WorldWideScience

Sample records for belarus

  1. Belarus,A Rising Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen; Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Republic of Belarus is situated in the heart of Europe,in the East the Republic borders the Russian Federation,in the South the Ukraine,in the Wst Poland,and in the North Lithuania and Latvia.Belarus is the gateway between Asia and Europe,bearing strategic importance.In recent years,Belarus has experienced rapid economic growth.

  2. More from Belarus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On January 20th,2008,the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Belarus celebrated the 16th anniversary of the establishment of their foreign diplomatic relationship.China was one of the first countries who recognized Belarus' independence,after which the development of Sino-Belarusian relations has enjoyed precedence in both countries' diplomatic strategic policies.From January 1995 to now,frequent top level visits have promoted cooperation,and more than 50 cooperative agreements have been reached covering all aspects of life.

  3. WIN Belarus report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vastchenko, Svetlana [Institute of Power and Nuclear Research, Sosny (Belarus)

    2008-07-01

    No reactors in operation (1962 first research reactor started and in 1998 decommissioned). Research reactors or institutes: 2 critical zero power assemblies in Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Researcher - Sosny /National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (JIPNR). Other applications of nuclear technology: Production of isotopes, Facility for gamma-irradiation of different products, Neutron generator for different purposes, Electron accelerators for investigations and technology. Planned reactors: NPP construction is planned in 2018 (two reactors). Current energy policy in few sentences: Belarus has only 12-15% own energy resources. The most power is generated on the thermal power plant using natural gas from Russia. Research and development on using wood, wind, sun, hydrogen. The NPP construction is planned in 2018. Some trend in opinion of general public: Studying of public opinion in Belarus has shown that one of the results of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences is inseparability of nuclear and radiation danger in public consciousness. Our people are exclusively frightened with radiation from NPPs, but the rest sources of radiation effect do not cause so anxiety and apprehension. Answers on questions connected with power have shown a very poor erudition of population about ecological advantages and drawbacks inherent in thermal and nuclear power plants. The majority of the respondents (about 80%) does not know about the absence of CO{sub 2} discharge and oxygen preservation in the atmosphere, what is probably one of the reasons of negative attitude to NPP (1/3 responses). Positive attitude to NPP is 1/3 responses too. One of the reason of public distrust to nuclear power is the absence of knowledge about the conditions for radioactive waste storage and therefore the population is inclined to exaggerate the radiation danger of waste for the environment. The political opposition opposes the NPP construction. They suggest the sun and wind energy. Members in

  4. Teleteaching in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevast'Yanenko, Victor G.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the first efforts at teleteaching in Belarus at the Belorussian Polytechnic Academy that will be used for secondary and higher education. Topics discussed include convincing the government of the importance of distance education programs offered to national development, economic constraints, and Internet electronic mail goals. (LRW)

  5. Belarus : Transport Sector Policy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The transport sector is an important economic sector in Belarus, contributing 6.7 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2008 and 6.6 percent in 2009. Belarus has been a net exporter of practically all modes of transport services. The country serves as a transit transport corridor between the European Union (EU) and Russia and potentially between the EU and Asia; thus, the strategic ge...

  6. Belarus: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Erica; Malakhova, Irina; Novik, Irina; Famenka, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Belarusian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2008. Despite considerable change since independence, Belarus retains a commitment to the principle of universal access to health care, provided free at the point of use through predominantly state-owned facilities, organized hierarchically on a territorial basis. Incremental change, rather than radical reform, has also been the hallmark of health-care policy, although capitation funding has been introduced in some areas and there have been consistent efforts to strengthen the role of primary care. Issues of high costs in the hospital sector and of weaknesses in public health demonstrate the necessity of moving forward with the reform programme. The focus for future reform is on strengthening preventive services and improving the quality and efficiency of specialist services. The key challenges in achieving this involve reducing excess hospital capacity, strengthening health-care management, use of evidence-based treatment and diagnostic procedures, and the development of more efficient financing mechanisms. Involving all stakeholders in the development of further reform planning and achieving consensus among them will be key to its success. PMID:24334702

  7. Belarus: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Erica; Malakhova, Irina; Novik, Irina; Famenka, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Belarusian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2008. Despite considerable change since independence, Belarus retains a commitment to the principle of universal access to health care, provided free at the point of use through predominantly state-owned facilities, organized hierarchically on a territorial basis. Incremental change, rather than radical reform, has also been the hallmark of health-care policy, although capitation funding has been introduced in some areas and there have been consistent efforts to strengthen the role of primary care. Issues of high costs in the hospital sector and of weaknesses in public health demonstrate the necessity of moving forward with the reform programme. The focus for future reform is on strengthening preventive services and improving the quality and efficiency of specialist services. The key challenges in achieving this involve reducing excess hospital capacity, strengthening health-care management, use of evidence-based treatment and diagnostic procedures, and the development of more efficient financing mechanisms. Involving all stakeholders in the development of further reform planning and achieving consensus among them will be key to its success.

  8. A Common Currency for Belarus and Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Vassili Prokopenko; Etibar Jafarov; Anne Marie Gulde

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses costs, benefits, and implementation challenges of a possible currency union between Belarus and Russia. It shows that Belarus and Russia are economically closely linked but nevertheless do not fulfill all "optimal currency area" criteria, especially the macroeconomic symmetry condition. Furthermore, we argue that the different speeds of economic liberalization over the past decade have resulted in different economic structures, with Belarus still dependent on monetary fin...

  9. Republic of Belarus; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the causes of the high inflation in Belarus. It estimates the contribution of two factors: (1) exchange rate pass-through and (2) administrative price increases. Residual inflation is used as a gauge for inflation caused directly by demand pressures and inflation expectations. It is found that the administrative price increases are a key driver of inflation, even ahead of demand pressures, which also explain a large share of inflation. Although exchange rat...

  10. 76 FR 5482 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    .... 2461 note); Pub. L. 110-96, 121 Stat. 1011 (50 U.S.C. 1705 note); E.O. 13405, 71 FR 35485; 3 CFR, 2007... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 548 Belarus Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign... Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the Belarus Sanctions Regulations in the Code of...

  11. Fiscal Projections for Pension System of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This note attempts to describe the pension system in Belarus including its fiscal performance, redistributive aspects benefit levels and benefit eligibility conditions. The note also discusses the challenging demographic environment which Belarus pension system is expected to face in the future and explores alternative paths that the system could take in this environment. Some reform scena...

  12. Summertime Thunderstorms Prediction in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapo, Palina; Sokolovskaya, Yaroslava; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    Mesoscale modeling with the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) system makes it possible to predict thunderstorm formation events by direct numerical simulation. In the present study, we analyze the feasibility and quality of thunderstorm prediction on the territory of Belarus for the summer period of 2014 based on analysis of several characteristic parameters in WRF modeling results that can serve as indicators of thunderstorms formation. These parameters include vertical velocity distribution, convective available potential energy (CAPE), K-index, SWEAT-index, Thompson index, lifted condensation level (LCL), and others, all of them being indicators of favorable atmospheric conditions for thunderstorms development. We perform mesoscale simulations of several cases of thunderstorm development in Belarus with WRF-ARW modeling system using 3 km grid spacing, WSM6 microphysics parameterization and explicit convection (no convective parameterization). Typical modeling duration makes 48 hours, which is equivalent to next-day thunderstorm prediction in operational use. We focus our attention to most prominent cases of intense thunderstorms in Minsk. For validation purposes, we use radar and satellite data in addition to surface observations. In summertime, the territory of Belarus is quite often under the influence of atmospheric fronts and stationary anticyclones. In this study, we subdivide thunderstorm cases under consideration into 2 categories: thunderstorms related to free convection and those related to forced convection processes. Our aim is to study the differences in thunderstorm indicator parameters between these two categories of thunderstorms in order to elaborate a set of parameters that can be used for operational thunderstorm forecasting. For that purpose, we analyze characteristic features of thunderstorms development on cold atmospheric fronts as well as thunderstorms formation in stable air masses. Modeling results demonstrate good predictive skill

  13. Belarus activity in ADS field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • The YALINA facility is a unique installation which was designed as a zero power model of real ADS. • It is intended to study neutronics and kinetics of the sub-critical reactors driven by external neutron sources. • The successful operation of this facility is a scientific contribution from the Republic of Belarus, as well as the international team from EC and USA. • The experimental data are used to benchmark and validate methods and computer codes for designing and licensing ADS

  14. Belarus Country Opinion Survey Report (July 2013 - June 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey for FY2013 in Belarus assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Belarus perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Belarus on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Belarus; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Belarus; 3) overall impressions of the W...

  15. Belarus, A Chinese Fort in Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ "In recent years,we've found increasing interest from Chinese investors in the Belarus economy.Please let China know,Belarus is always ready to be a true friend to China.We have built a fort in Europe for China,"the President of Belarus,Alexander Lukashenko told Zhou Xiaochuan,President of the Bank of China,during his visit to the capital of Minsk,on January 8th,he expressed his high praise and firm confidence in the development of Sino-Belarusian relations.

  16. Die Parlamentswahlen und das Referendum in Belarus'

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Alexander

    1995-01-01

    Von allen europäischen Staaten sind in Belarus das Streben nach Selbständigkeit und die nationale Volksidentität am wenigsten ausgeprägt. Die früher 'sowjetischste' aller Sowjetrepubliken befindet sich in einer tiefen Identitätskrise. Im Unterschied zu Rußland und der Ukraine hat Belarus keine Antikommunismus- und Souveränitätswelle erlebt. Der Transformationsprozeß hat in der Republik noch nicht begonnen. Die Dominanz Rußlands, seiner Kultur, Sprache und Wirtschaft ist in Belarus allgegenwär...

  17. Belarus and China: from Trade to Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Trade cooperation between Belarus and China: does distance matter? The diplomatic relations between Belarus and China have been developing stably and successfully ever since the moment of their establishing (January 1992).The leaders of the two states have always treated these relations with great attention,responsibility,and care.The relationship has been boosted as a result of the visit of President of the Republic of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko to China in December 2005,during which Alexander Lukashenko and President of China Hu Jintao signed a joint declaration.In that document,the sides pledged they would do their utmost to boost mutual trade and work out new cooperation models.It was during that top-level meeting that President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko first voiced the trade goal which was to reach,by 2010,the trade turnover to the tune of 2 billion USD.

  18. Social mood in Belarus: Hope dies first

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Vardamatski

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of the social mood in Belarus over the past four years suggests that after the shock in 2011, Belarusians generally lowered their social expectations and partly reconciled with the upcoming hardships.

  19. Visits from Croatia and Belarus

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 23 September, CERN was visited by two Ministers, Anatoly Rusetsky, Chairman of the Committee on Science and Technology of the Republic of Belarus, and Professor Gvozden Flego, Croatian Minister of Science and Technology. Mr Rusetsky met with Roger Cashmore, Research Director for Collider Programmes, and Michel Della Negra, spokesperson of the CMS experiment, and visited the CMS detector assembly hall. Professor Flego also met Mr Cashmore and visited the NA49 and CAST experiments, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, the ALICE experiment cavern, and the assembly hall for the CMS experiment. From left to right: Nikola Godinovic, working at CMS, Jürgen Schukraft, ALICE spokesperson, Gordan Markotic, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations and other international organisations in Geneva, Professor Gvozden Flego, Minister of Science and Technology, Republic of Croatia.

  20. Competitiveness of Belarus in world markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rybalka, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis introduces the new approach to the measurement of Belarus'competitiveness. The topicality of this research is connected with absence of Belarus in the studies of the World Economic Forum and Institute for the Management Development. The author established the following goals while running the research: to analyze the existing concepts of national competitiveness, to define the essential factors of competitiveness, to examine such tool for measurement of national competitive...

  1. Belarus Attaches Great Importance to Trade Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ Belarus is an important trade partner of China.In January, a Belarus trade delegation, headed by Uldimir N. Bobrov, President of the Belarus Chamber of Commerce, visited China, and signed a series of agreements for economic and trade cooperation with CCPIT. When interviewed by China's Foreign Trade, he stressed that Belarus was ready to strengthen its commitment to comprehensive cooperation with China in many spheres.

  2. Renewable energy in Belarus: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from Potassium Chloride and peat, Belarus lacks significant mineral and fuel resources including natural gas, oil and coal. At the same time it has significantly energy intensive economy. Development of renewable energy resources opens up for a double solution, improving of energy independence and reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Currently, only about 6% of electricity produced in Belarus comes from renewable energy sources. It is planning to increase this quantity up to 9% by 2035. The following first pilot projects has been already put into practice: hydro 17 MW, wind 1.5 MW and biogas 0.5 MW. In the framework of the Belarus -EU international technical assistance project “Green Economy in Belarus” it is planning to construct wind power plant near Novogrudok and about 20 smaller green projects. Key words: renewable, potential, pilot projects, regulations, technical assistance

  3. Rotavirus genotypes in Belarus, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeiko, Galina V; Yermalovich, Marina A; Poliakova, Nadezhda; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Kerin, Tara K; Wasley, Annemarie; Videbaek, Dovile; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D; Samoilovich, Elena O

    2014-12-01

    This study describes group A rotavirus (RVA) genotype prevalence in Belarus from 2008 to 2012. In 2008, data from 3 sites in Belarus (Brest, Mogilev, Minsk) indicated that G4P[8] was the predominant genotype. Data from Minsk (2008-2012) showed that G4P[8] was the predominant RVA genotype in all years except in 2011 when G3P[8] was most frequently detected. Other RVA genotypes common in Europe (G1P[8], G2P[4]) were detected each year of the study. This study reveals the dominance of genotype G4P[8] in Belarus and helps to establish the baseline genotype prevalence prior to RVA vaccine introduction in the country.

  4. Internationalizing Teacher Education: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovtsova, Alena; Krasnova, Tatiana; Torhova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the unique characteristics of internationalization in teacher education in the Republic of Belarus, by asking how the creation of a national system of teacher education after the USSR's disintegration has both enhanced and hindered internationalization. The question is answered by providing an overview of the specific…

  5. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  6. Belarus: Ready for More Advanced Trade Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Li Yinghong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Belarus was one of the 15 member countries of the former Soviet Union. It has achieved independence since 1991. Belarus is situated in the center of Europe and the main drag of the Europe-Asia Continental Bridge. It takes the leading position in many economic indicators in the CIS.

  7. BELARUS: AN UNLIKELY BENEFICIARY OF CRISIS IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Ioffe Grigory

    2015-01-01

    The author considers the crisis in Ukraine from geopolitical angle while concentrating on the role of Belarus in it. He comes to conclusion that Belarus`s ability to benefit from the crisis nearby while simultaneously working to bring this crisis to an end deserves greater scrutiny and international recognition.

  8. Review of State-Owned Banks in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This note reviews state-owned banks in Belarus and offers recommendations on how to strengthen them. It covers the Belarusbank, Belagroprombank, Belinvestbank, and Paritetbank (the public banks), and the recently established Development Bank of Belarus (DBB). Recommendations focus on corporate governance, funding, ownership function, mandate, lending models, and regulation and supervision....

  9. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another. PMID:27191056

  10. [Helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of original long-term investigation (1980-2006) and literary data on the helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus is carried out. Seven species of reptiles were examined on Southern Belarus, 32 species of helminthes were found with total infestation 72.7%. It is established that the helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus includes 33 species (18 trematodes, two cestodes, 12 nematodes, and one acanthocephalan). The largest number of helminth species (26) was recorded in the common water snake Natrix natrix, and the least number of species (four) was recorded in the turtle Emys orbicularis and snake Coronella austriaca.

  11. Women in science: Current advances and challenges in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-01

    Women constitute 49% of all natural scientists in Belarus. However, fewer than 18% of Belarusian natural scientists who hold a doctor of science degree are women. The proportion of women decreases with increasing rank at universities and institutes in Belarus. Gender imbalance at the level of full professor is striking at just 17.5% women, and illuminates the vertical segregation of women in the natural sciences. This report reviews the positions of women in science in Belarus to draw out current advances and challenges encountered by female scientists in the former socialist country. New statistical data are broken down by gender and aimed at advancing the general agenda for women in science.

  12. DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BELARUS: STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND QUALITY STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Kovalev; I. Kovalev

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a brief analysis of the procedures and requirements for the quality and the production of milk in Belarus from the Soviet Union, and to this day, consider some areas of the dairy industry in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015, to look at issues and characteristics of milk production in the country. The article raised some important task of unification of Russian and Belarusian industry regulations and standards.

  13. ON INCREASING ENERGY SECURITY OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is provided by the minimum required ratio of domestic and imported energy resources. Therefore, in the energy sector energy efficiency should be increased through the use of its own energy resources. Over the last hundred years of development of geological science a preferential distribution of oil and gas fields to areas (blocks of geological faults, many of which reach the surface of the foundation of our planet, has been determined. The complex process of oil and gas formation is predetermined by geological, geochemical, hydrogeological and other factors. The concepts of organic and inorganic origin of oil and gas are also relevant in the context under consideration. The formation of sufficient oil and gas fields is possible in the presence of highly porous and fractured rocks (for oil or so-called gas traps. Promising for the discovery of sufficient oil and gas fields are the central and southern areas of the Pripyat trough and the areas on the borders Mikashevichsi-Zhitkovichi ledge. The geological conditions of the areas in the Southern part of the Podlaska-Brest and the North-Eastern part of the Orsha troughs require most thorough investigations. In the area of the Belarusian anteclise, especially near the Baltic syneclise, at great depths in porous rocks the presence of oil and gas deposits of inorganic origin is possible. The use of plasma-pulse impact (that is a very effective one on the oil and gas underground reservoirs requires a study of the feasibility of their use in new and existing waste deposits. In the exploration of minerals such “exotic” methods, as the assessment of the discharge of helium, radon, radioactive analysis, etc. should also be applied. It is necessary to detect a possible fault zones and prospective search of hydrocarbon energy resources. To ensure energy security of Belarus, the evaluation of the possibility of using associated gas to supply with it a significant part of the country should

  14. Thyroid cancer in Belarus: the epidemiological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting in 1990, an increasing number of children were diagnosed as suffering from thyroid cancer in regions close to the Chernobyl nuclear accident site, and this increase is continuing. But still today, doubts about the significance of this increase are being voiced. Using data from the Belarus epidemiological cancer registration system up to 1994, the geographic distribution, time and cohort trends, age distribution and other characteristics of this epidemic are reviewed. Results show that the geographic distribution is similar to that of iodine-131 following the accident; that when looking at cohorts of children born in the same years incidence has steadily increased since 1990; and that deviations from this pattern might be explained by active case finding.The most likely interpretation of these results is that of a causal association with radiation exposure related to the Chernobyl accident, but possible modifying factors should be examined closely. The most likely future course of the epidemic is an increasing number of cases among those exposed in childhood, and public health measures should take this into account

  15. The Sociological Dimension of the System of Art Education in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhodov, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    Art education in Belarus is based on two fundamental state documents, the "Law on Education in the Republic of Belarus" and the "Law on Culture in the Republic of Belarus," which spell out the prospects of the development of art education in a unity of goals, tasks, and paths of implementation. The system of art education in the Republic includes…

  16. BRCA1 founder mutations compared to ovarian cancer in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanevich, Alena; Oszurek, Oleg; Lubiński, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Narod, Steven A; Gronwald, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    In Belarus and other Slavic countries, founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer cases, but the data on contribution of these mutations to ovarian cancers are limited. To estimate the proportion of ovarian cancers in Belarus, which are dependent on BRCA1 Slavic founder mutations, we sought the presence of three most frequent mutations (BRCA1: 5382insC, C61G and, 4153delA) in 158 consecutive unselected cases of ovarian cancer. One of the three founder mutations was present in 25 of 158 unselected cases of ovarian cancer (15.8 %). We recommend that all cases of ovarian cancer in Belarus be offered genetic testing for these founder mutations. Furthermore, genetic testing of the Belarusian population will provide the opportunity to prevent a significant proportion of ovarian cancer.

  17. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  18. Trade policy of Belarus in the CIS region: specific model or country specific trade policy for a small open economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Mazol

    2012-01-01

    The working paper critically examines trade policy of Belarus in 2006-2010 in the context of national, regional and international trends of economic activity. The paper analyses basic features of import substitution industrialization relevant for Belarus. There are summarized basic trends of Belarus’ trade, the level of country and commodity diversification of Belarus’ export and import, and the main risks and opportunities for the trade policy of Belarus. The analysis covers period of 20...

  19. A Visit to Kindergarten No. 490 in Minsk, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Linda A.

    Although opportunities for sharing information about early childhood education increased with the disbanding of the Soviet Union in 1991, knowledge about how young children are cared for and educated in countries of the former Soviet Union remains limited. This report presents observations of a kindergarten class in Minsk, Belarus conducted…

  20. Reforming Undergraduate Instruction in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovzik, Alexander; Watts, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Deals with the restructuring of undergraduate economics instruction at Russia's Moscow State University (MSU) since 1989. Examines how changes at MSU are reflected at Belarus State University and at Kiev State University. Considers issues such as training of faculty members, and the use of translated Western textbooks. (RLH)

  1. Hypertension management in primary care in Belarus and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.G.; Rusovich, V.; Egorov, K.N.; Podpalov, V.P.; Boerma, W.G.W.

    2005-01-01

    Both in Belarus and in the Netherlands, guidelines on the management of hypertension in primary care have been developed, including recommendations about detection, treatment and follow-up. These guidelines are meant to harmonize actual practice management of hypertension of improve the quality of c

  2. Language Management and Language Problems in Belarus: Education and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Markus; Sloboda, Marian

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Belarus, the most russified of the post-Soviet countries. It summarizes language policy and legislation, and deals in more detail with language management and selected language problems in Belarusian education. It also contributes to the work on language planning by applying…

  3. The model of statistical forecast of storm wind and heavy rainfalls at the territory of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Perekhodtseva, E.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the development of automated forecast methods of storm wind at the territory of the Republic of Belarus based on the hydrodynamic-statistical model are submitted at this paper. The international collaboration between Hydrometcenter of Russia- and Hydrometcenter of the Republic of Belarus began ten years ago. Now the forecasts of storm wind with the earliness 12-24-36-48h send by the help of operative technology to Hydrometcenter of Belarus two times a day from Hydrometcenter of...

  4. Comparing development sustainability in Belarus, Poland and Ukraine with special respect to rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Manteuffel Szoege, Henryk

    2007-01-01

    A comparison of environmental sustainability in Belarus, Poland and Ukraine using the Environmental Sustainability Index calculated by the Centre for Environmental Law and Policy of Yale University shows a significant advantage of Belarus over Poland and Ukraine while a slight advantage of Poland over Ukraine. Belarus with ESI score of 52.8 points ranked 47, Ukraine with 44.7 points ranked 108 while Poland with 45.0 points ranked 102 among the 146 classified countries of the world. The state ...

  5. Detection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA in mosquitoes from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Șuleșco, Tatiana; Volkova, Tatiana; Yashkova, Svetlana; Tomazatos, Alexandru; von Thien, Heidrun; Lühken, Renke; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-09-01

    During the last two decades, Belarus faces an increase of human cases of Dirofilaria (Nematoda, Spirurida, Onchocercidae) infections. However, comprehensive analyses explaining this development and the identification of mosquito vector species are missing. Here, we present results using temperature data from Belarus and show that the annual number of human Dirofilaria cases is significantly correlated with the yearly average temperatures (Spearman's rho = 0.49, p Belarus, suggesting a high probability of autochthonous Dirofilaria transmission in the country.

  6. The pathology of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied data on the sex and age distribution of 293 cases of thyroid carcinoma in children operated in Belarus between January 1990 and December 1994. We have also reviewed the histology of 134 cases and performed immunocytochemistry for calcitonin, thyroglobulin, ret, met and p53 and in situ hybridisation for thyroglobulin and calcitonin on a sample of these cases. We have compared the data derived from this series with those obtained from a similar series of 122 cases operated in Kiev, Ukraine over the same time period and those from 154 cases operated in England and Wales over a 30 year period. There was agreement on the diagnosis of malignancy in 132 of the 134 Belarussian cases (98%). In 2 of the cases there was no evidence of malignancy in the material seen in Cambridge, but not all the original pathological material was available for review. In 7 cases there was evidence of malignancy, but inadequate material to determine the subtype of malignancy. The papillary carcinomas were classified as of the classic type when they showed a papillary architecture and the nuclear features typical of adult papillary carcinoma, or of the solid follicular type as described in the series studied in England and Wales (1). Four were papillary micro carcinomas. The age and sex distribution of all cases from Belarus showed a markedly different pattern from that observed in England and Wales. In Belarus the peak was at age 9, while the England and Wales series showed a smooth rise in incidence with increasing age. Virtually all the cases from Belarus were papillary carcinoma (99%) compared with only 68% in England and Wales. In addition, there was a higher proportion of papillary carcinomas of the solid/follicular type (72% in Belarus, 35% in England and Wales). The frequency of this subtype did not change significantly with age in Belarus, whereas there was a relative decrease from 62% in the 0-9 year age group to 23% in the 10-14 year age group in England and Wales

  7. Institutional aspects of development of forestry complex in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashtelyan Taisiya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The author grounds the necessity of institutional transformation of the forestry complex. The factors for the development of the market of wood raw material are analyzed, the place and the role of state practice for its regulation are indicated. The author describes the role of root prices as factors of socio-economic development of forestry of Belarus. Auspicious conditions for innovative development of the forestry complex are suggested.

  8. POST-ELECTION SEASON IN BELARUS: ECONOMY DETERMINES POLITICS

    OpenAIRE

    Mezhevich Nikolay Maratovich

    2015-01-01

    The author examines the development of Belarus after the presidential elections of October 2015. He argues that the Belarusian economic model, as currently exists, can only survive if Russia continues to offer support. Given the country’s historical and cultural background, in the medium term, the demand for reform can be satisfied based on a scenario alternative to the catastrophic one adopted by Belarus’s southern neighbor.

  9. Measuring language attitudes. The case of Trasianka in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sender, Natallia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Belarus there are currently two languages being predominantly used: Russian and Belarusian. Besides dialects and other varieties there is to be found a variety called Trasianka, which is widespread throughout the country. Trasianka can be considered as a variety built of elements from other varieties in Belarus, but mainly from Russian and Belarusian. Originally the term Trasianka stems from agriculture describing a 'mixed fodder of poor quality'. Language attitudes towards this variety have hardly been examined thus far. In a recent study based on the matched-guise technique, 227 Belarusian adolescents listened to and evaluated a female speaker reading the same text in Russian, Belarusian and Trasianka. When the speaker used Trasianka, she was given low ratings by test participants in matters of socio-structural issues such as profession and education. Regarding competence, the test participants assumed that the Trasianka speaker was less qualified, as shown by answers to a question on competencies in foreign languages. Finally, the test participants were more reluctant to accept the Trasianka speaker as a neighbor. With this responsiveness, they performed a bigger social distance. By these findings, there is ample reason to conclude that there are negative attitudes existing amongst today's population in Belarus regarding speakers of Trasianka.

  10. Norovirus infection in Belarus: occurrence and molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paklonskayal, Natallia Uladzimirauna; Amvrosieva, Tamara Vasil'evna; Dziadziulia, Kanstantsin Leanidavich; Baranouskaya, Natallia Mikalaeuna; Kishkurno, Elena Petrovna; Kluiko, Nina Leonidovna

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze molecular epidemiologic surveillance for norovirus infection in Belarus over the past five years (2009-2013). Laboratory diagnostics was carried out by RT-PCR in 684 patients. Two regions of norovirus genome, localized in RNA-polymerase and capsid protein genes, were used for phylogenetic analysis. Noroviruses were predominant causative agents in adults and second only to rotaviruses in children, they also prevailed among aetiological agents of outbreaks (66.7% of outbreaks). In 2009-2013, the major norovirus genotype was GII.4 (58.3% of all genotyped isolates). Genovariant GII.4 2006b circulated in 2009 and 2010, genovariant GII.4 2009 New Orleans - in 2010 and 2012. In addition to GII.4, genotypes GII.6 (16.6%), GII.2 (4.1%), GII.3 (2.2%), and recombinant genotypes GII.g-GII.12 and GII.g-GII.1 (10.4% and 8.3%, respectively) circulated in Belarus. The findings indicate a significant contribution of noroviruses in development of sporadic morbidity and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in Belarus. Outbreaks or prominent increases of sporadic morbidity were mostly due to the emergence of a new genotype, or an epidemic genovariant.

  11. Communication of 3 December 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of a press release received by the Secretariat on 4 December 1996 from the Permanent Mission of Belarus about the withdrawal of the last inter-continental ballistic missile from Belarus

  12. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination Under Section 402 (c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974-Republic of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974-Republic of Belarus Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents...) of the Trade Act of 1974—Republic of Belarus Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to... with respect to Belarus will substantially promote the objectives of section 402. You are...

  13. Transforming Educational and Business Practices in Belarus: Collaborative Learning at a Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Gaytha A.; Litoff, Judy Barrett; Ilacqua, Joseph A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bryant College Collaborative Learning at a Distance (CLD) program in Belarus. Program components include Web-based courses, international virtual roundtable discussions via e-mail, seminars on business skills and Web design, Internet protocol video conferencing between the United States and Belarus, a faculty exchange and training…

  14. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine AGENCY: United...

  15. Some legal issues of the transplantation in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Шецко, А.

    2011-01-01

    The principal normative legal act, which regulates the transplantation on the territory of Belarus is the Law of the Republic of Belarus “On the transplantation of human organs and tissues” 2007. The author examines the presumption of consent and offers some measures to improve the regulation of taking out organs and tissues from a cadaveric donor.

  16. Belarus – European Union: A new agenda on the back ground of the Ukrainian crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Dzianis Melyantsou

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in many years the relations between Belarus and the EU developed according to a scenario which included talks on visa liberalization and consultations on modernization. An intense diplomatic communication continued. Having become a platform for negotiations to resolve the Ukrainian crisis Belarus significantly improved its international image and relations with the EU.

  17. Growing inequalities and reproductive health in transitional countries: Kazakhstan and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovich, Natalia

    2010-04-01

    The present study examines how growing socio-economic inequalities in transitional countries that have followed different health policy paths affect women's access to reproductive health care. I conducted surveys in Kazakhstan and Belarus and used logistic regression analyses to determine accessibility to and satisfaction with reproductive health services, reproductive status, and reproductive history based on country of residence. By all measures, access to reproductive health services was most problematic for the low-income women in Kazakhstan but to a significantly lesser extent for economically disadvantaged respondents in Belarus. Differences in education had a significant effect on women's access to reproductive health services in Kazakhstan but were not present in Belarus. Household income was the most powerful predictor of self-perceived health in Kazakhstan, but not in Belarus. The unreformed health-care system in Belarus appears to be more accessible for all women than Kazakhstan's health-care system that underwent significant market-oriented reform.

  18. [The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalutskiĭ, I V; Averkin, Iu I; Artemova, N A; Mashevskiĭ, A A

    2007-01-01

    The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus over a 36-year period has been evaluated. An increase in the age-specific and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates is a clear indicator of an actual rise in morbidity. It is unrelated to aging and most probably depends on a number of environmental factors. Due to the similarity of the incidence patterns for a number of sites, it was suggested that a single or several factors might be responsible for neoplastic development. Distinct changes in malignant tumor incidence made it correlated with certain environmental changes and new approaches to primary tumor prevention were developed.

  19. FOREIGN POLICY ORIENTATIONS OF UKRAINE COMPARED WITH BELARUS AND RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Баканова, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we seek to advance the discussion of foreign policy orientations by focusing on their particular implications for Ukraine, that form part of the Slavic world and belong to many of its institutional structures but which at the same time are part of the European Union’s new ’neighbourhood’ and have made a formal commitment to a ’Euro-Atlantic’ future. This article showed the evolution of foreign policy orientation of Ukraine compared with Belarus and Russia, first of all questio...

  20. Country report - Belarus: Brief description of feasibility study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belarus, the interdepartmental commission acts as the NEPIO, headed by the First Deputy Prime Minister and reporting to the Prime Minister. Members of the interdepartmental commission are from all relevant ministries participating in the NPP programme. The interdepartmental commission meets monthly to discuss the issues related to the NPP programme and reviews the works performed by each organization. The interdepartmental commission follows up on the actions from previous meetings. The roles and responsibilities of each ministry or organization are defined in government documents. The interdepartmental commission is fully charged and authorized to prepare and oversee the execution of the national NPP programme. Each ministry involved in the NPP programme is responsible for its own budget, offices, equipment and reference material. Special decisions provide for the budget, financing and funding. Before the general contract and loan agreement were signed, Belarus already had an effective project management system and budget to start preparatory work. The production and transportation infrastructure required for NPP construction was done. In the Byelorussian case, the high level authority to which the interdepartmental commission reports, the full participation by relevant ministries, and the frequency of its meetings can facilitate the swift resolution of any issues, and can be a model of good practice for other newcomers

  1. Biodiversity of Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiski, Andrei; Belyasova, Natalya

    2009-03-15

    We present here the first study on the isolation and characterization of the lactococcal phage content of dairy products from various regions of the Republic of Belarus. Restriction analysis with EcoRI and HindIII was used to discriminate between isolates. Distinct isolates were then further characterized by multiplex PCR analysis and transmission electron microscopy. In total, 23 unique lactococcal phages were isolated. Fifteen of them belong to the c2 species, four to the 936 species, and four to the P034 species. The isolation of such high number of P034-like phages is unusual and suggests that this rare group of lactococcal phages may be emerging in certain regions.

  2. On the customs union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a general overview of the process of forming a customs union among three Soviet successor states - Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia. Following some theoretical considerations, the author outlines the evolution of the idea of customs union within the CIS. Thereafter, he analyses the economic situation in its member states, with particular emphasis on their structural problems, economic efficiency and trade characteristics. He comes to the conclusion that the foregoing results have not helped diversify the economic structure of its participants and lessen their import dependence. Moreover, the declining level of intra-trade does not bode well for the future of this organization, while the situation is further complicated by the negative impact of the present global crisis and increasing geopolitical rivalry in the region.

  3. Climate-induced mortality of spruce stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  4. Organization of radiation monitoring in Belarus after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There in the network of the stationary stations for radioecological monitoring of the ecosystems, working according to special programs, at the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Presently, the exposure dose rate of gamma-radiation is measured every day at 57 stations. The information enters the Center of Radiation Control and Monitoring of Environment of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology. At 26 stations, located at the whole territory of the Republic, the level of the radioactive depositions from the surface layer of the atmosphere is measured every day. The content of radioactive aerosols in air is measured every day in six cities of Belarus. The continuous control over contamination of the surface water and bottom depositions is carried out at five main rivers of the Republic, following at the contaminated territory: Dnepr, Sozh, Iput and Besed. Monthly control over the content of radionuclides in surface water is carried out: the samples of water are taken with simultaneous measurement of flow rates, the samples of the surface water are analyzed for content of total b-activity, caesium-137 and strontium-90. The State Committee for Hydrometeorology carries out the radioecological monitoring of the soil at the sampling sites, which includes 18 landscape-geochemical areas and 181 sampling sites. Study and forecast of vertical and horizontal migration of radionuclides is carried out at the landscape-geochemical areas with different types and variations of soil in various radioecological and physico-geographical conditions. The results of the control of radionuclides in different media (air, water,soil) are accumulated in the Republican data bank. The State Committee for Hydrometeorology is carrying out the control in the zones of the effect of nuclear power plants, located at the territories of the neighbouring states. (authors)

  5. MILITIA OF BELARUS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST PROSTITUTION DURING THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Ponuzhdaev, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects the activities of the workers 'and peasants' militia to combat prostitution in the first half of the 20-ies of XX-th century. Through the analysis of scientific papers, publications and data historians of archival sources are specified functions worker-peasant militia of Belarus in this activity, as well as attempts to periodization of the activities of the militia to combat prostitution оn the territory of Belarus during the New Economic Policy.

  6. [Taenia martis (Cestoda, Taeniidae) from vertebrates in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Infestation of vertebrate animals with the cestode Taenia martis and its larvae was investigated in south-west Belarus during 2001-2008. Obligatory definitive host (common marten) and intermediate hosts (red-backed vole, yellow-necked mouse, striped field mouse, and red squirrel) of this helminth were established for the Republic of Belarus. Description and figure of the T. martis larva is given.

  7. Health care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, Evgenii Mikhailovich

    2014-01-01

    Belarus became a Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR in 1921. Belarus is now an independent country between Poland and Lithuania and Russia. The pharmacy sector of Belarus improved in fits and starts from 1921 to the present but serious quantitative and qualitative problems were evident until the 21st century. A number of factors caused this situation. The Soviet Republic of Belarus started with handicaps. The area, comprised of several provinces of western Russia, had no pharmaceutical factories during the imperial period and, while pharmacies were of high quality in the cities all over the Russian Empire--including Minsk, which became the capital of Belarus--pharmacies were sparse and primitive in rural areas and Belarus was basically rural. Belarus was devastated by wars--World War I, the Russian-Polish war of 1920-21, and of course, by World War II. The Bolshevik policy of nationalizing private pharmacies adversely affected dispensing between 1918 and 1921. Dispensing improved during the New Economic Policy of 1921 to 1927 with re-introduction of private enterprise and the establishment of BelMedTorg and the Mogilev Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants. The number of pharmacies and medical facilities increased during the 1930s and again after World War II. However, utopian plans to provide free or low-cost medicines to all citizens never came to fruition. Inadequate amounts of state-of the-art and even basic medicines persisted through the 1990s. The number of pharmacists also was inadequate and their education and training was on a low level. Because of shortages, citizens of Belarus often self-medicated with medicinal plants. The transition to a market economy in the 1990s made medicines expensive for citizens but opened the door to greater interaction with Western pharmaceutical practices and physical improvements in pharmacies and pharmaceutical production.

  8. Down syndrome time-clustering in January 1987 in Belarus: link with the Chernobyl accident? : Down syndrome after Chernobyl

    OpenAIRE

    Zatsepin, Ivan; VERGER, Pierre; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Gagnière, Bertrand; Tirmarche, Margot; Khmel, Rostislav; Babicheva, Irina; Lazjuk, Gennady

    2007-01-01

    International audience The Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) exposed a large part of the Belarus population to ionizing radiation. We analyzed the time trends of Down syndrome (DS) in Belarus to evaluate whether either brief exposure at high dose rates during the plume passage or continuous exposure at low doses and dose rates of the residents of contaminated areas had any detectable impact on DS prevalence at birth. DS data came from the Belarus National Registry of Congenital Malformat...

  9. Resource flows and levels of spending for the response to HIV and AIDS in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amico Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Belarus has a focused HIV epidemic concentrated among injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. However, until 2008, Belarus had no way of evaluating HIV spending priorities. In 2008, Belarus committed to undertaking a comprehensive National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA in order to analyze HIV spending priorities. NASA was used to 'follow the money' from the funding sources to agents and providers, and eventually to beneficiary populations. Findings Belarus spent the majority of its funding on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections and on securing the blood supply. International donors and NGOs working within Belarus spent the majority of their funding on preventative activities for high risk groups while Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM solely funded antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions The data and experience obtained through conducting NASA will help build capacity for future resource tracking activities for HIV and other health priorities. This experience established the foundation for enhanced and future consistent quality-reporting of National Health Accounts. Monitoring the flow of resources for Belarus' HIV response provides valuable strategic information that can improve operations and planning as well as mobilize greater resources. NASA offers Belarusian policy makers an overview of HIV activities that merit their priority attention. In addition, the findings from Belarus are particularly relevant for the rest of the Commonwealth of Independent States due to their similar epidemiological profiles and centrally planned systems. The Belarusian government faces future challenges, especially in increasing public investments in HIV prevention for female sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, and among intravenous drug users.

  10. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  11. [Lung cancer incidence in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemova, N A; Veialkin, I V; Leusik, E A

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of our research in the trends of lung cancer incidence in the Republic of Belarus over 38 years. The number of newly diagnosed cases increased 4-fold in men (1046--1970, 4193--1996; 3710--2007) and doubled in women (277--1970, 555--2007). Lung cancer incidence in men grew significantly in 1970-1996 (28.7 +/- 1.8% per ten thousand and 28.7 +/- 1.8% per ten thousand, respectively) and stabilized later at 72.5 +/- 2.2% per ten thousand. The growth was higher in rural males than in urban residents, aged 60-79 years. A decline has been registered from the late 1990s until now (61.2 +/- 2.0% per ten thousand). A slow growth in standard incidence rates occurred in women (1970-1987). Actually, they have not changed ever since and are 4.7 +/- 5.6% per ten thousand now.

  12. On Two Old Russian Inscriptions from Belarus and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savva M. Mikheev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Old Russian graffiti inscriptions are examined in the present paper. The first one, dating back to the late 13th–early 14th centuries, is located on one of the walls of the Savior Transfiguration Church in the St. Euphrosyne convent in Polotsk, Belarus. It reads Marъkova žana dobra ‘Mark’s wife is good.’ The second graffito was inscribed on a knife handle excavated in Drohiczyn, Eastern Poland (Old Russian Dorogyčinъ, and dates to the end of the 11th through the 12th centuries. The inscription reads Ežьkovъ nožь a iže i ukradetь proklętъ  . . . ‘Ezhko’s knife. Whoever steals it, be cursed . . .’ Although both inscriptions have been published, the present study adds more in-depth paleographic and linguistic commentary and suggests corrected readings. The laudatory inscription from Polotsk is particularly interesting because it contains an early example of a spelling reflecting yakanye, a trait of Belarusian phonetics, whereas the interest of the Drohiczyn inscription lies in its unusual paleographic features.

  13. [A new unique HIV-1 recombinant form detected in Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, V F; Gasich, E L; Sosinovich, S V

    2012-01-01

    Republican Research-and-Practical Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of Belarus, Minsk The paper presents data on the molecular genetic characteristics of a new HIV-1 recombinant form. The study has shown that the virus is referred to as HIV-1 subtype B in terms of the gag gene and HIV-1 subtype A in terms of the pol and env genes. At the same time the new isolate is closer, in terms of the gag gene, to the HIV-1 DQ207943 strain isolated in Georgia, in terms of the pol gene, to the HIV-1 AF413987.1 strain isolated in Ukraine and, in terms of the env gene to the HIV-1 AY500393 strain isolated in Russia. Thus, the described new HIV-1 recombinant form has the following structure: BgagApolAenv. The gag, pol, and env gene sequences from the new unique HIV-1 recombinant form have been registered in the international database EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ under accession numbers FR775442.1, FN995656.1, and FR775443.1.

  14. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Background An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. PMID:26109873

  15. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 2009 in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkova, Slavyana; Golparian, Daniel; Titov, Leonid; Pankratova, Nataliya; Suhabokava, Nataliya; Shimanskaya, Irina; Domeika, Marius; Unemo, Magnus

    2011-08-01

    Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global concern, and ultimately gonorrhoea may become untreatable. Nonetheless, AMR data from East-Europe are scarce beyond Russia, and no AMR data or other characteristics of gonococci have been reported from Belarus for more than 20 years. The aim was to describe the prevalence of AMR, and report molecular epidemiological characteristics of gonococci circulating in 2009 in Belarus. In a sample of 80 isolates, resistance prevalences to antimicrobials used for gonorrhoea treatment in Belarus were: Ceftriaxone 0%, spectinomycin 0%, azithromycin 17.3%, tetracycline 25.9%, ciprofloxacin 34.6% and erythromycin 59.2%. The isolates displayed no penA mosaic alleles, 38 porB gene sequences and 35 N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types, of which 20 have not been described before worldwide. Due to the high levels of antimicrobial resistance, only ceftriaxone and spectinomycin can be recommended for empirical treatment of gonorrhoea in Belarus according to WHO recommendations. Continuous gonococcal AMR surveillance in Eastern Europe is crucial. This is now initiated in Belarus using WHO protocols.

  17. 77 FR 33945 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, April 24, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-14039 Filed 6-7-12; 8:45 am... the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as Amended Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority... conferred upon the President by section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004 (Public Law 109-480; 22...

  18. Communication of 3 June 1998 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of a communication dated 3 June 1998 received at the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the IAEA, including a statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus on the nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan

  19. [Animal corynosomosis is a potential human helminthiasis in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2008-01-01

    In the Republic of Belarus, one representative of the genus Corynosoma - C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) that is a causative agent of corynosomosis and that is of medical value is parasitic on animals. In Belarus, this proboscis worm has been encountered only in European and American minks. The author of the paper found this helminth in 2 of the 50 examined American minks in Byelorussian Polesye in 1980-2001. In this region, there were no C. strumosum larvae in fishes (1394 fishes of 21 species were studied). It is noted that the American mink plays a dominant role in the circulation of invasion and the attention of medical workers ofBelarus is drawn to the existing risk of human infection with the pathogen of Corynosomosis.

  20. Evaluation of three serological tests manufactured in Belarus for the diagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanskaya, Iryna; Zhurauskaya, Larisa; Pankratov, Oleg; Unemo, Magnus; Ballard, Ronald C; Domeika, Marius

    2011-05-01

    The performance of three serological tests manufactured in Belarus for the diagnosis of syphilis, i.e. a microprecipitation reaction (MPR) and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were compared with internationally recognized assays, namely the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination assay (TPPA). Sera from 392 consecutive patients attending Brest (Belarus) regional dermatovenereological dispensaries were tested. The sensitivity of the MPR test was low (77.3%) compared with the rapid plasma reagin test, while the specificity was high (100%). In contrast, both Belarusian ELISAs performed well when compared with the TPPA (sensitivities of 99.2% and 100%, specificities of 98.7% and 99.0%, respectively). There is a clear need to improve the sensitivity of the existing Belarusian MPR test or to use a more sensitive screening test in order to improve diagnosis of the disease in Belarus.

  1. Public acceptance of prospects of nuclear power development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of constructing a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Belarus is far from being new. The Republic was oriented to development of nuclear power industry by the Energy Programme adopted in the former USSR. In 1983 the construction of the Minsk Nuclear Heat and Power Plant (NHPP) with a projected output of 2 million kW was initiated, the construction of a NPP with an output of 6 million KW was planned. The Chernobyl accident however shut down all on-going projects in nuclear power engineering. After the collapse of the interconnected power system that united the republics of the former USSR, Belarus found itself in the energy crisis. The nuclear industry is thus considered to be one of the possible ways for solving the energy problems, which are nowadays intensively discussed through mass media. One of the major arguments spoke out by nuclear power opponents is the Chernobyl syndrome, which is incident to a significant portion of the population. The sociological monitoring of the public opinion is carried out for revealing the attitude of the population to the suggested ways of overcoming the energy crisis and the prospects of developing the nuclear power industry. During the period of 1995-1998 three sociological studies were accomplished. The first sociological study showed that 40.9% of population supported the NPP construction, 39 % were against and 19.2% could not answer. In the second study the poll covered general public and 'experts', representatives of scientific community, educationalists, managers of various levels etc. The result confirmed a growing support of construction NPP by the population. The third sociological study was conducted autumn 1998 which polled both mass media professionals and general public. Among the respondents 67.5% revealed their stiff and rather bellicose attitude to possible construction of NPP. While among the population only every third respondent can be related to the convinced opponents of the NPP construction and among the

  2. Surveillance of congenital malformations in Belarus. Chernobyl aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to study possible genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident in human population a comparative analysis of the prevalence at birth of congenital malformations (CM) was performed on region and area administrative levels basing on the data of Belarus registry of CM permanently functioning since 1979. An attempt was made to evaluate dose dependence of the effects under study. We analyzed time trends of the prevalence at birth of 9 so called 'mandatory registered' nosologic units of CM. These group of CM could be easily diagnosed within the neonatal period and were assigned for registration at creation of the registry. Over 12 thousand cases registered within the period of 1981 to 2004 in 4 regions as well as about 3 thousand cases found in 47 rayons highly contrasting by radiation exposure were scrutinized. No long-term impact of the Chernobyl release on prevalence rates of surveyed CM was shown. Since the middle 80-s a similar steady increasing trend was observed as in contaminated, as in control areas with a tendency to stabilization after middle 90-s. We fail to reveal a dose dependence for CM prevalence rates calculated for the whole post-accidental period. Nonetheless, during the first years after the accident situation in contaminated areas was notably different from those in the control. Within the period of 1987 to 1989 a significant access of CM prevalence was registered in the strict radiological control area (Cs 137 soil contamination over 555 kBq/m2) as compared to non-contaminated zone. Relative risk was estimated as RR1987-1989 = 1.57 with 95% confidence interval being 95%CI = [1.29; 1.89]. Before the accident no difference in prevalence rates was marked (RR1981-1986 = 0.93; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]); nor it was evident in the farther post-accidental period (RR1990-2004 = 0.99; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]). Anomalies with high contribution of dominant de novo mutations (polydactyly, reduction defects of limbs and multiple CM) played principal

  3. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  4. Developing strategy of public-private partnership in Belarus innovative development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Yasheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretic-methodological basis of the public-private partnership in innovation sphere, including value of public-private partnership for economic development, the concept of public-private partnership in innovation sphere, its specific characteristics, motivation of participation in the partnership of public and private sectors. The main directions of public-private partnerships strategy in Belarus, as well as mechanisms of public-private partnership, including financial and organizational ones are developed in order to modernize the economy of Belarus and transfer to the innovation way of development.

  5. [The medical organizational resources of fertility promotion in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmach, M Iu

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of youth reproductive attitudes and the identification of the medical organizational opportunities for fertility promotion in the Republic of Belarus is considered. Relying on the data of the sociological survey of representative youth sample of national level it is established that both the reproductive attitudes and reproductive behavior of Belarus youth population does not correspond to the demographic criteria of effective population reproduction. It is revealed that the enhancement of reproductive attitudes of young women is possible in the conditions of increase of the rate of first pregnancy planning. The economic benefit due to possible implementation of this uncovered resource is evaluated.

  6. [Hydatigerosis and strobilocercosis in the Republic of Belarus and their medical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    The author presents the results of his own studies that were conducted during many years (1980-2007) and the data of Byelorussian helminthologists on the detection of the cestode of H. taeniaeformis and its larvae (strobilocercus), which induce hydatigerosis and strobilocercosis, respectively, in animals in the Republic of Belarus. This helminth (an imago and a larva) may parasite in man. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the residents of Belarus can be infected on chance ingestion of eggs of the cestode of H. taeniaeformis.

  7. Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

  8. The Shipment of Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel from Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorin, S.N.; Polazau, S.A.; Hryharovich, T.K. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research ' Sosny' , Academik Krasin Street, Minsk (Belarus); Bolshinsky, I. [Idaho National Laboratory, N. Fremont Avenue Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Thomas, J.E. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In October 2010, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - 'Sosny' of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus completed a shipment that returned 43 kilograms of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation. The spent fuel was legacy material, discharged from the two decommissioned reactors, the Pamir-630D mobile reactor and the IRT-M research reactor. This shipment marked the complete removal of all HEU spent nuclear fuel from Belarus. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, and coordination required to complete this important international shipment successfully. (author)

  9. The Shipment of Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2010, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - 'Sosny' of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus completed a shipment that returned 43 kilograms of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation. The spent fuel was legacy material, discharged from the two decommissioned reactors, the Pamir-630D mobile reactor and the IRT-M research reactor. This shipment marked the complete removal of all HEU spent nuclear fuel from Belarus. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, and coordination required to complete this important international shipment successfully. (author)

  10. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Dubovik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and practical problems of formation and regulation of youth labour market inBelarus. Specific and characteristic features of the labour market segment and main problems of young people in the labour market are given in the paper. The paper reveals directions of the state regulations on a youth labour market. Some proposals pertaining to the increase of youth employment efficiency are made in the paper. The paper contains statements and conclusions which can be used while teaching social-humanitarian and economics-management subjects, while conducting investigations on youth problems, social and industrial relations and vocational education in theRepublicofBelarus.

  11. Beyond the Limits of the European Higher Education Area: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille-Belova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    All European Union (EU) member states and many former post-Soviet countries joined the Bologna Process without major obstacles during the 2000s and today belong to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The only European country which was refused membership in the EHEA was Belarus, whose demand was rejected in 2012. The case study of this…

  12. Analysis and critical review of the development of bioethics in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishneuskaya, Yuliya A

    2012-11-01

    The main trends of the bioethics development in Belarus have been analyzed on the basis of the materials collected by the Ethics Documentation Center (ISEU, Minsk, Belarus). A critical review of the most important publications in the field since 2000 suggests that development of bioethics in Belarus has occurred in two parallel directions distantly connected to each other: a theoretical direction and a practical one. Despite there are objective and subjective reasons for introducing bioethics in Belarus as an institutionally-organized system based on liberal values such as individual rights and freedom, a range of essential problems could be identified. Non-equivalent regulation of ethical issues in health care and other fields of biomedical research has been emphasized, as well as the problem of unclear hierarchical relationships among institutions dealing with various aspects of bioethics in the country and low ethical and educational level of the social and professional groups involved in further expansion of bioethical knowledge. The contextual aspects of the development of bioethics in the country such as the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, the prevalence of the authoritarian social morality and traditionally paternalistic nature of the relations between physicians and their patients are discussed.

  13. Molecular characterisation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from Gomel region, Belarus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapalski, D.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hasman, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    an infection outside hospitals in the Gomel region of Belarus. Thirty-one isolates were highly similar according to PFGE and MLVA typing, were multidrug-resistant, including resistance to ceftiofur, and harboured the bla(CTX-M-5) gene. These results indicate that a common source may have been responsible...

  14. Private Returns to Human Capital over Transition: A Case Study of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Francesco; Verashchagina, Alina

    2006-01-01

    The gradualist approach to economic transition in Belarus would contribute to form the a priori expectation that the rate of return to education is low and the earnings profile by work experience flat, like they supposedly were under central planning. However, the first available estimates of Mincerian earnings equations based on the Belarusian…

  15. Shifting to a New Paradigm: School Reform in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoumennov, Iouri L.

    1993-01-01

    Explains the Republic of Belarus's new educational system, stressing its universal and democratic values, national-cultural foundation, scientific character, humanistic and ecological orientation, social and practical activities, encouragement of talent and erudition, and compulsory basic (nine-year) education focus. Describes types of educational…

  16. Ethnic Identity in Post-Soviet Belarus: Ethnolinguistic Survival as an Argument in the Political Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekus, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the Belarusian case of post-communist development and the role and status of Belarusian ethnicity in Belarus' nation-formation process. "Nationalizing nationalism" (Brubaker), as realised by the Belarusian state through various social and cultural practices, is aimed at the creation of a Belarusian national…

  17. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (66 FR 46777... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (72 FR 44830). The Commission is now conducting...

  18. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... both the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 39254, July 2... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  19. Belarus Public Expenditure Review : Enhancing Public Services in Times of Austerity

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report is the second volume of the programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER) in Belarus. In 2010 the Ministry of Finance requested that the Bank provide sequenced and targeted advice on the fiscal reform options across priority areas of the budget. Responding to this request, a programmatic PER was agreed upon. The first volume was delivered in November 2011 and focused on providin...

  20. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  1. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypoth

  2. Comprehensive rehabilitation of post-oncologic children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The incidence of child disability resulting from malignant tumors has been constantly high at fourth place, characterized by considerable severity and duration. The high degree and length of disability induced by oncological diseases in children subsequently lead to the formation of high, sometimes lifelong, social disadaptation. At the same time the recent improvements in effectiveness of treatment of malignant tumors in children have contributed to a significant improvement (over 70%) in the long-term survival rate among children, which is clearly linked with the introduction of modern treatment methods. According to data of the Childhood cancer subregistry of Belarus, a total of 6,485 cases of malignant tumors were registered in children aged 0-19 years over the period 1986 through 2005, of which 4,288 were alive as of January 1, 2006. The above data are indicative of the need for a comprehensive medical, psychological, professional and overall social rehabilitation of children who have been treated for oncological diseases. Development of a program of comprehensive rehabilitation for such children should be inherently linked with the existing principles of rehabilitation. An early startup and complex character of the rehabilitation process are particularly critical to the success. An early startup of medical, social, psychological and pedagogical rehabilitation measures helps prevent the establishment of a disability-minded personality, which, in case of positive treatment, leads to social deficiency of the child, enduring into the adulthood. The child's personality is formed under the pressure of oncologically-induce fears, excessive care by the relatives, preferential treatment, etc. which highly impacts on his/her abilities to be a full-fledged and rightful member of the society, thereby thwarting the medical outcomes. Therefore, rehabilitation of children who have survived oncological diseases should not be limited to their functional disorders

  3. Comparative economic evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in Belarus and Uzbekistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hib vaccine has gradually been introduced into more and more countries during the past two decades, partly due to GAVI Alliance support to low-income countries. However, since Hib disease burden is difficult to establish in settings with limited diagnostic capacities and since the vaccine continues to be relatively expensive, some Governments remain doubtful about its value leading to concerns about financial sustainability. Similarly, several middle-income countries have not introduced the vaccine. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccination in a country relying on self-financing (Belarus and a country eligible for GAVI Alliance support (Uzbekistan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision analytic model was used to estimate morbidity and mortality from Hib meningitis, Hib pneumonia and other types of Hib disease with and without the vaccine. Treatment costs were attached to each disease event. Data on disease incidence, case fatality ratios and costs were primarily determined from national sources. For the Belarus 2009 birth cohort, Hib vaccine is estimated to prevent 467 invasive disease cases, 4 cases of meningitis sequelae, and 3 deaths, while in Uzbekistan 3,069 invasive cases, 34 sequelae cases and 341 deaths are prevented. Estimated costs per discounted DALY averted are US$ 9,323 in Belarus and US$ 267 in Uzbekistan. CONCLUSION: The primary reason why the cost-effectiveness values are more favourable in Uzbekistan than in Belarus is that relatively more deaths are averted in Uzbekistan due to higher baseline mortality burden. Two other explanations are that the vaccine price is lower in Uzbekistan and that Uzbekistan uses a three dose schedule compared to four doses in Belarus. However, when seen in the context of the relative ability to pay for public health, the vaccine can be considered cost-effective in both countries.

  4. “Bringing Back the Essential Meaning of the Theatre”: Harold Pinter and the Belarus Free Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Peghinelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus Free Theatre was founded in 2005 by Belarusian playwright and journalist Nikolai Khalezin and theatre producer Natalia Koliada. It is a dissident company which opposes the totalitarian regime of Lukashenko; therefore, in Belarus it must work underground. In 2005 the Belarus Free Theatre invited Tom Stoppard to Minsk. During his visit he warmly suggested that they stage Pinter’s plays: “It seems to me it’s yours.” After working on Pinter’s plays, they eventually came up with an original production: Being Harold Pinter. In my essay I delineate how, in Being Harold Pinter, Pinter’s works are shown under the reinvigorating new light of an urgent political theatre. I also discuss how the Belarus Free Theatre found a symbolic, essential and critical artistic language by which, “they are bringing back the essence meaning of the theatre,” as Pinter remarked.

  5. [Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians : meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Woodworth, Bradley D., 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians. Meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the boundary of two worlds: identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltica, 11. (Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2007)

  6. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated as a result of Chernobyl accident: status and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer incidence in the human population of Belarus irradiated in childhood for the period passed after the Chernobyl accident is analysed and potential perspectives for development of disease incidence in exposed population during life span. Thyroid cancer cases in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated due to the Chernobyl accident are predicted using the additive model with modified parameters. Predicted values are shown to be in good agreement with the actual data on thyroid cancer cases in children aged 0-6

  7. Improvement in Quality of Initial Fuel Usage in Power System of Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khroustalev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a potential, energy and economic efficiency of joint activities of enterprises of the Ministry of Energy sector and enterprises of the material sector of the economic complex of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of the methodology for intensive energy saving. Such calculated values as annual savings of natural gas in Belarus – up to 1 million tons of fuel equivalent, release investment for the Ministry of Energy – up to 1 billion USD, range for changes in electricity generation during a day - up to 1 GW with a specific consumption of fuel equivalent – 160 g/(kWh have been determined while taking thermal technology of asphalt concrete mixture production and regulation of electricity generation as an example. Fuel saving system and investment return create preconditions for realization of the project by private investors.

  8. [A new approach to postexposure treatment of rabies by complex of immuno- and chemotherapy in belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishaeva, N P; Votiakov, V I; Titov, L P; Naralenkov, V A; Nekhaĭ, M R; Sinkevich, V V; Kurlukov, A I; Gorbunov, V A

    2013-01-01

    A method for preventive treatment of rabies with a complex of immuno- and chemotherapeutics was developed. Rifampicin was used a an etiotropic drug. In the experiments on laboratory animals infected with fixed and street strains of rabies virus it was shown to prolong the incubation period and to increase the survival rate. The protective mechanisms of rifampicin against rabies should be associated with inhibition of RNA transcription, as well as immunomodulating function of macrophages, dendritic cells, B- and T-cells. Since 1992, after the approval of the Ministry of Health of Belarus rifampicin is used in complex with antirabic vaccine for postexposure treatment of rabies in people after severe bites by infected animals (wolves, foxes, dogs). For an 18-year period (1992-2009) of integrated application of chemo- and immunotherapy in Belarus there was not registered any case of hydrophobia in people even after the heaviest wolf bites, incompatible with life (penetrating injuries of the skull, scalping, multiple bites).

  9. Application of the M technique to two severely disabled children in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen Rickerby, Karla; Cordell, Barbara

    2012-07-01

    Following the early-morning explosion of reactor four at the Chernobyl nuclear plant on 26 April 1986, radioactive fallout fell over 80% of Belarus. More than 2.2 million people were affected, including thousands of children. As a result, there are now over 50,000 children in 600 orphanages in Belarus. Many of the orphanages are without basic amenities and are operating in dire circumstances. This article outlines two case studies of orphaned children with profound disabilities in one of these orphanages. The first author, a nurse volunteer from Ireland, used a method of touch called the 'M technique' to calm and soothe the children. The M technique is a gentle repetitive method of touch that can be learnt in a few hours. The results suggest that even when the situation appears very challenging, simple touch can have a beneficial effect.

  10. WP 96 - An overview of women's work and employment in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Williams, M. J.; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2010-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Belarus on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and...

  11. Obsolete Pesticides (POPs) in the Republic of Belarus: Inventory, Monitoring and Environmental Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sazonova, Volha; Kuzmin, Saveli; Babko, Alexej

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Belarus has significant stockpiles of obsolete pesticides created during 1970th and 1980th. Pesticides are placed both in aboveground warehouses and underground storages. Underground storages do not prevent leakage of pesticides into environment, first of all groundwater. Investigations carried out by Belarusian Scientific & Research Center Ecology revealed presence of pesticides in groundwater near all existing underground storages and even up to...

  12. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  13. CALCULATION ASSESSMENT OF ANCHORAGE IN CONCRETE FOR FIBERGLASS REINFORCEMENT MANUFACTURED IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    E. Ya. Sadin

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes advantages and disadvantages of composite reinforcement while reinforcing concrete structures. Results of experimental investigations on adhesion strength of fiberglass reinforcement manufactured in the Republic of Belarus with concrete have been given in the paper. The paper contains an analysis pertaining to the influence of concrete contact diameter and length of fiberglass reinforcing bars on strength and deformability of adhesion with concrete. Failure behavior of prot...

  14. CALCULATION ASSESSMENT OF ANCHORAGE IN CONCRETE FOR FIBERGLASS REINFORCEMENT MANUFACTURED IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ya. Sadin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes advantages and disadvantages of composite reinforcement while reinforcing concrete structures. Results of experimental investigations on adhesion strength of fiberglass reinforcement manufactured in the Republic of Belarus with concrete have been given in the paper. The paper contains an analysis pertaining to the influence of concrete contact diameter and length of fiberglass reinforcing bars on strength and deformability of adhesion with concrete. Failure behavior of prototypes and maximum loading that does cause breakage in adhesion of fiberglass reinforcement with the concrete have been controlled in order to study the influence of diameter and length of fiberglass reinforcing bar contact with the concrete on strength and deformability of concrete adhesion for composite reinforcement produced by various manufacturers. Displacement of non-loaded (free and loaded ends of the reinforcing bars with regard to concrete exposed face on both specimen ends has been also controlled. The experiments have shown that destruction of the prototypes occurred due to initiation of one of the following three reasons: reinforcement sliding in reference to concrete, cleaving of a protective concrete layer or breakage of composite reinforcement. Start-up moments for reinforcing bar slip in relation to the concrete have been determined with the help of two methods. The paper provides proposals for calculation assessment of anchorage in the concrete for fiberglass reinforcement manufactured by the following enterprises and companies “Stroykompozit” (Gomel, Republic of Belarus, Research and Production Company (RPC “Biznes-Kontinent” (Brest, Republic of Belarus and Private Eenterprise (PE “Minplast” (Minsk, Republic of Belarus.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF FINANCIAL PERSONNEL NUMBER IN ARMED FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Bolshakova

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers a problem pertaining to reduction of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus and necessity to carry out economically reasonable reforms optimizing strength of financial personnel with the purpose to decrease its number but without undermining financial and operational activities of the Armed Forces as a whole. It has been proposed to optimize strength of financial personnel in the Armed Forces while executing organizational staff transformations such as introduction of...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Romaniuk; A. A. Bobich

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known ...

  17. The contribution of founder mutations in BRCA1 to breast cancer in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglanitsa, N; Oszurek, O; Uglanitsa, K; Savonievich, E; Lubiński, J; Cybulski, C; Debniak, T; Narod, S A; Gronwald, J

    2010-10-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene increase susceptibility to both breast and ovarian cancer. In some countries, including several in Eastern Europe, founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer cases. To estimate the hereditary proportion of breast cancer in Belarus, we sought the presence of any of three founder mutations in BRCA1 (4153delA, 5382insC and C61G) in 500 unselected cases of breast cancer. These mutations have previously been identified in breast/ovarian cancer families from Belarus and from other Slavic countries, including Poland and Russia. One of the three founder mutations in BRCA1 was present in 38 of 500 unselected cases of breast cancer (7.6%). A mutation was found in 12.6% of women diagnosed before age 50 and 5.6% of women diagnosed after age 50. A mutation was identified in 2 of 251 newborn controls (0.8%). The hereditary proportion of breast cancers in Belarus is among the highest of any countries studied to date.

  18. Forensic analysis of polymorphism and regional stratification of Y-chromosomal microsatellites in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebała, Krzysztof; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Bogacheva, Anna V; Kotova, Svetlana A; Mikulich, Alexei I; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2011-01-01

    Nine loci defining minimal haplotypes and four other Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) DYS437, DYS438, DYS439 and GATA H4.1 were analysed in 414 unrelated males residing in four regions of Belarus. Haplotypes of 328 males were further extended by 7 additional Y-STRs: DYS388, DYS426, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS460 and DYS635. The 13-locus haplotype diversity was 0.9978 and discrimination capacity was 78.7%, indicating presence of identical haplotypes among unrelated males. Seven additional Y-STRs enabled almost complete discrimination of undifferentiated 13-locus haplotypes, increasing haplotype diversity to 0.9998 and discrimination capacity to 97.9%. Analysis of molecular variance of minimal haplotypes excluded the use of a Y-STR database for Belarusians residing in northeastern Poland as representative for the Belarusian population in forensic practice, and revealed regional stratification within the country. However, four additional markers (DYS437, DYS438, DYS439 and GATA H4.1) were shown to eliminate the observed geographical substructure among Belarusian males. The results imply that in case of minimal and PowerPlex Y haplotypes, a separate frequency database should be used for northern Belarus to estimate Y-STR profile frequencies in forensic casework. In case of Yfiler haplotypes, regional stratification within Belarus may be neglected.

  19. Further evidence for elevated human minisatellite mutation rate in Belarus eight years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrova, Yuri E.; Buard, Jerome; Jeffreys, Alec J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Adrian Building, University Road, Leicester (United Kingdom); Nesterov, Valeri N.; Krouchinsky, Nicolay G.; Ostapenko, Vladislav A. [Research Institute for Radiation Medicine, Mogilev (Belarus); Vergnaud, Gilles; Giraudeau, Fabienne [Laboratoire de Recherche en Genetique des Especes, Institut de Biologie, Nantes (France)

    1997-11-28

    Analysis of germline mutation rate at human minisatellites among children born in areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus heavily polluted after the Chernobyl accident has been extended, both by recruiting more families from the affected region and by using five additional minisatellite probes, including multi-locus probe 33.6 and four hypervariable single-locus probes. These additional data confirmed a twofold higher mutation rate in exposed families compared with non-irradiated families from the United Kingdom. An elevated rate was seen at all three independent sets of minisatellites (detected separately by multi-locus probes 33.15, 33.6 and six single-locus probes), indicating a generalised increase in minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Belarus families. Within the Belarus cohort, mutation rate was significantly greater in families with higher parental radiation dose estimated for chronic external and internal exposure to caesium-137, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. The spectra of mutation seen in the unexposed and exposed families were indistinguishable, suggesting that increased mutation observed over multiple loci arises indirectly by some mechanism that enhances spontaneous minisatellite mutation.

  20. Detection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA in mosquitoes from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Șuleșco, Tatiana; Volkova, Tatiana; Yashkova, Svetlana; Tomazatos, Alexandru; von Thien, Heidrun; Lühken, Renke; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-09-01

    During the last two decades, Belarus faces an increase of human cases of Dirofilaria (Nematoda, Spirurida, Onchocercidae) infections. However, comprehensive analyses explaining this development and the identification of mosquito vector species are missing. Here, we present results using temperature data from Belarus and show that the annual number of human Dirofilaria cases is significantly correlated with the yearly average temperatures (Spearman's rho = 0.49, p < 0.05) and the average sum of potential Dirofilaria transmission days (Spearman's rho = 0.46, p < 0.05), suggesting that autochthonous transmission is at least in part responsible for the increasing number of clinical Dirofilaria cases in the country. In addition, 467 female mosquitoes were collected from different sampling sites in the regions of Brest and Minsk, which were analyzed by molecular methods for the presence of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA, respectively. Two pools (5.56 %) were tested positive for Dirofilaria (estimated infection rate per 100 specimens = 0.44, 95 % confidence interval = 0.08-1.43), comprising one Anopheles claviger s.l. pool that was positive for D. repens and one Culex pipiens s.l./Culex torrentium pool positive for D. immitis DNA. This, to our knowledge, is the first molecular evidence for the presence of Dirofilaria in mosquitoes from Belarus, suggesting a high probability of autochthonous Dirofilaria transmission in the country. PMID:27169723

  1. The ecological consequences of transuranium elements realize on Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of radioactive contamination with transuranium elements (TUE) on territory of Belarus as a result of nuclear weapon tests and Chernobyl NPP accident have been assessed . The uniform contamination of soil with level of 53±17 Bq/m2 for Pu-239+240 was formed as a result of global precipitation after the nuclear weapon test. This value increased up to 1.1·105 Bq/m2 in South regions of Belarus and gradually decreased to level of global fall out on the North of the republic after Chernobyl NPP accident. The study of the atmosphere contamination with TUE in Republic of Belarus is being held since 1980 to now. The mechanism of radioactive air pollution from April, 1986 is determined by dust transfer from radioactive contaminated regions. The value of this transfer is influenced considerably by agricultural activities on contaminated territory, forest fires and other anthropogenic factors. The transfer coefficients in the soil-plant system have plant species dependence. The behavior of TUE in environment is discussed. (Authors)

  2. Investigations for Heavy Metals and POPs Emission Inventory Improvement in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakareka, S.; Kukharchyk, T.

    2003-04-01

    Emission fluxes assessment acts as starting point of air pollution interpretation. The paper presents results of a 7-years activity on identification and estimation of heavy metals and POPs emission sources in Belarus, most of which are poorly inventoried. Methodology based on sources testing and emission factors has been used. The following heavy metals emission sources have been evaluated: stationary fuel combustion, ferrous industry, cement production, glass production, phosphate fertilizers production, road transport, other mobile sources and machinery, cremation, waste incineration. We can generalize that on the territory of Belarus stationary fuel combustion is the main source of emission of arsenic and nickel. Cement production is the main source of mercury, and an essential source of cadmium and lead. Electric arc furnace steel plant provides main part of zinc emissions, and significant share of cadmium and lead. In the 90s the steady reduction heavy metals emissions on the territory of Belarus occured. It especially typical for lead emissions - from in 798 tonnes in 1990 tonnes to 46 tonnes in 2000 because of prohibition of ethylated gasoline usage. As the result of POPs sources identification and estimation it was detected that main contribution into dioxin emission have non-industrial solid fuel combustion (firewood and peat), electric arc furnace and waste incineration. Firewood and peat combustion and mobile sources were revealed to make the largest contribution in PAH emissions in Belarus. Pesticides from POPs Protocol to Geneva Convention and Stockholm POPs Convention (such as DDT, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, toxaphen, endrin, dieldrine, mirex, heptachlor et. al.) are not used now in Belarus. But a large amount of them are stored in various burial sites and storage places which cause significant ecological problems due to pollutants infiltration and spills. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors were estimated as the main source of

  3. Development of System Regulating and Support for Nuclear Security in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safeguards strengthening in Belarus is realized as complex for measures of legal authorities building, advance staff education and international cooperation. The main scope of complex coordinated activities is to provide the sustainable development of national regulatory system and support for current and future challenges in a more globalized world to assure relevant safeguards measures and implements, to get the sustainable international and regional cooperation. Collected and implemented information and knowledge, analytical thinking of involved specialists will improve cooperation between IAEA and States to optimize technical support and experience exchange. Some authorities are responsible in regulating and oversighting for nuclear security in Belarus. The main challenge of national system development is realization the conception of effective coordination. The nuclear regulatory authority (the Ministry for Emergency Situations/ Gosatomnadzor) has the responsibility either to build up own technical capabilities for detailed review and assessment of processes and activities of the NPP operator or to make sure that a technical support organization equipped with sufficient knowledge and structural capabilities is involved in assessment and analysis of processes at all phases of the NPP use. There is developed the conception for creation of analytical and technical support laboratory including both stationary and mobile equipment and techniques for nuclear security prevention and control measures and arrangements. It is actually the realization of conception the Joint Center for Nuclear Security Competence in Belarus for national and cooperational purposes. The implementation of strengthening plans and put-up arrangements will lead to integrated regulatory activities in order to allow practical optimization of the resources to get benefits from exchange of experience and issues from safety analysis and oversighting as synergy effect. (author)

  4. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time

  5. Infant mortality trends in a region of Belarus, 1980–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawvere Silvana

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU in 1991 challenged the public health infrastructure in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. Because infant mortality is regarded as a sensitive measure of the overall health of a population, patterns of neonatal and postneonatal deaths were examined within the Mogilev region of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Methods Employing administrative death files, this study utilized a regional cohort design that included all infant deaths occurring among persons residing within the Mogilev oblast of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Patterns of death and death rates were examined across 3 intervals: 1980–1985 (pre-Chernobyl, 1986–1991 (post-Chernobyl & pre-FSU breakup, and 1992–2000 (post-Chernobyl & post-FSU breakup. Results Annual infant mortality rates declined during the 1980s, increased during the early 1990s, and have remained stable thereafter. While infant mortality rates in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females, this decrement appears due to decreases in postneonatal mortality. Rates of postneonatal mortality in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females. Analyses of trends for infant mortality and neonatal mortality demonstrated continuous decreases between 1990, followed by a bell-shaped excess in the 1990's. Compared to rates of infant mortality for other countries, rates in the Mogilev region are generally higher than rates for the United States, but lower than rates in Russia. During the 1990s, rates for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mogilev were two times the comparable rates for East and West Germany. Conclusions While neonatal mortality rates in Mogilev have remained stable, rates for postneonatal mortality have decreased among both males and females during the period examined. Infant mortality rates in the Mogilev region of Belarus remain

  6. AND BELARUS ON THE BASIS OF GERCHIKOV’S MOTIVATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu, W.Y.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research examined corporate motivation in Belarus and China on the basis of Gerchikov’s motivation theory. We will bring theoretical substantiation for the work and state why we have chosen Gerchikov’s motivation model as foundation for the analysis. On the basis of the results gathered with the help of the research we will propose a suggestion on what peculiarities in the framework of corporate motivation we shall pay special attention in the course of Belarusian and Chinese companies’ cooperation.

  7. [Hygienic maintenance of public health in the Republic of Belarus in the design of facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, T E; Sokolov, C M; Shevchuk, L M; Gritsenko, T D; Pshegroda, A E; Pershin, I G

    2012-01-01

    A number of sanitary norms, rules and hygienic standards governing the sizes of the sanitary protection zone for a safety to human health from the harmful (chemical, biological, physical) effects of objects has been upgraded and improved. The harmonization of ambient air quality standards with international guidelines and obligations of the Republic of Belarus on international conventions has been performed. To assess the risk to public health from the impacts of a planned activity the project of instruction for the use and the algorithm of computer software for the risk assessment have been delivered.

  8. [The ARI etiology among children in Belarus in 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkova, N V; Sivets, N V; Shmialiova, N P; Cheshenok, T V; Lapo, E P; Anoshka, O N

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of the respiratory viruses for the period of 2011-2012 is presented. The ARI etiological structure among children 0-17 years, who were admitted to the hospital for respiratory disease in Belarus, was defined by the PCR-method. It was found that the etiological agents of the infections were not only influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adeno- and respiratory syncytial viruses, but also described boca- and metapneumoviruses. The most complete spectrum of the respiratory viruses was detected among children aged 0-4 years.

  9. Study of temperature regime in Belarus according to the COSMO model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partasenok, Irina; Geyer, Beate; Groisman, Pavel; Melnik, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Long-term time series of meteorological and hydrological observations for the 1900-2012 period provide information about climatic fluctuations in Belarus. In particular, significant transformation of the temperature regime in Belarus has been observed only since 1970s, and since 1989 the rate of these changes has increased. We used simulations of the COSMO model in Climate Mode (COSMO-CLM or CCLM) for detailed assessment of climatic transformations in Belarus. CCLM is a non-hydrostatic regional climate model developed from the Local Model (LM) of the German Meteorological Service by the CLM-community. The Model output (produced at the Institute of Coastal Research of HZG; the coastDatII dataset) gives a consistent and homogeneous database used for assessment of weather statistics and climate changes for the 1948 - 2012 period with spatial grid size of 0.22° in rotated coordinates. NCEP1 global reanalysis was used in simulations as forcing and boundary conditions. The observed gridded data (E-Obs v10.0; surface air temperature and precipitation) were used for verification of the model performance. We calculated mean seasonal temperature over Belarus for the 1955-2012 and 1981-2012 periods of significant transformation of the Belorussian climate. The calculations showed differences in the coastDatII and E-Obs varied within the ±0.6 to 2oC range depending on the season. We found the largest deviations in winter (by 1.7 to 2.0oC). In spring the differences were within the 0.8 to1.0oC range, in summer within the 0.6-0.8oC range and in autumn they were about 1.0 to 1.3oC. For both periods, annual mean regional values differ by 0.9oC. In the annual cycle, the E-Obs values were higher than coastDatII temperatures except the summer season, when the CCLM-derived temperatures exceed the observations. Comparison of seasonal temperature ranges shows a lesser amplitude in CCLM than in E-Obs. Estimates of annual temperature trends for the 1955-2012 period according to the E

  10. Energy policy of the former Soviet Union republics by the example of Belarus and Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was a centralized energy supply policy of the former Soviet republics before the collapse of the USSR. After that these republics became independent states, the situation changed dramatically. Now each country has become forced to conduct its own energy policies. Some countries like Belarus were without significant domestic fuel and energy resources, others such as Azerbaijan, became the exporters of energy resources. Both categories of states set themselves first of all two main objectives: economic growth and energy security. Key words: energy policy, energy security, energy efficiency, diversity of supply

  11. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m2). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where 137Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m2. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in the process of rehabilitation of living

  12. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P.; Bataille, C. [Centre d' etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Katlabai, T. [Sprout of Life, Krasnoye (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m{sup 2}). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where {sup 137}Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m{sup 2}. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in

  13. [Diversity of trematode larvae in gastropod molluscs in water bodies of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimova, L N; Shimalova, V V; Bychkova, E I

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of literary data and own investigations of gastropod molluscs on existence of cercariae of trematodes in Belarus was carried out. 13 856 specimens of 11 species and 2 species complexes of freshwater gastropod molluscs were examined on infection with cercariae of trematodes in 2010 by the authors of this article. Total infestation was 13.1% and infection of some molluscs species varied from 0.4% (Dnieper River, Gomel region) to 66.7% (Lukomskoe reservoir, Vitebsk region). The cercariae of 90 trematode species were found. The majority (51 species) at the adult stage parasitize birds. The cercariae of 14 trematode species have medical significance.

  14. Gametogenesis of pikes (Esox lucius L.) in condition of radioactive contamination of water reservoirs of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of histological analysis of pike oocytes (Esox lucius L.) from a radioactive contaminated water reservoirs of Belarus part of Chernobyl zone are described. The oocyte degenerative alterations (irregular cell shape, change of oocyte envelope structure) in the investigated fish from the water reservoirs with different level of radioactive contamination (Perstok and Smerzhov lakes) were identified. Some slight breaches in growth and development of gonad's cells were revealed in pikes from river Pripyat' aquatic system with relatively low level of radioactive contamination in places of fishing. It was concluded that the revealed morphology functional changes in gonads of fish were connected with the level of radioactive contamination of environment

  15. MAIN PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN RESPECT OF ITS ENTRY TO INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Nikitenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Belarus has significant reserves of ground fresh and mineral water. Consumption of bottled water in the world has a tendency of steady growth. In this regard, Belarus can increase production and sale of bottled water on the external  and domestic markets as well. The paper  describes main tendencies prevailing on the world market;  it contains an analysis of the normative and legal foundation on regulation of production and sale of bottled water in the Republic and abroad; the paper also estimates the possibilities to increase volume of export water. 

  16. Alarming levels of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Belarus: results of a survey in Minsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrahina, Alena; Hurevich, Henadz; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Sahalchyk, Evgeni; Astrauko, Andrei; van Gemert, Wayne; Hoffner, Sven; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Zignol, Matteo

    2012-06-01

    Resistance to anti-tuberculosis (TB) medicines is a major public health threat in most countries of the former Soviet Union. As no representative and quality-assured information on the magnitude of this problem existed in Belarus, a survey was conducted in the capital city of Minsk. Between November 2009 and December 2010, 156 consecutively diagnosed new and 68 previously treated culture-positive TB patients residing in Minsk were enrolled in the survey. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained from each patient and tested for susceptibility to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs. Multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB was found in 35.3% (95% CI 27.7-42.8) of new patients and 76.5% (95% CI 66.1-86.8) of those previously treated. Overall, nearly one in two patients enrolled had MDR-TB. Extensively drug-resistant TB was reported in 15 of the 107 MDR-TB patients (14.0%, 95% CI 7.3-20.7). Patients 35 yrs. The findings of this survey in Minsk city are alarming and represent the highest proportions of MDR-TB ever recorded in the world. This study greatly contributes to the understanding of the burden of drug-resistant TB in urban areas of Belarus.

  17. RESEARCHING THE GENDER ASPECT IN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT (THE CASE OF MOLDOVA, UKRAINE AND BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ACULAI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The SME sector covers economic operators that substantially differ by many parameters: size of enterprises, types of activity, etc., including entrepreneurs’ characteristics – their ethnic, gender, age and other peculiarities. The specificity of different groups of enterprises and entrepreneurs is important both for attracting attention of the society to their problems and for the elaboration of business regulation policy on local, national and international levels. The purpose of the paper is investigation of characteristics of female entrepreneurship in some countries with transition economy – Moldova, Ukraine, and Belarus. In particular, possibilities of women–entrepreneurs to access different types of resources are presented, peculiarities of women’s character that influence the entrepreneurial activity are elucidated, need of governmental assistance to women that initiate and develop own business is examined. Common characteristics and some peculiarities in the female business development in the three countries are outlined. The investigation is based on results of questionings and interviews with women – owners and managers of enterprises, first of all, SMEs, from Moldova, Ukraine, and Belarus.

  18. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tick populations in Estonia, the European part of Russia and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, O; Geller, J; Alekseev, A; Dubinina, H; Efremova, G; Mishaeva, N; Vasilenko, V; Kuznetsova, T; Järvekülg, L; Vene, S; Lundkvist, A; Golovljova, I

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is associated with diseases of goats, sheep, cattle, dogs and horses. In the beginning of the 1990s it was identified as a human pathogen, causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA, Europe and the far east of Russia. A. phagocytophilum is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle including ticks as the main vector and a wide range of mammalian species as reservoirs. Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected in Estonia, Belarus and the European part of Russia and screened for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Positive samples were found only among I. ricinus, in 13.4% in the European part of Russia, 4.2% in Belarus, 1.7% in mainland Estonia and 2.6% on Saaremaa Island. Positive samples were sequenced for partial 16S rRNA, groESL and ankA genes and phylogenetic analyses were performed. The results showed that A. phagocytophilum circulating in Eastern Europe belongs to different groESL lineages and 16S rRNA gene variants and also consists of variable numbers of repetitive elements within the ankA gene.

  19. Principales características técnicas de los Tractores BELARUS series 500 y 300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Shkiliova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo brindar información sobre las características técnicas de los tractores BELARUS series 500 y 300. Estas series de tractores pueden ser utilizados en varias combinaciones en los trabajos agrícolas.

  20. Primary care reform in Central and Eastern Europe: can Belarus be taken as the control group in international comparison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Rousovich, V.S.; Schellevis, F.G.; Egorov, K.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Health care reform proceeds differently in Belarus. The country has not followed trends visible in most other countries. Financing and provision of health care is still in the hands of the state. Health insurance funds are unknown, private practices are rare and operating outside the sys

  1. 20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

  2. [Alcohol sales and pulmonary tuberculosis mortality in the Republic of Belarus in 1981 to 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovskiĭ, Iu E

    2006-01-01

    The fact that there is an association of alcohol abuse with pulmonary tuberculosis is well documented. The effect of alcohol sales per capita on tuberculosis mortality rates is considerably less known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the beverage-specific effect of alcohol on pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates. Trends in pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates in Belarus from 1981 to 2001 were analyzed in relation to those in the level of sales of various alcoholic beverages per capita, by applying the time series analysis. The analysis demonstrated a positive and statistically significant effect of changes in per capita alcohol sale levels on pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates. It suggests that a 1% increase in alcohol sales per capita might cause 0.49 and 0.36% increases in pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates in males and females, respectively. This study also indicates that tuberculosis prevention programs should place more emphasis on alcohol problems.

  3. Winter cyclone frequency and following freshet streamflow formation on the rivers in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partasenok, Irina S.; Groisman, Pavel Ya; Chekan, Grigoriy S.; Melnik, Viktor I.

    2014-09-01

    We studied long-term fluctuations of streamflow and occurrence of extreme phenomena on the rivers of Belarus during the post-World War II period. It was found that formation of annual runoff within the nation has no constant tendencies and varies from year to year. At the same time, analysis of intra-annual distribution of streamflow reveals significant changes since the 1970s, first of all, increase of winter and decrease of spring streamflow. As a result, the frequency of extreme floods has decreased. These changes in water regime are associated with climatic anomalies (increase of the surface air temperatures) caused by large-scale alterations in atmospheric circulation, specifically in trajectories of cyclones. During the last two decades, the frequency of Atlantic and southern cyclones has changed and caused decreasing of cold season storms and extreme phenomena on the rivers.

  4. The A.C.R.O. in Belarus point on the actions led for one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project aims to set up a radiological surveillance at the population service and to facilitate the access to the measures and information about the local situation at the villages level. Concretely, it is a question of opening posts of measures in the main villages of the district, of launching campaigns of measures of the internal contamination of the schooled children (anthropo-gamma-metry), to set up a observatory of the radiological situation at the villages level, to facilitate the organization of places of exchange (public meetings, meeting circles), and of information (public display of the measures results) and to develop educational actions in schools. This initiative develops within the framework of the international program C.O.R.E. which federates the projects led on the four most contaminated districts in Belarus. (N.C.)

  5. The neuro-muscular system in fresh-water furcocercaria from Belarus. I Schistosomatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Chrisanfova, Galina G; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-01-01

    The neuro-muscular system (NMS) in cercariae of the family Schistosomatidae from Belarus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The specimens of Bilharziella polonica were compared with Trichobilharzia szidati and Trichobilharzia franki. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT-immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR in sensory receptors and nerves were investigated. No indications of structural differences in the musculature, the 5-HT-IR, FMRF-IR neuronal elements and the general distribution of sensory receptors were noticed between cercariae of Trichobilharzia spp. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the cercarial bodies is 16. In cercaria B. polonica, the tail musculature is weaker than in Trichobilharzia spp. A detailed schematic picture of the NMS in the tail of Trichobilharzia spp. cercaria is given. The function of NMS elements in the tail is discussed.

  6. Trends, patterns, and determinants of regional mortality in Belarus, 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Pavel; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Shkolnikov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We report analyses of regional trends in overall and cause-specific mortality in Belarus for the period 1990-2007. We explore the respective spatial patterns and attempt to determine the factors responsible for the regional mortality variation. The results show that inter-regional mortality differentials tend to rise, mainly because of the growing advantage of the capital over other regions. The increasing variation is associated with diverging trends in mortality from external causes of death. Mortality tends to be higher in the eastern part of the country. Regional data show that changes in mortality are largely explained by alcohol and socio-economic conditions, as measured by unemployment and poverty rates. Cardiovascular and external-cause mortality are strongly associated with alcohol and unemployment, while poverty is an important predictor of suicide and homicide mortality. Clusters of elevated mortality from certain cancers located in the contaminated zone point to the possible impact of the Chernobyl accident.

  7. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Yermalovich

    Full Text Available As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV, rubella virus (RV and human parvovirus B19 (B19V. The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV and adenovirus (AdV. Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6. A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7% cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  8. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  9. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermalovich, Marina A; Semeiko, Galina V; Samoilovich, Elena O; Svirchevskaya, Ekaterina Y; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M

    2014-01-01

    As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV), rubella virus (RV) and human parvovirus B19 (B19V). The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV) and adenovirus (AdV). Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7%) cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  10. Human parvovirus B19 surveillance in patients with rash and fever from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermalovich, Marina A; Hübschen, Judith M; Semeiko, Galina V; Samoilovich, Elena O; Muller, Claude P

    2012-06-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in immunocompetent patients usually has a mild clinical course, but during pregnancy it can cause serious and even fatal complications in the fetus. The most common clinical presentation of B19V infection is erythema infectiosum and in this case laboratory confirmation is required for differentiation from other exanthematous diseases. Measles and rubella negative sera collected in Belarus between 2005 and 2008 from 906 patients with a rash and fever were screened for B19V infection by ELISA. More than 35% of the samples (322/906) were positive for B19V. The proportion ranged from 10.1% in 2008 to 53.2% in 2006 when an outbreak took place in Minsk city. All B19V outbreaks and cluster cases occurred during the winter-spring period, but sporadic cases were recorded basically throughout the year. The majority of the cases (56.5%) occurred among the 2 till 10 year old children, and 27.3% of the cases were observed in adults between 19 and 53 years. All 104 B19V strains sequenced in the NS1/VP1u region belonged to genotype 1 with a maximal genetic distance of 1.75%. The two phylogenetic clusters reflected the geographic origins of the viruses within the country. Forty-two unique nucleotide mutations as compared to sequences downloaded from GenBank were found in the VP1u and NS1 regions; most of these changes were nonsynonymous. This report highlights the importance of B19V infection in patients with a rash and fever in Belarus.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  12. Molecular epidemiology of C. diphtheriae strains during different phases of the diphtheria epidemic in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimont Patrick AD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reemergence of epidemic diphtheria in Belarus in 1990s has provided us with important information on the biology of the disease and the diversity of the causative agent Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Molecular investigations were conducted with the aim to analyze the genetic variability of C diphtheriae during the post-epidemic period. Methods The biotype and toxigenicity status of 3513 C. diphtheriae strains isolated from all areas in Belarus during a declining period of diphtheria morbidity (1996–2005 was undertaken. Of these, 384 strains were isolated from diphtheria cases, 1968 from tonsillitis patients, 426 from contacts and 735 from healthy carriers. Four hundred and thirty two selected strains were ribotyped. Results The C diphtheriae gravis biotype, which was prevalent during 1996–2000, was "replaced" by the mitis biotype during 2001–2005. The distribution of toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains also decreased from 47.1% (1996 to 5.8% (2005. Changes in the distribution of the epidemic ribotypes Sankt-Peterburg and Rossija were also observed. During 2001–2005 the proportion of the Sankt-Peterburg ribotype decreased from 24.3% to 2.3%, in contrast to the Rossija ribotype, that increased from 25.1% to 49.1%. The circulation of other toxigenic ribotypes (Otchakov, Lyon, Bangladesh, which were prevalent during the period of high diphtheria incidence, also decreased. But at the same time, the proportion of non-toxigenic strains with the Cluj and Rossija ribotypes dramatically increased and accounted for 49.3% and 30.1%, respectively. Conclusion The decrease in morbidity correlated with the dramatic decrease in the isolation of the gravis biotype and Sankt Peterburg ribotype, and the prevalence of the Rossija ribotype along with other rare ribotypes associated with non-toxigenic strains (Cluj and Rossija, in particular.

  13. Development of infrastructure for epidemiological studies in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 raised worldwide concern about the health effects of the radiation fallout. International collaborations were established between scientist; to investigate the long-term consequences of the accident. However, lack of knowledge abut the mechanisms of data collection and the quality of basic epidemiological tools, such as mortality and cancer incidence, has been recognized as a major limitation for the conduct of epidemiological investigations according to international standards in the Newly Independent States (NIS). In the framework of a collaboration which aims to develop and implement epidemiological infrastructure in Belarus, the Russian Federation and he Ukraine, a survey on cancer registration techniques was conducted. A system of compulsory reporting of all new cases of cancer was introduced in 1953 throughout hie former Soviet Union for health planning purposes. This cancer registration system, however, was developed entirely independent from similar activities in other parts of hie World. In each of the countries surveyed, a nationwide network of regional dispensary-based cancer registries exists. Cancer registration in the NIS relies on passive reporting from hospital and laboratory sources. Death certificates are searched actively. Whereas: in Belarus and the Ukraine computerized cancer registration has been developed in recent years, cancer registration in most areas of the Russian Federation is still a manual operation. Although computerization was identified as the major objective in all tree countries, further efforts are required to assess the completeness and the quality of the information collected. The introduction of internationally recognized classifications wold considerably improve the comparability with registries in other parts of the World. In addition to preparing annual statistics for health planning purposes, cancer registries should consider reporting cancer incidence for research purposes following

  14. Molecular analysis of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI in Poland, Belarus, Lithuania and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurecka, Agnieszka; Piotrowska, Ewa; Cimbalistiene, Loreta; Gusina, Nina; Sobczyńska, Agnieszka; Czartoryska, Barbara; Czerska, Kamila; Õunap, Katrin; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2012-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (ARSB). Over 130 ARSB gene mutations have been identified thus far and most mutations are unique to individual families. We aimed to analyze the spectrum of mutations in the ARSB gene responsible for the disorder in Poland, Belarus and Baltic States. Twenty one families with MPS VI patients, in whom diagnosis was confirmed biochemically and enzymatically, were studied. Direct sequencing of patient genomic DNA was used to identify ARSB mutations. In total, fourteen different disease-causing mutations were found. Three novel mutations included insertion c.375_376insT, a missense mutation c.499G>A (p.G167R) and deletion/insertion c.750_754delinsCCTGAAGTCAAG. We also report 11 previously described mutations (p.A33V, p.W57C, p.Q88X, p.T92K, p.Q97X, p.R152W, p.R160Q, p.R160X, p.Y210C, p.Y266S, p.G302R). The mutation p.R152W was present at a high prevalence of 50% (21/42) the mutated alleles in this group of patients. High prevalence of p.R152W mutation in Poland, Belarus and Baltic States indicates a possible founder effect and suggests that screening for this mutation may be appropriate in MPS VI patients from this region. Our study has also provided evidence to support genotype-phenotype correlation.

  15. Results of incorporation measurements in children of Belarus; Ergebnisse von Inkorporationsmessungen an weissrussischen Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, F.; Ogris, E.; Weidlich, G. [Donauspital, Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik und Therapie; Aiginger, H. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    By sponsoring of the Austrian government 24 children from Belarus were invited for treatment of thyroid cancer by Iodine-131 in the Donauspital, Vienna. As part of the diagnostic procedure whole-body-acquisitions were performed with the whole-body-counter of the department. The obtained spectra were evaluated for {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. All children showed activities of Iodine-131. The mean `minimum detectable activity` (MDA) was 80 Bq. In 88 percent of the children activities in the range between 194 Bq and 2160 Bq were detected. Partly these incorporations can be explained by a previous iodine therapy, the rest is assumed to be the result from diagnostic interventions. 23 out of 24 children showed more ore less activities of {sup 137}Cs. {sup 137}Cs was measured from 2 Bq/kg up to 59 Bq/kg. The results have been compared with the official topographic map with the data on radiation contamination of the republic Belarus. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines Hilfsprogrammes der Oesterreichischen Bundesregierung wurden 24 Kinder aus Weissrussland im Wiener Donauspital mittels einer Radiojodtherapie wegen des Vorliegens eines Schilddruesenkarzinoms behandelt. Als Bestandteil der diagnostischen Abklaerung wurden die Kinder einer Messung am Ganzkoerperzaehler unterzogen. Die dabei erhaltenen Spektren wurden hinsichtlich ihrer {sup 131}I und {sup 137}Cs Aktivitaeten ausgewertet. Bei allen Kindern konnte {sup 131}I erkannt werden. Bei einer mittleren `Minimum Detectable Activity` (MDA) von ca. 80 Bq wurden bei 88 Prozent der Kinder Aktivitaeten zwischen 194 Bq und 2160 Bq nachgewiesen. Ein Teil dieser Aktivitaeten laesst sich durch eine vorangegangene Radiojodtherapie recht gut erklaeren. Fuer die restlichen {sup 131}I Inkorporationen wurden vorangegangene diagnostische Fragestellungen angenommen. 23 von 24 Kindern zeigten Hinweise auf mehr oder weniger grosse Aktivitaeten von {sup 137}Cs. Der Bereich der gemessenen Aktivitaeten liegt von 2 Bq/kg bis 59 Bq/kg. Die

  16. Analysis of Engineering Pricing System in Belarus%白俄罗斯工程造价体系解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锐娟; 王玉平; 田京精

    2016-01-01

    对白俄罗斯工程计价体系和局部预算作详细介绍。在此基础上,以明斯克国际机场飞行区工程为实例进行预算体系说明,旨在为中国建筑企业开拓白俄罗斯市场提供技术支持。%The paper introduces Belarus engineering cost system and engineering quota in details. On this basis, illustrates the budget system of airfield area of Minsk International Airport,in order to provide technical support for Chinese constructors to explore Belarus construction market.

  17. Radioecological problems of the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and the ways of their solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on the scale of contamination of Belarus with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident are given. The overall contaminated areas with radiation density of caesium-137 exceeding 3.7 * 10-circumflex 4 Bq/sq.km amount to 46,5 thousands of square kilometers. It is shown, that in 1993 the radioactivity at the territory of Belarus accounts for more than 3.7 * 10-circumflex 16 Bq. The paper presents the characteristics of the main contributors to the radiological situation. The characterization of the patterns of contamination of soil, water systems, forests is considered. The paper gives the organizing structure of control over the processes of elimination of the post-effects of the Chernobyl accident. The need for urgent development of the project for changing the contaminated territories into ecologically safe system is indicated. The suggestions on organizing the International Safety System against accidents at potentially hazardous industrial enterprises are given. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. PECULIAR FEATURES OF CRITERIA PERTAINING TO SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS AND THEIR DIFFERENCE IN BELARUS, RUSSIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Kozel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are definite criteria that help to classify individual entrepreneurs and organizations as small and medium business categories. Definition of an economic management subject as a small enterprise and an individual entrepreneur provides possibilities to obtain tax privileges and other preferences in some countries.The paper considers peculiar features of criteria that allow to define an economic management subject as a small and medium business in Belarus, Russia and Poland. Comparison has been carried out according to such criteria as average manpower, type of economic activity, annual turnover, purpose of the activity and founder staff.The comparative analysis has made it possible to reveal similar features and significant differences between criteria used for definition of small entrepreneurship in the above-mentioned countries. Corresponding conclusions in respect of Belarus are made in the paper. The paper also contains evaluation of application of some criteria in our country.

  19. Geoecological features of Belarus lakes – the habitats of relict species Isoëtes lacustris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Boris

    2012-01-01

    In Belarus 16 habitats of relict species lake quillwort (Isoëtes lacustris L.) are registered. Lakes were studied in the period from 1972 to 2011. Populations of Isoëtes lacustris L. in the lakes differ with morphology of plants, abundance, frequency of occurrence, partial projected foliage cover. Development of populations of the spe-cies is limited by morphometric characteristics of lake hollow, hydrophysical and hydrochemical parameters of the environment. Evaluation of lake quillwort tole...

  20. The right and ownership on cultural heritage of Ukraine, historical and cultural values of the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Мартиненко, Ігор

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the features of the right of ownership of cultural heritage monuments and other cultural values. A comparative analysis of the legislation of the Republic of Belarus and Ukraine, the rules governing the ownership and protection of cultural heritage. Proposals for improving the legislation of the two countries. The results can be used in legislative activities in the educational process. English abstract   I. Martynenka The right and ownership on cultural heritage of Ukra...

  1. Small doses of ionizing radiation and possible genetic consequences for the residents of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Republic of Belarus National Genetic Monitoring for Congenital Malformations and Regional Monitoring for the Anomalies Found in Embryos and Fetuses showed an increased anomaly frequency in embryos and fetuses. The increase correlated with Cs-137 contamination density, but no linear dependence on collective and average individual doses for the individuals of reproductive age has been found. No direct teratogenic effect of Chernobyl accident has been revealed, but the effect through mutations in gamets is possible. (author)

  2. Forming of the system of the financial providing of innovative development of economy of Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Mjatnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major condition of efficiency of realization of innovative projects and programs is their financial maintenance. In article the analysis of use of various sources of financing and the state preferences is carried out by working out and realization of innovative projects and programs. Assumptions on formation of uniform system of financial maintenance of innovative development of economy of Belarus are stated.

  3. Bäuerliche Selbstorganisation, bäuerliches Erfahrungswissen und bäuerlicher Widerstand in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad Berghuber

    2015-01-01

    Ausgehend vom Commonsdiskurs und von anarchistischen Vorstellungen über bäuerliches Leben als Vorbild für eine solidarische Gesellschaft untersucht der vorliegende Artikel bäuerliche Selbstorganisation, bäuerliches Erfahrungswissen und bäuerliche Kämpfe gegen herrschende Schichten auf dem Gebiet von Belarus seit der Abschaffung der Leibeigenschaft 1861. Anhaltspunkte bäuerlicher Selbstorganisation stellen die Obschtschina sowie Kooperationen bei der Produktion und der Maschinennutzung...

  4. High treason. The activity of The Communist Party of Western Belarus in Vilnius in 1930 – 1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiusz Łukasiewicz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to attempt to explain the activities of the Communist Party of Western Belarus in Vilnius during the first half of the thirties of the twentieth century. The author's aim is to show the organisation, theory and practice of this illegal party. Furthermore, the intention is to present the activities of Vilnius police towards communist sympathizers and activists. Founded in 1923 in Vilnius, the Communist Party of Western Belarus was a branch of The Communist Party of Poland. This organization like the polish communist party was illegal. Its aim was to combat the Polish state and to perform electioneering for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Although the name of the party could indicate a desire for independence of Belarus, in practice it was for the removal of the north eastern provinces of the Second Republic of Poland to the USSR. CPWB activity had a special dimension in Vilnius. As the region's largest city and former capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnus was home for many nations, religions and cultures. Moreover, Vilnius was the most important field for communist action . Given the number of inhabitants, industrialized multi-ethnic character, communists had the opportunity to develop wide subversive and conspiratorial work. In addition, the city was the great centre of production and distribution of communist publications, which allowed the spread of propaganda in both its administrative boundaries and in the Vilnius Voivodeship.

  5. Water resources change in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the post-soviet period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades large changes in the state, formation and utilization of water resources have taken place on the territory of the former Soviet Union. There are several reasons for this. Water resources change is caused by different natural and anthropogenic factors. The main reason is climatic, first of all warming during cold seasons and augmentation of rainfall in winter and in summer. During the last 15 years on the territories of Russia and Belarus the rise in river runoff has been observed. Changes in the river runoff in Ukraine were not so certain in the ninetieth but at the very end of the 20th century the raise was also seen. Change of the climatic conditions coincides with the human impact on water resources. After the collapse of the Soviet Union there were great changes in political, social and economic spheres of the new formed states. The economic recession as well as the economic rise since the last years of the 20th century has affected the state of water resources. During the last 15 years water use and therefore water sewage reduction has been well seen. The structure of water consumption and therefore of all water management is defined by climatic conditions. First of all it is seen in irrigated agriculture, but also takes place in other branches of water management. We tried to show the dependence of some water consumption characteristics on the mean annual air temperature and on its correlation with the annual precipitation in the regions of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. It was found out that in the regions of Russia with low air temperature water consumption per area unit is less than on the territories with high air temperature. This is typical for the period of economic recession after the collapse of the USSR, as well as for the period of economic growth during the last years. Besides, more severe climate in Russia causes lower water consumption per area unit, at the same time in Russia self-purification is less intensive

  6. Autoantibodies in children with alopecia areata from various radioecological areas of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a nonscarring form of hair loss in humans. The most widely held belief is that AA is an autoimmune disease. After Chernobyl accident there has been an increase in autoimmunity pathology in Belarus including AA. The aim of the study was to asses the prevalence of autoantibodies in children with AA from various radioecological areas of Belarus. 87 patients (mean age - 10.3 +- 0.4) with AA were included in this study. 250 healthy children of the same age were studied as a control. Hair follicle antibodies (AB-HF) were measured by Western immunoblotting. Autoantibodies to thyroidperoxidase (AB-TPO) and thyroglobuline (AB-TG) were measured by radioimmunoassay using Medipan diagnostic kits. Autoantibodies to DNA were detected by immunopresipitation assay. We divided all children with AA on three groups: 1 - 14 children from noncontaminated area; 2 - 39 children from radio contaminated region and 3- patients from Minsk-city. The frequency of positive AB-TG in patients from group 2 (12%) was significantly higher in comparison to group 1 and 3 (0%). The proportion of children positive for both AB-TPO and AB-TG also was higher in group from contaminated area (8% vs 0%, 0%, p<0.001). There was significant difference in the incidence of AB-DNA between children from Minsk-city and children from non contaminated area (18.5% vs 0%, p<0.05). The frequency of positive both AB-TPO and AB-DNA in group 2 (6.9%) was almost the same as in the group 3 (7.1%). The prevalence of non-specific for AA autoantibodies was significantly higher in patients from radio contaminated area than in children from non contaminated region (44.9% vs 9%, p<0,001). The prevalence of specific hair follicle autoantibodies was significantly higher in children from contaminated region than patients from non contaminated area (50% vs 18%, p<0.05). Positive levels of were found in 36% of patients from Minsk-city. The increase of frequency specific and non-specific autoantibodies in children

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF FINANCIAL PERSONNEL NUMBER IN ARMED FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bolshakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to reduction of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus and necessity to carry out economically reasonable reforms optimizing strength of financial personnel with the purpose to decrease its number but without undermining financial and operational activities of the Armed Forces as a whole. It has been proposed to optimize strength of financial personnel in the Armed Forces while executing organizational staff transformations such as introduction of a centralized accounting system for service personnel by an example of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.Normative for financial personnel strength of the supposed unified financial centre which is involved in accounting recordings on salary and other payments has been calculated on the basis of inter-branch standards. While taking as an example a conventional organization “B” with staff strength which is equal to the strength of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus the possible efficiency in introduction of the centralized accounting system for service personnel has been determined in the paper. According to represented calculations reduction of financial personnel dealing with accounting recordings on salary and other payments in the whole organization “B” can constitute up to 60 persons with more than 200 branches which are carrying out independent payment accounting for personnel concerned.Dependence of strength normative on number of financial bodies, percentage of personnel receiving payments through a unified financial centre and concentration of financial and economic document circulation has been determined in the paper. It has been pointed out that it is not sufficient to determine quantitative indices in order to ensure an objective reflection of the efficiency of possible introduction of the centralized accounting system for service personnel in the Armed Forces. In order to obtain complete information it is

  8. An example of rehabilitation strategies for radioactive contaminated areas in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for remediation and rehabilitation of areas contaminated by radionuclides is largely based on the predictions of individual doses, the internal doses being estimated by the potential contribution of major food products. As an example, the Chechersk region in the Gomel district has been selected to represent areas where, in 1995, individual doses exceeded the national dose limit of 1 mSv/yr. For this area, the contribution of food consumption to the total dose has been estimated, and measures for its reduction are proposed. The radical improvement of pastures for grazing of private dairy cows is one of the most effective measures to reduce internal 137Cs doses. It is shown that the use of herbage from a cultivated pasture with an average 137Cs contamination level of 405 kBq/m2 during five subsequent years leads to an individual accumulative averted dose from milk consumption of 0.98 mSv, which is below the given dose limit of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. In this paper estimates of fluxes of mainly 137Cs and to a smaller extent of 90Sr associated with foodstuffs derived from various ecosystems are given and account is also taken of the radioactivity exported from the area

  9. State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

  10. [Treatment results of neuroblastoma in children in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proleskovskaia, I V; Savich, T V; Mareĭko, Iu E; Savva, N N; Aleĭnikova, O V

    2009-01-01

    Our investigation was concerned with effectiveness of infantile neuroblastoma treatment in Belarus and dependence of prognosis on extent of radical surgery. The study involved 115 patients with morphologically confirmed diagnosis of primary tumor who were treated at the Center (1997-2007). Ten-year overall and relapse-free survival rates for favorable prognosis, stage I, II, III, were 1.00 and 0.94 +/- 0.04, respectively. They were significantly higher than those for intermediate (0.70 +/- 0.09 and 0.61 +/- 0.09) or high risk (0.32 +/- 0.08 and 0.27 +/- 0.08), respectively, (p < or = 0.01). The results for radical local surgery were better: 5-year relapse-free survival--0.82 +/- 0.09 as compared with subtotal excision (0.62 +/- 0.12) and biopsy (0.5 +/- 0.25) among patients older than 12 months. Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) was followed by significant improvement: 6-year overall and relapse-free survival (stage IV) (0.5 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12, respectively) as compared those without ASCT (0.12 +/- 0.08 and 0.1 +/- 0.08), respectively, (p < or = 0.01). The main cause of death after ASCT was relapse. Poor results following post-ASCT treatment of stage IV tumor should be improved by more effective detection and removal of tumor cell harvest. PMID:19514379

  11. [Treatment results of neuroblastoma in children in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proleskovskaia, I V; Savich, T V; Mareĭko, Iu E; Savva, N N; Aleĭnikova, O V

    2009-01-01

    Our investigation was concerned with effectiveness of infantile neuroblastoma treatment in Belarus and dependence of prognosis on extent of radical surgery. The study involved 115 patients with morphologically confirmed diagnosis of primary tumor who were treated at the Center (1997-2007). Ten-year overall and relapse-free survival rates for favorable prognosis, stage I, II, III, were 1.00 and 0.94 +/- 0.04, respectively. They were significantly higher than those for intermediate (0.70 +/- 0.09 and 0.61 +/- 0.09) or high risk (0.32 +/- 0.08 and 0.27 +/- 0.08), respectively, (p < or = 0.01). The results for radical local surgery were better: 5-year relapse-free survival--0.82 +/- 0.09 as compared with subtotal excision (0.62 +/- 0.12) and biopsy (0.5 +/- 0.25) among patients older than 12 months. Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) was followed by significant improvement: 6-year overall and relapse-free survival (stage IV) (0.5 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12, respectively) as compared those without ASCT (0.12 +/- 0.08 and 0.1 +/- 0.08), respectively, (p < or = 0.01). The main cause of death after ASCT was relapse. Poor results following post-ASCT treatment of stage IV tumor should be improved by more effective detection and removal of tumor cell harvest.

  12. Possibilities of wood fuel use on the territory of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus has some experience of wood biomass use for power engineering aims. All the necessary equipment, assigned for power production, is manufactured at own enterprises. Belarus possesses great forest resources, total forests area makes up 8 676,1 thou ha. In the average as for the republic the percentage of forests volume makes up 37,7%. The greatest percent of forest scope have Gomel and Vitebsk regions (44,6% and 38,1% correspondingly). Of 118 administrative regions the forest scope above 20% have 15 regions (Rossonskij - 66,8%, Lel'chitsy - 66,5%). The forest scope less 20% is marked on the territory of 8 regions (Nesvizh - 9,6%, Berestovitsy - 14,6%, Zel'venskij - 14,8%). Wood reserves make up 1 437,9 mln. m3 on the republic's territory. The greatest wood reserves are noted on the territory of Gomel, (323,6 mln. m3 ), Minsk (286,4 mln. m3 ) and Vitebsk (272,0 mln. m3 ) regions. The least ones - Brest and Grodno regions (191, and 158,7 mln. m3 correspondingly). Reserves of coniferous sorts make up 955,9 mln. m3 , solid-leaf-bearing breeds - 532,8 mln. m3 , soft-leaf-bearing ones - 427,8 mln. m3. The Republic of Belarus fuel timber potential resources consist of: 1. Wood to be stores as: a) main use of forests; b) cuts due to forest management; c) sanitary cuts; d) other cuts. 2. Logging waste. 3. Wood sawing waste due to timber processing. Lumbering resources make up the basis of fuel potential of the Republic of Belarus in wood fuel and directly refer to fuel resources resulting from lumbering and timber processing. Main scope of forest funds to be assigned for industrial use is under the authority of Ministry of Forest Management. Amount of forest cuts waste (knots, branches, foliage, needles, stumps, roots) makes up 35% of trunk wood volume. As a calculated forest cuts of 7,2 mln. m3 in 2006 1,2-1,3 mln. m3 (0,8...0,9 ml t) may be used as a fuel. By 2015 this scope may reach 2,0-2,5 mln. m3 (1,4-1,8 ml t). Most reserves of liquid timber have district

  13. Remediation Strategy and Practice on Agricultural Land Contaminated with 137Cs and 90Sr in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to review existing data on the efficiency and acceptability of agricultural countermeasures for reducing of internal exposures introduced by consumption of foodstuff produced on land contaminated by 137Cs and 90Sr. Currently, there are strongly reduced state budget resources for mitigating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. No more than 50% of the required agricultural protective measures could be financed in the last years. There is an increased need for an optimal use of available resources. New efforts are needed to identify sustainable ways to make use of the most affected areas that reflect the radiation hazard, but also revive the economic potential for the benefit of the community. For this reason the practical complex assessment and justifying of countermeasure application in the most contaminated rural districts of Belarus are the main directions of rehabilitation activity to ensure the radiation protection of people for long term after Chernobyl accident. Countermeasures have to lead to the profitable or self-sufficient production of harvests with low radionuclide contamination. The complex of the effective countermeasures has been worked out and implemented mostly in public sector of agriculture. However, particular attention must be given to the production of private farms of several hundred settlements, where samples of milk still contain radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr in excess relative to the established limits

  14. Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure Assessment on Thyroid Cancer Risk among Persons in Belarus Exposed as Children or Adolescents Due to the Chernobyl Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available The excess incidence of thyroid cancer in Ukraine and Belarus observed a few years after the Chernobyl accident is considered to be largely the result of 131I released from the reactor. Although the Belarus thyroid cancer prevalence data has been previously analyzed, no account was taken of dose measurement error.We examined dose-response patterns in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 11,732 persons aged under 18 at the time of the accident, diagnosed during 1996-2004, who had direct thyroid 131I activity measurement, and were resident in the most radio-actively contaminated regions of Belarus. Three methods of dose-error correction (regression calibration, Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo were applied.There was a statistically significant (p0.2.In summary, the relatively small contribution of unshared classical dose error in the current study results in comparatively modest effects on the regression parameters.

  15. Experience of work with population concerning the problem on state of the objects radioecologically dangerous located close by the Minsk-City, the capital of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus has no operating reactors at present. But the Chernobyl syndrome has roused the increased and morbid interest of the population for the state of nuclear and radiation dangerous objects located in the settlement Sosny being at km from Minsk-city where Academician Science and Technical Complex - Sosny. The Institute was engaged in creation of nuclear power plants with a new type of coolant. Nuclear reactors unique in Belarus were operated here, such as the research reactor IRT-M and a pilot small-sized mobile NPP which was tested. Moreover, the only point for storing radioactive waste in Belarus is situated in proximity of Sosny. In 1998 after the visit of the President of the Republic of Belarus some journalists have made statements at a non-qualification level in their transmissions by television, publications in newspapers about the fact that there are two tons of weapons plutonium and highly enriched uranium in nuclear storage facilities of ASTC Sosny. Five years ago Belarus joined the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, International Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Nuclear materials are stored under supervision of the IAEA from 1996. It is naturally that the presence of a large radioactive waste disposal facility (PDWD) near Minsk-city rises alarm in population. At present the project on PDWD reconstruction has been carried out. The project of PDWD reconstruction has passed through the ecological examination according to the order accepted in Belarus and has been discussed in various departments and bodies of local authorities

  16. Variation of X-chromosomal microsatellites in Belarus within the context of their genetic diversity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Kotova, Svetlana A; Rybakova, Veranika I; Zabauskaya, Tatsiana V; Shyla, Alena A; Spivak, Alena A; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2015-05-01

    More and more X-STR data are becoming available for worldwide human populations for forensic and anthropological investigations, but the European datasets analysed so far represent mainly the central, northern, western and southern part of the continent with populations of Eastern Europe being practically uninvestigated. In the present study, we assessed genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium of 19 X-chromosomal STR markers (DXS7132, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS8377, DXS8378, DXS9895, DXS10074, DXS10075, DXS10079, DXS10101, DXS10103, DXS10134, DXS10135, DXS10146, DXS10147, DXS10148, GATA172D05, HPRTB) in four regional populations of an Eastern European state of Belarus, including 12 loci incorporated in the Argus X-12 kit. Our results revealed cumulative power of discrimination of the tested X-STR loci to amount to 0.999999999999996 and 0.999999997 in females and males, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated regional stratification within the country, excluding the use of a common X-STR database for Belarus in forensic casework. However, development of a separate X-STR database for the northwestern part of the country or exclusion of four loci displaying regional differences from the dataset were shown to eliminate the observed geographic substructure among Belarusians. Comparison of the Belarusian genotypes with X-STR data from other European populations disclosed a geography-driven northeast-southwest gradient extending from Belarus and Finland to Iberia and Italy. This study is the first extensive report on variation of X-STR markers in populations from Eastern Europe and the first comprehensive analysis of diversity of X-chromosomal microsatellites in Europe.

  17. 白俄罗斯声乐研究在中国%Belarus vocal music study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖越歌

    2014-01-01

    2013年中国与白俄罗斯两国首脑共同将两国关系提升至全面战略伙伴关系,开启了中白关系新纪元。两国间的文化交流更加稳固,白俄罗斯深厚的专业音乐教育为中国培养了一批优秀的歌唱家与声乐教育师资。我国对于白俄罗斯的声乐教育研究主要基于这些学成归国的博士、硕士学位获得者,他们在留学期间得益于语言、资料的优势,研究视角关注了身边的人和事,这对于推动中白音乐文化交流起到了重要的作用。%In 2013 China and belarus to relations between the two countries up to the heads of the two countries comprehensive strategic partnership, opens the white relations in new era. Cultural exchanges between the two countries, belarus profound professional music education for China to cultivate a batch of excellent singers and vocal music education of teachers. For belarus's vocal music education research in China is mainly based on these, Dr., master's degree gainer learn homecoming, they benefit from the advantages of language, and information during the study, the research perspectives focus on the people and things around, this to promote the white music played an important role in cultural communication.

  18. Least cost analysis of Belarus electricity generation system with focus on nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A basic feature of the Belarus electricity system is that about 50% of the installed power capacity is used to produce heat for the central heating supply system. The Republic has one of the most developed districts heating system in Europe. The installation started in 1930, and developed very fast after 1945. Co-generation of electricity and thermal energy in central power plants has played a fundamental role in the local economy. Presently, Belarus electricity generation system includes: Total installed capacities of condensing turbines 3665 MW; Total installed capacities of co-generation turbines 3889 MW. It is expected that in 2020 in accordance with electricity demand forecast peak load demand will be equaled approximately 9500 MW. Taking into account that operation time of 60 % existent co-generation turbine and 70 % of condensing turbine can be extended up to 2020 during the period 2005 - 2020 it is necessity to install about 1500 MW of new co-generation units and about 2000 MW of condensing turbines. To select the least cost scenario for electricity generation system expansion improved computer code WASP-IV for Windows had been used. As far code WASP-IV do not allow finding out optimal solution for electricity generation system with high share of co-generation directly the methodology of application of this program for this case had been developed. Methodology is based on utilization of code WASP-IV for simulation condensing turbines and module BALANCE for modeling co-generation part of the system. The scenarios for the electricity system expansion plan included only conventional technologies. Presently, the works connected with the preparedness for NPP construction in the Republic including site survey for NPP are being carried out. The first stage of siting process according to the IAEA classification has been completed. It was based on a set of criteria answered to A Safety Guide of the IAEA Site Survey for Nuclear Power Plants and requirements to be

  19. Implementation of electron and deuteron accelerators in medicine, science and industry in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Research in the field of radiation chemistry, studying the peculiarities of interaction of ionizing irradiation with polymer materials, application of studying for production of medicinal preparations, sterilization of medical products and so on was started in Belarus in the late 60s on the basis of Co-60 source, 400 kCi and are being continued from 1993 with using linear electron accelerator installed at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute. The nominal average beam power is 10 kW with electron energy 10 MeV. The accelerators are equipped with a conveyer with the regulator velocity. The electron scheme for the conveyer's control is applied to carry boxes with the sizes of 45x75 cm2 to the electron accelerator with the velocity from 0.5 cm/s up to 5.0 cm/s. This industrial type facility allows to carry out investigations not only in the field of radiation chemistry, but also in medicine, industry and agriculture. Till today the only facility in Belarus where the radiation treatment of foodstuffs, medical herbs, sterilization of different types of medical devices, pharmaceuticals and raw materials, wound dressing, some food products are performed in a commercial scale. The Ministry of Health of the Republic has given permission for radiation treatment of the following food products: lactose, egg powder, spices, gelatin, meat of poultry, medical herbs. For radiation sterilization of medical devices and for radiation treatment of solid pharmaceuticals the dose 25 kGy was specified by the National State Authority.The project 'The Pilot-Scale Production of Hydrogel Dressings for Medical Purposes' (BYE/8/003) was approved within the framework of TC Program IAEA for 2001-2002 and was started in January. The project will be performed using electron accelerator. In the practice of radiation treatment EGS4 computer code is used to calculate the absorbed dose distribution in the boxes with the products to be irradiated. In 1998 the Institute

  20. First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine on the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First International Conference of European Commission, Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine on the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident has been held in Minsk, 18-22 March 1996. During the Conference 84 lectures as well as 74 posters have been presented. The most important problems connected with general topic was: the radiation contaminations and their measurements; environmental aspects and between them; radionuclide migration and remedial actions in contaminated areas; healthy consequences with irradiated people curing and epidemiology; thyroid neoplasms in children; organization rescue actions during future radiation disasters

  1. [Hygienic substantiation of maximum permissible concentrations of oil products in the soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V M; Il'yukova, I I; Kremko, L M; Prismotrov, Yu A; Samsonova, A S; Volod'ko, I K; Lukashev, O V

    2013-01-01

    Oil products are the one out of major pollutants in soil. For reduction of the technogenic load on human beings and performing preventive measures in the Republic of Belarus differentiated hygienic rate setting for oil products in the soil have been scientifically substantiated for follows different categories of Lands: agricultural lands, defense lands, lands for recreation, historical and cultural purpose, forest lands, lands of water fund, reserve lands--50 mg/kg; settlements sand, garden housing and dacha cooperatives,--100 mg/kg; industrial, transport, communication, energy, defense and other appointments lands--500 mg/kg.

  2. Effectiveness of countermeasures applied in Belarus to produce milk and meat with acceptable levels of radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsakova, S K

    1993-09-24

    Countermeasures taken in Belarus to reduce transfer of radiocaesium from feeds to animals have combined live monitoring and monitoring of radiocaesium (137Cs and 134Cs) in bulk milk on dairy farms with the setting of upper limits for radionuclide contents for animal feeds. Only uncontaminated feeds have been used in the final fattening of animals before slaughter. Combined with widespread soil management programmes these measures have allowed the continued use of the majority of contaminated agricultural lands without substantial changes in farming practices.

  3. Enteroviral infection outbreak in the Republic of Belarus: principal characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of etiological agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrosieva, Tamara V; Paklonskaya, Natallia V; Biazruchka, Aliaksei A; Kazinetz, Olga N; Bohush, Zoya F; Fisenko, Elena G

    2006-06-01

    For the last decade enterovirus outbreaks were registered in all of six districts of Belarus. Two of them, reported in 1997 (in Gomel) and in 2003 (in Minsk), were the most extensive and involved 461 and 1,351 patients respectively. Virus ECHO 30 was identified as the dominant etiologic agent of the outbreak in 1997 whereas co-circulation of ECHO 30, ECHO 6 and Coxsackievirus B5 took place in 2003. Analysis of clinical manifestations during the Minsk outbreak revealed unusually high rate of severe clinical forms of infection including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and myocardial disorders. Epidemiologic observation was ordinary for enterovirus epidemics in temperate climates: the peak of the outbreak was recorded during summer-autumn period of 2003, and 0-14 years old children predominated. Data from the case-control study indicated that illness was associated with drinking water from community water system. Also the laboratory examination demonstrated contamination of different water samples with the epidemic virus serotypes and sequence analysis showed high level of genetic similarity between waterborne and clinical isolates. For these reasons the outbreak should be classified as a waterborne one. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all Belarusian ECHO 30 isolates belong to the major genotype of ECHO 30 which has been circulating for last 15 years in Europe and North America. Viral agents of 2003 were very similar and substantially differed from isolates of 1997. Comparison of nucleotide sequences of isolates from myocarditis patients revealed their considerable genetic similarity with ECHO 30 isolates from patients with aseptic meningitis and from water. The results of the study draw attention to the importance of virological control of tap and bottled water as a relevant measure aimed at reduction of epidemiological risks.

  4. Short rotation coppice as alternative land use for Chernobyl-contaminated areas of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergey; Grebenkov, Alexander; Thiry, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in the Chernobyl-affected area to assess if short rotation coppice (SRC) for energy production is a feasible alternative for contaminated land. Four willow clones were planted on sandy and peaty soil and the radiocaesium (137Cs) and radiostrontium (90Sr) transfer factors (TF) and yield relevant parameters were recorded during four growing seasons. The 137Cs and 90Sr soil-to-willow wood TF on sandy soil (second growing season) were on average 1.40+/-1.06 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1) and 130+/-74 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1), respectively. The 137Cs TF recorded for the peaty soil (fourth growing season or end of the first rotation cycle) was on average 5.17+/-1.59 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1). The 90Sr-TF was on average 2.61+/-0.44 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1). No significant differences between clones for the 137Cs and 90Sr-TF were observed. Given the high TFs and the high deposition levels, Belarus exemption levels for fuel wood were highly exceeded. The annual average biomass production for one rotation cycle on the peaty soil ranged from 7.8 to 16.0 t ha(-1) y(-1) for one of the clones, comparable with average annual yield figures obtained for western Europe. On the sandy soils, first-year yields were 0.25 t ha(-1) y(-1). These soils are not suitable for SRC production and should better be dedicated to pine forests or drought-resistant grasses.

  5. Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

  6. Recommendations on health care and medical monitoring to the governments of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following recommendations on health care and medical monitoring to the governments of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine were presented: Continue annual medicals, including cardiovascular exams, on ARS survivors. Reconsider medical follow-up of persons exposed to < 1 Gy. Such follow-up programs are very unlikely to be cost-effective use funds saved to improve general health care programs, continue thyroid cancer screening for adults exposed as children, but evaluate this at intervals for cost-benefit and expected number of cases. Maintain high quality cancer registries to assist allocate public health resources and research. Monitor incidence rates of childhood leukaemia in highly exposed populations. Continue eye examinations in highly exposed populations; new information on radiation-induced cataracts at lower doses may come. Continue local registers on reproductive effects; may not be useful for research but may reassure the population. Inform local populations of the Forum results, including through health care professionals Chernobyl. Some key questions to follow-up: What will be the incidence of various cancers in highly exposed Chernobyl populations (emergency workers and resident of highly contaminated territories)? Will there be an excess risk of thyroid cancers in adults? What are the uncertainties in the estimates of thyroid doses? What is the role of radiation on the induction of cardiovascular disease? Studies should be conducted under a joint protocol with the 3 affected countries participating cooperatively. What is the effect of high doses of radiation on the immune. WHO will continue to participate in activities related to the health consequences and research. The Chernobyl Forum's goals of providing scientifically sound information and recommendations to the affected governments on how to provide more effective health care is a good model that should be used for other large accident areas

  7. Survey of computed tomography doses and establishment of national diagnostic reference levels in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuzhyk, S A; Matskevich, S A; Filjustin, A E; Bogushevich, E V; Ugolkova, S A

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was measured on eight CT scanners at seven public hospitals in the Republic of Belarus. The effective dose was calculated using normalised values of effective dose per dose-length product (DLP) over various body regions. Considerable variations of the dose values were observed. Mean effective doses amounted to 1.4 +/- 0.4 mSv for brain, 2.6 +/- 1.0 mSv for neck, 6.9 +/- 2.2 mSv for thorax, 7.0 +/- 2.3 mSv for abdomen and 8.8 +/- 3.2 mSv for pelvis. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed by calculating the third quartiles of dose value distributions (body region/volume CTDI, mGy/DLP, mGy cm): brain/60/730, neck/55/640, thorax/20/500, abdomen/25/600 and pelvis/25/490. It is evident that the protocols need to be optimised on some of the CT scanners, in view of the fact that these are the first formulated DRLs for the Republic of Belarus.

  8. Change of the radionuclide content of landscapes contamination in the small catchment at the Bryansk-Belarus caesium spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the joint Russian-Belarus RFBR-BelRFBR project no. 02-05-81011 will be shown. Information on the spatial redistribution of 137Cs within small catchment and through the connected landscapes is an important background for estimating consequences of the Chernobyl contamination. 137Cs can be used as a tracer for study the direction and intensity of geo-chemical processes in landscapes of small catchment. The experimental data on the modern radionuclide content of soil and plant contamination have been received at the expeditions of 2000-2004 in the regions situated on distances 50, 150 and 250 km from the Chernobyl NPP on territories of Belarus and Russia. Some small catchment in the Dnieper basin have been studied (Braginka, Sozh and Moskovka rivers). The content of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am in soils will be presented. The modern variability of contamination levels in each of connected landscapes will be compared with the variability estimated immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The high spatial fixation of Caesium spots by the Polessye landscapes will be shown. (author)

  9. Language Shift or Maintenance? An Examination of Language Usage across Four Generations as Self-Reported by University Age Students in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the degree to which language shift or maintenance is obtained across four generations in Belarus. Linguistic homogeneity and heterogeneity receive particular attention as potential contributing factors to language shift or maintenance in the home, arguably the last bastion in terms of language maintenance. In an effort to…

  10. The formation of congenital heart defects (tetralogy of Fallot) in children living in adverse environmental areas of Gomel and Mogilev regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work were analyzed data on the frequency of occurrence UPU tetralogy of Fallot in the Republic of Belarus for the period 2007-2012. Studied comparative characteristics of morbidity of children tetralogy of Fallot in Mogilev, Gomel and Vitebsk regions. (authors)

  11. Aerosol seasonal variations over urban sites in Ukraine and Belarus according to AERONET and POLDER measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Dubovik, O.; Kabashnikov, V.; Chaikovsky, A.; Mishchenko, M.; Sosonkin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents an investigation of aerosol seasonal variations in several urban sites in the East European region. Our analysis of seasonal variations of optical and physical aerosol parameters is based on the sun-photometer 2008-2012 data from three urban ground-based AERONET sites in Ukraine (Kyiv, Kyiv-AO, and Lugansk) and one site in Belarus (Minsk), as well as on satellite POLDER instrument data for urban areas in Ukraine. Aerosol amount and optical thickness values exhibit peaks in the spring (April-May) and late summer (August), whereas minimum values are seen in late autumn over the Kyiv and Minsk sites. The results show that aerosol fine mode particles are most frequently detected during the spring and late summer seasons. The seasonal variation similarity in the two regions points to the resemblance in basic aerosol sources which are closely related to properties of aerosol particles. However the aerosol amount and properties change noticeably from year to year and from region to region. The analysis of seasonal aerosol optical thickness variations over the urban sites in the eastern and western parts of Ukraine according to both ground-based and POLDER data exhibits the same traits. In particular, over Kyiv, the values of the Angstrom exponent are lower in April of 2011 than in 2009 and 2010, while aerosol optical thickness values are almost the same, which can be explained by an increase in the amount of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere, such as Saharan dust. Moreover, the coarse mode particles prevailed over suburbs and the center of Kyiv during a third of all available days of observation in 2012. In general, the fine and coarse mode particles' modal radii averaged over 2008-2012 range from 0.1 to 0.2 μm and 2 to 5 μm, respectively, during the period from April to September. The single scattering albedo and refractive index values of these particles correspond to a mix of urban-industrial, biomass burning, and dust aerosols. In addition

  12. Assessment of radiation risk as a part of ecological risk in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of the work: foundation for principles of planning protection measures, that provide safety for population activity on the territories, contaminated with radio-nuclides, by analysing radio-chemical situation, using risk assessment methods. Problems set in the work: -) Analyses of radiation risk in the structure of ecological risk in the territory of the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident; -) Investigation of chemical risk level, connected with air pollution from stationary objects exhausts, for the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides; -) Modelling of the combined impact of ionising radiation and chemical carcinogen for the possible ecological risk assessment; -) Involving modern geo informational systems in the radio-ecological risk assessment process; -) Foundation for the assessment methodology of the complex influence of negative factors in the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides. The problems are solved by carrying out specific experiments and by analysing published and own data on radioactive and chemical contamination of some regions of Belarus. Major findings: Radiation input to the really registered carcinogens is estimated to app. 10 %. In case of multiple factors influence of different contaminators of industrial and natural origin (i.e. radiation is not the only negative factor), ignorance of non-radiation origin factors may seriously distort estimation of radiation risk, when it is related to the registered effects. Radiation should be in no way treated as the major factor of real ecological risk in Belarus. Method for comparative analysis of territories' ecological risk level is developed and implemented. A GIS segment, that includes subsystem of the real and forecasted radio-ecological mapping, is created. The authors grounded the experimental model for study the complex influence of radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical carcinogen) factors. Revealed dependencies 'dose

  13. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and

  14. Thermodynamic and transport properties of some alternative ozone-safe refrigerants for industrial refrigeration equipment: Study in Belarus and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, A. J.; Zhelezny, V. P.; Klepatsky, P. M.; Beljajeva, O. V.; Chernjak, Yu. A.; Kotelevsky, Yu. G.; Timofejev, B. D.

    1996-05-01

    The study of several hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and fluorocarbons (FC) and their binary mixtures that have no ozone-depleting ability is being carried Out in the framework of Belarus National Program. The fluids include HFCs R134a. R152a, R135, and R32, and FC R218. The following properties are being investigated: ( I ) phase equilibrium parameters including the boiling and condensing curve and critical point, thermophysical properties at these parameters, and heat of evaporation: (2) isobaric and isochoric heat capacity, ethalpy, and entropy in the gas and liquid state: (3) speed of sound, thermal conductivity. viscosity, and density in the gas and liquid state: (4) dielectric properties and surface tension: (5) behavior of combined construction materials inside the refrigerant medium: and (6) solubility in compressor oils and other technological characteristics. The series of results obtained by authors during the period 1990 1993 is presented.

  15. SOFTWARE OF MONITORING SYSTEM FOR ALLOCATED INFORMATION OF STATE PROGRAM ON INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Rybak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes main indices (indicators of realization of the State program on innovative development of the Republic of Belarus (SPIDRB, contains and justifies a hierarchical structure of data processing and display, finalizes a list of the SPIDRB participants and executors. Major functions of the units pertaining to automation of an automated SPIDRB monitoring system are determined in the paper. In order to accumulate, process and furnish information a system of documentary databases on the basis of IBM Lotus Domino/Notes 8, relational databases of IBM DB2 and MS SQL Server 2005 is used in the given paper. Interaction with data suppliers is ensured by means of e-mail. The proposed scientific principles and software allow to automate a process of SPIDRB monitoring and to raise a decision-making efficiency in the field of innovative economic development of our country.

  16. [The forecasting of vertical distribution of 37Cs and 90Sr in the forest soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Perevolotskaia, T V

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the vertical profile of soil of forest biogeocenoses with different modes of moisture and species composition of woody vegetation on the "long" trail of radioactive fallout in the Republic of Belarus. The parameters of radionuclide migration are calculated for the two component quasi-diffusion equation, also based on this equation, pollution of root zone soil layers is predicted, as well as semi-refined periods and the contribution of migration in this process are defined. The intensity of radionuclide migration in the vertical profile of forest soils is found to increase with the change of the soil moisture regime from automorphic to hydromorphic.

  17. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions of drained fen peatlands in Belarus are controlled by water table, land use, and annual weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlo, Andrei; Minke, Merten; Chuvashova, Hanna; Augustin, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Narkevitch, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Drainage of peatlands causes strong emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2 and N2O, sometimes combined with a weak CH4 uptake. In Belarus drained peatlands occupy about 1505000 ha or more than 7.2 % of the country area. Joosten (2009) estimates CO2 emission from degraded peatlands in Belarus as 41.3 Mt yr-1 what equals to 47 % of total anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of country in 2011. However, it could not be checked if these numbers are correct since there are no GHG measurements on these sites up to now. Therefore we studied the GHG emissions with the closed chamber approach in four peatlands situated in central and southern Belarus over a period from August 2010 to August 2012. The measurements comprised eight site types representing different water level conditions, and ranging from grassland and arable land over abandoned fields and peat cuts to near-natural sedge fens. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were determined using the close-chamber approach every second week in snow free periods and every fourth week during winter time. The annual emissions were calculated based on linear interpolation. Carbon dioxide exchange was measured with transparent and opaque chambers every 3-4 weeks and the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was modeled according to Drösler (2005). Most of the drained sites were sources of CO2 in both years. NEE increased with lower mean annual water table level. The highest NEE value (1263.5 g CO2-C m-1yr-1) was observed at the driest site of the study; an abandoned fen formerly used for agriculture. In contrast, a former peat extraction site with moist peat and small Pinus sylvestris tress were sinks of CO2 with uptake to 389.6 g CO2-C m-1yr-1. The highest N2O emissions were recorded at a drained agricultural fen with mean annual rates of up to 2347 mg N2O-N m-2 yr-1. Significant fluxes of CH4 (15 g CH4C m-2 h-1) were observed only at the near-natural site in the first year of investigation when precipitation and the mean water

  19. MODERN SITUATION AND FORECASTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data the paper compares modern situation and forecasts of electrical power engineering development in the Republic of Belarus and Russian Federation. The paper carries out an analysis of integrated structure of fuel balances of both countries till 2015. The paper notes the fact that thermal power stations (TPS will remain a main generating source till 2020 and gas will continue to be the main type of fuel in the structure of fuel balances. The paper investigates development of technological structures in the electrical power engineering. It has been revealed that one of the main factors that hinders development of the Belarussian power system is the absence of the required financial  mechanisms for obtaining additional investment possibilities. In connection with this fact a special attention should be given to the problems that are directed on improvement of tariff policy and mechanisms of tariff formation.

  20. Epidemiology of cancer in population living in contaminated territories of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data of oncology service of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia on the number of new patients with cancer and leukemia in 1980-1994 in 12 regions adjacent to the Chernobyl NPP are generalized. Spatio-temporal for incidence of malignant diseases in population are developed. The analysis of possible connections between the effective dose and incidence of cancer in population living in the area contaminated by radionuclides is performed. Spatio-temporal models for the incidence of cancer including leukemias and lymphomas are found to be the same in the pre- and post-accidental periods. Nine years after the Chernobyl accident there are no scientific evidence for the excess of incidence of malignant tumors, except thyroid cancer, attributed to radiation factor, even in the most contaminated areas. Appearance of previously unregistered thyroid cancer cases in children living in the territory, where considerable amount of radioactive iodine was deposited, can indicate stochastic radiation effects in thyroid

  1. Database of meteorological and radiation measurements made in Belarus during the first three months following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2013-02-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow's milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow's milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

  2. Development of a radiological protection culture in contaminated territories: lessons learned from a School Twinning Between France and Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayrault, D. [Lycee du Bois d' Amour, 86 - Poitiers (France); Schneider, T. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire(CEPN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Baumont, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a pilot project set up between a French school (Lyc du Bois d'Amour Poitiers) and two Belarussian schools of the Stolyn district (Olmany and Terebejov schools) located in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. This project has been developed within the framework of the international Programme CORE (Cooperation for Rehabilitation of living conditions in Chernobyl affected areas in Belarus) [1]. The main objective of this pilot project is to promote the development of a practical radiological culture at school through the twinning of French and Belarussian schools. This project, developed in cooperation with CEPN (Nuclear Evaluation Protection Centre) and IRSN (Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety), relies on the direct involvement of the students in the learning process of their local environment together with the international exchange for sharing the knowledge on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

  3. Republic of Belarus; 2009 Article IV Consultation and Second Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement-Staff Report Informational Annex; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Press Release

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that Belarus has so far escaped a significant fall in output, despite a sharp fall in external demand. GDP declined 0.5 percent year over year in the first eight months of 2009, comparing favorably to Belarus’ main trading partners. Economic activity has been bolstered by strong domestic demand, especially for housing construction financed under government programs. Executive Directors have applauded the authorities’ commitment to a tight fisca...

  4. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries. PMID:26613195

  5. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus -- the "D-shuttle" project --

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, N; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernandini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Guérin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molęda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2015-01-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter "D-shuttle" for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  6. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  7. CORE health project: production and use of environmental radioactivity measurement data and internal contamination data for the health status follow-up of children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large regions in Belarus remain contaminated particularly with 137Cs at such a level that it has to be taken into account on day-to-day life. Hundreds of thousands inhabitants live in these territories. Their concerns are mainly focused on child health problems, and they lack of means to evaluate radioactivity in their environment to better manage it. IRSN has initiated a programme in the Chechersk district (Belarus) to improve information about child sanitary status; this project is developed in collaboration with two NGOs, ACRO and Medecins du Monde, which will be respectively in charge of improving radiological quality, pregnancy follow-ups and actions with the population in order to identify their expectations. (authors)

  8. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  9. Opportunities and Threats from Ukrainian Membership in WTO in Foreign Trade for Meat and Milk Products with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kyzym Mykola O.; Yaroshenko Ihor V.; Matiushenko Ihor Yu.; Semyhulina Iryna B.; Makhanyova Yuliia M.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of consequences of Ukrainian membership in World Trade Organisation (WTO) in foreign trade of meat and milk products with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU). The article shows that meat and milk products are one of the main export agricultural commodities of the country. It analyses the structure of export of agro-industrial products from Ukraine. It studies situation and changes that took place in the market of meat and mea...

  10. Investigation of Apparatus Reliability Applied for Protection of Power Networks in Emergency Operational Cases at Dwelling Sector of the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    G. T. Kulakov; A. N. Kukharenko

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of statistic data analysis it has been established that nearly 10 % of fires that oc­curred in the dwelling sector of the Republic of Belarus in 2006 are related with emergency regime of electric equipment, electric devices and power networks. The paper contains results of experimental comparative investigations concerning operation of fuses for 25 A current and automatic thread fuses for nominal 25 A current.The investigations have shown that fuses do not ensure protection of po...

  11. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  12. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  13. SCIENTIFIC AND INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO PROBLEM PERTAINING TO EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF ENVIRONMENT QUALITY IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Voytov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a scientific and innovative approach to solution of an important problem in the field of rational nature management and ecology which presupposes realization of evaluation, analysis and monitoring of environment  quality  (EQ in Belarus.  This  approach is based on methods and  facilities  of  administrative-command  and  partially  automatic-control  management.   The  main components of the innovative approach are an automatic  system for  evaluation and monitoring of EQ including estimation and formation of nature-resource potential within 11 cadaster and other data base, general principles on evaluation and monitoring of EQ, structural and algorithmic schemes for evaluation of ecological state of administrative territories, calculation of generalized indices of nature-territorial complexes and solution of nature protection problems in respect of EQ monitoring. A system of equation calculation for the analysis and evaluation of technogenic load on main nature components of the environment (free air, water objects, soil cover, realization of monitoring function in respect of EQ and ecological state of local and urban territories, nature resources  and enterprises, pollution and state of some recipients and also data resources for execution of analytical calculations and functions directed on monitoring quality of nature components of the environment is advanced in the paper.

  14. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Lithuania and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudleviciene, Zivile; Didziapetriene, Janina; Mackeviciene, Irina; Cicenas, Saulius; Smolyakova, Raisa; Zhukavetc, Aliaksandr; Zivile, Gudleviciene; Janina, Didziapetriene; Irina, Mackeviciene; Saulius, Cicenas; Raisa, Smolyakova; Aliaksandr, Zhukavetc

    2014-03-01

    Overall, head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 550,000 cases annually worldwide. It is well known that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for cervical cancer development. As the incidence and the mortality of cervical cancer are closely related to the HPV prevalence, we hypothesized that there is the same association between HPV prevalence and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore we performed the study aiming to compare the level of HPV infection and HPV type distribution between two groups of Lithuanian and Belarusian patients with head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma. One hundred ninety head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma patients were included in the study, 75 from Lithuania and 115 from Belarus. PCR was used for HPV detection and typing. The distribution of HPV infection among head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma patients was similar in the Lithuanian (20.0%) and Belarusian (18.3%) patient groups, however differences were found in the distribution of HPV types.

  15. A network game analysis of strategic interactions in the international trade of Russian natural gas through Ukraine and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas is an important source of relatively low-emission, low-cost, non-nuclear and abundant energy; however, the difficulty of storage and transportation adds geopolitical and geostrategic complexity to its international trade. Much of the global natural gas trade occurs through natural gas pipelines, which as an infrastructure is strictly specific to the transportation of natural gas. Therefore, the very structure of natural gas pipeline networks can dictate the strategic relationship among countries involved in its trade. This paper applies a Network Game Model where these pipeline networks are modeled as graphs and respective value functions, and employs the Link-based Flexible Network Allocation Rule developed by Jackson (2005) as a solution concept to measure the relative power structure among these natural gas trading countries. The paper analyzes the case of trade between Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Western Europe, and compares the results to existing analyses that employ a Cooperative Game Model in Characteristic Function Form and the Shapley Value as the solution concept. Whereas the results of the analysis conducted in the previous literature indicate that Russia's relative power was significantly stronger than other players both before and after the construction of the Nord Stream pipeline, the results provided in this paper draw a different conclusion. Ukraine's relative power was already equal to that of Russia before the Nord Stream. This may be understood as one of the underlying causes for the prolonged conflicts that occurred repeatedly in this region concerning natural gas trade

  16. Perceived control, voluntariness and emotional reactions. A study conducted in relocated areas of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper use data from a pilot study to analyse relationships between type of resettlement (voluntary or involuntary) and individuals' everyday feelings, perceptions of risk, health status and control. The data were collected in 1995, within the Joint Study Project 2, i.e., a collaborative research project of the European Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, 1991/92 - 95/96. The aim of the study was to investigate reactions to change and new life conditions of people who had been resettled due to the Chernobyl accident. Participants from the respective countries included adult individuals sampled from two age groups of less than 45 years and 45 years and older, with approximately the same number of men and women. The questionnaire presented various topics to which responses were indicated on quantitative response scales, as well as in open ended response formats. The results presented here focus on emotional reactions, perceived risk and self-rated health among resettled people. The effects of type of resettlement on emotional reactions, Perceived risk and control are discussed

  17. Perceived control, voluntariness and emotional reactions. A study conducted in relocated areas of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, C.J. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1999-12-01

    This paper use data from a pilot study to analyse relationships between type of resettlement (voluntary or involuntary) and individuals' everyday feelings, perceptions of risk, health status and control. The data were collected in 1995, within the Joint Study Project 2, i.e., a collaborative research project of the European Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, 1991/92 - 95/96. The aim of the study was to investigate reactions to change and new life conditions of people who had been resettled due to the Chernobyl accident. Participants from the respective countries included adult individuals sampled from two age groups of less than 45 years and 45 years and older, with approximately the same number of men and women. The questionnaire presented various topics to which responses were indicated on quantitative response scales, as well as in open ended response formats. The results presented here focus on emotional reactions, perceived risk and self-rated health among resettled people. The effects of type of resettlement on emotional reactions, Perceived risk and control are discussed.

  18. [The assessment of accumulated internal irradiation doses of the inhabitants of the populated areas in Republik Belarus after Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunikhin, L A; Drozdov, D N

    2012-01-01

    A new system of evaluation methods has been developed for the assessment of the accumulated internal irradiation doses in the inhabitants of the populated areas of the Republic of Belarus that were contaminated by the Chernobyl radionuclides. The system is based on the results of WBC measurements. The model is based on the WBC-results of the State Dosimetric Register for the period of 1987-2010. The dose assessment model is based on the classification of the populated areas, on the regional features of the soils through which 137Cs can enter into the locally grown and produced foods. The model is also based on building the regressive correlations of accumulated internal doses to the contamination density of the territory of a populated area. Such regressive correlations are made for each region. The influence of indirect factors of dose forming was taken into consideration in the dose assessment. Among these factors are the population of the area, and the amount of forested territory around it, which were taken as correction coefficients. The coefficients were determined from the regressive correlation of the correction coefficients to a specific area of forest for each region. So called "countermeasure factor" was used for specification of other model results.

  19. Bäuerliche Selbstorganisation, bäuerliches Erfahrungswissen und bäuerlicher Widerstand in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Berghuber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ausgehend vom Commonsdiskurs und von anarchistischen Vorstellungen über bäuerliches Leben als Vorbild für eine solidarische Gesellschaft untersucht der vorliegende Artikel bäuerliche Selbstorganisation, bäuerliches Erfahrungswissen und bäuerliche Kämpfe gegen herrschende Schichten auf dem Gebiet von Belarus seit der Abschaffung der Leibeigenschaft 1861. Anhaltspunkte bäuerlicher Selbstorganisation stellen die Obschtschina sowie Kooperationen bei der Produktion und der Maschinennutzung während der sowjetischen „neuen Wirtschaftspolitik“ dar. Lokales Erfahrungswissen wird ebenso in der Obschtschina und in den privaten Nebenlandwirtschaften der Kolchosen- und Sowchosenarbeiter_innen verortet. Offenen Widerstand gegen die Herrschenden leisteten Bauern und Bäuerinnen aufgrund ihrer Situation bis in die 1930er Jahre. Er erreichte seine Höhepunkte während der Revolutionen 1905-07 und 1917, während der Kollektivierung der Landwirtschaft und während der Wirtschaftskrise Anfang der 1930er Jahre. Danach hatten die Widerstandshandlungen eine verdecktere Form. Diese Kämpfe von Bauern und Bäuerinnen um Land und Unabhängigkeit sind vergleichbar mit bäuerlichen Kämpfen in anderen Ländern.

  20. Citizenship approach to promote a radiological protection and risk assessment culture at the school level; educational project in Belarus and French schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the international C.O.R.E. programme (Cooperation for Rehabilitation of living conditions in Chernobyl affected areas in Belarus), an educational project was launched in 2004 meant so that the pupils of the Bragin district schools (in the south east of Belarus) will get involved in learning the practice of a radiological culture. Since the damages of radioactivity are cumulative, it is important to reduce the inhabitants daily intake of radioactivity. In the daily life, the understanding of radioactivity issues and the current recommendations concerning food and the environment are not always applied and accessible to the public. By showing that monitoring could help them to reduce the dose of radioactive elements, this project aims at breaking a fatalistic turn of mind. A steady radioecological education is the key element in establishing a practical radiological culture within the population. This project is essentially centred on children who represent both the future generation and the most sensitive group among contaminated by the radioactive effect. Children represent also the best way to realise in -depth contact with the whole population. To facilitate the development of the educational projects, Belarus teams of teachers will receive in -depth expert training in cooperation of the local professionals which will enable them to become active participants in conceiving and carrying out their own educational projects. A more specific training, concerning radiation protection is also be implemented by our N.G.O., with the help of the local organisation Rastok Gesne (Sprout of Life N.G.O.). The pedagogic actions are based on a complete and active involvement of the children and within an interdisciplinary approach will make it possible to include the different activities linked to radiological culture, and more widely, all the other aspects of living in a contaminated area so as to be able to face the risk

  1. High frequency and allele-specific differences of BRCA1 founder mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer patients from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, N V; Antonenkova, N N; Rogov, Y I; Karstens, J H; Hillemanns, P; Dörk, T

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer and ovarian cancer are common malignancies in Belarus accounting for about 3500 and 800 new cases per year, respectively. For breast cancer, the rates and age of onset appear to vary significantly in regions differentially affected by the Chernobyl accident. We assessed the frequency and distribution of three BRCA1 founder mutations 5382insC, 4153delA and Cys61Gly in two hospital-based series of 1945 unselected breast cancer patients and of 201 unselected ovarian cancer patients from Belarus as well as in 1019 healthy control females from the same population. Any of these mutations were identified in 4.4% of the breast cancer patients, 26.4% of the ovarian cancer patients and 0.5% of the controls. In the breast cancer patients, BRCA1 mutations were strongly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, with oestrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours and with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, although only 35% of the identified BRCA1 mutation carriers had such a family history. There were no marked differences in the regional distribution of BRCA1 mutations, so that the significant differences in age at diagnosis and family history of breast cancer patients from areas afflicted by the Chernobyl accident could not be explained by BRCA1. We next observed a higher impact and a shifted mutational spectrum of BRCA1 in the series of Byelorussian ovarian cancer patients where the three founder mutations accounted for 26.4% (53/201). While the Cys61Gly mutation appeared underrepresented in ovarian cancer as compared with breast cancer cases from the same population (p = 0.01), the 4153delA mutation made a higher contribution to ovarian cancer than to breast cancer (p Belarus and might have implications for cancer prevention, treatment and genetic counselling in this population.

  2. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  3. Quantitative summer and winter temperature reconstructions from pollen and chironomid data in the Baltic-Belarus area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki; Stančikaitė, Migle; Zernitskaya, Valentina; Reitalu, Triin; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heinsalu, Atko; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Vassiljev, Jüri; Heiri, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative reconstructions based on fossil pollen and chironomids are widely used and useful for long-term climate variability estimations. The Lateglacial and early Holocene period (15-8 ka BP) in the Baltic-Belarus (BB) area between 60°-51° N was characterized by sudden shifts in climate due to various climate forcings affecting the climate of the northern hemisphere and North Atlantic, including the proximity of receding ice sheets. Climate variations in BB during the LG were eminent as the southern part of the region was ice free during the Last Glacial Maximum over 19 ka BP, whereas northern Estonia became ice free no sooner than 13 ka BP. New pollen based reconstructions of summer (May-to-August) and winter (December-to-February) temperatures between 15-8 ka BP along a S-N transect in the BB area display trends in temporal and spatial changes in climate variability. These results are completed by two chironomid-based July mean temperature reconstructions (Heiri et al. 2014). The magnitude of change compared with modern temperatures was more prominent in the northern part of BB area than in the southern part. The 4 °C winter and 2 °C summer warming at the start of GI-1 was delayed in the BB area and Lateglacial maximum temperatures were reached at ca 13.6 ka BP, being 4 °C colder than the modern mean. The Younger Dryas cooling in the area was 5 °C colder than present as inferred by all proxies (Veski et al. in press). In addition, our analyses show an early Holocene divergence in winter temperature trends with modern values reaching 1 ka earlier (10 ka BP) in southern BB compared to the northern part of the region (9 ka BP). Heiri, O., Brooks, S.J., Renssen, H., Bedford, A., Hazekamp, M., Ilyashuk, B., Jeffers, E.S., Lang, B., Kirilova, E., Kuiper, S., Millet, L., Samartin, S., Toth, M., Verbruggen, F., Watson, J.E., van Asch, N., Lammertsma, E., Amon, L., Birks, H.H., Birks, J.B., Mortensen, M.F., Hoek, W.Z., Magyari, E., Muñoz Sobrino, C., Seppä, H

  4. Die neuen Nachbarn und die Europäische Union : Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Integration am Beispiel Ukraine und Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie geht der Frage nach, welche Annäherungs- und Integrations-Strategien von der EU bisher gegenüber der Ukraine und Belarus eingeschlagen wurden und welche sich vor dem Hindergrund der von der EU definierten Ziele für diesen Raum als erfolgsversprechend anbieten. Die Arbeit konzentriert sich dabei auf die wirtschaftlichen Aspekte einer verstärkten Integration. Angesichts der engen Verknüpfung von wirtschaftlichen und politischen Aspekten in diesem Prozess konnten aber poli...

  5. Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks from Different Geographical Locations in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye, Anna L.; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P.; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M.; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5–17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved. PMID:23349900

  6. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye, Anna L; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5-17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved.

  7. Features Of Civil Process And Civil Regulation In The Sphere Of The State And Confessional Relations In Armenia, Belarus And Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Volodina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of civil process and civil regulation in the former Soviet Union, in the CIS countries are considered (in Armenia, Belarus, Moldova. Features of the state and confessional relations in each certain state are marked out. It is noted that in the Republic of Armenia the church is separated from the state and freedom of activity to the religious organizations, but at the same time in the Fundamental law of the Armenian church as national, the leading mission for preservation of identity of the Armenian people is taken away is guaranteed. In Belarus the relations of the state and religious associations is under construction on the principles of equality of religions and the rights of citizens independently to define the relation to religions that in general meets the universally recognized international standards, it is rigidly controlled not only activity of religious associations, but also activity of the officials answering for these questions. Republic of Moldova – the secular state, but most of the population adheres to orthodox religion that was reflected in the Law "About Cults" in which the relations of the state with orthodox church are allocated in a special way.

  8. [Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of enteroviruses inducing the outbreaks and seasonal rises of morbidity in different regions of the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvros'eva, T V; Poklonskaia, N V; Bezruchko, A A; Fisenko, E G

    2006-01-01

    As shown by the results of the analysis, viruses ECHO 30 circulating over the period of the last 8 years in Belarus, belonged to 3 different genetic subtypes which earlier or simultaneously circulated in other European states. The outbreaks of enterovirus infections (EVI) were facilitated by the appearance of a genetic viral subtype, relatively "new" for human population, and which had not earlier circulated on this territory. Thus, the development of outbreak morbidity in 2003 was caused by a change in the dominating subtype of virus ECHO 30, which caused the outbreak of 1997. The relatively "soft" rise of morbidity in 2004 was due to the continued circulation of the same subtype of virus ECHO 30, that in 2003. The largest outbreaks of EVI in the Republic of Belarus had a number of considerable differences: the outbreak of 1997 in Gomel was characterized by the genetic heterogeneity of infective agents, being simultaneously geographically localized within the limits of one city. However, during the outbreaks of 2003 the circulation of genetically closely related viruses of the one subtype among the population of geographically remote regions of the country was registered.

  9. Spectrum of genetic changes in patients with non-syndromic hearing impairment and extremely high carrier frequency of 35delG GJB2 mutation in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilenko, Nina; Merkulava, Elena; Siniauskaya, Marina; Olejnik, Olga; Levaya-Smaliak, Anastasia; Kushniarevich, Alena; Shymkevich, Andrey; Davydenko, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    The genetic nature of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) has so far been studied for many ethnic groups in various parts of the world. The single-nucleotide guanine deletion (35delG) of the GJB2 gene coding for connexin 26 was shown to be the main genetic cause of autosomal recessive deafness among Europeans. Here we present the results of the first study of GJB2 and three mitochondrial mutations among two groups of Belarusian inhabitants: native people with normal hearing (757 persons) and 391 young patients with non-syndromic SNHL. We have found an extremely high carrier frequency of 35delG GJB2 mutation in Belarus -5.7%. This point deletion has also been detected in 53% of the patients with SNHL. The 312del14 GJB2 was the second most common mutation in the Belarus patient cohort. Mitochondrial A1555G mt-RNR1 substitution was found in two SNHL patients (0.55%) but none were found in the population cohort. No individuals carried the A7445G mutation of mitochondrial mt-TS1. G7444A as well as T961G substitutions were detected in mitochondrial mt-RNR1 at a rate of about 1% both in the patient and population cohorts. A possible reason for Belarusians having the highest mutation carrier frequency in Europe 35delG is discussed.

  10. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. I. Model description and scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk Mv, Marcel van der; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    The economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs was evaluated taking the spatial variability of environmental conditions into account. Two sequential GIS-embedded submodels were developed for a spatial assessment, which allow for spatial variation in soil contamination, soil type, and land use. These models were applied for four SRC production and four energy conversion scenarios for the entire contaminated area of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia and for a part of the Bragin district, Belarus. It was concluded that in general medium-scale SRC production using local machines is most profitable. The areas near Chernobyl are not suitable for SRC production since the contamination levels in SRC wood exceed the intervention limit. Large scale SRC production is not profitable in areas where dry and sandy soils predominate. If the soil contamination does not exceed the intervention limit and sufficient SRC wood is available, all energy conversion scenarios are profitable.

  11. The achievements of a Radioecological Environmental Research Programme arising from the collaboration of the EC and the republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Radiation Research Programme refocused some of its research effort within EU countries to consider the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident within the third framework period from 1985 to 1989. A gradual improvement in contacts with the Soviet Union occurred from 1990 and allowed the development of research collaboration between EC and Soviet scientists. In response, a programme of Experimental Collaborative Projects (ECP) and Joint Study Projects (JSP) were launched by the EC-DGXII's Radiation Protection Research Action. Within these projects, Western European and Eastern European scientists collaborated on assessing the consequences of the accident, considering remedial actions and acquiring much basic scientific information on the behaviour of radionuclides in the contaminated territories in Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. The major goal of all these studies was to provide practical and theoretical assistance to the relevant authorities, based on a fundamental approach of understanding the environmental factors which control the different exposure rates to both the urban and rural populations living in the contaminated areas. The scientific results of the radioecological projects have been summarised at the First International Conference on the Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. This Conference was organised by the European Commission and the Belarus, Russian and Ukrainian Ministries on Chernobyl affairs, Emergency Situations and Health. This paper summarises the achievements of the radioecological programme. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. I. Model description and scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk Mv, Marcel van der; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    The economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs was evaluated taking the spatial variability of environmental conditions into account. Two sequential GIS-embedded submodels were developed for a spatial assessment, which allow for spatial variation in soil contamination, soil type, and land use. These models were applied for four SRC production and four energy conversion scenarios for the entire contaminated area of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia and for a part of the Bragin district, Belarus. It was concluded that in general medium-scale SRC production using local machines is most profitable. The areas near Chernobyl are not suitable for SRC production since the contamination levels in SRC wood exceed the intervention limit. Large scale SRC production is not profitable in areas where dry and sandy soils predominate. If the soil contamination does not exceed the intervention limit and sufficient SRC wood is available, all energy conversion scenarios are profitable. PMID:15294354

  13. Vlasov B. Natural properties of Karst lakes in Belarus / B. Vlasov // Lakes and artificial water reservoirs – functioning, revitalization and protection. – Cosnowiec, 2005. – Р. 249–255.

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Boris

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Karst lakes of Belarus belong to the azonal type and are distributed in Polesje region in the area of superficial deposition of chalk rocks. Specific features of these type lakes include: small water surface, tunneled form of a hollow, low water exchange rate and increased level of water mineralization; the lakes refer to mesotrophic or eutrophic types.

  14. High time to use rapid tests to detect multidrug resistance in sputum smear-negative tuberculosis in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusovich, V; Kumar, A M V; Skrahina, A; Hurevich, H; Astrauko, A; de Colombani, P; Tayler-Smith, K; Dara, M; Zachariah, R

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Le Belarus (Europe de l'Est) est confronté à une épidémie de tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MDR). En 2012, les patients atteints de tuberculose pulmonaire (TBP) à frottis positif ont bénéficié en priorité de diagnostics moléculaires pour confirmer une TB-MDR, tandis que les patients atteints de TBP à frottis négatif (SN-PTB) ont bénéficié de méthodes conventionnelles qui retardaient souvent le diagnostic de TB-MDR de 2 à 4 mois.Objectif : Déterminer la proportion de TB-MDR parmi les patients SN-PTB enregistrés en 2012, ainsi que les facteurs cliniques et démographiques associés.Schéma : Etude de cohorte rétrospective basée sur des données émanant de tout le pays grâce au registre électronique national de la TB.Résultats : Sur 5377 cas de TB enregistrés, 2960 (55%) étaient des SN-PTB. Parmi ces derniers, 1639 (55%) avaient une culture positive, dont 768 (47%) avaient une TB-MDR : 33% (363/1084) nouveaux cas et 73% (405/555) patients déjà traités préalablement. La notion de traitement antérieur, l'âge, la région, la résidence en milieu urbain, le statut à l'égard du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine et le fait d'être retraité étaient indépendamment associés à la TB-MDR.Conclusion : Près de la moitié des patients SN-PTB à culture positive ont une TB-MDR, et dans les cas de retraitement, on arrive à plus de sept patients sur dix. La décision politique nationale d'extension des diagnostics moléculaires rapides à tous les patients TBP, y compris les patients SN-PTB, semble donc justifiée. Il est nécessaire de prendre des mesures afin d'assurer la mise en œuvre de cette priorité urgente, en raison des implications d'un diagnostic retardé à la fois pour les patients et en termes de santé publique.

  15. Cognitive functions and neuropsychological status of medical students with different attitudes to alcohol use: a study conducted at the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Razvodovsky, Yury E; Pereverzeva, Elena V; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2014-04-10

    This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood) and neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST, and PAS, and other alcohol related questions. Academic Performance questionnaire was administered together with other tests. For analysis of cognitive functions, a "correction probe" test was used. The number of students who reported consumption of alcohol was 74 males and 142 females. Medical students who reported alcohol consumption had lower cognitive performance and academic success, poor self-assessment of their functional and neuropsychological states, compared to the non-alcohol users. The results of this study suggest an inverse dose-dependent relationship between alcohol consumption, and cognitive functions, academic performance and neuropsychological status of medical students.

  16. Long-term dissemination of CTX-M-5-producing hypermutable Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium sequence type 328 strains in Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, Varvara K; Ilina, Elena N; Malakhova, Maja V; Carattoli, Alessandra; Azizov, Ilya S; Tapalski, Dmitry V; Kozlov, Roman S; Edelstein, Mikhail V

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present evidence of long-term circulation of cefotaxime-resistant clonally related Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains over a broad geographic area. The genetic relatedness of 88 isolates collected from multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of nosocomial salmonellosis in various parts of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan from 1996 to 2009 was established by multilocus tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates belong to sequence type 328 (ST328) and produce CTX-M-5 β-lactamase, whose gene is carried by highly related non-self-conjugative but mobilizable plasmids. Resistance to nalidixic acid and low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin is present in 37 (42%) of the isolates and in all cases is determined by various single point mutations in the gyrA gene quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). Isolates of the described clonal group exhibit a hypermutable phenotype that probably facilitates independent acquisition of quinolone resistance mutations.

  17. Belarus tops OSCE agenda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Leedu on 2011. aastal OSCE eesistujamaa. President Dalia Grybauskaite ja välisminister Andronius Azubalis rääkisid Leedu eelseisvast istumisest ning Valgevenes toimunud presidendivalimistest. Dalia Grybauskaite leiab, et Valgevene võimude otsus mitte pikendada Minskis asuva OSCE büroo mandaati mõjub halvasti sealse demokraatia arendamisele ja vähendab koostööd Valgevenega

  18. Practical improvement of the radiological quality of milk produced by peasant farmers in the territories of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl accident The ETHOS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl post-accident situation has highlighted how the sudden emergence of persistent radioactive contamination in the environment is severely affecting the quality of life of the inhabitants in the concerned territories. The management of this situation is complex, mainly conditioned by the ability of the inhabitants themselves to be directly involved in the process of improving their living conditions. In this process, quality of life cannot be restricted solely to the dimension of radiological risk, but needs to encompass the diverse aspects of daily living, including the social, psychological, economic, political and ethical aspects. This paper presents the experience of the involvement of a group of peasant farmers from a village in the Republic of Belarus, in the process of improving the radiological quality of privately produced milk. This experience took place in the context of the ETHOS project, funded by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission. The principal objective was to implement a complementary approach to the rehabilitation strategies adopted so far in the contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus. This paper retraces the process of involvement of the inhabitants in a working group. It describes the characterisation of the situation by local actors, the opening of new possible actions to improve the radiological quality of milk at the individual level and the positive consequences at the scale of the village. The ETHOS project also illustrates how the scientific knowledge accumulated over many years since the Chernobyl accident in the field of radiation protection and radioecology can enter into local practices in the form of practical tools, which can be used by the population to produce significant improvements in the radiological situation

  19. Practical improvement of the radiological quality of milk produced by peasant farmers in the territories of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepicard, S; Dubreuil, G H

    2001-01-01

    The Chernobyl post-accident situation has highlighted how the sudden emergence of persistent radioactive contamination in the environment is severely affecting the quality of life of the inhabitants in the concerned territories. The management of this situation is complex, mainly conditioned by the ability of the inhabitants themselves to be directly involved in the process of improving their living conditions. In this process, quality of life cannot be restricted solely to the dimension of radiological risk, but needs to encompass the diverse aspects of daily living, including the social, psychological, economic, political and ethical aspects. This paper presents the experience of the involvement of a group of peasant farmers from a village in the Republic of Belarus, in the process of improving the radiological quality of privately produced milk. This experience took place in the context of the ETHOS project, funded by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission. The principal objective was to implement a complementary approach to the rehabilitation strategies adopted so far in the contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus. This paper retraces the process of involvement of the inhabitants in a working group. It describes the characterisation of the situation by local actors, the opening of new possible actions to improve the radiological quality of milk at the individual level and the positive consequences at the scale of the village. The ETHOS project also illustrates how the scientific knowledge accumulated over many years since the Chernobyl accident in the field of radiation protection and radioecology can enter into local practices in the form of practical tools, which can be used by the population to produce significant improvements in the radiological situation.

  20. ASPECTELE PUTERII JURIDICE A ACTULUI NORMATIV-JURIDIC PREVĂZUTE DE LEGEA REPUBLICII BELARUS NR.361-3 DIN 10.01.2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg POALELUNGI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available În pofida faptului că cadrul juridic naţional este în concordanţă cu cel al Uniunii Europene, procesul de armonizare a legislaţiei trebuie să fie unul continuu pentru a face faţă schimbărilor permanente generate de evoluţia vieţii. În această ordine de idei, oportunitatea de a lua drept puncte de reper unele reuşite în domeniul elaborării actelor normativ-juridice observate la statele din vecinătate racordează legislaţia Republicii Moldova la un regim de legalitate cât mai perfect. În acest context, autorii întreprind o tentativă de a comenta articolul 10 al Legii Republicii Belarus nr.361-3 din 10.01.2000 consacrat puterii juridice a actelor normativ-juridice din această ţară. Tot aici vor fi generalizate componentele ce carac-terizează puterea juridică a actului normativ-juridic şi abordate problemele teoretice care au persistat în acest domeniu, fiind creionate căile de soluţionare a acestora. Chiar de la început este propusă definiţia fenomenului putere juridică a actului normativ-juridic elaborată de autori, în acelaşi context fiind descrisă şi definiţia pe care a propus-o legiuitorul bielorus. Este descris rolul prevederilor legale ce ţin de domeniul puterii juridice. În contextul puterii juridice a actului normativ-juridic este pe larg abordată problema privind obligativitatea actului juridic. Sunt readuse în atenţie unele aspecte ce vizează conflictul de norme şi prioritatea actelor normativ-juridice, inflaţia legislativă şi evenimentele juridice. În final sunt formulate concluzii care formează viziunea autorilor asupra tematicii abordate.ASPECTS OF LEGAL FORCE OF THE NORMATIVE-LEGAL ACT PROVIDED IN THE LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS NO. 361-3 OF 10.01.2000Despite of the fact that the legal framework is in line with the European Union law, harmonization process should be continuous to face constant changes that are generated by vital evolution. In this context, the opportunity to

  1. Opportunities and Threats of Ukrainian Membership in WTO for Engineering under Conditions of Co-operation with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers consequences of the membership of Ukraine in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for the engineering industry when co-operating with the EU and CU (Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia countries. It shows that, after Ukraine joined WTO, tariff rates for Ukrainian products reduced in general and liberalisation of access to the world market took place. Along with it, the internal market of Ukraine became more open for imported products. The article analyses the structure of export from Ukraine after joining WTO in the context of individual types of products. The article identifies changes that took place in the market of engineering products after Ukraine joined WTO. The article shows that by main indicators of economic security the engineering industry of Ukraine cannot be considered as stable and also that, after joining WTO, main indicators of economic security of the engineering industry of Ukraine have not improved. It analyses the structure of export and import of Ukrainian engineering products to EU, CU and other countries. It proves that the most topical for the Ukrainian engineering industry is the issue of realisation of the import-replacement potential and increase of competitiveness of domestic products. It considers the state and changes, which took place after Ukraine joined WTO, in car building. It identifies main problems of domestic car building. It analyses measures of the state programme of Ukraine on economic development.

  2. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  3. [Systemic Antimicrobials Consumption and Expenditures in Departments of Surgery of Multi-Profile Hospitals in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus: Results of Multicentre Pharmacoepidemiological Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Yu A; Rachina, S A; Kozlov, R S; Mishchenko, V M; Pavlukov, R A; Abubakirova, A I; Berezhanskiy, B V; Eliseeva, E V; Zubareva, N A; Karpov, I A; Kopylova, I A; Palyutin, Sh Kh; Portnyagina, U S; Pribytkova, O V; Samuylo, E K

    2016-01-01

    The results of the systemic antimicrobials (AM) consumption and expenditures assessment in the departments of surgery of multi-profile hospitals in different regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in 2009-2010 based on retrospective collection and analysis of the data from the hospital expenditure notes using ATC/DDD methodology are presented. The average AM consumption and expenditure rates in the above mentioned departments varied from 24.9 DDD/100 bed-days to 61.7 DDD/100 bed-days depending on the department profile, with beta-lactams (cephalosporins and penicillins) share in the consumption being as high as 70-90%, followed by fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Only 55-70% of the consumed AM belonged to the drugs of choice, whereas the improper AM consumption and expenditure rates amounted up to 10-18%. The study outputs can be used for the budget allocation and AM distribution improvement in the departments of surgery, as well as for the development and efficacy control of the local antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  4. Spatial variability of the dose rate from (137)Cs fallout in settlements in Russia and Belarus more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsson, C; Rääf, C L; Mattsson, S

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclides from the 1986 Chernobyl accident were released and dispersed during a limited period of time, but under widely varying weather conditions. As a result, there was a high geographical variation in the deposited radioactive fallout per unit area over Europe, depending on the released composition of fission products and the weather during the 10 days of releases. If the plume from Chernobyl coincided with rain, then the radionuclides were unevenly distributed on the ground. However, large variations in the initial fallout also occurred locally or even on a meter scale. Over the ensuing years the initial deposition may have been altered further by different weathering processes or human activities such as agriculture, gardening, and decontamination measures. Using measurements taken more than two decades after the accident, we report on the inhomogeneous distribution of the ground deposition of the fission product (137)Cs and its influence on the dose rate 1 m above ground, on both large and small scales (10ths of km(2) - 1 m(2)), in the Gomel-Bryansk area close to the border between Belarus and Russia. The dose rate from the deposition was observed to vary by one order of magnitude depending on the size of the area considered, whether human processes were applied to the surface or not, and on location specific properties (e.g. radionuclide migration in soil).

  5. INPRO Assessment of the Planned Nuclear Energy System of Belarus. A report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was started in 2001 on the basis of IAEA General Conference resolution GC(44)/RES/21. INPRO activities have since been continuously endorsed by IAEA General Conference resolutions and by the General Assembly of the United Nations. The objectives of INPRO are to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute, in a sustainable manner, to the goal of meeting the energy needs of the 21st century, and to bring together technology holders and users so that they can jointly consider the international and national actions required for ensuring sustainability of nuclear energy through innovations in technology and/or institutional arrangements. To fulfill these objectives, INPRO has developed a set of basic principles, user requirements and criteria, and an assessment method which, taken together, comprise the INPRO methodology for the evaluation of the long term sustainability of innovative nuclear energy systems. The INPRO methodology is documented in IAEA-TECDOC-1575 Rev.1, comprising an overview volume and eight additional volumes covering economics, institutional measures (infrastructure), waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection, environment (impact of stressors and availability of resources), safety of reactors, and safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This publication is the final report of an assessment of the planned nuclear energy system of Belarus using the INPRO methodology. The assessment was performed in 2009-2011 by Belarusian experts in a strategic partnership with the Russian Federation and with support from the IAEA's INPRO Group

  6. Stakeholder involvement in the rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated territories affected by the Chernobyl accident. The ETHOS Project in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of the Chernobyl post-accident situation is a complex process comprising not only radiological protection but also psychological, social, economic, political and ethical dimensions. Involving in this process local communities who are directly concerned by the consequences of the accident is a strong lever in improving their living conditions as well as restoring their confidence in experts and the authorities. This paper presents the experience of the involvement of a group of mothers from a village in the Republic of Belarus in activities to improve the radiological protection of their children. This experience took place in the framework of the ETHOS Project supported by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission with the objective of implementing an alternative approach to the rehabilitation strategies adopted so far in the contaminated territories of the CIS. The first part of the paper presents briefly the main features of the methodological and practical approach of the ETHOS Project. The second part describes in more detail how the mothers voluntarily got involved in a working group set up within the framework of the Project, the characterization of the radiological situation they carried out, the concrete approach they developed to regain control of the situation, the way the health care system has been involved in the process and finally, the results they achieved in reducing the internal contamination of their children. (author)

  7. Decision making strategy on rehabilitation of wide territories of the Republic of Belarus contaminated by long-lived radionuclides following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the remote period following radiation accidents accompanied by wide scaled contamination of the territory by long-lived radionuclides inevitably problem of the territory rehabilitation is raised. Actually, we are speaking about difficulties, for state authorities and for society, in a decision making process aimed at taking out territories, settlements, residing and/or working people from the status of accident and at return to 'normality'. Difficulty in the decision making is caused by insufficient development of dose criteria, levels of intervention when really existing annual effective doses is less than 5 mSv, justification of usage, scales and duration of countermeasures. The laws accepted in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident are practicing privileges and compensation of damage to population, residing in territories with density of soil contamination by 137Cs exceeding 37 kBq/sq.m or annual effective dose exceeding 1 mSv. This makes the idea of rehabilitation unattractive. To simplify the process of decisions making perception by society, it is suggested a step by step way of decision making aimed at rehabilitation, based on radiological and non-radiological criteria. As to radiological criteria, it is necessary to refer to a level of annual effective dose and derived values (exposure dose rate, permissible levels of contamination for foodstuffs and environment). Nonradiological criteria include psychological and social-economic factors (attractiveness of rehabilitating territories for residing and making business, reservation of some privileges, maintenance of high level of medical service). (author)

  8. Dynamics of radiation situation on the territory of Belarus and migration of radionuclides in different types of soils after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is the network of the Stationary stations for radioecological monitoring of the ecosystems, working according to special programs, at the territory of the Republic of Belarus. The State Committee for Hydrometeorology carries out the radioecological monitoring of the soil at the sampling sites, which includes 18 landscape-geochemical areas and 181 sampling sites. Study and forecast of vertical and horizontal migration of radionuclides is carried out at the landscape-geochemical areas with different types and variations of soil in various radioecological and physico - geographical conditions. The samples of soil for analysis were sampled in 1992-1998 years and radionuclides concentrations in different horizontal layers were measured. The treatment of experimental data was carried out on the base of assumption of quasi-diffusion radionuclide migration process. Distribution of quasi-diffusion coefficient, mean diffusion coefficient and linear velocity of radionuclide migration were estimated. The results of the control of radionuclides in different types of soil are accumulated in the Republican data bank. The mathematical model for calculation of characteristics of radionuclide migration in soils have been developed in Republican Centre of Radiation and Environment Monitoring. Quasi-diffusion coefficient for Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-238,239,240 and Am-241 in different types of soil have been calculated. Prognosis of relative content of Cs-137 and Sr-90 Pu-238,239,240 and Am-241 in the depth of the soil profile for various types of soil was obtained. (authors)

  9. [Systemic Antimicrobials Consumption and Expenditures in Departments of Surgery of Multi-Profile Hospitals in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus: Results of Multicentre Pharmacoepidemiological Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Yu A; Rachina, S A; Kozlov, R S; Mishchenko, V M; Pavlukov, R A; Abubakirova, A I; Berezhanskiy, B V; Eliseeva, E V; Zubareva, N A; Karpov, I A; Kopylova, I A; Palyutin, Sh Kh; Portnyagina, U S; Pribytkova, O V; Samuylo, E K

    2016-01-01

    The results of the systemic antimicrobials (AM) consumption and expenditures assessment in the departments of surgery of multi-profile hospitals in different regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in 2009-2010 based on retrospective collection and analysis of the data from the hospital expenditure notes using ATC/DDD methodology are presented. The average AM consumption and expenditure rates in the above mentioned departments varied from 24.9 DDD/100 bed-days to 61.7 DDD/100 bed-days depending on the department profile, with beta-lactams (cephalosporins and penicillins) share in the consumption being as high as 70-90%, followed by fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Only 55-70% of the consumed AM belonged to the drugs of choice, whereas the improper AM consumption and expenditure rates amounted up to 10-18%. The study outputs can be used for the budget allocation and AM distribution improvement in the departments of surgery, as well as for the development and efficacy control of the local antimicrobial stewardship programs. PMID:27337864

  10. “俄白哈关税同盟”对中哈经贸关系的影响%Influence of "Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan Customs Union" on Economic and Trade Relationship between China and Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方泗琤; 任华

    2011-01-01

    November 27, 2009 witnessed Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan sign the "Customs Union Customs Code", marking the establishment of "Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan Customs Union". As an important result of substantive progress of customs union within the framework of Russia led European Economic Community, "Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan Customs Union" is also an important trade partner of China, whose establishment is bound to affect economic and trade relations between China and its member states. Based on this, the paper analyzes the impact of the "Union" on economic and trade relations between China and Kazakhstan and advances strategies on how China deals with the "Union".%2009年11月27日,俄、白、哈三国签署了《关税同盟海关法典》,标志着"俄白哈关税同盟"正式成立。"俄白哈关税同盟"作为以俄罗斯为主导的欧亚经济共同体框架内在关税同盟方面取得实质性进展的成果,而中国又是哈萨克斯坦的重要贸易伙伴,"俄白哈关税同盟"的建立势必对中国与其成员国的经贸关系产生影响。基于此,本文对"关税同盟"建立后,该同盟对中国与其成员国-哈萨克斯坦经贸关系所产生的影响进行了分析,并在此基础上提出中国应对"俄白哈关税同盟"的策略。

  11. From breach to bridge: the Augustów canal, an ecotourism destination across the EU’s border with Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Marin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism has become a driver for cooperation across the EU’s Eastern borders. This holds true even in the case of such reluctant a partner as Belarus. In studying the resumption of navigation on the Augustów canal – a 180 year old waterway connecting the Vistula and Neman river basins across the Polish-Belarusian border – this paper illustrates how in “alienated” borderlands projects that develop alternative forms of tourism can foster cross-border cooperation. Shared concern for the preservation of the borderland’s natural and cultural heritage enabled a “bridging” of neighbourhood relations and bred trans-boundary region-building initiatives (Euroregion Neman. A multi-scalar screening of how the Augustów canal area is being promoted as a tourism attraction in Belarus reveals the emergence of horizontal cooperation across the border. Despite geopolitical obstacles, this network governance model empowers the local stakeholders and actors of the embryonic Belarusian civil society, thus favouring their gradual socialisation in Europe.L’écotourisme est devenu un moteur pour la coopération à travers les frontières orientales de l’UE. Cela est vrai y compris dans le cas d’un partenaire aussi réticent que la Biélorussie. En étudiant la réouverture à la navigation du canal Augustów – une voie d’eau qui depuis 180 ans relie les bassins de la Vistule et du Neman à travers la frontière polono-biélorusse – cet article illustre comment, dans des zones-frontières “aliénées”, des projets de développement de formes alternatives de tourisme encouragent la coopération transfrontalière. L’intérêt partagé pour la préservation de l’héritage naturel et culturel de la zone-frontière a permis de jeter des ponts avec les voisins et nourri les initiatives de construction d’une région transfrontalière (Eurorégion Neman. L’examen à différentes échelles de la promotion de la région du canal August

  12. Rehabilitation of living conditions in the post-Chernobyl context: Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just after the Chernobyl accident, in the mid nineties, a radiation monitoring system was introduced to allow the Belarusian authorities to manage the situation but it failed to involve the general population. This resulted in the fact that a significant fraction of people living in contaminated areas continued to receive exposures that could have been avoided or reduced, if authorities had better taken into account the individual behaviours. Face to this situation, the goal of this project is to contribute to the development of a sustainable system of radiological monitoring handled by the local professionals and the population. It was launched in 2004 in the Bragin district (Belarus) in the framework of the CORE Programme (Cooperation for Rehabilitation) whose general objective is to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Bragin district is adjacent to the 30-kilometre exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Beginning in April 2004, existing infrastructure and means of measurement in the Bragin district were significantly modernised and completed. Today, the monitoring system relies on measurements of contamination of the body and measurements of the radiological quality of food stuffs (measurements of the caesium-137 concentration). In particular, whole-body scan measurement campaigns are carried out every six months in the schools in the district. On the basis of the results of measurements, the most severely contaminated children are systematically identified. Local health professionals and specialists of measurements work, with their families, to determine causes of the contamination and identify the scope for practical reduction of the intake of caesium. In a general manner, they periodically diffuse the results of measurements in the villages of the district via brochures or articles in newspapers. They also constitute a solid network that provides people with reliable

  13. Agreement of 14 April 1995 between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 22 November 1994 and in Minsk on 14 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 2 August 1995

  14. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  15. Opportunities and Threats from Ukrainian Membership in WTO in Foreign Trade for Meat and Milk Products with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of Ukrainian membership in World Trade Organisation (WTO in foreign trade of meat and milk products with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that meat and milk products are one of the main export agricultural commodities of the country. It analyses the structure of export of agro-industrial products from Ukraine. It studies situation and changes that took place in the market of meat and meat processing products in Ukraine after its membership in WTO. It shows that Ukrainian export of meat products mainly consists of products with low added value, while products with high added value are imported to Ukraine. It also shows that due to liberalisation of customs rules and the system of trade allocation in the world market of meat and meat products the internal market of Ukraine became unprotected from imported products, which resulted in significant increase of cheaper import into Ukraine and uncompetitiveness of domestic producers of meat products. The article studies situations and shifts that took place in the market of milk and milk products in the result of Ukrainian WTO membership. It proves that the CU market stays, in the middle-term prospect, the most powerful for domestic producers of milk products. It shows that standards of milk quality, applied in EU countries, are higher than in Ukraine and CU, which means it is impossible to compete with EU high technology production. It holds that milk quality increase pursuant to EU standards requires additional investments into re-equipment of the production technology.

  16. European region case study the ethos project for post-accident rehabilitation in the area of belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the worst civilian nuclear accident, the Chernobyl disaster presented the authorities first in the Soviet Union and then in the independent republics with an unprecedented problem. Strenuous and costly efforts were made to limit the effects of the accident and then to cope with the evacuation or rehabilitation as appropriate of the contaminated areas. By the mid-1990's, however, there was increasing evidence that the problems were over-taxing traditional responses. Into this context, a French team of specialists from a range of disciplines entered with a view to attempting improvements, but without preconceived ideas of what they would do or how they would do it. Beginning by listening to the people of the area of Belarus selected for the so-called ETHOS project, they discovered a profound distrust of the authorities and experts born of the perceived shortcomings of the official responses to the problems to date. They thus worked in close co-operation with the people both to identify the problems that concerned them and to develop solutions that took account of local opportunities and constraints. This interim report on a case study examining the ETHOS project is based on interviews with a wide range of people in the area of the project. It presents the problems identified by interviewees with the initial responses of the authorities and then their assessment of the ETHOS approach. The overall finding is that where public confidence has been lost in the context of an event such as the Chernobyl disaster, the authorities need to make a special effort to establish trust to a point where confidence returns. Traditional top-down responses appear to have exacerbated and reinforced the loss of confidence in this case whereas the approach of the ETHOS team appears to have succeeded in building trust to a significant degree - perhaps even to a point where there may be evidence that confidence is returning. (author)

  17. 俄白哈关税同盟贸易效应及其影响%Trade Effects of Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union and Its Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青松

    2013-01-01

    俄、白、哈关税同盟是欧亚经济共同体框架内区域经济一体化重要的阶段性成果,本文重点分析了该关税同盟的贸易效应:2011-2012年,同盟成员国之间的贸易增幅远高于成员国与其主要贸易伙伴的贸易增速,除了哈萨克斯坦之外,俄罗斯、白俄罗斯与同盟成员国的贸易在其外贸总额的占比均有所上升,说明关税同盟促进了三国贸易往来。虽然关税同盟的运行导致了中国对哈国出口成本增加,但由于俄、哈两国与中国属于互补型贸易关系,中国与各成员国的双边贸易仍呈现快速增长状况,俄罗斯加入WTO将促进中俄双边经贸合作规范化和稳健化发展。%Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union is one of the important achievements for the Eurasian Economic Community′s economic integration .This essay emphasizes on the trade effect of this Customs Union .The study shows that the trade growth between the Customs Union member states is much higher than that with its main trading partners . The percentage of Russia and Belarus′s trade with its Customs Union member states accounting for its total amount of for-eign trade is rising besides Kazakhstan .Customs Union leads to increased cost for China′s export to Kazakhstan , but there is no great impact on China′s trade with Russia and Kazakhstan , becuase Russia and kazakhstan are complementa-ry trade relations with China .Russia′s entry into WTO, will promote the specification and robustness development of bi-lateral economic and trade cooperation between China and Russia .

  18. INTER-COUNTRY EFFICIENCY EVALUATION IN INNOVATION ACTIVITY ON THE BASIS OF METHOD FOR DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMY, INCLUDING THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on efficiency evaluation of innovation activity in 63 countries with developed and developing economies while using a method for data envelopment analysis. The following results of innovation activity have been used for calculation of an efficiency factor: export of high-technology products as percentage of industrial product export, export of ICT services as percentage of services export and payments obtained due to realization of intellectual property rights (in US dollars. A model of the data envelopment analysis with a changeable scale-dependent effect and which is directed on maximization of the obtained results (output-oriented VRS model has been used for the analysis. The evaluation has shown that such countries as the USA, Israel, Sweden and some others have maximum efficiency of resource transformation into innovative activity output. The executed analysis has revealed that the Republic of Belarus has a potential for improvement of indices on innovation results.

  19. The mysterious wolves of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    It was just after 3 a.m. as we very quietly exited the van, making sure our water-resistant clothes didn’t make too much noise. A wolf researcher howled into the cold and murky mist. We waited in darkness, hoping for an answer. A single wolf howl from about 300 meters in front of us broke the silence. We peered into the agricultural and forested expanse, straining to get a glimpse of the wolf in the faint star-light. Suddenly, from behind, another howl countered. The expedition’s leader explained that we were standing between two female wolves and their pups—both being tended to by the same male!

  20. USAGE OF BELARUS TRANSIT POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Antioushenya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation  with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.

  1. Biological availability of (238)U, (234)U and (226)Ra for wild berries and meadow grasses in natural ecosystems of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, G A; Ovsiannikova, S V; Voinikava, K V; Ivanova, T G; Papenia, M V

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of behavior of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra by determining the soil to plant transfer under different natural conditions such as forest or swamped areas and meadow lands with different soil types. The paper summarizes the data on investigation of uranium and radium uptake by wild berries and natural meadow grasses in the typical conditions of Belarus. Parameters characterizing the biological availability of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium viti-idaea), blueberry (Vaccinium iliginosum) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus palustris) as well as for widely occurring mixed meadow vegetation, which belongs to the sedge-grass or grass-sedge associations and forbs, have been established. In the sites under investigation, the deposition levels of (238+239+240)Pu were less than 0.37 kBq m(-2) and (137)Cs deposition ranged between less than 0.37 and 37 kBq m(-2). It was found that activity concentrations of radionuclides in berries varied in the ranges of 0.037-0.11 for (234)U, 0.036-0.10 for (238)U and 0.11-0.43 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, but in the mixed meadow grasses they were 0.32-4.4, 0.24-3.9 and 0.14-6.9 Bq kg(-1) accordingly. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were 1.02 ± 0.01 for wild berries, 1.20 ± 0.09 for underground meadow grasses and 1.02 ± 0.02 for proper soils. The concentration ratios (CRs, dry weight basis) of (234)U and (238)U for mixed meadow grasses were 0.036-0.42 and 0.041-0.46 respectively. The correspondent geometric means (GM) were 0.13 and 0.15 with geometric standard deviations (GSD) of 2.4. The CRs of (226)Ra for meadow grasses were 0.031-1.0 with GM 0.20 and GSD 2.6. The CRs of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for wild berries ranged within 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0034, GSD is 1.8), 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0035, GSD is 1.8) and 0.005-0.033 (GM is 0.016, GSD is 2.1) accordingly. The highest CR values of uranium for mixed meadow grasses were found in the

  2. 俄白哈关税同盟贸易效应及对中国新疆商品出口贸易的影响%Trade Effects of Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union and the Influence on Export of Xinjiang of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李豫新; 王雪梅

    2015-01-01

    关税同盟的贸易效应对区域外贸易国家和地区的出口贸易具有重要影响。文章应用巴拉萨模型分析了俄白哈关税同盟的贸易效应,结合贸易效应着重探索了俄白哈关税同盟对中国新疆商品出口贸易的影响。结果表明:俄白哈关税同盟的贸易转移效应明显,贸易创造效应初步显现;中国新疆与俄白哈三国的出口贸易紧密度减弱;中国新疆对俄白哈三国的出口贸易增速下降,出口商品贸易结构中的工业制成品占比逐渐下降;俄白哈关税同盟的贸易转移效应对中国新疆商品的出口贸易带来较大冲击。%Trade effects of the Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union has an important influence on the export trade of extra-regional trade countries and regions.This paper analyzed the trade effects of Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union using the Balassa model,in combi-nation with trade effect,and mainly explored the Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union effects on Xinjiang's export trade.The result shows that the trade diversion effect of this Customs Union is obvious,and the trade creation effect has started to display.There is a weak export trade relationship between Xinjiang China and Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan;trade growth of Xin-jiang to Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan export is declining;and the proportion of industrial manufac-tured goods in the trade structure of export are decreasing;the trade diversion effect of this Cus-toms Union brings significant impact on export trade of Xinj iang China.

  3. Costo energético y tiempos tecnológicos del tractor Belarus-M510 con cultivador-fertilizador CIVEMASA en caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Pereira Chirinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron los tiempos tecnológicos y el costo energético del tractor BELARUS M-150 con cultivador fer - tilizador CIVEMASA en el cultivo de la caña de azúcar en el central azucarero Trujillo del estado Trujillo. La metodología utilizada para el cronometraje fue la NC.34-37 2003 y la empleada para la determinación de los costos, apoyada por los antecedentes presentados por la ASAE. El objetivo del trabajo fue la determinación de los tiempos tecnológicos y costo energético del conjunto agrícola. El coeficiente de utilización del tiempo de turno obtenido es de 38% para un volumen de trabajo total de 14,48 ha en las labores de cultivo y fertilización. El mayor costo energético horario corresponde al combustible con un valor de 212,6 MJ/h y el mínimo valor corresponde al de la fuerza de trabajo con un valor de 0,64MJ/h.

  4. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum 2003-2005. Second revised version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  5. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  6. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, [1908], Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia

  7. 75 FR 5502 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Act (50 U.S.C. 1701- 1706) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 13405 (71 FR 35485, June 20, 2006) (``E... note); E.O. 13405, 71 FR 35485; 3 CFR, 2007 Comp., p. 231. Subpart A--Relation of This Part to Other...: (1) Any person listed in the Annex to Executive Order 13405 of June 16, 2006 (71 FR 35485, June...

  8. 75 FR 73958 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... interests in property (73 FR 29849, May 22, 2008). On September 4, 2008, before the publication of the BSR... published on February 3, 2010 (75 FR 5502). Section 548.509 of the BSR memorialized General License No. 1....C. 1705 note); E.O. 13405, 71 FR 35485; 3 CFR, 2007 Comp., p. 231. Subpart...

  9. Decontamination of Belarus research reactor installation by strippable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to develop new strippable coatings using water-based solutions of polyvinyl alcohol and active additives for decontamination of research reactor equipment. The employment of strippable coatings makes it possible to minimize the quantity of liquid radioactive waste. The selection of strippable decontaminating coatings was carried out on the basis of general requirements to decontaminating solutions: successfully dissolve corrosion deposits; ensure the desorption of radionuclides from the surfaces and the absence of resorption; introduce minimal corrosion effect of construction materials; to be relatively cheap and available in reagents. The decontaminating ability and adhesion properties of these coatings depending on metal and deposit sorts were investigated. Research on the chemical stability of solid wastes was carried out. The data obtained were the base for recommendations on waste management procedure for used films and pastes. A full-scale case-study analysis was performed for comparing strippable coatings with decontaminating solutions. (author)

  10. The information provision of rehabilitation measures in Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most important post-Chernobyl problems is the formation of an efficient system of the population's informing. It is of significant importance to provide population with objective and available information on radioecological situation, radiation safety and protective measures while solving social and economical problems. Available information should be presented in a form, suitable for perception by wide public. Different categories of population (children, workers of various professional groups, pensioners) need practical recommendations on how to provide safe life conditions. It has been carried out 'The Concept of information supply on Chernobyl problems'. The Concept is aimed to advance the efficiency of the measures on overcoming the aftermath of Chernobyl catastrophe. The profound explanatory work on the contaminated territories is considered to be the essence of the population's informing, which is directed to change the man's behavior models. Current expositions 'Overcoming of Chernobyl catastrophe consequences' in the most contaminated areas of Gomel, Mogilev and Brest regions are one of the most important elements of the system of people's informing. Today they are created in 21 areas. In 2002 the Russian-Belarussian information centre was created. One of its major tasks is the minimization of the social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. In 2005 it has been developed The Strategy of information work on the basis of modern computer technologies. Its major point is the creation of the system, which provides a wide access of the Internet-users to the information of Chernobyl character. The Coordination council in informing and propaganda (on Chernobyl problems) was created, in which the represents of the bodies of state management are included, who are participating in the realization of the Concept of information supply. The examination of information work in the contaminated districts of Gomel, Mogilev and Brest regions allowed to have made some conclusions referring to its efficiency. The analysis of the results of the population's social and psychological monitoring on the contaminated territories of Gomel' region has been provided. The number of people, who could have adapted to the living conditions, has considerably increased in Bragin and Khojniki districts - to 71,3 and 65,1 % accordingly. The social surveys, which are being provided, show that the information work is gradually reducing the acuteness of perception of Chernobyl disaster

  11. ZTE IN BELARUS: GLOBAL COMPANY IN LOCAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, T.; Yao, J

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes ZTE activity in the Belarusian market focu- sing on the challenges and perspectives provided by a local market to a globalizer. Having made full use of local resources as well as research and development strategies, ZTE has spurred other Chinese companies’ entry to the Belarusian market overcoming wrong assumptions and clash of cultures

  12. FORMATION OF EFFICIENT CAPITAL MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kotova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for creation of theoretical foundation as a basis of financial security of economic development at micro- and macro-levels is justified in the paper.A contradiction between requirements which are formed in respect of financial assets from the side of internal and foreign investors and their cash-down proposal is revealed in the paper. The paper also considers several options to solve the given contradiction on the basis of changes in structure of corporative financing and stimulation of corporative bond market.

  13. Belarus opposition prepares for election battle / Jan Maksymiuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maksymiuk, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Valgevene opositsioonilised Rahvarinne, Tööpartei, Ühendatud Kodanike Partei, Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Assamblee ja Kommunistlik Partei on moodustanud koalitsiooni 17. oktoobri parlamendivalimisteks ning kavatsevad esitada presidendivalimistele ühise kandidaadi

  14. Education in the Baltic States, Ukraine, Belarus' and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiak, Janusz

    1992-01-01

    Reviews recent educational changes and issues in six republics of the former Soviet Union, including controversies over language of instruction, revision of curriculum and textbooks to eliminate Marxism and emphasize national history and culture, reappearance of religious schools and instruction, and criticisms of teacher education and teaching…

  15. Grybauskaite's historic visit to Belarus / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2010-01-01

    Minskis toimunud presidentide Dalia Grybauskaite ja Aleksandr Lukašenko kohtumisel räägiti 19. detsembril toimuvatest Valgevene presidendivalimistest ja idapartnerlusest. Leedu president kohtus ka opositsiooni liikmetega. Visiidi ajal allkirjastasid riikide välisministrid Audronius Azubalis ja Sergei Martõnov lepingu, mis lihtsustab kahe riigi piiriäärsete elanike piiriületust

  16. Belarus - a unique case in the European context? / Kim Lausten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausten, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Valgevene presidendi Aleksander Lukashenko autoritaarsest režiimist, sellega seonduvatest võimalikest ohtudest Valgevene naaberriikide julgeolekule. Autor analüüsib Lukashenko režiimi institutsioonilisi ning sotsiaalpoliitilisi tagamaid

  17. Observations on renal replacement services in Russia, Belarus and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesken, W H; Ahmed, K E; Méry, J P; Segaert, M F; Bourgoignie, J J

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the current financial, technical and medical status of nephrology, dialysis and renal transplant services in these countries with the hope of helping our colleagues there to upgrade their standards of care. The general impression is that physicians as well as administrators in these countries are eager to improve conditions of patient care despite a disastrous economical climate. Our view is that we can help by providing literature, textbooks, journals, travel funds, by offering visiting fellowships to individual physicians, and by forming partnerships between nephrology centres. PMID:8643160

  18. [Experience in teaching a biopsy-section course in Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Yu V; Malashenko, S V; Lesnichaya, O V; Krylov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the improvement of teaching a biopsy-section course (BSC). The authors have analyzed the most frequent errors in the interaction of clinicians with a pathology service and summed up the experience of the Pathological Anatomy Department in practical work and teaching the BSC. The differentiated approach to teaching the BSC to resident students of different specialties is proposed.

  19. 75 FR 48562 - Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ....k.a. ZAO BANK TORGOVY KAPITAL), 3 Kozlova Street, Minsk 220005, Belarus; Registration ID 30 (Belarus..., Belarus; Registration ID 807000227 (Belarus) issued 16 Oct 2009; SWIFT/BIC HNRBBY2X (Belarus); all...

  20. Assessment of Competitiveness of Regions of Ukraine and Belarus as Part of Cross-Border Cooperation Оценка конкурентоспособности регионов Украины и Беларуси в рамках приграничного сотрудничества

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanova Yelena V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the theoretical foundations of the study of competitiveness of regions is made. Special attention was paid to the competitiveness of the border regions. It was shown the results of evaluation of the competitiveness of the border regions of Ukraine and Belarus, the main strengths and weaknesses, opportunities to threats.В статье проведен анализ теоретических основ изучения конкурентоспособности регионов. Особое внимание уделено изучению конкурентоспособности приграничных регионов. Показаны результаты оценки конкурентоспособности приграничных регионов Украины и Беларуси, основные сильные и слабые стороны, возможности на угрозы.

  1. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Belarus: the size of the problem and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrahina, Alena; Hurevich, Henadz; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Sahalchyk, Evgeni; Astrauko, Andrei; Hoffner, Sven; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Dadu, Andrei; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Dara, Masoud; van Gemert, Wayne; Zignol, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Évaluer le problème de la tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MR) sur le territoire biélorusse et explorer les facteurs de risque associés. MÉTHODES: Au cours d'une enquête nationale menée en 2010-2011, 1420 cas de tuberculose (TB) ont été dépistés et 934 cas nouveaux ainsi que 410 cas précédemment traités ont été jugés conformes aux critères d'inclusion. Des isolats de Mycobacterium tuberculosis provenant de chaque patient admissible ont été testés pour leur sensibilité envers les médicaments antituberculeux. Des informations sociocomportementales ont été recueillies lors d'entretiens basés sur un questionnaire structuré. RÉSULTATS: La TB-MR a été détectée dans respectivement 32,3% et 75,6% des cas nouveaux et des cas traités antérieurement, et 11,9% des 612 patients porteurs de la TB-MR présentaient une forme de tuberculose ultrarésistante (TB-UR). Un historique de traitement antérieur pour la TB représentait le principal facteur de risque indépendant pour la TB-MR (rapport des cotes, RC: 6,1; intervalle de confiance à 95%, IC: 4,8 à 7,7). Les autres facteurs de risque indépendants comprenaient l'infection par le virus d'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) (RC: 2,2; IC à 95%: 1,4 à 3,5), l’âge tuberculose en Bélarus. Les nombreux facteurs de risque identifiés pour la TB-MR et la convergence entre l’épidémie de TB-MR et l'infection par le VIH exigent non seulement de renforcer la collaboration entre les programmes antituberculeux et de lutte contre le VIH, mais aussi la mise en œuvre de mesures innovantes pour accélérer la détection de la résistance à la tuberculose et améliorer l'observance du traitement.

  2. Innovations as a development factor for the contemporary culture in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatlana Buloichyk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural institutions, being the subjects of management on one hand, and creating economic conditions on the other hand, have a significant impact on the development of the economy. However, cultural institutions themselves need to be developed. Certain economic innovations can become a development factor in the work of cultural institutions.

  3. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in a Belarussian-American-Danish collaborative project. Here the total radiological impact of the scheme is considered. This means that not only the dose reductive effect of the forest decontamination is taken into account, but also the possible adverse health effects in connection with the much needed bio-energy production. This report presents the results of an in-country, commercial-scale investigation of the effect of a baghouse filter in retaining contaminants so that they are not released to the atmosphere in the biomass energy production process. Approximately 99,5 % of the activity of a commercially representative, dust-laden boiler flue gas was removed from the stream by using a combination of a cyclone and a baghouse filter. (au)

  4. CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PLATFORM MOBILE ROBOT BASED ON SERIAL TRACTOR «BELARUS 132»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Tatur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is announced an innovative project to create a prototype multi­robotic system. A distinctive feature of the project – the maximum use of components and software of domestic production. The mobile robot used the concept of multi­level management system, according to which the majority of workload is on­board computer. This will reduce the amount of data transmitted over a wireless link, and increase the efficiency of the development of algorithms for higher­level control.

  5. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  6. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... on July 2, 2012 (77 FR 39254) and determined on October 5, 2012 that it would conduct full reviews (77 FR 64127, October 18, 2012). Notice of the scheduling of the Commission's reviews and of a public... Register on December 3, 2012 (77 FR 71631). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on April 25, 2013,...

  7. Children's Welfare Benefits and the Demographic Policy of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revun, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the Soviet era there has been an entire system of social welfare benefits in connection with the birth and upbringing of children. Nowadays, in the independent states that came into being in the post-Soviet space, extensive use is also made of various social welfare benefits that are linked to prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal…

  8. Belarus and Russia in OSCE Ministerial Council focus / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    6.-7. detsembril Vilniuses toimunud OSCE Ministrite Nõukogu kohtumisel räägiti inimõiguste probleemidest, meediavabadusest, Afganistanist, Araabia kevadest, Valgevenes toimuvast ja Venemaal toimunud parlamendivalimistest. Kohtumise avas Leedu president Dalia Grybauskaite. 6. detsembril kohtus USA riigisekretär Hillary Clinton president Dalia Grybauskaite ja välisminister Audronius Azubalisega

  9. [Experience in setting up a morbid anatomy bureau in the Gomel Region, Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, O A

    2006-01-01

    A diversity of the clinical and morphological manifestations pf melanoma determines the great importance of each description of manifestation of this most malignant tumor. In this connection, there is a worldwide increasing rise in the number of patients with melanoma whose diagnosis present well-known difficulties, the authors describe a case of this tumor progression, which masked as uterine carcinoma.

  10. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.;

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in aBelarussian-American-Danish collaborative project. H...

  11. On the Shaping of the Legal Culture of Young People in Russia and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the legal culture of young people in the interaction between subjective factors and objective conditions characterizing the transformation of societies in the post-Soviet space makes it possible not only to assess the current state of that culture, but also to map out ways to improve it. In this article, the authors examine the…

  12. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, People's Republic of China, Poland, Republic of Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777... South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007). On July 2, 2012, the... of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 77 FR...

  13. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777 (September 7, 2001). On August 9, 2007, the Department revoked the... Reinforcing Bars from South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007). DATES... be revoked.\\3\\ \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 77 FR 39218, 39219 (July 2,...

  14. [Specific clinical, epidemiological patterns and laboratory diagnostics of enterovirus infection in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvros'eva, T V; Poklonskaia, N V; Bogush, Z F; Kazinets, O N; Germanovich, F A; Fisenko, E G; Titov, L P; Kvacheva, Z B; Bezruchko, A A; Scheslenok, E P

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiological patterns as well as the results of the laboratory verification of the outbreak of enterovirus infection (EVI) in Minsk during the period of summer-autumn, 2000, are presented. During this outbreak a variety of clinical forms were observed, the serous meningitis being prevalent (57.5%). Practically simultaneous occurrence of infection on the territory of all administrative districts of the city, the predominant involvement of children aged up to 14 years into the outbreak, a high proportion of simultaneous casualities in the multiple foci. A number of circulating enteroviruses (EV)--ECHO 30, ECHO 6 of three serotypes and Coxsackie B5--were simultaneously isolated from clinical material. EV of the same serotypes were isolated from tap drinking water, and neutralizing antibodies to these serotypes were often detected in the patients blood sera. Infectious EV were also present in samples of bottled water and in water reservoirs used for bathing. The routes of EV transmission and the improvement of EVI control are discussed.

  15. McCain visits Vilnius to discuss Belarus / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    USA senaatorite ja Esindajatekoja delegatsiooni Leedu visiidi käigus kohtus John McCain Leedus õppivate Valgevene üliõpilaste ja president Dalia Grybauskaitega, et rääkida Valgevenes toimuvast. Leedus toimunutest Valgevene temaatilistest konverentsidest

  16. Heated squabble over Belarus marks beginning of the year / Linas Jegelevicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jegelevicius, Linas

    2011-01-01

    Leedu ekspresident Valdas Adamkus on kritiseerinud president Dalia Grybauskaite välispoliitikat Valgevene suhtes. 3. jaanuaril toimunud presidendi ja välisminister Andronius Azubalise kohtumisel räägiti ka Valgevene presidendivalimistest ja sealsest olukorrast. Dalia Grybauskaite prognoose ja eesmärke 2011. aastaks on samuti kritiseeritud. Leedu on 2011. aastal OSCE eesistuja

  17. Sociological aspects of reproductive health of young people in Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this survey we analyzed responses of 1,500 15-25-year-old young people. The survey included responses to the questions about knowledge of the ecological situation in the places of their permanent residence. It has been noted that the overwhelming majority of respondents from all regions are not sufficiently informed about the state of ecological situation in their places of residence. (Authors)

  18. Contemporary Historiography of Social History of Stalinism in Belarus and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viachaslau Menkouski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the historiographical direction "Social History of Stalinism" in the publications of Russian and Belarusian researchers. It is proposed an overview of the use of the term "Stalinism" in the Russian historiography. It compares the ratio of Marxist theory and the practice of socialism in the Soviet Union. The analysis of the Russian-language historiography of Stalinism abroad in the XX–XXI centuries draws attention to the influence of the English-language historiography on the Russian and Belarusian researchers.It explains the importance of "social history" to understand the Stalinist period of Soviet history. Having to replace the concept of totalitarianism, this area has allowed researchers to shift attention from the Soviet leadership to the broad social strata. The Stalinism methodology is studied and how it can be applied to other countries and other historical periods. This allowed a more accurate picture of the life of Soviet society and the State in the 1930–1950's.Attention is paid to the internationalization and globalization of modern historical research as one of the most important specific features. It provides examples of joint projects and publications that focus on the "ordinary people" of the Stalinist Soviet Union, their daily lives, and practice relationships between different social strata.

  19. ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTION OF OPTIMUM POWER-SUPPLY SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Padalko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main directions of the technological development of the Belarusian power-supply system. Comparative analysis of the economic efficiency of thermal power station modernization on the basis of steam- and gas technology, nuclear technology development and simple renovation of the worn-out generating capacities of thermal power stations has been carried out in the paper. Selection of the priority direction pertaining to optimization of industrial structure of the Belarusian power-supply system has been made on the basis of the presented minimum-specific cost criterion. The paper reveals that in the medium-term period the most optimum development of the Belarusian electrical power engineering is a technological  modernization  due to predicted  changes in natural gas and nuclear fuel costs. The modernization presupposes construction of topping plants in addition to the existing steam- and turbine equipment at thermal power stations. 

  20. Radiation control of food and forest industry production in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Service of the Ministry of Health ( 151 radiology laboratories ) and The Ministry of Agriculture ( 1330 radiology laboratories ) carry out the permanent control of the content of radionuclides in food. Last years there was no case registered of drinking water with the content of radioactive substances exceeding the permissible level. Radiation control of food and agricultural raw products is carried out in several stages: at the place of production, during reprocessing and a control of ready made product. The fact that there was no case of delivery of the products with the content of radionuclides higher than permissible level for sale says about the reliability of the system of the control. The permissible levels of the content of radionuclides are presented for food, drinking water, products of forest industry and agricultural production. 1 tab

  1. MODERN CONDITIONS OF ROAD FACILITIES AND INTERNATIONAL AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORTATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Tsarenkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For analysis of technical and economic conditions of automotive roads and determination of reserves for improvement of financial situation and usage of capital in road facilities operational efficiency of road facilities and automotive freight-traffic services that provide significant currency receipt for Republic budget. The main ways for higher export of construction services are involvement of road facilities enterprises in this activity and introduction of highly-productive technologies in their operation. The paper demonstrates an importance of non-conventional sources of investment attractions such as leasing which is used for renovation of capital assets and invests resources in the basic capital on the return basis in the natural form. For application of new technologies and modern technique it is justifiable to establish joint road-construction enterprises with foreign sub-contractors. The paper reveals main reasons of profit increase due to operation and services of road branch.

  2. Propaganda techniques in law enforcement practice: experience of the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stukanov V.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of public administration is stated – influencing the public consciousness to form values and world view, attitude of the people towards rules of law and public authorities. Propaganda is an effective means of organizing such influence. It’s proved that propaganda is a specially organized process of presenting information aimed at the assimilation of declared by the state system of moral and legal norms and values as well as social and political views by the public consciousness. Propaganda is a means of state ideology, therefore it includes value attitude to the historical, political, social and economic processes; evaluation of historical development models and the balance of political forces; attitude to legally protected values, state authorities and law enforcement agencies, criminal behaviour. The following subjects of propaganda are recognized: state, public authorities, mass media, civil society actors (political parties, trade unions, public and religious associations and foundations, national diasporas, etc.. Their information and communication activities meet the national interests declared officially. The objects of propaganda are public consciousness, the system of spiritual values, worldviews, social and political views and attitudes, as well as the historical memory of the people. The state is the source of propaganda views and ideas. It acts as methodologist of propaganda activities, developing the concept of propaganda on the basis of state ideology, and ensuring its implementation through executive and administrative authorities, political, public and other institutions. The state creates the mechanism and appropriate conditions for propaganda influence, using administrative, economic, personnel and other resources.

  3. Radiation monitoring of local foodstuffs in some settlements in Belarus located not far from woodlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here are the results of radiation monitoring performed by the local centres for radiation control in some settlements located in radiation contaminated territories not far from woodlands. It is shown that within the decennial period from 1993 to 2003 the Caesium 137 radiation contamination of mushrooms, game and milk from private household makes significant values and do not have the decreasing tendency. It is recommended to use possible radioprotective measures of the population under above stated circumstances. (authors)

  4. Estimation of soya cultivation efficiency in conditions of Belarus lands polluted by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of high-protein soya crop including lands polluted by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident, causes to the necessity of carrying out research to study the radionuclide transfer into production of this crop. As a result of research the transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr from soil into seeds and green mass of various soya varieties have been determined to allow a prediction of radionuclide transfer into production. Limiting densities of radionuclide pollution for moderately improved sod - podzol sandy soils for production of the soya products corresponding of 137Cs and 90Sr content to the national permissible levels are established. Use of the crop in plant cultivation and cattle-breeding branch is accompanied by high energy - conserving effects. Soya products contains high quantity of total energy per kilogram of forage. The most highly energy-conserving forages are waste products of soya processing: an oil cake - up to 87,4 Mj and soil-seed meal up to 79,7 Mj. High profitability of this crop cultivation is provided by production for seeds. It is economically defensible a soya beans cultivation for processing and for fodder. For reception of seeds for food purposes there are restrictions on pollution of soil: 1125 kBk/square ? (30 Ci/square km) and 90Sr to 2,6 kBk/square ? (0,07 Ci/square km)

  5. Seasonal variations of Cinnamomum camphora leaf aroma volatiles in greenhouse condition of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Hetka, Nelly; Rogovoy, Pavel; Subach, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Buvo tiriama kokybinė ir kiekybinė introdukuoto augalo Cinnamomum camphora džiovintuose lapuose esančių lakiųjų aromatinių medžiagų sudėtis. Šie augalai buvo auginami šiltnamio sąlygomis Baltarusijos nacionalinės mokslų akademijos Botanikos sodo šiltnamiuose. Birželio mėnesį visai vasarai augalai buvo išnešami į lauką, o žiemą, gruodžio mėnesį, tiriami chromatografu Model 5090. Buvo nustatyta kamparo, kuris yra pagrindinė Cinnamomum camphora lapų aromatinių medžiagų sudedamoji dalis, dalis pr...

  6. 137Cs radiation burden on children from a highly contaminated area of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation burden from 137Cs sources on 22 children from a small Byelorussian village was studied from 1992 to 1994. Foodstuff, whole body burden and urinary excretion of 137Cs were measured, intake rates, biological half-lives and doses were calculated. The median value for the 137Cs whole body incorporation level was found to be 124 Bq, the biological half life was calculated as 68 d for girls and 50 d for boys. The internal dose caused by 137Cs was found to be negligible in comparison to that from external sources. No deviation from normal values could be shown in simultaneously studied clinico-chemical parameters

  7. Proceedings of 1. Congress of the Belarus therapeutic radiologists-oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The edition is devoted to urgent problems of use of a beam component and modern radiotherapeutic complex in treatment of oncological diseases. It includes materials submitted by the leading experts of many countries, about experience of the beam therapy use at lungs cancer, as well as information of leading firms of the world about their participation in development modern radiotherapeutic complexes and clinical experience of their use. The edition is intended for radiologists, oncologists, physics engineers as well as other experts, engaging by problems of beam therapy and its both hardware and software support. (authors)

  8. MOBILE MORTAR CONCRETE PLANTS FOR BUILDING COMPLEX OF BELARUS: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main advantages and disadvantages of mobile mortar concrete plants in comparison with stationary concrete mixing units. The main idea of the mobility is to provide quick movement. In its turn, this approach imposes some restrictions on dimensions and weights of concrete mixing equipment. However in the context of the concrete mixing equipment and construction site as whole the mobility concept is considered in the form of three components: minimum expenses on site preparation for assembly of a mortar concrete plant, transportability, reduction in installation and startand-adjustment periods. In this regard processing chain for production of concrete and mortar mixes is divided in separate complete operations. Then it is necessary to develop modules which are performing the required operations. Every module is developed in accordance with the size of a shipping container in order to make transportation convenient. Detachable connections are stipulated in the place of module linkages, electrical wiring, pipelines for supply water and chemical admixtures, pneumatics. Henceforth, these connections make it possible to reduce time for on-site assembly and disassembly of the equipment.The paper presents a mobile mortar concrete unit of block-module arrangement which has been developed within the framework of the State Scientific Research Programme at the BNTU. The unit has been manufactured using production capacities of JSC “Viprotekh” and it has been successfully introduced in production process. One of the promising directions is to use the mobile mortar concrete plants which are located and which are operating directly on construction sites. Their economic efficiency becomes higher with an increase of distance to the nearest stationary mortar concrete unit and scope of concreting works. Mobile mortar concrete plants are mainly intended for construction organizations which are realizing construction projects away from urban infrastructure and transportation networks: bridges, dams, highways, transport junctions. While ensuring the same production output of concrete these plants are located in close proximity to the construction site and the required mortars can be supplied directly to the site with the help of special concrete pumps.

  9. The neuromuscular system in freshwater furcocercaria from Belarus. II Diplostomidae, Strigeidae, and Cyathocotylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-02-01

    The neuromuscular system (NMS) in cercariae of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Cotylurus szidati, Australapatemon burti, Holostephanus volgensis, and Paracoenogonimus ovatus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT immunoreactive (-IR), FMRF-amide-IR neuronal elements, and α-tubulin-IR in sensory receptors were investigated. The NMS in the five species studied were compared with each other and with three species of Schistosomatidae studied earlier (Bilharziella polonica, Trichobilharzia szidati, and Trichobilharzia franki). No major structural differences in the musculature, the 5-HT-IR or FMRF-IR neuronal elements were noticed between the cercariae. The minor variations observed in the musculature were related to the size and organization of the muscle fibers. The checked pattern formed by the transverse muscle fibers in the tail stems of D. pseudospathaceum, C. szidati, A. burti, H. volgensis, and P. ovatus was not observed in B. polonica, T. szidati, and T. franki. A trend in the differentiation of the longitudinal muscle fibers in the furca from evenly distributed fibers in H. volgensis and P. ovatus to many bundles in D. pseudospathaceum and two well-organized lateral bundles in C. szidati, A. burti, and Trichobilharzia spp. was observed. The transverse muscle fibers in the furca follow the same trend. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the cercarial bodies varied between 10 and 16. In cercariae of H. volgensis and P. ovatus, the central nervous system (CNS) was less centralized compared to the CNS in the other species studied, with only two 5-HT-IR marker neurons in each brain ganglion and the other neurons distributed evenly along the main cords. In the tails of H. volgensis and P. ovatus, many transverse 5-HT-IR comissures were found. In the tails of higher strigeidid cercariae, only a few crosslinks were observed. The number and distribution of sensory receptors on the bodies and tails of the cercarial species differed from each other. A trend in the differentiation of the sensory receptors in the tails was discerned. A process of grouping and decrease in number of ciliated receptors in the stem and in the furca from H. volgensis and P. ovatus to Schistosomatid cercariae took place.

  10. The neuro-muscular system in continuously swimming cercariae from Belarus. I Xiphidiocercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-11-01

    The neuromuscular system (NMS) in cercariae of Neoastiotrema trituri, Plagiorchis elegans, Omphalometra flexuosa, Skrjabinoeces similis and Prosthogonimus ovatus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR sensory receptors were investigated, and they were found to be rather similar in all the cercariae studied. Four species have seven paired 5-HT-IR neurons in the body, and P. elegans has eight. N. trituri has three 5-HT-IR neurons in each brain ganglion, while the other species have four. A high degree of conformity in the structure of the NMS was observed, probably reflecting the close phylogenetic relationship and the similar strategy of host finding.

  11. The neuromuscular system in continuously swimming cercariae from Belarus. II Echinostomata, Gymnocephala and Amphistomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-12-01

    The neuromuscular system in cercariae of Moliniella anceps, Echinostoma revolutum, Cathaemasia hians, Psilochasmus oxyurus, Sphaeridiotrema globulus, Paramphistomum cervi and Diplodiscus subclavatus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR sensory receptors were investigated. The general patterns of musculature, 5-HT- and FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements in the 12 species studied here and in paper I are similar to those observed in other cercariae and reflect the morphology of the groups. The musculature of the tail shows variations which are related to the different strategies of host finding. In the Echinostomatoidea and Paramphistomoidea, the striated musculature of the tail is well developed compared to that in the Xiphidiocercariae. Specialized muscle fibres were found in S. globulus, which are able to change the shape of the tail. Nine of the species studied have seven paired 5-HT-IR neurons in the body, and two species have eight. No correlation between the body size and the number of 5-HT-IR neurons was observed. However, the size of the neurons followed the body size. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the brain ganglia increased from the primitive to the advanced forms. The number of FMRFamide-IR transverse commissures in the body correlates with the size of the cercariae. Regardless of the differences in the second intermediate host, the distribution of α-tubulin-IR sensory receptors shows a high degree of conformity in all species except in P. cervi, which encysts on plants.

  12. Belarus police search Latvian diplomat's apartment, level accusations of vice / Julia Balandina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balandina, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Valgevene võimud tekitasid poliitilise skandaali, süüdistades Läti diplomaati Reimo Smitsi pornostseenis ning pornograafia levitamises. Läti välisministeerium nimetab juhtumit provokatsiooniks ning rünnakuks diplomaadi ja Läti riigi vastu

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility for Innovation and Economic Performance Improvement: Evidence from Belarus as an Emerging Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Siarheu Manzhynski

    2014-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) could be an essential driver for innovation and high economic performance in a long-run perspective. First movers can exploit the business opportunities and gain a comparative advantage. But at the same time implementation of strategies and practices based on CSR requires additional costs and distraction from core activities. To what extent can efforts in building up of a social responsible company pay off these costs and benefit? What role does staff’s p...

  14. Comparison of reliability levels provided by the eurocodes and standardsof the republic of belarus СРАВНЕНИЕ УРОВНЕЙ НАДЕЖНОСТИ СТАЛЬНЫХ КОНСТРУКЦИЙ, ОБЕСПЕЧИВАЕМЫХ ЕВРОКОДАМИИ СТАНДАРТАМИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadol’skiy Vitaliy Valer’evich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of reliability levels of steel structures designed according to the Eurocodes and to the standards of the Republic of Belarus is provided . The main differences between the basic principles of both standards (such as load combinations, the system of partial factors with a particular focus on design of steel structures are demonstrated. The main parameters characterizing load effects and resistances are compared on the general level. Probabilistic models of basic variables are adjusted to relevant conditions of the Republic of Belarus. In the numerical example, reliability of steel elements is analysed for different combinations of permanent and variable actions . It appears that the standards of the Republic of Belarus assure a lower reliability level than the Eurocodes (reliability indices ranging between 2.0 and 3.5. The main reason for this difference is attributed to the specification of design values of permanent and variable loads. As for both systems of standards under consideration, the reliability of structures exposed to the snow load is significantly lower than the reliability of structures exposed to other types of the load; therefore, further harmonization is required. Further studies concerning more complicated structural elements made of various steel grades are needed.Выполнено сравнение уровней надежности стальных конструкций, запроектированных в соответствии с Еврокодами и стандартами Республики Беларусь. Показаны основные различия между базовыми принципами обоих систем нормативных документов (например, в сочетаниях нагрузок, системах частичных коэффициентов с акцентом на проектирование стальных конструкций. Со

  15. Reducing CO2 emissions from drained peatlands : The Kyoto Protocol as a solution? The Republic of Belarus as a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    The drainage of peatlands leads to the oxidation of the upper peat layer. As a result, green-house gas carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted into the atmosphere. Worldwide the drainage of peatlands results in the release of 800 million tons of CO2 per year, thu

  16. Management of the yield and radiological quality of potatoes cultivated by population on radioactive contaminated land of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be considered as a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory after Chernobyl accident. The results of the application of experimental technology for potato cultivation on radioactive contaminated land developed by participants in cooperation with scientists are described. The potato yield in experiment was higher on 13-27 t.ha-1 or in 1.6 times than on control plots. The 137Cs content in potatoes in experiment was lower on 20-30% than in control plots and lower than republican permissible level of radionuclide content. The 1 EURO invested to the potato experiment provided 2.0 EURO of net return. Therefore the management of yield and radiological quality of potatoes cultivated on private contaminated plots allowed to reduce of irradiation dose on rural inhabitants and to increase the outcome of their family. (orig.)

  17. The Use of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushkevich, Yu N; Kosmacheva, S M; Zabrodets, G V; Ignatenko, S I; Goncharova, N V; Severin, I N; Likhachev, S A; Potapnev, M P

    2015-08-01

    We studied a new method of treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells were injected intravenously (intact cells) or via lumbar puncture (cells committed to neuronal differentiation). Evaluation of the results of cell therapy after 12-month follow-up revealed slowing down of the disease progression in 10 patients in comparison with the control group consisting of 15 patients. The cell therapy was safe for the patients.

  18. [About the contents of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in forest soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Perevolotskaia, T V

    2014-01-01

    The specific activity of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in forest soil ecotopes (A2-B2-C2-D2) has been investigated. When the fertility of the soil increases from A2 to D2, then the specific activity of 40K increases in the rooting zone of the soil from 275 ± 6.9 up to 499 ± 11 Bq/kg, 232Th--from 11.8 ± 0.5 to 17.1 ± 1.1 Bq/kg, 226Ra- from 19.2 γ 0.8 to 27.9 ± 1.5 Bq/kg. The calculated capacity of the absorbed dose of γ-radiation conditioned by 40K, 232Th and 226Ra increases from A2 to D2 from 27.5 ± 0.5 to 44.1 ± 1.1 nGy / h at the height of 1 m.

  19. Accumulation and distribution of mercury in fruiting bodies by fungus Suillus luteus foraged in Poland, Belarus and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Martyna; Falandysz, Jerzy; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2016-02-01

    Presented in this paper is result of the study of the bioconcentration potential of mercury (Hg) by Suillus luteus mushroom collected from regions within Central, Eastern, and Northern regions of Europe. As determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy, the Hg content varied from 0.13 ± 0.05 to 0.33 ± 0.13 mg kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 0.038 ± 0.014 to 0.095 ± 0.038 mg kg(-1) dry matter in stems. The Hg content of the soil substratum (0-10 cm layer) underneath the fruiting bodies showed generally low Hg concentrations that varied widely ranging from 0.0030 to 0.15 mg kg(-1) dry matter with mean values varying from 0.0078 ± 0.0035 to 0.053 ± 0.025 mg kg(-1) dry matter, which is below typical content in the Earth crust. The caps were observed to be on the richer in Hg than the stems at ratio between 1.8 ± 0.4 and 5.3 ± 2.6. The S. luteus mushroom showed moderate ability to accumulate Hg with bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 3.6 ± 1.3 to 42 ± 18. The consumption of fresh S. luteus mushroom in quantities up to 300 g week(-1) (assuming no Hg ingestion from other foods) from background areas in the Central, Eastern, and Northern part of Europe will not result in the intake of Hg exceeds the provisional weekly tolerance limit (PTWI) of 0.004 mg kg(-1) body mass.

  20. Inorganic constituents in surface runoff from urbanised areas in winter: the case study of the city of Brest, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bulskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the inorganic constituents of snow and snowmelt surface runoff in a case study of the city of Brest and to indicate components that could pose a threat to the environment. Samples of snow and snowmelt runoff were analysed for the following parameters: total suspended solids, pH, the contents of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions, and of heavy metals. The concentrations of most of these pollutants were higher in the snowmelt runoff than in snow. The concentrations of pollutants in the snowmelt surface runoff exceeded the levels established by national regulations (maximum permissible concentrations.

  1. The CORE programme in Belarus. A new approach to the rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topical Project provides training in practical radioactive protection for pregnant women subjected to chronic low-dose radiation exposure. The CORE Programme Topical Projects include: Establishment of an association for development of bee-keeping in Slavgorod district The goal is to create an enabling environment for the development of bee-keeping in the affected district, Preservation and development of pottery-making traditions on the territory of the village Gorodnaia (Stolin district) The Project aims to create a Pottery Centre as a way to improve the living conditions of the affected population. In this case the community designed projects on their immediate needs and mobilised resources for its implementation

  2. The repertoire of heavy chain immunoglobulin genes in B‑cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Russia and Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Biderman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutation status of the heavy chain variable region genes has long been known as an important factor in long‑term prognosis in B‑cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B‑CLL. A more detailed study of the gene sequences of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgVH led to the discovery of stereotyped antigen receptors (SAR — receptors that have the same set of VH‑, D‑ and JH‑genes used. Cells with SARs have been found almost in a quarter of all B‑CLL cases. This phenomenon is not observed in other lymphatic tumors. In our study, we confirmed and extended the basic observations concerning the repertoire of IgVH in B‑CLL. Differences in the B‑CLL IgVH gene repertoirs between Russia, Вelarus and other countries are also analysed and discussed.

  3. The repertoire of heavy chain immunoglobulin genes in B‑cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Russia and Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Biderman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutation status of the heavy chain variable region genes has long been known as an important factor in long‑term prognosis in B‑cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B‑CLL. A more detailed study of the gene sequences of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgVH led to the discovery of stereotyped antigen receptors (SAR — receptors that have the same set of VH‑, D‑ and JH‑genes used. Cells with SARs have been found almost in a quarter of all B‑CLL cases. This phenomenon is not observed in other lymphatic tumors. In our study, we confirmed and extended the basic observations concerning the repertoire of IgVH in B‑CLL. Differences in the B‑CLL IgVH gene repertoirs between Russia, Вelarus and other countries are also analysed and discussed.

  4. Results of the thyroid and diabetes-associated autoantibodies screening in children and adolescents living in various regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently among the factors capable to induce autoimmune reaction, it is ionizing radiation that is discussed, along with virus infections and chemical influences. Investigation of 540 healthy children and adolescents (age range 12-19 y.o.) living in radionuclide contaminated areas (average cesium 137 contamination 0,19-0,56 MBq/m2) and in conditionally clear regions revealed significant differences in levels of diabetes-associated (AB-GAD, AB-IA2) and thyroid (AB-TG, AB-TPO) autoantibodies. At the same time frequencies of positive AB-IA2, AB-TPO and AB-TG were higher in persons from contaminated regions. Obtained results correlate with the increase of the type 1 diabetes incidence in children and adolescents from Gomel region and dictate the necessity to continue the such study

  5. Biomass structure of soil mesofauna under conditions of dynamics of vegetation diversity of floodplain meadows in the southeast of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Veremeev

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative data on structure and biomass of soil mesofauna depending on a biodiversity of vegetation of inundated meadows under conditions of anthropogenic influence are presented. By augmentation of vegetation diversity on meadows there is a tendency of increse of a biomass of soil invertebrates.

  6. [The feasibility of descriptive epidemiology in assessments of dental caries disease in children in Russia and Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, O F; Rabinovich, I M; Guseva, A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elaborate the rationale for the application of photodynamic therapy in complex treatment of patient with severe oral lichen planus. Complex clinical and laboratory examination and treatment was performed in 54 patients divided on 3 groups. Diagnosis of oral lichen planus was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features. Group 1 received standard treatment, in the second group photodynamic therapy was conducted in addition to conventional treatment, patients in the third group received only photodynamic therapy. The study results proved photodynamic therapy to be useful tool in complex treatment of severe oral lichen planus. PMID:27636757

  7. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... afforded protection from harmful interference. In Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Russian... primary basis. 5.75Different category of service: in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova..., Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia,...

  8. The study of mutations of low penetrates candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in patients from different regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most widespread malignancy in the world. It is supposed, that all factors influencing on breast cancer onset can be divided into 4 groups: environmental factors, state of woman's health, heredity and concomitant disease. The inherited disposition towards breast cancer is complex, and many genetic variants and polymorphisms have been postulated to play a role in this condition. Despite genes with a high penetrance, known some genes with a low penetrance, such as ATM, CHEK2 and XRCC4. Ionizing radiation is for long being recognized as a potent carcinogen. The link between exposition to high doses of radiation and a subsequent development of breast cancer has been shown in numerous epidemiological studies. Because mutations in the known genes explain less than half of all multiple-case families, other genes involved in these repair pathways are now under current investigation in many different labs worldwide to define their role in breast cancer predisposition. The purpose of this paper is to study mutations of low penetrate candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in Byelorussian patients. This study is for the first time reveals the mutations of breast cancer genes in the Byelorussian population. Were used such methods as extraction of DNA, PCR, ARMAS-PCR and restriction analysis for this study. As a result of the work frequent mutations of CHEK2 and XRCC4 were found in family cases. It is shown that following methods are useful for cancer risk prediction for patients and their blood relatives. (authors)

  9. The dynamics of radioactive contamination of soils and plants of natural complexes in unsettled zone of the Chernobyl NPP in the territory of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of measuring of radioactivity of soils and plants in unsettled zone of Chernobyl NPP having been made since 1986 are discussed. It revealed that the radioactivity of plants remained at high level and it was under strong annual influence of the weather conditions

  10. From ambassador in retirement to head of a secret operation: the work of the advisory and monitoring group in Belarus, 1997- 2001.

    OpenAIRE

    Belskaya, Alina

    2009-01-01

    Endast avhandlingens sammandrag. Pappersexemplaret av hela avhandlingen finns för lÀsesalsbruk i Statsvetenskapliga biblioteket (Unionsgatan 35). Dessa avhandlingar fjÀrrutlånas endast som microfiche. Abstract only. The paper copy of the whole thesis is available for reading room use at the Library of Social Sciences (Unioninkatu 35) . Microfiche copies of these theses are available for interlibrary loans. Vain tiivistelmÀ. OpinnÀytteiden sidotut arkistokappaleet ovat luettavissa ...

  11. [Clinical and morphological features of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the Republic of Belarus: analysis of 936 post-Chernobyl carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, M V; Man'kovskaia, S V; Kras'ko, O V; Demidchik, Iu E

    2014-01-01

    There is presented clinical and morphological characteristics of post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer in 936 children and adolescents. In general, carcinoma of these patients featured by locally advanced growth - 57.4% (387 of 674 patients with this sign could be assessed), metastases in regional lymph nodes - 73,7% (N1b in 40.7%) and internal organs - 11.1%. The mean duration of follow-up was 12,4 +/- 3,5 years (range 4.3 to 19.6 years) including children 14,6 +/- 2,7 years (range 8.8 to 19.6 years) and adolescents - 10,1 +/- 3,1 years (range 4.3 to 18.8 years). Overall survival for the 20-year period was 96,6% +/- 1,2%. The causes of death were suicide (7), injuries and accidents (5), secondary malignancies (1), somatic diseases (2). Only in two patients the death was related to the main disease - lung metastases. Free-recurrence survival for the cohort of post-Chernobyl carcinomas was 92,7% +/- 1,0%.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Certain Requirements of Food Legislation in the European Union and the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a comparative analysis of the food legislation requirements of the European Union (EU) and the Customs Union. Its purpose is to guide food business operators and public authorities engaged in reforming national food safety systems in the peculiarities of EU and Customs Union legal requirements and help them evaluate their capabilities in meeting those requirements. Thi...

  14. Chernobyl hot particles in the lungs of personnel involved in the post-accident clean-up actions and of inhabitants of the contaminated Ukrainian and Belarus territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the body content by direct or indirect methods permits to determine the amount of the radioactivity inhaled and the relevant averaged over an organ committed dose. According to traditional dosimetry approach that is enough or rough prediction of committed detriment. For the real prognosis of the hazard due to aerosol inhalation in accordance with the alternative radiobiological model, it is necessary to know the microdistribution of deposited radioactive material as well as the relevant microdistribution of the deposited energy in target microstructures of the lungs. The only technique for investigating the microdistribution of a radioactivity is the histoautoradiographic examination of autopsy material

  15. SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT OF THE MEDICAL SECTION OF THE STATE PROGRAM OF THE BELARUS REPUBLIC FOR THE OVERCOMING OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rozhko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A twenty-five year health follow-up of the affected population has shown that a properly structured State strategy on overcoming the consequences of disaster allow to maintain stable levels of morbidity and mortality. An important achievement in the system of medical help to the affected population is the organization of dynamic follow-up, as well as creating State Register of people exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident as a tool for solving scientific and practical problems. The results of scientific researches obtained in the SO “The Republican Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology” were the basis for one of the Council of Ministers Decree and two Decrees of the Ministry of Health. Significant changes have been made in the order of assigning the causation connection of disease (disability and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and objective criteria for the formation of high radiation risk groups.In a whole, the rate of oncological morbidity in the affected population remains at the average republican level, but for certain categories of the affected population, referred to groups of enhanced radiation risk, there has been detected the presence of excess morbidity of some forms of malignant neoplasms.

  16. Distribution of cesium 137 and other chemical elements on the physical chemical barriers of a boundary zone of the Belarus Poles'e marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effect of the physical chemical barriers on distribution of cesium-137 and other chemical elements has been considered on the example of landscape-geochemical profile 'White Marsh' formed under conditions typical of Poles'e landscape-geochemical characteristics of the profile is presented. (authors). 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  17. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. II. Monte Carlo analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Perk, Marcel; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    A Monte Carlo analysis of two sequential GIS-embedded submodels, which evaluate the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, was performed to allow for variability of environmental conditions that was not contained in the spatial model inputs. The results from this analysis were compared to the results from the deterministic model presented in part I of this paper. It was concluded that, although the variability in the model results due to within-gridcell variability of the model inputs was considerable, the prediction of the areas where SRC and energy conversion is potentially profitable was robust. If the additional variability in the model input that is not contained in the input maps is also taken into account, the SRC production and energy conversion appears to be potentially profitable at more locations for both the small scale and large scale production scenarios than the model predicted using the deterministic model.

  18. The study of mutations of high penetrates candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in patients from different regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common lethal malignancy of women all over the world. Despite considerable efforts, many predisposing factors remain poorly defined. Epidemiological studies have shown that higher age and a positive family history of breast cancer are associated with the highest risk. Familial clustering of breast cancer, often in conjunction with cancer at other sites, is frequently caused by a hereditary disposition. Known genes with a high penetrance such as BRCA1 and BRCA2. Hereditary and environmental factors may have acted synergistically in many breast cancer cases, and a number of environmental factors may modulate the probability and progression of the disease. Ionizing radiation is for long being recognized as a potent carcinogen. The purpose of this paper is to study mutations of high penetrate candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in Byelorussian patients. This study is for the first time reveals the mutations of breast cancer genes in the Byelorussian population. Were used such methods as extraction of DNA, PCR and restriction analysis for this study. As a result of the work frequent mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were found in family cases. It is shown that following methods are useful for cancer risk prediction for patients and their blood relatives. (authors)

  19. Dynamics of process of braking of the wheeled tractor-analogue of “Belarus 3022 DV” with hydrostatic-mechanical transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Вадим Борисович; Бондаренко, Анатолій Ігорович

    2013-01-01

    Increasing volume of agricultural production is impossible without increase of the volume of transportation in this area. Wide range of goods transported, sharp fluctuations in demand for transport in the course of year are conditions for effective use of wheeled tractors in agriculture. At the same time, the increase of transport speeds of wheeled tractors and the emergence of new types of transmissions sharpen the problem of maintaining security in the braking mode. That is why there is an ...

  20. THE CONTENT OF CAESIUM-137 IN THE RIVERSIDE AND WATER VEGETATION VETKA AND CHECHERSK DISTRICTS OF THE GOMEL REGION OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Dajneko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of radiocaesium was studied in 58 plant samples in 2 districts with only 12 (20,6% exceeding the allowable level which equals 370 Bk/kg. In Vetka district the highest specific activity of caesium-137 (Bk/kg was demonstrated by Equisetum arvense and Comarum palustre among the medium-sized euhydrophytes in  the  second  object,  which  3,7  and  5,2  times  exceeds  the  standard.   Ceratophyllum  demersum  has  the  highest accumulation coefficient. In Chechesk district medium-sized euhydrophytes Juncus effusus and Sium latifolium in the second object exceed the standard 7,8–2,2 times. Stratiotes aloides demonstrates the highest accumulation coefficient.

  1. Two clinical cases of renal syndrome caused by Dobrava/Saaremaa hantaviruses imported to the Netherlands from Poland and Belarus, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Goeijenbier, Marco; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Litjens, Eline; Bos, Willem-Jan; Pas, Suzan D; Melo, Mariana Medonça; Koopmans, Marion; Lundkvist, Åke; Reusken, Chantal B E M

    2016-01-01

    We report the rare event of two imported cases in the Netherlands presenting with renal syndrome caused by Dobrava (DOBV)/Saaremaa (SAAV) hantaviruses. DOBV/SAAV hantaviruses are not circulating in the Netherlands and their clinical manifestation is typically more severe than that of the endemic Puumala virus (PUUV). This report aims to increase awareness among healthcare professionals and diagnostic laboratories to consider different hantaviruses as a cause of renal failure. PMID:26818411

  2. Soil mesofauna of flood plain meadows of a southeast of belarus in conditions of lack of moisture in summer as ecological model of their anthropogenous transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Veremeev

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents comparative analysis of species composition and quantitative characteristic of soil mesofauna of inundated meadows under conditions of lack of moisture. The reduction of species diversity, number and biomass of soil invertebrates on such meadows is observed.

  3. 77 FR 4399 - Actions Taken Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Executive Order 13382 (70 FR 38567, July 1, 2005) (the ``Order''), effective at 12:01 a.m. Eastern daylight... TORGOVY KAPITAL), 3 Kozlova Street, Minsk 220005, Belarus; Registration ID 30 (Belarus); SWIFT/BIC BBTK...

  4. Belarusian Business Associations:Problems and Potential Development

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Belskaya; Daria Uryutina

    2012-01-01

    The article aims to examine the existing obstacles for doing business in Belarus, as well as analyze the compliance of business associations activity in Belarus with the needs of business associations members and business in general.

  5. 77 FR 31434 - Finding That JSC CredexBank Is a Financial Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Institutions in Belarus'' ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2006-06-20/pdf/06-5592.pdf ). E.O. 13405 blocks the... (``Credex'') is a depository institution located and licensed in the Republic of Belarus that primarily... total assets among 31 commercial banks in Belarus.\\12\\ Credex has six domestic branches and...

  6. 31 CFR 548.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS... policies that undermine democratic processes or institutions in Belarus; (ii) To be responsible for, or to have participated in, human rights abuses related to political repression in Belarus; (iii) To be...

  7. 3 CFR 13510 - Executive Order 13510 of July 1, 2009. Waiver Under the Trade Act of 1974 With Respect to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Trade Act of 1974 With Respect to the Republic of Belarus 13510 Order 13510 Presidential Documents... Respect to the Republic of Belarus By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the... amended (the “Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2432(c)(2)), which continues to apply to the Republic of Belarus...

  8. Перспективы развития национальной экологической сети Беларуси

    OpenAIRE

    Воробьёв, Дмитрий Сергеевич; Гагина, Наталья Владимировна

    2012-01-01

    Principles of organization and the current state of the national ecological network of Belarus considered. Evaluation of natural ecological potential physiographic regions of Belarus and the placement of objects of national ecological network is made. Prospects for the development of the national ecological network of Belarus taking into account natural ecological potential are defined.

  9. Структура и свойства композиционных электрических NI –, CR – покрытий, содержащих углеродные наноматериалы

    OpenAIRE

    Войтехович, А. Г.; Чаевский, В. В.

    2012-01-01

    Principles of organization and the current state of the national ecological network of Belarus considered. Evaluation of natural ecological potential physiographic regions of Belarus and the placement of objects of national ecological network is made. Prospects for the development of the national ecological network of Belarus taking into account natural ecological potential are defined.

  10. 切尔诺贝利核事故对白俄罗斯生态环境的影响%Impact of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident on the Ecological Environment in Belarus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雷; 丁保君

    2012-01-01

    2011年3月日本地震导致福岛核电站核泄漏事件引起国际社会的高度关注.本文回溯切尔诺贝利核事故给白俄罗斯带来的生态灾难,并详细介绍和分析白俄罗斯境内放射性元素污染情况及修复措施,期待为人们应对当前日本核事故对人体健康和自然界的影响和危害提供有价值的参考.

  11. 从"俄-白天然气争端"看我国的天然气进口%Research on China Natural Gas Import Via Conflict Between Russia and Belarus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴有君

    2007-01-01

    认为我国的天然气进口在未来一段时间必将大幅增长,进口安全问题日趋重要,应从"俄-白天然气争端"中吸取教训,采取天然气进口来源多元化、提高天然气储备能力等措施,保障我国的用气安全和能源安全.

  12. About Calculation of Unified Module Recuperator (Module M-I and M-II for Heating and Thermal Furnaces at Blanking and Machine Assembling Shops of Engineering, Automotive and Tractor Plants in Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an influence of outside ribbing of heat-exchange surface of unified modules M-I and M-II on heat transfer factor of the proposed recuperator and its hydro-dynamic resistance.

  13. Investment Effect of Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union and Induced Investment Prospects%俄白哈关税同盟的投资效应及引资前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青松; 李钦

    2014-01-01

    俄白哈关税同盟是欧亚经济共同体框架内经济一体化重要的阶段性成果.自2010年成立以来,关税同盟的FDI流入水平并没有出现较大提高,区外对区内的投资创造和投资转移效应都不明显;但关税同盟区域内的投资创造和转移效应比较显著,俄罗斯与成员国(白俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦)的相互投资增长较快,与非成员国(乌克兰及其他独联体国家)的相互投资下降或增长趋缓.随着各成员国相继加入WTO及其投资环境的改善,关税同盟吸引外资的前景良好,中国对俄、白、哈三国的投资具有较大增长潜力.

  14. Improvement of dosimetry for I-131 therapy of lung metastases with special regard to children with thyroid cancer from Belarus following the Chernobyl accident. Final report 1997-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main problem in treating disseminated pulmonary metastases in children with papillary thyroid cancer is to find a balance between an insufficient dose for the ablation of metastatic tissue and unnecessary high radiation exposure to the lungs and the bone marrow. This can hardly be achieved without quantitative dosimetry for the more or less inhomogeneously distributed 1-131 in high dosed radioiodine therapy. The major goal of this project is to improve the concept for treating patients with lung metastases induced by thyroid carcinoma. Almost all of the patients with lung metastases are treated in more than one therapy course. After each course the knowledge of the doses to the tumor tissue, the lung, and the bone marrow is of crucial importance for a well funded decision about further treatment. In the cases of either the tumor doses being inefficient for ablation or substantial impairment of residuing pulmonary metastases or the cumulated doses to lung and bone marrow exceeds empirically defined ''critical'' limits the fractionated radioiodine treatment has to be stopped to avoid side effects such as lung fibrosis or leukemia in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The decision which has to be taken must consider that prognosis with respect to mortality and quality of life even in the case of persisting lung metastases may be better than after the induction of progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Up to now, patients are treated more or less empirically until complete remission is achieved and no tumor uptake is visible in post-therapeutic scans with a gamma camera or the cumulative activity of 1-131 taken up by the lungs exceeds 3 GBq (80 mCi) according to recommendations given by Benua and Leaper in 1962. This project combines empirical approaches with theoretical research at cellular level to optimize the dose to the tumor cells with protection of healthy lung tissue. (orig.)

  15. Advocacy and coverage of needle exchange programs: results of a comparative study of harm reduction programs in Brazil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation, and China Advocacy e cobertura de projetos de troca de agulhas: resultados de um estudo comparativo sobre programas de redução de danos no Brasil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ucrânia, Federação Russa e China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Burrows

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent or mitigate an AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs, effective activities need to be implemented on a large enough scale to reach and assist sufficient numbers of drug users and thereby change their risk behaviors related to drug use and sex. Recent work by UNAIDS on "high coverage sites", adopting the above strategies, has shown that one of the key elements in achieving high coverage is ongoing and sophisticated advocacy. High coverage harm reduction sites were studied through literature search and site visits, including key informant interviews, review of service statistics, and data analysis, in order to document the steps that led to scaling up, the way coverage was defined in these sites, and the lessons learned from their efforts. Syringe-exchange programs can achieve high coverage of IDUs. Monitoring to determine regular reach (those who are in regular contact with harm reduction services should be added to uniform data collection carried out by harm reduction programs. Advocacy is crucial to achieving high coverage.Para prevenir ou mitigar uma epidemia de AIDS entre usuários de drogas injetáveis (UDI, atividades eficazes devem ser implementadas numa escala suficiente para atingir e ajudar um número suficiente de usuários e, portanto, modificar seus comportamentos de risco em relação ao uso de drogas e práticas sexuais. Um estudo recente do UNAIDS sobre "locais de cobertura alta", ao adotar as estratégias propostas acima, demonstrou que um dos elementos centrais para atingir uma cobertura alta é a advocacy permanente e bem-elaborada. Locais de redução de danos que apresentavam altas taxas de cobertura foram estudados através de uma revisão bibliográfica e visitas aos locais de maior cobertura, incluindo entrevistas com informantes principais, revisão de dados estatísticos dos serviços e análise de dados para poder documentar os passos que levaram à ampliação do alcance dos projetos, à definição da cobertura dos programas e às lições aprendidas. Os programas de redução de danos podem alcançar uma ampla cobertura de UDI. Além da coleta de dados rotineiros, os programas devem monitorar os projetos para definir o alcance sistemático (ou seja, dos UDI que estão em contato permanente com os serviços de redução de danos. A advocacy é fundamental para alcançar taxas de cobertura altas.

  16. Obchodní a kulturní zvláštnosti Běloruska

    OpenAIRE

    Špačková, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter describes basic realia of Belarus and defines demographic population structuren. The second chapter summarizes the state of the Belarusian economy and impacts on business and investment activities. The third chapter focuses on the cultural specifics of Belarus and their impact on current communication and trade negotiations in particular. The fourth chapter describes the cooperation of the Czech Republic and Belarus, and defines the most common shortcomings and offences in b...

  17. Charm of Serenity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The slipping-away beauty of Belarus does not expose itself to everyone;for this you have to stop and feel the surrounding world Belarus means "White Russia", a tender and poetic name that be fits this country in the best way.

  18. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL SCIENCE: REALITY AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhdanok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on the beginning, state and prospects of nanotechnology application in the construction industry inBelarus. These technologies are based on the national carbon nano-materials, obtained at theInstituteofHeatand Mass Transfer of NAS of Belarus

  19. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL SCIENCE: REALITY AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Zhdanok; Khroustalev, B.; E. Batyanowski; S. Leonovich

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents information on the beginning, state and prospects of nanotechnology application in the construction industry inBelarus. These technologies are based on the national carbon nano-materials, obtained at theInstituteofHeatand Mass Transfer of NAS of Belarus

  20. Zvláštní aspekty účetnictví v Bělorusku

    OpenAIRE

    Akulovich, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with studying the system of accounting in Belarus, focusing on differences between Belarusian and Czech accounting principles. Its aim is to describe Belarusian accounting regulation, clarify the aspects varying from the Czech regulation and the impact of tax laws, using an optimized translation. Key words: Belarus, accounting, taxes, balance sheet, accounts.

  1. Dopravní infrastruktura Běloruska

    OpenAIRE

    Yemialyanava, Kseniya

    2010-01-01

    The work provides basic information about the infrastructure of Belarus. The work is divided into five chapters. each of them provides information about rail, auto, aviation and water transport. The last chapter is devoted to statistic data that show the development of transport in Belarus in recent years.

  2. Proceedings of international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2004: Environmental problems of the XXI century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication represents the collection of materials of a scientific conference, which was organized by Ministry for Education of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of International A. Sakharov Environmental University (Minsk, Republic of Belarus). The ecological problems were viewed on the following directions: medical and biological ecology, radioecology and ecological monitoring, eco priority power engineering, social ecology

  3. Potenciál obnovitelných zdrojů energie v Běloruské republice

    OpenAIRE

    Sarakavik, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the situation in the field of the renewable energy sources (RES) in the Republic of Belarus. It describes the current state of the economy and energy industry in Belarus. It also contains a description of the impact of political, economic and social factors on the development of the renewable energy sources. The aim of this work is to evaluate which renewable energy sources can be used in conditions of the Republic of Belarus and also determine the technical and economi...

  4. 10 CFR 110.30 - Members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MATERIAL Licenses § 110.30 Members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Argentina Australia Austria Belarus Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary...

  5. 76 FR 23177 - Exchange Visitor Program-Summer Work Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Department has adopted a pilot program for aliens from Belarus, Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, and the..., academic, and tax-exempt entities designated by the Department to conduct Summer Work Travel...

  6. СОЦИАЛЬНАЯ ОТВЕТСТВЕННОСТЬ И УСТОЙЧИВОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ ОБЩЕСТВА

    OpenAIRE

    Ермалович, Людмила Павловна

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in social responsibility issue in Belarus. Social responsibility promotes the steady growth of economics. A company’s management deals with three most important problems such as economic, social and ecological.

  7. Cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Belinski, V

    2009-01-01

    The talk at international conference in honor of Ya. B. Zeldovich 95th Anniversary, Minsk, Belarus, April 2009. The talk represents a review of the old results and contemporary development on the problem of cosmological singularity.

  8. Tianjin Cathay Future Children’s Art Troupe Tours Five European Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Hameenlinna Cultural Centre of Finland, the Folklore Association of the Czech Republic, the Belarus Society for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, Saku Music School of Estonia and the Chil-

  9. Comprehensive verification of new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography is investigated from different sides. Results of experimental study from three different laboratories from Belarus and Russian Federation are presented.

  10. ГЕЛЬМИНТОЗЫ ДИКИХ ХИЩНЫХ МЛЕКОПИТАЮЩИХ И ВЕТЕРИНАРНОСАНИТАРНЫЕ МЕРОПРИЯТИЯ ПО ИХ ПРОФИЛАКТИКЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Анисимова, Е.И.; СУББОТИН А.М.; Д.И.Шамович

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives data on the invasion by parasitic worms of the basic species of carnivorous mammals that are their carriers and spreaders in the territory of Belarus. A number of veterinarysanitary measures on their prophylaxis are suggested.

  11. Records of the 11. regular session (26 September - 2 October 1967) 116. plenary meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statements by the delegates of: Federal Republic of Germany Turkey Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Iran Pakistan Bolivia Peru Brazil Czechoslovakia Paragraphs 151 1 belarus ukraine csech republic

  12. 7 CFR 319.74-2 - Conditions governing the entry of cut flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exist in the following regions: Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil... from any region listed in paragraph (d)(2) of this section only under the following conditions: (i)...

  13. APPRAISAL OF FINAL TAILINGS APPLICABILITY FOR PROCESSING AND PRODUCTION OF MODIFIERS OF IRON-CARBON ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Panasugin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of rating of the galvanic final tailings applicability for further processing in the interests of needs of metallurgical production of the Republic Belarus is offered.

  14. Russian position and its function in centraAsia district economy cooperation——from CIS to Russia,Belarus,Kazakh tax union%俄罗斯的地位及其在中亚区域经贸合作中的作用——从独联体到俄白哈关税同盟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居来提·色依提; 苏来曼·斯拉木; 玉素甫·阿不来提

    2012-01-01

    by using the historical anlyzing methodology,this paper observes the process of evolution from UIC to Costume Union,the manifestation of the core interests of Russia in this process and the potential roles in the cooperation games of regional economic and trade cooperation among Middle Asia.This paper analyzes the degrees of impacts and policy direction of Russia upon the every member country of regional trade and economic cooperation among Middle Asia under the framework of Costume Union among the Russia,Prussia and Kazakhistan and points out the impacts of Costume Union and the economic integration in near future led by Russia upon the regional trade and economic cooperation policy of China towards the Middle Asia Countries.%本文以历史分析法考察从独联体到关税同盟的演变过程中俄罗斯核心利益的体现以及它对中亚区域经贸合作博弈中的潜在作用。探讨在俄白哈关税同盟框架下,俄罗斯对中亚各国经贸合作政策取向和中亚区域经贸合作进程的影响程度,提出俄罗斯为主导的关税同盟及未来的经济一体化对我国在中亚区域经贸合作政策的影响。

  15. 简析独联体国家青年中的马克思主义信仰——以俄、乌、白、摩四国共青团为例%The Belief in Marxism of the Youth in the CIS Countries:Take the Communist Youth Leagues of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍

    2014-01-01

    苏联解体以后,原苏联各加盟共和国的共产主义青年团组织历经更名、重建和分裂,在俄罗斯、乌克兰、白俄罗斯和摩尔多瓦四国得以存在和发展壮大.这些共青团组织作为本国共产党的政治盟友和助手,以马克思主义为指导制定自己的组织纲领和奋斗目标,与时俱进地在各个领域开展一系列社会活动,从而反映出独联体国家青年仍然信仰马克思主义这一社会现实.

  16. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of premenopausal breast cancers from a nuclear fallout area and matched cases from Western New York

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, G.; Varma, R.; Huang, H.; Pryshchepava, A; Groth, J.; Fleming, D; Nowak, N. J.; McQuaid, D; Conroy, J.; Mahoney, M; Moysich, K.; Falkner, K L; Geradts, J

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis of DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) was performed on breast carcinomas in premenopausal women from Western New York (WNY) and from Gomel, Belarus, an area exposed to fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. Genomic DNA was isolated from 47 frozen tumour specimens from 42 patients and hybridised to arrays spotted with more than 3000 BAC clones. In all, 20 samples were from WNY and 27 were from Belarus. In total,...

  17. THE ROLE OF THE PHENOMENA “FANFICTION” IN MAKING COUNTRY BRAND

    OpenAIRE

    VASILYEVA ELENA IVANOVNA

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years Belarus has experienced lots of changes in social relations, politics, economy that involved decreasing of attention to Belarusian’s image. In Belarus image problems has become a topic of debates among media scholars just in the last five years. Perfect country brand has become increasingly essential to the longevity and popularity of products and services of this country in today’s marketplace. Although much research conducted by European and American scholars has co...

  18. OBITUARY: To the memory of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Borisevich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokhin, O. N.

    2015-12-01

    Invaluable is the contribution of academician Borisevich to the development of optics, spectroscopy and their applications. He is the author of scientific discoveries and more than 600 scientific papers. For outstanding scientific achievements Nikolai Aleksandrovich was awarded the Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR and the Republic of Belarus. His scientific school gave a start in life to more than 30 candidates of science, 12 doctors, including 4 members of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.

  19. Pojišťovnictví v Bělorusku

    OpenAIRE

    Barysenka, Krystsina

    2014-01-01

    This final thesis deals with the characterization and analysis of the development of insurance industry in Belarus and comparison with selected European countries. First of all, thesis defines the general characteristics of Belarus in terms of different indicators and also describes the legal platform on which Belarusian insurance sector is based. Then, on the basis of this information an analysis of the Belarusian insurance market is done. Finally, a big attention is paid to existing problem...

  20. NATO: the view from the East

    OpenAIRE

    S. White; Korosteleva, J.; Allison, R.

    2006-01-01

    Relations between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus and NATO have placed more emphasis on cooperation than confrontation since the Cold War, and Ukraine has begun to move towards membership. At the popular level, on the evidence of national surveys in 2004 and 2005, NATO continues to be perceived as a significant threat, but in Russia and Ukraine it comes behind the United States (in Belarus the numbers are similar). There are few socioeconomic predictors of support for NATO membership that are ...

  1. Proceedings of international conference of leading specialists, young scientists and students 'Ecological problems of XXI century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication represents the collection of materials of a scientific conference of the leading specialists, young scientists and students, which was organized by Ministry for Education of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of International A. Sakharov Environmental University (Minsk, Republic of Belarus). The ecological problems were viewed on the following directions: ecology, radioecology, ecological monitoring, ecological information systems, eco priority power engineering, eco biology, medical ecology, molecular medicine, social ecology

  2. 俄白哈关税同盟对中国与哈萨克斯坦经贸合作的影响 ——以"丝绸之路经济带"战略为背景%Effects of Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union on the Economic and Trade Cooperation between China and Kazakhstan—In the Context of "Silk Road Economic Belt"Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志刚; 刘伟

    2016-01-01

    2015年5月8日,国家主席习近平同俄罗斯总统普京举行会谈,一致同意中俄两国要共同推进"丝绸之路经济带"建设同欧亚经济联盟(俄白哈关税同盟基础上组建)建设对接.文章重点分析了俄白哈关税同盟对哈萨克斯坦的贸易效应、中国和哈萨克斯坦双边贸易联系程度、中国对哈萨克斯坦出口贸易额增速及主要出口商品增速、中国对哈萨克斯坦主要进口商品增速的影响,并结合引力模型分析了俄白哈关税同盟对中国和哈萨克斯坦双边贸易的影响.最后,文章结合"丝绸之路经济带"战略背景和主要结论进行了分析,并提出相应的政策建议.

  3. Prognostic assessment of radionuclides transboundary transport due to a tornado over the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According the design documentation for the Chernobyl NPP Cooling Pond (CP) decommissioning a forecast of possible radioactive contamination of the territory of Belarus and Russian due to radionuclides resuspension followed a tornado passage over the CP drained part are made. The calculations were performed using a set of models, including the conceptual model of a tornado, the mesoscale atmospheric diffusion model of pollutant transport LEDI and dosimetric models. The radiation dose to the people of Belarus will not exceed 1 mSv, Russian- 1o-2 mSv. Hence, the safety analysis showed that a tornado passage over the CP will not result in an unacceptable dose to individuals in Belarus and Russian

  4. Валютная интеграция Беларуси и России

    OpenAIRE

    Шумский, Николай Николаевич

    2003-01-01

    Раздел "Международные экономические отношения" The article analyzes the necessary conditions and economic prerequisites for the economic and currency integration of Belarus and Russia, as well as possible consequences for the two states, economic entities, individuals from the introduction of the Russian rouble as the only legal means of payment on the territory of Belarus within the time limits set by the Treaty of the Union State of Belarus and Russia and the Action Programme of its impl...

  5. The WHO activities on thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO has been involved in activities related to thyroid disease in populations exposed to Chernobyl fallout since 1991. The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident, based in Geneva, undertook a pilot project on screening for thyroid disease and the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health responded to claims from Belarus of an increase of childhood thyroid cancer. Since then the WHO has been developing the public health response in partnership with scientists and physicians in Belarus and a number of centres of excellence outside the CIS specializing in the disciplines relevant to the problem. In 1993 the International Thyroid Project was initiated in partnership with the International Agency for Cancer Research. The activities developed with scientists and physicians in Belarus to respond to the increase are described. The increase in thyroid cancer and its implications for future accidents have been addressed. Revised advice on stable iodine prophylaxis has been formulated

  6. Подходы к государственному регулированию миграции рабочей силы

    OpenAIRE

    Булгак, Сергей Вадимович

    2005-01-01

    Раздел "Международные экономические отношения" Labour migration is a reflection of social and economic processes in the society. The scope, dynamics and orientation of any migration systematically vary both as to import and export. The work gives an analysis of migrants’ flow to the Republic of Belarus and also presents a geographical review of labour flows from Belarus to other countries including their profession structure. Official employment figures (labour contracts in force) ar...

  7. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander;

    2011-01-01

    of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case...... of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio...

  8. Language Problem in the Belorussian History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgij M. Gribov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyse some aspects of the language problem in the history and modern Belarus. The purpose of this paper is to define the role and place of the Belorussian language in the culture and art of Belarus in particular during the period of perestroika and formation of an independent state. The paper also presents a repetitive investigation which was conducted in Brest State Technical University. The results of this investigation show the interest of Belorussian students in the languages (culture of neighboring nations  

  9. Институт убежища в Республике Беларусь: теоретико-правовой аспект

    OpenAIRE

    Васильева, Лариса Александровна

    2001-01-01

    Раздел - "Международное право" The article examines theoretical legal aspects of the formation of the asylum institution in the Republic of Belarus. There is a necessity to introduce amendments and addenda to present legislation and other normative acts in connection with Belarus joining the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. The author notes that the theoretical basis of formation of the migration legal regime rests on an agreed conceptual basis and proposes to introdu...

  10. The principle of laughter in Byelorussian vocal culture as a form of reflection on images of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawlai Galina V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers particular ways of organizing musical material in songs connected with the culture of laughter, as well as the coordination and interaction of different artistic spheres in this group of traditional Belarus song forms. Our long standing, complex ethno-musicological research, constant documentations of our own field work, comparison of ritual songs’ stylistics with their respective cognitive methods, together with observations and generalizations made by the real exponents of traditional Belarus song have given us the possibility to hear and recognize this strict, logically-adjusted selection of forms of musical expressiveness among folk melodies.

  11. 76 FR 44890 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Garlic From the European Union and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on March 21, 2011 (76 FR 15279-15280, Docket No. APHIS-2011..., the EU and other countries refers to Algeria, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary,...

  12. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants Discharging into the Dnieper River, Kyiv, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dnieper River runs through the center of Ukraine from Belarus and Russia in the north and heads south emptying into the Black Sea. Along the way, the Dnieper River passes by several large Ukrainian cities including Chornobyl, the capital Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Kherson, an...

  13. Raising the level of skills of specialists who realize the radiation monitoring and information support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report activity the International A. Sakharov environmental university is described, the organizations of preparation of experts in the field of radioecology and monitoring of an environment and improvement of professional skill of the staff which carry out the radiating control in Belarus. Preparation of information for enterprises, organizations, establishments and population on radioecological issue. (Authors)

  14. An estimate of the terrestrial carbon budget of Russia using inventory based, eddy covariance and inversion methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Ciais, P.; Tchebakova, N.; Chen, T.; Molen, van der M.K.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Maximov, T.C.; Maksyutov, S.; Schulze, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, using inventory-based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inven

  15. Recent tendencies of vertical Cs 137 distribution in typical Belarusian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In article results of longstanding investigations of Cs 137 vertical migration processes in typical Belarus' soils are present. On the base of convective-diffusion model quantitative parameters of migration were calculated, their analysis was made and revealed recent tendencies of vertical Cs 137 distribution deep into soil. It is showed that with time decrease of average rate of radionuclide displacement was observed. (authors)

  16. 7 CFR 319.59-3 - Articles prohibited importation pending risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 1 Requests should be submitted in writing to Phytosanitary Issues Management, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River..., Algeria, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Cyprus, Egypt... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles prohibited importation pending...

  17. 76 FR 25755 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals; The Future Leaders...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ..., Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and... Organization Exempt from Income Tax,'' must include a copy of relevant portions of this form. (2) Those who do... Eurasia and procedures for dealing with situations where this is a challenge (e.g., Uzbekistan or...

  18. SOCIAL STANDARDIZATION OF ROADSIDE SERVICE OBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Kashevskaya

    2008-01-01

    Тhe paper analyzes modern state and problems concerning roadside objects in theRepublicofBelarus. On the basis of social responsibility concept for the quality of provided services (quality of highways) a system of social standardization of roadside service objects is offered in the paper.

  19. Determining Role of Temperature Chart while Evaluating Specific Expenses of Organic Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Nesenchouk; T. V. Ryzhova; S. S. Kovalev; V. I. Tchernyshevitch; V. V. Shidlovsky

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers designing principles of operational space continuous heating and heat-treating furnaces at mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. A role of temperature chart on heating metallic charge while evaluating specific expenses of organic fuel in heating and heat-treating furnaces of mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor industries. 

  20. Health workforce remuneration: Comparing wage levels, ranking, and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Tijdens (Kea); D.H. de Vries (Daniel); S.M. Steinmetz

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finlan

  1. Au Pair and Trafficked? - Recruitment, Residence in Denmark and Dreams for the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsby, Trine Mygind

    Report on the prevalence and risk of human trafficking in the situations and experiences of a group of au pairs in Denmark. The report is based on a qualitative study with interviews with 27 au pairs living in Denmark. The au pairs come from the Philippines, Belarus, Ukraine, Serbia, Nepal...

  2. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    2011-2015 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research.They are from 47 countries,including Argentina(3),Australia(13),Austria(4),Belarus(1),Belgium(3),Brazil(10),Canada(10),China(41),Czech Republic(1),Denmark

  3. MATHEMATIC MODELING IN ANALYSIS OF BIO-GAS PURIFICATION FROM CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Losiouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to involve bio-gas generated at testing grounds of hard domestic garbage in power supply system in the Republic of Belarus. An example of optimization using mathematical modeling of plant operation which is used for bio-gas enrichment is given in the paper. 

  4. Tianjin Cathay Future Children's Art Troupe Tours Five European Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnZheng

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the Haeneenlinna Cultural Centre of Finland, the Folklore Association of the Czech Republic,the Belarus Society for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, Saku Music School of Estonia and the Children and Youth Centre "Junda"of Lativa,

  5. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S;

    2016-01-01

    ) and neighbouring countries were represented at the conference: Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. EACS guidelines version 7.1 were used in 14 (87%) countries. In 11 (69%) countries, national...

  6. The Role of the st313-td Gene in Virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium ST313

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Wallrodt, Inke; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas;

    2014-01-01

    = 82) and 100% of S. Dublin strains (n = 50) analysed. On the contrary, S. Typhimurium isolates of animal and food origin (n = 82) did not carry st313-td. Six human, non-blood isolates of S. Typhimurium from Belarus, China and Nepal harboured the gene and belonged to sequence types ST398 and ST19. Our...

  7. Mapping farmland abandonment and recultivation across Europe using MODIS NDVI time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo;

    2015-01-01

    abandoned from 2001 to 2012, mainly in Eastern Europe, Southern Scandinavia, and Europe's mountain regions. Yet, recultivation is widespread too (up to 11.2. Mha) and occurred predominantly in Eastern Europe (e.g., European Russia, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania) and in the Balkans. We also tested...

  8. Wit-Rusland: dictatuur en legitimiteit tussen Rusland en Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gerrits; K. Meijer

    2009-01-01

    André Gerrits & Kirsten Meijer focus on Belarus that is stereotypically presented as Europe's last dictatorship. President Aleksandr Lukashenka has established an authoritarian order, based on political stability and a relatively high standard of living, which all in all provides more than a modicum

  9. Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished For Corruption?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chinese officials who had committed economic crimes began to flee overseas between the late 1980s and early 1990s. Although China has signed extradition treaties with 25 countries, including Thailand, Belarus, Russia and South Korea since 1993, it has not final-

  10. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper...

  11. Major differences in organization and availability of health care and medicines for HIV/TB coinfected patients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfeld, M; Skrahina, A; Shepherd, L;

    2015-01-01

    with actual clinical practice at patient level via data derived from the TB:HIV study. RESULTS: Respondent centres in EE comprised: Belarus (n = 3), Estonia (1), Georgia (1), Latvia (1), Lithuania (1), Poland (4), Romania (1), the Russian Federation (4) and Ukraine (1); those in WE comprised: Belgium (1...

  12. Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 in Chernobyl contaminated soil and their chemical fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Fogh, C.L.; Kucera, J.;

    2003-01-01

    Soil samples from areas in Belarus, Russia and Sweden contaminated by the Chernobyl accident were analysed for I-129 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, as well as for Cs-137 by gamma-spectrometry. The atomic ratio of I-129/(CS)-C-137 in the upper layer of the examined soil cores ranged...

  13. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    2011-2015 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members, representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research. They are from 47 countries, including Argentina (3), Australia (13), Austria (4), Belarus (1), Belgium (3), Brazil (10), Canada (10), China (41), Czech Republic (1), Denmark (1), Egypt (3), Estonia (1), Finland

  14. Technological radionuclides as landscape contamination source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphology of radioactive spots on territory of the Valozhyn Region of Belarus has been considered. The reasons of tessellated distribution of such contamination were discussed. Tendencies and main mechanisms of secondary redistribution of radionuclides were shown. Features of radionuclides migration in various landscapes were described. Were proposed recommendations to reduce consequences of radioactive contamination for population and national economy. 9 refs

  15. Radiation damage to the thyroid and metabolic changes in cattle in the initial and remote period after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial period after the Chernobyl accident was the most dangerous for animals kept in the zone of radioactive contamination. Dose burdens from I-isotopes on the thyroid gland of cattle in the initial period after the accident contributed significantly into the alteration of the hormonal status, physiological state and productive, qualities of cattle on farms of the Gomel area of Belarus

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR LASER HARDENING OF INTERNAL CONTACT SURFACES OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BRAKE MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers pertaining to higher wear resistance of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanisms details are considered. Properties of ВЧ-50-cast iron are investigated due to laser hardening while using various technological methods.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR-RESISTANCE AND SERVICE LIFE OF MULTI-DISK BRAKE MECHANISMS OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BY LASER THERMAL HARDENING OF FAST WEARING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems concerning wear resistance improvement of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanism parts are considered in the paper. Properties of ВЧ-50-pig iron are investigated as a result of laser thermal hardening by various technological methods.

  18. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident; Radiologische Folgen des Tschernobyl-Ungluecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.

    1996-05-01

    Large areas of Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine have been highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The most affected areas are around Chernobyl and east of Gomel in Belarus, where part of the radioactive fallout came down with rain. The article maps the radioactive contamination through cesium 137 and iodine 131, and summarizes the immediate action taken at the time, as well as long-term remedial action for decontamination of soils. Data are given on the radiation exposure of the population, in particular doses to the thyroid, and prognoses on the incidence of thyroid cancer. (VHE) [Deutsch] Durch den Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl wurden groessere Flaechen von Belarus, Russland und der Ukraine stark radioaktiv kontaminiert. Besonders betroffen sind die Umgebung von Tschernobyl sowie die Gegend oestlich von Gomel (Belarus), wo die radioaktive Wolke teilweise ausregnete. Der Artikel beschreibt die Belastung mit Caesium 137 und Iod 131 sowie die ergriffenen Sofortmassnahmen und die langfristigen Massnahmen zur Dekontamination der betroffenen Boeden. Die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung, v.a. die Schilddruesendosen, werden beschrieben, fuer Schilddruesenkrebs werden Prognosen gegeben. (VHE)

  19. Chernobyl accident and health: end of first tenth anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials on medical and social-psychological aspects, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. Comparative evaluation of the morbidity cases, frequency of tumor formation, mortality among the accident liquidators and the public of various age in the Ukraine, Belarus and Russian Federation is given

  20. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  1. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in the soils of Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks are presented for Central and Eastern Europe. The study uses the soil geographic and attribute data held in a 1:2 500 000 scale Soil and Terrain (SOTER) database, covering Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, P

  2. The glaciation history of the Belarusian Poozerie area (as based on 3D GIS-models of the glacial/interglacial paleosurfaces) / D.M. Kurlovich, O.A. Kurlovich // The Quaternary of Western Lithuania : from the Pleistocene glaciations to the evolution of the Baltic sea. The INQUA Peribaltic Group Field Symposium, Plateliai, Lithuania, May 27 – June 02, 2007 / Lithuanian Geological Survey, Institute of Geology and Geography ; Eds.: R. Guobytė, M. Stančikaitė. – Vilnius, 2007. – P. 45–46.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurlovich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is a reconstruction of the glacial history of northern part of Belarus (the Belarusian Poozerie Area), using the results of drillings in Quaternary deposits. The main instrument of the study is geographical information systems (GIS).

  3. Determining Role of Temperature Chart while Evaluating Specific Expenses of Organic Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers designing principles of operational space continuous heating and heat-treating furnaces at mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. A role of temperature chart on heating metallic charge while evaluating specific expenses of organic fuel in heating and heat-treating furnaces of mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor industries. 

  4. Оценка вклада малого предпринимательства в общеэкономическое развитие республики

    OpenAIRE

    Мартинович, О. В.; Кузьмёнок, З. И.

    2012-01-01

    The basic indicators, that characterize the contribution of small-scale business in development of economy of Belarus at the present stage were presented in this work and the basic prospects of development of small-scale business in the country were defined too.

  5. 31 CFR 548.307 - Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person. 548.307 Section 548.307 Money... CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.307 Person. The term person means an individual or entity....

  6. 10 years anniversary of the Poles'e state radioecological reserve (collected articles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of long time investigations of radionuclide contamination dynamics of soils, flora and fauna conducted by research workers of the reserve and National Academy of Sciences of Belarus on the territory of the reserve are offered. The different aspects of plant growth and animal behaviour in new ecological conditions are estimated

  7. 76 FR 52384 - Designation of Additional Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13405

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Designation of Additional Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13405... repression, electoral fraud, and public corruption in Belarus. The Order imposes economic sanctions...

  8. International conference '20 years after Chernobyl: strategy for recovery and sustainable development of the affected regions'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceeding contains abstracts corresponding to main topics of the conference - Rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; Social and economic problems; Medical, social and psychological consequences; Dosimetry; Radioecological and radiobiological consequences; Joint action of Belarus and Russia to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe

  9. Organization of nuclear education at the Faculty of Chemistry of the Byelorussian state university: progress and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy of the nuclear education in the Republic of Belarus is discussed. Nuclear knowledge management course is introduced into the curricular according to the IAEA recommendations. Podcasting lectures, advanced handbooks, interdisciplinary courses, cooperative learning is the main components of the nuclear education processes. The aspects of the interaction between the university and employers are considered

  10. “I Have Passed from Stalingrad to Berlin”: Interview with Vasily Ivanovich Peretyatko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny F. Krinko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interview with Vasily Ivanovich Peretyatko was about his military biography and everyday life at the front during the Great Patriotic War. V.I. Peretyatko participated in the Kharkov battle, Stalingrad battle, in the breakthrough of Mius-Front, the liberation of Rostov region, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the storming of Konigsberg and Berlin.

  11. MATHEMATIC MODELING IN ANALYSIS OF BIO-GAS PURIFICATION FROM CARBON DIOXIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Y. A. Losiouk; Pleskach, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers a possibility to involve bio-gas generated at testing grounds of hard domestic garbage in power supply system in the Republic of Belarus. An example of optimization using mathematical modeling of plant operation which is used for bio-gas enrichment is given in the paper. 

  12. OPTICAL METHOD AND SET-UP FOR THE THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY MEASURMENT OF SOLID STATE MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    I. G. Kisialiou; E. V. Ivakin

    2013-01-01

    Application of light-induced thermal transient gratings for measurement of thermal diffusivity of solid state materials including thin films is presented. Laser-optical set-up, which allows non-contact measurement of thermal diffusivity by transient gratings′ method is described. The set-up was designed in B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics of NAS of Belarus.

  13. Mathematics Attitudes and Mathematics Outcomes of U.S. and Belarusian Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; MacCann, Carolyn; Krumm, Stefan; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Two multivariate studies examined the applicability of the theory of planned behavior in gauging students' attitudes toward mathematics, as well as the predictive power of mathematics attitudes in explaining students' grades in mathematics. Middle-school students from the United States (N = 382) and Belarus (N = 339) participated. Confirmatory…

  14. SPECIFICITY IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Golubova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specificity in development of construction industry of the Republic of Belarus determines  character of competition on the construction market, forms a pricing, marketing and product policy of building companies. Construction represents itself as a highly developed complex where interaction of business entities is of rather complicated multilateral character.

  15. Конкурентоспособность продукции химической промышленности Беларуси

    OpenAIRE

    Сидоренко, В. П.

    2011-01-01

    The factors of production, which reinforce the competitive advantages of products of chemical industry of Belarus on foreign markets, is shown. It was noted that the state compete currently against each other on the basis of investment and innovation. Identifies major areas for future development industry, aimed at improving the competitiveness of chemical industry enterprises of Belarus. = Рассматриваются факторы производства, которые усиливают конкурентные преимущества продукции хи...

  16. Calculation and Designing of Up-to-Date Gas-Flame Plants for Metal Heating and Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Тimoshpolsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of development trends in the CIS machine-building industry and current status of the heating and heat treatment furnaces of main machine-building enterprises of the Republic of Belarus as of the 1st quarter of 2008 is given in the paper.The paper presents the most efficient engineering solutions from technological and economic point of view that concern calculation and designing of up-to-date gas-flame plants which are to be applied for modernization of the current heating and heat treatment furnaces of the machine-building enterprises in the Republic of Belarus.A thermo-technical calculation of main indices of the up-to-date gas-flame plant has been carried out in the paper.

  17. Estimation of Kazakhstan’s trade potential in the framework of the Custom Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan Nurseiit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies the features and determinants of Kazakhstan's foreign trade with other members of the Customs Union of Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus (CU, and estimates the degree of utilization of its trade potential for 1995-2011. The participation in the CU has led to an increase of Kazakhstan’s turnover with Russia and Belarus mainly due to imports from these countries, while the share of exports to these countries in its total exports has been declined since 2011. The main reason is the achievement of the potential level of mutual trade for Kazakhstan. Gravity models confirms that the inter-industry trade between the CU’s countries based on the comparative advantages comes to a standstill and to further expand their mutual trade, countries should specialize in the expansion of intra-industry trade.

  18. Current status of the problem of heat pumps and refrigerating devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, L. L.

    2010-09-01

    In connection with the limited energy reserves in the Republic of Belarus, it is expedient to use sorption heat pumps and refrigerators in heating and refrigeration supply systems. Such heat engines possess a unique capability of utilizing the heat of low-temperature energy sources: water ponds, groundwater, and waste water and steam in combination with traditional heaters of rooms (boilers, furnaces, etc.). Adsorption reversible heat pumps developed at the A. V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus make it possible to obtain 20 to 30 kW/m3 of thermal energy and up to 5 kW/m3 of cold. Such heat pumps save up to 15-20% of primary energy (fuel) for production of electricity, heat, and cold.

  19. Frequency of glycophorin A (GPA) variant erythrocytes after therapy with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons with the blood group MN express on the surface of the red blood cells each form of the allelic GPA protein (GPAM and GPAN). Variant cells have lost one from of the protein. The measurement of variant cells with the BR6 assay was improved by our workgroup and applied to 24 children from Belarus treated with radioiodine for thyroid cancer. Treated children showed a significant increase in variant frequency compared to a group of 9 healthy children from Belarus. The increase of variant cells in patients was significantly dependent on the radiation dose in red bone marrow. In addition the increase of the variant frequency after one radioiodine therapy was measured for 6 patients. (orig.)

  20. ВОЗМОЖНОСТЬ ПРОЯВЛЕНИЯ ТОКСИЧНОСТИ ВОДОРОСЛЕЙ В ВОДОЕМАХ БЕЛАРУСИ

    OpenAIRE

    Логинова, Елена Владимировна

    1995-01-01

    The solar activity exerts strong influence on biological processes, including the processes of growth and life activity of blue-green algae. The author makes a supposition that the solar activity may evert influence on the secretion of toxic metabolites by Cyanobacterium. The data reduced in the paper show that toxic occurrence connected with the bloom of water really occur every 10—13 years (the cycle of solar activity). In the paper the list of lakes situated in Belarus which may give...

  1. Autoimmune thyroiditis in girls of pubertal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred twenty five girls with autoimmune thyroiditis aged 11-16 living in Belarus permanently have been examined in 8-10 years after Chernobyl accident. The disease at girls of pubertal age living on the contaminated territories is characterized by more frequent asthenoneurotic symptoms, more marked immunologic changes and higher levels of both antibodies to thyroglobulin and thyrocytes microsome antigens as compared to those from 'clean' regions

  2. СОЦИАЛЬНЫЕ ФАКТОРЫ, ВЛИЯЮЩИЕ НА РАЗВИТИЕ РАННЕГО ДЕТСКОГО КАРИЕСА: РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ В ПЯТИ СТРАНАХ

    OpenAIRE

    Кнайст, С.; Маслак, Е.; ЦАРЕ Р.; Берзина, С.; СКРИВЕЛЕ С.; Терехова, Т.; ШАКОВЕЦ Н.; Вагнер, М.; Де, Мура-зибер; Де, Мура; БОРУТТА А.; Арженовская, Е.

    2012-01-01

    The comparative study of social risk factors for early child caries was carried out in five countries Germany (Erfurt), Brazil (Uro Preto), Belarus (Minsk), Latvia (Riga), Russia (Volgograd). On the basis of stomatological examination data of 472 children aged from 26 to 34 months and questionnaire survey of their mothers the high risk of caries development in children population of all involved countries is established. It is revealed that country residence, work activities and education of ...

  3. Інституціональні аспекти розвитку лісового комплексу Білорусі

    OpenAIRE

    Kashtelyan Taisiya

    2016-01-01

    The author grounds the necessity of institutional transformation of the forestry complex. The factors for the development of the market of wood raw material are analyzed, the place and the role of state practice for its regulation are indicated. The author describes the role of root prices as factors of socio-economic development of forestry of Belarus. Auspicious conditions for innovative development of the forestry complex are suggested.

  4. COMPUTER DATA ANALYSIS AND MODELING THEORETICAL AND APPLIED STOCHASTICS PROCEEDINGS OF THE TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE MINSK, SEPTEMBER 10–14, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. S. Aivazian; Prof. Dr. P. Filzmoser; Prof. Dr. Yu. Kharin

    2013-01-01

    This collection of papers includes proceedings of the Tenth International Conference “Computer Data Analysis and Modeling: Theoretical and Applied Stochastics” organized by the Belarusian State University and held in September 2013 in Minsk. Papers are reviewed by qualified researchers from Belarus, Russia, Austria, Great Britain, Germany, Lithuania. The papers are devoted to the topical problems: robust and multivariate data analysis; statistical analysis of time series and st...

  5. EARTH’S CRUST FRACTURES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF ENGINEERING STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Mikhailov

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers a tectonics influence on construction and operation of engineering structures on the territory of Belarus.  An example of studying  tectonic  fracture zones  in  the  Soligorsk  mining region with disturbed geological medium is given in the paper. The paper contains conclusions on necessity of obligatory account of geo-dynamic factors at all stages of constructing industrial projects, pipe-line transport and automobile roads.

  6. Medical Cooperative Projects: from Nagasaki to Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk

    OpenAIRE

    Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2005-01-01

    For many years, Nagasaki University, particularly the Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, has been engaged in research regarding the late health effects of radiation exposure in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Since 1991, we have participated in several Chernobyl projects including the Chernobyl Sasakawa Medical Cooperation Project which demonstrated a marked increase in the incidence of childhood thyroid cancer around Chernobyl, especially in the Gomel region, Belarus. Furthermore, we have perfor...

  7. Mikrofinance v Bělorusku

    OpenAIRE

    Belausava, Aliaksandra

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the concept of microfinance, ie financial services system designed to groups of people who are limited or even do not have access to banking services. As the aims of this work I defined the understanding of microfinance concept, impact and consequences of microfinance policies on living standards of the population and the economic situation in the country overall, the examination of the state Concept of development of microfinance in Belarus and microfinance mar...

  8. Chernobyl from the point of view of disaster sociology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some social aspects of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus are considered. The information system of publications on this theme is analyzed. The influence of various factors of the Chernobyl accident on social changes in the areas of radioactive contamination is investigated. The Chernobyl subculture formation process in the contaminated areas is considered. Practical recommendations of sociologists on the elimination of the Chernobyl catastrophe effects are given. 12 refs

  9. The Variability of Cytoplasmic DNA Haplotypes of Norway Spruce in the Provenance Trials

    OpenAIRE

    V. E. Padutov; A. I. Sidor; D. I. Kagan; O. A. Kovalevich; S. N. Veras

    2014-01-01

    A genetic analysis of mitochondrial (mtDNA) and chloroplast (cpDNA) genomes of 27 climatypes of Norway spruce was conducted in the provenance (Cherikov forestry district, Republic of Belarus). It was found that the analyzed climatypes presented boreal and carpathian mtDNA haplotypes. The first of them is found in all regions of growth climatypes (Priuralsky, Northwest, Central, Baltic, Byelorussian, Southwest), the second – only in Belarusian and Southwest regions. It is shown that polymorph...

  10. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Europe. Status December 2014; Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen in Europa. Stand: Dezember 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendebach, Boris; Imielski, Przemyslaw [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Kuehn, Kerstin; Rehs, Bernd

    2015-05-15

    The report on decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities in Europe (status December 2014) summarizes the reasons and plans for decommissioning, the regulations and responsibilities, the decommissioning strategies and the finalized decommissioning projects. The specific activities are described for Armenia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, UK, Italy, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Hungary and Belarus.

  11. Communication received from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation to the Agency concerning a statement of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency has received a communication dated 30 August 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Russian Federation, attaching a statement by the heads of State of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan adopted at the Moscow session of the Collective Security Council of the Collective Security Treaty Organization on 23 June 2005. The communication from the Russian Federation and, as requested therein, its attachment, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  12. The growth and performance of the Belarusian agro-food industry in 2004-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Shpak, Alexander; Pilipuk, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of agro-food industry growth in Belarus, which is one of the key industries in the economy. Such an analysis allowed us to understand the main forces of relatively successful development. We pointed out that state owned companies in the Belarusian agro- food industry operate as de facto strongly integrated corporate groups which ensures reliable supply of raw materials. In addition, we looked at the government directed lending programs which, through allocation...

  13. DESIGN AND TEST RESULTS FOR MULTIPLE-CONTACT GEAR OF «BELARUS»-TRACTOR TRANSMISSION

    OpenAIRE

    V. Supin

    2012-01-01

    Gearing with high contact ratio (HCR) has other properties than gearing formed with a standard original profile. The gearing is characterized by increased loading capacity. The paper presents a boundary element method (BEM) which is applied to solve a problem pertaining to stress concentration at the tooth root. Gear-box casing with multiple-contact gear has remained in series production. Results of the investigations have been realized in the experimental gearbox of  the «Belarus-1523» tract...

  14. The Economic Drivers of Human Trafficking: Micro-Evidence from Five Eastern European Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Mahmoud, Toman; Trebesch, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Human trafficking is a humanitarian problem of global scale, but quantitative research on the issue barely exists. This paper is a first attempt to explore the economic drivers of human trafficking and migrant exploitation using micro data. We argue that migration pressure combined with informal migration patterns and incomplete information are the key determinants of human trafficking. To test our argument, we use a unique new dataset of 5513 households from Belarus, Bulgaria, Moldova, Roman...

  15. Short rotation coppice for revaluation of contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Thiry, Y; Gommers, A; Goor, F; Jossart, J M; Holm, E; Gäfvert, T; Roed, J; Grebenkov, A; Timofeyev, S; Gäufert, T

    2001-01-01

    When dealing with large-scale environmental contamination, as following the Chernobyl accident, changed land use such that the products of the land are radiologically acceptable and sustain an economic return from the land is a potentially sustainable remediation option. In this paper, willow short rotation coppice (SRC) is evaluated on radiological, technical and economic grounds for W. European and Belarus site conditions. Radiocaesium uptake was studied in a newly established and existing SRC. Only for light-texture soils with low soil potassium should cultivation be restricted to soils with contamination levels below 100-370 kBq m-2 given the TFs on these soils (5 x 10(-4) and 2 x 10(-3) m2 kg-1) and considering the Belarus exemption limit for firewood (740 Bq kg-1). In the case of high wood contamination levels (> 1000 Bq kg-1), power plant personnel working in the vicinity of ash conveyers should be subjected to radiation protection measures. For appropriate soil conditions, potential SRC yields are high. In Belarus, most soils are sandy with a low water retention, for which yield estimates are too low to make production profitable without irrigation. The economic viability should be thoroughly calculated for the prevailing conditions. In W. Europe, SRC production or conversion is not profitable without price incentives. For Belarus, the profitability of SRC on the production side largely depends on crop yield and price of the delivered bio-fuel. Large-scale heat conversion systems seem the most profitable and revenue may be considerable. Electricity routes are usually unprofitable. It could be concluded that energy production from SRC is potentially a radiologically and economically sustainable land use option for contaminated agricultural land.

  16. Structural Change and Trade Integration on EU-NIS Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Havlik

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the process of trade integration between the enlarged European Union and the Newly Independent States (NIS), focusing on the new EU member states (NMS) and selected NIS (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova and Kazakhstan). The paper analyses the evolution of the regional and commodity composition of trade in the countries concerned. A detailed market share analysis reveals the emerging trade specialization patterns. There has been a general trade reorientation of both NM...

  17. Региональные особенности развития автомобильного транспорта Беларуси

    OpenAIRE

    Безрученок, А.П.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the retrospective analysis of factors the periodization of road transport evolution in Belarus from the mid-XX century so far has been developed with six stages (periods) being marked out. Implementation of correlation analysis enabled us to determine the impact of economic, demographic and territorial indicators on cargo and passenger turnover of road transport at national and regional spatial levels. Factor analysis enabled us to reveal the specifi cs of the structure and dynamics ...

  18. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) germplasm in South Warmia, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Shalkevich, Maryna; Bieniek, Anna; Kawecki, Zdzisław

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important problems of sea buckthorn breeding program in Belarus is producing wilt-resistant cultivars that are suitable for machine harvesting. To introduce new parental forms into the breeding process, the examination of wild sea buckthorn plantations at the territory of South Warmia of Poland (Olsztyn, Poland) was carried out in 2006. First of all, the absence of visual wilt symptoms was taken into account. Also, the following criteria of suitability for machine harvesting w...

  19. Proceedings of the international conference devoted to centenary of N.V.Timofeev-Resovskij

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Sakharov environmental university has held scientific conference devoted to centenary for birthday of the great scientist N.V.Timofeev-Resovskij. On conference three sections acted: radioecology, radiobiology and both common and radiation genetics. These issues correspond to the basic directions of activity of the scientist. Taking into account the radioecological consequences of accident on the Chernobyl NPP for Belarus the majority of articles is devoted to action of radiation on organisms

  20. Частный сектор культуры Республики Беларуси: становление и развитие (1991–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Димитрий [Dimitriĭ] А. [A.] Кривошей [Krivosheĭ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Private sector of culture of the Republic of Belarus: formation and development (1991–2008In the given research the author on the basis of the historical and genetic analysis, methods of typology and deduction represents the basic segments of sphere of culture of the Belarus in which private subjects of culture have arisen and developed. The analysis of achievements and lacks of the given phenomenon is carried out, the factors influencing development are marked.The private sector in sphere of culture of Belarus in 1991–2008 could not create appreciable enough competition to official bodies. In cultural aspect only some projects became really platforms for experiment. First of all it concerns theatrical creativity, motion picture arts and painting.Development of a competition was not promoted by a state policy creating unequal conditions for development (tax privileges, rent decrease, etc.. Negative influence on formation of private noncommercial sector has rendered absence of the developed legislation on sponsorship and patronage of arts.Private establishments in culture sphere were created both the commercial organizations and individual businessmen, and the private persons far from business. The aspiration to profit not always was the main thing for businessmen. Private theatre in Gomel, a museum‑drugstore in Grodno, picture galleries were created by businessmen for the purposes more likely aesthetic, for confirmation of the status. The satisfaction of personal ambitions, the aspiration to be more available to public was the main thing for noncommercial projects. Most brightly it is appreciable in museum business (A. Bely, J. Gil’s museum.The projects arisen and developing on a wave of political disagreements in the country are present at a private sector of culture of the Belarus (cinéma vérité, museums.It is necessary to ascertain full absence in the country of private cinemas and film studios of game cinema, the organizations of

  1. Thin film solar cells based on CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladyshev, P P [International University of Nature, Society and Man ' Dubna' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Filin, S V; Puzynin, A I; Tanachev, I A; Rybakova, A V; Tuzova, V V; Kozlovskiy, S A [Center of High Technologies of FSUE ' Applied Acoustics Research Institute' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Gremenok, V F; Mudryi, A V; Zaretskaya, E P [State Scientific and Production Association ' Scientific-Practical Materials, Researcher Center of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus' , Minsk (Belarus); Zalesskiy, V B; Kravchenko, V M; Leonova, U R; Khodin, A A; Pilipovich, V A; Polikanin, A M [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Khrypunov, G S; Chernyh, E P; Kovtun, N A [National Technical University ' Kharkov Politechnical Institute' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Belonogov, E K, E-mail: pavel.gladyshev@niipa.ru [Voronej State Technical University, Voronej (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    We are publishing recent results in chalcogenide photoelectric convertors fabrication, which are efforts of many scientific teams from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. Competitively high efficiency of photoelectric convertors (11.4% for CdTe and 11% for CIGS) was achieved in the process of our work. Furthermore, luminescent filters for improvement of spectral response of such chalcogenide solar cells in a short wavelengths region were also developed and investigated here.

  2. NATIONAL INSURANCE MARKETS IN FORMATION OF EURASIAN ECONOMIC SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sembekov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article considers some of the problems of national insurance markets of Kazakhstan, Belarus and the Russian Federation in terms of integration associations of the Customs Union, the Eurasian Economic Community, activities of the Eurasian Economic comission for future of EES. Presented the analysis of general indicators of the insurance markets that characterize the level of development. Based on a comparative analysis concluded conclusions and recommendations in order to ensure the competitiveness of the insurance market in Kazakhstan.

  3. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy; Gesundheitliche Folgen von Tschernobyl. 25 Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugbeil, Sebastian; Schmitz-Feuerhake, Inge [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany); Paulitz, Henrik; Claussen, Angelika [Internationale Aerzte fuer die Verhuetung des Atomkrieges, Aerzte in sozialer Verantwortung e.V. (IPPNW), Berlin (Germany). Deutsche Sektion

    2011-04-15

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  4. Strategic investment in the supply chain for russian gas : a Shapley value analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Logacheva, Marina

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis I use cooperative game theory – the Shapley value – to analyze the power structure in the supply chain for Russian gas and, furthermore, to evaluate the strategic impact of different investment options for creating new capacities. My results show that the possibilities to increase capacities along the existing tracks in Ukraine and Belarus, in order to bypass one of the transit countries, do not change the balance of power dramatically, whereas a direct, though v...

  5. Limiting institutions?: The challenge of Eurasian security governance

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Limiting Institutions examines the security threats in Eurasia and the role of institutions in the post-Cold War international environment. It looks at both the crucial aspect of foreign policy as well as a theoretical area of security studies and its impact in the former Soviet States including Russia, Belarus, Armenia, the Ukraine and Moldova. The first section addresses the important and varied range of security threats to this area of the world, and examines the range of responses open to...

  6. An Econometric Approach of Computing Competitiveness Index in Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Salahodjaev, Raufhon; Nazarov, Zafar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide methodology of estimating one of the components (pillar) of the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), health and primary education (HPE) pillar for not included in the Global Competitiveness Report countries using conventional econometric techniques. Specifically, using the weighted least square and bootstrapping methods, we enable to compute the HPE for two countries of the former Soviet Union, Uzbekistan and Belarus and then compare the computed...

  7. Intensification of Development of Mixed Transportation of Freight in Ukraine through Formation of the Network of Transportation and Logistic Centres and Transportation and Logistic Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Karpenko Oksana O.; Babyna Olena Ye.

    2013-01-01

    Development of mixed transportation is a prospective direction of development of the transportation system of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of development of mixed transportation of freight in Ukraine. The most popular types of combined transportation (refers to multi-modal) are container and contrailer trains, which are formed both in Ukraine (Viking and Yaroslav) and in other countries, first of all, Belarus (Zubr). One of the reasons of underdevelopment of mixed transporta...

  8. Evaluation of factors influencing stable microbubble test results in preterm neonates at 30–33 gestational weeks

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2012-01-01

    Oxana A Teslova1,2, Takehiko Hiroma1, Elena I Baranovskaya2, Tomohiko Nakamura11Division of Neonatology, Nagano Children's Hospital, Azumino City, Nagano, Japan; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gomel State Medical University, BelarusBackground: The stable microbubble test (SMT) is a sensitive and specific means of predicting respiratory distress syndrome in newborns, using quantitative correlations with concentrations of the protein and lipid components of surfactant. We hyp...

  9. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  10. New Zealand's Preferential Trading Arrangements: Implications for the New Zealand Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Sam; Gow, Hamish R.; Ozer-Balli, Hatice

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic implications of the preferential trade agreements that New Zealand is currently negotiating, using a computable general equilibrium modelling framework. The New Zealand dairy industry is a particular focus in the results, which come from the GTAP model produced by Purdue University. Results are discussed from the independent simulations of preferential trade agreements between New Zealand and Korea, New Zealand and India, New Zealand and Russia, Belarus and K...

  11. GENESIS OF MAJOR COSSACK GROUPS ON THE Y CHROMOSOME DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Утевская, О. М.; Чухряева, М. И.; Схаляхо, Р. А.; Дибирова, Х. Д.; Теучеж, И. Э.; Агджоян, А. Т.; Атраментова, Л. А.; Балановская, Е. В.; Балановский, О. П.

    2015-01-01

    The Y-chromosomal polymorphism of the main groups of Cossacks from modern Ukraine and Southern Russia was analyzed to trace their origin and reveal the degree of admixture with neighboring populations.The Kuban Cossacks, Don Cossacks and Dnieper Cossacksform an entire southern part of East-Slavic gene pool. The area of strong genetic affinity for these Cossack groups includes Ukraine, South Russia, Belarus, Poland and Slovakia. Dnieper Cossacks are more similar to the Ukrainian populations, D...

  12. Zpoplatnění dopravní infrastruktury v Běloruské republice

    OpenAIRE

    Liasun, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The thesis is about a transport Infrastructure payments in the selected transport branches of the Republic of Belarus. The first part is about a general description of the transport infrastructure of the country that connects the European countries with the Russian Federation and the Baltic States. Focus on the actual state, quality, development of the infrastructure. The second part - the description of the methods and tools of payment. In connection with a progressive development of road in...

  13. Stakeholder and Social Capital Approaches as Explanations for Relationships between SMEs and State Officials in Different Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study targets the determination of support that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) provide to government representatives of their choice (in the form of donations, influence through their networks, information, and votes). The study tests stakeholder and social capital approaches as legitimate explanations for SMEs' relationships with state representatives in different transition economies, specifically Belarus as a state-controlled transition economy and Ukraine as a rent-seeking state...

  14. Determination of Cs 137 and Sr 90 content in forests of the Palesse state radiation-ecological reservation using instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of determination of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in the samples of wood and soil taken in some places of the Palesse state radiation-ecological reservation are presented. The beta-gamma-spectrometer MKS AT 1315 was used for instrumental analysis of the samples. It was shown that specific activity of firewood taken in some places is less than sanitary norms accepted in Belarus for Cs 137 but exceeds sanitary norms used in Russia for Sr 90. (authors)

  15. Структура комплексов жужелиц (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) плантационных посадок брусники в условиях Беларуси в первые годы после закладки

    OpenAIRE

    Буга, С. В.; О.Р. Александрович; Морозов, О. В.

    2013-01-01

    Species composition and ecological structure of carabid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) community at cowberry plantations were studied in SW Belarus in the first years after planting. Terrestrial invertebrates were sampled by pitfall traps. A total of 3028 imagines of 45 carabid species have been collected. Activity density of carabid beetles was the highest from late May to early June. Poecilus versicolor (Sturm, 1824) was the most abundant (87,39 %). Species richness of predator and...

  16. Структура комплексов жужелиц (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) плантационных посадок голубики высокорослой в условиях Беларуси в первые годы после закладки

    OpenAIRE

    Буга, С. В.; О.Р. Александрович

    2013-01-01

    Species composition and ecological structure of carabid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) communities at highbush blueberry plantations were studied in SW Belarus in the first years after planting. Terrestrial invertebrates were sampled by pitfall traps. A total of 623 imagines of 51 carabid species have been collected. Field and meadow mesophilous and mesokserophilous species are formed main part of whole carabid complex. Poecilus versicolor (Sturm, 1824) and Agonum sexpunctatum (...

  17. Poland as a(n) (un)attractive destination for Belarusian labour migrants: CARIM-East research report

    OpenAIRE

    Brunarska, Zuzanna; Lesińska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Poland, due to its geographical and cultural proximity as well as stable economic growth in recent years, may be a natural destination country for labour migrants from Belarus. The statistics related to their residence and employment show that the numbers of Belarusians working in Poland are smaller than it could be expected, in particular, relatively smaller comparing to Ukrainians. The text analyzes the causes of the limited attractiveness of Poland as a destination country for labour migra...

  18. Pipeline Power

    OpenAIRE

    Hubert, Franz; Cobanli, Onur

    2012-01-01

    We use cooperative game theory to analyze the impact of three controversial pipeline projects on the power structure in the Eurasian trade of natural gas. Two of them, Nord Stream and South Stream, allow Russian gas to bypass transit countries, Ukraine and Belarus. Nord Stream's strategic value turns out to be huge, justifying the high investment cost for Germany and Russia. The additional leverage obtained through South Stream, in contrast, appears small. The third project, Nabucco, aims at ...

  19. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Müller, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ˜273 800 km2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus-Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and biodiversity

  20. NANODIMENSIONAL AND SUPERDISPERSED PARTICLES IN FOUNDRY TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of existence of initial raw materials for production of the superdispersed powders Al(OH3  and Al2O3 in the Republic of Belarus is given, and also parameters of technological process of their production by sol-gel method are determined. Data on degree of efficiency of additions of powders to the traditional modifiers eliminating chill in castings of gray cast iron is provided.

  1. Test what you eat. Monitoring of radioactivity in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2013, the total beta activity in animal feed products being exported to Belarus shall be lower than 600 Becquerel per kilogram. The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN carries out these checks on behalf of the professional association of compound feed manufacturers in Belgium. The article discusses work conducted by SCK-CEN relating to the monitoring of radioactivity in the food chain.

  2. Characteristics of human breast milk and infants' health on the radionuclide contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    206 samples of breast milk of mothers living on the radionuclide contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus as well as their infants' health have been studied. Each sample was examined on content of cesium 137 and strontium 90 and reduce of the immunologic usefulness of milk was detected. The infants fed with the breast milk containing radionuclides suffer from anemia, infectious and inflammatory diseases more often than ones from 'clean' regions

  3. INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CHIPPERS BLADES OVERSEAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alifanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researches of steels used for the manufacture of imported chipper knives. Recommendations on the choice of steel grades from the CIS countries, similar on the properties of the imported knives. For the manufacture of pilot batches of blades for cutting wood chips were selected steels 5ХНВС, 6ХВ2С, intended for testing of the woodworking enterprises of the Republic of Belarus.

  4. Health effects of Chernobyl accident. A WHO·IPHECA pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IPHECA (International Programme on Health Effects of Chernobyl Accident) made in 1991 includes the projects for thyroid, hematology, fetal exposure, registration for epidemiological examination and oral hygiene in Belarus. Following conclusions have been obtained by the Programme. One of serious health effects was the increase of registered diseases independent on radiation. This was mainly derived from socio-psychological effects, which were conceivably independent on direct radiation exposure. Rapid increase of thyroid cancer of children was observed in the contaminated areas, especially in Belarus. The total number of the patients in 3 countries was 565 by 1994. No significant increase of leukemia and other hematological diseases was seen. There were some data suggesting that fetal exposure resulted in mental or behavior abnormalities of newborns, which could not be fully understood because of lack of the radiological data. No difference was observed in oral diseases in Belarus and other regions. These findings can help to make the guidelines for planning and developing the future investigations and examinations. (H.O.)

  5. WHO - IPHECA: Epidemiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1991 the World Health Assembly endorsed the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) under the auspices of WHO. Five pilot projects have been carried out within IPHECA in the study territories of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in a period from 1991 to 1994. This pilot projects dealt with the detection and treatment of leukaemia and related diseases (Haematology Project), thyroid disorders (Thyroid project), brain damage during exposure 'in-utero' (Brain Damage 'in-Utero' project) and with the development of the Chernobyl registries (Epidemiological Registry Project). A fifth pilot project on oral health was performed only in Belarus. Epidemiological investigations have been an important component of all IPHECA pilot projects. Within 'Epidemiological Registry' Project such investigations have been the principal activity. But with respect to other IPHECA projects it was carried out in addition to main objectives relating to medical monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment of specific diseases included in project protocols. To support the epidemiological investigations within IPHECA, WHO supplied 41 computers in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine and provided training for specialists from these countries in internationally recognized centres. The training programmes and host countries were as follows: standardization of epidemiological investigations (United Kingdom), radiation epidemiology (Russia), development of software (United Kingdom), principles of epidemiological investigations (The Czech Republic), cohort investigations (Japan)

  6. Inteligenckie biografie na Białorusi. Studium przypadku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mamul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligentsia biographies in Belarus. A case studyDrawing on a case study from the body of empirical research which includes 30 narrative interviews conducted using Fritz Schuetze’s biographical method with male and female residents of Belarus, the author explores the process of Belarusian identity formation of a Belarusian-speaking dissenting intellectual. The case study is drawn from the author’s research into the ways in which Belarusian-speaking intellectuals (the group locating itself in opposition to the establishment by the very recourse to the literary Belarusian language of instruction and everyday life as well as other dissenting identity markers conceptualize and hone their national identity. One can trace the path towards fully-fledged Belarusian identity which unrolls via turning points, thanks to significant others through participation in intelligentsia circles. One of the membership rules in the social world of intelligentsia is the use of the high-profile Belarusian language. The interpretive analysis is set against the backdrop of the socio-linguistic situation in contemporary Belarus with its authoritarian regime, advanced Russification, contested memory field, restrained memory work and conflicting historical and national discourses.

  7. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies. - Highlights: • The role of fire in redistribution of radionuclides was assessed. • Transfer of radionuclides to water bodies due to fire was estimated. • A maximum entropy method was used for modelling. • Results indicate potential for significant transfer of radionuclides

  8. Chernobyl-what do we need to know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor No.4 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant explodes on April 26, 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols, and gases (including iodine and caesium) are ejected into the atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant (Belarus, Ukraine) but deposits are very uneven, producing a 'leopard spot' type of pattern (Russian Federation). In Europe, propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives over France. The eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. For the contamination, ground, water, and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. In France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. It is hard to assess the impact on health in the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant; among children in southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. The doses delivered in France represent generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor No.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provide for december 2000. (N.C.)

  9. Chernobylsk: some bothering facts; Tchernobyl: quelques faits derangeants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belbeach, B

    2005-07-01

    First, are some preliminary comments about the official sanitary assessment of the Chernobyl disaster. The second point concerns the liquidators with the hot particles ( very radioactive particles of some microns) knowledge got from autopsies, from the bronchi pulmonary washing made on sick persons. Always about the liquidators the neurological disorders as post radiative encephalopathy. A third point is relative to the hot particles and the populations. The fourth point is devoted to the birth malformations, in Belarus and Ukraine with an incidence in report with the level of soil contamination (Belarus). The fifth point concerns the alteration of the genome (animals and humans), new mutations appear. The sixth point is devoted to the leukemia in Greece, increase of leukemia incidence among the infants in utero irradiated following Chernobylsk accident. The incidence leukemia of babies ( less than one year old) exposed in utero increases with the soil contamination ( 32.2/10{sup 6}/year in low contaminated soils, 71.4/10{sup 6}/year for average contaminated areas and 141.3/10{sup 6}/year for the most contaminated areas). A final point treats the question of the contamination situation in France and if there is a correlation with an increase of thyroid cancers in Corsica, East and South East of France. The lack of registers that inscribe the cancer cases in the different regions does not allow to make comparison between before and after Chernobylsk accident. But a comparison using the British incidence (0.5/10{sup 6}/year) before Chernobylsk ( in agreement with the incidence found in Belarus before Chernobylsk) shows an increase to 1.17/10{sup 6}/year for the Lorraine area and to 2.25/10{sup 6}/year for the South East and Corsica areas. (N.C.)

  10. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  11. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available European wolves (Canis lupus show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  12. Лингво-музыкальная лексика песни как часть этно-культурного наследия былого ВКЛ (Беларусь и приграничья

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина [Galina] Кутырёва-Чубаля [Kutyriowa-Czubala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The language of folk songs as a part of cultural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Belarus and its borderzones This paper examines the melodic and rhythmic properties of the language of songs in the area defined by the basins of Dvina, Nioman and Pripyat’ rivers. In this area, a lexical stylistic layer has been forming since the ancient times.. This layer has a few distinctive features: (1 domination of a certain type of “atomic” elements (stress feet of rhythmic morphemes in various syllabic structures; (2 presence of vocal poetic lines based on the measure typical for the area; 3 types of stanzaic organization, reflect the compositional thinking of the culture; (4 a complex of ethnophony, comprising such suprasegmental features as pitch, melody, poetic metre and caesuras, volume dynamics, rhythm. These factors combine to determine the integrity and distinctiveness of the vocal lexis and the whole phonosphere of the area, and its difference from from the lexical styles of other parts of Belarus. The main difference lies in the fact that most songs in the area are performed in the manner of incantatory declamation. This stands in stark contrast to the way in which songs are performed in the area of Dnepr basin – songs in Dnepr basin are accompanied by dancing, and could be defined rather as chants or incantations. Within the linguistic continuum of the area, it is possible to distinguish areas of different foot and rhythm modes, poetic meters, melodic properties, and compositional styles. The territorial divisions in Belarus correspond to a large extent to different dialectal areas. The historical-cultural layer of songs has its origins in ancient times, evolved in times of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and to a large extent retained its distinctive character to date.

  13. Chernobylsk: some bothering facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, are some preliminary comments about the official sanitary assessment of the Chernobyl disaster. The second point concerns the liquidators with the hot particles ( very radioactive particles of some microns) knowledge got from autopsies, from the bronchi pulmonary washing made on sick persons. Always about the liquidators the neurological disorders as post radiative encephalopathy. A third point is relative to the hot particles and the populations. The fourth point is devoted to the birth malformations, in Belarus and Ukraine with an incidence in report with the level of soil contamination (Belarus). The fifth point concerns the alteration of the genome (animals and humans), new mutations appear. The sixth point is devoted to the leukemia in Greece, increase of leukemia incidence among the infants in utero irradiated following Chernobylsk accident. The incidence leukemia of babies ( less than one year old) exposed in utero increases with the soil contamination ( 32.2/106/year in low contaminated soils, 71.4/106/year for average contaminated areas and 141.3/106/year for the most contaminated areas). A final point treats the question of the contamination situation in France and if there is a correlation with an increase of thyroid cancers in Corsica, East and South East of France. The lack of registers that inscribe the cancer cases in the different regions does not allow to make comparison between before and after Chernobylsk accident. But a comparison using the British incidence (0.5/106/year) before Chernobylsk ( in agreement with the incidence found in Belarus before Chernobylsk) shows an increase to 1.17/106/year for the Lorraine area and to 2.25/106/year for the South East and Corsica areas. (N.C.)

  14. Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Report on project phase 1 and annex to the report on phase 1: 1.4.1993 - 31.3.1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bilateral project of Belarus and Germany was commissioned on 1.04.1993 and is placed under the scientific guidance of the Gemeinschaftsausschuss Strahlenforschung. In the framework of the project part devoted to ''therapy and medical training'', covering the period from 1.04.1993 until 31.03.1996, all in all 99 children from Belarus suffering from advanced-stage tumors of the thyroid received a special radio-iodine therapy in Germany. In about 60% of the children complete removal of the tumor was achieved. Another task of the project was to train over the reporting period 41 doctors and physicists from Belarus in the fields of nuclear medical diagnostic evaluation and therapy of thyroid tumors. The project part ''biological dosimetry'' was to investigate the role of micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes, and whether their presence in the lymphocytes permits to derive information on the radiation dose received even several years after the reactor accident. The scientists also examained the role of the micronuclei in follow-up examinations of the radio-iodine therapy. Further studies used the relatively large number of tumors in the children, as compared to the literature available until the accident, to examine whether there are specific mutation patterns to be found in tumot suppressor genes (p-53) in thyroid tumors which might be used as indicators revealing radiation-induced onset of tumor growth. The project part ''retrospective dosimetry and risk analysis'' was in charge of detecting information answering the question of whether the release of I-131, suspected to be critical nuclide, really was the cause of enhanced incidence of thyroid tumors in the children. The project part ''coordination and examination center at Minsk'' was to establish and hold available the support required by the GAST project participants. (orig./CB)

  15. Przemiany narodowościowo-językowe ludności Białorusi na przełomie XX i XXI wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Eberhardt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic and linguistic changes of the Belarusian population at the turn of the 21th centuryThe first part of the article presents historical background of the origin of the Belarusian nation, located in the area of a confrontation between Russia and Poland. This rivalry was won by Russia, and in effect Belarusian land was incorporated into the Russian Empire, and later into the Soviet state. The next part presents the 20th century ethnic structure as the consequence of the Bolshevik Revolution and World Wars I and II, resulting in some border changes, war loses and migration movements. The main part of the article deals with the ethnic and language changes which occurred in the last decade of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st centuries. The statistical analysis and interpretation is based on data from three population censuses (1989, 1999, 2009. An ethnic structure and linguistic situation are presented with the emphasis placed on the status of the two languages commonly used in Belarus, i.e. Russian and Belarusian, as seen in two categories: of mother language and of the language used for communication at home. The conclusions prove the expansion of popularity of the Russian language and gradual decrease of the use of the Belarusian language, both in public and at home. The processes of Russification, which had begun in the Soviet period, are intensifying despite the fact that Belarus regained its political souverianity as a country. On the basis of quantitative data the author defines specific intensity and territorial distribution of the influence of the Russian language. The final part of the article shows political and geo-political consequences of these changes in Belarus.

  16. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  17. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

  18. Studies of cancer risk among Chernobyl liquidators: materials and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current paper presents the methods and design of two case-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators - one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the other of thyroid cancer risk - carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. The specific objective of these studies is to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low-to-medium- (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consists of the approximately 10,000 Baltic, 40,000 Belarus and 51,000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. Four controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, matched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confounding factors for the tumours of interest. Overall, 136 cases and 595 controls after receiving their consent were included in the studies. A method of analytical dose reconstruction has been developed, validated and applied to the estimation of doses and related uncertainties for all the subjects in the study. Dose-response analyses are underway and results are likely to have important implications to assess the adequacy of existing protection standards, which are based on risk estimates derived from analyses of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors and other high dose studies. (author)

  19. Natural substrata for corticioid fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene O. Yurchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the types of substrata inhabited by non-poroid resupinate Homobasidiomycetes in situ in global scale with both examples from literature sources and from observations on Belarus corticioid fungi biota. The groups of organic world colonized by corticioid basidiomata and vegetative mycelium are arboreous, semi-arboreous, and herbaceous vascular plants, Bryophyta, epiphytic coccoid algae, lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, and occasionally myxomycetes and invertebrates. The fungi occur on living, dying, and dead on all decay stages parts of organisms. Besides, the fungi are known on soil, humus, stones, artificial inorganic and synthetic materials and dung.

  20. Input control of incoming equipment and materials as the system of the quality and reliability assurance of construction of the Belarusian nuclear power plant. Organization of control of performing work at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important issues related to construction and maintenance of nuclear power plant, is the input control of materials and equipment. Input control equipment on the station under construction is carried out to check the functioning of the equipment after the transportation or storage in warehouse, before mounting it in the workplace. Because the Republic of Belarus builds the first power station, should focus on acceptance of technological equipment, construction and assembly work, packaging test equipment, the establishment of regional and industrial laboratories of destructive and nondestructive testing, training specialists on nondestructive testing. This article describes the basic organization problems of input control and requirements for training specialists. (authors).