress does not mediate the development of SUD. Further studies are warranted to clarify the role of stress in the etiology of SUD.
Alvarez, Gonzalo G; Van Dyk, Deborah D; Colquhoun, Heather; Moreau, Katherine A; Mulpuru, Sunita; Graham, Ian D
Inuit in Canada have the highest reported tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate in Canada, even higher than other Canadian Indigenous groups. The aim of this study was to increase TB awareness among Inuit youth and their communities by equipping those who can best reach this population with a community based, youth focused, education initiative built on interventions adapted from a previous TB awareness study. The Taima TB Youth Education Initiative was a field test case study of a knowledge translation (KT) strategy aimed at community members who provide health education in these communities. In the first stage of this study, interventions from a larger TB awareness campaign were adapted to focus on youth living in remote Inuit communities. During the second stage of the study, investigators field tested the initiative in two isolated Inuit communities. It was then applied by local implementation teams in two other communities. Evaluation criteria included feasibility, acceptability, knowledge uptake and health behavior change. Implementation of the adapted KT interventions resulted in participation of a total of 41 youth (19 females, 22 males) with an average age of 16 years (range 12-21 years) in four different communities in Nunavut. Community celebration events were attended by 271 community members where TB messaging were presented and discussed. All of the health care workers and community members surveyed reported that the adapted interventions were acceptable and a useful way of learning to some extent. Knowledge uptake measures indicated an average TB knowledge score of 64 out of 100. Local partners in all four communities indicated that they would use the Taima TB Youth Education Initiative again to raise awareness about TB among youth in their communities. The TB awareness interventions adapted for the Taima TB Youth Education Initiative were acceptable to the Inuit communities involved in the study. They resulted in uptake of knowledge among participants
N. V. Tikhonova
Purpose: determine the social significance and especially the development of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine. Material : a questionnaire survey of 50 experts in the sphere of physical culture and sports. Results : notes that children and youth and sports reserve three tasks: training of sports reserve, rehabilitation of children and youth, education of children and youth. Structure of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine in 1455 has youth sports schools, 184 specialized youth sports school...
Lunenberg, Mieke; Willemse, Martijn
Two years ago, at the annual conference of the International Professional Development Association in Belfast, a claim was made by one of us, with a great deal of justification, that there had been very few papers published in the International Professional Development Association journal
Burns, John R; Rapee, Ronald M
Epidemiological studies indicate that as many as 1 in 5 young people will develop a mental health problem in any given year. Early detection and intervention are needed to reduce the impact that these conditions have-both for the young person and for the communities in which they live. This study reports the development of a new instrument aimed at helping identify students at risk of developing mental health difficulties. Rather than asking about the presence of symptoms of mental health conditions, the RADAR screening tool assesses a student's balance of risk and protective factors associated with the development of mental health problems. The RADAR was evaluated with a sample of 838 participants in high school Years 7-12. A robust internal factor structure was revealed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was satisfactory for each subscale, ranging from .73 to .90 while the reliability for the total scale was .91. Retest stability, measured over a 12 month period, was found to be strong (r = .72). Convergent validity was demonstrated with reference to standard measures of depression and behavioral problems. It is concluded that the RADAR is a promising measure for helping mental health professionals and educators decide which students may be at risk of developing mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
International Youth Nuclear Congress (IYNC) was Initiated by an international YG group of enthusiasts in 1997. Mission statement developed at ENC1998 in Nice, France Growth in enthusiasm and support: IAEA, Nuclear Societies, companies. IYNC run by the Young Generation with full support of experienced advisors, nuclear societies and companies. First came to African continent when IYNC 2010 was hosted by South Africa
van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte
In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement
Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.
Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table…
Olino, Thomas M
The Positive Valence Systems (PVS) have been introduced by the National Institute of Mental Health as a domain to help organize multiple constructs focusing on reward-seeking behaviors. However, the initial working model for this domain is strongly influenced by adult constructs and measures. Thus, the present review focuses on extending the PVS into a developmental context. Specifically, the review provides some hypotheses about the structure of the PVS, how PVS components may change throughout development, how family history of depression may influence PVS development, and potential means of intervening on PVS function to reduce onsets of depression. Future research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.
Ma, Hing Keung
Moral competence refers to the affective orientation to perform altruistic behaviors and the ability to judge moral issues logically. A five-stage theory of moral development is proposed. Both western and Chinese perspectives are incorporated in the elaboration of the characteristics of each stage. A brief review of the antecedents of moral competence is presented. The relationship between moral competence and adolescent developmental outcomes is also discussed. Some practical ways to promote moral competence are suggested. School-based programs may be effective in the promotion of moral competence provided it is based on all-round or whole-person development and the length of the program should be sufficiently long.
Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B; Roberts, Everett
The limited success of youth violence prevention interventions suggests that effective prevention needs to address causes at multiple levels of analysis and empower youth in developing and implementing prevention programs. In this article, we review published studies of youth violence prevention efforts that engage youth in developing or implementing violence prevention activities. The reviewed studies suggest the promise of youth empowerment strategies and the need for systematic outcome studies of empowerment programs. After reviewing empowerment theory applied to youth violence prevention programs, we present a case study of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) for Peaceful Communities program. YES engages middle-school youth in an after-school and summer program that includes a culturally tailored character development curriculum and empowers the youth to plan and implement community improvement projects with assistance from adult neighborhood advocates. The case study focuses on outcome evaluation results and presents evidence of the YES program effects on community-level outcomes (eg, property improvements, violent crime incidents) and on individual-level outcomes (eg, conflict avoidance, victimization). The literature review and the case study suggest the promise of engaging and empowering youth to plan and implement youth violence prevention programs.
Whitley, Meredith A.; Farrell, Kelly; Maisonet, Cindy; Hoffer, Andrew
Service-learning courses provide students with practical opportunities to enhance their learning and development in the field, along with getting students engaged in different communities and settings. However, there are still many challenges to designing and offering effective service-learning courses, such as requiring all students to…
The role of the state as regulator combined with policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that go beyond legal requirements to establishing programmes that promote development and good international business practice is an emerging new paradigm. In this paper, the example of a state-owned company, Statkraft A.S. of Norway, and its recent…
Anderson, James C., II; Kim, Eunyoung
This descriptive study explores the perceptions of and preferences for leadership development by students enrolled in a comprehensive urban agriculture program. A total of 284 students from the Chicago High School for Agricultural Sciences participated in the study. The results of the study showed that the average respondent was involved in a…
This paper focuses on the educative role of the farm in the development of relationships between young people and the homeplace they grew up on. The paper is based on qualitative interviews with a cohort of 30 Irish university students (15 men and 15 women) brought up on Irish family farms who would not become full-time farmers. The farm acts as…
Tomasik, Martin J.; Pavlova, Maria K.; Lechner, Clemens M.; Blumenthal, Anja; Korner, Astrid
Developmental contexts play a pivotal role in shaping the psychosocial adaptation and development of young people. Family, school, peer groups, and community provide the opportunities and constraints for the attainment of major developmental tasks of adolescence, and changing relations between the individual and these contexts constitute the basic…
Turnnidge, Jennifer; Côté, Jean; Hancock, David J.
While previous studies indicate that participation in sport has the potential to facilitate positive developmental outcomes, there is a lack of consensus regarding the possible transfer of these outcomes to other environments (i.e., school or work). An important issue within the positive development literature concerns how sport programs should…
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Way, Niobe; Chen, Xinyin
Social ecological and dynamic systems theories propose that human development is shaped by the cumulative impact of social interactions in proximal and distal settings, which are themselves influenced by social and economic forces. The understanding of the links between microsystem-level factors (such as parenting styles and parent-child…
Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.
Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…
Kull, Ryan M.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.
This study examined whether school counselors' LGBT-related graduate education and professional development predicted more frequent efforts to support LGBT students, and whether their LGBT-related self-efficacy mediated the relationship between their training experiences and supportive efforts. Results from ordinary least squares (OLS) regression…
Dejaeghere, Joan; Wiger, Nancy Pellowski; Willemsen, Laura Wangsness
This article argues that, if a global development aim is to address educational inequalities, the post-2015 agenda needs to conceptually and practically broaden the focus of learning to include social relations as important processes and outcomes for achieving educational equity. We draw on Sen's capability approach and Bourdieu's forms of capital…
D. A. Tsyunik
Full Text Available Young people as a special age category and social group are the object of studying the complex of humanities — political science, sociology, political philosophy, political psychology, cultural studies, conflict studies, etc. The need for youth research is conditioned by the formation of an actual strategy and tactics of the state youth policy, which can contribute to the increase Effectiveness of the activities of political institutions, authorities and government, to promote the dynamic development of the state Society and society. Youth policy is one of the most important factors in the modernization of the state, therefore it is important to develop tools for measuring the parameters of the systemic change of society under the influence, with the participation of emerging, developing youth organizations.The theme of the study of the problems of youth is important in connection with the activation of the use of technologies for the recruitment of youth into political organizations (party organizations, which strengthens the competitive struggle of various political forces for influencing the younger generation of citizens as potentially active citizens who are supporters or opponents of certain parties.The urgency of the study is also conditioned by the processes of building the rule of law and the development of civil society institutions. This process is impossible without overcoming the political passivity, the apolitical nature of the younger generation. Youth organizations can become an important element. The political participation of the youth of Russian society is non-systemic, moreover, a significant part of the youth is politically inactive, indifferent to political changes. Studying the mechanisms for overcoming this state, increasing the involvement of young people in the political life of society is an important not only research, but also a practical task.At the present stage of development, youth movements and organizations
Piccin, S; Crippa, A; Nobile, M; Hardan, A Y; Brambilla, P
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly characterised by deficits in social communication as well as by narrow patterns of behaviour and interests (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), often accompanied by language, intellectual and sensory impairments. The severity of these impairments may lead to deficits in the development of daily living activities such as simple meal preparation and feeding, community skills (e.g. buying groceries), personal care (e.g. dressing) and personal hygiene skills (bathing, toileting, hand washing, teeth brushing) needed for independence. Among others, the lack of independence in personal hygiene skills increases the burden of the caregiver and makes children with ASD more dependent (Flynn & Healy, 2012). Therefore, it is important to develop tools for helping individuals with ASD in increasing their ability to perform these basic life activities which will lead to savings that can be invested in other critical areas of needs.
Barqueiro, Marcello; Barquero, Rute
This paper problematizes social capital and empowerment dimensions and their relationship with social development, utilizing intergeneracional empirical data with the answers of young people to the survey entitled “The role of social capital in citizenship promotion and life quality in Latin America. This research was conducted comparatively in Porto Alegre (Brazil), Montevideo (Uruguay and Santiago de Chile (Chile), in 2005. The main argument of this paper is to show the importance of socia...
The present research tests the longitudinal role of life satisfaction on materialism among Chinese adolescents, and provides empirical evidence to support the theorisation that materialism develops as compensation for dissatisfaction with life. Study 1 establishes that the negative relationship between life satisfaction and materialism is present and similar among the younger (N = 516; M = 12.94 years) and the older adolescents (N = 531; M = 16.57 years). A two-wave survey (Study 2) finds no ...
Naval, C. (Concepción); Sádaba, Ch. (Charo)
This paper's objective is to deal with the educational potentiality of media in the development of the communicative and participative competences which are clearly needed and an essential part of all civic education. After a description of the situation in Spain at present with reference to the absence of participation and its possible causes, the text refers to the support that educational policy has given to civic education in schools over the last 15 years, and which will, hopefully, help...
Brothers, Laura L.; Kelley, Joseph T.; Belknap, Daniel F.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Maynard, Melissa Landon
Mechanisms and timescales responsible for pockmark formation and maintenance remain uncertain, especially in areas lacking extensive thermogenic fluid deposits (e.g., previously glaciated estuaries). This study characterizes seafloor activity in the Belfast Bay, Maine nearshore pockmark field using (1) three swath bathymetry datasets collected between 1999 and 2008, complemented by analyses of shallow box-core samples for radionuclide activity and undrained shear strength, and (2) historical bathymetric data (report and smooth sheets from 1872, 1947, 1948). In addition, because repeat swath bathymetry surveys are an emerging data source, we present a selected literature review of recent studies using such datasets for seafloor change analysis. This study is the first to apply the method to a pockmark field, and characterizes macro-scale (>5 m) evolution of tens of square kilometers of highly irregular seafloor. Presence/absence analysis yielded no change in pockmark frequency or distribution over a 9-year period (1999-2008). In that time pockmarks did not detectably enlarge, truncate, elongate, or combine. Historical data indicate that pockmark chains already existed in the 19th century. Despite the lack of macroscopic changes in the field, near-bed undrained shear-strength values of less than 7 kPa and scattered downcore 137Cs signatures indicate a highly disturbed setting. Integrating these findings with independent geophysical and geochemical observations made in the pockmark field, it can be concluded that (1) large-scale sediment resuspension and dispersion related to pockmark formation and failure do not occur frequently within this field, and (2) pockmarks can persevere in a dynamic estuarine setting that exhibits minimal modern fluid venting. Although pockmarks are conventionally thought to be long-lived features maintained by a combination of fluid venting and minimal sediment accumulation, this suggests that other mechanisms may be equally active in
Storer, Heather L.; Barkan, Susan E.; Stenhouse, Linnea L.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Mallillin, Anastasia; Haggerty, Kevin P.
Placement instability is an ongoing challenge for the 125,000 foster youth aged 14 – 18 that are living in foster care, with youth living in approximately 3 placements before aging out of the system. Despite the importance caring adult relationships can play in promoting positive youth development and resiliency, there has been limited inquiry into the characteristics of the foster youth and caregiver relationship. The goal of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the foster youth...
Russell, Stephen T.; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn
In the field of positive youth development programs, “empowerment” is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs fr...
Pasiali, Varvara; Clark, Cherie
Children living in low-resource communities are at risk for poorer socio-emotional development and academic performance. Emerging evidence supports use of group music therapy experiences to support social development through community afterschool programming. To examine the potential benefit of a music therapy social skills development program to improve social skills and academic performance of school-aged children with limited resources in an afterschool program. We used a single-group pre/post-test design, and recruited 20 students (11 females, 9 males), ages 5 to 11 years, from an afterschool program. The music therapy social skills program consisted of eight 50-minute sessions, and we measured social competence and antisocial behavior using the Home & Community Social Behavioral Scale (HCSBS; Merrell & Caldarella, 2008), and social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS; Gresham & Elliot, 2008a, 2008b). Only students who attended a minimum of six sessions (N = 14) were included in data analysis. Results showed no significant change in individual HBSC subscale scores; however, the total number of low-performance/high-risk skills significantly decreased. SSIS teacher results indicated significant improvement in communication, significant decrease of hyperactivity, autistic behavioral tendencies and overall problem behaviors, and marginal decreases in internalization. Parent ratings mirrored, in part, those of the teacher. Results indicated that music therapy has the potential of being an effective intervention for promoting social competence of school-aged children with limited resources, particularly in the areas of communication and low-performance/high-risk behaviors. Teaching skills through song lyrics and improvisation emerged as salient interventions.
... in schools without LGB support groups. 8 A recent study found that LGB students had fewer suicidal thoughts ... factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the ... Youth and Family Studies 2014;1:89‒112. Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM. ...
Boccia, Gennaro; Moisè, Paolo; Franceschi, Alberto; Trova, Francesco; Panero, Davide; La Torre, Antonio; Rainoldi, Alberto; Schena, Federico; Cardinale, Marco
The idea that early sport success can be detrimental for long-term sport performance is still under debate. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the career trajectories of Italian high and long jumpers to provide a better understanding of performance development in jumping events. The official long-jump and high-jump rankings of the Italian Track and Field Federation were collected from the age of 12 to career termination, for both genders from the year 1994 to 2014. Top-level athletes were identified as those with a percentile of their personal best performance between 97 and 100. The age of entering competitions of top-level athletes was not different than the rest of the athletic population, whereas top-level athletes performed their personal best later than the rest of the athletes. Top-level athletes showed an overall higher rate of improvement in performance from the age of 13 to the age of 18 years when compared to all other individuals. Only 10-25% of the top-level adult athletes were top-level at the age of 16. Around 60% of the top-level young at the age of 16 did not maintain the same level of performance in adulthood. Female high-jump represented an exception from this trend since in this group most top-level young become top-level adult athletes. These findings suggest that performance before the age of 16 is not a good predictor of adult performance in long and high jump. The annual rate of improvements from 13 to 18 years should be included as a predictor of success rather than performance per se. Coaches should be careful about predicting future success based on performances obtained during youth in jumping events.
Full Text Available The idea that early sport success can be detrimental for long-term sport performance is still under debate. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the career trajectories of Italian high and long jumpers to provide a better understanding of performance development in jumping events.The official long-jump and high-jump rankings of the Italian Track and Field Federation were collected from the age of 12 to career termination, for both genders from the year 1994 to 2014. Top-level athletes were identified as those with a percentile of their personal best performance between 97 and 100.The age of entering competitions of top-level athletes was not different than the rest of the athletic population, whereas top-level athletes performed their personal best later than the rest of the athletes. Top-level athletes showed an overall higher rate of improvement in performance from the age of 13 to the age of 18 years when compared to all other individuals. Only 10-25% of the top-level adult athletes were top-level at the age of 16. Around 60% of the top-level young at the age of 16 did not maintain the same level of performance in adulthood. Female high-jump represented an exception from this trend since in this group most top-level young become top-level adult athletes.These findings suggest that performance before the age of 16 is not a good predictor of adult performance in long and high jump. The annual rate of improvements from 13 to 18 years should be included as a predictor of success rather than performance per se. Coaches should be careful about predicting future success based on performances obtained during youth in jumping events.
Hansen, Gitte Riis; Grandal*, Niels
(in 2012) to report on sexual and physical violence, that raised awareness on the subject. The investigations showed that professionals perceive very few of the cases of sexual abuse in residential and foster care and in many cases the perpetrators turn out to be peers. This drew attention......In The Netherlands, Denmark and Scotland special awareness on the subject of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation was raised by national investigations on the prevalence and content of sexual abuse in residential and foster care. In Flanders (Belgium) it was the start of the so called Helpline 1712...... to a central issue: the incapability of professionals to support a healthy sexual development and discuss sexual behaviour with children and young people, their (foster) parents and other professionals. Sex is a subject that is not easily talked about and most professionals feel insecure about. Moreover...
Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise
A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...
Rachel C. F. Sun
Full Text Available Beliefs in the future are an internalization of hope and optimism about future outcomes. This paper reviews and compares several theories of hope and optimism and highlights the features constituting beliefs in the future. This paper points out that beliefs in the future include a series of goal-directed thoughts and motivation, such as setting up valued and attainable goals, planning pathways, and maintaining self-confidence and mastery, so as to keep adolescents engaged in the pursuit of goals. This kind of personal mastery, together with sociocultural values, family, school, and peers are the antecedents leading to beliefs in the future, which is related to adolescents’ well-being and positive development. In order to cultivate adolescents’ beliefs in the future, enabling their ability to manipulate goal-directed thoughts and motivation and providing a supportive environment including their family, school, peers, and the society are recommended.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale for identifying digital citizenship perceptions of young people in the most common age groups. The study was conducted as a survey study. The study group of this study is composed of 438 people in Turkey who are among 16-24 age group with the highest rate of internet use in Turkey. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine the validity of the scale and the item discrimination powers were calculated. The total variance of the scale was determined that the scale had 8-factor structure and was found to be 49,70%. The internal consistency level was also calculated to determine the reliability of the scale. As a result, it can be said that this scale is a valid and reliable scale that can be used to determine the digital citizenship perceptions of young people.
Harris Meredith G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection and treatment of mental disorders in adolescents and young adults can lead to better health outcomes. Mental health literacy is a key to early recognition and help seeking. Whilst a number of population health initiatives have attempted to improve mental health literacy, none to date have specifically targeted young people nor have they applied the rigorous standards of population health models now accepted as best practice in other health areas. This paper describes the outcomes from the application of a health promotion model to the development, implementation and evaluation of a community awareness campaign designed to improve mental health literacy and early help seeking amongst young people. Method The Compass Strategy was implemented in the western metropolitan Melbourne and Barwon regions of Victoria, Australia. The Precede-Proceed Model guided the population assessment, campaign strategy development and evaluation. The campaign included the use of multimedia, a website, and an information telephone service. Multiple levels of evaluation were conducted. This included a cross-sectional telephone survey of mental health literacy undertaken before and after 14 months of the campaign using a quasi-experimental design. Randomly selected independent samples of 600 young people aged 12–25 years from the experimental region and another 600 from a comparison region were interviewed at each time point. A series of binary logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association between a range of campaign outcome variables and the predictor variables of region and time. Results The program was judged to have an impact on the following variables, as indicated by significant region-by-time interaction effects (p Conclusion We believe this is the first study to apply the rigorous standards of a health promotion model including the use of a control region to a mental health population intervention. The
Wright, Annemarie; McGorry, Patrick D; Harris, Meredith G; Jorm, Anthony F; Pennell, Kerryn
Background Early detection and treatment of mental disorders in adolescents and young adults can lead to better health outcomes. Mental health literacy is a key to early recognition and help seeking. Whilst a number of population health initiatives have attempted to improve mental health literacy, none to date have specifically targeted young people nor have they applied the rigorous standards of population health models now accepted as best practice in other health areas. This paper describes the outcomes from the application of a health promotion model to the development, implementation and evaluation of a community awareness campaign designed to improve mental health literacy and early help seeking amongst young people. Method The Compass Strategy was implemented in the western metropolitan Melbourne and Barwon regions of Victoria, Australia. The Precede-Proceed Model guided the population assessment, campaign strategy development and evaluation. The campaign included the use of multimedia, a website, and an information telephone service. Multiple levels of evaluation were conducted. This included a cross-sectional telephone survey of mental health literacy undertaken before and after 14 months of the campaign using a quasi-experimental design. Randomly selected independent samples of 600 young people aged 12–25 years from the experimental region and another 600 from a comparison region were interviewed at each time point. A series of binary logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association between a range of campaign outcome variables and the predictor variables of region and time. Results The program was judged to have an impact on the following variables, as indicated by significant region-by-time interaction effects (p awareness of mental health campaigns, self-identified depression, help for depression sought in the previous year, correct estimate of prevalence of mental health problems, increased awareness of suicide risk, and a reduction
Wood, Lesley; Hendricks, Farah
Teenage pregnancy among school-going youth is a concern worldwide, but in socially-economically challenged environments it is a result of, and contributory factor to, a complex web of social injustice. In South Africa, most of the school-based prevention interventions to date have been adult-designed and imparted, with the voice of the target…
Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan
Dual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behavior problems and/or mental disorders has become increasingly recognized and studied. Reported rates in samples of mixed-age youth with ASD are often above 70%, making this comorbidity more the rule than the exception. The present study compared rates of disruptive behavior disorder…
To understand the digital divide as a matter of social justice, I identify access to computational fluency as a civil rights issue. "Access" refers to material as well as social resources, including meaningful learning opportunities that create the conditions for urban youth to engage in computational thinking. In this article, I explore…
Sametz, Rebecca R.
For youth with disabilities, transitioning from school to work and adult life often means overcoming multiple social, academic, and environmental constraints that may present as roadblocks to meeting society's expectations of 'successful transition' (Lehman, Clark, Bullis, Rinkin, & Castellanos, 2002). According to the United States Department…
Keegan, Patrick Joseph
In the context of transnational migration, schools are reimagining their role in preparing students to become democratic citizens. The qualitative research study described in this article explores the places where five Dominican transnational youth attending a New York City public high school for late-arriving migrants enacted their civic…
Poteat, V. Paul; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.; Gray, Mary L.; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Lipkin, Arthur; Mundy-Shephard, Adrienne; Perrotti, Jeff; Scheer, Jillian R.; Shaw, Matthew P.
Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) may promote resilience. Yet, what GSA components predict well-being? Among 146 youth and advisors in 13 GSAs (58% lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; 64% White; 38% received free/reduced-cost lunch), student (demographics, victimization, attendance frequency, leadership, support, control), advisor (years served,…
Wenger-Schulman, A. R. S.; Hoffman, Lauren
Middle School 88 in Brooklyn, New York serves a community of students often considered at high risk for dropping out of high school and other socially undesirable behaviors. In this high-need setting, the authors designed and implemented an environmental education program designed to meet the needs of urban youth of color. The approach they used,…
Belinda Wheaton; Georgina Roy; Rebecca Olive
While competition-based team sports remain dominant in community and sport-for-development programs, researchers are exploring the value of alternative, less “sportized” activities such as lifestyle/action sports. In this paper, we explore the ways in which surfing is being used in development programs in Aotearoa/New Zealand, examining the perceived social benefits and impact. Our methods involved: (a) mapping the range of surfing projects; and (b) 8 in-depth interviews with program personne...
Renee A. Oscarson
Full Text Available Despite frequent concerns about youth and young adult migration from rural to urban areas, most measures used to assess youth in rural community research have been developed by adults. Accurate understanding of youth community perceptions necessitates youth input into the research process. The participatory research strategy described here, using photography to describe community, enables youth to define community and identify what they value about their communities. Photographs and explanations of the photographs indicated that youth value places (schools, churches, as well as locations unique to communities and people from those communities. Photovoice, photography-based participatory-action research, is a feasible and engaging method for obtaining youth perspectives on community issues. Further, Photovoice may be adapted to the needs of different age groups and situations.
Lynne M. Borden
Full Text Available The Excellence in Youth Programming (Excel Initiative strives to support youth programs in delivering high quality programs. The backbone of Excel is the Youth Development Observational Tool (YDOT which allows for the virtual assessment of program staff who work with children and youth ages 9-18 years. The YDOT also allows Excel to provide structured feedback to programs. Excel has several unique features, including a virtual platform and a focus on the relationships between adults and youth participating in after-school programs. Offering structured assessment and interaction online eliminates expenses, provides convenient access for programs around the globe, and allows for unobtrusive assessment of worker-youth interactions. Excel is also integrated into a broader network of resources, tools, and research for those working with children and youth ages 9-18.
Full Text Available Beef, sheep and swine 4-H youth livestock projects have a great deal of hands-on learning opportunities for members. However, what are parents’ perceptions about livestock projects and the development of life skills? The purpose of this research effort was to determine the life skill development gained by 4-H members participating in 4-H beef, sheep or swine projects in West Virginia. A total of 207 caregivers offered insight into the study and answered life skill development questions. These questions were related to decision making, relating to others, developing and maintaining records, accepting responsibility, building positive self esteem, self motivation, knowledge of the livestock industry, developing organizational skills, problem solving, developing oral communication skills, setting goals, developing self-discipline, and working in teams. The findings of this study provide positive insights into the relationship between the development of valuable life skills and 4-H beef, sheep and swine projects.
Youth engagement is a key component of the work of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) as it collaborates with Canadians to implement Adaptive Phased Management (APM), Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. Knowledge transfer is an important aspect of APM implementation, which will span several decades and will need to be flexible enough to adjust to changing societal values and new information. By engaging youth, the NWMO is putting in place mechanisms for ongoing societal learning and capacity building, so that future generations will be well-equipped to make decisions and participate in future dialogues on APM. The NWMO convened a Youth Roundtable, comprised of 18- to 25-year-olds with a diversity of backgrounds and experience, to seek advice on the best approaches to engaging youth on this topic. In May 2009, the Roundtable presented its recommendations to the NWMO and its Advisory Council, providing valuable guidance on: development of dynamic messages and communications materials that will resonate with young people; use of new technologies and social media to engage youth where they are already connecting and conversing; and a range of activities to engage youth through the educational system and in their communities. The NWMO has begun to implement many of the Youth Roundtable recommendations and is developing longer-term implementation plans, including a framework for education and outreach to youth. Through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program, the NWMO is laying the foundation for greater science and technology literacy and enhanced community engagement among young Canadians. Additionally, the NWMO is working with Aboriginal peoples to develop strategies for further engagement of Aboriginal youth, as part of the organization's ongoing collaborative work with Aboriginal peoples that could be affected by the implementation of APM. Youth engagement will continue to be a NWMO priority moving
Mantagaris, E. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)
Youth engagement is a key component of the work of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) as it collaborates with Canadians to implement Adaptive Phased Management (APM), Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. Knowledge transfer is an important aspect of APM implementation, which will span several decades and will need to be flexible enough to adjust to changing societal values and new information. By engaging youth, the NWMO is putting in place mechanisms for ongoing societal learning and capacity building, so that future generations will be well-equipped to make decisions and participate in future dialogues on APM. The NWMO convened a Youth Roundtable, comprised of 18- to 25-year-olds with a diversity of backgrounds and experience, to seek advice on the best approaches to engaging youth on this topic. In May 2009, the Roundtable presented its recommendations to the NWMO and its Advisory Council, providing valuable guidance on: development of dynamic messages and communications materials that will resonate with young people; use of new technologies and social media to engage youth where they are already connecting and conversing; and a range of activities to engage youth through the educational system and in their communities. The NWMO has begun to implement many of the Youth Roundtable recommendations and is developing longer-term implementation plans, including a framework for education and outreach to youth. Through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Program, the NWMO is laying the foundation for greater science and technology literacy and enhanced community engagement among young Canadians. Additionally, the NWMO is working with Aboriginal peoples to develop strategies for further engagement of Aboriginal youth, as part of the organization's ongoing collaborative work with Aboriginal peoples that could be affected by the implementation of APM. Youth engagement will continue to be a NWMO priority moving
Taggart, Allister J
To conduct a training course in musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) for rheumatologists in Northern Ireland with the aim of equipping the participants with a basic knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of MSUS as they are applied to rheumatology.
Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.