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Sample records for belching trigger recurrent

  1. Does (supra)gastric belching trigger recurrent hiccups?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wim; P; Hopman; Mariёtte; C; van; Kouwen; André; J; Smout

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-four hours multichannel intraesophageal impedance and pH monitoring in a patient who suffered from recurrent hiccups for more than a year revealed frequent supragastric belching and pathological oesophageal acid exposure. Furthermore, a temporal relationship between the start of a hiccup episode and gastric belching was observed. The data support the hypothesis that there is an association between supragastric belching, persistent recurrent hiccups and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and that gast...

  2. Recurrent myositis triggered by infections: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Sui H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Recurrent myositis triggered by infections is unusual, with only one other case reporting two attacks described in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 24-year-old Caucasian woman with recurrent myositis triggered by sore throat, respiratory and urinary tract infections, over the past 18 years, up to four times a year. Myositis of this frequency and duration, apparently triggered by infections, has not been reported previously. Conclusion We believe that this case adds to the understanding of myositis associated with infections being a triggered autoimmune response, and postulate that the pathogenesis in our patient is a non-specific immune response to a range of different precipitants, both bacterial and viral.

  3. Pilot study on pathophysiology mechanism of belching disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathophysiology mechanism in belching by using high resolution manometry combined with impedance monitoring.Methods Ten belching patients (four male and six female,ages ranged from 28 to 50 years) received high resolution manometry

  4. Actin gene family in Branchiostoma belched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a highly conserved cytoskeletal protein that is found in essentially all eukaryotic cells,which plays a paramount role in several basic functions of the organism, such as the maintenance of cellshape, cell division, cell mobility and muscle contraction. However, little is known about actin gene family inChinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri). Here we systemically analyzed the actin genes family inBranchiostoma belched and found that amphioxus contains 33 actin genes. These genes have undergoneextensive expansion through tandem duplications by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, we also providedevidence indicating that actin genes have divergent functions by specializing their EST data in both Bran-chiostoma belched and Branchiostoma florida. Our results provided an alternative explanation for the evolu-tion of actin genes, and gave new insights into their functional roles.

  5. Editorial: Reflux While Running: Something to Belch About.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D A; Hirano, I

    2016-07-01

    Running is the most popular form of exercise in the United States. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common during exercise and may affect performance. Previous studies have focused on increased intra-abdominal pressure as a major determinant of acid reflux during physical exertion. In this issue, Herregods et al. examined the mechanisms of GER in healthy volunteers using simultaneous high-resolution manometry and pH impedance testing performed while running. Novel observations afforded by the utilization of state-of-the-art technology include the importance of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation ("belch reflex") and transient formation of hiatal hernia during exercise. The findings are provocative and lend credence to commonsense strategies to minimize the consequences of belching in runners. PMID:27356820

  6. Impaired health-related quality of life in patients with excessive supragastric belching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Bredenoord; A.J. Smout

    2010-01-01

    Background Excessive supragastric belching, sometimes called aerophagia, is a rare behavioural disorder in which patients belch frequently, up to 20 times a minute. This is perceived by the patients as disturbing and interferes with social functioning and is likely to affect quality of life. Methods

  7. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, AJ; Weusten, BLAM; Timmer, R; Akkermans, LMA; Smout, AJPM

    2005-01-01

    Background: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms und

  8. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  11. Women's Views and Experiences of the Triggers for Onset of Bacterial Vaginosis and Exacerbating Factors Associated with Recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Bilardi

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal infection affecting women of childbearing age. While the aetiology and transmissibility of BV remain unclear, there is strong evidence to suggest an association between BV and sexual activity. This study explored women's views and experiences of the triggers for BV onset and factors associated with recurrence.A descriptive, social constructionist approach was chosen as the framework for the study. Thirty five women of varying sexual orientation who had experienced recurrent BV in the past five years took part in semi-structured interviews.The majority of women predominantly reported sexual contact triggered the onset of BV and sexual and non-sexual factors precipitated recurrence. Recurrence was most commonly referred to in terms of a 'flare-up' of symptoms. The majority of women did not think BV was a sexually transmitted infection however many reported being informed this by their clinician. Single women who attributed BV onset to sex with casual partners were most likely to display self-blame tendencies and to consider changing their future sexual behaviour. Women who have sex with women (WSW were more inclined to believe their partner was responsible for the transmission of or reinfection with BV and seek partner treatment or change their sexual practices.Findings from this study strongly suggest women believe that BV onset is associated with sexual activity, concurring with epidemiological data which increasingly suggest BV may be sexually transmitted. Exacerbating factors associated with recurrence were largely heterogeneous and may reflect the fact it is difficult to determine whether recurrence is due to persistent BV or a new infection in women. There was however evidence to suggest possible transmission and reinfection among WSW, reinforcing the need for new approaches to treatment and management strategies including male and female partner treatment trials.

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  13. Event-Triggered State Estimation for a Class of Delayed Recurrent Neural Networks with Sampled-Data Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the state estimation problem for a class of recurrent neural networks with sampled-data information and time-varying delays. The main purpose is to estimate the neuron states through output sampled measurement; a novel event-triggered scheme is proposed, which can lead to a significant reduction of the information communication burden in the network; the feature of this scheme is that whether or not the sampled data should be transmitted is determined by the current sampled data and the error between the current sampled data and the latest transmitted data. By using a delayed-input approach, the error dynamic system is equivalent to a dynamic system with two different time-varying delays. Based on the Lyapunov-krasovskii functional approach, a state estimator of the considered neural networks can be achieved by solving some linear matrix inequalities, which can be easily facilitated by using the standard numerical software. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed event-triggered scheme.

  14. Development of a Real-Time Smoke Belching Monitoring System for Public Utility Vehicles (PUV via GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Development of a Real-Time-Based Smoke Belching Monitoring System for Public Utility Vehicle is designed in order to monitor smoke belchers or violators among public utility vehicles (PUV that uses diesel such as jeepneys or buses. The concept of the project is to measure the opacity of the smoke being emitted by the PUV with the use of a predesigned sensor unit incorporated by Light Dependent Resistor Sensor and Light Source facing each other, 4 inches apart. By allowing the smoke to pass through the LDR and Light Source, the desired resistance is acquired and processed by the microcontroller to obtain the Light Absorption Coefficient. This value is the basis for being a smoke belcher (If it exceeds 2.5 k. The system then sends the data (Plate Number and K -value for every one (1 hour to the Database System and to the operator with the aid of GSM Microcontroller that leads to a real time monitoring. The system is possible to implement and has a potential to be used for emission testing centers since it has the features of the commercial opacity meter which is common in emission centers to measure the smoke emitted by the diesel-fueled vehicles. This project serves as an innovation in emission testing because it monitors the smoke belchers in real-time and operators or owners of the vehicle are not required anymore to go to the emission testing center every year to renew their car registration.

  15. Aphthous ulcers (recurrent)

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Stephen R; Scully CBE, Crispian

    2007-01-01

    Most people with recurrent aphthous ulcers develop a few ulcers less than 1 cm in diameter, that heal after 5 to 14 days without scarring. The causes are unknown, but risks of recurrence may decrease if the person gives up smoking.Local physical trauma may trigger ulcers in susceptible people.In 10% of sufferers, lesions are more than 1 cm in diameter and can cause scarring.

  16. Belching, Bloating and Flatulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACG on Facebook About ACG ACG Store ACG Patient Education & Resource Center Home GI Health and Disease Recursos en Español What is a Gastroenterologist? Podcasts and Videos GI Health Centers Colorectal Cancer Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity © ...

  17. Therapeutic Observation of Salt-partitioned Moxibustion for Belching Due to Chemotherapy%隔盐灸治疗化疗所致呃逆疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许樱樱; 蔡亚红; 叶富英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of salt-partitioned moxibustion at Zhongwan (CV12) in treating belching due to chemotherapy.Method Subjects with chemotherapy-induced belching were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 30 in each group. The control group was intervened by intramuscular injection with Ritalin 20 mg, while the observation group was by salt-partitioned moxibustion at Zhongwan for 30 min in addition to the intramuscular injection.Result The total effective rate was 93.3% in the observation group versus 76.7% in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); the action latency in the observation group was (1.7±1.8)min in the observation group versus (15.6±4.2)min, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01).Conclusion Salt-partitioned moxibustion at Zhongwan is significantly effective in treating chemotherapy-induced belching, and it’s easy-to-operate, efficient, and safe.%目的观察中脘穴隔盐灸在化疗所致呃逆中的应用效果。方法将化疗所致呃逆患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组30例。对照组于患者出现呃逆后采用利他林20 mg肌肉注射,观察组在肌肉注射利他林20 mg后,使用自制隔盐灸灶行中脘穴隔盐灸30 min。结果观察组总有效率为93.3%,对照组总有效率为76.7%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组起效时间为(1.7±1.8)min,对照组为(15.6±4.2)min,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论中脘穴隔盐灸在化疗所致呃逆中的应用效果显著,且简单易行,起效快,安全可靠。

  18. Therapeutic Observation of Salt-partitioned Moxibustion for Belching Due to Chemotherapy%隔盐灸治疗化疗所致呃逆疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许樱樱; 蔡亚红; 叶富英

    2014-01-01

    目的观察中脘穴隔盐灸在化疗所致呃逆中的应用效果。方法将化疗所致呃逆患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组30例。对照组于患者出现呃逆后采用利他林20 mg肌肉注射,观察组在肌肉注射利他林20 mg后,使用自制隔盐灸灶行中脘穴隔盐灸30 min。结果观察组总有效率为93.3%,对照组总有效率为76.7%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组起效时间为(1.7±1.8)min,对照组为(15.6±4.2)min,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论中脘穴隔盐灸在化疗所致呃逆中的应用效果显著,且简单易行,起效快,安全可靠。%Objective To observe the effect of salt-partitioned moxibustion at Zhongwan (CV12) in treating belching due to chemotherapy.Method Subjects with chemotherapy-induced belching were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 30 in each group. The control group was intervened by intramuscular injection with Ritalin 20 mg, while the observation group was by salt-partitioned moxibustion at Zhongwan for 30 min in addition to the intramuscular injection.Result The total effective rate was 93.3% in the observation group versus 76.7% in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); the action latency in the observation group was (1.7±1.8)min in the observation group versus (15.6±4.2)min, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01).Conclusion Salt-partitioned moxibustion at Zhongwan is significantly effective in treating chemotherapy-induced belching, and it’s easy-to-operate, efficient, and safe.

  19. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital stenosing tenosynovitis; Trigger digit; Trigger finger release ... JH. Carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar tunnel syndrome, and stenosing tenosynovitis. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative ...

  20. Recurrent varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rotker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele recurrence is one of the most common complications associated with varicocele repair. A systematic review was performed to evaluate varicocele recurrence rates, anatomic causes of recurrence, and methods of management of recurrent varicoceles. The PubMed database was evaluated using keywords "recurrent" and "varicocele" as well as MESH criteria "recurrent" and "varicocele." Articles were not included that were not in English, represented single case reports, focused solely on subclinical varicocele, or focused solely on a pediatric population (age <18. Rates of recurrence vary with the technique of varicocele repair from 0% to 35%. Anatomy of recurrence can be defined by venography. Management of varicocele recurrence can be surgical or via embolization.

  1. Dynamic triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  2. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general ag

  3. 嗳气症患者的症状特点及心理社会因素分析%Symptomatic features and psychosocial factors in patients with belching disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓敏; 柯美云; 王智凤; 张静; 方秀才; 朱丽明

    2012-01-01

    目的 问卷调查分析嗳气症的症状特点和心理社会因素.方法 对北京协和医院消化内科门诊2010年9月至2011年1月连续入组的反复嗳气患者21例进行问卷调查,内容包括一般资料、症状谱、病程、发病诱因、既往诊疗情况、心理社会情况、精神心理状态和人格等.采用Pearson相关分析及确切概率法分析数据.结果 20例符合暖气症诊断标准,其中男5例、女15例;年龄(49±10)岁.18例患者每天发作暖气,16例嗳气与进餐有关;15例嗳气不需自行诱导,16例暖气可以控制;17例有重叠症状,功能性消化不良最为常见(13例),其次为胃食管反流病(11例);16例患者有精神刺激或负性事件的经历,其中,13例与家庭关系紧张、工作压力大及过度劳累有关;12例存在焦虑和(或)抑郁状态;8例具有神经质人格特征.重叠症状的数量与焦虑状态相关(r=0.47,t=2.14,P <0.05),嗳气严重程度与是否有焦虑抑郁状态无相关关系(P =0.096).结论 嗳气症患者有多种临床表现,其与情绪改变、环境应激有关,多合并精神心理及人格特征异常.嗳气可能是患者对消化道不适症状的一种行为异常反应,心理社会因素在暖气症发病机制中可能具有重要作用.%Objective To explore the symptomatic features and psychosocial factors in patients with belching disorders.Methods At Peking Union Medical College Hospital Outpatient Clinic from September 2010 to January 2011, 21 consecutive patients with repetitive belching were profiled by symptom questionnaires,including general demographics, spectrum of symptoms, disease course,predisposing factors,previous treatment,psychosocial factors,mental status and personality traits, etc. Pearson's correlation analysis and exact probability were used.Results Among them,20 patients fulfilled the Rome Ⅲ criteria of belching disorders.There were 5 males and 15 females with an age range of (49 ± 10)years

  4. Recurrent vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anna M; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Vulvovaginitis (VV) is one of the most commonly encountered problems by a gynecologist. Many women frequently self-treat with over-the-counter medications, and may present to their health-care provider after a treatment failure. Vulvovaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis may occur as discreet or recurrent episodes, and have been associated with significant treatment cost and morbidity. We present an update on diagnostic capabilities and treatment modalities that address recurrent and refractory episodes of VV. PMID:25220102

  5. Triggering Klystrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  6. Recurrent miscarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Duckitt, Kirsten; Qureshi, Aysha

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies with the same biological father in the first trimester; it affects 1% to 2% of women, in half of whom there is no identifiable cause. Overall, 75% of affected women will have a successful subsequent pregnancy, but this rate falls for older mothers and with increasing number of miscarriages.Antiphospholipid syndrome, with anticardiolipin or lupus anticoagulant antibodies, is present in 15% of women with r...

  7. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general critique of the use of conceptual frameworks in design, illustrated by the well known synchronous/asynchronous, co-located/non-co-located framework. It argues that while frameworks are a necessary and inevitable starting point for design, the business of tailoring and...... adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  8. Firearm trigger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  9. Study on pathogenesis and treatment of belching syndrome by the combination of esophageal multichannel intralumminal impedance and pH monitoring%食管多通道腔内阻抗技术联合pH监测对嗳气症发病机制及治疗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王捷鹏; 姚艳梅; 张寿山

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨食管多通道腔内阻抗技术联合pH检测对嗳气症各亚型的发病机制及临床疗效.方法 以我院2009年8月至2011年8月治疗的128例嗳气症患者为研究对象,使用食管多通道腔内阻抗技术联合pH检测进行检测,对嗳气患者各亚型的发病机制、与胃食管反流的关系等进行研究;使用巴氯芬对研究对象进行治疗,并进行各亚型之间的疗效比较,并对相关数据进行统计学分析.结果 通过食管多通道腔内阻抗联合pH监测发现:①吞气症和非特异性嗳气综合征的发病机制不同,吞气症的嗳气是由气体吞咽后,且所吞咽的气体并未进入胃内而引发症状,非特异性嗳气综合征则是由胃内引发,且不伴有吞咽;②胃食管反流与嗳气发生的时间具有相关性,吞气症可能是由于瞬间下食管括约肌的松弛导致嗳气和反流同时发生,非特异性嗳气综合征可能是嗳气发生后由于LES的松弛导致反流的发生;③使用巴氯芬治疗,非特异性嗳气综合征的疗效优于吞气症,差异具有统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 嗳气症各型的发病机制不同,直接导致使用巴氯芬治疗的效果存在差异性;胃食管炎与嗳气症存在时间相关性,吞气症可能是由于瞬间下食管括约肌的松弛导致嗳气和反流同时发生,非特异性嗳气综合征可能是嗳气发生后由于LES的松弛导致反流的发生.%Objective To study the pathogenesis and clinical curative effect of belching syndrome and its relationship with gastroesophageal reflux by the combination of esophageal multichannel intralumminal impedance and pH monitoring. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight patients with belching syndrome from Aug. 2009 to Aug. 2011 were chosen as study object. The pathogenesis of belching syndrome and its relationship with gastroesophageal reflux were studied by the combination of esophageal multichannel intralumminal impedance and pH monitoring. The

  10. Identifying asthma triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  11. Recurrent groin hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, P J; Leach, R D; Ellis, Harold

    1981-01-01

    One hundred consecutive recurrences following repair of inguinal hernias have been studied; 62 were direct, 30 indirect, 7 pantaloon and one a femoral hernia. Half the indirect recurrences occurred within a year of repair and probably represented failure to detect a small indirect sac. Later indirect recurrences probably represented failure to repair the internal ring. Nine of the direct hernias were medial funicular recurrences and represented failure to anchor the darn medially. The rest of...

  12. Subperiostial recurrence of chondroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Sumanth; Deavers, Michael; Lin, Patrick; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of subperiosteal recurrence of chondroblastoma adjacent to the greater trochanter that was initially thought to represent septic arthritis of the hip in a 10-year-old girl. Soft-tissue recurrence of chondroblastoma is very rare, with fewer than ten cases reported in the literature. We demonstrate the recurrence on both CT and MRI. The MRI clearly demonstrates the soft-tissue recurrence and the associated inflammatory changes, with signal characteristics not unlike the primar...

  13. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  14. Landslide occurrences and recurrence intervals of heavy rainfalls in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H.; Uchida, T.; Matsuyama, H.; Korup, O.

    2015-12-01

    Dealing with predicted increases in extreme weather conditions due to climate change requires robust knowledge about controls on rainfall-triggered landslides. This study developed the probable rainfall database from weather radar data, and analyzed the potential correlation between the landslide magnitude-frequency and the recurrence interval of the heavy rainfall across Japan. We analyzed 4,744 rainfall-induced landslides (Saito et al., 2014, Geology), 1 to 72 h rainfalls, and soil water index (SWI). We then estimated recurrence intervals for these rainfall parameters using a Gumbel distribution with jackknife fitting. Results showed that the recurrence intervals of rainfall events which caused landslides (Japan. The recurrence intervals increased with increases in landslide volumes. With regard to the landslides larger than 10^5 m^3, recurrence intervals of the rainfall events were more than 100 yr. These results suggest that recurrence intervals of heavy rainfalls are important for assessing regional landslide hazard in Japan.

  15. Asthma triggers (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things make your asthma worse. These are called asthma "triggers". Avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. The most common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors ...

  16. Recurrence in Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Duvenhage, Rocco

    2002-01-01

    We first compare the mathematical structure of quantum and classical mechanics when both are formulated in a C*-algebraic framework. By using finite von Neumann algebras, a quantum mechanical analogue of Liouville's theorem is then proposed. We proceed to study Poincare recurrence in C*-algebras by mimicking the measure theoretic setting. The results are interpreted as recurrence in quantum mechanics, similar to Poincare recurrence in classical mechanics.

  17. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia.

    OpenAIRE

    Maslow, J.N.; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-f...

  18. Recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen jinsong; Lu jianhong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: In order to study the clinical manifestation and risk factor of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH).Methods:The 256 patients were analysed who admitted to our hospital for intracerebral hemorrhage between 1995 and 1997.The 15(5 .86%)patients had a recurrent ICH.There were 9 men and 6 women and the mean age of the patients was 63.5 ± 6.4years at the first bleeding episode and 67.8± 8. 5 years at the second. The mean interval between the two bleeding episodes was 44.6 ± 12.5 months. The 73.3%patients were hypertensive .′The site of the first hemorrhage was ganglionic in 8 patients , ]ohar in six paients and brainstem in one .The recurrent hemorrhage occurred at a different location from the previous ICH.The most common pattern of recurrence was “ganglionic -ganglionic” (7 patients), lobar - ganglionic (3 patients), lobar-lobar(three patients), which was always observed in hypertensive patients. The outcome after the recurrent hemorrhage was usually poor. By comparison with 24 patients followed up to average 47.5± 18.7 months with isolated ICH without recurrence .Only lobar hematoma and a younger age were risk factors for recurrences whereas sex and previous hypertension were not. The mechanism of recurrence of ICH were multiple(hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy).Contral of blood pressure and good living habit after the first hemorrhage may prevent ICH recurrences.

  19. Optimal Recurrence Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Graben, Peter beim; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    We optimally estimate the recurrence structure of a multivariate time series by Markov chains obtained from recurrence grammars. The goodness of fit is assessed with a utility function derived from the stochastic Markov transition matrix. It assumes a local maximum for the distance threshold of the optimal recurrence grammar. We validate our approach by means of the nonlinear Lorenz system and its linearized stochastic surrogates. Finally we apply our optimization procedure to the segmentation of neurophysiological time series obtained from anesthetized animals. We propose the number of optimal recurrence domains as a statistic for classifying an animals' state of consciousness.

  20. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  1. Tidal triggering of earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Thomas H.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of the tidal stress tensor at the time of moderate to large earthquakes strongly suggests that shallow (< 30 km) larger magnitude oblique-slip and dip-slip earthquakes are triggered by tidal stresses. No corresponding triggering effect is seen for shallow strike-slip earthquakes or for any type of intermediate or deep focus earthquakes which have been studied. Tidal triggering is also discussed from the viewpoint of the ‘dilatancy-diffusion’ model. Specifically, the model as usually ...

  2. The eternal recurrence today

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In this work we have carried out an approach between the nonsingular scientific cosmologies (without the initial singularity, the big bang), specially the cyclic models, and the Nietzsche's thought of the eternal recurrence. Moreover, we have pointed out reasons for the Nietzsche's search for scientific proofs about the eternal recurrence in the decade of 1880's.

  3. Recurrent acute renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Satish, S.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Seethalekshmi, N. V.; Unni, M.; Unni, V. N.

    2010-01-01

    While acute renal failure secondary to intravascular hemolysis is well described in hemolytic anemias, recurrent acute renal failure as the presenting manifestation of a hemolytic anemia is rare. We report a patient with recurrent acute renal failure who was found to have paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), on evaluation.

  4. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  5. AMY trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yoshihide [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  6. Research on seismic stress triggering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万永革; 吴忠良; 周公威; 黄静; 秦立新

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews basic theory of seismic stress triggering. Recent development on seismic stress triggering has been reviewed in the views of seismic static and dynamic stress triggering, application of viscoelastic model in seismic stress triggering, the relation between earthquake triggering and volcanic eruption or explosion, other explanation of earthquake triggering, etc. And some suggestions for further study on seismic stress triggering in near future are given.

  7. Predictors of Recurrent AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Edward D; Parr, Sharidan K; Abdel-Kader, Khaled; Eden, Svetlana K; Peterson, Josh F; Bansal, Nisha; Hung, Adriana M; Fly, James; Speroff, Ted; Ikizler, T Alp; Matheny, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent AKI is common among patients after hospitalized AKI and is associated with progressive CKD. In this study, we identified clinical risk factors for recurrent AKI present during index AKI hospitalizations that occurred between 2003 and 2010 using a regional Veterans Administration database in the United States. AKI was defined as a 0.3 mg/dl or 50% increase from a baseline creatinine measure. The primary outcome was hospitalization with recurrent AKI within 12 months of discharge from the index hospitalization. Time to recurrent AKI was examined using Cox regression analysis, and sensitivity analyses were performed using a competing risk approach. Among 11,683 qualifying AKI hospitalizations, 2954 patients (25%) were hospitalized with recurrent AKI within 12 months of discharge. Median time to recurrent AKI within 12 months was 64 (interquartile range 19-167) days. In addition to known demographic and comorbid risk factors for AKI, patients with longer AKI duration and those whose discharge diagnosis at index AKI hospitalization included congestive heart failure (primary diagnosis), decompensated advanced liver disease, cancer with or without chemotherapy, acute coronary syndrome, or volume depletion, were at highest risk for being hospitalized with recurrent AKI. Risk factors identified were similar when a competing risk model for death was applied. In conclusion, several inpatient conditions associated with AKI may increase the risk for recurrent AKI. These findings should facilitate risk stratification, guide appropriate patient referral after AKI, and help generate potential risk reduction strategies. Efforts to identify modifiable factors to prevent recurrent AKI in these patients are warranted.

  8. On Concircularly Recurrent Finsler Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Youssef, Nabil L

    2013-01-01

    Two special Finsler spaces have been introduced and investigated, namely $R^h$-recurrent Finsler space and consircularly recurrent Finsler space. The defining properties of these spaces are formulated in terms of the first curvature tensor of Cartan connection. The following three results constitute the main object of the present paper: 1. A concircularly flat Finsler manifold is necessarily of constant curvature (Theorem A); 2. Every $R^h$-recurrent Finsler manifold is concirculaly recurrent with the same recurrence form (Theorem B); 3. Every horizontally integrable concircularly recurrent Finsler manifold is $R^h$-recurrent with the same recurrence form (Theorem C). The whole work is formulated in a coordinate-free form.

  9. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  10. The LHCb Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb) is a dedicated heavy flavour physics experiment at the LHC. The trigger system employs the finite lifetime and relative large mass of charm and beauty hadrons to distinguish heavy flavour and background from inelastic pp-scattering. The LHCb trigger is a two level system. The first level is implemented in hardware, it reduces the visible interaction rate to a maximum of 1MHz, at which the whole detector can be readout. The second trigger level is a C++ application running on an Event Filter Farm composed of several thousand CPU nodes. The full trigger is operational in the experiment. In this talk, an overview of the LHCb trigger system will be given. We put special emphasis on the experience obtained with the initial data taking at the LHC, and the commissioning and monitoring of the software trigger. The method to obtain the efficiency of the trigger from real data will be described, and first results will be presented.

  11. RECURRENT SEASONAL ACUTE PSYCHOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    Acute psychoses have been reported to occur more frequently in summer. This is a report of seasonal recurrence of acute psychosis in a patient. This case report emphasizes towards the biological etiology of acute psychoses.

  12. Recurrence Periods of Earthquake-Induced Submarine Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ochoa, R.; Nadim, F.

    2014-12-01

    Submarine landslides represent a constant threat to offshore installations deployed along the continental slope, therefore the estimation of the recurrence period of slope failures is a key parameter to assess the risk associated with potential massive transport of soil sediments. The initiation of submarine slope failures may be due to long-term triggers like the formation of weak layers, sedimentation rates and fault displacements, as well as short-term triggers like earthquakes and storm waves, or a combination of both of them. The recurrence period of submarine slope failures can be linked to the recurrence period of their triggers. When the main trigger of slope failure is an earthquake, it is possible to estimate numerically the probability density of the return period for slope failure by using the seismic hazard curve and a mechanical model for earthquake-triggered slope instability. This paper presents a procedure to calculate the conditional probability of slope failure with the maximum probability density (peak) to obtain the return period of the earthquake event with the largest probability of inducing a slope failure. The conditional probability corresponding to the maximum probability density is estimated after obtaining several conditional cumulative probability points for different earthquake return periods, and matching a cumulative distribution function (CDF) to those points; finally, the maximum probability density of the corresponding probability density function (PDF) is obtained. The suggested analytical procedure is applied and compared with available geological evidence in a site located in the Gulf of Mexico.

  13. Recurrences of strange attractors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E J Ngamga; A Nandi; R Ramaswamy; M C Romano; M Thiel; J Kurths

    2008-06-01

    The transitions from or to strange nonchaotic attractors are investigated by recurrence plot-based methods. The techniques used here take into account the recurrence times and the fact that trajectories on strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs) synchronize. The performance of these techniques is shown for the Heagy-Hammel transition to SNAs and for the fractalization transition to SNAs for which other usual nonlinear analysis tools are not successful.

  14. Microchimerism in recurrent miscarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary S Gammill; Stephenson, Mary D.; Aydelotte, Tessa M.; J. Lee Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Maternal–fetal cell exchange during pregnancy results in acquisition of microchimerism, which can durably persist in both recipients. Naturally acquired microchimerism may impact maternal–fetal interaction in pregnancy. We conducted studies to ask whether microchimerism that a woman acquired from her own mother is detectable before or during pregnancy in women with recurrent miscarriage. Fetal microchimerism was also assayed. Women with primary idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (n=23) and cont...

  15. Understanding of myofascial trigger points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Xiaoqiang; Tan Shusheng; Huang Qiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current practice of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) including current epidemiology,pathology,diagnosis and treatment.Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from relevant articles without restriction on the publication date reported in PubMed,MedSci,Google scholar.The terms "myofasial trigger points" and "myofacial pain syndrome" were used for the literature search.Study selection Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and MPS were retrieved,reviewed,analyzed and summarized.Results Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by painful taut band,referred pain,and local response twitch with a prevalence of 85% to 95% of incidence.Several factors link to the etiology of MTrPs,such as the chronic injury and overload of muscles.Other factors,such as certain nutrient and hormone insufficiency,comorbidities,and muscle imbalance may also maintain the MTrP in an active status and induce recurrent pain.The current pathology is that an extra leakage acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction induces persistent contracture knots,relative to some hypotheses of integration,muscle spindle discharges,spinal segment sensitization,ect.MTrPs can be diagnosed and localized based on a few subjective criteria.Several approaches,including both direct and supplementary treatments,can inactivate MTrPs.Direct treatments are categorized into invasive and conservative.Conclusion This review provides a clear understanding of MTrP pain and introduces the most useful treatment approaches in China.

  16. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  17. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  18. The VERITAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, A

    2007-01-01

    The VERITAS gamma-ray observatory, situated in southern Arizona, is an array of four 12m diameter imaging Cherenkov telescopes, each with a 499-pixel photomultiplier-tube camera. The instrument is designed to detect astrophysical gamma rays at energies above 100 GeV. At the low end of the VERITAS energy range, fluctuations in the night sky background light and single muons from cosmic-ray showers constitute significant backgrounds. VERITAS employs a three-tier trigger system to reduce the rate of these background events: an initial trigger which acts at the single pixel level, a pattern trigger which acts on the relative timing and pixel level, a pattern trigger which acts on the relative timing and distribution of pixel-level triggers within a single telescope camera, and an array-level trigger which requires simultaneous observation of an air-shower event in multiple telescopes. This final coincidence requirement significantly reduces the rate of background events, particularly those due to single muons. In...

  19. The LHCb Trigger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E.; LHCb Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    The LHCb detector has been conceived to study with high precision CP violation and rare decays of b-flavoured hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb trigger is of crucial importance in selecting the collisions of interest for b-physics studies. The trigger is based on a two-level system. The first level, Level-0, is implemented in hardware and uses information from the calorimeter, muon and pile-up systems to select events containing particles with relatively large transverse momentum, typically above 1-2 GeV. The Level-0 trigger accepts events at a rate of 1 MHz. All the detector information is then read out and fed into the High Level Trigger. This software trigger runs in the event-filter farm composed of about 1800 CPU nodes. Events are selected at a rate of 2 kHz and sent for mass storage and subsequent offline reconstruction and analysis. The current status and expected performance of the trigger system are described.

  20. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  1. Dynamic Triggering Stress Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    It has been well established that static (permanent) stress changes can trigger nearby earthquakes, within a few fault lengths from the causative event, whereas triggering by dynamic (transient) stresses carried by seismic waves both nearby and at remote distances has not been as well documented nor understood. An analysis of the change in the local stress caused by the passing of surfaces waves is important for the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, we modeled the change in the stress that the passing of Rayleigh and Loves waves causes on a fault plane of arbitrary orientation, and applied a Coulomb failure criteria to calculate the potential of these stress changes to trigger reverse, normal or strike-slip failure. We preliminarily test these model results with data from dynamically triggering earthquakes in the Australian Bowen Basin. In the Bowen region, the modeling predicts a maximum triggering potential for Rayleigh waves arriving perpendicularly to the strike of the reverse faults present in the region. The modeled potentials agree with our observations, and give us an understanding of the dynamic stress orientation needed to trigger different type of earthquakes.

  2. Hyperhomocysteinemia in Recurrent Miscarriage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: An elevated total plasma homocysteine level has been suggested as a possible risk factor in women suffering from recurrent pregnancy loss. The current study was undertaken to assess the association between homocysteine, folate, cobalamin (vitamin B12) and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss. Design: Case . control study Materials and Methods: The study included 57 non-pregnant Egyptian women. They were classified according to their obstetric history into 2 groups: 32 cases with at least two consecutive miscarriages (Study group), and 25 cases with normal obstetric history (Control group). All cases were tested for plasma total homocysteine, serum folate and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Results: The fasting total homocysteine was significantly higher in the study group as compared to the control group. While the median concentrations for the vitamins studied were significantly lower in women of the study group as compared to the controls. Elevated homocysteine and reduced vitamin B12 can be considered risk factors for recurrent miscarriage with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of 1.839 (1.286, 2.63) and 1.993 (1.346, 2.951) respectively in the group of recurrent miscarriages. The OR (95% CI) in the study population for low serum folate concentrations was 1.23 (0.776, 2.256). Conclusion: Elevated homocysteine and reduced serum vitamin B12 are risk factors for recurrent miscarriage. Low serum folate did not seem a risk factor for recurrent miscarriage. Testing for homocysteine levels in women suffering from unexplained recurrent miscarriage and pre-conceptional supplementation with vitamin B12 might be beneficial to improve pregnancy outcome

  3. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Prevents Chronic and Recurrent Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Hannan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The spread of multidrug-resistant microorganisms globally has created an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies to combat urinary tract infections (UTIs. Immunomodulatory therapy may provide benefit, as treatment of mice with dexamethasone during acute UTI improved outcome by reducing the development of chronic cystitis, which predisposes to recurrent infection. Here we discovered soluble biomarkers engaged in myeloid cell development and chemotaxis that were predictive of future UTI recurrence when elevated in the sera of young women with UTI. Translation of these findings revealed that temperance of the neutrophil response early during UTI, and specifically disruption of bladder epithelial transmigration of neutrophils by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2, protected mice against chronic and recurrent cystitis. Further, proteomics identified bladder epithelial remodeling consequent to chronic infection that enhances sensitivity to neutrophil damage. Thus, cyclooxygenase-2 expression during acute UTI is a critical molecular trigger determining disease outcome and drugs targeting cyclooxygenase-2 could prevent recurrent UTI.

  4. Recurrent Fever in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Torreggiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time.

  5. Recurrent Fever in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  6. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  7. Recurrent Escherichia coli bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828

  8. ATLAS Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Woudstra, MJ; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the highest energy proton-proton collider, providing also the highest instantaneous luminosity as a hadron collider. Bunch crossings occurred every 50 ns in 2012 runs. Amongst of which the online event selection system should reduce the event recording rate down to a few 100 Hz, while events are in a harsh condition with many overlapping proton-proton collisions occurring in a same bunch crossing. Muons often provide an important and clear signature of physics processes that are searched for, for instance as in the discovery of Higgs particle in year 2012. The ATLAS experiment deploys a three-levels processing scheme at online. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filte...

  9. The CMS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; CMS Collaboration; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; 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Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; 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Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, $\\tau$ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  10. The CMS trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-09-08

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  11. Recurrent Novae - A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Mukai, Koji

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, recurrent nova eruptions are often observed very intensely in wide range of wavelengths from radio to optical to X-rays. Here I present selected highlights from recent multi-wavelength observations. The enigma of T Pyx is at the heart of this paper. While our current understanding of CV and symbiotic star evolution can explain why certain subset of recurrent novae have high accretion rate, that of T Pyx must be greatly elevated compared to the evolutionary mean. At the same time, we have extensive data to be able to estimate how the nova envelope was ejected in T Pyx, and it turns to be a rather complex tale. One suspects that envelope ejection in recurrent and classical novae in general is more complicated than the textbook descriptions. At the end of the review, I will speculate that these two may be connected.

  12. Recurrent parotitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattarai M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent parotitis is an uncommon condition in children. Its etiological factors have not been proved till date although causes due to genetic inheritance, local autoimmune manifestation, allergy, viral infection and immunodeficiency have been suggested. The exact management of this disorder is not yet standardized, but a conservative approach is preferred and all affected children should be screened for Sjogren′s syndrome and immune deficiency including human immunodeficiency virus. We report a 12 years female child who presented with 12 episodes of non-painful recurrent swellings of the bilateral parotid gland in the past 3 years.

  13. Comparison of triggering systems for neonatal patient triggered ventilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hird, M F; Greenough, A

    1991-01-01

    The efficacy of two triggering systems was compared during neonatal patient triggered ventilation: the Graseby MR10 respiration monitor and airway pressure changes. Ten preterm infants were studied, median gestational age 33 weeks (range 28-35). Patient triggered ventilation was administered via the SLE ventilator at a series of inflation times (0.24, 0.3, and 0.4 seconds). Comparison was made between the trigger systems of the trigger delay, inflation volume delivered, and proportion of spon...

  14. LIF bio-aerosol threat triggers: then and now

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreez, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Bio-aerosol terrorist attacks have been carried out against civilians in the United States and elsewhere. Unfortunately, recurrence appears inevitable. A fast, reliable, and inexpensive bioaerosol threat detection trigger can be an important tool for detect-to-protect and detect-to-treat countermeasure scenarios. Bio-aerosol threat detection triggers employing light, historically laser light but recently LED light, for induced native- or auto-fluorescence (LIF) have been developed for well over a decade without a generally accepted solution being found. This paper presents a brief history of LIF triggers and reviews many vendor efforts, past and current. Various technical approaches and design considerations are discussed. Triggers from ICx technology, currently available or in development, are also discussed.

  15. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  16. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  17. On Solving Linear Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.

  18. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  19. Recurrent Spatial Transformer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Maaløe, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    We integrate the recently proposed spatial transformer network (SPN) [Jaderberg et. al 2015] into a recurrent neural network (RNN) to form an RNN-SPN model. We use the RNN-SPN to classify digits in cluttered MNIST sequences. The proposed model achieves a single digit error of 1.5% compared to 2...

  20. Some Types of Recurrence in Finsler geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Soleiman, A

    2016-01-01

    The pullback approach to global Finsler geometry is adopted. Three classes of recurrence in Finsler geometry are introduced and investigated: simple recurrence, Ricci recurrence and concircular recurrence. Each of these classes consists of four types of recurrence. The interrelationships between the different types of recurrence are studied. The generalized concircular recurrence, as a new concept, is singled out.

  1. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  2. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can come from factories, cars, and other sources. Pay attention to air quality forecasts on radio, television, and the Internet and check your newspaper to plan ... levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  3. The ALFA Trigger Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Dziedzic B

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents basic information about ALFA detectors used in the ATLAS experiment, and the structure of currently developed device used to test a new ALFA trigger interface. It discusses the block diagram of the device, principle of its operation, implementation details and future plans for developing the Simulator.

  4. Chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Zhang Yi

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel neural network based on a diagonal recurrent neural network and chaos,and its structure andlearning algorithm are designed.The multilayer feedforward neural network,diagonal recurrent neural network,and chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network are used to approach the cubic symmetry map.The simulation results show that the approximation capability of the chaotic diagonal recurrent neural network is better than the other two neural networks.

  5. Data on the recurrence of breast tumors fit a model in which dormant cells are subject to slow attrition but can randomly awaken to become malignant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    appears to be a random event. Inasmuch as the kinetics of cancer recurrence in published data sets closely follows the model found for the appearance of sporadic retinoblastoma, tumor recurrence could be triggered by mutations in awakening- suppressor mechanisms. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene...... was identified by tracing its occurrence in familial retinoblastoma pedigrees. Will it be possible to track the postulated cancer recurrence, awakening suppressor gene(s) in early recurrence breast cancer patients?...

  6. Immunomodulators to treat recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Jelmer R.; Kieffer, Tom E. C.; Scherjon, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage is a reproductive disorder affecting many couples. Although several factors are associated with recurrent miscarriage, in more than 50% of the cases the cause is unknown. Maladaptation of the maternal immune system is associated with recurrent miscarriage and could explain part

  7. Imaging of recurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Futterer, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 30\\% of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy will develop biochemical recurrent disease. Biochemical recurrent disease is defined as an increase in the serum value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after reaching the nadir. Prostate recurrence can present

  8. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  9. Training Recurrent Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With

    1997-01-01

    Training recurrent networks is generally believed to be a difficult task. Excessive training times and lack of convergence to an acceptable solution are frequently reported. In this paper we seek to explain the reason for this from a numerical point of view and show how to avoid problems when...... training. In particular we investigate ill-conditioning, the need for and effect of regularization and illustrate the superiority of second-order methods for training...

  10. Acute recurrent polyhydramnios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bundgaard, Anne; Skibsted, Lillian;

    2007-01-01

    immediately and resulted in a decreased amniotic fluid production from 30 weeks' gestation. Even after the discontinuation of NSAID treatment, the amniotic fluid production normalized, and the woman delivered a healthy boy at 39 weeks 2 days' gestation. Amniotic prolactin was measured at three occasions using...... an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As in normal pregnancies, amniotic prolactin levels decreased by 80% from highest to lowest value in this case of resolving acute recurrent polyhydramnios....

  11. Recurrent confusion and hypopituitarism.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutowski, N J; Heron, J R

    1993-01-01

    Three women in late middle age had recurrent episodes of confusion which could not be explained solely on the basis of an associated infection. All three patients had latent hypopituitarism diagnosed on final presentation. Each patient had a previous history of a severe postpartum haemorrhage followed by two further pregnancies. Experienced clinicians had not made a diagnosis of confusional episodes due to hypopituitary encephalopathy because the history was not immediately available in the c...

  12. Equine recurrent airway obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Niedźwiedź

    2014-01-01

    Equine Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO), also known as heaves or broken wind, is one of the most common disease in middle-aged horses. Inflammation of the airway is inducted by organic dust exposure. This disease is characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, bronchospasm, excessive mucus production and pathologic changes in the bronchiolar walls. Clinical signs are resolved in 3-4 weeks after environmental changes. Horses suffering from RAO are susceptible to allergens throughout their liv...

  13. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5 mm radius. (orig.)

  14. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The lectures address some of the issues of triggering and data acquisition in large high-energy physics experiments. Emphasis is placed on hadron-collider experiments that present a particularly challenging environment for event selection and data collection. However, the lectures also explain how T/DAQ systems have evolved over the years to meet new challenges. Some examples are given from early experience with LHC T/DAQ systems during the 2008 single-beam operations.

  15. Neural networks for triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denby, B. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Campbell, M. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA)); Bedeschi, F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA)); Nesti, F. (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Patient triggered ventilation using a flow triggered system.

    OpenAIRE

    Hird, M F; Greenough, A

    1991-01-01

    The role of patient triggered ventilation (PTV) for the newborn was assessed using a new patient triggered ventilator, the Draeger Bablylog 8000, which incorporates significant improvements in both ventilator performance and the triggering system. Thirty three infants, median gestational age 30 weeks and postnatal age 2.5 days, were entered into the study to compare blood gases obtained during conventional and patient triggered ventilation. Oxygenation did not improve with PTV in the group ov...

  17. A trigger for beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of B-meson experiments, in a fixed-target high-energy proton machine (Tevatron) is discussed. Compared to a B-meson factory experiment, it can produce 105, Banti B's per hour, using 108 protons per second, but it suffers from high background and needs high selectivity to cope with the million times higher interaction rate. To overcome these difficulties a technique called the 'optical trigger for beauty' is proposed, based on the detection of Cherenkov photons produced in a 2 mm thick LiF crystal, through a fast photodetector. Its virtue is that it is opaque to minimum-bias events originating in a small target, but sensitive to the high impact parameter B-meson decay charged particles from a secondary vertex. Calculations and first simulations results give a good efficiency for B-meson detection. A multistep trigger, combining the 'optical trigger' and a tracking detector, allows significant selection and a consequent enrichment of the data sample. Taking into account its fast response (∝ 1 ns), the above considerations can be extended to other hadronic machines, especially those with high-rate environments such as the LHC or SSC. (orig.)

  18. Recurrence Behaviors of Earthquakes along the Kefallinia Transform Fault, Ionian Sea, Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Cheng; Athanassios Ganas; Huang Fuqiong; Chen Yong; George Drakato

    2007-01-01

    We examined the whole strong earthquake recurrence behaviors of two fault zones along the Kefallinia Transform, Ionian Sea, Greece, using seismological data and statistical methods.Our data include 29 events with M > 5.5 for the period 1636 ~ 2003. We found different recurrence behaviors for the Kefallinia Fault Zone (clustering and time-predictable recurrence behaviors) and the Lefkada Fault Zone (near random and non-slip-predictable or non-timepredictable recurrence nature). The different modes may be attributed to: (a) segment interaction along-strike (Kefallinia) by static triggering and (b) the influence of fault systems to the north and east on the recurrence on Lefkada. Within the active periods, earthquake recurrence intervals are distributed in a more dispersed fashion, and can be fitted well by a Weibull distribution. In contrast, the distribution of the quiet periods is relatively less dispersed and difficult to describe by suitable probability functions.

  19. Triggering filamentation using turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Eeltink, D; Marchiando, N; Hermelin, S; Gateau, J; Brunetti, M; Wolf, J P; Kasparian, J

    2016-01-01

    We study the triggering of single filaments due to turbulence in the beam path for a laser of power below the filamenting threshold. Turbulence can act as a switch between the beam not filamenting and producing single filaments. This 'positive' effect of turbulence on the filament probability, combined with our observation of off-axis filaments suggests the underlying mechanism is modulation instability caused by transverse perturbations. We hereby experimentally explore the interaction of modulation instability and turbulence, commonly associated with multiple-filaments, in the single-filament regime.

  20. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  1. Recurrent Miller Fisher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, S; Geetha; Bhargavan, P V

    2004-07-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a variant of Guillan Barre syndrome characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. Recurrences are exceptional with Miller Fisher syndrome. We are reporting a case with two episodes of MFS within two years. Initially he presented with partial ophthalmoplegia, ataxia. Second episode was characterized by full-blown presentation characterized by ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia. CSF analysis was typical during both episodes. Nerve conduction velocity study was fairly within normal limits. MRI of brain was within normal limits. He responded to symptomatic measures initially, then to steroids in the second episode. We are reporting the case due to its rarity.

  2. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Piroux

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA are associated with thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and fetal loss but they occur in a variety of diseases. Despite many efforts, a correlation between the specificity of particular subgroups of APA and particular clinical situations remains to be established. The antigens at the origin of APA remain to be identified. We discuss here the possible links between cell apoptosis or necrosis, leading to plasma membrane alterations, and the occurrence of APA in response to sustained stimulation. The pathogenic potential of APA is also considered with respect to recurrent pregnancy loss.

  3. Incarcerated recurrent Amyand's hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Quartey; Obinna Ugochukwu; Reed Kuehn; Karen Ospina

    2012-01-01

    Amyand′s hernia is a rarity and a recurrent case is extremely rare. A 71-year-old male with a previous history of right inguinal hernia repair presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of pain in the right groin. A physical examination revealed a nonreducible right inguinal hernia. A computed tomography scan showed a 1.3-cm appendix with surrounding inflammation within a right inguinal hernia. An emergent right groin exploration revealed an incarcerated and injected non-perfo...

  4. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Naren N; Pine, Harold S; Underbrink, Michael P

    2012-06-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare, benign disease with no known cure. RRP is caused by infection of the upper aerodigestive tract with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Passage through the birth canal is thought to be the initial transmission event, but infection may occur in utero. HPV vaccines have helped to provide protection from cervical cancer; however, their role in the prevention of RRP is undetermined. Clinical presentation of initial symptoms of RRP may be subtle. RRP course varies, and current management focuses on surgical debulking of papillomatous lesions with or without concurrent adjuvant therapy. PMID:22588043

  5. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1-2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50-60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion's pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor. PMID:27436926

  6. Tinea Corporis and Concomitance of Rosacea Triggered By Systemic Steroid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem H et al.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tinea corporis is a superficial dermatophyte infection characterized by either inflammatory or noninflammatory lesions on the glabrous skin (ie, skin regions except the scalp, groin, palms, and soles. Rosacea is a common inflammatory disease in which numerous etiologic and triggering factors play a role, and characterized with flushing episodes, telangiectasias, and recurrent inflammatory papules and pustules. Herein, we report a case of concomitance of rosacea triggered by systemic steroid treatment and tinea corporis with atypical clinic presentation.

  7. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  8. Epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease that frequently recurs. Recurrence can be prevented by anticoagulants, but this comes at the risk of bleeding. Therefore, assessment of the risk of recurrence is important to balance the risks and benefits of anticoagulant treatment. This review briefly outlines what is currently known about the epidemiology of recurrent venous thrombosis, and focuses in more detail on potential new risk factors for venous recurrence. The general implications of these findings in patient management are discussed.

  9. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Serpa-Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent aphthosus stomatitis is an alteration of the oral mucosa in some cases associated with depression of the immune system that affects the tissue response at the level of the epithelium, triggering repetitive clinical picture of small and medium ulcers (3-5 mm which necrotic presented erythematous background and lasting no more than 15 days. The picture becomes recurrent, symptomatic, compromising the health of the patient who consults again with the same characteristics in oral cavity. The literature associates the process with hormonal changes, trauma, prolonged intake of medications, and stress. A case of female patient 53, who attends the service of dentistry to present multiple oral thrush that hard to swallow, drooling and feverish marked presents in Santa Marta, at the Center for Implantology and Oral Rehabilitation. According to the interrogation and clinical examination it is associated with a reactive inflammatory process caused by the intake of drugs to treat infectious or viral process, which is given the presumptive diagnosis of erythema drug. Any medication intake was suspended and additional tests are ordered antinuclear antibodies

  10. Recurrent radio activity in active galactic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamrozy M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of persuasive evidence to indicate that AGN activity, powered by mass accretion onto a supermassive black hole, can involve multiple episodes. Thus thinking of jet activity as occurring within a unique brief period in the life of a galaxy is no longer valid. The most striking examples of AGNs with recurrent jet activity are the double-double radio sources, which contain two or more pairs of distinct lobes on the opposite sides of a parent optical object. On the other hand, we have now conclusive arguments that galaxy mergers and interactions are principal triggers for AGNs. Quite a number of examples of powerful radio sources hosted by galaxies with peculiar optical morphologies (tails, shells, dust-lanes, etc. can be cited to support such a scenario. The structure and spectra of extended radio emission from radio galaxies, with sizes ranging up to a few Mpc, can provide a lot of information on the history of the central AGN activity, while the spectral and dynamical ages of these extended radio lobes could be used to constrain the time scales of recurrent AGN activity.

  11. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  12. How adaptation shapes spike rate oscillations in recurrent neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eAugustin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural mass signals from in-vivo recordings often show oscillations with frequencies ranging from <1 Hz to 100 Hz. Fast rhythmic activity in the beta and gamma range can be generated by network based mechanisms such as recurrent synaptic excitation-inhibition loops. Slower oscillations might instead depend on neuronal adaptation currents whose timescales range from tens of milliseconds to seconds. Here we investigate how the dynamics of such adaptation currents contribute to spike rate oscillations and resonance properties in recurrent networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Based on a network of sparsely coupled spiking model neurons with two types of adaptation current and conductance based synapses with heterogeneous strengths and delays we use a mean-field approach to analyze oscillatory network activity. For constant external input, we find that spike-triggered adaptation currents provide a mechanism to generate slow oscillations over a wide range of adaptation timescales as long as recurrent synaptic excitation is sufficiently strong. Faster rhythms occur when recurrent inhibition is slower than excitation and oscillation frequency increases with the strength of inhibition. Adaptation facilitates such network based oscillations for fast synaptic inhibition and leads to decreased frequencies. For oscillatory external input, adaptation currents amplify a narrow band of frequencies and cause phase advances for low frequencies in addition to phase delays at higher frequencies. Our results therefore identify the different key roles of neuronal adaptation dynamics for rhythmogenesis and selective signal propagation in recurrent networks.

  13. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common cause of significant morbidity in women in all strata of society affecting millions of women worldwide. Previously, RVVC occurrence was limited by onset of menopause but the widespread use of hormone replacement therapy has extended the at-risk period. Candida albicans remains the dominant species responsible for RVVC, however optimal management of RVVC requires species determination and effective treatment measures are best if species-specific. Considerable progress has been made in understanding risk factors that determine susceptibility to RVVC, particularly genetic factors, as well as new insights into normal vaginal defense immune mechanisms and their aberrations in RVVC. While effective control of RVVC is achievable with the use of fluconazole maintenance suppressive therapy, cure of RVVC remains elusive especially in this era of fluconazole drug resistance. Vaccine development remains a critical challenge and need.

  14. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  15. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common cause of significant morbidity in women in all strata of society affecting millions of women worldwide. Previously, RVVC occurrence was limited by onset of menopause but the widespread use of hormone replacement therapy has extended the at-risk period. Candida albicans remains the dominant species responsible for RVVC, however optimal management of RVVC requires species determination and effective treatment measures are best if species-specific. Considerable progress has been made in understanding risk factors that determine susceptibility to RVVC, particularly genetic factors, as well as new insights into normal vaginal defense immune mechanisms and their aberrations in RVVC. While effective control of RVVC is achievable with the use of fluconazole maintenance suppressive therapy, cure of RVVC remains elusive especially in this era of fluconazole drug resistance. Vaccine development remains a critical challenge and need. PMID:26164695

  16. Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis of human motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiński, Henryk; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Świtoński, Adam; Szczesna, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    The authors present exemplary application of recurrence plots, cross recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis for the purpose of exploration of experimental time series describing selected aspects of human motion. Time series were extracted from treadmill gait sequences which were recorded in the Human Motion Laboratory (HML) of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Bytom, Poland by means of the Vicon system. Analysis was focused on the time series representing movements of hip, knee, ankle and wrist joints in the sagittal plane.

  17. Episodic Viral Wheeze and Multiple Trigger Wheeze in preschool children : A useful distinction for clinicians?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, Andre; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that splitting preschool recurrent wheezing disorders into Episodic (Viral) Wheeze (EVW) and Multiple Trigger Wheeze (MTW) is an oversimplification. There is little evidence that the EVW and MTW phenotypes are related to the longitudinal patterns of wheeze, or to differ

  18. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in patients with chronic shoulder pain : a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, Carel; de Gast, Arthur; Dommerholt, Jan; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Wensing, Michel; Oostendorp, Rob A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) cause shoulder pain and are prevalent in patients with shoulder pain. However, few studies have focused on MTrP therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effecti

  19. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)

  20. GnRH agonist triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2013-01-01

    The concept that a bolus of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) can replace human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) as a trigger of final oocyte maturation was introduced several years ago. Recent developments in the area strengthen this premise. GnRHa trigger offers important advantages...... triggering concept should be challenged and that the GnRHa trigger is the way to move forward with thoughtful consideration of the needs, safety and comfort of our patients. Routinely, human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is used to induce ovulation in fertility treatments. This approach deviates...... significantly from physiology and often results in insufficient hormonal support in early pregnancy and in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). An alternative approach is to use a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist which allows a more physiological trigger of ovulation and, most importantly...

  1. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  2. CDF trigger interface board 'FRED'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe FASTBUS boards which interface sixteen different trigger interrupts to the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) data acquisition system. The boards are known to CDF by the acronym 'FRED'. The data acquisition scheme for CDF allows for up to 16 different parts of the detector, called 'Partitions', to run independently. Four partitions are reserved for physics runs and sophisticated calibration and debugging: they use the common Level 1 and Level 2 trigger logic and have access to information from all the components of the CDF detector. These four partitions are called ''CDF Partitions''. The remaining twelve partitions have no access to the common trigger logic and provide their own Level 1 and Level 2 signals: they are called ''Autonomous Partitions''. Fred collects and interprets signals from independent parts of the CDF trigger system and delivers Level 1 and Level 2 responses to the Trigger Supervisors (FASTBUS masters which control the data acquisition process in each partition)

  3. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mahlstedt, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    During the 2012 run the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34}\\,cm^{-2}s^{-1}$, with bunch crossings occuring every 50 ns. In this difficult environment of several overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up) the trigger system of the ATLAS detector has the task of reducing the event rate from 40 MHz to a few hundred Hz while keeping the most interesting physics events. Being the heaviest of all leptons, the tau lepton plays an important role in many physics processes. The ability to trigger on events containing hadronically decaying taus is therefore of special interest. This paper summarizes the concept of the ATLAS tau trigger and the improvements made in 2012. Furthermore the performance of the triggers including efficiency and rate measurements are presented and an outlook towards future developments of the tau trigger algorithms is given.

  4. Recurrent Novae in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Shafter, A W; Rector, T A; Schweizer, F; Hornoch, K; Orio, M; Pietsch, W; Darnley, M J; Williams, S C; Bode, M F; Bryan, J

    2014-01-01

    The reported positions of 964 suspected nova eruptions in M31 recorded through the end of calendar year 2013 have been compared in order to identify recurrent nova candidates. To pass the initial screen and qualify as a recurrent nova candidate two or more eruptions were required to be coincident within 0.1', although this criterion was relaxed to 0.15' for novae discovered on early photographic patrols. A total of 118 eruptions from 51 potential recurrent nova systems satisfied the screening criterion. To determine what fraction of these novae are indeed recurrent the original plates and published images of the relevant eruptions have been carefully compared. This procedure has resulted in the elimination of 27 of the 51 progenitor candidates (61 eruptions) from further consideration as recurrent novae, with another 8 systems (17 eruptions) deemed unlikely to be recurrent. Of the remaining 16 systems, 12 candidates (32 eruptions) were judged to be recurrent novae, with an additional 4 systems (8 eruptions) b...

  5. Dynamically triggered slip leading to sustained fault gouge weakening under laboratory shear conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. A.; Carmeliet, J.; Savage, H. M.; Scuderi, M.; Carpenter, B. M.; Guyer, R. A.; Daub, E. G.; Marone, C.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate dynamic wave-triggered slip under laboratory shear conditions. The experiment is composed of a three-block system containing two gouge layers composed of glass beads and held in place by a fixed load in a biaxial configuration. When the system is sheared under steady state conditions at a normal load of 4 MPa, we find that shear failure may be instantaneously triggered by a dynamic wave, corresponding to material weakening and softening if the system is in a critical shear stress state (near failure). Following triggering, the gouge material remains in a perturbed state over multiple slip cycles as evidenced by the recovery of the material strength, shear modulus, and slip recurrence time. This work suggests that faults must be critically stressed to trigger under dynamic conditions and that the recovery process following a dynamically triggered event differs from the recovery following a spontaneous event.

  6. STDP in recurrent neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Gilson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent results about spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP in recurrently connected neurons are reviewed, with a focus on the relationship between the weight dynamics and the emergence of network structure. In particular, the evolution of synaptic weights in the two cases of incoming connections for a single neuron and recurrent connections are compared and contrasted. A theoretical framework is used that is based upon Poisson neurons with a temporally inhomogeneous firing rate and the asymptotic distribution of weights generated by the learning dynamics. Different network configurations examined in recent studies are discussed and an overview of the current understanding of STDP in recurrently connected neuronal networks is presented.

  7. Intermittent diazepam and continuous phenobarbital to treat recurrence of febrile seizures: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuko Alice Hatsue

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Convulsions triggered by fever are the most common type of seizures in childhood, and 20% to 30% of them have recurrence. The prophylactic treatment is still controversial, so we performed a systematic review to find out the effectiveness of continuous phenobarbital and intermittent diazepam compared to placebo for febrile seizure recurrence. METHOD: Only randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were analyzed. The recurrence of febrile seizure was assessed for each drug. RESULTS: Ten eligible clinical trials were included. Febrile seizure recurrence was smaller in children treated with diazepam or phenobarbital than in placebo group. Prophylaxis with either phenobarbital or diazepam reduces recurrences of febrile seizures. The studies were clinical, methodological, and statistically heterogeneous. CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of phenobarbital and diazepam could not be demonstrated because clinical trials were heterogeneous, and the recommendation for treatment recurrence should rely upon the experience of the assistant physician yet.

  8. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  9. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  10. Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Recurrence after Renal Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouatou, Yassine; Bacchi, Véronique Frémeaux; Villard, Jean; Moll, Solange; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Hadaya, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Risk for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) recurrence after renal transplantation is low with an isolated membrane cofactor protein mutation (MCP). We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a MCP who underwent kidney transplantation with a good evolution at 12 months. At 15 and 35 months, 2 episodes of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), after a miscarriage and a preeclampsia, were misinterpreted as triggered by tacrolimus. After each episode however serum creatinine returned to baseline. Five years after transplantation, she had a self-limited rhinosinusitis followed 3 weeks later by an oliguric renal failure. Her complement profile was normal. Graft biopsy showed C3 glomerulonephritis with no “humps” on electron microscopy. No significant renal function improvement followed methylprednisolone pulsing. A second biopsy showed severe acute TMA lesions with C3 glomerular deposits. Despite weekly eculizumab for 1 month, dialysis was resumed. A new workup identified the “at-risk” complement factor H haplotype. Thus, aHUS recurrence should be ruled out in aHUS patients considered at low recurrence risk when a TMA is found in graft biopsy. Prompt eculizumab therapy should be considered to avoid graft loss as aHUS recurrence can first present as a C3 glomerulonephritis. PMID:27500215

  11. Possible Triggering Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tahsin Gunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, immune-mediated inflammatory disease and it can be provoked or exacerbated by a variety of different environmental factors, particularly infections and drugs. In addition, a possible association between vaccination and the new onset and/or exacerbation of psoriasis has been reported by a number of different authors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of influenza vaccination on patients with psoriasis. Here, we report the findings from 43 patients suffering from psoriasis (clinical phenotypes as mixed guttate/plaque lesions, palmoplantar or scalp psoriasis whose diseases had been triggered after influenza vaccination applied in the 2009-2010 season. The short time intervals between vaccination and psoriasis flares in our patients and the lack of other possible triggers suggest that influenza vaccinations may have provocative effects on psoriasis. However, further large and controlled studies need to be carried out to confirm this relationship.

  12. Possible Triggering Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Ali Tahsin; Fetil, Emel; Akarsu, Sevgi; Ozbagcivan, Ozlem; Babayeva, Lale

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, immune-mediated inflammatory disease and it can be provoked or exacerbated by a variety of different environmental factors, particularly infections and drugs. In addition, a possible association between vaccination and the new onset and/or exacerbation of psoriasis has been reported by a number of different authors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of influenza vaccination on patients with psoriasis. Here, we report the findings from 43 patients suffering from psoriasis (clinical phenotypes as mixed guttate/plaque lesions, palmoplantar or scalp psoriasis) whose diseases had been triggered after influenza vaccination applied in the 2009-2010 season. The short time intervals between vaccination and psoriasis flares in our patients and the lack of other possible triggers suggest that influenza vaccinations may have provocative effects on psoriasis. However, further large and controlled studies need to be carried out to confirm this relationship.

  13. The recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, B C; Brock, M; Rudolph, K H; Logemann, H

    1993-01-01

    Sixteen out of 720 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome who had undergone surgery since 1979 were reoperated for a "recurrence" (2.2%). Twelve of these patients had been originally operated on in our department. Thus, our own recurrence rate is 1.7%. Three patients deteriorated following surgery, 6 had an unsatisfactory improvement, and in 7 the symptoms recurred after initial improvement. Eight of the reoperated patients had a predisposing disease (terminal renal insufficiency, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, acromegaly). In 10 of the 16 cases the initial operation had been carried out by surgeons in the first three years of training. Reoperation revealed incomplete splitting of the transverse carpal ligament in 10 cases, compression of the median nerve by the scar in 4, injury of the muscular branch in 1, and an anatomical variant as cause of incomplete decompression in 1 patient. "Recurrences" after carpal tunnel surgery are predominantly due to inadequacies of the first procedure. A remarkable number of patients (50%) has predisposing diseases. Interfascicular or epineural neurolysis and complete exposure and neurolysis of the median nerve and its branches is necessary only in cases of recurrence. Their omission at the first surgery does not result in an increased recurrence rate. Our observations indicate that the number of operations for recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome can probably be reduced when the first operation is performed with care and experience. Patients with carpal tunnel syndrome secondary to a systemic disease are particularly at risk.

  14. FERMIGTRIG - Fermi GBM Trigger Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table lists all of the triggers observed by one or more of the 14 GBM detectors (12 NaI and 2 BGO). Note that there are two Browse catalogs resulting from GBM...

  15. B physics triggers at CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Starodumov, A.(Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland)

    2003-01-01

    The CMS detector is mainly designed to investigate hard events. Only few Level-1 Trigger conditions are suitable to select soft B-meson decays. The B-physics potential of CMS depends strongly on a selection strategy at High-Level Trigger. The selection algorithms for some benchmark B-decay channels that allow CMS to perform competitive B-physics program are presented.

  16. Recurrence of anxiety disorders and its predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Willemijn D.; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Penninx, Brenda; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders an

  17. The ELETTRA Gun Trigger module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ELETTRA injector is a full energy Linac. The Linac and the pulsed magnets need to be synchronized with the beam in the storage ring in order to fill it with the proper bunch pattern. Most of the triggers for the timing system are generated by a module which is named Gun Trigger module. The gun is triggered in synchronism with a reference bucket of the storage ring. It can be programmed with a delay between 2 and 864 ns, a range which covers one revolution period of the storage ring, so any arbitrary bucket of the ring can be filled. The module generates also the gun trigger for working in FEL mode, which needs a repetition from 30 to 50 ns in a 10 μs window. The jitter of all these triggers is less than 50 ps. The Gun Trigger module is developed in VMEbus standard, using TTL and ECL technology. It is remotely programmable through the ELETTRA control system. The general architecture of the ELETTRA timing system is also described in the paper

  18. The ATLAS Trigger Muon "Vertical Slice"

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; Biglietti, M; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Conventi, F; Del Prete, T; Di Mattia, A; Falciano, S; Gorini, S; Kanaya, N; Kohno, T; Krasznahorkay, A; Lagouri, T; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Marzano, F; Nagano, K; Nisati, A; Panikashvili, N; Pasqualucci, E; Primavera, M; Scannicchio, D A; Spagnolo, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Tokushuku, K; Usai, G; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Yamazaki, Y; 10th Pisa Meeting on Advanced Detectors : Frontier Detectors For Frontier Physics

    2007-01-01

    The muon trigger system is a fundamental component of the ATLAS detector at the LHC collider. In this paper we describe the ATLAS multi-level trigger selecting events with muons: the Muon Trigger Slice.

  19. Recurrent and synchronous insect pest outbreaks in forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Sergio

    2012-02-01

    A minimal model for the interactions of trees, insects, and their enemies suggests a simple formula for splitting all forests where insect outbreaks can occur into two categories: where outbreaks are periodic and endogenously generated and where outbreaks are triggered by exogenous factors and are, in general, recurrent but aperiodic. The formula is in full agreement with all field studies in which various phenomena triggering insect outbreaks have been identified. The observed consequences of introductions and removals of insects are also well predicted by the minimal model. But, even more surprisingly, the model allows a simple and explicit condition for the synchronization of outbreaks in spatially extended forests to be derived analytically. This condition is, in general, satisfied when the insect is a so-called pest, that is, when the outbreaks are extreme. The model also predicts the possibility of traveling waves of insect outbreaks. PMID:21867722

  20. RECURRENT NOVAE IN M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reported positions of 964 suspected nova eruptions in M31 recorded through the end of calendar year 2013 have been compared in order to identify recurrent nova (RN) candidates. To pass the initial screen and qualify as a RN candidate, two or more eruptions were required to be coincident within 0.′1, although this criterion was relaxed to 0.′15 for novae discovered on early photographic patrols. A total of 118 eruptions from 51 potential RN systems satisfied the screening criterion. To determine what fraction of these novae are indeed recurrent, the original plates and published images of the relevant eruptions have been carefully compared. This procedure has resulted in the elimination of 27 of the 51 progenitor candidates (61 eruptions) from further consideration as RNe, with another 8 systems (17 eruptions) deemed unlikely to be recurrent. Of the remaining 16 systems, 12 candidates (32 eruptions) were judged to be RNe, with an additional 4 systems (8 eruptions) being possibly recurrent. It is estimated that ∼4% of the nova eruptions seen in M31 over the past century are associated with RNe. A Monte Carlo analysis shows that the discovery efficiency for RNe may be as low as 10% that for novae in general, suggesting that as many as one in three nova eruptions observed in M31 arise from progenitor systems having recurrence times ≲100 yr. For plausible system parameters, it appears unlikely that RNe can provide a significant channel for the production of Type Ia supernovae

  1. Migraine Types and Triggering Factors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe NEJAD BIGLARI

    2012-06-01

    children in Shiraz. East Mediterr Health J 2006;12(6:809-17. Stovner LJ, Andree C. Prevalence of headache in Europe: a review for the Eurolight project. J Headache Pain 2010;11(4:289-99. Bille B. A 40-year follow-up of school children with migraine. Cephalalgia 1997;17(4:488-91; discussion 487. Bille B. Migraine and tension-type headache in children and adolescents. Cephalalgia 1996;16(2:78. Bille B. Migraine in childhood and its prognosis. Cephalalgia 1981;1(2:71-5. Lewis DW, Ashwal S, Dahl G, Dorbad D, Hirtz D, Prensky A, et al. Practice parameter: evaluation of children and adolescents with recurrent headaches: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Practice Committee of the Child Neurology Society. Neurology 2002;59(4:490-8. Shah UH, Kalra V. Pediatric migraine. Int J Pediatr 2009;2009:424192. Fukui PT, Gonçalves TR, Strabelli CG, Lucchino NM, Matos FC, Santos JP, et al. Trigger factors in migraine patients. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2008;66(3A:494-9. Neut D, Fily A, Cuvellier JC, Vallée L. The prevalence of triggers in paediatric migraine: a questionnaire study in 102 children and adolescents. J Headache Pain 2012;13(1:61-5. Lewis DW, Diamond S, Scott D, Jones V. Prophylactic treatment of pediatric migraine. Headache 2004;44(3:230-7. Barabas G, Matthews WS, Ferrari M. Childhood migraine and motion sickness. Pediatrics 1983;72(2:188-90. Holguin J, Fenichel G. Migraine. J Pediatr 1967;70(2:290-7. The International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition. Cephalalgia 2004;24 (Suppl 1:9-160.

  2. [Pediatric clubfoot : Treatment of recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radler, C; Mindler, G T

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 10 years the Ponseti method has become established as the gold standard for initial treatment of clubfeet nearly worldwide. Nevertheless, there are considerable fluctuations regarding the authenticity and quality in the application of the Ponseti method. Especially the efforts to ensure and promote compliance with the foot abduction brace and subsequently the recurrence rate show great variation. As a result, we are still faced with a significant number of recurrent or residual clubfeet. In recent years it has been shown in high-volume clinics that even these can almost always be successfully treated with recasting and with minor interventions, such as anterior tibial tendon transfer and lengthening of the Achilles tendon. More invasive surgical procedures are only very rarely indicated and are reserved for severe recurrence in previously surgically treated and secondary clubfeet. PMID:27577568

  3. Recurrence Statistics of Great Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, E; Johnson, P A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the sequence of great earthquakes over the past century. To examine whether the earthquake record includes temporal clustering, we identify aftershocks and remove those from the record. We focus on the recurrence time, defined as the time between two consecutive earthquakes. We study the variance in the recurrence time and the maximal recurrence time. Using these quantities, we compare the earthquake record with sequences of random events, generated by numerical simulations, while systematically varying the minimal earthquake magnitude Mmin. Our analysis shows that the earthquake record is consistent with a random process for magnitude thresholds 7.0<=Mmin<=8.3, where the number of events is larger. Interestingly, the earthquake record deviates from a random process at magnitude threshold 8.4<=Mmin<= 8.5, where the number of events is smaller; however, this deviation is not strong enough to conclude that great earthquakes are clustered. Overall, the findings are robust both qualitat...

  4. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  5. Reducing sojourn points from recurrence plots to improve transition detection: Application to fetal heart rate transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of biomedical signals demonstrating complexity through recurrence plots is challenging. Quantification of recurrences is often biased by sojourn points that hide dynamic transitions. To overcome this problem, time series have previously been embedded at high dimensions. However, no one has quantified the elimination of sojourn points and rate of detection, nor the enhancement of transition detection has been investigated. This paper reports our on-going efforts to improve the detection of dynamic transitions from logistic maps and fetal hearts by reducing sojourn points. Three signal-based recurrence plots were developed, i.e. embedded with specific settings, derivative-based and m-time pattern. Determinism, cross-determinism and percentage of reduced sojourn points were computed to detect transitions. For logistic maps, an increase of 50% and 34.3% in sensitivity of detection over alternatives was achieved by m-time pattern and embedded recurrence plots with specific settings, respectively, and with a 100% specificity. For fetal heart rates, embedded recurrence plots with specific settings provided the best performance, followed by derivative-based recurrence plot, then unembedded recurrence plot using the determinism parameter. The relative errors between healthy and distressed fetuses were 153%, 95% and 91%. More than 50% of sojourn points were eliminated, allowing better detection of heart transitions triggered by gaseous exchange factors. This could be significant in improving the diagnosis of fetal state. PMID:25308517

  6. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mahlstedt, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    During the 2012 run the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$, with bunch crossings occurring every 50 ns. In this difficult environment of several overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up) the trigger system of the ATLAS detector has the task of reducing the event rate from 40 MHz to a few hundred Hz while keeping the most interesting physics events. Being the heaviest of all leptons, the tau lepton plays an important role in many physics processes. The ability to trigger on events containing hadronically decaying taus is therefore of special interest. In this poster the hadronic tau trigger is described and its performance during 2012 is shown.

  7. LHCb Run 2 Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Sciascia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    During the first long shutdown of the LHC (2013-2014, LS1), the LHCb detector remained essentially unchanged, while the trigger system has been completely revisited. Upgrades to the LHCb computing infrastructure have allowed for high quality decay information to be calculated by the software trigger making a separate offline event reconstruction unnecessary. Reaching the ultimate precision of the LHCb experiment already in real time as the data arrive has the power to transform the experimental approach to processing large quantities of data

  8. Recurrence quantification analysis of chimera states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, M.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D., E-mail: jdanilo@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: antoniomarcosbatista@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L.; Lopes, S.R. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-10-02

    Chimera states, characterised by coexistence of coherence and incoherence in coupled dynamical systems, have been found in various physical systems, such as mechanical oscillator networks and Josephson-junction arrays. We used recurrence plots to provide graphical representations of recurrent patterns and identify chimera states. Moreover, we show that recurrence plots can be used as a diagnostic of chimera states and also to identify the chimera collapse. - Highlights: • Chimera states have been found in various physical systems. • Recurrence plots is a graphical method useful to locate recurring patterns. • We used recurrence plots to identify the chimera states. • We show also the recurrence plots can identify the chimera collapse.

  9. Recurrence quantification analysis of chimera states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimera states, characterised by coexistence of coherence and incoherence in coupled dynamical systems, have been found in various physical systems, such as mechanical oscillator networks and Josephson-junction arrays. We used recurrence plots to provide graphical representations of recurrent patterns and identify chimera states. Moreover, we show that recurrence plots can be used as a diagnostic of chimera states and also to identify the chimera collapse. - Highlights: • Chimera states have been found in various physical systems. • Recurrence plots is a graphical method useful to locate recurring patterns. • We used recurrence plots to identify the chimera states. • We show also the recurrence plots can identify the chimera collapse

  10. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  11. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various nume...

  12. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  13. The ATLAS Hadronic Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Brost, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    As proton-proton collisions at the LHC reach luminosities close to 10$^{\\mathrm{34}}$ cm$^{\\mathrm{-2}}$ s $^{\\mathrm{-1}}$, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analyses. Simplistic single tau lepton triggers suffer from severe rate limitation, despite the sophisticated algorithms used in the tau identification. The development of further fast algorithms and the design of topological selections are the main challenges to allow a large program of physics analysis. The tau triggers provide many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model, and to get precise measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson decaying to tau-leptons. We present the performance of the hadronic tau trigger taken in Run 1 data with the ATLAS detector at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV pp collision. One of the major challenges is to sustain high efficiencies in events with multiple interactions. To do this we introduced faster tracking methods, multivariate selection techniques, and new t...

  14. Synchronized and mixed outbreaks of coupled recurrent epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Muhua; Min, Byungjoon; Liu, Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic spreading has been studied for a long time and most of them are focused on the growing aspect of a single epidemic outbreak. Recently, we extended the study to the case of recurrent epidemics (Sci. Rep. {\\bf 5}, 16010 (2015)) but limited only to a single network. We here report from the real data of coupled regions or cities that the recurrent epidemics in two coupled networks are closely related to each other and can show either synchronized outbreak phase where outbreaks occur simultaneously in both networks or mixed outbreak phase where outbreaks occur in one network but do not in another one. To reveal the underlying mechanism, we present a two-layered network model of coupled recurrent epidemics to reproduce the synchronized and mixed outbreak phases. We show that the synchronized outbreak phase is preferred to be triggered in two coupled networks with the same average degree while the mixed outbreak phase is preferred for the case with different average degrees. Further, we show that the coupli...

  15. Giant recurrent retroperitoneal liposarcoma presenting as a recurrent inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay H. Bhandarwar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal liposarcoma presenting as an inguinal hernia is a rare entity. We present the first case of Giant recurrent liposarcoma presenting as a recurrent inguinal hernia in a 40-year-old male. Physical examination showed an irreducible lump in the right inguinal region and a scar in the right lumbar and right inguinal region. Computed tomography (CT scan of abdomen revealed it to be a retro peritoneal mass extending into the right inguinal region along and involving the cord structures. Wide local excision of the tumour with right orchidectomy and inguinal hernioplasty was performed. Histo-pathology confirmed it to be a liposarcoma. Patient received postoperative radio therapy. Follow up of two years has shown him to be disease free. Retroperitoneal liposarcoma can grow along cord structures into the inguinal canal and mimic an irreducible indirect inguinal hernia.

  16. Temperature, age, and recurrence of febrile seizure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Prediction of a recurrent febrile seizure during subsequent episodes of fever. DESIGN: Study of the data of the temperatures, seizure recurrences, and baseline patient characteristics that were collected at a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen s

  17. Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plot

    CERN Document Server

    Riley, Michael; Giuliani, Alessandro; Webber, Charles; Jr, Jr; Translational Recurrences : From Mathematical Theory to Real-World Applications

    2014-01-01

    This book features 13 papers presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots, held August 2013 in Chicago, IL. It examines recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantifi cation analysis (RQA) with special emphasis on biological and cognitive systems and the analysis of coupled systems using cross-recurrence methods. Readers will discover new applications and insights into a range of systems provided by recurrence plot analysis and new theoretical and mathematical developments in recurrence plots. Recurrence plot based analysis is a powerful tool that operates on real-world complex systems that are nonlinear, non-stationary, noisy, of any statistical distribution, free of any particular model type, and not particularly long. Quantitative analyses promote the detection of system state changes, synchronized dynamical regimes, or classifi cation of system states. Th e book will be of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researc...

  18. ON-RECURRENT LORENTZIAN -KENMOTSU MANIFOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    SREENIVASA, G.T.; VENKATESHA, VENKATESHA; Bagewadi, C. S.; NAGANAGOUD, K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we study Lorentzian -Kenmotsu manifold and we shown that -recurrent Lorentzian -Kenmotsu manifold is an Einstein manifold and a pseudo-projective -recurrent Lorentzian -Kenmotsu manifold is an - Einstein manifold. And also we get the expression for 1-form A in a -recurrent Lorentzian -Kenmotsu manifold. Key words: -Kenmotsu manifold, locally pseudo-projective -symmetric manifold, -recurrent Lorentzian -Kenmotsu manifold, Einstein manifold, -Einstein manifo...

  19. Trigger electronics for the ALICE PHOS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Musa, L; Yin, Z; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Sibiryak, Yu; Budnikov, D L

    2004-01-01

    The Photon Spectrometer of ALICE consists of 5 identical modules of 56 multiplied by 64 PWO crystals with a total of 100 degree azimuthal coverage of the barrel. The electronics required for implementing both the L0 trigger for high luminosity p-p physics and the L1 trigger for high p//T Pb+Pb physics has been studied. A full integration of the trigger logic into the detector's enclosure is based on analog transmission of fast trigger sums between stacks of front-end boards and trigger-router units. The latter contain 112 digitizer channels of 10bit, which are mapped into a single FPGA per trigger unit, covering areas of 24 multiplied by 16 crystals. The running modes allow for Level-0 trigger at 800ns and Level-1 at 6200ns trigger latencies. The design and status of the PHOS trigger electronics are outlined.

  20. Recurrent cervical cancer : detection and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn, A; Van Eijkeren, M; Kenter, G; Zwinderman, K; Ansink, A

    2002-01-01

    Background. Only a small proportion of cervical cancer recurrences is detected during routine follow-up. We investigated which percentage of recurrences is detected during follow-up, which diagnostic tools are helpful to detect recurrent disease and which factors are of prognostic significance once

  1. On generalized M-projectively recurrent manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Chand De

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to study generalized M-projectively recurrent manifolds. Some geometric properties of generalized M-projectively recurrent manifolds have been studied under certain curvature conditions. An application of such a manifold in the theory of relativity has also been shown. Finally, we give an example of a generalized M-projectively recurrent manifold.

  2. Clopidogrel-Induced Recurrent Polyarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Agrawal MD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Clopidogrel is an oral thienopyridine and together with aspirin is a component of dual antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of stent thrombosis after intracoronary stent placement. The common adverse effects from its use are an increased risk of bleeding, neutropenia, and rash. Arthralgia and backache are also known to occur with its use. There have been case reports linking arthritis with the use of clopidogrel. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man who reported symptoms of fever and joint pains following initiation of therapy with clopidogrel. Acute-phase reactants were elevated. Laboratory and radiologic testing were unremarkable. Incidentally, he reported experiencing a similar arthritis after he received a loading dose of clopidogrel prior to a diagnostic coronary angiography in the past. The symptoms improved dramatically on discontinuation of clopidogrel. There was no recurrence of symptoms with prasugrel. This describes possibly the second incidence of recurrent arthritis with clopidogrel therapy.

  3. Clopidogrel-Induced Recurrent Polyarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburger, Joseph; Stallings, Gary; Agrawal, Nikhil; Garg, Jalaj

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel is an oral thienopyridine and together with aspirin is a component of dual antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of stent thrombosis after intracoronary stent placement. The common adverse effects from its use are an increased risk of bleeding, neutropenia, and rash. Arthralgia and backache are also known to occur with its use. There have been case reports linking arthritis with the use of clopidogrel. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man who reported symptoms of fever and joint pains following initiation of therapy with clopidogrel. Acute-phase reactants were elevated. Laboratory and radiologic testing were unremarkable. Incidentally, he reported experiencing a similar arthritis after he received a loading dose of clopidogrel prior to a diagnostic coronary angiography in the past. The symptoms improved dramatically on discontinuation of clopidogrel. There was no recurrence of symptoms with prasugrel. This describes possibly the second incidence of recurrent arthritis with clopidogrel therapy. PMID:26425581

  4. Segmentalliverincarcerationthrougha recurrent incisional lumbar hernia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos S. Salemis; Konstantinos Nisotakis; Stavros Gourgiotis; Efstathios Tsohataridis

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lumbar hernia is a rare congenital or acquired defect of the posterior abdominal wall. The acquired type is more common and occurs mainly as an incisional defect after lfank surgery. Incarceration or strangulation of hernia contents is uncommon. METHOD: Segmental liver incarceration through a recurrent incisional lumbar defect was diagnosed in a 58 years old woman by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The patient underwent an open repair of the com-plicated hernia. An expanded polytetralfouoroethylene (e-PTFE) mesh was fashioned as a sublay prosthesis. She had an uncomplicated postoperative course. Follow-up examinations revealed no evidence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Although lumbar hernia rarely results in incarceration or strangulation, early repair is necessary because of the risks of complications and the increasing dififculty in repairment as it enlarges. Surgical repair is often dififcult and challenging.

  5. Recurrent Dislocation of the Patella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate results of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction associated with lateral release and advancement of vastus medialis in recurrent dislocation of the patella. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 11 patients with a mean follow-up of 19 months. Mean age was 23, mainly women. We did MPFL reconstruction with semitendinosus or gracilis tendon depending on BMI, associated with advancement of vastus medialis and lateral release. Results: Mean Kujala score improved from 46,54 pts. preoperative to 88,36 postoperative. Our main complication was 1 patient with rigid knee, who required movilization under anesthesia and arthroscopic arthrolisis to improve her outcome. Conclusion: The combination of this techniques are a good alternative to treat patients with recurrent patella disclocation, with good short and mid-term results. Biomechanic intra and postop complications of MPFL reconstruction are related to patellar fixation, anatomic positioning of femoral tunnel and knee position of the graft fixation.

  6. Trigger Finger: Adult and Pediatric Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugale, Juan M; Fowler, John R

    2015-10-01

    Trigger fingers are common tendinopathies representing a stenosing flexor tenosynovitis of the fingers. Adult trigger finger can be treated nonsurgically using activity modification, splinting, and/or corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment options include percutaneous A1 pulley release and open A1 pulley release. Excision of a slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis is reserved for patients with persistent triggering despite A1 release or patients with persistent flexion contracture. Pediatric trigger thumb is treated with open A1 pulley release. Pediatric trigger finger is treated with release of the A1 pulley with excision of a slip or all of the flexor digitorum superficialis if triggering persists. PMID:26410644

  7. Management of Recurrent Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Bluett, Michael; Bolling, Steven F.; Kirsh, Marvin M.

    1991-01-01

    A 49-year-old man suffered multiple recurrences of pseudoaneurysm following ventricular aneurysmectomy in which Teflon felt strips had been used to reinforce the closure. The pseudoaneurysm was secondary to infection of the cardiac suture line, caused by a pathogen resident in the multifilamented Teflon strips. The patient was treated successfully by removal of all residual foreign material and reinforcement of the suture line with an omental pedicle graft. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991...

  8. Recurrent Glioblastoma: Where we stand

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjoy Roy; Debarshi Lahiri; Tapas Maji; Jaydip Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Current first-line treatment regimens combine surgical resection and chemoradiation for Glioblastoma that provides a slight increase in overall survival. Age on its own should not be used as an exclusion criterion of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment, but performance should be factored heavily into the decision-making process for treatment planning. Despite aggressive initial treatment, most patients develop recurrent diseases which can be treated with re-resection, systemic treatment w...

  9. Pinealitis accompanying equine recurrent uveitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsow, C M; Dwyer, A E; Smith, A. W.; Nifong, T P

    1993-01-01

    There is no direct verification of pineal gland involvement in human uveitis. Specimens of pineal tissue are not available during active uveitis in human patients. Naturally occurring uveitis in horses gives us an opportunity to examine tissues during active ocular inflammation. We examined the pineal gland of a horse that was killed because it had become blind during an episode of uveitis. The clinical history and histopathology of the eyes were consistent with post-leptospiral equine recurr...

  10. RECURRENT HAEMETEMESIS: THE MYSTERY UNFOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayantara Rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the case history of a six year old child who was portrayed as having recurrent haemetemesis since two years by her mother. A detailed evaluation showed that the patient’s history was inconsistent with the clinical findings and investigations, leading to a diagnosis of Factitious Disorder by Proxy (FDbp. The report highlights the rationale for under-diagnosis of FDbp in India and challenges the conventional approach ( Parentectomy for treating FDbp.

  11. Management of Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Shian Kao

    2004-01-01

    Management of recurrent endometrial carcinoma has traditionally focused on providingtargeted adjuvant therapy in select groups of patients based on their risk factors. Majorprogress has been made over the last two decades in identifying these clinical-pathologicalrisk factors, which has led to the classification of patients into different risk groups. Patientswith high-risk factors are generally treated with adjunctive radiation therapy immediatelyfollowing surgery to minimize the incidence o...

  12. Early-life stress and HPA axis trigger recurrent adulthood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juruena, Mario F

    2014-09-01

    It is now broadly accepted that psychological stress may change the internal homeostatic state of an individual. During acute stress, adaptive physiological responses occur, which include hyperactivity of the HPA axis. Whenever there is an acute interruption of this balance, illness may result. The social and physical environments have an enormous impact on our physiology and behavior, and they influence the process of adaptation or 'allostasis'. It is correct to state that at the same time that our experiences change our brain and thoughts, namely, changing our mind, we are changing our neurobiology. Increased adrenocortical secretion of hormones, primarily cortisol in major depression, is one of the most consistent findings in neuropsychiatry. A significant percentage of patients with major depression have been shown to exhibit increased concentrations of cortisol, an exaggerated cortisol response to adrenocorticotropic hormone, and an enlargement of both the pituitary and adrenal glands. The maintenance of the internal homeostatic state of an individual is proposed to be based on the ability of circulating glucocorticoids to exert negative feedback on the secretion of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones through binding to mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors limiting the vulnerability to diseases related to psychological stress in genetically predisposed individuals. The HPA axis response to stress can be thought of as a mirror of the organism's response to stress: acute responses are generally adaptive, but excessive or prolonged responses can lead to deleterious effects. Evidence indicates that early-life stress can induce persistent changes in the ability of the HPA axis to respond to stress in adulthood. These abnormalities appear to be related to changes in the ability of hormones to bind to GR and MR receptors. First episodes may begin with an environmental stressor, but if the cycles continue or occur unchecked, the brain becomes kindled or sensitized, and future episodes of depression, hypomania, or mania will occur independently of an outside stimulus, with greater frequency and intensity. Generally, HPA axis changes appear in chronic depressive and more severe episodes. Moreover, HPA axis changes appear to be state-dependent, tending to improve upon resolution of the depressive syndrome. Interestingly, persistent HPA dysfunction has been associated with higher rates of relapse and chronicity.

  13. Method for triggering an action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  14. Recurrent Benign Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert Lee; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-01-01

    The most important causes of recurrence of benign pleomorphic adenoma are enucleation with intraoperative spillage and incomplete tumor excision in association with characteristic histologic findings for the lesion (incomplete pseudocapsule and the presence of pseudopodia). Most recurrent pleomorphic adenomas (RPAs) are multinodular. MRI is the imaging method of choice for their assessment. Nerve integrity monitoring may reduce morbidity of RPA surgery. Although treatment of RPA must be individualized, total parotidectomy is generally recommended given the multicentricity of the lesions. However, surgery alone may be inadequate for controlling RPA over the long term. There is growing evidence from retrospective series that postoperative radiotherapy results in significantly better local control. A high percentage of RPAs are incurable. All patients should therefore be informed about the possibility of needing multiple treatment procedures, with possible impairment of facial nerve function, and radiation therapy for RPA. Reappearance of Warthin tumor is a metachronous occurrence of a new focus or residual incomplete excision of all primary multicentric foci of Warthin tumor. Selected cases can be observed. Conservative surgical management can include partial superficial parotidectomy or extracapsular dissection. Not uncommonly, other major and minor salivary gland neoplasms, including myoepithelioma, basal cell adenoma, oncocytoma, canalicular adenoma, cystadenoma, and ductal papilloma, follow an indolent course after surgical resection, with rare cases of recurrence.

  15. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  16. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  17. Predicting the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Heit, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a chronic disease with a 30% ten-year recurrence rate. The highest incidence of recurrence is in the first 6 months. Active cancer significantly increases the hazard of early recurrence, and the proportions of time on standard heparin (APTT≥0.2 anti-Xa U/mL) and warfarin (INR≥2.0) treatment, significantly reduce the hazard. The acute treatment duration does not affect recurrence risk after treatment is stopped. Independent predictors of late recurrence include ...

  18. Stress Reduction in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Recurrent Gynecologic or Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-08

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Fatigue; Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Pain; Peritoneal Carcinomatosis; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer

  19. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  20. The ATLAS level-1 Central Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, R; Berge, D; Caracinha, D; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haas, S; Klofver, P; Krasznahorkay, A; Messina, A; Ohm, C; Pauly, T; Perantoni, M; Pessoa Lima Junior, H; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Wengler, T; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger consists of the Muon-to-Central-Trigger-Processor Interface (MUCTPI), the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), and the Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) partitions of the sub-detectors. The MUCTPI connects the output of the muon trigger system to the CTP. At every bunch crossing it receives information on muon candidates from each of the 208 muon trigger sectors and calculates the total multiplicity for each of six pT thresholds. The CTP combines information from the calorimeter trigger and the MUCTPI and makes the final Level-1 Accept (L1A) decision on the basis of lists of selection criteria (trigger menus). The MUCTPI and the CTP provide trigger summary information to the Level-2 trigger and to the data acquisition (DAQ) for every event selected at the Level-1. They further provide accumulated and, for the CTP, bunch-by-bunch counter data for monitoring of the trigger, detector and beam conditions. The TTC partitions send timing, trigger and control signals from the CTP to the...

  1. A Hardware Track Trigger (FTK) for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The design and studies of the performance for the ATLAS hardware Fast TracKer (FTK) are presented. The existing trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is deployed to reduce the event rate from the bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz to < 1 KHz for permanent storage at the LHC design luminosity of 10^34 cm^-2 s^-1. The LHC has performed exceptionally well and routinely exceeds the design luminosity and from 2015 is due to operate with higher still luminosities. This will place a significant load on the High Level trigger (HLT) system, both due to the need for more sophisticated algorithms to reject background, and from the larger data volumes that will need to be processed. The Fast TracKer is a custom electronics system that will operate at the full Level-1 accepted rate of 100 KHz and provide high quality tracks at the beginning of processing in the HLT. This will be performing by track reconstruction using hardware with massive parallelism using associative memories (AM) and FPGAs. The availability of the full...

  2. Sperm DNA fragmentation, recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Coughlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is increasing that the integrity of sperm DNA may also be related to implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage (RM. To investigate this, the sperm DNA fragmentation in partners of 35 women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF following in vitro fertilization, 16 women diagnosed with RM and seven recent fathers (control were examined. Sperm were examined pre- and post-density centrifugation by the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD test and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. There were no significant differences in the age of either partner or sperm concentration, motility or morphology between three groups. Moreover, there were no obvious differences in sperm DNA fragmentation measured by either test. However, whilst on average sperm DNA fragmentation in all groups was statistically lower in prepared sperm when measured by the SCD test, this was not seen with the results from the TUNEL assay. These results do not support the hypothesis that sperm DNA fragmentation is an important cause of RIF or RM, or that sperm DNA integrity testing has value in such patients. It also highlights significant differences between test methodologies and sperm preparation methods in interpreting the data from sperm DNA fragmentation tests.

  3. Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma: a role for a triggering stimulus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendri, E; Venturi, C; Ricci, R; Giordano, G; De Panfilis, G

    2005-05-01

    Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma is a rare type of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma, characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells, that primarily develops in the skin. Five cases have been described to date in which a local triggering stimulus may be involved in development of this skin tumour. We describe the case of a primary cutaneous plasmacytoma localized to the lower lip. This site had been affected for 15 years with recurrent herpes simplex virus-1 infection. Neoplastic plasma cells were found to be bcl-2-positive. We hypothesize that chronic stimulation of keratinocytes by herpes simplex virus-1, possibly through toll-like receptors, may have favoured the release of cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6) able to induce plasma cell proliferation, transformation and survival. PMID:15807675

  4. Variational Recurrent Auto-Encoders

    OpenAIRE

    Fabius, Otto; van Amersfoort, Joost R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model that combines the strengths of RNNs and SGVB: the Variational Recurrent Auto-Encoder (VRAE). Such a model can be used for efficient, large scale unsupervised learning on time series data, mapping the time series data to a latent vector representation. The model is generative, such that data can be generated from samples of the latent space. An important contribution of this work is that the model can make use of unlabeled data in order to facilitate supervised...

  5. Trigger efficiencies at BES III

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Liu, Z A; Jin, D P; Xu, H; Gong, W X; Wang, K; Cao, G F

    2010-01-01

    Trigger efficiencies at BES III were determined for both the J/psi and psi' data taking of 2009. Both dedicated runs and physics datasets are used; efficiencies are presented for Bhabha-scattering events, generic hadronic decay events involving charged tracks, dimuon events and psi' -> pi+pi-J/psi, J/psi -> l+l- events (l an electron or muon). The efficiencies are found to lie well above 99% for all relevant physics cases, thus fulfilling the BES III design specifications.

  6. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest

  7. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    CERN Document Server

    Martyniuk, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trigger selection configuration system of the ATLAS low- and high-level trigger (HLT) and the upgrades it received in preparation for LHC Run 2. The ATLAS trigger configuration system is responsible for applying the physics selection parameters for the online data taking at both trigger levels and the proper connection of the trigger lines across those levels. Here the low-level trigger consists of the already existing central trigger (CT) and the new Level-1 Topological trigger (L1Topo), which has been added for Run 2. In detail the tasks of the configuration system during the online data taking are Application of the selection criteria, e.g. energy cuts, minimum multiplicities, trigger object correlation, at the three trigger components L1Topo, CT, and HLT On-the-fly, e.g. rate-dependent, generation and application of prescale factors to the CT and HLT to adjust the trigger rates to the data taking conditions, such as falling luminosity or rate spikes in the detector readout ...

  8. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Alberto; Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreatitis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis. There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation, hereditary a...

  9. Recurrent renal hyperparathyroidism due to parathyromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vulpio, Carlo; D’Errico, Giovanni; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Bossola, Maurizio; Lodoli, Claudio; Fadda, Guido; Bruno, Isabella; Giordano, Alessandro; Castagneto, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Parathyromatosis is the most severe type of recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in haemodialysis patients. It is difficult to completely remove all foci of parathyroid tissue and neck re-explorations are often required. Here, we report for the first time a case of recurrent SHPT due to parathyromatosis treated by radio-guided PTX. A haemodialysed 48-year-old woman with recurrent SHPT due to parathyromatosis was treated by radio-guided PTX. Preoperative...

  10. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Mierla; Viorica Radoi; Veronica Stoian

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, ka...

  11. Recurrence quantification analysis of chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M. S.; Szezech, J. D.; Batista, A. M.; Caldas, I. L.; Viana, R. L.; Lopes, S. R.

    2015-10-01

    Chimera states, characterised by coexistence of coherence and incoherence in coupled dynamical systems, have been found in various physical systems, such as mechanical oscillator networks and Josephson-junction arrays. We used recurrence plots to provide graphical representations of recurrent patterns and identify chimera states. Moreover, we show that recurrence plots can be used as a diagnostic of chimera states and also to identify the chimera collapse.

  12. Local Recurrence of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Whitney M; Deneve, Jeremiah L

    2016-10-01

    The management of recurrent soft tissue sarcoma is a challenging problem for clinicians and has a significant physical, mental, emotional, and oncologic impact for the patient. Despite excellent limb-preservation therapies, approximately one-quarter of patients may eventually develop recurrence of disease. How to most appropriately manage these patients is a matter of debate. Several treatment options exist, including surgical resection, irradiation, systemic chemotherapy, amputation, and regional therapies. This article highlights the management of recurrent extremity soft tissue sarcoma. PMID:27542648

  13. Recurrent odontogenic keratocyst within the masticatory space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Su Yeon; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Choi, Hyun Bae; Choi, Soon Chul [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst typically occurring in the jaws. Since the first description of OKC was published in 1956, the lesion has been of particular interest because of its specific histopathologic features, high recurrence rate, and aggressive behavior. Recurrences most commonly arise within bone at the site of the original cyst. However, as lining cells may find their way into surrounding tissues either from implantation during surgery or from cortical perforation recurrences may arise at a distance from the original cyst. Here, we report a rare case of recurrent OKC which was first developed in mandible and recurred within the masticatory space.

  14. Recurrence and Relapse in Bipolar Mood Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gh Mousavi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in acute phase of bipolar mood disorder, patients often experience relapses or recurrent episodes. Hospitalization of patients need a great deal of financial and humanistic resources which can be saved through understanding more about the rate of relapse and factors affecting this rate. Methods: In a descriptive analytical study, 380 patients with bipolar disorder who were hospitalized in psychiatric emergency ward of Noor hospital, Isfahan, Iran, were followed. Each patient was considered for; the frequency of relapse and recurrence, kind of pharmachotherapy, presence of psychotherapeutic treatments, frequency of visits by psychiatrist and the rank of present episode. Results: The overall prevalence of recurrence was 42.2%. Recurrence was lower in patients using lithium carbonate or sodium valproate or combined therapy (about 40%, compared to those using carbamazepine (80%. Recurrence was higher in patients treated with only pharmacotherapy (44.5% compared to those treated with both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (22.2%. Patients who were visited monthy by psychiatrist had lower rate of recurrence compared to those who had irregular visits. Conclusion: The higher rate of recurrence observed in carbamazepine therapy may be due to its adverse reactions and consequently poor compliance to this drug. Lower rates of recurrence with psychotherapy and regular visits may be related to the preventive effects of these procedures and especially to the effective management of stress. Keywords: Bipolar Mood Disorder, Recurrence, Relapse.

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for secondary recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Larsen, E. C.; Egerup, P.;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether infusions with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) during early pregnancy increase live birth rate in women with secondary recurrent miscarriage compared with placebo. DESIGN: A single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: A tertiary...... centre for recurrent miscarriage in Copenhagen, Denmark. POPULATION: A group of 82 women with unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage and at least four miscarriages. METHODS: Women were randomly assigned to repeated infusions with IVIg or placebo (albumin) from the time of positive pregnancy test to......, IVIg did not increase the live birth rate in patients with secondary recurrent miscarriage and the treatment cannot be recommended in clinical practice....

  16. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  17. Diagnosis and Management of Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections in Children: A Practical Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Respiratory tract infections (RTIs affect children all over the world and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. RTIs are usually triggered by viruses, though bacterial infections are also common. Results Children are particularly susceptible to RTIs due to the relative immaturity of their immune systems, and genetic factors (such as family history of atopy and/or environmental factors (such as exposure to pollution and pathogens also render certain populations more vulnerable to infection. Furthermore, RTIs tend to be recurrent and can result in multiple infections per year. The management of recurrent RTIs poses a tremendous challenge for physicians, who have a limited armamentarium with which to alleviate patients’ symptoms, treat their disease, and prevent recurrences. Conclusions Though antibiotics are rarely indicated, they are often still used to treat RTIs. The resulting increase in bacterial resistance, the lack of treatment efficacy, and drug-related side effects all underscore the need for alternative strategies to manage recurrent RTIs. This article uses a typical pediatric case study to review central issues in the diagnosis and management of recurrent RTIs in children, with an emphasis on the role of immunomodulation as a preventive strategy.

  18. Repeated anastomotic recurrence of colorectal tumors: Genetic analysis of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renato Costi; Cinzia Azzoni; Federico Marchesi; Lorena Bottarelli; Vincenzo Violi; Cesare Bordi

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate genetics of two cases of colorectal tumor local recurrence and throw some light on the etiopathogenesis of anastomotic recurrence.METHODS: Two cases are presented: a 65-year-old female receiving two colonic resections for primary anastomotic recurrences within 21 mo, and a 57-year-old female undergoing two local excisions of recurrent anastomotic adenomas within 26 mo. A loss of hetero-zygosity (LOH) study of 25 microsatellite markers and a mutational analysis of genes BRAF , K-RAS and APC were performed in samples of neoplastic and normal colonic mucosa collected over the years.RESULTS: A diffuse genetic instability was present in all samples, including neoplastic and normal colonic mucosa. Two different patterns of genetic alterations (LOH at 5q21 and 18p11.23 in the first case, and LOH at 1p34 and 3p14 in the second) were found to be as-sociated with carcinogenesis over the years. A role for the genes MYC-L (mapping at 1p34) and FIHT (mapping at 3p14.2) is suggested, whereas a role for APC (map-ping at 5q21) is not shown.CONCLUSION: The study challenges the most cred-ited intraluminal implantation and metachronous carci-nogenesis theories, and suggests a persistent, patient-specific alteration as the trigger of colorectal cancer anastomotic recurrence.

  19. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activity than at other times, adding to evidence of a connection between tremor and earthquakes. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003559, 2011)

  20. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  1. XI UV Laser Trigger System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickeen, B.K.; Morelli, G.L.; Paiva, R.A.; Powell, C.A.; Sundvold, P.D.

    1999-01-26

    The X1 accelerator project at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico utilizes SF6 insulated, multi-stage, UV laser triggered gas switches. A 265 nm UV laser system was designed and built to generate eight simultaneous output pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulse width. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser was frequency quadrupled using a two-stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy was frequency doubled with a KTP crystal to 530 nm, achieving 65% conversion efficiency. The 530 nm output was frequency doubled with KD*P crystal to 265 nm, achieving conversion efficiency of 31%. The 265 nm beam pulse was split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and stable energy output were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged into a rugged, o-ring sealed, aluminum structure 10''x19''x2.75''. The size of the electronics was 12''x8''x8''. Subsequent accelerator system requirements dictated a redesign of the triggering system for an output beam with less angular divergence. An unstable, crossed porro prism resonator was designed and incorporated into the system. The beam divergence of the redesigned system was successfully decreased to 0.97 mrad in the UV. The resulting frequency doubling efficiencies were 55% to 530 nm and 25% to 265 nm. The optical output remained at 10 mJ in each channel with an 11 nsec pulse width.

  2. Recurrence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Blanco, Leticia; García-Prada, Hilario; Santamarina, Susana; Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Bobes, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare idiosyncratic reaction associated with the use of neuroleptics that has an incidence of 0.02 to 3% among patients taking these drugs. This is a very serious complication with a mortality rate that reaches 10-20%. It is therefore very important to have high clinical suspicion and use appropriate criteria to objectify this clinical picture early, stopping the medication causing the picture and to avoid the subsequent complications as much as possible that would be responsible for both its mortality and sequels. We present that case of an 81-year old woman who was admitted to the Psychiatric Hospitalization Unit (PHU) for a depressive episode with psychotic symptoms who developed a neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) when Haloperidol was introduced. After its suspension and subsequent clinical recovery, antipsychotic treatment with Risperidone was reintroduced and she suffered a recurrence of NMS. Finally, significant improvement was achieved with several sessions of electroshock therapy (EST).

  3. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an unusual clinical entity. More than 200 cases are described in the literature and it is presented here with special reference to its radiological aspects. It is an acquired disease of the skeleton which occurs predominantly during childhood and adolescence. About ten per cent of cases begin in early or, rarely, in later adult life. This variant is described here for the first time and is discussed as 'adult CRMO'. The underlying pathology is a bland, predominantly lympho-plasma cellular osteomyelitis which is self-limiting and leads to bone sclerosis (Garre). It probably involves an abnormal immune process which follows an infection but remains clinically latent and remains aseptic and sterile. In a quarter of cases there is an association with pustulosis palmo-plantaris and its relationship with psoriatic arthropathy is discussed. The clinical, histopathological and imaging features (radiological and particularly MRT) and the bone changes are described. (orig./AJ)

  4. Recurrent pregnancy loss and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) was defined as two or more miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, and parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocation and abnormal embryonic karyotype, are identifiable causes of RPL. Obesity may increase the risk of sporadic miscarriage in pregnancies conceived spontaneously. Obesity with body mass index (BMI)>30 kg/m2 is an independent risk factor for further miscarriage with odds ratio 1.7-3.5 in patients with early RPL. Obesity is associated with euploid miscarriage. Unexplained RPL with euploid embryo might be a common disease caused by both polymorphisms of multiple susceptibility genes and lifestyle factors such as women's age, obesity, and smoking. Patients with a history of RPL were found to have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, celiac disease, gastric ulcer, gastritis, and atopic dermatitis. No study has examined the effect of weight loss on the prevention of further miscarriage in patients with RPL.

  5. Recurrent Glioblastoma: Where we stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Roy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current first-line treatment regimens combine surgical resection and chemoradiation for Glioblastoma that provides a slight increase in overall survival. Age on its own should not be used as an exclusion criterion of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM treatment, but performance should be factored heavily into the decision-making process for treatment planning. Despite aggressive initial treatment, most patients develop recurrent diseases which can be treated with re-resection, systemic treatment with targeted agents or cytotoxic chemotherapy, reirradiation, or radiosurgery. Research into novel therapies is investigating alternative temozolomide regimens, convection-enhanced delivery, immunotherapy, gene therapy, antiangiogenic agents, poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors, or cancer stem cell signaling pathways. Given the aggressive and resilient nature of GBM, continued efforts to better understand GBM pathophysiology are required to discover novel targets for future therapy.

  6. Recurrent Glioblastoma: Where we stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sanjoy; Lahiri, Debarshi; Maji, Tapas; Biswas, Jaydip

    2015-01-01

    Current first-line treatment regimens combine surgical resection and chemoradiation for Glioblastoma that provides a slight increase in overall survival. Age on its own should not be used as an exclusion criterion of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment, but performance should be factored heavily into the decision-making process for treatment planning. Despite aggressive initial treatment, most patients develop recurrent diseases which can be treated with re-resection, systemic treatment with targeted agents or cytotoxic chemotherapy, reirradiation, or radiosurgery. Research into novel therapies is investigating alternative temozolomide regimens, convection-enhanced delivery, immunotherapy, gene therapy, antiangiogenic agents, poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors, or cancer stem cell signaling pathways. Given the aggressive and resilient nature of GBM, continued efforts to better understand GBM pathophysiology are required to discover novel targets for future therapy. PMID:26981507

  7. Recurrent Primary Spinal Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Turk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid disease of spine is rare and spinal hydatitosis constitute only 1% of all hydatitosis. We report a case of recurrent primary intraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the thoracic region causing progressive paraparesis. The patient was operated 16 years ago for primary spinal hydatid disease involvement and was instrumented dorsally for stabilization. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of thoracic spine showed a cystic lesion at T11-12 level and compressed spinal cord posterolaterally. Intraspinal cyst was excised through T11-12 laminectomy which made formerly. The early postoperative period showed a progressive improvement of his neurological deficit and he was discharged with antihelmintic treatment consisting of albendazole and amoxicillin-sulbactam combination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 84-89

  8. Current management options for recurrent adrenocortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glover AR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony R Glover,1 Julian C Y Ip,1 Jing Ting Zhao,1 Patsy S H Soon,1,4 Bruce G Robinson,1,3 Stan B Sidhu1,2 1Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Cancer Genetics Laboratory, 2Endocrine Surgical Unit, 3Department of Endocrinology, Royal North Shore Hospital and University of Sydney, St Leonards, 4Department of Surgery, Bankstown Hospital and University of New South Wales, Bankstown, NSW, Australia Abstract: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC is a rare cancer that poses a number of management challenges due to the limited number of effective systemic treatments. Complete surgical resection offers the best chance of long-term survival. However, despite complete resection, ACC is associated with high recurrence rates. This review will discuss the management of recurrent ACC in adults following complete surgical resection. Management should take place in a specialist center and treatment decisions must consider the individual tumor biology of each case of recurrence. Given the fact that ACC commonly recurs, management to prevent recurrence should be considered from initial diagnosis with the use of adjuvant mitotane. Close follow up with clinical examination and imaging is important for early detection of recurrent disease. Locoregional recurrence may be isolated, and repeat surgical resection should be considered along with mitotane. The use of radiotherapy in ACC remains controversial. Systemic recurrence most often involves liver, pulmonary, and bone metastasis and is usually managed with mitotane, with or without combination chemotherapy. There is a limited role for surgical resection in systemic recurrence in selected patients. In all patients with recurrent disease, control of excessive hormone production is an important part of management. Despite intensive management of recurrent ACC, treatment failure is common and the use of clinical trials and novel treatment is an important part of management. Keywords: recurrence, surgery, chemotherapy

  9. Recurrence models of volcanic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Volcanism studies for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project have progressed to a sufficient degree that it is now prudent to work toward concluding aspects of the work. An advantage of a probabilistic approach to volcanic risk is that it assigns a structured formalism to the problem. This formalism subdivides a complex issue into logical sections. The significance of uncertainty or differences in scientific opinion concerning volcanism issues can be tested for each section of a probabilistic problem. The perspective for making judgement of significance for volcanism studied are the regulatory requirements for assessing the suitability of the potential Yucca Mountain site. This paper attempts to begin the process of helping establish the probabilistic framework for making those judgement. There are three objectives. First, the authors describe the tripartite probability used to define the risk of volcanism and the geologic assumptions required for the probability model. Second, the authors examine and define the first part of this probability, the recurrence of volcanic events. Studies are reviewed from the volcanological literature where time-volume behavior of volcanic centers and fields have been evaluated. These evaluations include both conventional statistical analysis of time-series of volcanic events and applications using newly developing concepts of fractal analysis and deterministic chaos. Third, the authors tabulate past calculations and derive new values for the recurrence of volcanic events using a simple Poison model

  10. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.

    2011-12-01

    Three recent devastating earthquakes, the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 2010 M=7.0 Leogane (Haiti), 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung (Taiwan), and additional three moderate size earthquakes (6hurricane or typhoon) hit the very same area. The most familiar example is Haiti, which was hit during the late summer of 2008 by two hurricanes and two tropical storms (Fay, Gustav, Hanna and Ike) within 25 days. A year an a half after this very wet hurricane season, the 2010 Leogane earthquake occurred in the mountainous Haiti's southern peninsula and caused the death of more than 300,000 people. The other cases are from Taiwan, which is characterized by a high seismicity level and frequent typhoon landfall. The three wettest typhoons in Taiwan's past 50 years were Morakot (in 2009, with 2885 mm or rain), Flossie (1969, 2162 mm) and Herb (1996, 1987 mm)[Lin et al., 2010]. Each of this three very wet storms was followed by one or two main-shock M>6 earthquake that occurred in the central mountainous area of Taiwan within three years after the typhoon. The 2009 Morakot typhoon was followed by 2009 M=6.2 Nantou and 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes; the 1969 Flossie typhoon was followed by an M=6.3 earthquake in 1972; and the 1996 Herb typhoon by the 1998 M=6.2 Rueyli and 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes. The earthquake catalog of Taiwan lists only two other M>6 main-shocks that occurred in Taiwan's central mountainous belt, one of them was in 1964 only four months after the wet Typhoon Gloria poured heavy rain in the same area. We suggest that the close proximity in time and space between wet tropical cyclones and earthquakes reflects a physical link between the two hazard types in which these earthquakes were triggered by rapid erosion induced by tropical cyclone's heavy rain. Based on remote sensing observations, meshfree finite element modeling, and Coulomb failure stress analysis, we show that the erosion induced by very wet cyclones increased the failure stresses at the hypocenters

  11. Oxaliplatin in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent Solid Tumors That Have Not Responded to Previous Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Hepatoblastoma; Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Teratoma; Recurrent Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer

  12. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  13. The ATLAS b-jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira de Lima, D E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS b-jet Trigger The online event selection is crucial to reject most of the events containing uninteresting background collisions while preserving as much as possible the interesting physical signals. The b-jet selection is part of the trigger strategy of the ATLAS experiment and a set of dedicated triggers is presently contributing to the event selection for the 2011 running. The b-jets acceptance is increased and the background reduced by lowering jet transverse energy thresholds at the first trigger level and applying b-tagging techniques at the subsequent levels. Different physics channels, especially topologies containing more than one b-jet where higher rejection factors are achieved, benefit from requesting this trigger to be fired. An overview of the status-of-art of the b-jet trigger menu and performance on real data is presented in this poster.

  14. The ATLAS Local Trigger Processor (LTP) 018

    CERN Document Server

    Borrego-Amaral, P; Farthouat, Philippe; Gällnö, P; Pessoa-Lima, H; Maeno, T; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; De Seixas, J M; Schuler, G; Spiwoks, R; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T; 10th Workshop on Electronics for LHC and Future Experiments

    2004-01-01

    The Local Trigger Processor (LTP) receives timing and trigger signals from the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) and injects them into the Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) system of a sub-detector front-end TTC partition. The LTP allows stand-alone running by using local timing and trigger signals or by generating them from memory. In addition, several LTPs of the same sub-detector can be daisy-chained. The LTP can thus be regarded as a switching element for timing and trigger signals with input from the CTP or the daisy-chain, from local input, or from the internal data generator, and with output to the daisy-chain, to the TTC partition, or to local output. Finally, in combined mode several LTPs can be connected together using their local outputs and local inputs to allow stand-alone running of combinations of different sub-detectors.

  15. Importance of direct and indirect triggered seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A; Helmstetter, Agnes; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Using the simple ETAS branching model of seismicity, which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes, we quantify the role played by the cascade of triggered seismicity in controlling the rate of aftershock decay as well as in the overall level of seismicity in the presence of a constant external seismicity source. We show that, in this model, the proportion of triggered seismicity is equal to the proportion of secondary plus later-generation aftershocks, and is given by the average number of triggered events per earthquake. Based on these results and on the observation that a large fraction of seismicity are triggered earthquakes, we conclude that similarly a large fraction of aftershocks occurring a few hours or days after a mainshock are triggered indirectly by the mainshock.

  16. Is Earthquake Triggering Driven by Small Earthquakes?

    OpenAIRE

    Helmstetter, Agnes

    2002-01-01

    Using a catalog of seismicity for Southern California, we measure how the number of triggered earthquakes increases with the earthquake magnitude. The trade-off between this relation and the distribution of earthquake magnitudes controls the relative role of small compared to large earthquakes. We show that seismicity triggering is driven by the smallest earthquakes, which trigger fewer events than larger earthquakes, but which are much more numerous. We propose that the non-trivial scaling o...

  17. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis : From diagnosis to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon-Pian-Gi, Robin Edward Adrianus

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare, benign, recurrent disease of the airway. Its warty lesions are associated with the Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 6 and 11, with a predisposition in the larynx. Because no curative treatment exists, some patients may require more than 100 surg

  18. Forequarter amputation for recurrent breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna N. Pundi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Forequarter amputation can be judiciously used for patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Patients with recurrent disease without evidence of distant metastases may be considered for curative amputation, while others may receive palliative benefit; disappointingly our patient achieved neither of these outcomes. In the long term, these patients may still have significant psychological problems.

  19. Examestane in advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Kristina; Malander, Susanne; Christensen, René dePont;

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane in patients with advanced, persistent or recurrent endometrial carcinoma.......We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane in patients with advanced, persistent or recurrent endometrial carcinoma....

  20. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Zawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  1. Commissioning of the ATLAS Muon Trigger Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Musto, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the three-level ATLAS muon trigger as evaluated by using LHC data is presented. Events have been selected by using only the hardware-based Level-1 trigger in order to commission and to subsequently enable the (software-based) selections of the High Level Trigger. Studies aiming at selecting prompt muons from J/{\\psi} and at reducing non prompt muon contamination have been performed. A brief overview on how the muon triggers evolve with increasing luminosity is given.

  2. The first-level trigger of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Haller, J; Aielli, G; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Aprodu, V; Ask, S; Barnett, B M; Bartos, D; Bauss, B; Belkin, A; Benhammou, Ya; Bocci, V; Booth, J R A; Brambilla, Elena; Brawn, I P; Bressler, S; Buda, S; Bohm, C; Canale, V; Caracinha, D; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Cataldi, G; Charlton, D G; Chiodi, G; Ciapetti, G; Constantin, S; Conventi, F; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Seixas, J M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Simone, A; Distante, L; Dogaru, M; Edwards, J; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellis, Nick; Etzion, E; Farthouat, P; Fukunaga, C; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gennari, E; Geweniger, C; Gillman, A R; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Gällnö, P; Haas, S; Hanke, P; Harel, A; Hasegawa, Y; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Ichimiya, R; Iengo, P; Ikeno, M; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Kagawa, S; Kanaya, N; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kiyamura, H; Kluge, E -E; Kobayashi, T; Krasznahorkay, A; Kurashige, H; Kuwabara, T; Landon, M; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Lifshitz, R; Luci, C; Lupu, N; Magureanu, C; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Migliaccio, A; Mikenberg, G; Mirea, A; Moye, T H; Nagano, K; Nisati, A; Nomachi, M; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Ochi, A; Ogata, T; Omachi, C; Oshita, H; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Pectu, M; Perantoni, M; Perera, V J O; Perrino, R; Pessoa-Lima, H; Petrolo, E; Primavera, M; Prodan, L; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rusu, A; Rühr, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamon, A; Sankey, D P C; Santonico, R; Sasaki, O; Schmitt, K; Schuler, G; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schäfer, U; Sekhniaidze, G; Silverstein, S; Spagnolo, S; Spila, F; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Thomas, J P; Trefzger, T; Typaldos, D; Uroseviteanu, C; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, G A; Weber, P; Wengler, T; Woerling, E E; Yamaguchi, Y; Yasu, Y; Zanello, L

    2006-01-01

    Due to the huge interaction rates and the tough experimental environment of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt(s)=14 TeV and luminosities of up to 10^34cm^-2s^-1, one of the experimental challenges at the LHC is the triggering of interesting events. In the ATLAS experiment a three-level trigger system is foreseen for this purpose. The first-level trigger is implemented in custom hardware and has been designed to reduce the data rate from the initial bunch-crossing rate of 40MHz to around 75 kHz. Its event selection is based on information from the calorimeters and dedicated muon detectors. This article gives an overview over the full first-level trigger system including the Calorimeter Trigger, the Muon Trigger and the Central Trigger Processor. In addition, recent results are reported that have been obtained from test-beam studies performed at CERN where the full first-level trigger chain was established successfully for the first time and used to trigger the read-out of up to nine ATLAS sub-detec...

  3. The ATLAS Muon and Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Asta, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    [Muon] The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filter (EF) for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. Trigger-specific algorithms were developed and are used for the L2 to increase processing speed for instance by making use of look-up tables and simpler algorithms, while the EF muon triggers mostly benefit from offline reconstruction software to obtain most precise determination of the track parameters. There are two algorithms with different approaches, namely inside-out and outside-in...

  4. Recurrence of autoimmune liver diseases after livertransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the most effective treatmentmodality for end stage liver disease caused by manyetiologies including autoimmune processes. That said,the need for transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis(AIH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but not forprimary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), has decreasedover the years due to the availability of effective medicaltreatment. Autoimmune liver diseases have superiortransplant outcomes than those of other etiologies. WhileAIH and PBC can recur after LT, recurrence is of limitedclinical significance in most, but not all cases. RecurrentPSC, however, often progresses over years to a stagerequiring re-transplantation. The exact incidence andthe predisposing factors of disease recurrence remaindebated. Better understanding of the pathogenesis andthe risk factors of recurrent autoimmune liver diseasesis required to develop preventive measures. In thisreview, we discuss the current knowledge of incidence,diagnosis, risk factors, clinical course, and treatmentof recurrent autoimmune liver disease (AIH, PBC, PSC)following LT.

  5. Calcaneal chondroblastoma with pathologic fracture and recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Laksha; Schade, Valerie L; Manoso, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastomas account for 80% of cases. Local recurrence rates of ≤38% have been reported, most often because of inadequate resection, and have been associated with malignant conversion and metastasis. Adjuvant therapies can help minimize the incidence of local recurrence. Long-term follow-up examinations are recommended, given the protracted interval that can exist between recurrence and the potential for malignant conversion and metastasis. We present the case of a young, healthy, active male with a calcaneal chondroblastoma and associated pathologic fracture whose initial treatment consisted of curettage, hydrogen peroxide lavage, and allogeneic bone grafting. Recurrence developed at 15 months postoperatively and was treated with repeat curettage, high-speed burring, and reconstruction with steel Steinman pins and polymethylmethacrylate, resulting in no pain or recurrence at the 5-month follow-up point.

  6. 6th International Symposium on Recurrence Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Ioana, Cornel; Marwan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The chapters in this book originate from the research work and contributions presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots held in Grenoble, France in June 2015. Scientists from numerous disciplines gathered to exchange knowledge on recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. This meeting was remarkable because of the obvious expansion of recurrence strategies (theory) and applications (practice) into ever-broadening fields of science. It discusses real-world systems from various fields, including mathematics, strange attractors, applied physics, physiology, medicine, environmental and earth sciences, as well as psychology and linguistics. Even readers not actively researching any of these particular systems will benefit from discovering how other scientists are finding practical non-linear solutions to specific problems. The book is of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researchers interested in time...

  7. Recurrence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Oostwaard, Miriam F; Langenveld, Josje; Schuit, Ewoud;

    2015-01-01

    increased with decreasing gestational age at delivery in the index pregnancy. If the HDP recurred, in general it was milder, regarding maximum diastolic blood pressure, proteinuria, the use of oral antihypertensive and anticonvulsive medication, the delivery of a small-for-gestational-age child, premature......OBJECTIVE: We performed an individual participant data (IPD) metaanalysis to calculate the recurrence risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and recurrence of individual hypertensive syndromes. STUDY DESIGN: We performed an electronic literature search for cohort studies that reported...... in 0.2% of the studies (95% CI, 0.16-0.25%). The delivery of a small-for-gestational-age child accompanied the recurrent HDP in 3.4% of the studies (95% CI, 3.2-3.6%). Concomitant HELLP syndrome or delivery of a small-for-gestational-age child increased the risk of recurrence of HDP. Recurrence...

  8. Calcaneal chondroblastoma with pathologic fracture and recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Laksha; Schade, Valerie L; Manoso, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastomas account for 80% of cases. Local recurrence rates of ≤38% have been reported, most often because of inadequate resection, and have been associated with malignant conversion and metastasis. Adjuvant therapies can help minimize the incidence of local recurrence. Long-term follow-up examinations are recommended, given the protracted interval that can exist between recurrence and the potential for malignant conversion and metastasis. We present the case of a young, healthy, active male with a calcaneal chondroblastoma and associated pathologic fracture whose initial treatment consisted of curettage, hydrogen peroxide lavage, and allogeneic bone grafting. Recurrence developed at 15 months postoperatively and was treated with repeat curettage, high-speed burring, and reconstruction with steel Steinman pins and polymethylmethacrylate, resulting in no pain or recurrence at the 5-month follow-up point. PMID:25624038

  9. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  10. Global Trigger Upgrade firmware architecture for the level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbaran, B.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Wittmann, J.; Matsushita, T.

    2015-02-01

    The Global Trigger (GT) is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements the ``menu'' of triggers, which is a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects (such as muons, electrons or jets) to trigger the readout of the detector and serve as basis for further calculations by the High Level Trigger. Operational experience in developing trigger menus from the first LHC run has shown that the requirements increased as the luminosity and pile-up increased. The new GT (μGT) is designed based on Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGAs, which combine unsurpassed flexibility with regard to scalability and high robustness. Furthermore, a custom board which receives signals from legacy electronics and basic binary inputs from less complex trigger sources is presented. Additionally, this paper describes the architecture of a distributed testing framework and the Trigger Menu Editor.

  11. Triggering tradeoffs for recording dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, R.P.; Laios, B.B.

    1997-04-01

    Dynamics recording devices (DRD) that monitor and record the transient or dynamic response of power systems are installed across power systems. DRDs that have been installed in the last decade have increasingly used digital computer implementation; these include digital relays, digital fault recorders, integrated electronic controls for substation automation, and many digitally implemented controls such as excitation system controls and stabilizers. The system dynamics of interest generally lie in the frequency range below 5 Hz and may require recordings up to 2 to 5 minutes. This timeframe includes the times for transient instability, oscillatory instability, and governing responses, as well as the initial responses of secondary controls including power plant controls and automatic generation control (AGC). In some applications, the frequency range may be greater for monitoring the faster dynamics associated with flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices and subsynchronous oscillatory interactions. Recordings from DRDs are used for event reconstruction, review of the action of control and protection systems, and detection of unexpected dynamics within the power system. In recent years, DRDs have been recognized as viable options for data to be used in control functions, including those associated with FACTS devices. DRDs and monitoring systems need triggering algorithms and settings that dependably and securely detect unusual events in the presence of normal power system events such as switching, customer load changes, and other routine operations. This article describes how to address these needs.

  12. Alisertib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Hepatoblastoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Kidney Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma

  13. Determinants of recurrence after intended curative resection for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Kring, Thomas; Jorgensen, Lars N;

    2014-01-01

    in development of recurrence. It is well established that emergency surgery is a major determinant of recurrence. Moreover, anastomotic leakages, postoperative bacterial infections, and blood transfusions increase the recurrence rates although the exact mechanisms still remain obscure. From pathology studies...

  14. Intensified follow-up in colorectal cancer patients using frequent Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA) measurements and CEA-triggered imaging : Results of the randomized "CEAwatch" trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, C. J.; Zhan, Z.; van den Heuvel, E.; Grossmann, I.; Doornbos, P. M.; Havenga, K.; Manusama, E.; Klaase, J.; van der Mijle, H. C. J.; Lamme, B.; Bosscha, K.; Baas, P.; van Ooijen, B.; Nieuwenhuijzen, G.; Marinelli, A.; van der Zaag, E.; Wasowicz, D.; de Bock, G. H.; Wiggers, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The value of frequent Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA) measurements and CEA-triggered imaging for detecting recurrent disease in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients was investigated in search for an evidence-based follow-up protocol. Methods: This is a randomized-controlled multicenter prospective

  15. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud;

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  16. Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn;

    1999-01-01

    Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....

  17. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371751; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC will collide protons in the ATLAS detector with increasing luminosity through 2016, placing stringent operational and physical requirements to the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. During the LHC shutdown after the Run 1 finished in 2013, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded including hardware, firmware and software updates. In particular, new electronics modules were introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which...

  18. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor

    CERN Document Server

    Pauly, T; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Spiwoks, R; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T; 14th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference 2005

    2005-01-01

    ATLAS is a multi-purpose particle physics detector at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider where two pulsed beams of protons are brought to collision at very high energy. There are collisions every 25 ns, corresponding to a rate of 40 MHz. A three-level trigger system reduces this rate to about 200 Hz while keeping bunch crossings which potentially contain interesting processes. The Level-1 trigger, implemented in electronics and firmware, makes an initial selection in under 2.5 us with an output rate of less than 100 kHz. A key element of this is the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) which combines trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors to make the final Level-1 accept decision in under 100 ns on the basis of lists of selection criteria, implemented as a trigger menu. Timing and trigger signals are fanned out to all sub-detectors, while busy signals from all sub-detector read-out systems are collected and fed into the CTP in order to throttle the generation of Level-1 triggers.

  19. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, G H; Cooper, M D; Hart, G W; Hoffman, C M; Hogan, G E; Hughes, E B; Matis, H S; Rolfe, J; Sandberg, V D; Williams, R A; Wilson, S; Zeman, H

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle angular modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor-changing decays of the muon. A beam of up to 10/sup 6/ muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor. Further reduction to <1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor-based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic logic. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex ...

  20. The LVL2 trigger goes online

    CERN Multimedia

    David Berge

    On Friday, the 9th of February, the ATLAS TDAQ community reached an important milestone. In a successful integration test, cosmic-ray muons were recorded with parts of the muon spectrometer, the central-trigger system and a second-level trigger algorithm. This was actually the first time that a full trigger slice all the way from the first-level trigger muon chambers up to event building after event selection by the second-level trigger ran online with cosmic rays. The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system has a three-tier structure that is designed to cope with the enormous demands of proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, with a typical event size of 1-2 MB. The online event selection has to reduce the incoming rate by a factor of roughly 200,000 to 200 Hz, a rate digestible by the archival-storage and offline-processing facilities. ATLAS has a mixed system: the first-level trigger (LVL1) is in hardware, while the other two consecutive levels, the second-level trigger (LVL2)...

  1. Tools for Trigger Aware Analyses in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Stelzer, J

    2010-01-01

    In order to search for rare processes, all four LHC experiments have to use advanced triggering methods for selecting and recording the events of interest. At the expected nominal LHC operating conditions only about 0.0005% of the collision events can be kept for physics analysis in ATLAS. Therefore the understanding and evaluation of the trigger performance is one of the most crucial parts of any physics analysis. ATLAS’s first level trigger is composed of custom-built hardware, while the second and third levels are implemented using regular PCs running reconstruction and selection algorithms. Because of this split, accessing the results of the trigger execution for the two stages is different. The complexity of the software trigger presents further difficulties in accessing the trigger data. To make the job of the physicists easier when evaluating the trigger performance, multiple general-use tools are provided by the ATLAS Trigger Analysis Tools group. The TrigDecisionTool, a general tool, is provided to...

  2. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...

  3. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. A ...

  4. Tea and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman Evans Ii, Martin; Starley, Brad; Galagan, Jack Carl; Yabes, Joseph Michael; Evans, Sara; Salama, Joseph John

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Studies have shown effects of diet on gut microbiota. We aimed to identify foods associated with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Methods. In this cross-sectional survey, consecutive patients diagnosed with CDI were identified by electronic medical records. Colitis symptoms and positive Clostridium difficile assay were confirmed. Health-care onset-health-care facility associated CDI was excluded. Food surveys were mailed to 411 patients. Survey responses served as the primary outcome measure. Spearman's rank correlation identified risk factors for CDI recurrence. Results. Surveys were returned by 68 patients. Nineteen patients experienced CDI recurrence. Compared to patients without CDI recurrence, patients with CDI recurrence had more antibiotics prescribed preceding their infection (p = 0.003). Greater numbers of the latter also listed tea (p = 0.002), coffee (p = 0.013), and eggs (p = 0.013), on their 24-hour food recall. Logistic regression identified tea as the only food risk factor for CDI recurrence (adjusted OR: 5.71; 95% CI: 1.26-25.89). Conclusion. The present results indicate a possible association between tea and CDI recurrence. Additional studies are needed to characterize and confirm this association.

  5. Inguinal hernia recurrence: Classification and approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campanelli Giampiero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors reviewed the records of 2,468 operations of groin hernia in 2,350 patients, including 277 recurrent hernias updated to January 2005. The data obtained - evaluating technique, results and complications - were used to propose a simple anatomo-clinical classification into three types which could be used to plan the surgical strategy:Type R1: first recurrence ′high,′ oblique external, reducible hernia with small (< 2 cm defect in non-obese patients, after pure tissue or mesh repairType R2: first recurrence ′low,′ direct, reducible hernia with small (< 2 cm defect in non-obese patients, after pure tissue or mesh repairType R3: all the other recurrences - including femoral recurrences; recurrent groin hernia with big defect (inguinal eventration; multirecurrent hernias; nonreducible, linked with a controlateral primitive or recurrent hernia; and situations compromised from aggravating factors (for example obesity or anyway not easily included in R1 or R2, after pure tissue or mesh repair.

  6. Tumor vaccine against recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Gang Peng; Li-Jiang Liang; Qiang He; Ming Kuang; Jia-Ming Lia; Ming-De Lu; Jie-Fu Huang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of autologous tumor vaccine on recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Sixty patients with HCC who had undergone curative resection, were randomly divided into HCC vaccine group and control group. Three vaccinations at 2-wk intervals were performed after curative hepatic resection. Delayedtype- hypersensitivity (DTH) test was performed before and after vaccination. Primary endpoints were the time of recurrence.RESULTS: Four patients in control group and 6 patients in HCC vaccine group were withdrawn from the study. The vaccine containing human autologous HCC fragments showed no essential adverse effect in a phase Ⅱ clinical trial and 17 of 24 patients developed a DTH response against the fragments. Three of 17 DTH-positive response patients and 5 of 7 DTH- negative response patients had recurrences after curative resection. After the operation,1-, 2- and 3-year recurrence rates of HCC vaccine groupwere 16.7%, 29.2% and 33.3%, respectively. But, 1-, 2- and3-year recurrence rates of the control group were 30.8%,53.8% and 61.5%, respectively. The time before the first recurrence in the vaccinated patients was significantly longer than that in the control patients (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Autologous tumor vaccine is of promise in decreasing recurrence of human HCC.

  7. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  8. ATLAS jet trigger performance in 2015 data

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Theodor Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to preferentially select events with a predefined topology of interest for future analysis. The hadronic jet trigger is used to select several different topologies containing different types and multiplicities of hadronic jets, thus supporting many different physics searches and measurements. The hadronic jet trigger efficiency for proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The efficient selection of events containing hadronic jets requires the characteristics of trigger-level jets and offline jets to be very similar. A comparison of relevant characteristics demonstrates that trigger-level jets and offline jets are in excellent agreement.

  9. ATLAS jet trigger performance in 2016 data

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Theodor Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to preferentially select events with a predefined topology of interest for future analysis. The hadronic jet trigger is used to select several different topologies containing different types and multiplicities of hadronic jets, thus supporting many different physics searches and measurements. The hadronic jet trigger efficiency for proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The efficient selection of events containing hadronic jets requires the characteristics of trigger-level jets and offline jets to be very similar. A comparison of relevant characteristics demonstrates that trigger-level jets and offline jets are in excellent agreement.

  10. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  11. Modified SCR for optically actuated triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple inexpensive, optically actuated triggering device (optical trigger) has been developed for synchronizing pulsed lasers with signal gathering instrumentation. The heart of this device is a commercially available SCR that has been modified for light activated operation. The optical trigger delivers, into a 50-Ω load, a pulse of either 84 V with a 8.3-ns rise time and 3.5-μs width, or 42 V with a 6.2-ns rise time and 7-μs width. The device is sensitive throughout the visible and near-visible spectrum. It has a transit time of only 2.2 ns and less than 1-ns jitter. The performance of this optical trigger is examined in terms of the criteria of an ''ideal'' optical trigger and the effects of circuit and input parameters on output pulse characteristics are discussed

  12. The LHCb Trigger: Present and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R

    2012-01-01

    LHCb is a single arm spectrometer covering the pseudo-rapidity range between 1.9 and 4.9, and has been optimised to perform flavour physics measurements at the LHC. The present two stage trigger system is able to select charm and beauty decay products with high efficiency due the highly inclusive approach of triggering on partially reconstructed decays and the use of a novel multivariate classifier at the second stage. The trigger can select both leptonic and purely hadronic decays. The performance of the trigger is determined from the data itself without having to rely on Monte-Carlo simulation and is presented. LHCb has recently submitted their upgrade LOI, which mainly aims at profiting from much larger luminosities by moving towards a single fully software based trigger. The upgrade strategy and expected performance are presented.

  13. The ATLAS b-jet Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson Adrian, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The online event selection is crucial to reject most of the events containing uninteresting background collisions while preserving as much as possible the interesting physical signals. The b-jet selection is part of the trigger strategy of the ATLAS experiment and a set of dedicated triggers is presently contributing to the event selection for the 2011 running. The b-jets acceptance is increased and the background reduced by lowering jet transverse energy thresholds at the first trigger level and applying b-tagging techniques at the subsequent levels. Different physics channels, especially topologies containing more than one b-jet where higher rejection factors are achieved, benefit from requesting this trigger to be fired. An overview of the status-of-art of the b-jet trigger menu and performance on real data is presented in this contribution.

  14. A Review on Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jin; Jiang Haikun

    2012-01-01

    Research of tidal triggering of earthquakes in recent years is systematically reviewed, focusing on the relationship between the phases of the moon and seismic activity, earthquakes triggered by tidal forces and its components, based on the large sample statistics to discuss the tidal triggering of an earthquake. The relationship between the phase of the moon and seismic activity is a preliminary study of tidal triggering of earthquakes, and the modulation ratio is a quantitative description of it. Using the resolution of tidal stress to study seismic activity is a way to reveal the relationship between the tides and earthquakes from the mechanics point of view. Large sample statistics is another way to study the relationship between the tidal and earthquake from the view of statistics. In many statistical methods, Schuster's test is used more widely, which takes many factors into account, such as focal mechanism, tidal stress, and statistical tests to quantitatively analyze the tidal triggering effect on earthquakes.

  15. Recurrent acute pancreatitis and its relative factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Hong-Chao Shan; Yan Gu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the causes and the relative factors of recurrent acute pancreatitis.METHODS: From 1997 to 2000, acute pancreatitis relapsed in 77 of 245 acute pancreatitis patients. By reviewing the clinical treatment results and the follow-up data, we analyzed the recurrent factors of acute pancreatitis using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis.RESULTS: Of the 245 acute pancreatitis patients, 77 were patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. Of them, 56 patients relapsed two times, 19 relapsed three times, each patient relapsed three and four times. Forty-seven patients relapsed in hospital and the other 30 patients relapsed after discharge. Eighteen patients relapsed in 1 year, eight relapsed in 1-3 years, and four relapsed after 3 years. There were 48 cases of biliary pancreatitis, 3 of alcohol pancreatitis, 5 of hyperlipidemia pancreatitis, 21 of idiopathic pancreatitis. Univariate analysis showed that the patients with local complications of pancreas, obstructive jaundice and hepatic function injury were easy to recur during the treatment period of acute pancreatitis (P = 0.022<0.05, P = 0.012<0.05 and P = 0.002<0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that there was no single factor related to recurrence. Of the 47 patients who had recurrence in hospital, 16 had recurrence in a fast period, 31 after refeeding. CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis is easy to recur even during treatment. The factors such as changes of pancreas structure and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory reaction are responsible for the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Early refeeding increases the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Defining the etiology is essential for reducing the recurrence of acute pancreatitis.

  16. Recurrent stroke: what have we learnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2007-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death, a major cause of disability in adults, and is frequently more disabling than fatal. With a decline in mortality from initial cerebral infarction and an increase in the life expectancy of the population, the number of patients with recurrent stroke and ensuing cardiovascular events will become greater. Thus it is important to find out those patients at high risk of stroke recurrence. This case report illustrates the process of recurrent stroke and the resulting disabilities and morbidities in a 42-year- old man. The role of integrated stroke rehabilitation programme is described. PMID:25606084

  17. Recurrence of gestational diabetes in primiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Anne R; Darling, Mette S; Hansen, Mia K L;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk for diabetes in the next pregnancy and later in life. Thus, estimating the risk of GDM in further pregnancies provides a time frame for possible preventive measures. We aimed to calculate the recurrence rate of GDM in primiparous......-two of these women had a subsequent pregnancy and they all attended the recommended screening procedure, a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 14–20 (early) or 27–30 (late) weeks' gestation. The recurrence rate of GDM was 47.2%. The risk of recurrence was less in women who lost weight between the first...

  18. Radiation recall phenomenon presenting as myositis triggered by carboplatin plus paclitaxel and related literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Chi Hoon; Park, Jun Sang; Lee, Seung Ah; Kim, Dong Hwan; Yun, Dong Hwan; Yoo, Seung-Don; Kim, Hee-Sang; Chon, Jinmann

    2014-01-01

    While most case reports to date are radiation recall dermatitis, radiation recall myositis, which is a distinct form of radiation recall phenomenon caused by carboplatin plus paclitaxel, has not been reported. We treated a 57-year-old female patient who suffered from recurrent cervical cancer. When the patient developed a new left sacral metastasis, salvage radiotherapy (total dose 60 Gy) was administered. Four weeks later, chemotherapy using carboplatin plus paclitaxel was initiated. Four months after chemotherapy, the patient complained of severe pain in her left buttock. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), edematous changes and increased signal densities of left gluteus maximus and medius muscles were noted suggesting myositis. The border of the high signal intensity territory of the muscles was sharp and clearly corresponded with the recent irradiation field. We concluded that the patient had radiation recall myositis triggered by paclitaxel-carboplatin. Symptoms were controlled by analgesics, and there was no recurrence.

  19. Percutaneous soft tissue release for treating chronic recurrent myofascial pain associated with lateral epicondylitis: 6 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Kao, Mu-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin's technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale), pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer), and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer) were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) and the pressure pain threshold and the grasping strength were significantly increased (P < 0.01) immediately after the treatment. This significant effectiveness lasts for at least one year. Conclusions. It is suggested that percutaneous soft tissue release can be used for treating chronic recurrent lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain.

  20. Percutaneous Soft Tissue Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Myofascial Pain Associated with Lateral Epicondylitis: 6 Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin’s technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale, pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer, and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P<0.01 and the pressure pain threshold and the grasping strength were significantly increased (P<0.01 immediately after the treatment. This significant effectiveness lasts for at least one year. Conclusions. It is suggested that percutaneous soft tissue release can be used for treating chronic recurrent lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain.

  1. Ethanol ablation of predominantly cystic thyroid nodules: Evaluation of recurrence rate and factors related to recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate recurrence rate and associated risk factors for recurrence after ethanol ablation (EA) in patients with predominantly cystic thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: This observational study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institutional Review Board and informed consent for procedures was obtained. From April 2009 to April 2013, 107 consecutive patients with predominantly cystic nodules were treated using EA. Recurrence was defined as nodules showing a residual solid portion with internal vascularity, cosmetic problems remaining, or persistent symptoms, and patients who requested additional therapy to resolve their symptomatic or cosmetic problems. Delayed recurrence was defined as treated nodules that showed no recurrent features at 1 month, but showed newly developed recurrent features during the longer follow-up period. Multivariate analysis was used for variables to demonstrate the independent factors related to volume reduction. Results: One month after EA, 18.7% of patients (20/107) showed recurrence. Among 87 patients with non-recurrence, 24.1% (21/87) showed delayed recurrence. The total recurrence rate was 38.3% (41/107). Patients with recurrence (n = 41) were treated using radiofrequency ablation (n = 28), second EA (n = 4), and refused further treatment (n = 9). These patients responded well to repeat EA and radiofrequency ablation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the initial nodule volume (>20 ml; p < 0.036) and vascularity (grade >1; p < 0.049) were independent predictors of volume reduction at last follow-up. Conclusions: The results revealed that although EA seemed to be effective during the initial period, delayed recurrence should be considered during longer-term follow-up. The independent predictors of recurrence were initial volume (>20 ml) and vascularity. - Highlights: • Ethanol ablation showed unsatisfactory results in 18.7% of patient at one month. • Delayed recurrence was observed in 24

  2. Mindfulness Therapy May Help Ease Recurrent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158537.html Mindfulness Therapy May Help Ease Recurrent Depression Review of ... 27, 2016 WEDNESDAY, April 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Mindfulness therapy may help reduce the risk of repeated ...

  3. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Mariani; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreaUtis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis.There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane con ductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation,hereditary and obstructive pancreatitis seem an acute disease that progress to chronic pancreatitis,likely as a consequence of the activation and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells that produce and activate collagen and therefore fibrosis.From the diagnostic point of view,in patients with acute recurrent pancreatitis Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) seems the more reliable technique for an accurate evaluation and follow-up of some ductal and parenchymal abnormalities suspected for early chronic pancreatitis.

  4. Postoperative recurrence after VATS for spontaneous pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 88 cases of 81 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax treated at the hospital from March 1992 to August 2001 were subjected to a study of examining preoperative chest CT and thoracographic findings from the standpoint of postoperative recurrence. Preoperative chest CT and thoracography were conducted in 82 cases and 41 cases (including 25 cases with continuous air leakage), respectively. Eight (9.1%) patients developed recurrence of pneumothorax, and three patients of them underwent reoperation. Considering the intraoperative findings, newly formed bullae appeared to be a cause of recurrence. Resulting from these examinations, we conclude that it is difficult to predict the risk factor for postoperative recurrence at this time, in addition, it is important that the area of air leakage can be confirmed by thoracoscopic findings. (author)

  5. Dietary and medical management of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Silvi; Calle, Juan Camilo

    2016-06-01

    Dietary approaches and medical treatment can prevent recurrence of urinary stones. Some interventions are appropriate for all types of stones, but there are particular risk factors that may need directed therapy. PMID:27281259

  6. Risk of Seizure Recurrence with Neurocysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The risk of seizure recurrence after a first seizure due to neurocysticercosis (NC) was evaluated in a prospective study of 77 patients at the School of Medicine and Research Institute, University of Cuenca, Ecuador, and Columbia University, New York.

  7. Recurrent acute pancreatitis: From the editor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pier Alberto Testoni

    2008-01-01

    @@ This special issue of World Journal of Gastroenterology contains a number of articles focusing on acute recurrent pancreatitis,a clinical entity that still remains a complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in clinical practice.

  8. Poincaré recurrences of DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, K. M.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the statistical properties of Poincaré recurrences of Homo sapiens, mammalian, and other DNA sequences taken from the Ensembl Genome data base with up to 15 billion base pairs. We show that the probability of Poincaré recurrences decays in an algebraic way with the Poincaré exponent β≈4 even if the oscillatory dependence is well pronounced. The correlations between recurrences decay with an exponent ν≈0.6 that leads to an anomalous superdiffusive walk. However, for Homo sapiens sequences, with the largest available statistics, the diffusion coefficient converges to a finite value on distances larger than one million base pairs. We argue that the approach based on Poncaré recurrences determines new proximity features between different species and sheds a new light on their evolution history.

  9. Ocean wave forecasting using recurrent neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Prabaharan, N.

    , merchant vessel routing, nearshore construction, etc. more efficiently and safely. This paper describes an artificial neural network, namely recurrent neural network with rprop update algorithm and is applied for wave forecasting. Measured ocean waves off...

  10. Recurrence quantification analysis theory and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Marwan, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of recurrences in dynamical systems by using recurrence plots and their quantification is still an emerging field.  Over the past decades recurrence plots have proven to be valuable data visualization and analysis tools in the theoretical study of complex, time-varying dynamical systems as well as in various applications in biology, neuroscience, kinesiology, psychology, physiology, engineering, physics, geosciences, linguistics, finance, economics, and other disciplines.   This multi-authored book intends to comprehensively introduce and showcase recent advances as well as established best practices concerning both theoretical and practical aspects of recurrence plot based analysis.  Edited and authored by leading researcher in the field, the various chapters address an interdisciplinary readership, ranging from theoretical physicists to application-oriented scientists in all data-providing disciplines.

  11. Recurrent encephalic hemorrhage associated with cocaine abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to cocaine abuse in a patient with no other predisposing factors. The hemorrhages were located both supra- and infratentorially. (orig.)

  12. Performance of the ATLAS trigger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Diego

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully to collect collision data during 2009-2011 LHC running at centre of mass energies between 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The three-level trigger system reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 300 Hz. The first level uses custom electronics to reject most background events, in less than 2.5 μs, using information from the calorimeter and muon detectors. The upper two trigger levels are software-based triggers. The trigger system selects events by identifying signatures of muon, electron, photon, tau lepton, jet, and B meson candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. We give an overview of the performance of these trigger selections based on extensive online running during the 2011 LHC run and discuss issues encountered during 2011 operations. We describe how the trigger has evolved with increasing LHC luminosity coping with pile-up conditions close to LHC design luminosity.

  13. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lingemann, Joschka; Sakulin, Hannes; Jeitler, Manfred; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider pose new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run 1, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new microTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (GMT) which combines information from the muon trigger sub-systems and assigns the isolation variable. The upgraded GMT will be implemented using a Master Processor 7 card, built by Imperial College, that features a large Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA. Up to 72 optical links at...

  14. The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Stockton, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 trigger system is responsible for reducing the anticipated LHC collision rate from 40 MHz to less than 100 kHz. This Level-1 selection identifies, jet, tau/hadron, electron/photon and muon candidates, with additional triggers for missing and total energy. These inputs are used by the Level-1 Central Trigger to form a Level-1 Accept decision. This decision, along with summary information, is then passed into the higher levels of the trigger system and sub-detectors, which also receive the clock from the Level-1 Central trigger. The performance of the Central Trigger during the first collisions will be shown. This includes details of how the trigger information, along with dead-time rates, are monitored and logged by the online system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. Also presented are the software tools used to efficiently display the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts.

  15. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  16. The half plane UIPT is recurrent

    OpenAIRE

    Angel, Omer; Ray, Gourab

    2016-01-01

    We prove that the half plane version of the uniform infinite planar triangulation (UIPT) is recurrent. The key ingredients of the proof are a construction of a new full plane extension of the half plane UIPT, based on a natural decomposition of the half plane UIPT into independent layers, and an extension of previous methods for proving recurrence of weak local limits (still using circle packings).

  17. Inguinal hernia recurrence: Classification and approach

    OpenAIRE

    Campanelli Giampiero; Pettinari Diego; Cavalli Marta; Avesani Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The authors reviewed the records of 2,468 operations of groin hernia in 2,350 patients, including 277 recurrent hernias updated to January 2005. The data obtained - evaluating technique, results and complications - were used to propose a simple anatomo-clinical classification into three types which could be used to plan the surgical strategy:Type R1: first recurrence ′high,′ oblique external, reducible hernia with small (< 2 cm) defect in non-obese patients, after pure tissu...

  18. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  19. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Carolina-Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Zina, Lívia-Guimarães; Amaral, Fabrício-Rezende

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a recurrent painful ulcerative disorder that commonly affects the oral mucosa. Local and systemic factors such as trauma, food sensitivity, nutritional deficiencies, systemic conditions, immunological disorders and genetic polymorphisms are associated with the development of the disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophile bacteria, that colonizes the gastric mucosa and it was previously suggested to be involved ...

  20. Recurrence of adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Romero, J. M.; Ramos-Salado, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    Conn's syndrome (adrenal aldosterone-producing adenoma) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are the most common causes of primary aldosteronism. The treatment of choice for patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma is unilateral total adrenalectomy. Recurrence after adequate surgery is exceptional. We present a patient with recurrence of an aldosterone-producing adenoma in the right adrenal gland 9 years after adenomectomy of a aldosterone-producing adenoma in the same adrenal gland. We concl...

  1. Recurrent congenital heart block in neonatal lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Maria C; Gómez-Puerta, José A; Albert, Dimpna; Ferrer, Queralt; Girona, Josep

    2007-07-01

    Congenital heart block (CHB) is the main complication of neonatal lupus (NL) and is strongly associated with the presence of anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies. The recurrence of CHB in subsequent pregnancies in mothers with these antibodies is uncommon, occurring in approximately 15% of cases. We describe here a case of recurrent CHB in a previously asymptomatic mother with Sjögren syndrome and discuss the current strategies for the prevention and treatment of CHB in NL.

  2. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  3. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  4. Evaluation of Serum Selenium Levels in Children with Recurrent Febril Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Berk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The febrile convulsion (FC occurs in neurologically normal children aged between six months and five years and it is defined as convulsions occurred during fever and in the absence of central nervous system (CNS infection, electrolyte imbalance, diseases affecting directly CNS, and history of afebrile convulsion. The aims of this study were to determine the serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC and to compare them with those of healthy children. Materials and Methods: The study included 61 pediatric patients diagnosed with recurrent FC. At the same session, 54 healthy children who admitted to our pediatric clinic for routine controls without history of fever and convulsion, are assigned as control group. The serum level of selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometric method (hydride technique.Results: Mean level of selenium was determined as 67.10±8.87 µg/L in patients and 81.99±13.13 µg/L in control group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Discussion: The lower serum levels of selenium in patients with recurrent FC may be the cause of triggering of convulsion or may contribute to its recurrence. Further studies are necessary to clarify this relationship. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2011; 9: 110-5

  5. The upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in MicroTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. It will allow to implement trigger algorithms close to the final physics selection. The new system is presented, together with performance tests undertaken in parallel operation with the legacy system during the initial months of Run II of the LHC at a beam energy of 13 TeV

  6. ATLAS Jet Trigger Efficiency in 2015 Data

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, Valentinos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a two-level trigger system to preferentially select events with a predefined topology of interest for future analysis. In this poster, the hadronic jet trigger efficiency for proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13TeV is presented. The single-jet and multi-jet efficiency is presented as a function of the jet transverse momentum. In addition, the efficiency of specialist triggers that use large radius jets and scalar-summed jet transverse momenta are also presented.

  7. The upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Bernhard; Jeitler, Manfred; Matsushita, Takashi; Rabady, Dinyar Sebastian; Rahbaran, Babak; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in microTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. It will allow to implement trigger algorithms close to the final physics selection. The new system is presented, together with performance tests undertaken in parallel operation with the legacy system during the initial months of Run II of the LHC at a beam energy of 13 TeV.

  8. Trigger tracking for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Dungs, K

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. We show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic pp-collision rate. A track finding efficiency of 98.8% relative to offline can be achieved for good trigger tracks. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is less than 60% of the available budget.

  9. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs.

  10. Is Earthquake Triggering Driven by Small Earthquakes?

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A

    2002-01-01

    Using a catalog of seismicity for Southern California, we measure how the number of triggered earthquakes increases with the earthquake magnitude. The trade-off between this scaling and the distribution of earthquake magnitudes controls the relative role of small compared to large earthquakes. We show that seismicity triggering is driven by the smallest earthquakes, which trigger fewer aftershocks than larger earthquakes, but which are much more numerous. We propose that the non-trivial scaling of the number of aftershocks emerges from the fractal spatial distribution of aftershocks.

  11. Catheter ablation of a monofocal premature ventricular complex triggering idiopathic ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuki, S; Mitamura, H; Ogawa, S

    2001-07-01

    A 62 year old man was admitted for evaluation of recurrent episodes of syncope. A surface ECG showed frequent repetitive premature ventricular complexes of right ventricular outflow tract origin. Ventricular fibrillation was inducible by programmed electrical stimulation but otherwise cardiac evaluation was unremarkable. A diagnosis of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation was made and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was installed. However, spontaneous ventricular fibrillation recurred, requiring repeated ICD discharges. The ventricular fibrillation was reproducibly triggered by a single premature ventricular complex with a specific QRS morphology. Radiofrequency catheter ablation was carried out to eradicate this complex. No ventricular fibrillation has developed after this procedure, and the patient does not require drug treatment.

  12. Management of recurrent postoperative fungal endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Vinekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the management of recurrent postoperative fungal endophthalmitis (POFE after failed pars plana vitrectomy (PPV and antifungal therapy. Settings and Design: Tertiary Care Referral Centre in North India. Retrospective, single institution, interventional case-series. Materials and Methods: Six patients with microbiologically proven recurrent post-operative fungal endophthalmitis refractory to conventional management were included. The final recurrence was managed with intraocular lens (IOL explantation and re-PPV. Main outcome measures included preserved globe anatomy, visual acuity and retinal status. ′Anatomical success′ was defined as preserved anatomy of the globe, and absence of signs of inflammation. ′Functional success′ was defined as an attached retina and a best corrected visual acuity of better than 20/400. Results: Of the six cases of POFE, five were culture positive [Aspergillus flavus (1, Aspergillus fumigatus (2, Candida albicans (1 and Candida glabrata (1] and one was smear positive for yeast. All recurred (mean recurrences, 4 despite a mean of 2.17 PPVs and intravitreal amphotericin B. No recurrences were observed after IOL explantation with re - PPV (median follow-up, 37 months. Pre-study defined criteria for successful ′anatomical′ and ′functional′ outcomes were achieved in 83.3% and 50% respectively. Conclusion: This report highlights the effective role of combined IOL explantation with PPV in managing recurrent POFE.

  13. Anatomy of the Akhmediev breather: cascading instability, first formation time and Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Siu A; Belic, Milivoj R

    2015-01-01

    By invoking Bogoliubov's spectrum, we show that for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, the modulation instability (MI) of its n = 1 Fourier mode on a finite background automatically triggers a further cascading instability, forcing all the higher modes to grow exponentially in locked-step with the n = 1 mode. This fundamental insight, the enslavement of all higher modes to the n = 1 mode, explains the formation of a triangular-shaped spectrum which generates the Akhmediev breather, predicts its formation time analytically from the initial modulation amplitude, and shows that the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) recurrence is just a matter of energy conservation with a period twice the breather's formation time. For higher order MI with more than one initial unstable modes, while most evolutions are expected to be chaotic, we show that it is possible to have isolated cases of "super-recurrence", where the FPU period is much longer than that of a single unstable mode.

  14. Anatomy of the Akhmediev breather: Cascading instability, first formation time, and Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Siu A.; Ashour, Omar A.; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2015-12-01

    By invoking Bogoliubov's spectrum, we show that for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the modulation instability (MI) of its n =1 Fourier mode on a finite background automatically triggers a further cascading instability, forcing all the higher modes to grow exponentially in locked step with the n =1 mode. This fundamental insight, the enslavement of all higher modes to the n =1 mode, explains the formation of a triangular-shaped spectrum that generates the Akhmediev breather, predicts its formation time analytically from the initial modulation amplitude, and shows that the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) recurrence is just a matter of energy conservation with a period twice the breather's formation time. For higher-order MI with more than one initial unstable mode, while most evolutions are expected to be chaotic, we show that it is possible to have isolated cases of "super-recurrence," where the FPU period is much longer than that of a single unstable mode.

  15. Percutaneous Release of Trigger Fingers: Comparing Multiple Digits with Single Digit Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Saremi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate safety and efficacy of percutaneous release of trigger finger in multiple digits involvement in comparison with  single digit involvement.   Method: A number of 100 patients (131 fingers were treated by percutaneous release and divided into two groups: single digit (group A and multiple digits (group B. They were followed up for one year. Success rate, pain, complications and duration of analgesic use were studied and then compared in both groups. Results: All patients in both groups were treated successfully without any recurrence in a one-year follow-up. No complication was observed, but postoperative duration of pain was significantly different between the two groups. Period of painkiller use was also different between the two groups. Conclusion: Percutaneous release is a safe and effective treatment for trigger fingers even if multiple digits are involved. It is also safe in thumb and index finger involvement and diabetic patients.

  16. An evaluation of factors predicting breast recurrence and prognosis after recurrence, on distinguishing intramammary and extramammary recurrence, in breast-conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurrence of cancer in the breast is an important problem in breast-conserving therapy. We evaluated risk factors for recurrence from the viewpoint of recurrence type and outcome after recurrence. Of 533 cases of breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery from April 1989 through July 2000, disease in 66 recurred (12.4%) and were classified as 23 cases of breast recurrence only, 16 cases of both breast recurrence and distant metastasis, and 27 cases of distant metastasis only. The clinical factors examined included age, lymphatic invasion, nodal status, extensive intraductal component (EIC), proliferative activity, and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Of the 39 cases of breast recurrence, 19 had intramammary tumors and 20 had extramammary tumors of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, or muscle, including 8 cases with inflammatory breast recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that factors correlated with breast recurrence were age, ER status, proliferative activity, and surgical margin. EIC-comedo was related to intramammary recurrence, whereas lymphatic invasion and nodal status were related to extramammary recurrence. Postoperative irradiation was an effective treatment for tumors in young women and tumors with positive margins or a comedo component. Outcome after breast recurrence depended on nodal status at primary operation, and survival rates were worst in patients with inflammatory breast recurrence. In conclusion, age, EIC-comedo status, the surgical margin, and negative ER status were correlated with breast recurrence. Countermeasures against these factors should be investigated. (author)

  17. An evaluation of factors predicting breast recurrence and prognosis after recurrence, on distinguishing intramammary and extramammary recurrence, in breast-conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Nagao, Kazuharu; Miyayama, Haruhiko [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2001-06-01

    Recurrence of cancer in the breast is an important problem in breast-conserving therapy. We evaluated risk factors for recurrence from the viewpoint of recurrence type and outcome after recurrence. Of 533 cases of breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery from April 1989 through July 2000, disease in 66 recurred (12.4%) and were classified as 23 cases of breast recurrence only, 16 cases of both breast recurrence and distant metastasis, and 27 cases of distant metastasis only. The clinical factors examined included age, lymphatic invasion, nodal status, extensive intraductal component (EIC), proliferative activity, and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Of the 39 cases of breast recurrence, 19 had intramammary tumors and 20 had extramammary tumors of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, or muscle, including 8 cases with inflammatory breast recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that factors correlated with breast recurrence were age, ER status, proliferative activity, and surgical margin. EIC-comedo was related to intramammary recurrence, whereas lymphatic invasion and nodal status were related to extramammary recurrence. Postoperative irradiation was an effective treatment for tumors in young women and tumors with positive margins or a comedo component. Outcome after breast recurrence depended on nodal status at primary operation, and survival rates were worst in patients with inflammatory breast recurrence. In conclusion, age, EIC-comedo status, the surgical margin, and negative ER status were correlated with breast recurrence. Countermeasures against these factors should be investigated. (author)

  18. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Arnold, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger object selection, with possible topological requirements on multiobject triggers, are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms. The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will be increased to 13 TeV with the luminosity expected to go up to 2x1034 cm-2s-1. The CMS Level-1 trigger system will be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interesting physics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition rate in the challenging environment expected at LHC Run 2. The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an Advanced Mezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit from the ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increased processing resources with optical links running at 10 Gbit/s, enabling more algorithms at a time than previously possible and allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the trigger bandwidth. In order to handle the increased complexity of the trigger menu implemented on the upgraded Global Trigger, a set of new software has been developed. The software allows a physicist to define a menu with analysis-like triggers using intuitive user interface. The menu is then realised on FPGAs with further software processing, instantiating predefined firmware blocks. The design and implementation of the software for preparing a menu for the upgraded CMS Global Trigger system are presented.

  19. The second level trigger system of FAST

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez,G; Berdugo, J; Casaus, J; Casella, V; De Laere, D; Deiters, K; Dick, P; Kirkby, J; Malgeri, L; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Pohl, M; Petitjean, C; Sánchez, E; Willmott, C

    2009-01-01

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity π+ beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the μ+ lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, Gf, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the π/μ decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  20. The dangers of being trigger--happy

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, J E; Bressert, E

    2015-01-01

    We examine the evidence offered for triggered star formation against the backdrop provided by recent numerical simulations of feedback from massive stars at or below giant molecular cloud sizescales. We compile a catalogue of sixty--seven observational papers, mostly published over the last decade, and examine the signposts most commonly used to infer the presence of triggered star formation. We then determine how well these signposts perform in a recent suite of hydrodynamic simulations of star formation including feedback from O--type stars performed by Dale et al (2012a, b, 2013a, b, 2014). We find that none of the observational markers improve the chances of correctly identifying a given star as triggered by more than factors of two at most. This limits the fidelity of these techniques in interpreting star formation histories. We therefore urge caution in interpreting observations of star formation near feedback--driven structures in terms of triggering.

  1. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system

  2. Triggering on W, Z Boson Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Fehr, Armin

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger performs well for the hadronisation of isolated quarks or gluons, but is not optimised for $\\text{W}^\\pm$ and $\\text{Z}^0$ jets. This can be done with substructure techniques. As the W and Z bosons are highly boosted, the pair of quarks from their decay is heavily collimated and cannot be separated. The result is one single large jet with substructure. As it has two regions in the jet with high energy density (cores), while quarks have only one and gluons have two but a low mass, the existence of two cores plus a mass cut can be used to trigger on the hadronic decay of W and Z. In this project, it was investigated whether an offline tagger for W and Z bosons can be used as a trigger. Trimming, calibration and a tighter mass cut were applied to the jets and the trigger and offline reconstruction performance were compared.

  3. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  4. Timing in the ALICE trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    Lietava, Roman; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Králik, I; Krivda, M; Pastircák, B; Sándor, L; Urbán, J; Villalobos Baillie, O

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss trigger signals synchronisation and trigger input alignment in the ALICE trigger system. The synchronisation procedure adjusts the phase of the input signals with respect to the local Bunch Crossing (BC) clock and, indirectly, with respect to the LHC bunch crossing instant. The synchronisation delays are within one clock period: 0-25 ns. The alignment assures that the trigger signals originating from the same bunch crossing reach the processor logic in the same clock cycle. It is achieved by delaying signals by an appropriate number of full clock periods. We propose a procedure which will allow us to nd alignment delays during the system con guration, and to monitor them during the data taking.

  5. Trigger factors in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, A W; Hauge, Anne Werner; Kirchmann, M;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify trigger factors in migraine with aura (MA). A total of 629 MA patients representative of the Danish population were sent a questionnaire listing 16 trigger factors thought to be relevant as well as space for free text. Distinction was made between...... attacks with or without aura within each patient. The questionnaire was returned by 522 patients of whom 347 had current MA attacks. In total 80% with current attacks (278/347) indicated that at least one factor triggered their migraine, and 67% (187/278) in this group indicated that they were aware...... of at least one factor often or always giving rise to an attack of MA. Forty-one per cent (113/278) had co-occurring attacks of migraine without aura (MO). Stress (following stress), bright light, intense emotional influences, stress (during stress) and sleeping too much or too little were the trigger factors...

  6. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2014-01-01

    A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton iso...

  7. In the journalism, between timeliness and recurrence: a long term event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Zamin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The text presents an analysis exercise concerning the production of a long term event which, for its presence over time, allows the observation of timeliness and recurrence. It is about the exam of what was produced by the Colombian reference newspaper El Tiempo, between march of 2008 and march of 2010, on the diplomatic crisis between Colombia and Equator, triggered by the Colombian military incursion in Ecuadorian territory. Such analysis also considers the problematic fields that emerge and the return of meaning frames provoked by events that succeed each other.

  8. The trigger system of the CHORUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuzekom, M.G. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boes, J.C. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Born, E.A. van den [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jaspers, M.J.F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Konijn, J. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldeman, R.G.C. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poel, C.A.F.J. van der [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reen, T. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stolte, J. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uiterwijk, J.W.E. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visschers, J.L. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pesen, E. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Zeyrek, M.T. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Dewulf, J.P. [Inter-University Institute for High Energies (ULB-VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Bal, F. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Beyer, R. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gorbunov, P. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ferreira, R. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Friend, B. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Jong, M. de [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ludovici, L. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Panman, J. [CERN, EP Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Bonnet, L. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Gregoire, G. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1999-05-01

    A new apparatus for detection of {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation has been successfully constructed and operated by the CHORUS Collaboration for the CERN-WA95 experiment. The design, implementation and performance of the electronic trigger system is described. A trigger efficiency of 99% was measured for {nu}{sub {mu}} charged-current events and 90% for neutral-current events.

  9. The Typical Thunderclap Headache of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome and its Various Triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducros, Anne; Wolff, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    During the last 10 years, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has emerged as the most frequent cause of thunderclap headache (TCH) in patients without aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and as the most frequent cause of recurrent TCHs. The typical TCHs of RCVS are multiple, recurring over a few days to weeks, excruciating, short-lived, and brought up by exertion, sexual activities, emotion, Valsalva maneuvers, or bathing, among other triggers. All these triggers induce sympathetic activation. In a minority of cases with RCVS, TCH heralds stroke and rarely death. Early diagnosis of RCVS in patients who present with isolated headache enables proper management and might reduce the risk of eventual stroke. This review describes the characteristics, triggers, diagnosis, and management of TCH in RCVS. One aim is to underline that the TCH pattern of RCVS is so typical that it enables, according to the 2013 revision of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, the diagnosis of "probable RCVS" in patients with such a headache pattern, normal cerebral angiography, and no other cause. Another objective is to discuss the role of physical and emotional stress in RCVS and in other related conditions involving similar triggers.

  10. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Agostino, Lorenzo; Beccati, Barbara; Behrens, Ulf; Berryhil, Jeffrey; Biery, Kurt; Bose, Tulika; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Dahmes, Bryan; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Laurens, Jean-Francois; Loizides, Constantin; Ma, Frank; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdeckerd, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sungho Yoon, Andre; Wittich, Peter; Zanetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  11. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  12. The ATLAS Trigger Commissioning with cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abolins, M; Adragna, P; Aielli, G; Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Antonelli, S; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Asquith, L; Avolio, G; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Bahat Treidel, O; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Barria, P; Bartoldus, R; Batreanu, S; Bauss, B; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Ya; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Berger, N; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R R; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Bressler, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buttar, C; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Chiodini, G; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Clements, D; Coccaro, A; Coluccia, M R; Conde-Muíño, P; Constantin, S; Conventi, F; Corso-Radu, A; Costa, M J; Coura Torres, R; Cranfield, R; Cranmer, K; Crone, G; Curtis, C J; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; Dawson, I; Dawson, J; De Almeida Simoes, J; De Cecco, S; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; DeAsmundis, R; DellaPietra, M; DellaVolpe, D; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Girolamo, A; Dionisi, C; Djilkibaev, R; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dogaru, M; Dotti, A; Dova, M; Drake, G; Dufour, M -A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Eschrich, I; Etzion, E; Facius, K; Falciano, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner, P J W F; Feng, E; Ferland, J; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fischer, G; Fonseca-Martin, T; Francis, D; Fukunaga, C; Föhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gaumer, O; Gee, C N P; George, S; Geweniger, C; Giagu, S; Gillman, A R; Giusti, P; Goncalo, R; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gowdy, S; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grancagnolo, F; Grancagnolo, S; Green, B; Galllno, P; Haas, S; Haberichter, W; Hadavand, H; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, Y; Hauschild, M; Hauser, R; Head, S; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Höcker, A; Hrynóva, T; Hughes-Jones, R; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Idarraga, J; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Inada, M; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jain, V; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Joos, M; Kadosaka, T; Kajomovitz, E; Kama, S; Kanaya, N; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Kiyamura, H; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E E; Kobayashi, T; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kuhn, D; Kurashige, H; Kurasige, H; Kuwabara, T; Kwee, R; Landon, M; Lankford, A; LeCompte, T; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Ledroit, F; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Lendermann, V; Levinson, L; Leyton, M; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lifshitz, R; Lim, H; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lupu, N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martínez, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; McMahon, T; McPherson, R; Medinnis, M; Meessen, C; Meier, K; Meirosu, C; Messina, A; Migliaccio, A; Mikenberg, G; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Mönig, K; Monticelli, F; Moraes, A; Moreno, D; Morettini, P; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Némethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Nisati, A; Niwa, T; Nomachi, M; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Ochi, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Pectu, M; Perantoni, M; Perera, V; Perera, V J O; Pérez, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Perrino, R; Pessoa Lima Junior, H; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Piegaia, R; Pilcher, J E; Pinto, F; Pinzon, G; Polini, A; Pope, B; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Primavera, M; Qian, W; Radescu, V; Rajagopalan, S; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Risler, C; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Roda, C; Rodríguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Rosati, S; Ryabov, Yu; Ryan, P; Rühr, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamon, A; Salvatore, D; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Santonico, R; Sasaki, O; Scannicchio, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Schmitt, K; Scholtes, I; Schooltz, D; Schuler, G; Schultz-Coulon, H -C; Schäfer, U; Scott, W; Segura, E; Sekhniaidze, G; Shimbo, N; Sidoti, A; Silva, L; Silverstein, S; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sloper, J E; Smizanska, M; Solfaroli, E; Soloviev, I; Soluk, R; Spagnolo, S; Spila, F; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stradling, A; Strom, D; Strong, J; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Szymocha, T; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Tokoshuku, K; Tomoto, M; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tripiana, M; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J; Von Der Schmitt, J; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wilkens, H; Winklmeier, F; Woerling, E E; Wu, S -L; Wu, X; Xella, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamazaki, Y; Yasu, Y; Yu, M; Zanello, L; Zema, F; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; De Seixas, J M; Dos Anjos, A; Zur Nedden, M; Ozcan, E; Ünel, G; International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. At the design luminosity there are roughly 23 collisions per bunch crossing. ATLAS has designed a three-level trigger system to select potentially interesting events. The first-level trigger, implemented in custom-built electronics, reduces the incoming rate to less than 100 kHz with a total latency of less than 2.5$\\mu$s. The next two trigger levels run in software on commercial PC farms. They reduce the output rate to 100-200 Hz. In preparation for collision data-taking which is scheduled to commence in May 2008, several cosmic-ray commissioning runs have been performed. Among the first sub-detectors available for commissioning runs are parts of the barrel muon detector including the RPC detectors that are used in the first-level trigger. Data have been taken with a full slice of the muon trigger and readout chain, from the detectors in one sector of the RPC system, to the second-level trigger algorit...

  13. Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger starts firing

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Hillier

    2007-01-01

    L1Calo is one of the major components of ATLAS First Level trigger, along with the Muon Trigger and Central Trigger Processor. It forms all of the first-level calorimeter-based triggers, including electron, jet, tau and missing ET. The final system consists of over 250 custom designed 9U VME boards, most containing a dense array of FPGAs or ASICs. It is subdivided into a PreProcessor, which digitises the incoming trigger signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters, and two separate processor systems, which perform the physics algorithms. All of these are highly flexible, allowing the possibility to adapt to beam conditions and luminosity. All parts of the system are read out through Read-Out Drivers, which provide monitoring data and Region of Interest (RoI) information for the Level-2 trigger. Production of the modules is now essentially complete, and enough modules exist to populate the full scale system in USA15. Installation is proceeding rapidly - approximately 90% of the final modules are insta...

  14. The LHCb trigger and data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Dufey, J P; Harris, F; Harvey, J; Jost, B; Mato, P; Müller, E

    2000-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is the most recently approved of the 4 experiments under construction at CERNs LHC accelerator. It is a special purpose experiment designed to precisely measure the CP violation parameters in the B-B system. Triggering poses special problems since the interesting events containing B-mesons are immersed in a large background of inelastic p-p reactions. We therefore decided to implement a 4 level triggering scheme. The LHCb Data Acquisition (DAQ) system will have to cope with an average trigger rate of ~40 kHz, after two levels of hardware triggers, and an average event size of ~100 kB. Thus an event-building network which can sustain an average bandwidth of 4 GB/s is required. A powerful software trigger farm will have to be installed to reduce the rate from the 40 kHz to ~100 Hz of events written to permanent storage. In this paper we outline the general architecture of the Trigger and DAQ system and the readout protocols we plan to implement. First results of simulations of the behavior o...

  15. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented in this pa......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two...

  16. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented in this pa......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition....... The advantage of this new approach should be a reduction in estimation time without a significant loss of accuracy, since the vector triggering conditions ensure cross information between the measurements in the Random Decrement functions. The different problems with this technique is highlighted in two...

  17. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  18. ATLAS triggers for B-physics

    CERN Document Server

    George, S

    2000-01-01

    The LHC will produce bb events at an unprecedented rate. The number of events recorded by ATLAS will be limited by the rate at which they can be stored offline and subsequently analysed. Despite the huge number of events, the small branching ratios mean that analysis of many of the most interesting channels for CP violation and other measurements will be limited by statistics. The challenge for the Trigger and Data Acquisition (DAQ) system is therefore to maximise the fraction of interesting B decays in the B-physics data stream. The ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system is split into three levels. The initial B-physics selection is made in the first-level trigger by an inclusive low-p/sub t/ muon trigger (~6 GeV). The second-level trigger strategy is based on identifying classes of final states by their partial reconstruction. The muon trigger is confirmed before proceeding to a track search. Electron/hadron separation is given by the transition radiation tracking detector and the electromagnetic calorimeter. Muon identi...

  19. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  20. Level-1 Jets and Sums Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the first long shutdown, the LHC has restarted at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The LHC is expected to achieve an instantaneous luminosity larger than $10^{34} \\rm{cm}^{-2} \\rm{s}^{-1}$ and an average number of pile-up interactions of at least 40. The CMS Level-1 trigger architecture has undergone a full upgrade in order to maintain and improve the trigger performance under these new conditions. It will allow CMS to keep the trigger rate under control and to avoid a significant increase in trigger thresholds that would have a negative impact on the CMS physics programme. First studies of the performance of the calorimeter trigger upgrade for jets and energy sums are shown. Details of the algorithms and commissioning may be found in CMS-DP-2015-051 and the CMS Technical Design Report for the Level-1 Trigger upgrade: CERN-LHCC-2013-011, CMS-TDR-12 (2013)

  1. FEBRILE SEIZURE: RECURRENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TALEBIAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Febrile Convulsion is the most common convulsive disorder in children,occurring in 2 to 4% of the pediatric population and recurring in 30-50% of cases. Considering the varying recurrence rates reported, thisstudy was conducted at the pediatric ward of the Shaheed BeheshtiGeneral Hospital, between 2000-2001 to determine the frequencyof recurrence and related risk factors in children presenting with theirfirst episode of febrile convulsionMaterials & Methods:A two–year cohort study was performed on 50 children presentingwith the first attack of febrile convulsion. Patient demographic dataincluding age, sex, type and duration of seizure, family history offebrile seizure or epilepsy and the interval between fever onset andoccurrence of seizure were recorded in questionnaires. Those patients,for whom prophylactic medication was not administered, werefollowed at three–month intervals for up to one year. Findings werestatistically analyzed using Fisher’s exact testResults:Recurrence was observed in twelve children (24% out of the fifty,being most common in patients aged less than one year (54.4%.Recurrence rates among children with a positive family history offebrile convulsion, presence of complex febrile seizure and positivefamily history of epilepsy were 42.1%, 42.8% and 25% respectively.From among those children with a “less than one hour” intervalbetween fever onset and occurrence of seizure, recurrence occurredin 43-7% of cases, while in those with a “more than one hourinterval”, 14.7% experienced recurrence.Conclusion:Recurrence rates are increased by certain factors including age-belowone year-, positive family history of febrile convulsion, and a “lessthan one hour” interval between time of fever onset and seizureoccurrence.

  2. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  3. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles (θ12, θ23, θ13) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, θ13 is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of ∝80% from the currently allowed θ13 region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at ∝150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse β-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of them receiving signals from half of the photomultipliers. A third trigger board will

  4. Perceived Triggers of Asthma: Key to Symptom Perception and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Thomas; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this paper, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targ...

  5. First-Level Trigger Systems for LHC Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    Staley, R; Leake, J; Corre, A; Hoelscher, A; Rensch, B; Bodo, J P; Sundblad, R; Svensson, C; Yuan, Jiren; Pentney, M; Lackey, J; Piccinelli, G; Cardarelli, R; Appelquist, G; Prytz, K; Zhao, Xing

    2002-01-01

    % RD27 \\\\ \\\\ We have carried out a broad-based programme of R\\&D on level-1 trigger systems for LHC experiments, including subtrigger processors for muon and calorimeter triggers, the central trigger processor, and the interaction with the level-2 trigger. The R\\&D included detailed design studies for the whole level-1 trigger system and prototyping of key components. Beam tests have been made with prototype calorimeter and muon trigger processors.

  6. Sunspot Waves and Triggering of Homologous Active Region Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Ramesh; Mulay, Sargam; Tripathi, Durgesh

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss multi-wavelength observations of five homologous recurrent solar jets that occurred in active region NOAA 11133 on 11 December, 2010. These jets were well observed by the Solar Dynamic observatory (SDO) with high spatial and temporal resolution. The speed of the jets ranged between 86 and 267 km/s. A type III radio burst was observed in association with all the five jets. The investigation of the over all evolution of magnetic field in the source regions suggested that the flux was continuously emerging on longer term. However, all the jets but J5 were triggered during a local dip in the magnetic flux, suggesting the launch of the jets during localised submergence of magnetic flux. Additionally, using the PFSS modelling of the photospheric magnetic field, we found that all the jets were ejected in the direction of open field lines. We also traced sunspot oscillations from the sunspot interior to foot-point of jets and found presence of ~ 3 minute oscillations in all the SDO/AIA passband...

  7. H pylori recurrence after successful eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaron Niv

    2008-01-01

    Recurrence of H pylori after eradication is rare in developed countries and more frequent in developing countries.Recrudescence(recolonization of the same strain within 12 mo after eradication)rather than reinfection(colonization with a new strain,more than 12 mo after eradication)is considered to be responsiblefor most of the cases.This observation was confirmed only in developed countries,while in developing countries a recent meta-analysis demonstrated a high rate of reinfection.The proportion of H pylori annual recurrence was 2.67% and 13.00% in developed and developing countries,respectively.Nested meta-analysis(only cases with a longer follow-up and a negative 13CUBT a year after eradication)revealed annual recurrence rate of 1.45%[relative risk(RR),0.54]and 12.00%(RR,0.92)in developed and developing countries,respectively.These findings support the notion that in developed countries many cases of recurrence are due to recrudescence within the first year after eradication,with a 46% drop in the recurrence rate after the first year post eradication,while in developing countries reinfection is more pronounced,and continue at the same rate since eradication.A different approach for follow-up after H pylori eradication is probably needed in patients of developing countries,since reinfection is highly prevalent.

  8. Cytogenetic Study in Couples with Recurrent Miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Atia, **Salah E. Mourad*** Salem H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent miscarriage (RM is a mysterious reproductive problem affecting a proportion of couples trying to conceive. Although spontaneous abortion occurs in approximately 15 to 20% of clinically diagnosed pregnancies of reproductive-aged women, recurrent miscarriage occurs in approximately 1 to 2% of these women. Many syndromes are involved in the aetiology of RM, where genetic factors appear to be highly associated. Indeed, chromosomal anomaly constitutes the single most common cause. About 7% of couples with RM have one partner with balanced chromosomal rearrangement. Aim of the study: This study is a prospective study carried out to evaluate the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in couples suffering recurrent miscarriage. Patient and methods: The present study included one hundred couples attending the antenatal clinic. They have been divided into two groups; the first, is a study group, included 50 couples with recurrent miscarriage. And the second, is a control group, included 50 couples with normal reproductive history. Conventional cytogenetic analysis was done for both groups. Result: We have found four cases (8% carrying chromosomal rearrangements (two reciprocal translocations, one Robertsonian translocation, and one with duplicated chromosome segment among RM group, and no cases of chromosomal rearrangement among those with normal reproductive history. Statistically, there was a significant association between recurrent miscarriage and chromosomal rearrangement. Conclusion: We have concluded that chromosome analysis is highly important to evaluate such cases with RM

  9. Computational capabilities of recurrent NARX neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelmann, H T; Horne, B G; Giles, C L

    1997-01-01

    Recently, fully connected recurrent neural networks have been proven to be computationally rich-at least as powerful as Turing machines. This work focuses on another network which is popular in control applications and has been found to be very effective at learning a variety of problems. These networks are based upon Nonlinear AutoRegressive models with eXogenous Inputs (NARX models), and are therefore called NARX networks. As opposed to other recurrent networks, NARX networks have a limited feedback which comes only from the output neuron rather than from hidden states. They are formalized by y(t)=Psi(u(t-n(u)), ..., u(t-1), u(t), y(t-n(y)), ..., y(t-1)) where u(t) and y(t) represent input and output of the network at time t, n(u) and n(y) are the input and output order, and the function Psi is the mapping performed by a Multilayer Perceptron. We constructively prove that the NARX networks with a finite number of parameters are computationally as strong as fully connected recurrent networks and thus Turing machines. We conclude that in theory one can use the NARX models, rather than conventional recurrent networks without any computational loss even though their feedback is limited. Furthermore, these results raise the issue of what amount of feedback or recurrence is necessary for any network to be Turing equivalent and what restrictions on feedback limit computational power. PMID:18255858

  10. The TriggerTool Graphical User Interface to the ATLAS Trigger Configuration Database

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, P; Brunet, S; Fischer, G; Goebel, M; Haller, J; Head, S; Höcker, A; Kohno, T; Martyniuk, A; Nozicka, M; Owen, M; Spiwoks, R; Stelzer, J; Wengler, T; Wiedenmann, W

    2009-01-01

    A system has been designed and implemented to configure all three levels of the ATLAS trigger system from a centrally provided relational database, in which an archive of all trigger configurations used in data taking is also maintained. The user interaction with this database is via a Java-based graphical user interface known as the TriggerTool. We describe here how the TriggerTool has been designed to fulfill several different roles for users of varying expertise, from being a browser of the database to a tool for creating and modifying configurations

  11. The ATLAS trigger - commissioning with cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J.

    2008-07-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. At the design luminosity there are roughly 23 collisions per bunch crossing. ATLAS has designed a three-level trigger system to select potentially interesting events. The first-level trigger, implemented in custom-built electronics, reduces the incoming rate to less than 100 kHz with a total latency of less than 2.5μs. The next two trigger levels run in software on commercial PC farms. They reduce the output rate to 100-200 Hz. In preparation for collision data-taking which is scheduled to commence in May 2008, several cosmic-ray commissioning runs have been performed. Among the first sub-detectors available for commissioning runs are parts of the barrel muon detector including the RPC detectors that are used in the first-level trigger. Data have been taken with a full slice of the muon trigger and readout chain, from the detectors in one sector of the RPC system, to the second-level trigger algorithms and the data-acquisition system. The system is being prepared to include the inner-tracking detector in the readout and second-level trigger. We will present the status and results of these cosmic-ray based commissioning activities. This work will prove to be invaluable not only during the commissioning phase but also for cosmic-ray data-taking during the normal running for detector performance studies.

  12. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach.

  13. Treatment of persistent and recurrent acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Porto, Lana A; Liubinas, Simon V; Kaye, Andrew H

    2011-02-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic insidious disease characterised by growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion, typically from a pituitary adenoma. Effective treatment of acromegaly is vital because it is associated with a mortality rate more than twice that of the general population, an increased prevalence of colonic malignancy and many significant co-morbidities. Transsphenoidal adenoma resection is still the best first-line treatment for acromegaly but persistence (43%) or recurrence (2% to 3%) of GH hypersecretion after surgery remains a problem. Treatment options for acromegaly after failed initial therapy or recurrence include further surgery, radiotherapy, radiosurgery or medical therapies, including somatostatin analogues, dopamine agonists and growth hormone receptor antagonists. There has been a progressive lowering of the accepted GH level defining cure in acromegaly. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of the various treatment options for persistent or recurrent acromegaly and the changing definition of cure. PMID:21167718

  14. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: An autoimmune disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2008-01-01

    In this review article,we will briefly describe the main characteristics of autoimmune pancreatitis and then we will concentrate on our aim,namely,evaluating the clinical characteristics of patients having recurrence of pain from the disease.In fact,the open question is to evaluate the possible presence of autoimmune pancreatitis in patients with an undefined etiology of acute pancreatitis and for this reason we carried out a search in the literature in order to explore this issue.In cases of recurrent attacks of pain in patients with "idiopathic"pancreatitis,we need to keep in mind the possibility that our patients may have autoimmune pancreatitis.Even though the frequency of this disease seems to be quite low,we believe that in the future,by increasing our knowledge on the subject,we will be able to diagnose an ever-increasing number of patients having acute recurrence of pain from autoimmune pancreatitis.

  15. Recurrence for discrete time unitary evolutions

    CERN Document Server

    Grünbaum, F A; Werner, A H; Werner, R F

    2012-01-01

    We consider quantum dynamical systems specified by a unitary operator U and an initial state vector \\phi. In each step the unitary is followed by a projective measurement checking whether the system has returned to the initial state. We call the system recurrent if this eventually happens with probability one. We show that recurrence is equivalent to the absence of an absolutely continuous part from the spectral measure of U with respect to \\phi. We also show that in the recurrent case the expected first return time is an integer or infinite, for which we give a topological interpretation. A key role in our theory is played by the first arrival amplitudes, which turn out to be the (complex conjugated) Taylor coefficients of the Schur function of the spectral measure. On the one hand, this provides a direct dynamical interpretation of these coefficients; on the other hand it links our definition of first return times to a large body of mathematical literature.

  16. CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mierla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are involved in the etiology of recurrent spontaneous pregnancy loss and sub-fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and contribution of chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent miscarriages. The results obtained and literature review are helpful in understanding the importance of cytogenetics analysis of female infertility. To investigate the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in the Romanian population with recurrent miscarriage, karyotype analysis by G-banding was performed from peripheral blood in 967 women infertility. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found to 79 women (8,17%. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in the studied population correlates with the data in the literature. Chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions.

  17. Recurrence quantification analysis of global stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João A.; Caiado, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the presence of deterministic dependencies in international stock markets using recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). The results are based on a large set of free float-adjusted market capitalization stock indices, covering a period of 15 years. The statistical tests suggest that the dynamics of stock prices in emerging markets is characterized by higher values of RQA measures when compared to their developed counterparts. The behavior of stock markets during critical financial events, such as the burst of the technology bubble, the Asian currency crisis, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis, is analyzed by performing RQA in sliding windows. It is shown that during these events stock markets exhibit a distinctive behavior that is characterized by temporary decreases in the fraction of recurrence points contained in diagonal and vertical structures.

  18. Pain recurrence after shaving of rectovaginal endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Mathias Gottschalck; Forman, Axel

    Background: Surgical treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis varies from shaving of the nodule off the rectal wall without perforation, over discoid excision to routine rectal resection. Of these methods, shaving involves the lowest rate of serious complications but leaves endometriosis tissue...... on the bowel with risk of recurrence. This could motivate a change into more radical surgery. In the present study we therefore assessed recurrence of pain after shaving of rectovaginal endometriosis performed 2001-2009. Methods: Retrospective follow-up study. Questionnaires were sent to 212 women of whom 174...... OCs and gestagen IUD showed a trend towards a protective effect against menstrual pain (p=0.06). There was found no significant association between recurrence of pain and anterior rectal wall involvement. Conclusion: Shaving of rectovaginal endometriosis shows a high risk of postoperative pain...

  19. Laparoscopic Surgery for Recurrent Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Spinelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the recent improvements in drug therapy, surgery still represents the most frequent treatment for Crohn's disease (CD complications. Laparoscopy has been widely applied over the last twenty years in colorectal surgery and was associated with lower postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization, faster return to daily activities, and better cosmetic results. Laparoscopy experienced a slower diffusion in inflammatory bowel disease surgery than in oncologic colorectal surgery, but proved to be safe and effective, and is currently considered the gold standard for the treatment of primary uncomplicated ileocolic CD. Indications for laparoscopy in CD have recently been widened to embrace more complicated or recurrent CD. This paper reviews the available data on the subset of recurrent CD patients. The reported results indicate that laparoscopy may be safely applied even in selected recurrent CD cases in hands of IBD surgeons with broad laparoscopic experience.

  20. Heterogeneous recurrence analysis of heartbeat dynamics for the identification of sleep apnea events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Changqing; Kan, Chen; Yang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder that affects 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. It occurs due to the occlusion of the upper airway during sleep, thereby leading to a decrease of blood oxygen level that triggers arousals and sleep fragmentation. OSA significantly impacts the quality of sleep and it is known to be responsible for a number of health complications, such as high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes. Traditional diagnosis of OSA relies on polysomnography, which is expensive, time-consuming and inaccessible to the general population. Recent advancement of sensing provides an unprecedented opportunity for the screening of OSA events using single-channel electrocardiogram (ECG). However, existing approaches are limited in their ability to characterize nonlinear dynamics underlying ECG signals. As such, hidden patterns of OSA-altered cardiac electrical activity cannot be fully revealed and understood. This paper presents a new heterogeneous recurrence model to characterize the heart rate variability for the identification of OSA. A nonlinear state space is firstly reconstructed from a time series of RR intervals that are extracted from single-channel ECGs. Further, the state space is recursively partitioned into a hierarchical structure of local recurrence regions. A new fractal representation is designed to efficiently characterize state transitions among segmented sub-regions. Statistical measures are then developed to quantify heterogeneous recurrence patterns. In addition, we integrate classification models with heterogeneous recurrence features to differentiate healthy subjects from OSA patients. Experimental results show that the proposed approach captures heterogeneous recurrence patterns in the transformed space and provides an effective tool to detect OSA using one-lead ECG signals. PMID:27228436

  1. Software Validation Infrastructure for the ATLAS Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, C; Beauchemin, P; Bell, P; Biglietti, M; Coccaro, A; Damazio, D; Ehrenfeld, W; Faulkner, P; George, S; Giagu, S; Goncalo, R; Hamilton, A; Jones, G; Kirk, J; Kwee, R; Lane, J; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Masik, J; Mincer, A; Monticelli, F; Omachi, C; Oyarzun, A; Panikashvili, N; Potter, C; Quinonez, F; Reinsch, A; Robinson, M; Rodríguez, D; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sidoti, A; Sinev, N; Strom, D; Sutton, M; Ventura, A; Winklmeier, F; Zhao, L

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger system is responsible for selecting the interesting collision events delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS trigger will need to achieve a ~10^-7 rejection factor against random proton-proton collisions, and still be able to efficiently select interesting events. After a first processing level based on hardware, the final event selection is based on custom software running on two CPU farms, containing around two thousand multi-core machines. This is known as the high-level trigger. Running the trigger online during long periods demands very high quality software. It must be fast, performant, and essentially bug-free. With more than 100 contributors and around 250 different packages, a thorough validation of the HLT software is essential. This relies on a variety of unit and integration tests as well as on software metrics, and uses both in-house and open source software. This presentation presents the existing infrastructure used for validating the high-level trigger softwar...

  2. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  3. The LHCb level 1 vertex trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Koratzinos, M

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Level 1 Vertex trigger of LHCb has certain features that make it unique amongst the LHC experiment trigger schemes: The problem it addresses is a reduction factor of 25 for minimum bias events while retaining good efficiency for signal B events. The best way to achieve such reduction factors is to rely on the most striking property of those B events, the long decay time of the B particles. The trigger therefore has to reconstruct the event around the interaction region and tag signal events using topological criteria. An accurate vertex detector is one of the key components of LHCb and a natural choice for providing the data for such a triggering scheme. The algorithm for the reconstruction of the event is complicated and not readily parallelisable in its totality. We are therefore proposing an architecture that resembles a high-level trigger architecture, where the event building function is performed by a switch network and each event is processed by a single processor, part of ...

  4. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Eifert, T; Fischer, G; George, S; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Masik, J; Zur Nedden, M; Pérez-Réale, V; Risler, C; Schiavi, C; Stelzer, J; Wu, X; International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: co...

  5. b-jet triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaliere, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The online event selection is crucial to reject most of the events containing uninteresting background collisions while preserving as much as possible the interesting physical signals. The b-jet selection is part of the trigger strategy of the ATLAS experiment and a set of dedicated triggers is in place from the beginning of the 2011 data-taking period and is contributing to keep the total bandwidth to an affordable rate. The b-jets acceptance is increased and the background reduced by lowering jet transverse energy thresholds at the first trigger level and applying b-tagging techniques at the subsequent levels. Different physics channels, especially topologies containing more than one b-jet where higher rejection factors are achieved, benefit from requesting this trigger to be fired. An overview of the status-of-art of the b-jet trigger menu and the performance on real data is presented in this contribution. Data-driven techniques to extract the online b-tagging efficiency and mis-tag rate, key ingredients f...

  6. Recurrent stupor due to lysinuric protein intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Moosa N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent stupor in children is an uncommon clinical problem with a wide differential diagnosis; inherited metabolic disorders account for a vast majority. We report a 9-year-old girl with recurrent episodes of stupor. Initial episode was treated as viral encephalitis and the second episode was managed as non-convulsive status epilepticus. Hyperammonemia was detected in the last episode. Metabolic work-up after dietary protein challenge revealed classical biochemical features of lysinuric protein intolerance. She was managed with protein-restricted diet, which resulted in marked neurological improvement. LPI is a rare inherited metabolic disorder due to membrane transport defect of cationic amino acids.

  7. Mining Recurrent Pattern Identification on Large Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent pattern mining is an important problem in the context of data mining. In this paper data mining algorithms have been discussed and compared. Recurrent pattern mining has been an important area in data mining research and it is the first step in the analysis of data rising in a broad range of applications. The algorithms are compared with respect to the items like methodology and its basic principles in terms of the elements user like support, and scan of the database (full or partial.

  8. Immunologic Abnormalities, Treatments, and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nathalie F; Kolte, Astrid M; Larsen, Elisabeth C;

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss, depending on the definition, affects 1% to 3% of women aiming to have a child. Little is known about the direct causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, and the condition is considered to have a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to summarize ...... the evaluation and the management of the condition with specific emphasis on immunologic biomarkers identified as risk factors as well as current immunologic treatment options. The review also highlights and discusses areas in need of further research....

  9. Recurrent breast sparganosis: Clinical and radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yoon; Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We report a case of recurrent sparganosis of the breast within 6 months following surgical removal of worms from the breast. The patient was referred to our hospital with a palpable mass in the right breast. On admission, breast ultrasonography revealed a tortuous tubular hypoechoic lesion with indistinct margins within a surrounding hyperechoic area, which strongly suggested sparganosis. We performed surgical excision and confirmed sparganosis. After 6 months, the patient detected a new mass in her right breast and visited our hospital. Breast ultrasonography revealed similar features in a different area of the same breast. We confirmed recurrent sparganosis surgically.

  10. Harris Recurrence and MCMC: A Simplified Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Glynn, Peter W.

    A key result underlying the theory of MCMC is that any η-irreducible Markov chain having a transition density with respect to η and possessing a stationary distribution is automatically positive Harris recurrent. This paper provides a short self-contained proof of this fact.......A key result underlying the theory of MCMC is that any η-irreducible Markov chain having a transition density with respect to η and possessing a stationary distribution is automatically positive Harris recurrent. This paper provides a short self-contained proof of this fact....

  11. Animal models of recurrent or bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Kasahara, T; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Kato, T M; Nakajima, K

    2016-05-01

    Animal models of mental disorders should ideally have construct, face, and predictive validity, but current animal models do not always satisfy these validity criteria. Additionally, animal models of depression rely mainly on stress-induced behavioral changes. These stress-induced models have limited validity, because stress is not a risk factor specific to depression, and the models do not recapitulate the recurrent and spontaneous nature of depressive episodes. Although animal models exhibiting recurrent depressive episodes or bipolar depression have not yet been established, several researchers are trying to generate such animals by modeling clinical risk factors as well as by manipulating a specific neural circuit using emerging techniques. PMID:26265551

  12. V2491 Cyg - a possible recurrent nova ?

    CERN Document Server

    Ragan, E; Tomov, T; Swierczynski, E; Brozek, T; Galan, C; Rozanski, P; Wiecek, M; Wychudzki, P

    2010-01-01

    Nova V2491 Cyg was discovered on April 10.72 UT 2008 (Nakano, 2008). Here we present spectrophotometric premises that V2491 Cyg can be a good candidate for recurrent nova (RNe). Its properties are compared to five well known RNe with red dwarf secondaries (U Sco, V394 Cra, T Pyx, CI Aql, IM Nor) and recently confirmed as recurrent nova V2487 Oph (Pagnotta et al.,2008). Photometric $U, B, V, R_C, I_C$ and moderate resolution (R$\\sim 1500$) spectral observations of V2491 Cyg were carried out in the Torun Observatory (Poland) between April 14 and May 20 2008.

  13. On the periods of generalized Fibonacci recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Richard P.

    We give a simple condition for a linear recurrence (mod 2^w) of degree r to have the maximal possible period 2^(w-1).(2^r-1). It follows that the period is maximal in the cases of interest for pseudo-random number generation, i.e. for 3-term linear recurrences defined by trinomials which are primitive (mod 2) and of degree r > 2. We consider the enumeration of certain exceptional polynomials which do not give maximal period, and list all such polynomials of degree less than 15.

  14. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger andimplements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied tothe final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger objectselection, with possible topological requirements on multi-object triggers,are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms.The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will beincreased to 13~TeV with the luminosity expected to go upto~2$\\times$10$^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The CMS Level-1 trigger systemwill be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interestingphysics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition ratein the challenging environment expected at LHC Run~2.The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an AdvancedMezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit fromthe ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increasedprocessing resources with optical links running at~10 Gbit/s, enablingm...

  15. The Topo-trigger: a new concept of stereo trigger system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    López-Coto, Rubén; Paoletti, Riccardo; Bigas, Oscar Blanch; Cortina, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes endeavor to reach the lowest possible energy threshold. In doing so the trigger system is a key element. Reducing the trigger threshold is hampered by the rapid increase of accidental triggers generated by ambient light, the so-called Night Sky Background (NSB). In this paper we present a topological trigger, dubbed Topo-trigger, which rejects events on the basis of their relative orientation in the telescope cameras. We have simulated and tested the trigger selection algorithm in the MAGIC telescopes. The algorithm was tested using MonteCarlo simulations and shows a rejection of 85% of the accidental stereo triggers while preserving 99 % of the gamma rays. A full implementation of this trigger system would achieve an increase in collection area between 10 and 20% at the energy threshold. The analysis energy threshold of the instrument is expected to decrease by ?8 %. The selection alg...

  16. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no deadtime. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (author)

  17. Paroxysmal discharges triggered by hearing spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, H; Kasuga, I

    1978-04-01

    We examined the modality of EEG activation by various kinds of acoustic stimulation in a middle-aged Japanese female with epilepsy. Paroxysmal discharges were triggered in the right frontal area (F4) by verval stimulation. For the activation of EEG, concentration of attention on the stimulation was essential; therefore paroxysmal discharges were triggered most easily by verbal stimuli when someone spoke to the patient directly. Stronger responses than usual were triggered by specific words, and apparently reflected the interest and concern of the patient. The latency from stimulation to paroxysmal discharges ranged from 230 to 1,300 msec, suggesting that the responses may have been a function of the perception and recognition of acoustic stimuli. "Heard-word epilepsy" or "Angesprochene Epilepsie" is suggested in this case.

  18. Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.

  19. Steering the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Comune, G; Morettini, P; Stamen, R; Tapprogge, S; George, S; Schiavi, C; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Steering mechanism of the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT). The Steering software is responsible for the implementation of the seeded and stepwise execution of algorithms in a portion of the full event called Region of Interest (RoI). The Steering is responsible for the global event accept/reject decision based on a static configuration matched against the dynamic event outcome in terms of Trigger Conditions validated by the Trigger algorithms. In the case of an event being accepted the Steering is in charge of the creation of the Detailed Event Result and in order to enable this it provides tools for reconstructed objects serialization and a fast data navigation mechanism that allows to organize the objects in memory with logical relations and all objects in an RoI back to the initial RoI seed.

  20. The ATLAS trigger - high-level trigger commissioning and operation during early data taking

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalo, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aielli, G; Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Antonelli, S; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Asquith, L; Avolio, G; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Bahat Treidel, O; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Barria, P; Bartoldus, R; Batreanu, S; Bauss, B; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Ya; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Berger, N; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R R; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Bressler, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buttar, C; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Chiodini, G; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Clements, D; Coccaro, A; Coluccia, M R; Conde-Muíño, P; Constantin, S; Conventi, F; Corso-Radu, A; Costa, M J; Coura Torres, R; Cranfield, R; Cranmer, K; Crone, G; Curtis, C J; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; Dawson, I; Dawson, J; De Almeida Simoes, J; De Cecco, S; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; DeAsmundis, R; DellaPietra, M; DellaVolpe, D; Delsart, P -A; Demers, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Girolamo, A; Dionisi, C; Djilkibaev, R; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dogaru, M; Dotti, A; Dova, M; Drake, G; Dufour, M -A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Eschrich, I; Etzion, E; Facius, K; Falciano, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner, P J W F; Feng, E; Ferland, J; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fischer, G; Fonseca-Martin, T; Francis, D; Fukunaga, C; Föhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gaumer, O; Gee, C N P; George, S; Geweniger, C; Giagu, S; Gillman, A R; Giusti, P; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gowdy, S; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grancagnolo, F; Grancagnolo, S; Green, B; Galllno, P; Haas, S; Haberichter, W; Hadavand, H; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, Y; Hauschild, M; Hauser, R; Head, S; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Höcker, A; Hrynóva, T; Hughes-Jones, R; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Idarraga, J; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Inada, M; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jain, V; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Joos, M; Kadosaka, T; Kajomovitz, E; Kama, S; Kanaya, N; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Kiyamura, H; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E -E; Kobayashi, T; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kuhn, D; Kurashige, H; Kurasige, H; Kuwabara, T; Kwee, R; Landon, M; Lankford, A; LeCompte, T; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Ledroit, F; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Lendermann, V; Levinson, L; Leyton, M; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lifshitz, R; Lim, H; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lupu, N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martínez, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; McMahon, T; McPherson, R; Medinnis, M; Meessen, C; Meier, K; Meirosu, C; Messina, A; Migliaccio, A; Mikenberg, G; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Mönig, K; Monticelli, F; Moraes, A; Moreno, D; Morettini, P; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Némethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Nisati, A; Niwa, T; Nomachi, M; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Ochi, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Pectu, M; Perantoni, M; Perera, V; Perera, V J O; Pérez, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Perrino, R; Pessoa Lima Junior, H; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Piegaia, R; Pilcher, J E; Pinto, F; Pinzon, G; Polini, A; Pope, B; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Primavera, M; Qian, W; Radescu, V; Rajagopalan, S; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Risler, C; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Roda, C; Rodríguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Rosati, S; Ryabov, Yu; Ryan, P; Rühr, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamon, A; Salvatore, D; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Santonico, R; Sasaki, O; Scannicchio, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Schmitt, K; Scholtes, I; Schooltz, D; Schuler, G; Schultz-Coulon, H -C; Schäfer, U; Scott, W; Segura, E; Sekhniaidze, G; Shimbo, N; Sidoti, A; Silva, L; Silverstein, S; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sloper, J E; Smizanska, M; Solfaroli, E; Soloviev, I; Soluk, R; Spagnolo, S; Spila, F; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stradling, A; Strom, D; Strong, J; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Szymocha, T; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Tokoshuku, K; Tomoto, M; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tripiana, M; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J; Von Der Schmitt, J; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wilkens, H; Winklmeier, F; Woehrling, E -E; Wu, S -L; Wu, X; Xella, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamazaki, Y; Yasu, Y; Yu, M; Zanello, L; Zema, F; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; De Seixas, J M; Dos Anjos, A; Zur Nedden, M; Ozcan, E; Ünel, G; International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the two general-purpose experiments due to start operation soon at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will collide protons at a centre of mass energy of 14~TeV, with a bunch-crossing rate of 40~MHz. The ATLAS three-level trigger will reduce this input rate to match the foreseen offline storage capability of 100-200~Hz. This paper gives an overview of the ATLAS High Level Trigger focusing on the system design and its innovative features. We then present the ATLAS trigger strategy for the initial phase of LHC exploitation. Finally, we report on the valuable experience acquired through in-situ commissioning of the system where simulated events were used to exercise the trigger chain. In particular we show critical quantities such as event processing times, measured in a large-scale HLT farm using a complex trigger menu.

  1. Triggering of Aftershocks by Free Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufe, C. G.; Varnes, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    Periodicities observed in aftershock sequences may result from earthquake triggering by free oscillations of the Earth produced by the main shock. Using an algorithm we developed to compute spectra of inter-event times, we examine inter-event intervals of teleseismically recorded aftershock sequences from large (M>7.5) main shocks that occurred during 1980-2001. Observed periodicities may result from triggering at intervals that are multiples of normal mode periods. We have focussed our analysis of inter-event times on identification of triggering by free oscillations at periods in the range 6-60 minutes. In this paper we describe our most commonly observed aftershock inter-event times and the free oscillation modes most likely to be the triggers. Because of their separation, the longer period modes are easiest to identify in the aftershock data (0S2 at 53.9 minutes, 0S3 at 35.6 minutes, 0S4 at 25.8 minutes, and 0T2 at 43.9 minutes). Evidence of triggering by 0S2 and 0T2 was also found in the aftershocks of the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA (M 7) earthquake (Kamal and Mansinha, 1996). Because of the plethora of higher modes, shorter inter-event periods are more difficult to identify with a particular mode. Preliminary analysis of the 2001 Bhuj, India (M 7.7) earthquake sequence tentatively identifies a contribution to triggering of the first four large aftershocks by multiples of 0S12 (8.37 minutes).

  2. The ZEUS second level calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZEUS is a detector for the HERA ep collider, consisting of several large components. The most important being the inner tracking detectors, which are positioned nearest to the interaction point, the calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors and the muon detectors on the outside of the experimental setup. Each component will deliver a vast amount of information. In order to keep this information manageable, data is preprocessed and condensed per component and then combined to obtain the final global trigger result. The main subject of this thesis is the second level calorimeter trigger processor of the ZEUS detector. In order to be able to reject the unwanted events passing the first level, the topological event signature will have to be used at the second level. The most demanding task of the second level is the recognition of local energy depositions corresponding to isolated electrons and hadron jets. Also part of the work performed by the first level will be repeated with a higher level of accuracy. Additional information not available to the first level trigger will be processed and will be made available to the global second level trigger decision module. For the second level calorimeter trigger processor a special VME module, containing two transputers, has been developed. The second level calorimeter trigger algorithm described in this thesis was tested with simulated events, that were tracked through a computer simulation of the ZEUS detector. A part of this thesis is therefore devoted to the description of the various Monte Carlo models and the justification of the way in which they were used. (author). 132 refs.; 76 figs.; 18 tabs

  3. Use of recurrence plot and recurrence quantification analysis in Taiwan unemployment rate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Shing

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the article is to answer the question if the Taiwan unemployment rate dynamics is generated by a non-linear deterministic dynamic process. This paper applies a recurrence plot and recurrence quantification approach based on the analysis of non-stationary hidden transition patterns of the unemployment rate of Taiwan. The case study uses the time series data of the Taiwan’s unemployment rate during the period from 1978/01 to 2010/06. The results show that recurrence techniques are able to identify various phases in the evolution of unemployment transition in Taiwan.

  4. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca-Martin, T; Adragna, P; Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Asquith, L; Avolio, G; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Barria, P; Bartoldus, R; Batreanu, S; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellomo, M; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Berger, N; Berry, T; Biglietti, M; Blair, R R; Bogaerts, A; Bold, T; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Brelier, B; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buttar, C; Campanelli, M; Caprini, M; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cataldi, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Clements, D; Coccaro, A; Conde-Muíño, P; Conventi, F; Corso-Radu, A; Costa, M J; Coura Torres, R; Cranfeld, R; Cranmer, K; Crone, G; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dawson, I; Dawson, J; De Almeida Simoes, J; De Cecco, S; De Santo, A; DellaPietra, M; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Dionisi, C; Djilkibaev, R; Dobinson, R; Dobson, M; Dotti, A; Dova, M; Drake, G; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Ellis, Nick; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Eschrich, I; Facius, K; Falciano, S; Farthouat, P; Feng, E; Ferland, J; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fischer, G; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gaumer, O; George, S; Giagu, S; Goncalo, R; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gowdy, S; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grancagnolo, S; Green, B; Haas, S; Haberichter, W; Hadavand, H; Haeberli, C; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hansen, J R; Hauschild, M; Hauser, R; Head, S; Hillier, S J; Höcker, A; Hrynóva, T; Hughes-Jones, R; Huston, J; Idarraga, J; Igonkina, O; Inada, M; Jain, V; Johns, K; Joos, M; Kama, S; Kanaya, N; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kilvington, G; Kirk, J; Kiyamura, H; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kuhn, D; Kurasige, H; Kuwabara, T; Kwee, R; Lankford, A; LeCompte, T; Leahu, L; Leahu, M; Ledroit, F; Lehmann-Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Leyton, M; Li, S; Lim, H; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Mapelli, L; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Marzano, F; Masik, J; McMahon, T; McPherson, R; Medinnis, M; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Messina, A; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Mönig, K; Monticelli, F; Moraes, A; Moreno, D; Morettini, P; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Némethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Nisati, A; Nozicka, M; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panikashvili, N; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Perera, V; Pérez, E; Pérez-Réale, V; Petersen, J; Piegaia, R; Pilcher, J E; Pinzon, G; Pope, B; Potter, C; Primavera, M; Radescu, V; Rajagopalan, S; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Risler, C; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Roda, C; Rodríguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Ryabov, Yu; Ryan, P; Salvatore, D; Santamarina, C; Santamarina-Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J L; Scholtes, I; Schooltz, D; Scott, W; Segura, E; Shimbo, N; Sidoti, A; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sloper, J E; Smizanska, M; Soloviev, I; Soluk, R; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stradling, A; Strom, David M; Strong, J; Su, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Szymocha, T; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Teixeira-Dias, P; Tokoshuku, K; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Tremblet, L; Tripiana, M; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vandelli, W; Ventura, A; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J; Von Der Schmitt, J; Wang, M; Watson, A; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wilkens, H; Winklmeier, F; Woerling, E E; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Xella, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yu, M; Zema, F; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; Dos Anjos, A; Zur Nedden, M; Ozcan, E; Ünel, G

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 109 interactions per second at the nominal luminosity).

  5. More About The Video Event Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1996-01-01

    Report presents additional information about system described in "Video Event Trigger" (LEW-15076). Digital electronic system processes video-image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change, such as motion, or appearance, disappearance, change in color, brightness, or dilation of object. Potential uses include monitoring of hallways, parking lots, and other areas during hours when supposed unoccupied, looking for fires, tracking airplanes or other moving objects, identification of missing or defective parts on production lines, and video recording of automobile crash tests.

  6. Chemoprophylaxis in the vesical tumoral recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superficial bladder tumors are characterized by a high rate of recurrence taking place especially within the first two years that is even higher in the high risk groups. There is an agreement in the usefulness of the Calmette-Guerin Bacillus (CGB) to diminish the tumoral recurrence. The intravesical chemotherapy with other medications have demonstrated its profit or not in decreasing the recurrence of these bladder tumors. Between 1999 and 2008 we studied and treated 110 patients (96 men and 14 women), aged in average 63 years old. They were divided into three groups for the treatment of the tumoral recidivism after the transurethral resection or partial cystectomy, using three different chemoprophylactic agents and inmunomodulators (Thio-Tepa, BCG+Transference Factor, Doxorubicin +Interferon Alpha 2b). The objective of this research was presenting our experience in the treatment of these patients during five years, obtaining better results in the group treated with doxorubicin + interferon alpha 2b, followed by the group treated by means of BCG + transference factor, with a remarked decrease of the recurrence and a limitation in the long term progression of the disease

  7. Current management of locally recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Bak; Laurberg, Søren; Holm, Thorbjörn

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: A review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of the surgical management of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) after the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME). Method: A systematic literature search was undertaken using PubMed, Embase, Web...

  8. Surgical management of primary and recurrent melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, Jeffrey M; Kulkarni, Nandini; Hsu, Cary

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma accounts for less than 2% of skin cancer cases but causes most skin cancer-related deaths. Surgery continues to be the cornerstone of treatment of melanoma and surgical principles are guided by data derived from clinical research. This article examines the evolution of surgical techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of primary and locally recurrent melanoma.

  9. Recurrent Pneumonia due to Double Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumonia is one of the most common infections during childhood. In children with recurrent bacterial pneumonia complete evaluation for underlying factors is necessary. The most common underlying diseases include: antibody deficiencies , cystic fibrosis , tracheoesophageal fistula and increased pulmonary blood flow. Vascular ring and its pressure effect is a less common cause of stridor and recurrent pneumonia. Congenital abnormalities in aortic arch and main branches which form vascular ring around esophagus and trachea with variable pressure effect cause respiratory symptoms such as stridor , wheezing and recurrent pneumoniaCase Report: A 2 year old boy was admitted in our hospital with respiratory distress and cough . Chest x-Ray demonstrated right lobar pneumonia. He had history of stridor and wheezing from neonatal period and hospitalization due to pneumonia for four times. The patient received appropriate antibiotics. Despite fever and respiratory distress improvement, wheezing continued. Review of his medical documents showed fixed pressure effect on posterior aspect of esophagus in barium swallow. In CT angiography we confirmed double aortic arch.Conclusion: Double aortic arch is one of the causes of persistant respiratory symptom and recurrent pneumonia in children for which fluoroscopic barium swallow is the first non-invasive diagnostic method.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:70-74

  10. Peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Klausen, B; Hougen, H P;

    1991-01-01

    Peripheral lymphocyte subsets--T-helper (CD4+), T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8+), and naive/virgin T cells/natural killer cells (CD45RA)--were studied quantitatively in 30 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) and 29 sex- and age-matched RAU-free control donors. The CD4+ percentage...

  11. Risk of Seizure Recurrence with Neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of seizure recurrence after a first seizure due to neurocysticercosis (NC was evaluated in a prospective study of 77 patients at the School of Medicine and Research Institute, University of Cuenca, Ecuador, and Columbia University, New York.

  12. [Therapeutic education for recurrent depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carde, Soufiane; Hatif, Séverine; Samama, Diane; Charbonnel, Patricia; Jouvent, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a serious and recurrent condition which can become chronic. As a complement to other therapeutic approaches, therapeutic patient education (TPE) or psychoeducation is effective. TPE groups led by a multidisciplinary hospitalisation team in a psychiatric department are thereby integrated into the global care in order to reduce relapses and improve patients' quality of life.

  13. Reirradiation for recurrent glioblastoma by cyberknife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a retrospective study to evaluate the outcomes of recurrent, previously irradiated glioblastoma treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy using the CyberKnife (CK). 48 patients (20 male and 28 female, ages 21-78 years, median 61 years) with recurrent glioblastoma were analyzed. The period from conventional radiotherapy to CK treatment was 4 to 216 months (median 7 months). The dose of conventional radiotherapy was 40-70 Gy, median 65 Gy. Tumor volume ranged from 1.3 to 257 ml (median 45 ml). The marginal dose (D95) was 17-35 Gy (median 30 Gy) delivered in one to 7 sessions. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 17 months (median 7 months). Median survival from CK treatment was 7 months. No patient survived more than 17 months. CK retreatment for recurrent glioblastoma was palliative, contributing to the maintainenance of quality of life (QOL). A multidisciplinary approach for recurrent GBM, including a molecular targeting regimen and re-irradiation, is expected to prolong the performance status of patient. (author)

  14. The recurrence sequence via the Fibonacci groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aküzüm, Yeşim; Deveci, Ömür

    2016-04-01

    This work develops properties of the recurrence sequence defined by the aid of the relation matrix of the Fibonacci groups. The study of this sequence modulo m yields cyclic groups and semigroups from generating matrix. Finally, we extend the sequence defined to groups and then, we obtain its period in the Fibonacci groups.

  15. [Multifocus or recurrent carcinoma adenoides cysticum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, P; Sujkowska, U; Kukwa, A; Sobczyk, G; Misztela, T

    1995-01-01

    Authors present the case of carcinoma adenoides cysticum, which was located in small salivary glands of palatum. After surgical treatment and radiotherapy during 3 years observation of the patient two new ca adenoides cysticum focus were noticed. It can give evidence of cancer multifocus of cancer recurrents.

  16. Understanding ecological transitions under recurrent wildfire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Malhi, Yadvinder; Rojas Landívar, Víctor Diego; Oliveras Menor, Imma

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires in tropical forests are likely to become a more dominant disturbance due to future increasing feedbacks between rapid frontier expansion and more frequent droughts. This study evaluates the effects of fire recurrence on seasonally dry tropical forests of the Chiquitania region, located

  17. Fetal gender ratio in recurrent miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Fabro A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Del Fabro1, Lorenza Driul1, Omar Anis1, Ambrogio P Londero1, Serena Bertozzi2, Livio Bortotto3, Diego Marchesoni11Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Clinic of Surgery, 3Unit of Genetics, University Hospital of Udine, Udine, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gender ratio and incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the products of conception (POC from recurrent miscarriages.Methods: We determined the karyotypes of POC from patients with recurrent spontaneous miscarriages between 1999 and 2009.Results: In total, 313 specimens were successfully karyotyped, with a median gestational age of 10 weeks at miscarriage (interquartile range 8–13; 199 (64% were females and 114 (36% were males. In total, 121 (39% had abnormal karyotypes, the most prevalent of which were chromosome 21 and 16 trisomies, triploidy, and monosomy X.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that female POC might be more susceptible to recurrent miscarriages than male ones during embryogenesis, implantation, and initial fetal development.Keywords: fetal gender, recurrent miscarriages, karyotype anomalies

  18. The Approach to Children with Recurrent Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Aghamohammadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent and chronic infections in children are one of the most common reasons for physicians' visits that make a diagnostic challenge to pediatricians. Although the majority of referred  children  with  recurrent  infections  are  normal,  underlying causes  of  recurrent infection  such  as  atopy,  anatomical and  functional  defects,  and  primary or  secondary immunodeficiency must be considered in evaluation of children with this complaint.Although primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs were originally felt to be rare, it has became clear that  they are much  more  common  than  routinely appreciated. Early and accurate detection  of  PIDs  in children is essential to  institute  early lifesaving care and optimized treatments.Therefore in the approach to children with recurrent infections, careful medical history taking and physical examination with more attention to warning PIDs signs and symptoms are essential to distinguish those children with underlying PIDs from those who are normal or having other underlying disorders. If indicated, appropriate laboratory studies including simple screening and advanced tests must be performed.

  19. Recurrence quantification analysis in Liu's attractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurrence Quantification Analysis is used to detect transitions chaos to periodical states or chaos to chaos in a new dynamical system proposed by Liu et al. This system contains a control parameter in the second equation and was originally introduced to investigate the forming mechanism of the compound structure of the chaotic attractor which exists when the control parameter is zero

  20. Perceived triggers of asthma: key to symptom perception and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, T; Ritz, T

    2013-09-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this article, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targets for behavioural interventions that aim to improve the accuracy of asthma trigger identification and thereby enhance asthma control.

  1. [Recurrence of upper aerodigestive tract tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurent; Zoubir, Mustapha; Le Tourneau, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Recurrences of tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract are frequent despite the improvement of the primary treatment and they limit the rate of survival long-term. They occur in patients with multiple co-morbidities, often associated with sequelae or side effects of earlier treatments. The salvage treatment will add a cumulative toxicity and therapeutic options are limited. The choice will go from curator to palliative treatment. The report benefit-risk must be assessed in each case depending on the terrain and prognostic factors that have been identified, such as performance status, the time between initial disease and the recurrence, the site and the stratification of the recurrence. In operable non-metastatic recurrence surgery remains the treatment of choice. Multimodal treatment involving surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy in this context is being evaluated. Non-operable tumors have long been considered only in a palliative context. The evaluation of detailed irradiation as bifractionnated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy helped establish protocols allowing long-term survivals and consider these treatments as potentially curators. However, the toxicity of these treatments is important. That is why the technical innovations of the radiation and the development of new chemotherapeutic agents today offer opportunities remaining to assess. The use of irradiation targeted by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and stereotactic radiotherapy by decreasing the irradiated volume should decrease the toxicity. Generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy agents, targeted therapies also took their places associated with radiotherapy in the treatment of these patients already treated. Cetuximab was the first agent obtaining an indication. Other agents are being evaluated in metastatic recurrent tumors, including exploring the possibilities of radiopotentialisation nanoparticles and the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins.

  2. Seizure recurrence after a first febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditan, A A

    1994-01-01

    In this study, 140 children aged from 6 months to 6 years who presented with a first febrile convulsion at the King Fahad Hofuf Hospital, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia were retrospectively identified. Information about these children was obtained from their medical records covering a follow-up period of 3 years from July 1989 to June 1992. Recurrent febrile convulsions occurred in 60 of them (43%). Relevant risk factors that were observed to be significantly associated with seizure recurrence included an age of less than 18 months (odds ratio [OR] = 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.26, 1.58), an initial febrile convulsion that was complex (OR = 4.41; CI = 9.50, 2.05) and a positive family history of febrile convulsions (OR = 4.12; CI = 10.74; 1.58), while a decreased risk of recurrence occurred with a temperature of over 39 degrees C (OR = 4.60; CI = 9.44; 2.24). There was no association between seizure recurrence and the duration of the initial febrile convulsion (OR = 0.93; CI = 2.33; -2.04) or family history of epilepsy (OR = 0.88; CI = 4.22, -3.27). An important observation in the present study is the close association (ORM-H = 2.36; X2M-H = 9.65) between the development of an afebrile convulsion and seizure recurrence among the group of children with CFC. Anticonvulsant prophylaxis should therefore be considered for children whose initial febrile convulsions are complex in nature. PMID:7880092

  3. Lifetime unbiased beauty and charm triggers at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Kenzie, Matthew William

    2016-01-01

    This note describes the use of lifetime unbiased triggers in LHCb's High Level Trigger system, implemented during Run 2 of LHC data collection. This is the first time such a strategy has been employed to exclusively trigger on signal candidates in a lifetime unbiased way at a hadron collider. It provides samples of charm and beauty hadrons whose lifetime acceptance due to the trigger requirements is uniform. Consequently, these triggers are suitable for time-dependent measurements and calibration purposes.

  4. A study of a second level track trigger for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borer, K.; Bates, S.; Munday, D.J.; Parker, M.A.; Poppleton, A.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Reichold, A.; Spiwoks, R.; Tsesmelis, E.; Clark, A.G.; Bonino, R.; Wu, X.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Tovey, S.N.; Stapnes, S.; Hawkings, R.J.; Weidberg, A.R.; Lubrano, P.; Scampoli, P.; Teiger, J.; Gheorghe, A.; Bock, R.; Krischer, W. (Lab. fuer Hochenergiephysik, Univ. Bern (Switzerland) Cavendish Lab., Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) Inst. fuer Physik, Univ. Dortmund (Germany) DPNC, Univ. de Geneve (Switzerland) School of Physics, Univ. of Melbourne (Australia) Univ. of Oslo (Norway) Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom) Dipt. di Fisica dell' Univ. di Perugia (Italy) INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy) Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France) Inst. of Atomic Physics and Polytecnic Inst., Bucharest (Romania) CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); RD2 Collaboration; RD11 Collaboration

    1993-11-15

    This paper discusses some of the problems of triggering at a high energy, high luminosity pp collider. A suggested second level track trigger for the ATLAS detector is described, based on hit information from a silicon tracker. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to assess the performance of the trigger in accepting electrons and in rejecting the QCD jets that would fake electrons in the first level calorimeter trigger. Studies of the feasibility of implementing such a trigger are also presented. (orig.)

  5. Recurrence quantification analysis for detecting dynamical changes in earthquake magnitude time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Gang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, recurrence plot (RP) and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) techniques are applied to a magnitude time series composed of seismic events occurred in California region. Using bootstrapping techniques, we give the statistical test of the RQA for detecting dynamical transitions. From our results, we find the different patterns of RPs for magnitude time series before and after the M6.1 Joshua Tree Earthquake. RQA measurements of determinism (DET) and laminarity (LAM) quantifying the order with confidence levels also show peculiar behaviors. It is found that DET and LAM values of the recurrence-based complexity measure significantly increase to a large value at the main shock, and then gradually recovers to a small values after it. The main shock and its aftershock sequences trigger a temporary growth in order and complexity of the deterministic structure in the RP of seismic activity. It implies that the onset of the strong earthquake event is reflected in a sharp and great simultaneous change in RQA measures.

  6. ATLAS Phase-II trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sankey, Dave; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This talk for ACES summarises the current status of the ATLAS Phase-II trigger upgrade, describing and comparing the two architectures under consideration, namely the two hardware level system described in the Phase-II Upgrade Scoping Document and the more recent single hardware level system.

  7. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  8. Triggering on electrons and photons with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabi Alexandre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the year 2011, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC has operated with an instantaneous luminosity that has risen continually to around 4 × 1033cm−2s−1. With this prodigious high-energy proton collisions rate, efficient triggering on electrons and photons has become a major challenge for the LHC experiments. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 106. The first level (L1 is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the High-Level Trigger (HLT combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. In this intense hadronic environment, the L1 electron/photon trigger provides a powerful tool to select interesting events. It is based upon information from the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL, a high-resolution detector comprising 75848 lead tungstate (PbWO4 crystals in a “barrel” and two “endcaps”. The performance as well as the optimization of the electron/photon trigger are presented.

  9. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; /CERN; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Adragna, P.; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Aleksandrov, E.; /Dubna, JINR; Aleksandrov, I.; /Dubna, JINR; Amorim, A.; /Lisbon, LIFEP; Anderson, K.; /Chicago U., EFI; Anduaga, X.; /La Plata U.; Aracena, I.; /SLAC; Asquith, L.; /University Coll. London; Avolio, G.; /CERN; Backlund, S.; /CERN; Badescu, E.; /Bucharest, IFIN-HH; Baines, J.; /Rutherford; Barria, P.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome; Bartoldus, R.; /SLAC; Batreanu, S.; /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /CERN; Beck, H.P.; /Bern U.; Bee, C.; /Marseille, CPPM; Bell, P.; /Manchester U.; Bell, W.H.; /Glasgow U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Regina U. /CERN /Annecy, LAPP /Paris, IN2P3 /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /Argonne /CERN /UC, Irvine /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /CERN /Montreal U. /CERN /Glasgow U. /Michigan State U. /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /New York U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /UC, Irvine /CERN /Glasgow U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /UC, Irvine /Valencia U. /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /University Coll. London /New York U.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  10. Cough in asthma triggered by reflux episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Devendra; He, Zhaoping; Padman, Raj

    2014-05-01

    With combined pH and impedance monitoring, non-acid, as well as acid reflux episodes, are more commonly detected immediately prior to cough in asthma in children. Gastroesophageal reflux should be evaluated as a trigger for cough in difficult childhood asthma.

  11. Entity models for trigger-reaction documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Khalid; M. Marx; M.X. Makkes

    2008-01-01

    We define the notion of an entity model for a special kind of document popular on the web: an article followed by a list of reactions on that article, usually by many authors, usually inverse chronologically ordered. We call these documents trigger-reactions pairs. The entity model describes which n

  12. Laser trigger system for the Jupiter module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, R.; Sundvoid, S.; Morelli, G.; Powell, C. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Hamil, R.; Corley, J.; Pankuch, P.; Law, K.; Alexander, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A UV laser trigger system has been designed to trigger the eight SF6 filled high voltage switches in the Jupiter module. The system is compact and modular, allowing for approximately thirty lasers to be triggered simultaneously in the full Jupiter design. The laser will be kinematically mounted near the high voltage section to minimize the path length to the high voltage switches and decrease the sensitivity to misalignment. The laser system is specifically built for the purpose of triggering the Jupiter module. It is a 265 nm UV laser system designed to generate eight simultaneous laser pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulsewidth. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser is frequency quadrupled with a two stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy is frequency doubled with a type II KTP crystal to generate 530 nm energy. The 530 nm output is frequency doubled with a type I KD*P crystal to generate 265 nm energy. The 265 nm pulse is split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and a stable energy output level for the system were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged in a rugged, sealed aluminum structure 10 in. {times} 19 in. {times} 2.75 in. The size of the laser electronics unit is 7 in. {times} 8 in. {times} 8 in.

  13. Trigger factors and mechanisms in migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, Geurt Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Migraine is a severe headache syndrome, affecting approximately 33% of females and 13% of males. Patients suffer from recurring headache episodes in combination with nausea, vomiting, phono and photophobia. It is a paroxysmal disorder for which several several trigger factors have been identified by

  14. Histopathology of tenosynovium in trigger fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruta, Toshiyuki; Mine, Hiroko; Aoki, Shigehisa; Nishijima-Matsunobu, Aki; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Kuraoka, Akio; Toda, Shuji

    2014-06-01

    Stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, trigger finger, is a common clinical disorder causing painful locking or contracture of the involved digits, and most instances are idiopathic. This problem is generally caused by a size mismatch between the swollen flexor tendon and the thickened first annular pulley. Although hypertrophic pulleys have been histologically and ultrasonographically detected, little is known about the histopathology of the tenosynovium covering the tendons of trigger fingers. We identified chondrocytoid cells that produced hyaluronic acid in 23 (61%) fingers and hypocellular collagen matrix in 32 (84%) fingers around the tenosynovium among 38 specimens of tenosynovium from patients with trigger fingers. These chondrocytoid cells expressed the synovial B cell marker CD44, but not the chondrocyte marker S-100 protein. The incidence of these findings was much higher than that of conventional findings of synovitis, such as inflammatory infiltrate (37%), increased vascularity (37%), hyperplasia of synovial lining cells (21%), or fibrin exudation (5%). We discovered the following distinctive histopathological features of trigger finger: hyaluronic acid-producing chondrocytoid cells originated from fibroblastic synovial B cells, and a hypocellular collagen matrix surrounding the tenosynovium. Thus, an edematous extracellular matrix with active hyaluronic acid synthesis might increase pressure under the pulley and contribute to the progression of stenosis. PMID:24965110

  15. Osmotic pressure-triggered cavitation in microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Luoran; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Zhao, Yuanjin; Chen, Yongping; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-01-21

    A cavitation system was found in solid microcapsules with a membrane shell and a liquid core. By simply treating these microcapsules with hypertonic solutions, cavitation could be controllably triggered without special equipment or complex operations. A cavitation-formed vapor bubble was fully entrapped within the microcapsules, thus providing an advantageous method for fabricating encapsulated microbubbles with controllable dimensions and functional components. PMID:26659708

  16. Myofacial trigger points in advanced cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Hasuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation.We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points.

  17. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  18. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  19. ATLAS trigger for first physics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca-Martin, T

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS is a multi-purpose spectrometer built to perform precision measurements of Standard Model parameters and is aiming at discovery of Higgs particle, Super Symmetry and possible other physics channels beyond Standard Model. Operating at 14 TeV center of mass energy ATLAS will see 40 million events per second at nominal luminosity with about 25 overlapping interactions. Most of the events are inelastic proton-proton interactions with only few W, Z bosons or ttbar pairs produced each second, and expectations for Higgs or SUSY production cross-section are much smaller than that. ATLAS trigger has a difficult task to select one out of $10^5$ events online and to ensure that most physics channels of interests are preserved for analysis. In this talk we will review the design of ATLAS trigger system, the trigger menu prepared for initial LHC run as well as for high luminosity run. The expected trigger performance of the base-line ATLAS physics programs will be reviewed and first results from the commissioning pe...

  20. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some ... after Beginning 5 or 10 Years of Adjuvant Tamoxifen 5 Years 10 Years Risk of Recurrence 25. ...

  1. Respiratory syncytial virus and recurrent wheeze in healthy preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, M.O.; Rovers, M.M.; Molenaar, J.M.; Winkler-Seinstra, P.L.; Meijer, A.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Bont, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with subsequent recurrent wheeze. Observational studies cannot determine whether RSV infection is the cause of recurrent wheeze or the first indication of preexistent pulmonary vulnerability in preterm infants. The monoclonal anti

  2. The Topo-trigger: A new stereo trigger for lowering the energy threshold of IACTs

    CERN Document Server

    López-Coto, R; Paoletti, R; Blanch, O; Cortina, J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the hardware presented in this contribution is to decrease the energy threshold of the MAGIC telescopes without significantly increasing the data acquisition rate. To achieve this purpose, we developed an additional level of trigger that relies on the location in both MAGIC cameras where the trigger is issued to rule out accidental events. This allows to decrease the Discriminator Threshold (DT), which results in a reduction of the energy threshold of the instrument. We simulated the Topo-trigger concept using the standard MAGIC Monte Carlo (MC) and tested it with real telescope data. In this paper we show the concept and results of these tests.

  3. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  4. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With High Risk Primary or Recurrent Gynecologic Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Cervical Carcinoma; Ovarian Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Vulvar Carcinoma; Uterine Corpus Cancer; Vulvar Carcinoma; Peritoneal Neoplasms

  5. Thalidomide in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    Endometrial Adenoacanthoma; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma

  6. Patterns of Recurrence After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: A Population-Based Study of 2223 Consecutive Low- and Intermediate-Risk Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Andrea C.; Morris, W. James, E-mail: JMorris@bccancer.bc.ca; Pickles, Tom; Keyes, Mira; McKenzie, Michael; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: This study examined patterns of recurrence after low–dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB), estimated local recurrence rate and compared that rate to the estimated local recurrence rate after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A prospective database was maintained with clinical, dosimetric, and outcome data for all LDR-PB implantation procedures performed at our institution. From 1998 to 2008, 2223 patients with prostate cancer received LDR-PB without supplemental external beam radiation therapy. Patients who developed Phoenix-defined biochemical failure were reviewed for sites of relapse and investigations completed. Results: At a median follow-up of 5 years, 108 of 2223 patients (4.8%) developed biochemical relapse. In 1 additional patient, local relapse was found on transurethral prostate resection, but his prostate-specific antigen concentration was well short of triggering Phoenix-defined failure. Of the 109 patients with disease relapse, 18 of 2223 (0.8%) had a proven local recurrence, and 30 of 2223 (1.3%) had a proven distant recurrence. The remaining 61 of 2223 patients (2.7%) had unidentified sites of recurrence; of these, 57 patients (93%) had digital rectal examinations (DREs), 18 (30%) had post-treatment biopsies, 45 (74%) had bone scans, and 34 (56%) had computed tomography imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. If every biochemical failure were local, the local recurrence rate would be as high as 4.9%; however, by excluding those with proven distant failure and those with both a negative DRE and biopsy, we estimate that the local recurrence rate is 2.7% or less. Conclusions: In the context of limitations of the study design, our population-based analysis indicates that the local recurrence rate after LDR-PB is as low or lower than that after RP in our jurisdiction.

  7. The Weighted Transience and Recurrence of Markov Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhi ZHAO; Hui Zeng ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Transience and recurrence are among the most important concepts in Markov processes.In this paper, we study the transience and recurrence for right processes with a given weight function,and characterize them by potentials, excessive functions, first hitting times and last exit times of the process. We also study the properties of recurrent states.

  8. Anal incontinence in women with recurrent obstetric anal sphincter rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgeskov, Reneé; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Abstract Objectives: To determine the risk of recurrent anal sphincter rupture (ASR), and compare the risk of anal incontinence (AI) after recurrent ASR, with that seen in women with previous ASR who deliver by caesarean section or vaginally without sustaining a recurrent ASR. METHODS...

  9. Recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bultmann, U.; Roelen, C.A.; Hoedeman, R.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. This study examines the recurrence risk of sickness absence due to CMDs. METHODS: A cohort o

  10. POLYNOMIAL RECURRENCE FOR L(E)VY PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MINZHI; YING JIANGANG

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the ω-transience and ω-recurrence for Lévy processes with any weight function ω, give a relation between ω-recurrence and the last exit times. As a special case, the polynomial recurrence and polynomial transience are also studied.

  11. A Direct Feedback Control Based on Fuzzy Recurrent Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 马小平

    2002-01-01

    A direct feedback control system based on fuzzy-recurrent neural network is proposed, and a method of training weights of fuzzy-recurrent neural network was designed by applying modified contract mapping genetic algorithm. Computer simul ation results indicate that fuzzy-recurrent neural network controller has perfect dynamic and static performances .

  12. Recurrent rates and risk factors associated with recurrent painful bullous keratopathy after primary phototherapeutic keratectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasetsuwan N

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ngamjit Kasetsuwan, Kanokorn Sakpisuttivanit, Usanee Reinprayoon, Vilavun Puangsricharern Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: To assess the recurrent rate, mean survival time, and risk factors associated with recurrent painful bullous keratopathy (BK after primary treatment with phototherapeutic keratectomy.Methods: Medical records from 72 patients (72 eyes who had phototherapeutic keratectomy for painful BK were evaluated. Data for sex, age, duration of BK, associated ocular and systemic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, asthma, dyslipidemia, and rheumatoid arthritis, frequency and degree of pain (grade 1–3, visual acuity, corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and laser setting were extracted and analyzed.Results: The mean age of the patients was 64.2±11.4 years. The mean preoperative duration of BK was 15.0±11.0 months. Most patients had pseudophakic BK (69.40%. Majority of the cases had grade 3 degree of pain (48.60%. Glaucoma and hypertension were markedly found among these patients (51.40% and 19.40%, respectively. Preoperative mean intraocular pressure and corneal thickness were 13.70±4.95 mmHg and 734.1±83.80 µm, respectively. The mean laser diameter and depth were 8.36±1.22 mm and 38.89±8.81 µm, respectively. Systemic disease was significantly associated with the risk for developing recurrent painful BK (P=0.022, hazard ratio [HR] 1.673, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–2.58. The overall recurrent rate was 51%. The average duration time of recurrent painful BK was 17.3±12.9 months (range 1–50 months. The median survival time before recurrence was 29.0±6.6 months.Conclusion: Systemic disease was found to be the only risk factor significantly associated with the development of recurrent painful BK. Low recurrent rate and long mean survival time showed that phototherapeutic

  13. Umbilical hernia simulating recurrent carcinoid on octreoscan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschl, David A; Li, Yi; Chun, K J; Freeman, Leonard M

    2011-07-01

    Physiologic bowel activity on In-111 octreotide imaging is commonly seen. However, on occasion, normal bowel activity may mimic lesions in the abdomen, which can be very difficult to differentiate, particularly after surgical intervention. We report a case of focal bowel activity simulating a lesion in a patient who had an In-111 octreotide scan (Octreoscan), postoperatively, looking for recurrent carcinoid. SPECT/CT demonstrated that the uptake was localized in the anterior abdomen, and corresponded to a loop of bowel within a ventral hernia at the site of surgical incision. The correlation with CT as well as the precise localization made possible by the fusion images helped avoid misinterpretation of this finding as possible recurrent carcinoid. PMID:21637071

  14. Recurrent cervical chordoma: A case illustration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Bin Ni; Ning Xie; Huajiang Chen; Fei Wang; Zhuangchen Zhu; Peida Lin

    2009-01-01

    A case is described of multi-recurrent cervical chordoma in a man over a 5 year period. The clinical features were of progressive spinal cord compression. The authors report a chordoma at C4 that recurred 3 times in five years. The patient underwent four operations and suffered distant metastases. This case confirms that thorough resection of the tumor during the first surgery and postoperative adjuvant treatment are the best assurance of a good prognosis with a chordoma. Multiple surgeries can stimulate biological activity of a chordoma and make its recurrence and distant metastases much more likely. The authors discuss the diagnosis, surgical treatment and the relationship between the histopathological changes and malignancy of a spinal chordoma after four operations. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of a 4th surgery for cervical chordoma.

  15. Stochastic Variational Learning in Recurrent Spiking Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eJimenez Rezende

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to learn and perform statistical inference with biologically plausible recurrent network of spiking neurons is an important step towards understanding perception and reasoning. Here we derive and investigate a new learning rule for recurrent spiking networks with hidden neurons, combining principles from variational learning and reinforcement learning. Our network defines a generative model over spike train histories and the derived learning rule has the form of a local Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity rule modulated by global factors (neuromodulators conveying information about ``novelty on a statistically rigorous ground.Simulations show that our model is able to learn bothstationary and non-stationary patterns of spike trains.We also propose one experiment that could potentially be performed with animals in order to test the dynamics of the predicted novelty signal.

  16. An unusual cause for recurrent chest infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lobo, Ronstan

    2012-10-01

    We present a case of an elderly non-smoking gentleman who, since 2005, had been admitted multiple times for recurrent episodes of shortness of breath, wheeze, cough and sputum. The patient was treated as exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and\\/or lower respiratory tract infections. Bronchoscopy was done which revealed multiple hard nodules in the trachea and bronchi with posterior tracheal wall sparing. Biopsies confirmed this as tracheopathia osteochondroplastica (TO). He had increasing frequency of admission due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas infections, which failed to clear despite intravenous, prolonged oral and nebulised antibiotics. The patient developed increasing respiratory distress and respiratory failure. The patient died peacefully in 2012. This case report highlights the typical pathological and radiological findings of TO and the pitfalls of misdiagnosing patients with recurrent chest infections as COPD.

  17. Reirradiation of recurrent head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emami, B.; Bignardi, M.; Spector, G.J.; Devineni, V.R.; Hederman, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-nine patients with recurrent cancers of the head and neck region were treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or combination therapy. The follow-up period ranged from 18 months to 18 years. An initial overall complete response rate of 67% and a partial response rate of 7% (overall response rate-74%) were achieved. The eventual tumor control rate was 15%. Although equal initial response rates were achieved in recurrences at the primary site and the cervical nodes, the eventual local control was better for the former (21% vs. 10%). Patients receiving less than 5,000 rad radiotherapy had a 44% complete response and an 11% eventual tumor control. Patients receiving over 5,000 rad had an 80% complete response and a 25% eventual tumor control.

  18. [How I treat...recurrent labial herpes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2008-11-01

    Recurrent oro-labial herpes is predominantly caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1. Following the primary infection, the virus remains in a latent stage in the trigeminal ganglion. After episodic reactivations, it is transported via the V1 or V2 axons to the lower or upper lip. Although no causal treatment exists, a series of therapeutic options are currently available. It now appears that recurrent oro-labial herpes can be treated with shorter treatment schedules with the currently available antiviral drugs. In these instances, similar clinical efficacy was obtained with increased compliance of the patient, and reduction in both the economical impact and the amount of drug intake. Newer treatment strategies are emerging including non medicated hydrocolloid dressings and combinations of a systemic antiviral drug with a topical corticosteroid. PMID:19112988

  19. Incarcerated recurrent Amyand′s hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Quartey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyand′s hernia is a rarity and a recurrent case is extremely rare. A 71-year-old male with a previous history of right inguinal hernia repair presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of pain in the right groin. A physical examination revealed a nonreducible right inguinal hernia. A computed tomography scan showed a 1.3-cm appendix with surrounding inflammation within a right inguinal hernia. An emergent right groin exploration revealed an incarcerated and injected non-perforated appendix and an indirect hernia. Appendectomy was performed through the groin incision, and the indirect hernia defect was repaired with a biological mesh (Flex-HD. We hereby present this unique case - the first reported case of recurrent Amyand′s hernia and a literature review of this anatomical curiosity.

  20. Management of recurrent and metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbun, H J; Hughes, K S

    1993-02-01

    When metastatic or recurrent disease from colorectal carcinoma is detected, the surgeon must decide whether a patient is a candidate for resection. Although long-term survival after resection is not optimal, the relegation of patients to nonresective treatment means denying them the only chance for cure currently available. When isolated disease involving the liver, lung, or region of the primary carcinoma is documented, curative resection must be considered. Symptomatic patients may also obtain maximal palliation from resection, diversion, or a bypass procedure. Chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent disease is palliative and probably should be considered only within clinical trials. Future alternative methods of treatment or new chemotherapeutic regimens need to be studied to improve survival and quality of life. PMID:8426994

  1. The nutrition consult for recurrent stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penniston, Kristina L

    2015-07-01

    Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence.

  2. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  3. Multi-Dimensional Recurrent Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alex; Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have proved effective at one dimensional sequence learning tasks, such as speech and online handwriting recognition. Some of the properties that make RNNs suitable for such tasks, for example robustness to input warping, and the ability to access contextual information, are also desirable in multidimensional domains. However, there has so far been no direct way of applying RNNs to data with more than one spatio-temporal dimension. This paper introduces multi-dimensional recurrent neural networks (MDRNNs), thereby extending the potential applicability of RNNs to vision, video processing, medical imaging and many other areas, while avoiding the scaling problems that have plagued other multi-dimensional models. Experimental results are provided for two image segmentation tasks.

  4. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  5. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion

  6. Supervised Sequence Labelling with Recurrent Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Supervised sequence labelling is a vital area of machine learning, encompassing tasks such as speech, handwriting and gesture recognition, protein secondary structure prediction and part-of-speech tagging. Recurrent neural networks are powerful sequence learning tools—robust to input noise and distortion, able to exploit long-range contextual information—that would seem ideally suited to such problems. However their role in large-scale sequence labelling systems has so far been auxiliary.    The goal of this book is a complete framework for classifying and transcribing sequential data with recurrent neural networks only. Three main innovations are introduced in order to realise this goal. Firstly, the connectionist temporal classification output layer allows the framework to be trained with unsegmented target sequences, such as phoneme-level speech transcriptions; this is in contrast to previous connectionist approaches, which were dependent on error-prone prior segmentation. Secondly, multidimensional...

  7. Psychosocial factors and childhood recurrent abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, Christopher Chiong-Meng; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2002-12-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain in children is not a single condition but a description of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, some of which fit into a definite pattern, such as the irritable bowel syndrome, while others do not. Organic disorders may be present, but in the majority of children they cannot be detected. Although children with recurrent abdominal pain do not generally have psychological or psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that psychosocial stress plays an important role in this condition. This review will look into some of this evidence. The precise pathophysiology that results in abdominal pain is still not clearly understood, but the current belief is that visceral hypersensitivity or hyperalgesia and changes in the brain-gut axis linking the central and enteric nervous systems are important mechanisms. PMID:12423267

  8. Recurrent abdominal pain in paediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, VWY; Ng, WM; Chan, KL

    1999-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain is a common problem in the paediatric population. While functional abdominal pain accounts for the majority of cases, an organic cause for pain may be found in about 5% to 10% of children. Diagnostic evaluation depends on the clinical presentation and the presence of specific findings. Excessive testing should be avoided as this may increase parental anxiety and put the child through unnecessary stress.

  9. Research Methodology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help...... researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL....

  10. Improving Recurrent Neural Networks For Sequence Labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Dinarelli, Marco; Tellier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study different types of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) for sequence labeling tasks. We propose two new variants of RNNs integrating improvements for sequence labeling, and we compare them to the more traditional Elman and Jordan RNNs. We compare all models, either traditional or new, on four distinct tasks of sequence labeling: two on Spoken Language Understanding (ATIS and MEDIA); and two of POS tagging for the French Treebank (FTB) and the Penn Treebank (PTB) corpora. The...

  11. Recurrent opisthotonus in catatonia: An atypical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha Narayana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Opisthotonus is known to occur in tetanus, rabies, cerebral malaria, neurosyphilis, acute cerebral injury and other medical conditions. Opisthotonus, so far, has not been reported in any major psychiatric disorder. Authors report a case of recurrent opisthotonus presenting concurrently with other catatonic signs which showed dramatic response to combination of lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. Clinicians should consider the possibility of catatonia in the differential diagnosis of opisthotonus since catatonia can be treated easily with benzodiazepines and ECT.

  12. Teflon sponge shunt for recurrent arachnoid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Goel Atul; Shah Abhidha; Pareikh Samir

    2007-01-01

    A 50-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive ataxia. Investigations showed a large intradural arachnoid cyst located anterior to the brainstem. Following marsupialization of the cyst she improved remarkably in her symptoms. The symptoms recurred nine months later and investigations revealed recurrence of the cyst. The cyst was evacuated again and two Teflon sponge sheets were placed such that they traversed the length of the cyst cavity and extended into the cisterna magna. A...

  13. Recurrent oral ulcers--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, A

    2001-01-01

    Recurrent oral ulcers (ROUs) are the most common oral mucosal disease. The etiology of ROUs is complex. The factors include mechanical trauma, genetics, stress, smoking, and viral and bacterial infections. Treatment modalities depend on the differential diagnosis of ROUs and could consist of antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, immunomodulators, or over-the-counter medications. New therapy available in the form of a coating polymer, Colgate ORABASE Soothe.N.Seal, is clinically proven to provide rapid relief and healing of ROUs.

  14. Extended quantification of the generalized recurrence plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Maik; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The generalized recurrence plot is a modern tool for quantification of complex spatial patterns. Its application spans the analysis of trabecular bone structures, Turing structures, turbulent spatial plankton patterns, and fractals. But, it is also successfully applied to the description of spatio-temporal dynamics and the detection of regime shifts, such as in the complex Ginzburg-Landau- equation. The recurrence plot based determinism is a central measure in this framework quantifying the level of regularities in temporal and spatial structures. We extend this measure for the generalized recurrence plot considering additional operations of symmetry than the simple translation. It is tested not only on two-dimensional regular patterns and noise but also on complex spatial patterns reconstructing the parameter space of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. The extended version of the determinism resulted in values which are consistent to the original recurrence plot approach. Furthermore, the proposed method allows a split of the determinism into parts which based on laminar and non-laminar regions of the two-dimensional pattern of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. A comparison of these parts with a standard method of image classification, the co-occurrence matrix approach, shows differences especially in the description of patterns associated with turbulence. In that case, it seems that the extended version of the determinism allows a distinction of phase turbulence and defect turbulence by means of their spatial patterns. This ability of the proposed method promise new insights in other systems with turbulent dynamics coming from climatology, biology, ecology, and social sciences, for example.

  15. A case of recurrent neuroleptic malignant syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Zexiang; Chu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening neurologic complication associated with the use of neuroleptic agents and characterized by a distinctive clinical syndrome of fever, rigidity, autonomic nervous system dysfunction and mental status change. This report discusses the clinical presentation, possible etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of one case of recurrent NMS in a middle-aged woman with schizophrenia. NMS occurred after combined treatment with haloperidol an...

  16. Hypertriglyceridemia and Recurrent Pancreatitis following Splenectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Butman, Michael; Taylor, David; Boström, Kristina; Quinones, Manuel; Nicholas, Susanne B.

    2007-01-01

    Hyperlipoproteinemia represents a constellation of clinical syndromes that frequently includes hypertriglyceridemia. Because of the degree of elevation in the triglyceride levels frequently seen in these syndromes, they are associated with complications not generally observed among those patients with essential hypertriglyceridemia, including as in this case report, recurrent pancreatitis. Here, we present a case of a patient with hyperlipoproteinemia who developed acute worsening of his hype...

  17. Turing Computation with Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Carmantini, Giovanni S; Graben, Peter beim; Desroches, Mathieu; Rodrigues, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    We improve the results by Siegelmann & Sontag (1995) by providing a novel and parsimonious constructive mapping between Turing Machines and Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks, based on recent developments of Nonlinear Dynamical Automata. The architecture of the resulting R-ANNs is simple and elegant, stemming from its transparent relation with the underlying NDAs. These characteristics yield promise for developments in machine learning methods and symbolic computation with continuous time d...

  18. Recurrent selection in inbred popcorn families

    OpenAIRE

    Daros Máskio; Amaral Jr. Antônio Teixeira do; Pereira Messias Gonzaga; Santos Fabrício Santana; Gabriel Ana Paula Cândido; Scapim Carlos Alberto; Freitas Jr. Silvério de Paiva; Silvério Lucas

    2004-01-01

    Although much appreciated in Brazil, commercial popcorn is currently cropped on a fairly small scale. A number of problems need to be solved to increase production, notably the obtaintion of seeds with good agronomic traits and good culinary characteristics. With the objective of developing superior genotypes in popcorn, a second cycle of intrapopulation recurrent selection based on inbred S1 families was carried out. From the first cycle of selection over the UNB-2U population, 222 S1 famili...

  19. Recurrent Spinal Meningioma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hoi Jung; Paeng, Sung Hwa; Kim, Sung Tae; Jung, Yong Tae

    2012-01-01

    Meningiomas are the second most common intradural spinal tumors accounting for 25% of all spinal tumors. Being a slow growing and invariably benign tumor, it responds favorably to surgical excision. In addition, spinal meningioma has low recurrence rates. However, we experienced a case of intradural extramedullary spinal meningioma which recurred 16 years after the initial surgery on a 64-year-old woman. She presented with progressive neurological symptoms and had a surgical history of remova...

  20. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.
 
The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 
at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus 
collisions with a maximum center of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch 
collision rate of 40MHz.  In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw 
the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a 
collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of 
potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level 
trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first 
level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of 
the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large 
farms of standard computers and network devices. 

Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are 
defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the 
test outcome is recor...

  1. Recurrent Fury: Conspiratorial Discourse in the Blogosphere Triggered by Research on the Role of Conspiracist Ideation in Climate Denial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Lewandowsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has implicated conspiracist ideation in the rejection of scientific propositions. Internet blogs in particular have become the staging ground for conspiracy theories that challenge the link between HIV and AIDS, the benefits of vaccinations, or the reality of climate change. A recent study involving visitors to climate blogs found that conspiracist ideation was associated with the rejection of climate science and other scientific propositions such as the link between lung cancer and smoking, and between HIV and AIDS. That article stimulated considerable discursive activity in the climate blogosphere—i.e., the numerous blogs dedicated to climate “skepticism”—that was critical of the study. The blogosphere discourse was ideally suited for analysis because its focus was clearly circumscribed, it had a well-defined onset, and it largely discontinued after several months. We identify and classify the hypotheses that questioned the validity of the paper’s conclusions using well-established criteria for conspiracist ideation. In two behavioral studies involving naive participants we show that those criteria and classifications were reconstructed in a blind test. Our findings extend a growing body of literature that has examined the important, but not always constructive, role of the blogosphere in public and scientific discourse.

  2. Divergent clonal selection dominates medulloblastoma at recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissy, A Sorana; Garzia, Livia; Shih, David J H; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Huang, Xi; Skowron, Patryk; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M G; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Lindsay, Patricia E; Jelveh, Salomeh; Donovan, Laura K; Wang, Xin; Luu, Betty; Zayne, Kory; Li, Yisu; Mayoh, Chelsea; Thiessen, Nina; Mercier, Eloi; Mungall, Karen L; Ma, Yusanne; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Shumansky, Karey; Roth, Andrew J L; Shah, Sohrab; Farooq, Hamza; Kijima, Noriyuki; Holgado, Borja L; Lee, John J Y; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Jessica; Mack, Stephen C; Manno, Alex; Michealraj, K A; Nor, Carolina; Peacock, John; Qin, Lei; Reimand, Juri; Rolider, Adi; Thompson, Yuan Y; Wu, Xiaochong; Pugh, Trevor; Ally, Adrian; Bilenky, Mikhail; Butterfield, Yaron S N; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Young; Chuah, Eric; Corbett, Richard D; Dhalla, Noreen; He, An; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I; Long, William; Mayo, Michael; Plettner, Patrick; Qian, Jenny Q; Schein, Jacqueline E; Tam, Angela; Wong, Tina; Birol, Inanc; Zhao, Yongjun; Faria, Claudia C; Pimentel, José; Nunes, Sofia; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Pollack, Ian F; Hamilton, Ronald L; Li, Xiao-Nan; Bendel, Anne E; Fults, Daniel W; Walter, Andrew W; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Collins, V Peter; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hoffman, Caitlin; Lyden, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Garvin, James H; Stearns, Duncan S; Massimi, Luca; Schüller, Ulrich; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Puget, Stephanie; Ayrault, Olivier; Dunn, Sandra E; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Carlotti, Carlos G; Wheeler, Helen; Hallahan, Andrew R; Ingram, Wendy; MacDonald, Tobey J; Olson, Jeffrey J; Van Meir, Erwin G; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Pietsch, Torsten; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Ra, Young Shin; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C; Clifford, Steven C; Eberhart, Charles G; Cooper, Michael K; Packer, Roger J; Massimino, Maura; Garre, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Dirks, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Weiss, William A; Collier, Lara S; Dupuy, Adam J; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T W; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A; Pfister, Stefan M; Largaespada, David A; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard A; Jabado, Nada; Bader, Gary D; Jones, Steven J M; Malkin, David; Marra, Marco A; Taylor, Michael D

    2016-01-21

    The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon-driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with 'humanized' in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (<5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (<12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy. PMID:26760213

  3. Management of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma afterliver transplant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause ofdeaths in patients with hepatitis B or C, and its incidencehas increased considerably over the past decade and is stillon the rise. Liver transplantation (LT) provides the bestchance of cure for patients with HCC and liver cirrhosis.With the implementation of the MELD exception systemfor patients with HCC waitlisted for LT, the number ofrecipients of LT is increasing, so is the number of patientswho have recurrence of HCC after LT. Treatments forintrahepatic recurrence after transplantation and afterother kinds of surgery are more or less the same, butlong-term cure of posttransplant recurrence is rarelyseen as it is a "systemic" disease. Nonetheless, surgicalresection has been shown to be effective in prolongingpatient survival despite the technical difficulty in resectinggraft livers. Besides surgical resection, different kindsof treatment are also in use, including transarterialchemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, highintensityfocused ultrasound ablation, and stereotacticbody radiation therapy. Targeted therapy and modulationof immunosuppressants are also adopted to treat thedeadly disease.

  4. Divergent clonal selection dominates medulloblastoma at recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissy, A. Sorana; Garzia, Livia; Shih, David J. H.; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Huang, Xi; Skowron, Patryk; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M. G.; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jelveh, Salomeh; Donovan, Laura K.; Wang, Xin; Luu, Betty; Zayne, Kory; Li, Yisu; Mayoh, Chelsea; Thiessen, Nina; Mercier, Eloi; Mungall, Karen L.; Ma, Yusanne; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Shumansky, Karey; Roth, Andrew J. L.; Shah, Sohrab; Farooq, Hamza; Kijima, Noriyuki; Holgado, Borja L.; Lee, John J. Y.; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Jessica; Mack, Stephen C.; Manno, Alex; Michealraj, K. A.; Nor, Carolina; Peacock, John; Qin, Lei; Reimand, Juri; Rolider, Adi; Thompson, Yuan Y.; Wu, Xiaochong; Pugh, Trevor; Ally, Adrian; Bilenky, Mikhail; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Young; Chuah, Eric; Corbett, Richard D.; Dhalla, Noreen; He, An; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Long, William; Mayo, Michael; Plettner, Patrick; Qian, Jenny Q.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Tam, Angela; Wong, Tina; Birol, Inanc; Zhao, Yongjun; Faria, Claudia C.; Pimentel, José; Nunes, Sofia; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Pollack, Ian F.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Li, Xiao-Nan; Bendel, Anne E.; Fults, Daniel W.; Walter, Andrew W.; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Collins, V. Peter; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hoffman, Caitlin; Lyden, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H.; Garvin, James H.; Stearns, Duncan S.; Massimi, Luca; Schüller, Ulrich; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Puget, Stephanie; Ayrault, Olivier; Dunn, Sandra E.; Tirapelli, Daniela P. C.; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Wheeler, Helen; Hallahan, Andrew R.; Ingram, Wendy; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Pietsch, Torsten; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Ra, Young Shin; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Clifford, Steven C.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Cooper, Michael K.; Packer, Roger J.; Massimino, Maura; Garre, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Dirks, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Weiss, William A.; Collier, Lara S.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T. W.; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Largaespada, David A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Jabado, Nada; Bader, Gary D.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Malkin, David; Marra, Marco A.; Taylor, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon–driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with ‘humanized’ in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (<5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (<12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy. PMID:26760213

  5. A prediction model for Clostridium difficile recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis D. LaBarbera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a growing problem in the community and hospital setting. Its incidence has been on the rise over the past two decades, and it is quickly becoming a major concern for the health care system. High rate of recurrence is one of the major hurdles in the successful treatment of C. difficile infection. There have been few studies that have looked at patterns of recurrence. The studies currently available have shown a number of risk factors associated with C. difficile recurrence (CDR; however, there is little consensus on the impact of most of the identified risk factors. Methods: Our study was a retrospective chart review of 198 patients diagnosed with CDI via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR from February 2009 to Jun 2013. In our study, we decided to use a machine learning algorithm called the Random Forest (RF to analyze all of the factors proposed to be associated with CDR. This model is capable of making predictions based on a large number of variables, and has outperformed numerous other models and statistical methods. Results: We came up with a model that was able to accurately predict the CDR with a sensitivity of 83.3%, specificity of 63.1%, and area under curve of 82.6%. Like other similar studies that have used the RF model, we also had very impressive results. Conclusions: We hope that in the future, machine learning algorithms, such as the RF, will see a wider application.

  6. State dependent computation using coupled recurrent networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rutishauser, Ueli

    2008-01-01

    Although conditional branching between possible behavioural states is a hallmark of intelligent behavior, very little is known about the neuronal mechanisms that support this processing. In a step toward solving this problem we demonstrate by theoretical analysis and simulation how networks of richly inter-connected neurons, such as those observed in the superficial layers of the neocortex, can embed reliable robust finite state machines. We show how a multi-stable neuronal network containing a number of states can be created very simply, by coupling two recurrent networks whose synaptic weights have been configured for soft winner-take-all (sWTA) performance. These two sWTAs have simple, homogenous locally recurrent connectivity except for a small fraction of recurrent cross-connections between them, which are used to embed the required states. This coupling between the maps allows the network to continue to express the current state even after the input that elicted that state is withdrawn. In addition, a s...

  7. Correlated observations of three triggered lightning flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Hubert, P.; Barret, L.; Eybert-Berard, A.

    1984-01-01

    Three triggered lightning flashes, initiated during the Thunderstorm Research International Program (1981) at Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, are examined on the basis of three-dimensional return stroke propagation speeds and peak currents. Nonlinear relationships result between return stroke propagation speed and stroke peak current for 56 strokes, and between return stroke propagation speed and dart leader propagation speed for 32 strokes. Calculated linear correlation coefficients include dart leader propagation speed and ensuing return stroke peak current (32 strokes; r = 0.84); and stroke peak current and interstroke interval (69 strokes; r = 0.57). Earlier natural lightning data do not concur with the weak positive correlation between dart leader propagation speed and interstroke interval. Therefore, application of triggered lightning results to natural lightning phenomena must be made with certain caveats. Mean values are included for the three-dimensional return stroke propagation speed and for the three-dimensional dart leader propagation speed.

  8. CMS Level—1 Regional Calorimeter Trigger System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Chumney; S.Dasu; 等

    2001-01-01

    The CMS regional calorimeter trigger system detects signatures of electrons/photons,taus,jets,and missing and total transverse energy in a deadtinmess pipelined architecture .This system receives 7000 calorimeter tregger tower energies on 1.2 Gband digital copper cable serial links and processes them in a low-latency pipelined design using custom-built electronics.At the heart of the system is the Receiver Card which uses the new generation of gigabit ethernet receiver chips on a mezzanine card to convert serial data to parallel data before transmission on a 160 MHz backplane for further processing by cards that sum energies and identify electrons and jets.We describe the algorithms and hardware implementation,and summarize the simulation results that show that this system is capable of handling the rate requirements while triggering on physics signals with high efficiency.

  9. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  10. Machine learning techniques for razor triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Kolosova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    My project was focused on the development of a neural network which can predict if an event passes or not a razor trigger. Using synthetic data containing jets and missing transverse energy we built and trained a razor network by supervised learning. We accomplished a ∼ 91% agreement between the output of the neural network and the target while the other 10% was due to the noise of the neural network. We could apply such networks during the L1 trigger using neuromorhic hardware. Neuromorphic chips are electronic systems that function in a way similar to an actual brain, they are faster than GPUs or CPUs, but they can only be used with spiking neural networks.

  11. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  12. Mechanisms for convection triggering by cold pools

    CERN Document Server

    Torri, Giuseppe; Tian, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cold pools are fundamental ingredients of deep convection. They contribute to organizing the sub-cloud layer and are considered key elements in triggering convective cells. It was long known that this could happen mechanically, through lifting by the cold pools' fronts. More recently, it has been suggested that convection could also be triggered thermodynamically, by accumulation of moisture around the edges of cold pools. A method based on Lagrangian tracking is here proposed to disentangle the signatures of both forcings and quantify their importance in a given environment. Results from a simulation of radiative-convective equilibrium over the ocean show that parcels reach their level of free convection through a combination of both forcings, each being dominant at different stages of the ascent. Mechanical forcing is an important player in lifting parcels from the surface, whereas thermodynamic forcing reduces the inhibition encountered by parcels before they reach their level of free convection.

  13. CNS disease triggering Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Wahbi, Karim

    2014-12-15

    There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS disorders are epilepsy, stroke, infectious or immunological encephalitis/meningitis, migraine, and traumatic brain injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest not only as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, autonomic impairment, systolic dysfunction/heart failure, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension, but also as stress cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo syndrome, TTS). CNS disease triggering TTS includes subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, intracerebral bleeding, migraine, encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, PRES syndrome, or ALS. Usually, TTS is acutely precipitated by stress triggered by various different events. TTS is one of the cardiac abnormalities most frequently induced by CNS disorders. Appropriate management of TTS from CNS disorders is essential to improve the outcome of affected patients. PMID:25213573

  14. Leveraging Pileup as a Zero Bias Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider, each event recorded by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations contains many nearly simultaneous pp collisions occurring at nearly the same time as the primary interaction of interest. These pileup collisions are usually a nuisance, degrading the energy resolution of jets and the missing transverse momentum, as well as affecting other reconstructed physics objects. However, interesting processes can also occur in the pileup interactions, and by construction they are recorded without selection bias since the triggering signal originates from the primary interaction in the event. These zero bias events have a large effective prescale, but can be useful for searches and measurements of processes that are difficult or not possible to record with an online trigger. As one example, we show a significant improvement in the sensitivity to low mass dijet resonances using pileup interactions.

  15. Iatrogenic urological triggers of autonomic dysreflexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, N; Zhou, M; Biering-Sørensen, F;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: This is a systematic review. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the literature on iatrogenic urological triggers of autonomic dysreflexia (AD). SETTING: This study was conducted in an international setting. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted from Pub......Med search using AD/ autonomic hyperreflexia and spinal cord injury (SCI). Studies selected for review involved iatrogenic urological triggers of AD in individuals with SCI, including original articles, previous practice guidelines, case reports and literature reviews. Studies that did not report AD or blood...... pressure (BP) assessments during urological procedures were excluded. RESULTS: Forty studies were included for analysis and categorized into four groups: (1) urodynamics and cystometry; (2) cystoscopy and transurethral litholapaxy; (3) extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL); and (4) other procedures...

  16. Predicting time to prostate cancer recurrence based on joint models for non-linear longitudinal biomarkers and event time outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauler, Donna K; Finkelstein, Dianne M

    2002-12-30

    Biological markers that are both sensitive and specific for tumour regrowth or metastasis are increasingly becoming available and routinely monitored during the regular follow-up of patients treated for cancer. Obtained by a simple blood test, these markers provide an inexpensive non-invasive means for the early detection of recurrence (or progression). Currently, the longitudinal behaviour of the marker is viewed as an indicator of early disease progression, and is applied by a physician in making clinical decisions. One marker that has been studied for use in both population screening for early disease and for detection of recurrence in prostate cancer patients is PSA. The elevation of PSA levels is known to precede clinically detectable recurrence by 2 to 5 years, and current clinical practice often relies partially on multiple recent rises in PSA to trigger a change in treatment. However, the longitudinal trajectory for individual markers is often non-linear; in many cases there is a decline immediately following radiation therapy or surgery, a plateau during remission, followed by an exponential rise following the recurrence of the cancer. The aim of this article is to determine the multiple aspects of the longitudinal PSA biomarker trajectory that can be most sensitive for predicting time to clinical recurrence. Joint Bayesian models for the longitudinal measures and event times are utilized based on non-linear hierarchical models, implied by unknown change-points, for the longitudinal trajectories, and a Cox proportional hazard model for progression times, with functionals of the longitudinal parameters as covariates in the Cox model. Using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling schemes, the joint model is fit to longitudinal PSA measures from 676 patients treated at Massachusetts General Hospital between the years 1988 and 1995 with follow-up to 1999. Based on these data, predictive schemes for detecting cancer recurrence in new patients based on their

  17. Acoustic Manifestations of Natural versus Triggered Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Aulich, G. D.; Trueblood, J.

    2010-12-01

    Positive leaders are rarely detected by VHF lightning detection systems; positive leader channels are usually outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped. The goal of this work is to study the types of thunder produced by natural versus triggered lightning and to assess which types of thunder signals have electromagnetic activity detected by the lightning mapping array (LMA). Towards this end we are investigating the lightning detection capabilities of acoustic techniques, and comparing them with the LMA. In a previous study we used array beam forming and time of flight information to locate acoustic sources associated with lightning. Even though there was some mismatch, generally LMA and acoustic techniques saw the same phenomena. To increase the database of acoustic data from lightning, we deployed a network of three infrasound arrays (30 m aperture) during the summer of 2010 (August 3 to present) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The arrays were located at a range of distances (60 to 1400 m) surrounding the triggering site, called the Kiva, used by Langmuir Laboratory to launch rockets. We have continuous acoustic measurements of lightning data from July 20 to September 18 of 2009, and from August 3 to September 1 of 2010. So far, lightning activity around the Kiva was higher during the summer of 2009. We will present acoustic data from several interesting lightning flashes including a comparison between a natural and a triggered one.

  18. Boredom and Passion: Triggers of Habitual Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle

    To date, habitual entrepreneurship research has mainly focused on comparing novice with habitual business founders and creating typologies. The purpose of this paper is to examine and explain the underlying reasons why habitual entrepreneurs establish new businesses repeatedly and continually....... The case based, the study identifies eight factors, which contribute to consecutive venture creation. The findings suggest that boredom and passion are necessary conditions triggering habitual entrepreneurship. Other important mechanisms included the joy of discovering and exploiting an opportunity...

  19. Light-triggered action potentials in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimierz Trębacz

    2014-01-01

    Special attention is paid in this paper to the criteria of the light-triggered action potential, namely the all-or-none law, propagation, the occurrence of refractory periods. Such action potentials have been recorded in Acetabularia mediterranea, Asplenium trichomanes, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Eremosphaera viridis and Concephalum conicum. In Acetabularia, action potentials are generated after sudden cessation of light stimuli of sufficient intensity. The depolarization phase of the action pot...

  20. Safety Trigger Conditions for Critical Autonomous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mekki-Mokhtar, Amina; Blanquart, Jean-Paul; Guiochet, Jérémie; Powell, David; Roy, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    International audience A systematic process for eliciting safety trigger conditions is presented. Starting from a risk analysis of the monitored system, critical transitions to catastrophic system states are identified and handled in order to specify safety margins on them. The conditions for existence of such safety margins are given and an alternative solution is proposed if no safety margin can be defined. The proposed process is illustrated on a robotic rollator.

  1. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus triggered by radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kolm, I.; Pawlik, E; Eggmann, N.; Kamarachev, J; Kerl, K. (Kornelius); French, L E; Hofbauer, G.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The origin of collagen autoimmune diseases is not fully understood. Some studies postulate a mechanism of molecular mimicry or heterologous immunity following viral infections triggering autoimmunity. Apart from infections, other exogenous factors such as visible light or X-rays have been reported to incite autoimmunity. CASE REPORT: We report a case of histologically and serologically confirmed subacute lupus erythematosus (SCLE) following radiotherapy for breast cancer. DI...

  2. Therapeutic approaches in treating myofascial trigger points

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Toshe; Nikolovska, Lence; Jovevska, Svetlana; Panova, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been described as the most common challenge that general physicians, osteopaths, physical and manual therapists face today. Its’s frequency among the patients admitted to chronic pain practices is about 85 % (Han et al. 1997, Skootsky et al. 1989). MPS is characterized by pain originating from the trigger points (TrPs) at muscles and fascia. It is associated with, muscle spasm, tenderness, restricted motion. Although the exact pathology of this phenomenon is...

  3. Talazoparib and Temozolomide in Treating Younger Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-10

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Childhood Solid Neoplasm; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Refractory Central Nervous System Neoplasm

  4. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Refractory, or Progressive Malignant Glioma or Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    Childhood Cerebellar Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

  5. Run-2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Winklmeier, Frank; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a pp centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV, and ATLAS has taken first data at this new energy. In this talk the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment during the 2-year shutdown 2013/2014 will be discussed, and first detector and trigger performance results from the Run-2 will be shown. In general, reconstruction algorithms of tracks, e/gamma, muons, taus, jets and flavour tag- ging have been improved for Run-2. The new reconstruction algorithms and their performance measured using the data taken in 2015 at sqrt(s)=13 TeV will be discussed. Reconstruction efficiency, isolation performance, transverse momentum resolution and momentum scales are measured in various regions of the detector and in momentum intervals enlarged with respect to those measured in the Run-1. This presentation will also give an overview of the upgrades to the ATLAS trigger system that have been implemented during the LHC shutdown in order to deal with the increased trigger rates (fact...

  6. The ATLAS Level-2 Trigger Pilot Project

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, R; Haberichter, W N; Schlereth, J L; Bock, R; Bogaerts, A; Boosten, M; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Ellis, Nick; Elsing, M; Giacomini, F; Knezo, E; Martin, B; Shears, T G; Tapprogge, Stefan; Werner, P; Hansen, J R; Wäänänen, A; Korcyl, K; Lokier, J; George, S; Green, B; Strong, J; Clarke, P; Cranfield, R; Crone, G J; Sherwood, P; Wheeler, S; Hughes-Jones, R E; Kolya, S; Mercer, D; Hinkelbein, C; Kornmesser, K; Kugel, A; Männer, R; Müller, M; Sessler, M; Simmler, H; Singpiel, H; Abolins, M; Ermoline, Y; González-Pineiro, B; Hauser, R; Pope, B; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Boterenbrood, H; Jansweijer, P; Kieft, G; Scholte, R; Slopsema, R; Vermeulen, J C; Baines, J T M; Belias, A; Botterill, David R; Middleton, R; Wickens, F J; Falciano, S; Bystrický, J; Calvet, D; Gachelin, O; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Levinson, L; González, S; Wiedenmann, W; Zobernig, H

    2002-01-01

    The Level-2 Trigger Pilot Project of ATLAS, one of the two general purpose LHC experiments, is part of the on-going program to develop the ATLAS high-level triggers (HLT). The Level-2 Trigger will receive events at up to 100 kHz, which has to be reduced to a rate suitable for full event-building of the order of 1 kHz. To reduce the data collection bandwidth and processing power required for the challenging Level-2 task it is planned to use Region of Interest guidance (from Level-1) and sequential processing. The Pilot Project included the construction and use of testbeds of up to 48 processing nodes, development of optimized components and computer simulations of a full system. It has shown how the required performance can be achieved, using largely commodity components and operating systems, and validated an architecture for the Level-2 system. This paper describes the principal achievements and conclusions of this project. (28 refs).

  7. The LHCb trigger system: performance and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Stracka, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a spectrometer dedicated to the study of heavy flavor at the LHC. The rate of proton-proton collisions at the LHC is 15 MHz, of which only 5 kHz can be written to storage for offline analysis. The trigger system plays a key role in selecting signal events and rejecting background, and is comprised of a hardware level (L0), reducing the rate to the maxi- mum at which the detector can be fully read out, and a High Level Trigger (HLT) -implemented in software and deployed on a farm of roughly 25000 parallel processing cores- responsible for reducing the rate to the 5 kHz which can be processed offline. The LHCb trigger system allowed LHCb to run at twice its design luminosity in 2012, and performed beyond the nominal design in terms of signal yields. The design and performance of the selection algorithms are discussed in the context of the 2012 data taking, and planned improvements for RunII are presented

  8. ENSO-triggered floods in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    ENSO-triggered floods altered completely the annual discharge of most watersheds of South America. Anomalous years as 1941, 1982-83 and 1997-98 signified enormous discharges of rivers draining toward the Pacific but also to the Atlantic Ocean. These floods affected large cities as Porto Alegre, Blumenau, Curitiba, Asunción, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Maximum discharge months are particular and easily distinguished at those watersheds located at the South American Arid Diagonal. At watersheds conditioned by precipitations delivered from the Atlantic or Pacific anticyclonic centers the ENSO-triggered floods are difficult to discern. The floods of 1941 affected 70,000 inhabitants in Porto Alegre. In 1983, Blumenau city was flooded during several days; and the Paraná River multiplied 15 times the width of its middle floodplain. The Colorado River in Northern Patagonia connected for the last time to the Desaguadero-Chadileuvú-Curacó system and therefore received saline water. ENSO years modify also the water balance of certain piedmont lakes of Southern Patagonia: the increases in snow accumulations cause high water levels with a lag of 13 months. The correlation between the maximum monthly discharges of 1982-83 and 1997-98 at different regions and watersheds indicates they can be forecasted for future floods triggered by same phenomena. South American rivers can be classified therefore into ENSO-affected, and ENSO-dominated, for those within the Arid Diagonal that are exclusively subject to high discharges during these years.

  9. Transdermal anaesthesia for percutaneous trigger finger release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Ignatiadis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of transdermal anaesthesia using eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) in patients undergoing percutaneous trigger finger release and to compare it with lidocaine infiltration. In this prospective, randomised study percutaneous release of the A1 annular pulley was performed to treat stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger syndrome) in 50 patients (50 fingers). The procedure was performed either under transdermal anaesthesia using EMLA applied transcutaneously 120 minutes prior to the operation (Group A, n = 25) or using local infiltration anaesthesia using lidocaine (Group B, n = 25). Pain experienced during administration of anaesthesia and during the operation was assessed using a 10-point Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS), while all patients rated the effectiveness of anaesthesia with a 5-point scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the VAPS during the operation (1.33 +/- 0.52 versus 1.59 +/- 0.87) and the satisfaction scores (4.6 +/- 0.2 versus 4.4 +/- 0.3). The VAPS score during the administration of anaesthesia was statistically significantly less in the EMLA group (0 versus 5.96 +/- 2.41). All patients were satisfied with the final result of the operation. Percutaneous trigger finger release can be performed as an office procedure with the use of EMLA avoiding the use of injectable local infiltration anaesthesia. PMID:17405199

  10. Surgical Treatment of Trigger Finger: Open Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, open A1 pulley release results were evaluated in patients with a trigger finger diagnosis. 45 patients (29 females, 16 males, mean age 50.7 ± 11.9; range (24-79, 45 trigger fingers were released via open surgical technique. On the 25 of 45 cases were involved in the right hand and 16 of them were at the thumb, 2 at index, 6 at the middle and 1 at ring finger. Similarly, at the left hand, 15 of 20 cases were at the thumb, 1 at the index finger, 2 at middle finger and 2 at ring finger. Average follow-up time was 10.2 ± 2.7 (range, 6-15 months. Comorbidities in patients were; diabetes mellitus at 6 cases (13.3%, hypertension at 11 cases (24.4%, hyperthyroidism at 2 cases (4.4%, dyslipidemia at 2 cases (4.4% and lastly 2 cases had carpal tunnel syndrome operation. The mean time between the onset of symptoms to surgery was 6.9 ± 4.8 (range, 2-24 months. Patient satisfaction was very good in 34 cases (75.4% and good in 11 (24.6% patients. The distance between the pulpa of the operated finger and the palm was normal in every case postoperatively. We have not encountered any postoperative complications. We can recommend that; A1 pulley release via open incision is an effective and reliable method in trigger finger surgery.

  11. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  12. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Pazopanib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Signoretto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The multi-targeted kinase inhibitor pazopanib, a drug employed for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies, has previously been shown to trigger apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Mechanisms involved in the triggering of eryptosis include Ca2+ entry, oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored, whether pazopanib induces eryptosis and, if so, whether it is effective by Ca2+ entry, oxidative stress and/or ceramide. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, reactive oxygen species (ROS formation from DCF dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to pazopanib significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding (≥ 25 µg/ml and of shrunken erythrocytes (≥ 50 µg/ml. Pazopanib treatment further resulted in significant hemolysis (≥ 25 µg/ml. The effect of pazopanib on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Pazopanib significantly increased DCF fluorescence (50 µg/ml and ceramide abundance (50 µg/ml. Conclusions: Pazopanib triggers eryptosis, an effect involving Ca2+ entry, oxidative stress and ceramide.

  13. Predicting asthma control: the role of psychological triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Bobb, Carol; Griffiths, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Asthma triggers have been linked to adverse health outcomes in asthma, but little is known about their association with asthma control. Because trigger avoidance is an integral part of successful asthma management, psychological triggers in particular may be associated with suboptimal asthma control, given the difficulty of controlling them. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived asthma triggers with self-report of asthma control impairment, symptoms, and spirometric lung function (forced expiratory volume in the 1st second, [FEV1]) in 179 adult primary care asthma patients. Perceived asthma triggers explained up to 42.5% of the variance in asthma control and symptoms, but not in FEV1 alone. Allergic triggers explained up to 12.1% of the asthma control and symptom variance, three nonallergic trigger types, air pollution/irritants, physical activity, and infection, explained up to 26.2% over and above allergic triggers, and psychological triggers up to 9.5% over and above all other triggers. Psychological triggers alone explained up to 33.9% of the variance and were the only trigger class that was consistently significant in all final multiple regression models predicting control and symptoms. Psychological triggers also predicted lower asthma control 3-6 months later, although controlling for initial asthma control eliminated this association. In free reports of individually relevant triggers, only psychological triggers were associated with suboptimal asthma control. Trigger factors are important predictors of self-reported asthma control and symptoms but not actual lung function. Particular attention should be directed to psychological triggers as indicators of patients' perceptions of suboptimal asthma control.

  14. Aggressive angiomyxoma: irradiation for recurrent disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhomberg, W.; Alton, R.; Kompatscher, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch (Austria). Abt. fuer Radioonkologie; Jasarevic, Z.; Breitfellner, G. [Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch (Austria). Abt. fuer Pathologie; Beer, G. [Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch (Austria). Abt. fuer Plastische Chirurgie

    2000-07-01

    Background: Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a tumor of the soft tissues predominantly occurring in the genital and pelvic area with a strong propensity to local recurrences. The entity was first described in 1983. The tumor is regarded as low-grade sarcoma by some authors; its cause and pathogenesis are presently unknown. Patient and method: This is a case report on a 27-year-old man who underwent 4 surgical procedures of the left lower extremity because of a recurrent soft tissue neoplasm, initially (August 1993) diagnosed as a myxolipoma. The patient suffered from recurrences in February 1995, September 1996 and February 1998. The diagnosis was revised at the time of the latest recurrence. A palliative resection with macroscopic residuals left was performed in February 1998, followed by a radiation therapy with 56 Gy total dose and a concomitant administration of the radiosensitizer razoxane per os. The single radiation doses were 200 cGy 5 times a week. Results: The small residuals of the tumor obviously regressed although an objective response could not be shown because the lesion was not clearly measurable. A follow-up 2 years after the radiation treatment revealed no recurrence. The time of the local control achieved as yet is already longer than any former time to regrowth between the surgical procedures. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of a therapeutic irradiation of a recurrent aggressive angiomyxoma. Conclusion: Radiation therapy combined with the sensitizer razoxane is able to control a recurrent AAM for an unknown time. It remains open whether a radiation treatment alone would have had a similar effect. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Das aggressive Angiomyxom (AAM) ist ein 1983 erstmals beschriebener Weichteiltumor, der vorwiegend in der Becken- und Genitalregion auftritt und eine starke Neigung zur lokalen Rezidivierung hat. Der Tumor wird von einigen Autoren als Low-grade-Sarkom eingestuft, seine Entstehungsursache ist unbekannt

  15. Recurrent Isolated Neonatal Hemolytic Anemia: Think About Glutathione Synthetase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signolet, Isabelle; Chenouard, Rachel; Oca, Florine; Barth, Magalie; Reynier, Pascal; Denis, Marie-Christine; Simard, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Hemolytic anemia (HA) of the newborn should be considered in cases of rapidly developing, severe, or persistent hyperbilirubinemia. Several causes of corpuscular hemolysis have been described, among which red blood cell enzyme defects are of particular concern. We report a rare case of red blood cell enzyme defect in a male infant, who presented during his first months of life with recurrent and isolated neonatal hemolysis. All main causes were ruled out. At 6.5 months of age, the patient presented with gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization; fortuitously, urine organic acid chromatography revealed a large peak of 5-oxoproline. Before the association between HA and 5-oxoprolinuria was noted, glutathione synthetase deficiency was suspected and confirmed by a low glutathione synthetase concentration and a collapse of glutathione synthetase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, molecular diagnosis revealed 2 mutations in the glutathione synthetase gene: a previously reported missense mutation (c.[656A>G]; p.[Asp219Gly]) and a mutation not yet described in the binding site of the enzyme (c.[902T>C]; p.[Leu301Pro]). However, 15 days later, a control sample revealed no signs of 5-oxoprolinuria and the clinical history discovered administration of acetaminophen in the 48 hours before hospitalization. Thus, in this patient, acetaminophen exposure allowed the diagnosis of a mild form of glutathione synthetase deficiency, characterized by isolated HA. Early diagnosis is important because treatment with bicarbonate, vitamins C and E, and elimination of trigger factors are recommended to improve long-term outcomes. Glutathione synthetase deficiency should be screened for in cases of unexplained newborn HA. PMID:27581854

  16. Cholesteatoma in children, predictors and calculation of recurrence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangerup, S E; Drozdziewicz, D; Tos, M

    1999-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term recurrence rate after surgery for acquired cholesteatoma in children, to search for predictors of recurrency and to analyse the impact of the applied statistical method on the outcome of the results. During a 15-year period, 114 children underwent first-time surgery for acquired cholesteatoma. The patients were re-evaluated with a median observation time of 5.8 years, range 1-16 years. Recurrence of cholesteatoma developed in 27 ears. The cumulated total recurrence rate was 24% using standard incidence rate calculation, applying Kaplan-Meier survival analysis the recurrence rate was 33%. Recurrent disease occurred significantly more frequent in children ossicular resorption and with large cholesteatomas. In conclusion, young children with poor Eustachian tube function, large cholesteatoma and erosion of the ossicular chain, are at special risk of recurrence and should be observed several years after surgery. PMID:10577779

  17. Optimal estimation of recurrence structures from time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    beim Graben, Peter; Sellers, Kristin K.; Fröhlich, Flavio; Hutt, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Recurrent temporal dynamics is a phenomenon observed frequently in high-dimensional complex systems and its detection is a challenging task. Recurrence quantification analysis utilizing recurrence plots may extract such dynamics, however it still encounters an unsolved pertinent problem: the optimal selection of distance thresholds for estimating the recurrence structure of dynamical systems. The present work proposes a stochastic Markov model for the recurrent dynamics that allows for the analytical derivation of a criterion for the optimal distance threshold. The goodness of fit is assessed by a utility function which assumes a local maximum for that threshold reflecting the optimal estimate of the system's recurrence structure. We validate our approach by means of the nonlinear Lorenz system and its linearized stochastic surrogates. The final application to neurophysiological time series obtained from anesthetized animals illustrates the method and reveals novel dynamic features of the underlying system. We propose the number of optimal recurrence domains as a statistic for classifying an animals' state of consciousness.

  18. Unidentified angular recurrent ulceration responsive to antiviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Amtha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent ulcer on angular area is usually called stomatitis angularis. It is caused by many factors such as vertical dimension reduce, vitamin B12, and immune system deficiency, C. albicans and staphylococcus involvement. Clinically is characterized by painful fissure with erythematous base without fever. Purpose: to describe an unidentified angular ulcer proceeded by recurrent ulcers with no response of topical therapy. Case: An 18-years old male came to Oral Medicine clinic in RSCM who complained of angular recurrent ulcers since 3 years ago which developed on skin and bleed easily on mouth opening. Patient had fever before the onset of ulcers. Large, painful, irregular ulcers covered by red crustae on angular area bilaterally. Patient has been treated with various drugs without improvement and lead to mouth opening limitation. Intra oral shows herpetiformtype of ulcer and swollen of gingival. Case management: Provisional diagnosis was established as viral infection thus acyclovir 200 mg five times daily for two weeks and topical anti inflammation gel were administered. Blood test for IgG/IgM of HSV1 and HSV2 were non reactive, however ulceration showed a remarkable improvement. The ulcers healed completely after next 2 weeks with acyclovir. Conclusion: The angular ulceration on above patient failed to fulfill the criteria of stomatitis angularis or herpes labialis lesion. However it showed a good response to antiviral. Therefore, unidentified angular ulceration was appointed, as the lesion might be triggered by other type of human herpes virus or types of virus that response to acyclovir.Latar belakang: ulser rekuren pada sudut mulut biasanya disebut stomatitis angularis. Kelainan ini disebabkan oleh banyak faktor seperti berkurangnya dimensi vertikal, defisiensi vitamin B12 dan sistem kekebalan tubuh, infeksi C. albicans serta staphylococcus. Secara klinis kelainan ini ditandai dengan fisur sakit pada sudut mulut dengan dasar

  19. Recurrent explosive eruptions and the sigmoid-to-arcade transformation in the sun driven by dynamical magnetic flux emergence

    CERN Document Server

    Archontis, V; Tsinganos, K

    2014-01-01

    We report on three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of recurrent mini CME-like eruptions in a small active region (AR), which is formed by the dynamical emergence of a twisted (not kink unstable) flux tube from the solar interior. The eruptions are developed as a result of repeated formation and expulsion of new flux ropes due to continous emergence and reconnection of sheared fieldlines along the polarity inversion line (PIL) of the AR. The acceleration of the eruptions is triggered by tether-cutting reconnection at the current sheet underneath the erupting field. We find that each explosive eruption is followed by reformation of a sigmoidal structure and a subsequent sigmoid-to-flare arcade transformation in the AR. These results might have implications for recurrent CMEs and eruptive sigmoids/flares observations and theoretical studies.

  20. Characterization of consistent triggers of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne Werner; Kirchmann, Malene; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA).......The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA)....