WorldWideScience

Sample records for belarus

  1. Belarus,A Rising Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen; Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Republic of Belarus is situated in the heart of Europe,in the East the Republic borders the Russian Federation,in the South the Ukraine,in the Wst Poland,and in the North Lithuania and Latvia.Belarus is the gateway between Asia and Europe,bearing strategic importance.In recent years,Belarus has experienced rapid economic growth.

  2. WIN Belarus report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No reactors in operation (1962 first research reactor started and in 1998 decommissioned). Research reactors or institutes: 2 critical zero power assemblies in Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Researcher - Sosny /National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (JIPNR). Other applications of nuclear technology: Production of isotopes, Facility for gamma-irradiation of different products, Neutron generator for different purposes, Electron accelerators for investigations and technology. Planned reactors: NPP construction is planned in 2018 (two reactors). Current energy policy in few sentences: Belarus has only 12-15% own energy resources. The most power is generated on the thermal power plant using natural gas from Russia. Research and development on using wood, wind, sun, hydrogen. The NPP construction is planned in 2018. Some trend in opinion of general public: Studying of public opinion in Belarus has shown that one of the results of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences is inseparability of nuclear and radiation danger in public consciousness. Our people are exclusively frightened with radiation from NPPs, but the rest sources of radiation effect do not cause so anxiety and apprehension. Answers on questions connected with power have shown a very poor erudition of population about ecological advantages and drawbacks inherent in thermal and nuclear power plants. The majority of the respondents (about 80%) does not know about the absence of CO2 discharge and oxygen preservation in the atmosphere, what is probably one of the reasons of negative attitude to NPP (1/3 responses). Positive attitude to NPP is 1/3 responses too. One of the reason of public distrust to nuclear power is the absence of knowledge about the conditions for radioactive waste storage and therefore the population is inclined to exaggerate the radiation danger of waste for the environment. The political opposition opposes the NPP construction. They suggest the sun and wind energy. Members in

  3. More from Belarus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On January 20th,2008,the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Belarus celebrated the 16th anniversary of the establishment of their foreign diplomatic relationship.China was one of the first countries who recognized Belarus' independence,after which the development of Sino-Belarusian relations has enjoyed precedence in both countries' diplomatic strategic policies.From January 1995 to now,frequent top level visits have promoted cooperation,and more than 50 cooperative agreements have been reached covering all aspects of life.

  4. Teleteaching in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevast'Yanenko, Victor G.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the first efforts at teleteaching in Belarus at the Belorussian Polytechnic Academy that will be used for secondary and higher education. Topics discussed include convincing the government of the importance of distance education programs offered to national development, economic constraints, and Internet electronic mail goals. (LRW)

  5. Belarus: Moving Forward Together

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 45th anniversary of INIS provides an opportunity for Member States to look back on significant events. Belarus was among the founding members of the system and the 45th anniversary of INIS also marks 45 years of this country’s participation. In 1992, Belarus began to work independently after a change in the political situation. As a result, the activity of the Belarus INIS Centre increased significantly. Within this time frame, about 6000 inputs were contributed and more than 100 copies of NCL were provided. Currently, Belarus submits about 300 inputs per year to INIS. This quantity reflects the activity of our scientists in the fields corresponding to the scope of INIS. In our country, interest in nuclear technologies is defined by two main factors – the severe consequences of the Chernobyl accident and the acute shortage of energy resources. Therefore, the main focuses of nuclear research are the behavior of ecosystems in conditions of radioactive contamination, and the impact of low dose radiation on living organisms, nuclear medicine, nuclear energy, radiation protection and radiation safety

  6. Belarus oil recovery. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belarus Oil Recovery study was sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency and funded by the Danish State Oestlandepulje. The technical work was carried out by COWIconsult, the Danish Geological Survey, and Odin Energi in cooperation with the Belarus State Oil Company, Belorusneft. Belarus, a republic of the former USSR, is a landlocked country with limited and declining oil production. Oil production was initially established in Belarus in 1964, and 56 oil fields have been discovered to date. Production reached a peak of approximately 60,000 barrels per day in the mid 70's, but current production is only about 15,000 bpd, well below the required amount for self sufficiency. The intent of this feasibility study was to determine ways of improving the production potential of the oil fields of Belarus with western technology in order to make Belarus less dependent on other energy resources and on outside supplies of hydrocarbons. All the oil fields in Belarus are located in the Pripyat Basin. The structural complexity of the fields under study coupled with the rather poor reservoir quality have resulted in low oil recoveries, and the aim of the study is to recommend technology which might improve the performance of these reservoirs. Improved well stimulation and water injection using modern western technology is likely to improve recovery from these reservoirs. If this technology proves successful in these fields, then it could be applied to the other larger oil fields in Belarus. It is anticipated that the documented results would enable financing full scale implementation of the technology utilised which could contribute toward the solution of Belarus' energy requirements. (EG)

  7. The Chernobyl Trace in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is described the radiation contamination of territory of the Republic of Belarus in 1996 as result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The maps and diagrams showing a radiation situation in the republic are given. 24 figs

  8. Belarus : Transport Sector Policy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The transport sector is an important economic sector in Belarus, contributing 6.7 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2008 and 6.6 percent in 2009. Belarus has been a net exporter of practically all modes of transport services. The country serves as a transit transport corridor between the European Union (EU) and Russia and potentially between the EU and Asia; thus, the strategic ge...

  9. Belarus: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Erica; Malakhova, Irina; Novik, Irina; Famenka, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Belarusian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2008. Despite considerable change since independence, Belarus retains a commitment to the principle of universal access to health care, provided free at the point of use through predominantly state-owned facilities, organized hierarchically on a territorial basis. Incremental change, rather than radical reform, has also been the hallmark of health-care policy, although capitation funding has been introduced in some areas and there have been consistent efforts to strengthen the role of primary care. Issues of high costs in the hospital sector and of weaknesses in public health demonstrate the necessity of moving forward with the reform programme. The focus for future reform is on strengthening preventive services and improving the quality and efficiency of specialist services. The key challenges in achieving this involve reducing excess hospital capacity, strengthening health-care management, use of evidence-based treatment and diagnostic procedures, and the development of more efficient financing mechanisms. Involving all stakeholders in the development of further reform planning and achieving consensus among them will be key to its success. PMID:24334702

  10. ADS National Programmes: Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belarus activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the investigations performed at the subcritical facility YALINA. Yalina is a zero power subcritical facility to study neutronics of ADS and the transmutation reaction rates. The first assembly YALINA-T was put into operation in 2000. YALINA-T is a multiplying system (kmax<0.98), located inside a graphite reflector of parallelepiped configuration that is arranged of high purity reactor graphite blocks. The core of the assembly is of parallelepiped configuration too and consists of bare polyethylene subassemblies where fuel rods of EK-10 type (UO2 of 10% enrichment by U235) are located. At the core center a neutron producing Pb target is located that reminds fuel subassembly by shape and size. Graphite reflector is covered from outside by Cd. At the distances R=50 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm from the core center three experimental channels (D=25 mm) are situated for location of samples of radioactive targets and various detectors for measurement of neutron flux density functionals. For the same purpose two axial channels (D=25 mm) are located in graphite reflector at the distances 250 mm and 358 mm; by Z=H/2 one more radial channel (D=25 mm) is located. YALINA-B core is arranged of rectangular parallelepipeds too. The fast (booster) zone consists of lead subassemblies, the thermal one of polyethylene subassemblies. Central part of the booster zone, containing highly enriched (90%) metallic uranium fuel and Pb target is encased into a separate stainless steel frame. The absorber zone is located at the outer boundary of the booster zone. It consists of inner layer of rods with metallic natural uranium fixed in lead blocks, as in the previous cases, and of an outer layer of rods filled by boron carbide powder, B4C. Boron carbide rods are located in the same lattice as the uranium fuel pins in the booster zone with pin pitch 16.00 mm. This absorber zone enables fast neutrons to

  11. A Common Currency for Belarus and Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Vassili Prokopenko; Etibar Jafarov; Anne Marie Gulde

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses costs, benefits, and implementation challenges of a possible currency union between Belarus and Russia. It shows that Belarus and Russia are economically closely linked but nevertheless do not fulfill all "optimal currency area" criteria, especially the macroeconomic symmetry condition. Furthermore, we argue that the different speeds of economic liberalization over the past decade have resulted in different economic structures, with Belarus still dependent on monetary fin...

  12. Republic of Belarus; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes the causes of the high inflation in Belarus. It estimates the contribution of two factors: (1) exchange rate pass-through and (2) administrative price increases. Residual inflation is used as a gauge for inflation caused directly by demand pressures and inflation expectations. It is found that the administrative price increases are a key driver of inflation, even ahead of demand pressures, which also explain a large share of inflation. Although exchange rat...

  13. Fiscal Projections for Pension System of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This note attempts to describe the pension system in Belarus including its fiscal performance, redistributive aspects benefit levels and benefit eligibility conditions. The note also discusses the challenging demographic environment which Belarus pension system is expected to face in the future and explores alternative paths that the system could take in this environment. Some reform scena...

  14. 76 FR 5482 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    .... 2461 note); Pub. L. 110-96, 121 Stat. 1011 (50 U.S.C. 1705 note); E.O. 13405, 71 FR 35485; 3 CFR, 2007... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 548 Belarus Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign... Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the Belarus Sanctions Regulations in the Code of...

  15. Summertime Thunderstorms Prediction in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapo, Palina; Sokolovskaya, Yaroslava; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    Mesoscale modeling with the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) system makes it possible to predict thunderstorm formation events by direct numerical simulation. In the present study, we analyze the feasibility and quality of thunderstorm prediction on the territory of Belarus for the summer period of 2014 based on analysis of several characteristic parameters in WRF modeling results that can serve as indicators of thunderstorms formation. These parameters include vertical velocity distribution, convective available potential energy (CAPE), K-index, SWEAT-index, Thompson index, lifted condensation level (LCL), and others, all of them being indicators of favorable atmospheric conditions for thunderstorms development. We perform mesoscale simulations of several cases of thunderstorm development in Belarus with WRF-ARW modeling system using 3 km grid spacing, WSM6 microphysics parameterization and explicit convection (no convective parameterization). Typical modeling duration makes 48 hours, which is equivalent to next-day thunderstorm prediction in operational use. We focus our attention to most prominent cases of intense thunderstorms in Minsk. For validation purposes, we use radar and satellite data in addition to surface observations. In summertime, the territory of Belarus is quite often under the influence of atmospheric fronts and stationary anticyclones. In this study, we subdivide thunderstorm cases under consideration into 2 categories: thunderstorms related to free convection and those related to forced convection processes. Our aim is to study the differences in thunderstorm indicator parameters between these two categories of thunderstorms in order to elaborate a set of parameters that can be used for operational thunderstorm forecasting. For that purpose, we analyze characteristic features of thunderstorms development on cold atmospheric fronts as well as thunderstorms formation in stable air masses. Modeling results demonstrate good predictive skill

  16. Belarus activity in ADS field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • The YALINA facility is a unique installation which was designed as a zero power model of real ADS. • It is intended to study neutronics and kinetics of the sub-critical reactors driven by external neutron sources. • The successful operation of this facility is a scientific contribution from the Republic of Belarus, as well as the international team from EC and USA. • The experimental data are used to benchmark and validate methods and computer codes for designing and licensing ADS

  17. Belarus Country Opinion Survey Report (July 2013 - June 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey for FY2013 in Belarus assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Belarus perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Belarus on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Belarus; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Belarus; 3) overall impressions of the W...

  18. Belarus, A Chinese Fort in Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ "In recent years,we've found increasing interest from Chinese investors in the Belarus economy.Please let China know,Belarus is always ready to be a true friend to China.We have built a fort in Europe for China,"the President of Belarus,Alexander Lukashenko told Zhou Xiaochuan,President of the Bank of China,during his visit to the capital of Minsk,on January 8th,he expressed his high praise and firm confidence in the development of Sino-Belarusian relations.

  19. Die Parlamentswahlen und das Referendum in Belarus'

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Alexander

    1995-01-01

    Von allen europäischen Staaten sind in Belarus das Streben nach Selbständigkeit und die nationale Volksidentität am wenigsten ausgeprägt. Die früher 'sowjetischste' aller Sowjetrepubliken befindet sich in einer tiefen Identitätskrise. Im Unterschied zu Rußland und der Ukraine hat Belarus keine Antikommunismus- und Souveränitätswelle erlebt. Der Transformationsprozeß hat in der Republik noch nicht begonnen. Die Dominanz Rußlands, seiner Kultur, Sprache und Wirtschaft ist in Belarus allgegenwär...

  20. Visits from Croatia and Belarus

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 23 September, CERN was visited by two Ministers, Anatoly Rusetsky, Chairman of the Committee on Science and Technology of the Republic of Belarus, and Professor Gvozden Flego, Croatian Minister of Science and Technology. Mr Rusetsky met with Roger Cashmore, Research Director for Collider Programmes, and Michel Della Negra, spokesperson of the CMS experiment, and visited the CMS detector assembly hall. Professor Flego also met Mr Cashmore and visited the NA49 and CAST experiments, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, the ALICE experiment cavern, and the assembly hall for the CMS experiment. From left to right: Nikola Godinovic, working at CMS, Jürgen Schukraft, ALICE spokesperson, Gordan Markotic, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations and other international organisations in Geneva, Professor Gvozden Flego, Minister of Science and Technology, Republic of Croatia.

  1. Social mood in Belarus: Hope dies first

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Vardamatski

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of the social mood in Belarus over the past four years suggests that after the shock in 2011, Belarusians generally lowered their social expectations and partly reconciled with the upcoming hardships.

  2. Belarus and China: from Trade to Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Trade cooperation between Belarus and China: does distance matter? The diplomatic relations between Belarus and China have been developing stably and successfully ever since the moment of their establishing (January 1992).The leaders of the two states have always treated these relations with great attention,responsibility,and care.The relationship has been boosted as a result of the visit of President of the Republic of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko to China in December 2005,during which Alexander Lukashenko and President of China Hu Jintao signed a joint declaration.In that document,the sides pledged they would do their utmost to boost mutual trade and work out new cooperation models.It was during that top-level meeting that President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko first voiced the trade goal which was to reach,by 2010,the trade turnover to the tune of 2 billion USD.

  3. Competitiveness of Belarus in world markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rybalka, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis introduces the new approach to the measurement of Belarus'competitiveness. The topicality of this research is connected with absence of Belarus in the studies of the World Economic Forum and Institute for the Management Development. The author established the following goals while running the research: to analyze the existing concepts of national competitiveness, to define the essential factors of competitiveness, to examine such tool for measurement of national competitive...

  4. Prospects of nuclear power development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Belarus relates to the countries with limited organic fuel resources. So, the share of own fuel resources is about 15% from the total energy consumption. Therefore, Belarus is forced to buy fuel-energy resources, mainly in Russia. Natural gas (∼68%) and oil (18%) are prevailing in the structure of fuel-energy resources consumption in Belarus. At present Russia supplies gas to Belarus by the price of 30 USD/1000 m3 that is lower then European prices. However, and under these conditions the share of fuel-energy resources reaches 60% in the volume of Belarus import and is about 2 bill. USD, what is commensurable with the value of an annual state budget of Belarus. Prices for gas will be sufficiently risen in Russia for the nearest future. So, according to the assessments of Russian specialists a wholesale price for natural gas will be risen by a factor of 3.7 in Russia by 2005 in comparison with 2001 what makes Belarus production ultimately non-competitive in the world market. Recently Belarus has been observing the growth of economic indicators, and this progress has to be substantiated with an appropriate energy park. Further development of the national economy calls for a sustainable power industry free of the impact of the changing economic situation in the fuel market. The necessity is to lower a level of dependence of the Republic on the imports of fuel and electric power. Electric energy plays a special role in the energy supply system in the Republic. The forecasted energy consumption will be about 55 bill. kW·h in Belarus by 2015. At present the demands of the Republic in electric energy are satisfied by 70-80% due to generation at own power electric plants operating mainly on import fuel, and by 20-30% due to electric energy import generated at Smolensk (Russia) and Ignalina (Lithuania) NPPs. But the share of electric energy import from Russia will be decreased by 2015 in connection with the forecasted growth of its internal demands. Ignalina

  5. Belarus Attaches Great Importance to Trade Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ Belarus is an important trade partner of China.In January, a Belarus trade delegation, headed by Uldimir N. Bobrov, President of the Belarus Chamber of Commerce, visited China, and signed a series of agreements for economic and trade cooperation with CCPIT. When interviewed by China's Foreign Trade, he stressed that Belarus was ready to strengthen its commitment to comprehensive cooperation with China in many spheres.

  6. Renewable energy in Belarus: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from Potassium Chloride and peat, Belarus lacks significant mineral and fuel resources including natural gas, oil and coal. At the same time it has significantly energy intensive economy. Development of renewable energy resources opens up for a double solution, improving of energy independence and reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Currently, only about 6% of electricity produced in Belarus comes from renewable energy sources. It is planning to increase this quantity up to 9% by 2035. The following first pilot projects has been already put into practice: hydro 17 MW, wind 1.5 MW and biogas 0.5 MW. In the framework of the Belarus -EU international technical assistance project “Green Economy in Belarus” it is planning to construct wind power plant near Novogrudok and about 20 smaller green projects. Key words: renewable, potential, pilot projects, regulations, technical assistance

  7. Perspective use geothermal resources in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal studies, as dictated by the further study of the geological structure of the territory of Belarus, the geodynamics of the Earth's interior, in the light of the continuing rise in prices for imported hydrocarbons; search for alternative renewable clean energy. (authors)

  8. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 390 patients in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident. The morbidity rates increased by 55.7 times as compared with the 10 year pre-accident period. Thyroid cancer in children is highly aggressive disease accompanied by surrounding tissues and metastatic involvement of lymph nodes

  9. Internationalizing Teacher Education: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovtsova, Alena; Krasnova, Tatiana; Torhova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the unique characteristics of internationalization in teacher education in the Republic of Belarus, by asking how the creation of a national system of teacher education after the USSR's disintegration has both enhanced and hindered internationalization. The question is answered by providing an overview of the specific…

  10. Centers of practical radiological culture in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical visit to Belarus within the activities of NERIS Platform (European Platform of readiness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery) was organized by the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Plants in Trnava (VUJE, a.s.) and Research Institute of Radiology in Gomel. It was carried out from 1 to 6 June 2013, with partial financial support from the European Commission. Program of this visit is presented. (author)

  11. Review of State-Owned Banks in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This note reviews state-owned banks in Belarus and offers recommendations on how to strengthen them. It covers the Belarusbank, Belagroprombank, Belinvestbank, and Paritetbank (the public banks), and the recently established Development Bank of Belarus (DBB). Recommendations focus on corporate governance, funding, ownership function, mandate, lending models, and regulation and supervision....

  12. Belarus: Ready for More Advanced Trade Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Li Yinghong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Belarus was one of the 15 member countries of the former Soviet Union. It has achieved independence since 1991. Belarus is situated in the center of Europe and the main drag of the Europe-Asia Continental Bridge. It takes the leading position in many economic indicators in the CIS.

  13. BELARUS: AN UNLIKELY BENEFICIARY OF CRISIS IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Ioffe Grigory

    2015-01-01

    The author considers the crisis in Ukraine from geopolitical angle while concentrating on the role of Belarus in it. He comes to conclusion that Belarus`s ability to benefit from the crisis nearby while simultaneously working to bring this crisis to an end deserves greater scrutiny and international recognition.

  14. Safeguards system in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the time of signing of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1993), the Republic of Belarus did not have any state system of nuclear material accountancy and control. Accounting for and control were performed by departmental systems which did not involve computer data processing, generation of reports, independent measurements, data coding, etc. They were no able to perform accounting for and control in real time. In this paper the existing system of nuclear material accounting for and control is briefly discussed as well as system of physical protection of nuclear materials, export/import measures and measures to combat illicit trafficking. (author)

  15. Belarus and Chernobyl: The second decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popular non-fiction book reflects recent views of the accident happened at Chernobyl 12 years ago. It presents some aspects of the state's huge work aimed at protecting public health and mitigating the consequences of the disaster in the Republic of Belarus. While preparing the publication the authors have used results of scientific studies conducted as per order of the Ministry for Emergencies by different bodies of the National Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Health, Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Foodstuffs etc. It is intended for a broad readership

  16. Safeguards implementation and strengthening in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus are located at the Academic Scientific and Technical Center 'Sosny'. Modern system of physical protection was started to operate in October 1996. Without going into details, the system of physical protection makes it possible to maintain automatic control of access to the most sensitive zones and the facility as a whole, automatic detection and testing of all components, automatic generation of alarm signal in case of an incident and taping of video signal. During operation and maintenance of the system we have encountered some difficulties like the absence of national producers of necessary spare parts and expensive prices of such parts with foreign producers, the necessity of adaptation of some system components to local climatic conditions, etc. Export/import control and prevention of non-authorized use of nuclear materials - The Law of the Republic of Belarus On Exports Control came into force in January 1998. This law defines the legal bases for activities of state bodies, legal and natural persons of the Republic of Belarus in the field of export control and regulates relations arising in connection with the movement of objects subject to export control across the customs border of the Republic of Belarus and their subsequent use. The objects subject to export control include such items 'as goods, technologies and services connected with nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear materials which can be used for production of nuclear weapons and nuclear explosive systems' as well as 'dual purpose commodities'. Information support of the export/import control system is provided by ORACLE-controlled computer data bases. This system includes the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Customs Committee, the Academy of Sciences and other agencies. The Republic of Belarus became a member of the Nuclear Supplies Group in 2000. According to the decrees of the Council of Ministers 675 dated June 1997, licensing and state supervision of activities involving use and

  17. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another. PMID:27191056

  18. Nuclear installations in Belarus: Implications of political and technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with some aspects of past and present supervisory activities at nuclear installations in Belarus. It briefly describes an existing supervisory system for nuclear installations in the Republic of Belarus, its legislative basis and functions of the supervisory body. Consideration is given to further development and improvement of the supervision in such fields as revision and elaboration of normative documents on nuclear safety, training of inspectors, co-operation with other governmental bodies while examining the nuclear option in the Republic of Belarus. (author)

  19. Women in science: Current advances and challenges in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-01

    Women constitute 49% of all natural scientists in Belarus. However, fewer than 18% of Belarusian natural scientists who hold a doctor of science degree are women. The proportion of women decreases with increasing rank at universities and institutes in Belarus. Gender imbalance at the level of full professor is striking at just 17.5% women, and illuminates the vertical segregation of women in the natural sciences. This report reviews the positions of women in science in Belarus to draw out current advances and challenges encountered by female scientists in the former socialist country. New statistical data are broken down by gender and aimed at advancing the general agenda for women in science.

  20. On a Grave Symbol from Northwest Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Prokhorov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on an interpretation of a funeral symbol found onthe gravestones in Northwest Belarus – an engraved image of a pole with a semicircle at its top. The gravestones are connected to the archaeological culture of stone tombs of Yotvingian origin. Possibly, this symbol has been given a wider perspective in the world of late paganism of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and its neighboring territories. This symbol represents an idea of ‘the world axis’, and its main mythological meaning has been to create a communication between the souls of the dead and the upper celestial world which has been imagined as ‘the celestial mountain’.

  1. Decontamination in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To continue the decontamination work in the Republic of Belarus, which was carried out by the military troops, the state specialized enterprises were formed in Gomel and Mogilev in 1991. The organization and regulations were developed inside the country: instructions, rules, radiological and hygienic criteria and norms. The enterprises concentrated on decontamination of the most socially significant facilities: kindergartens, schools, medical institutions and industrial enterprises. During 9 years Gomel State Specialized Enterprise 'Polessje' decontaminated 130 kindergartens, schools and hospitals. The total decontaminated area was 450 000 m2. The ventilation systems and equipment at 27 industrial enterprises in Gomel were decontaminated. The practical decontamination methods for areas, buildings, roofs, industrial equipment, ventilation systems were developed and tested. The special rules for handling wastes contaminated with Cs were elaborated. The paper analyzes and sums up the acquired experience which is important for implementation of rehabilitation programs and improvement of decontamination methods. (author)

  2. Childhood thyroid cancer. Comparison of Japan and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus is suspected to be due to radiation exposure after the Chernobyl reactor accident. To clarify the clinical and histological characteristics of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus, we therefore compared these patients to a radiation non-exposed control series in Japan. In Belarus, 26 thyroid cancers in subjects aged 15 or younger were diagnosed among 25,000 screened between 1991 and 1995 by Chernobyl-Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. The clinical and morphologic features of these 26 cases were compared to 37 childhood thyroid cancers in Japan diagnosed between 1962 and 1995. The age distribution at operation in Belarus showed a peak at 10 years old, with a subsequent fall in numbers. In contrast, the age distribution at operation in Japan showed a smooth increase between the ages of 8 and 14. The mean tumor diameter was smaller in Belarus than that in Japan (1.4±0.7 vs. 4.1±1.7 cm, P<0.001). The sex ratio, regional lymph node metastasis, extension to surrounding tissues or lung metastasis did not differ significantly. Histologically, all cases in Belarus were papillary and in Japan 33 cases were papillary and 4 cases were follicular carcinomas. Among papillary carcinomas, the frequency of a solid growth pattern, a criteria for classifying a tumor as poorly differentiated, was higher in Belarus than that in Japan (61.5 vs. 18.2%, P<0.001). The difference between the features of childhood thyroid cancer in Japan and Belarus may be due to the difference in the process of carcinogenesis, but more direct evidence and further analysis by molecular epidemiology are needed in Belarussian cases. (author)

  3. Characteristic features of migrants' integration in present-day Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    BOBROVA, Anastacia; SHAKHOTSKA, Liudmila

    2013-01-01

    The integration of migrants is becoming an increasingly important question in Belarus. As socio-economic cooperation between Belarus and other countries is developing the list of participants in the integration process of migrants is growing. For several decades, the traditional participants were citizens from neighboring countries: Russia, Ukraine and Poland. At the present there is also, though, rapid growth in migration flows from other areas, particularly from the south: Turkmenistan, Leb...

  4. DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BELARUS: STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND QUALITY STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Kovalev; I. Kovalev

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a brief analysis of the procedures and requirements for the quality and the production of milk in Belarus from the Soviet Union, and to this day, consider some areas of the dairy industry in the Republic of Belarus for 2011-2015, to look at issues and characteristics of milk production in the country. The article raised some important task of unification of Russian and Belarusian industry regulations and standards.

  5. Post-Soviet Belarus: The Transformation of National Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Л. Г. ТИТАРЕНКО

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the formation of a new national identity in Belarus under conditions of post-Soviet transformation. Under the term of “national identity” the author means the identity of the population of the Republic of Belarus that will be adequate to its status of a newly independent state acquired after 1991. Special attention is paid to the existing major research approaches to the problem of constructing this national identity. According to the author’s view, both...

  6. Challenges and opportunities to launch nuclear power programme in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Republic of Belarus, as a part of the former Soviet Union, having highly energy-intensive economy and few indigenous fuel and energy resources has been initially oriented towards nuclear power. Four nuclear power plants with total capacity of about 12 GW have been constructed near the borders of the Republic. In Belarus the constructing of nuclear CHP not far from Minsk and the planning of NPP construction in Vitebsk region have been begun. The Chernobyl NPP accident has stopped this Program. On the other side the Republic of Belarus has been suffered from the Chernobyl accident most of all other countries including Russia and the Ukraine. About a quarter of its territory and population had turned out in the radioactively contaminated zone. The attitude of a considerable part of the Belarus population towards the nuclear energy is aggravated with the consequences of this accident. Nevertheless recently the political decision about nuclear power development has been accepted again. It is decided to construct two units with total capacity about 2000 MW. The commissioning of the first unit is planning in 2016, the second- in 2018. The necessity of nuclear power development has been grounded in Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus which was approved by the President of the Republic of Belarus in 2005 and in new version in 2007. The Programme of Preparatory Works for the construction of NPP has been accepted by the Government and is under implementation. Among another works in frameworks of the this Program it should be mentioned the following: - site selections for nuclear facilities; - assessment of human resource needs and availability; - preparation for bid specification development; - studying of nuclear technologies available and suitable for domestic application; - developing of the Program of education and training of personal for future NPP, regulatory body and other governmental authorities, research and design institutes. The Law

  7. Thyroid cancer in Belarus: the epidemiological situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting in 1990, an increasing number of children were diagnosed as suffering from thyroid cancer in regions close to the Chernobyl nuclear accident site, and this increase is continuing. But still today, doubts about the significance of this increase are being voiced. Using data from the Belarus epidemiological cancer registration system up to 1994, the geographic distribution, time and cohort trends, age distribution and other characteristics of this epidemic are reviewed. Results show that the geographic distribution is similar to that of iodine-131 following the accident; that when looking at cohorts of children born in the same years incidence has steadily increased since 1990; and that deviations from this pattern might be explained by active case finding.The most likely interpretation of these results is that of a causal association with radiation exposure related to the Chernobyl accident, but possible modifying factors should be examined closely. The most likely future course of the epidemic is an increasing number of cases among those exposed in childhood, and public health measures should take this into account

  8. The Sociological Dimension of the System of Art Education in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhodov, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    Art education in Belarus is based on two fundamental state documents, the "Law on Education in the Republic of Belarus" and the "Law on Culture in the Republic of Belarus," which spell out the prospects of the development of art education in a unity of goals, tasks, and paths of implementation. The system of art education in the Republic includes…

  9. The radiation monitoring on the territory of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the territory of the Republic of Belarus works the points network of radiation-ecological monitoring of environmental objects by the special programs. According to the article 40 of the Low of the Republic of Belarus 'About law regime of the territory exposed to a radioactive pollution following the accident on the Chernobyl NPP' the Committee for Hydrometeorology of the MES of RB accomplishes a total estimation of radiation situation on the territory of the Republic [radiation monitoring] and a methodical guidance. (author)

  10. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  11. Trade policy of Belarus in the CIS region: specific model or country specific trade policy for a small open economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Mazol

    2012-01-01

    The working paper critically examines trade policy of Belarus in 2006-2010 in the context of national, regional and international trends of economic activity. The paper analyses basic features of import substitution industrialization relevant for Belarus. There are summarized basic trends of Belarus’ trade, the level of country and commodity diversification of Belarus’ export and import, and the main risks and opportunities for the trade policy of Belarus. The analysis covers period of 20...

  12. Geomorphological risk analysis in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Romanenko, Vlad; Kurlovich, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    Romanenko V. GIS-Mapping and Assessment of Geomorphological Risk in Belarus / V. Romanenko, D. Kurlovich // The geomorphology of natural hazards: mapping, analysis and prevention. Abstract book. 17th Joint Geomorphological Meeting, Liege (Belgium). 1-3 July 2014. – Liege. – P. 116.

  13. The gender wage gap in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Pastore Francesco; Verashchagina Alina

    2007-01-01

    The project will provide an evidence on the size of gender wage gap in Belarus and on the extent to which such gap is due to discrimination, which is of interest for policy makers, dealing with wage distribution in the country

  14. Hypertension management in primary care in Belarus and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.G.; Rusovich, V.; Egorov, K.N.; Podpalov, V.P.; Boerma, W.G.W.

    2005-01-01

    Both in Belarus and in the Netherlands, guidelines on the management of hypertension in primary care have been developed, including recommendations about detection, treatment and follow-up. These guidelines are meant to harmonize actual practice management of hypertension of improve the quality of c

  15. A Visit to Kindergarten No. 490 in Minsk, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Linda A.

    Although opportunities for sharing information about early childhood education increased with the disbanding of the Soviet Union in 1991, knowledge about how young children are cared for and educated in countries of the former Soviet Union remains limited. This report presents observations of a kindergarten class in Minsk, Belarus conducted…

  16. Language Management and Language Problems in Belarus: Education and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Markus; Sloboda, Marian

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Belarus, the most russified of the post-Soviet countries. It summarizes language policy and legislation, and deals in more detail with language management and selected language problems in Belarusian education. It also contributes to the work on language planning by applying…

  17. Legal aspects of radiation therapy in Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons that lead to harm to patients during radiotherapy considered. Some examples of radiation damage presented. The types of liability for harm to the patient used in the Republic of Belarus described. The recommendations to ensure legal protection for medical and technical personnel suggested

  18. Radioactive contamination of the Belarus territories: Dynamics and modern state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of radioactive pollution of territory of Republic of Belarus is presented. The grouping of administrative areas on degree of pollution of farmlands Cs 137 and Sr 90 is executed. Depending on relative density of the polluted earths as a part of farmlands it is allocated four groups of areas - with weak, average, strong and very strong degree of pollution. (author)

  19. Communication from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a communication dated 27 March 2001 from the Permanent Representative of Belarus to the Agency and, as requested therein, the text of a statement by the Governor for Belarus is attached hereto, for the information of Member States

  20. Comparing development sustainability in Belarus, Poland and Ukraine with special respect to rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Manteuffel Szoege, Henryk

    2007-01-01

    A comparison of environmental sustainability in Belarus, Poland and Ukraine using the Environmental Sustainability Index calculated by the Centre for Environmental Law and Policy of Yale University shows a significant advantage of Belarus over Poland and Ukraine while a slight advantage of Poland over Ukraine. Belarus with ESI score of 52.8 points ranked 47, Ukraine with 44.7 points ranked 108 while Poland with 45.0 points ranked 102 among the 146 classified countries of the world. The state ...

  1. Detection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA in mosquitoes from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Șuleșco, Tatiana; Volkova, Tatiana; Yashkova, Svetlana; Tomazatos, Alexandru; von Thien, Heidrun; Lühken, Renke; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-09-01

    During the last two decades, Belarus faces an increase of human cases of Dirofilaria (Nematoda, Spirurida, Onchocercidae) infections. However, comprehensive analyses explaining this development and the identification of mosquito vector species are missing. Here, we present results using temperature data from Belarus and show that the annual number of human Dirofilaria cases is significantly correlated with the yearly average temperatures (Spearman's rho = 0.49, p Belarus, suggesting a high probability of autochthonous Dirofilaria transmission in the country. PMID:27169723

  2. The model of statistical forecast of storm wind and heavy rainfalls at the territory of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Perekhodtseva, E.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the development of automated forecast methods of storm wind at the territory of the Republic of Belarus based on the hydrodynamic-statistical model are submitted at this paper. The international collaboration between Hydrometcenter of Russia- and Hydrometcenter of the Republic of Belarus began ten years ago. Now the forecasts of storm wind with the earliness 12-24-36-48h send by the help of operative technology to Hydrometcenter of Belarus two times a day from Hydrometcenter of...

  3. Technologies for restoration of environment contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of work on creation of technologies for clean-up of the territories of Belarus contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident is considered in the report. It is pointed out, that the technologies for decontamination of pre-school medical and prophylactical institutions, schools, zones for recreation, industrial and agricultural objects are used in Belarus. On the whole, the strategy of changing the residence of population and supervision over the radiological situation is carried out in the Republic. Clean-up of contaminated soils of large territories is not realized in the Republic on industrial scale. Presently, the methods have been developed for radiation forecast and determination of advisable extent of decontamination. The description of worked out technologies for decontamination, waste management and disposal is given. The need in development of industrial methods for the soil clean-up is shown. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  4. The pathology of childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied data on the sex and age distribution of 293 cases of thyroid carcinoma in children operated in Belarus between January 1990 and December 1994. We have also reviewed the histology of 134 cases and performed immunocytochemistry for calcitonin, thyroglobulin, ret, met and p53 and in situ hybridisation for thyroglobulin and calcitonin on a sample of these cases. We have compared the data derived from this series with those obtained from a similar series of 122 cases operated in Kiev, Ukraine over the same time period and those from 154 cases operated in England and Wales over a 30 year period. There was agreement on the diagnosis of malignancy in 132 of the 134 Belarussian cases (98%). In 2 of the cases there was no evidence of malignancy in the material seen in Cambridge, but not all the original pathological material was available for review. In 7 cases there was evidence of malignancy, but inadequate material to determine the subtype of malignancy. The papillary carcinomas were classified as of the classic type when they showed a papillary architecture and the nuclear features typical of adult papillary carcinoma, or of the solid follicular type as described in the series studied in England and Wales (1). Four were papillary micro carcinomas. The age and sex distribution of all cases from Belarus showed a markedly different pattern from that observed in England and Wales. In Belarus the peak was at age 9, while the England and Wales series showed a smooth rise in incidence with increasing age. Virtually all the cases from Belarus were papillary carcinoma (99%) compared with only 68% in England and Wales. In addition, there was a higher proportion of papillary carcinomas of the solid/follicular type (72% in Belarus, 35% in England and Wales). The frequency of this subtype did not change significantly with age in Belarus, whereas there was a relative decrease from 62% in the 0-9 year age group to 23% in the 10-14 year age group in England and Wales

  5. Belarus: Towards a new post-Chernobyl rehabilitation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, Belarus still has to deal with many problems that resulted owing to the extensive contamination of its territory after the Chernobyl accident. These problems remain omnipresent in everyday life of the affected population and have a continuous impact on the economic well being of the country. This paper describes the major changes that have been carried out in the rehabilitation strategies in Belarus since the Chernobyl accident. The evolution of the legal and administrative framework for rehabilitation and actions taken in this context over the past two decades are summarized. The continuing challenges faced by the population in the affected areas are discussed and the key principles underlying rehabilitation strategies (that are both practicable and accepted) are identified. The latter include openness, voluntary participation, collective decision-making and empowerment of local population and professionals. These principles have underpinned the development of recent national and international initiatives that are described. (authors)

  6. STATE STANDARDS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN OPTICAL RADIOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Galygo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of joint activities of the BelGIM and the Institute of Physics of the NAS of Belarus on the construction and modernization of state standards of the physical units in optical radiometry, as well as the high accuracy measurement facilities for test the energy, temporal, spatial, spectral and polarization characteristics of laser equipments and calibration of devices for measuring the energy characteristics of laser radiation are presented.

  7. POST-ELECTION SEASON IN BELARUS: ECONOMY DETERMINES POLITICS

    OpenAIRE

    Mezhevich Nikolay Maratovich

    2015-01-01

    The author examines the development of Belarus after the presidential elections of October 2015. He argues that the Belarusian economic model, as currently exists, can only survive if Russia continues to offer support. Given the country’s historical and cultural background, in the medium term, the demand for reform can be satisfied based on a scenario alternative to the catastrophic one adopted by Belarus’s southern neighbor.

  8. Institutional aspects of development of forestry complex in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashtelyan Taisiya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The author grounds the necessity of institutional transformation of the forestry complex. The factors for the development of the market of wood raw material are analyzed, the place and the role of state practice for its regulation are indicated. The author describes the role of root prices as factors of socio-economic development of forestry of Belarus. Auspicious conditions for innovative development of the forestry complex are suggested.

  9. Dynamics of smoking prevalence and tobacco products market in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, Belarus ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and then adopted several governmental documents aimed to decrease the population tobacco use. The aim of the paper is to review available data to estimate trends of smoking prevalence and tobacco market in Belarus and to evaluate impact of policies implemented since 2005 on population tobacco use.METHODS: The explorative study was conducted including online search of data on tobacco use and tobacco market and estimation of the revealed indicators dynamics by year.RESULTS: Surveys conducted by the National Statistical Committee and by the Institute of Sociology provide rather different levels of smoking rates, especially in women. However, both groups of surveys indicate that in 1995-2011 smoking prevalence in men and women had the opposite trends: an increase among women and a decrease among men. Both groups of surveys also indicate that for the adult population in general the current smoking rates were increasing in early 2000s and decreasing in late 2000s, having returned by the end of the decade to the rates observed at its beginning. However, the sales of cigarettes increased by 59% in 2005-2010 and continued to grow in 2011.DISCUSSION: The differences of smoking prevalence indicators of various survey agencies are caused by differences in sampling, interviewing procedure, questionnaires and other methodological features. The tobacco control policies introduced since 2005 resulted in a decrease of total population smoking prevalence by about 5% in 2006-2010. For further tobacco use decline, all tobacco control policies should be implemented in line with the FCTC provisions and guidelines. The steep increase of cigarette sales in Belarus in 2005-2010 cannot be explained by tobacco use increase within the country. A probable cause of sales increase is smuggling of large amounts of Belarus-produced cigarettes to other countries.

  10. Measuring language attitudes. The case of Trasianka in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sender, Natallia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Belarus there are currently two languages being predominantly used: Russian and Belarusian. Besides dialects and other varieties there is to be found a variety called Trasianka, which is widespread throughout the country. Trasianka can be considered as a variety built of elements from other varieties in Belarus, but mainly from Russian and Belarusian. Originally the term Trasianka stems from agriculture describing a 'mixed fodder of poor quality'. Language attitudes towards this variety have hardly been examined thus far. In a recent study based on the matched-guise technique, 227 Belarusian adolescents listened to and evaluated a female speaker reading the same text in Russian, Belarusian and Trasianka. When the speaker used Trasianka, she was given low ratings by test participants in matters of socio-structural issues such as profession and education. Regarding competence, the test participants assumed that the Trasianka speaker was less qualified, as shown by answers to a question on competencies in foreign languages. Finally, the test participants were more reluctant to accept the Trasianka speaker as a neighbor. With this responsiveness, they performed a bigger social distance. By these findings, there is ample reason to conclude that there are negative attitudes existing amongst today's population in Belarus regarding speakers of Trasianka.

  11. Communication of 3 December 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of a press release received by the Secretariat on 4 December 1996 from the Permanent Mission of Belarus about the withdrawal of the last inter-continental ballistic missile from Belarus

  12. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination Under Section 402 (c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974-Republic of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974-Republic of Belarus Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents...) of the Trade Act of 1974—Republic of Belarus Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to... with respect to Belarus will substantially promote the objectives of section 402. You are...

  13. Some legal issues of the transplantation in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Шецко, А.

    2011-01-01

    The principal normative legal act, which regulates the transplantation on the territory of Belarus is the Law of the Republic of Belarus “On the transplantation of human organs and tissues” 2007. The author examines the presumption of consent and offers some measures to improve the regulation of taking out organs and tissues from a cadaveric donor.

  14. Belarus – European Union: A new agenda on the back ground of the Ukrainian crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Dzianis Melyantsou

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in many years the relations between Belarus and the EU developed according to a scenario which included talks on visa liberalization and consultations on modernization. An intense diplomatic communication continued. Having become a platform for negotiations to resolve the Ukrainian crisis Belarus significantly improved its international image and relations with the EU.

  15. Leukaemia and lymphoma in Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As it was known Belarus is the country mostly affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The content of incorporated Cs-137 in tissues and Sr-90 in bones of exposed people of Belarus has increased several times. Long - live bone marrow doses per person was expected as: 8.8 mSv in Belarus, 2,8 mSv in Ukraine and 1,0 mSv in Russia. That why it was believed that one of the adverse effects of the Chernobyl radiation would be the increase of leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rates among the population (first of all among the children) of Belarus. Registration of leukaemia and lymphoma has been compulsory in Belarus since 1988 by the special training team at the Research Institute of Haematology. The information includes the name and address of the patients, age, date and place of diagnosis, ICD-number of the diagnosis, and diagnostic method (biopsy, autopsy, myelogram, immunohistochemical method used ect.). It was established that before the Chernobyl accident (1979 - 1985 ) the incidence rates of the child leukaemia was 4,16+0,22; after the accident: in 1986-1992 - 4,35 = 0,08; in 1993-2001 - 3,35 = 0,18 per 100.000 children, aged 0-14 years. Among the adult population of Belarus (aged 15-90) during the periods of 1979-85, 1986 - 92, and 1993 - 1999 correspondingly: 2,8, 3,24 and 2,94%ooo (p<0,05); for Chll and Chml - 6,10; 8,12 and 8,21%ooo; for MM - 1,44; 1,86 and 2,30%ooo; for lymphomas - 2,84; 4,07; 5,22%ooo; for HL - 3,11; 3,46 and 3,18%ooo. So, we found no suggestion an increase in risk of child leukaemia after Chernobyl. It's hardly possible to attribute child leukaemia and lymphoma incidence rate only to the level of the radionuclide contamination territory. At the same time, some preliminary our date allow to anticipate that the incidence rates correlate rather with levels of chemical pollution in the atmosphere and its compounds. Adults demonstrate a more significant increase of hemoblastoses morbidity after Chernobyl disaster in comparison with children

  16. Tritium in atmospheric precipitations and water systems of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and literature data concerning analysis of tritium in atmospheric precipitation and natural waters of Belarus including the lakes near the Ignalina NPP are compared and analyzed. It is concluded that the maximum of the curve 'amount of the samples - their activity' is shifted to the higher activity in the period 1994-2000 in comparison with 1980-1989. This increasing of the concentration of tritium in water can not be explained definitely by the Chernobyl accident. Consumption of drinking water with maximum registered tritium concentration in natural waters (10 Bq/l) will produce accumulation of dose equal 1,3·10-3 of public permissible dose limit (authors)

  17. Managed trade of customs Union between Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    RATUSHNYAK E.S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the trade effect of developing intra-block cooperation of three countries, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, during the formation of customs unions. The Customs Union (further CU) and Common Economic Space between these countries are the base for the creation of a Eurasian Economic Union (further EEU). Reactions of policy-makers and analysts have ranged from describing the plan as a pipedream to the next real thing. In this context, in the lead-up to the creation of EEU, for...

  18. Perspectives of development of thyroid cancers in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an overview on the total number if thyroid cancers observed in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident among children, discusses possible sources of the observed increase over expected cases and compares these observations with predictive calculations using different risk coefficients published in the literature. To this purpose exposure estimates of the thyroid are made for children living in three selected areas. Different radioecological, dosimetric and other reasons make it very difficult to obtain reliable dose estimates for these victims, and the use of published risk coefficients for the assessment of future developments of the thyroid cancer incidence rates results in predictions which do not agree too well with the observations

  19. FOREIGN POLICY ORIENTATIONS OF UKRAINE COMPARED WITH BELARUS AND RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Баканова, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we seek to advance the discussion of foreign policy orientations by focusing on their particular implications for Ukraine, that form part of the Slavic world and belong to many of its institutional structures but which at the same time are part of the European Union’s new ’neighbourhood’ and have made a formal commitment to a ’Euro-Atlantic’ future. This article showed the evolution of foreign policy orientation of Ukraine compared with Belarus and Russia, first of all questio...

  20. Die EU und die 'Neuen Nachbarn' Ukraine und Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    Mit der Osterweiterung erhält die EU im Mai 2004 zunächst zwei 'Neue Nachbarn': die Ukraine und Belarus. Vor diesem Hintergrund präsentierte die EU im März 2003 ein Strategiepapier »Größeres Europa/Nachbarschaft«, in dem sie eine stufenweise Verdichtung der Beziehungen vorschlägt, nach Ländern differenziert und abhängig von der jeweiligen Verwirklichung innerer Reformen. Gemeinsam erarbeitete, projektbezogene Aktionspläne sollen den Rahmen füllen; die Tür zur EU-Mitgliedschaft bleibt halboffe...

  1. Radioiodine treatment in children with thyroid cancer from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1st of April 1993 and 15th of November 1995, 95 children from Belarus with most advanced stages of thyroid cancer have been treated totally 305 times with radioiodine in Germany. In spite of a high frequency of advanced tumor stages pT4 (82%), lymph node metastases (95%) and distant metastases (55%) in those selected children, the preliminary results of radioiodine treatment are promising. In 55% of the children complete remission and in 44% partial remission of thyroid cancer could be achieved. In no case progressive disease under treatment has been observed

  2. Country report - Belarus: Brief description of feasibility study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belarus, the interdepartmental commission acts as the NEPIO, headed by the First Deputy Prime Minister and reporting to the Prime Minister. Members of the interdepartmental commission are from all relevant ministries participating in the NPP programme. The interdepartmental commission meets monthly to discuss the issues related to the NPP programme and reviews the works performed by each organization. The interdepartmental commission follows up on the actions from previous meetings. The roles and responsibilities of each ministry or organization are defined in government documents. The interdepartmental commission is fully charged and authorized to prepare and oversee the execution of the national NPP programme. Each ministry involved in the NPP programme is responsible for its own budget, offices, equipment and reference material. Special decisions provide for the budget, financing and funding. Before the general contract and loan agreement were signed, Belarus already had an effective project management system and budget to start preparatory work. The production and transportation infrastructure required for NPP construction was done. In the Byelorussian case, the high level authority to which the interdepartmental commission reports, the full participation by relevant ministries, and the frequency of its meetings can facilitate the swift resolution of any issues, and can be a model of good practice for other newcomers

  3. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km2 (15 Ci/km2). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Radioecological education and perception of radiation risk in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perceptions of a considerable part of the population of Belarus concerning the possibility of construction of a NPP have formed through the prism of this catastrophe and are often based on incorrect representation of the degree of radiation risk from the Chernobyl accident as well as from operation of a future NPP. In this connection, a specific necessity is radioecological education of the population and management bodies of Belarus. Radioecological literacy of all sectors of society is a guarantee of adequate perception of real radiation risk, which will permit effective solution of the problems of rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated areas and provide answers to the questions related to development of nuclear power engineering. Thus, correct understanding by the public of radioecological risk is not just a guarantee of support for the idea of development of nuclear power engineering, but first is a basis for adequate understanding of the consequences of catastrophe and formation of corresponding models for behavior in conditions of radioactive contamination of the environment

  5. On the customs union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a general overview of the process of forming a customs union among three Soviet successor states - Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia. Following some theoretical considerations, the author outlines the evolution of the idea of customs union within the CIS. Thereafter, he analyses the economic situation in its member states, with particular emphasis on their structural problems, economic efficiency and trade characteristics. He comes to the conclusion that the foregoing results have not helped diversify the economic structure of its participants and lessen their import dependence. Moreover, the declining level of intra-trade does not bode well for the future of this organization, while the situation is further complicated by the negative impact of the present global crisis and increasing geopolitical rivalry in the region.

  6. Health status and follow-up of the liquidators in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents information on the organization of the follow-up of Chernobyl liquidators in Belarus. The characteristics of the liquidators cohort and results of preliminary analyses of their health status, including cancer incidence and general morbidity, are presented

  7. Analysis of the post-Chernobyl sanitation of the population of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One studied and analyzed the status of the health of the population of Belarus' after emergency on Chernobyl' nuclear power station on the basis of the literary sources. The recommendation on the healthy way of life was made. (authors)

  8. Climate-induced mortality of spruce stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  9. Organization of radiation monitoring in Belarus after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There in the network of the stationary stations for radioecological monitoring of the ecosystems, working according to special programs, at the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Presently, the exposure dose rate of gamma-radiation is measured every day at 57 stations. The information enters the Center of Radiation Control and Monitoring of Environment of the State Committee for Hydrometeorology. At 26 stations, located at the whole territory of the Republic, the level of the radioactive depositions from the surface layer of the atmosphere is measured every day. The content of radioactive aerosols in air is measured every day in six cities of Belarus. The continuous control over contamination of the surface water and bottom depositions is carried out at five main rivers of the Republic, following at the contaminated territory: Dnepr, Sozh, Iput and Besed. Monthly control over the content of radionuclides in surface water is carried out: the samples of water are taken with simultaneous measurement of flow rates, the samples of the surface water are analyzed for content of total b-activity, caesium-137 and strontium-90. The State Committee for Hydrometeorology carries out the radioecological monitoring of the soil at the sampling sites, which includes 18 landscape-geochemical areas and 181 sampling sites. Study and forecast of vertical and horizontal migration of radionuclides is carried out at the landscape-geochemical areas with different types and variations of soil in various radioecological and physico-geographical conditions. The results of the control of radionuclides in different media (air, water,soil) are accumulated in the Republican data bank. The State Committee for Hydrometeorology is carrying out the control in the zones of the effect of nuclear power plants, located at the territories of the neighbouring states. (authors)

  10. Distributions of 137Cs and 210Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for 137Cs and 210Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of 137Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). “Hot spots” were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of 137Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of 137Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the 210Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of 210Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from 210Pb and 137Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high 137Cs exposure in the latter country. -- Highlights: ► Belarus moss was used as a biological indicator of 137Cs and 210Pb. ► Comparison with concentration of 137Cs and 210Pb in moss from Slovakia. ► Moss samples reflect the original distribution of Chernobyl fallout in Belarus. ► Regular decrease of the annual average activity of 137Cs in surface air in Slovakia. ► Median concentration of 210Pb in moss from Belarus is 2.3 times lower than in Slovakia

  11. MILITIA OF BELARUS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST PROSTITUTION DURING THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Ponuzhdaev, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects the activities of the workers 'and peasants' militia to combat prostitution in the first half of the 20-ies of XX-th century. Through the analysis of scientific papers, publications and data historians of archival sources are specified functions worker-peasant militia of Belarus in this activity, as well as attempts to periodization of the activities of the militia to combat prostitution оn the territory of Belarus during the New Economic Policy.

  12. Development of approach and preparation of initial information for feasibility investigations of the introduction of nuclear power in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience in using the MACRO, DEMAND and BALANCE Modules of ENPEP in the conduct of energy planning studies in the Republic of Belarus is described in this paper. The work was done in the framework of the IAEA Technical Co-operation project BYE/0/003 ''Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Study for Belarus Using ENPEP''. The paper presents results of the work undertaken by the members of the Belarus team for this project. (author). 18 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Communication received on 25 April 1995 from the Resident Representative of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 25 April 1995, the Director General received a letter from the Resident Representative of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency submitting the official notification of the signing of Belarus of the Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. At the request of the Resident Representative, the text of the attached notification is circulated for the information of Member States

  14. Down syndrome time-clustering in January 1987 in Belarus: link with the Chernobyl accident? : Down syndrome after Chernobyl

    OpenAIRE

    Zatsepin, Ivan; VERGER, Pierre; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Gagnière, Bertrand; Tirmarche, Margot; Khmel, Rostislav; Babicheva, Irina; Lazjuk, Gennady

    2007-01-01

    International audience The Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) exposed a large part of the Belarus population to ionizing radiation. We analyzed the time trends of Down syndrome (DS) in Belarus to evaluate whether either brief exposure at high dose rates during the plume passage or continuous exposure at low doses and dose rates of the residents of contaminated areas had any detectable impact on DS prevalence at birth. DS data came from the Belarus National Registry of Congenital Malformat...

  15. Radiation risk in Republics Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been considered for a long time as a basic ecological danger source. Since the disaster at Chernobyl, a considerable number of the inhabited areas turned out to be situated on the territory contaminated with the radioactive substances. A risk value of the radiation-inducible affections is used in order to appraise the damage to the health of the population, residing in such regions, in other words - of the long term (stochastic) effects probability, among which malignant neoplasm represents the most serious danger. In many countries the systems of radiological protection and safety criteria are based on ecocentric approaches. Nevertheless the post-Chernobyl situation in the Republic of Belarus is continually producing a wide spectrum of hard questions of human health and social activity on contaminated territories. That is why present work is completely produced in the frameworks of anthropocentric approach. The radiation risk has been evaluated for a number of regions of Gomel areas and Mogilev region in accordance with the linear non-threshold model 'Dose-Effect'. A lifelong risk coefficient of the radiation-inducible cancers of 5% / Zv, offered by the ICRP, is used in the evaluations. The doses, used for the risk assessment, are taken from the Doses Catalogue-1992 of the Ministry of Health, Republic of Belarus, which contains the doses, referring to the years 1991-1992. Correspondingly, our evaluations determine potential cancers, conditioned by the radiation exposure during this period of time. Obtained evaluations do not take into account either the radiation-inducible cancers of the thyroid gland, or the leukemia cases, observed in the liquidators as a result of the radiation exposure in the year 1986. The work also contains an evaluation of the component, specific for the Chernobyl radiation risk, conditioned by the radiation dose, accumulated in the population of the regions

  16. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous studies have shown that a great number of residents in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine were exposed to radiation due to radioactive nuclides ejected from the Chernobyl reactor, which increased genetic load, manifested in particular, as chromosome aberrations. The increase was registered for unstable and stable, chromatid and chromosome types of aberrations. Proceeding from the findings that the number of dicentric and ring chromosomes (which are the main indicator of radiation mutagenesis at chromosome level) was increasing simultaneously with the increase of other aberrations which are common for chemical mutagenesis and from the fact that actual mutation incidences exceeded the calculated figures for the doses obtained, one can not exclude the possibility that chromosome aberrations found in the population affected by the Chernobyl disaster are caused not only by ionizing radiation but also by various mutagens, and the doses based on physical dosimetry could be underestimated. It is quite obvious that the level of chromosome aberrations can be used as a biological indicator of harmful mutagenic effects on the organism. However, the method is not yet capable of (or only partially suited for) detecting the actual genetic risk even in the cases when aberrations are found in gametes, not in peripheral blood lymphocytes as usually done. The study of the dynamics of genetic losses, as spontaneous abortions and perinatal death due to inherited anomalies, and the study of the dynamics of malformed children births are probably the most reliable methods to determine genetic risk due to any mutagenic factor affecting the population, including ionizing radiation. This is related to the fact that there are a great sequence of events (gamete selection, preimplantation and embryonal death) occurring between gamete mutations (to say nothing about a somatic one) and births of children with congenital diseases. It is nearly impossible to count them and this leads to

  17. Belarus: Achieving safety at radon type waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ekores facility was commissioned in 1964 in the vicinity of Minsk, a city with a population of approximately 2 million, and was intended for LILW storage/disposal. The site comprises 2 older (historic) concrete lined trenches, each 4 m deep, and 2 subsurface reinforced second generation concrete vaults, each 3 m deep, filled with solid waste. The 2 trenches and one of the vaults are closed and the operating vault is 75% full. There are also four 'old' borehole repositories (so-called 'wells') with S shaped loading channels for 'free' disposal of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRSs). In July 2003, free SSRSs in wells were immobilized into a lead matrix in situ, using the technology developed by RADON. Taking into account that the Ekores site had no waste segregation or waste processing procedure, no equipment for unloading containers with SSRS, no premises or facilities for the decontamination of vehicles and equipment, and no monitoring boreholes, the necessity of upgrading the facility was recognized immediately after a new regulatory regime had been established in Belarus. A national project for reconstruction of the Ekores facility was launched in late 1997. The project covered (a) upgrading of the existing structures (garage, decontamination unit, fence), (b) construction of 3 new structures (building for SSRS disposal, building for waste predisposal treatment, vault for solid waste disposal) and (c) introduction of more advanced technologies for the safe handling of solid and liquid LILW. The IAEA supported this national activity by providing Ekores staff with the relevant training, expertise and equipment support. IAEA support contributed greatly to the evaluation of potential hazards posed by the Ekores site. Advanced strategy for reconstruction of the Ekores facility is discussed including strategy for managing solid radioactive waste, strategy for management of spent radioactive sources and modernized borehole repositories for retrievable SSRS

  18. On Two Old Russian Inscriptions from Belarus and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savva M. Mikheev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Old Russian graffiti inscriptions are examined in the present paper. The first one, dating back to the late 13th–early 14th centuries, is located on one of the walls of the Savior Transfiguration Church in the St. Euphrosyne convent in Polotsk, Belarus. It reads Marъkova žana dobra ‘Mark’s wife is good.’ The second graffito was inscribed on a knife handle excavated in Drohiczyn, Eastern Poland (Old Russian Dorogyčinъ, and dates to the end of the 11th through the 12th centuries. The inscription reads Ežьkovъ nožь a iže i ukradetь proklętъ  . . . ‘Ezhko’s knife. Whoever steals it, be cursed . . .’ Although both inscriptions have been published, the present study adds more in-depth paleographic and linguistic commentary and suggests corrected readings. The laudatory inscription from Polotsk is particularly interesting because it contains an early example of a spelling reflecting yakanye, a trait of Belarusian phonetics, whereas the interest of the Drohiczyn inscription lies in its unusual paleographic features.

  19. Radioecological education and perception of radiation risk in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of catastrophe at the Chernobyl NPP almost the forth part of the territory of the Republic of Belarus has been contaminated with radioactive elements, near two billion people continue to live at this territory. An enormous economic damage to the republic has been caused, what affects all the population. The situation in considerable extent is complicated because of the heavy energy crisis in Belarus. One of the main reason of the crisis is practically complete absence of fuel resources in Belarus. These circumstances caused the return of the idea to create atomic power engineering in Belarus. Coincidence in time of the events mentioned above has created the situation when public opinion up to the recent time was negative in respect to construction of a NPP in spite of availability of strong factors in favour of that. The reason is evident - Chernobyl NPP accident. Activity related to public acceptance of nuclear power in Belarus has specific features, since the people suffered from nuclear power directly. That circumstance has required the development of nonstandard approach, composing both advertisement of positive features and merits of NPP and radioecological education of practically all population of the republic to satisfy the measures on radiation protection and overcoming the consequences of catastrophe

  20. STATE CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: INITIAL STAGE OF ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sakovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available  The paper considers  the initial stage of organization and development of the first State control organ of the independent Belarus – Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of scientific grounds of control theory of economic systems. Scientific and methodologically considered organizational and coordination approaches to the activity of the Control Chamber have promoted to  higher intensity and efficiency of financial and economic control in the initial period of the activity of new control organ and  the activity of all control organs of the Republic has taken systemized and perfectly oriented character. Such approaches have made it possible to stabilize macro-economic situation in the Republic and strengthen its economic security. The Control Chamber through highly-qualified personal, created and practically introduced methodological principles of control activity, international cooperation experience and finally high efficiency of practical control activity has made its historical contribution in formation of fundamentals of  the State Control in Belarus.13th of March 1992 is the day when the Law “About Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus” has been enacted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus and this day is to considered as the Day of State Control foundation in the Republic of Belarus.  

  1. 77 FR 33945 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, April 24, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-14039 Filed 6-7-12; 8:45 am... the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as Amended Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority... conferred upon the President by section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004 (Public Law 109-480; 22...

  2. Communication of 3 June 1998 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of a communication dated 3 June 1998 received at the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the IAEA, including a statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus on the nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan

  3. The system of accounting and control of nuclear materials in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation and development trends of the state system of accounting and control of nuclear materials (SSAC) in the Republic of Belarus are described. The existing system of nuclear material accountancy and control is briefly outlined as well as its components: legal basis, requirements for departmental systems of accounting and control, running of inspections, preparation and submission of accounting documents, and criteria for nuclear material accountancy. Further development lines of the SSAC are considered: refinement of information processing procedures and reduction of information submission time, intensification of international co-operation, improvement of measuring systems, strengthening of the legal and normative base. Systems of accounting and control have been created in Belarus in parallel with the establishing of the state supervision of safety in uses of nuclear energy. In accordance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty, all nuclear materials under the jurisdiction of the Republic of Belarus have been placed under the IAEA safeguards. (author)

  4. Measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials is a multidimensional safety and security issue. Situated in a high-risk trafficking area, Belarus considers the task of combating illicit trafficking essential to ensure state security, public health and environmental protection. There have been a series of activities underway in Belarus to prevent, intercept and respond to it. At the international level the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in close co-operation with World Customs Organization and Interpol plays an important role in a number of bilateral and multilateral activities aimed at stopping illicit trafficking. Belarus has always been a strong supporter of these activities, being conscious of the fact that illicit trafficking is fraught with both proliferation implications and public exposure potential. (author)

  5. Surveillance of congenital malformations in Belarus. Chernobyl aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to study possible genetic effects of the Chernobyl accident in human population a comparative analysis of the prevalence at birth of congenital malformations (CM) was performed on region and area administrative levels basing on the data of Belarus registry of CM permanently functioning since 1979. An attempt was made to evaluate dose dependence of the effects under study. We analyzed time trends of the prevalence at birth of 9 so called 'mandatory registered' nosologic units of CM. These group of CM could be easily diagnosed within the neonatal period and were assigned for registration at creation of the registry. Over 12 thousand cases registered within the period of 1981 to 2004 in 4 regions as well as about 3 thousand cases found in 47 rayons highly contrasting by radiation exposure were scrutinized. No long-term impact of the Chernobyl release on prevalence rates of surveyed CM was shown. Since the middle 80-s a similar steady increasing trend was observed as in contaminated, as in control areas with a tendency to stabilization after middle 90-s. We fail to reveal a dose dependence for CM prevalence rates calculated for the whole post-accidental period. Nonetheless, during the first years after the accident situation in contaminated areas was notably different from those in the control. Within the period of 1987 to 1989 a significant access of CM prevalence was registered in the strict radiological control area (Cs 137 soil contamination over 555 kBq/m2) as compared to non-contaminated zone. Relative risk was estimated as RR1987-1989 = 1.57 with 95% confidence interval being 95%CI = [1.29; 1.89]. Before the accident no difference in prevalence rates was marked (RR1981-1986 = 0.93; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]); nor it was evident in the farther post-accidental period (RR1990-2004 = 0.99; 95%CI = [0.80; 1.09]). Anomalies with high contribution of dominant de novo mutations (polydactyly, reduction defects of limbs and multiple CM) played principal

  6. Public acceptance of prospects of nuclear power development in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of constructing a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Belarus is far from being new. The Republic was oriented to development of nuclear power industry by the Energy Programme adopted in the former USSR. In 1983 the construction of the Minsk Nuclear Heat and Power Plant (NHPP) with a projected output of 2 million kW was initiated, the construction of a NPP with an output of 6 million KW was planned. The Chernobyl accident however shut down all on-going projects in nuclear power engineering. After the collapse of the interconnected power system that united the republics of the former USSR, Belarus found itself in the energy crisis. The nuclear industry is thus considered to be one of the possible ways for solving the energy problems, which are nowadays intensively discussed through mass media. One of the major arguments spoke out by nuclear power opponents is the Chernobyl syndrome, which is incident to a significant portion of the population. The sociological monitoring of the public opinion is carried out for revealing the attitude of the population to the suggested ways of overcoming the energy crisis and the prospects of developing the nuclear power industry. During the period of 1995-1998 three sociological studies were accomplished. The first sociological study showed that 40.9% of population supported the NPP construction, 39 % were against and 19.2% could not answer. In the second study the poll covered general public and 'experts', representatives of scientific community, educationalists, managers of various levels etc. The result confirmed a growing support of construction NPP by the population. The third sociological study was conducted autumn 1998 which polled both mass media professionals and general public. Among the respondents 67.5% revealed their stiff and rather bellicose attitude to possible construction of NPP. While among the population only every third respondent can be related to the convinced opponents of the NPP construction and among the

  7. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Dubovik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and practical problems of formation and regulation of youth labour market inBelarus. Specific and characteristic features of the labour market segment and main problems of young people in the labour market are given in the paper. The paper reveals directions of the state regulations on a youth labour market. Some proposals pertaining to the increase of youth employment efficiency are made in the paper. The paper contains statements and conclusions which can be used while teaching social-humanitarian and economics-management subjects, while conducting investigations on youth problems, social and industrial relations and vocational education in theRepublicofBelarus.

  8. Developing strategy of public-private partnership in Belarus innovative development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Yasheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretic-methodological basis of the public-private partnership in innovation sphere, including value of public-private partnership for economic development, the concept of public-private partnership in innovation sphere, its specific characteristics, motivation of participation in the partnership of public and private sectors. The main directions of public-private partnerships strategy in Belarus, as well as mechanisms of public-private partnership, including financial and organizational ones are developed in order to modernize the economy of Belarus and transfer to the innovation way of development.

  9. Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

  10. Plutonium, americium and other actinides on Belarus territory: source, levels, risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For Belarus it was showed that in result of falling during nuclear trials happened contamination of upper soil layer by transuranium elements with medium level of contamination for 239,240Pu 53±17 Bq/m2. After Chernobyl accident this characteristic equal 1.1· Bq/m2 on the south of Belarus. In result accident it was revealed 17 actinides. For Chernobyl falling was determined big contents of 241Pu that will lead to maximum value of 241Am in 2059, which will be more in 2,5 times than 239,240Pu

  11. The Shipment of Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel from Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorin, S.N.; Polazau, S.A.; Hryharovich, T.K. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research ' Sosny' , Academik Krasin Street, Minsk (Belarus); Bolshinsky, I. [Idaho National Laboratory, N. Fremont Avenue Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States); Thomas, J.E. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In October 2010, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - 'Sosny' of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus completed a shipment that returned 43 kilograms of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation. The spent fuel was legacy material, discharged from the two decommissioned reactors, the Pamir-630D mobile reactor and the IRT-M research reactor. This shipment marked the complete removal of all HEU spent nuclear fuel from Belarus. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, and coordination required to complete this important international shipment successfully. (author)

  12. The Shipment of Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel from Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2010, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - 'Sosny' of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus completed a shipment that returned 43 kilograms of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation. The spent fuel was legacy material, discharged from the two decommissioned reactors, the Pamir-630D mobile reactor and the IRT-M research reactor. This shipment marked the complete removal of all HEU spent nuclear fuel from Belarus. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, and coordination required to complete this important international shipment successfully. (author)

  13. The Belarus Business Environment as Assessed by the Management of Leading Finnish Companies Operating in the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto K.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inward foreign investment stock has grown remarkably in Belarus. It increased tenfold since 2000 to reach over $14 billion by the end of 2012. According to the Central Bank of Belarus, Finnish firms have invested nearly $100 million in Belarus making Finland the sixteenth most active foreign investor in the country. Approximately 7,000 companies with foreign capital were registered in Belarus by the beginning of 2013. Finnish companies founded three dozen of these foreign firms. A lack of scientific reports on the perception of foreign businesspeople in the Belarusian business environment necessitated an empirical study. This article studies the attitudes of the directors of Finnish firms operating in Belarus on the Belarusian business environment. In September-October 2013, the author conducted interviews with directors of 10 Finnish corporations. The PEST model was used to describe the perception of the Belarusian business milieu by Finnish businesspeople. The main empirical finding can be summarised by quoting a Finnish CEO, “Belarus is like any other market on the globe with the exception that foreign firms do not want to attract publicity about their activities in the country due to the poor public image of Belarus.”

  14. Comprehensive rehabilitation of post-oncologic children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The incidence of child disability resulting from malignant tumors has been constantly high at fourth place, characterized by considerable severity and duration. The high degree and length of disability induced by oncological diseases in children subsequently lead to the formation of high, sometimes lifelong, social disadaptation. At the same time the recent improvements in effectiveness of treatment of malignant tumors in children have contributed to a significant improvement (over 70%) in the long-term survival rate among children, which is clearly linked with the introduction of modern treatment methods. According to data of the Childhood cancer subregistry of Belarus, a total of 6,485 cases of malignant tumors were registered in children aged 0-19 years over the period 1986 through 2005, of which 4,288 were alive as of January 1, 2006. The above data are indicative of the need for a comprehensive medical, psychological, professional and overall social rehabilitation of children who have been treated for oncological diseases. Development of a program of comprehensive rehabilitation for such children should be inherently linked with the existing principles of rehabilitation. An early startup and complex character of the rehabilitation process are particularly critical to the success. An early startup of medical, social, psychological and pedagogical rehabilitation measures helps prevent the establishment of a disability-minded personality, which, in case of positive treatment, leads to social deficiency of the child, enduring into the adulthood. The child's personality is formed under the pressure of oncologically-induce fears, excessive care by the relatives, preferential treatment, etc. which highly impacts on his/her abilities to be a full-fledged and rightful member of the society, thereby thwarting the medical outcomes. Therefore, rehabilitation of children who have survived oncological diseases should not be limited to their functional disorders

  15. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel...

  16. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... both the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 39254, July 2... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  17. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (66 FR 46777... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (72 FR 44830). The Commission is now conducting...

  18. Private Returns to Human Capital over Transition: A Case Study of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Francesco; Verashchagina, Alina

    2006-01-01

    The gradualist approach to economic transition in Belarus would contribute to form the a priori expectation that the rate of return to education is low and the earnings profile by work experience flat, like they supposedly were under central planning. However, the first available estimates of Mincerian earnings equations based on the Belarusian…

  19. Ethnic Identity in Post-Soviet Belarus: Ethnolinguistic Survival as an Argument in the Political Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekus, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the Belarusian case of post-communist development and the role and status of Belarusian ethnicity in Belarus' nation-formation process. "Nationalizing nationalism" (Brubaker), as realised by the Belarusian state through various social and cultural practices, is aimed at the creation of a Belarusian national…

  20. Shifting to a New Paradigm: School Reform in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoumennov, Iouri L.

    1993-01-01

    Explains the Republic of Belarus's new educational system, stressing its universal and democratic values, national-cultural foundation, scientific character, humanistic and ecological orientation, social and practical activities, encouragement of talent and erudition, and compulsory basic (nine-year) education focus. Describes types of educational…

  1. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  2. Molecular characterisation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from Gomel region, Belarus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapalski, D.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hasman, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    infection outside hospitals in the Gomel region of Belarus. Thirty-one isolates were highly similar according to PFGE and MLVA typing, were multidrug-resistant, including resistance to ceftiofur, and harboured the bla(CTX-M-5) gene. These results indicate that a common source may have been responsible for...

  3. Beyond the Limits of the European Higher Education Area: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille-Belova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    All European Union (EU) member states and many former post-Soviet countries joined the Bologna Process without major obstacles during the 2000s and today belong to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The only European country which was refused membership in the EHEA was Belarus, whose demand was rejected in 2012. The case study of this…

  4. Regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety in Belarus: Lessons learnt and a way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with assessment of the effectiveness of regulatory infrastructures for radiation safety in the Republic of Belarus. It identifies weaknesses and provides recommendations for improvement based, in part, on the findings of an IAEA Peer Review Mission carried out on October. (author)

  5. Here we go again: the january 2007 transit crisis between russia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 2007 Russia interrupted oil deliveries in the Druzhba (Friendship) pipeline due to a transit dispute with Belarus. Although the issue was resolved quickly and existing commercial and strategic stockpiles proved adequate, the episode had the potential to develop into a serious energy security crisis. The crux of the problem was the allocation of rents generated by Russia's oil export tax system. Because of the customs union between the two countries, this created an artificially high profitability for re- exports of oil products from Belarus. Although Belarus is generally regarded as a political ally of Russia and certainly lacks the western orientation of Ukraine's orange revolution, the accumulating transit and rent sharing revenues became sufficient to trigger a forceful action from Russia. The main significance of the Belarus episode is that it highlighted the energy security risks associated with excessive reliance of a single pipeline system. It also dispelled any hope that the January 2006 Ukraine gas crisis was a once off event. Consequently both Russia and the importing regions are expected to raise their priorities in diversifying transit routes and sources. (author)

  6. Variability of Adh, Gpdh and Sod loci in natural drosophila populations in radioactive regions in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure of natural drosophila populations in various regions of Belarus was analyzed by the allele frequency of Adh, Gpdh and Sod loci. Higher heterozygosity values as high S-allele frequency of superoxide dismutase were observed in populations in high radiation regions

  7. Prevention of illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials (Belarus Customs) [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With continuing technical assistance from the IAEA, Belarus begins to introduce an effective radiation control system at its borders, and a centralized information network. The video shows one road and one railway checkpoint, and the tools for the detection of ionizing radiation. (author)

  8. The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination of agricultural lands in Mogilev region [Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was analyzed the present level of radioactive situation and contamination of areas of agricultural companies with radiocesium at in Mogilev region. There were suggested methodical approaches on organizing the use of the lands in such a way as to get the minimum content of radionuclides in the manufactured products

  9. How much do tariffs matter? Evidence from the customs union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Asel Isakova; Zsoka Koczan; Alexander Plekhanov

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at how the formation of a customs union between Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia and associated changes in import schedules affected the structure of imports of the three member countries. The results suggest that the benefits of the new tariff policy to member countries are limited at best. Larger benefits could come from a gradual removal of non-tariff barriers.

  10. Belarus Public Expenditure Review : Enhancing Public Services in Times of Austerity

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This report is the second volume of the programmatic Public Expenditure Review (PER) in Belarus. In 2010 the Ministry of Finance requested that the Bank provide sequenced and targeted advice on the fiscal reform options across priority areas of the budget. Responding to this request, a programmatic PER was agreed upon. The first volume was delivered in November 2011 and focused on providin...

  11. Dynamics of radionuclide contamination of Belarus during the active stage of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific substantiation and the retrospective analysis of radiation situation on the territory of Re-public of Belarus up 26 April to 5 May 1986 on the basis of results of measurement of iodine-131,129; cesium-137 in environmental objects is represented in present report. (Authors)

  12. Comparative economic evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in Belarus and Uzbekistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hib vaccine has gradually been introduced into more and more countries during the past two decades, partly due to GAVI Alliance support to low-income countries. However, since Hib disease burden is difficult to establish in settings with limited diagnostic capacities and since the vaccine continues to be relatively expensive, some Governments remain doubtful about its value leading to concerns about financial sustainability. Similarly, several middle-income countries have not introduced the vaccine. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccination in a country relying on self-financing (Belarus and a country eligible for GAVI Alliance support (Uzbekistan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision analytic model was used to estimate morbidity and mortality from Hib meningitis, Hib pneumonia and other types of Hib disease with and without the vaccine. Treatment costs were attached to each disease event. Data on disease incidence, case fatality ratios and costs were primarily determined from national sources. For the Belarus 2009 birth cohort, Hib vaccine is estimated to prevent 467 invasive disease cases, 4 cases of meningitis sequelae, and 3 deaths, while in Uzbekistan 3,069 invasive cases, 34 sequelae cases and 341 deaths are prevented. Estimated costs per discounted DALY averted are US$ 9,323 in Belarus and US$ 267 in Uzbekistan. CONCLUSION: The primary reason why the cost-effectiveness values are more favourable in Uzbekistan than in Belarus is that relatively more deaths are averted in Uzbekistan due to higher baseline mortality burden. Two other explanations are that the vaccine price is lower in Uzbekistan and that Uzbekistan uses a three dose schedule compared to four doses in Belarus. However, when seen in the context of the relative ability to pay for public health, the vaccine can be considered cost-effective in both countries.

  13. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandrik O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olena Mandrik,1 Saskia Knies,1,2 Johan L Severens1,3 1Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 2National Health Care Institute, Diemen, 3iMTA Institute of Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results: The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839, Belarus ($21,702, and Kazakhstan ($2,295. The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion: Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Keywords: in vitro fertilization, economic value of life, developing countries

  14. Customs control over the transportation of radiation sources and radioactive materials through the frontier of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1. As it is shown in the name the main purpose of this Paper is to describe system of customs control over transportation of radiation sources and radioactive materials through the frontier of the Republic of Belarus, clarifying herewith influence of global situation on the creation of this system and noting technical needs of Customs Administration of Belarus in its activities aimed at strengthening the control system. 2. The Republic of Belarus has not the enterprises of atomic-industrial complex and does not produce radioactive and nuclear materials, so, control over them is largely connected with their transit through frontiers of Belarus and its territory. It is necessary to note, that the frontier of Belarus with the Ukraine, Poland and Baltic States is an external frontier of a Custom Union between Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan and Kirghizia. On the territory of the last three states are concentrated extraction and production of radioactive and nuclear materials, part of which can be transported by the shortest way to the European countries through the territory and frontiers of the Republic of Belarus. 3. The significant part of the republic territory suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe. In a number of the polluted regions of Belarus there were created the zones of >, the residing on them is prohibited by legislation. On those territories there were created numerous burial grounds for the conditionally radioactive and low radioactive wastes. In this connection, there is also a danger of illegal importation of various radioactive wastes from contiguous countries to these zones and burial them there. On the other hand, there are known the numerous cases of exportation of various materials, subjects, food from the polluted zones even out of Belarus. 4. Taking into account the aforesaid the Customs Administration of the Republic of Belarus as well as other public authorities, clearly recognizes the necessity of organization of an effective radiation control on

  15. “Bringing Back the Essential Meaning of the Theatre”: Harold Pinter and the Belarus Free Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Peghinelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus Free Theatre was founded in 2005 by Belarusian playwright and journalist Nikolai Khalezin and theatre producer Natalia Koliada. It is a dissident company which opposes the totalitarian regime of Lukashenko; therefore, in Belarus it must work underground. In 2005 the Belarus Free Theatre invited Tom Stoppard to Minsk. During his visit he warmly suggested that they stage Pinter’s plays: “It seems to me it’s yours.” After working on Pinter’s plays, they eventually came up with an original production: Being Harold Pinter. In my essay I delineate how, in Being Harold Pinter, Pinter’s works are shown under the reinvigorating new light of an urgent political theatre. I also discuss how the Belarus Free Theatre found a symbolic, essential and critical artistic language by which, “they are bringing back the essence meaning of the theatre,” as Pinter remarked.

  16. [Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians : meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Woodworth, Bradley D., 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians. Meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the boundary of two worlds: identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltica, 11. (Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2007)

  17. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated as a result of Chernobyl accident: status and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer incidence in the human population of Belarus irradiated in childhood for the period passed after the Chernobyl accident is analysed and potential perspectives for development of disease incidence in exposed population during life span. Thyroid cancer cases in children and adolescents of Belarus irradiated due to the Chernobyl accident are predicted using the additive model with modified parameters. Predicted values are shown to be in good agreement with the actual data on thyroid cancer cases in children aged 0-6

  18. TO THE SUBJECT OF DEVELOPMENT OF POWER SUPPLY PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL HEAT TECHNOLOGIES AND HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS IN BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Khrоustalev; V. N. Romaniuk; V. A. Sednin; A. A. Bobich; D. B. Muslina; T. V. Bubyr

    2015-01-01

    Considers the current key energy problem – the rational and efficient use of energy resources, and the possibility of its solution, based on the concept of intensive energy conservation. As a result, the way of primary energy consumption reduction in Belarus is provided. The initial situation in the frame of program of further improvement of energy consumption until 2030 is estimated. It is shown, that for Belarus the first place in energy saving measures takes the efficiency improvement of n...

  19. Reconstruction of 131I radioactive contamination dynamics in belarus due to Chernobyl accident using atmospheric transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculations of 131I radioactive contamination in the 3 most contaminated regions of Belarus are carried out using the Lagrangian-Eulerian atmospheric transport LEDI model. Verification of the obtained results is made on the base of 131I activity measurements in soil of 534 settlements in Belarus during the initial period of the accident. The input of radionuclides wet deposition processes due to rains and fogs has been evaluated in the period of radioactivity releases from the Chornobyl NPP.

  20. Iodine-131 distribution on the territory of the Republic of Belarus during the first period of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reconstruct space distribution of iodine-131 on the territory of Belarus we used the following data: (i) contents of iodine-131 in soil measured by gamma spectrometry method in May-July, 1986; (ii) contents of iodine-131 in samples of radioactive atmospheric fall-outs measured by gamma spectrometry method in May, 1986; (iii) daily measurements of exposure dose power levels on the territory of Belarus obtained in April-July, 1986; (iv) results of aerial gamma radiation mapping, obtained in May, 1986; (v) daily measurements of radioactive contamination of milk on the territory of Belarus obtained in May-July, 1986; (vi) measurements of iodine-131 content in links of biological chain 'soil-grass-milk' sampled from 15 reference farms; (vii) maps of specific activity of natural hayfields grass on the territory of Belarus (for every district) obtained on June 2 and 5, on July 3, 1986. Dose commitments on thyroid gland caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2.5 months after the accident. Local irradiation of this organ was stipulated by high accumulation factor of iodine isotopes in thyroid gland that caused increasing of malignant thyroid tumors incidences, including children, on all over the territory of Belarus. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland tumor incidences among children on the territory of Belarus map shows that the more level of iodine contamination the more malignant thyroid gland tumor incidence

  1. Forecast and retrospective estimations of the Chernobyl gamma background on the Belarus territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forecast and retrospective estimations of a time dependence of an gamma-radiation exposition doze rate on the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident are detected. The decrease of the exposition dose rate in different reference points of Belarus is experimentally investigated. The points are chosen from reasons of stability to erosion processes and to anthropogenal activity. The decrease of exposition dose rate after Chernobyl accident is described by the piecewise exponential dependences with different parameters for three temporary intervals: first three month - strong decrease, following four year - smooth exponential decrease and subsequent period - relative stabilization of the exposition dose rate. These dependencies permit to execute retrospective and forecast estimation of the exposition dose rate. 15 refs., 2 figs

  2. Thyroid cancer incidence in adult population of Belarus (25 years after the Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been obtained principally new data evidencing of high radiosensitivity of thyroid gland in adult population to the effect of ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident that resulted in multiple increase of thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus. The paper demonstrates fast dynamics of incidence among individuals exposed to 131I and a number of other isotopes in adult age as well as short latent period of exposure effect manifestation. After the Chernobyl accident Belarus has the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate in adult population. The most significant incidence is observed in population living in regions close to nuclear power plant and in clean-up workers. At that female population was affected to the greatest extend. (authors)

  3. Improvement in Quality of Initial Fuel Usage in Power System of Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khroustalev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a potential, energy and economic efficiency of joint activities of enterprises of the Ministry of Energy sector and enterprises of the material sector of the economic complex of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of the methodology for intensive energy saving. Such calculated values as annual savings of natural gas in Belarus – up to 1 million tons of fuel equivalent, release investment for the Ministry of Energy – up to 1 billion USD, range for changes in electricity generation during a day - up to 1 GW with a specific consumption of fuel equivalent – 160 g/(kWh have been determined while taking thermal technology of asphalt concrete mixture production and regulation of electricity generation as an example. Fuel saving system and investment return create preconditions for realization of the project by private investors.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF FINANCIAL PERSONNEL NUMBER IN ARMED FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Bolshakova

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers a problem pertaining to reduction of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus and necessity to carry out economically reasonable reforms optimizing strength of financial personnel with the purpose to decrease its number but without undermining financial and operational activities of the Armed Forces as a whole. It has been proposed to optimize strength of financial personnel in the Armed Forces while executing organizational staff transformations such as introduction of...

  5. Sanitation of children from the ecologically unfavourable zones of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the effectiveness of the sanitation of 186 children living permanently in unfavourable environmental conditions is given. 128 children from that group were treated on lake Baikal, 18 - in Italy, and 40 - in Belarus. The treatment on lake Baikal turned out to be more effective than that in Italy. It contributed to improving of endocrine glands functioning and of the immune system indices, to reducing the radioactivity doze accumulated in the organism. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Report of the Chernobyl state committee of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report of Chernobyl State Committee of the Republic of Belarus contents the results of investigation of Chernobyl accident consequences in several fields of human existence, namely: the environment contamination control especially with long-lived radionuclides, the medical consequences for people and protective measures proposals, agroradiological investigations. To improve the effectiveness of measures designed to combat the consequences of the accident and to create safe living conditions for people the State Programme up to 2000 has been worked out

  7. Spatial analysis of radiocesium food contamination in rural settlements of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of 53207 records of cesium 137 contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure from intake of eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different geostatistical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk can be used in decision making. (authors). 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  8. THE COMMON ECONOMIC SPACE OF RUSSIA, BELARUS, AND KAZAKHSTAN: PRESENT AND FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Borishpolets, Ksenia; Chernyavsky, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    On 1 January, 2012, the official opening of the Common Economic Space (CES) of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, which moved customs control to the outer border of the Customs Union (CU) in July 2011, launched a qualitatively new stage in integration development in the post-Soviet expanse. The objective conditions for consolidating economic cooperation among the three countries have long emerged, the technical work, in the best interests of all the partners concerned, has been carried out, and...

  9. Language and Identity in Transforming Borderlands (Case of North-West Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikalai Biaspamiatnykh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The North-West region of Belarus as an ethno-cultural bordering area demonstrates the tendency towards linguistic homogeneity with the sustainability of the identities of its communities. On the basis of a constructivistic approach the models of the identification process in the region are grounded. In the framework of these models the opportunities of interpretation of the present-day linguistic structure and specificity of linguistic processes are revealed. 

  10. The Outcome of Directed Lending in Belarus: Mitigating Recession or Dampening Long-Run Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Kruk Dzmitry; Haiduk Kiryl

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of directed lending upon total factor productivity and GDP growth in Belarus over the period of 2000–2012. In theory, directed lending can enhance physical capital accumulation and make the access to credit easier, but empirical studies often show that it leads to unproductive hoarding of capital and financing of lower-yielding projects. This study seeks to explore which of these effects has dominated in the Belarusian economy during a last decade. We find that...

  11. Belarus-Rußland: Divergenzen über den Charakter des gemeinsamen 'Unionsstaates'

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Heinz

    1999-01-01

    Ende 1998 hatten die Präsidenten Lukaschenko und Jelzin beschlossen, bis Mitte 1999 einen Vertragsentwurf auszuarbeiten, der die Union Belarus-Rußland zu einem vertraglich fixierten Unionsstaat ausbauen sollte. Aufgrund von prinzipiellen Divergenzen über dessen Charakter und Ziele mußten die Termine jedoch wiederholt verschoben werden, und es ist fraglich, ob es in naher Zukunft überhaupt zu engeren vertraglichen Vereinbarungen kommen wird. Politisch wehrt sich Moskau gegen das Minsker Bestre...

  12. Obsolete Pesticides (POPs) in the Republic of Belarus: Inventory, Monitoring and Environmental Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sazonova, Volha; Kuzmin, Saveli; Babko, Alexej

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Belarus has significant stockpiles of obsolete pesticides created during 1970th and 1980th. Pesticides are placed both in aboveground warehouses and underground storages. Underground storages do not prevent leakage of pesticides into environment, first of all groundwater. Investigations carried out by Belarusian Scientific & Research Center Ecology revealed presence of pesticides in groundwater near all existing underground storages and even up to...

  13. Methodology and results of the pioneering to choice localities for NPP on the territories of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the base of investigations and pioneering works two favorite areas and six competitive ones for NPP in the east part of Belarus were chosen. The competitive areas answer the requirements of safety placement for NPP with power before 4000 MW by the seismologic, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, aerometeorologic and other terms. On totality of natural, demographic and ecological properties the Krasnopolyanskaya area in the Bykhov region is priority for NPP

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Romaniuk; A. A. Bobich

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known ...

  15. WP 96 - An overview of women's work and employment in Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Williams, M. J.; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2010-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Belarus on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and...

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN ELECTRIC-POWER IN-DUSTRY OF BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Oleshkevich; A. S. Rudenia

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates technical and economic indices (specific capital inputs, construction period, pay-off period, possible economically substantiated generation of electric power) of electric power plants using renewable energy sources under climatic conditions ofBelarus. The indices have been compared with the data of nuclear power engineering. The most efficient directions are wind and biomass power engineering. In accordance with its technical and economic and ecological indices the bio...

  17. Further evidence for elevated human minisatellite mutation rate in Belarus eight years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of germline mutation rate at human minisatellites among children born in areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus heavily polluted after the Chernobyl accident has been extended, both by recruiting more families from the affected region and by using five additional minisatellite probes, including multi-locus probe 33.6 and four hypervariable single-locus probes. These additional data confirmed a twofold higher mutation rate in exposed families compared with non-irradiated families from the United Kingdom. An elevated rate was seen at all three independent sets of minisatellites (detected separately by multi-locus probes 33.15, 33.6 and six single-locus probes), indicating a generalised increase in minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Belarus families. Within the Belarus cohort, mutation rate was significantly greater in families with higher parental radiation dose estimated for chronic external and internal exposure to caesium-137, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. The spectra of mutation seen in the unexposed and exposed families were indistinguishable, suggesting that increased mutation observed over multiple loci arises indirectly by some mechanism that enhances spontaneous minisatellite mutation

  18. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the evolution of the area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986-2046 shows, that in 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will decrease to approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease by a factor 1.5 in comparison with 1986; in 60 years (2046) the contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. it will decrease by a factor 2.4. Radioactive contamination of soils by 241Am in Belarus is generally limited to the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP. Maximum 241Am levels will be reached in 2060 and will exceed the activity of 238,239,240Pu by approximately a factor of 2. Most of the 137Cs is located in the 0-5 cm layer of typical soils of Belarus. The radiological situation of the rivers in Belarus has stabilized. The average concentrations of 137Cs in rivers for the period 1987-2001 have considerably decreased. They are lower than the Republican Permissible Level for drinking water

  19. The ecological consequences of transuranium elements realize on Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of radioactive contamination with transuranium elements (TUE) on territory of Belarus as a result of nuclear weapon tests and Chernobyl NPP accident have been assessed . The uniform contamination of soil with level of 53±17 Bq/m2 for Pu-239+240 was formed as a result of global precipitation after the nuclear weapon test. This value increased up to 1.1·105 Bq/m2 in South regions of Belarus and gradually decreased to level of global fall out on the North of the republic after Chernobyl NPP accident. The study of the atmosphere contamination with TUE in Republic of Belarus is being held since 1980 to now. The mechanism of radioactive air pollution from April, 1986 is determined by dust transfer from radioactive contaminated regions. The value of this transfer is influenced considerably by agricultural activities on contaminated territory, forest fires and other anthropogenic factors. The transfer coefficients in the soil-plant system have plant species dependence. The behavior of TUE in environment is discussed. (Authors)

  20. Reconstruction of radioactive contamination of territory the Belarus by an isotope I-131 after the catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first period after the accident of Chernobyl NPP considerable increasing of exposure dose power was registered practically everywhere on the territory of Belarus. The levels of radioactive contamination induced by iodine-131 were so high that the irradiation of millions people caused by it has been qualified by experts as the period of 'iodine blow' by specialists. So reconstruction of iodine doses during the first period after the accident can considerable change current assessments of radionuclides affect upon population of Belarus as a result of Chernobyl NPP catastrophe. Nowadays the assessment of environmental short-lived radionuclides, first of all iodine isotopes, contamination is very important because high levels of iodine contents in soil, atmospheric air, water and food have caused rising of malignant thyroid cancer in the post accident period, especially among children and teenagers everywhere on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Revealed dependence between iodine-131 contamination of soil and space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidence among children on the territory of Belarus allows one to use the reconstruction map for detection the regions of increased risk of cancer incidence. Reconstruction map of space iodine-131 distribution reflects real situation on the territory of the republic of Belarus on the May 10, 1986. Proposed approaches allow one to construct a number of maps of iodine-131 distribution for given data taking into account dynamics of real meteorological conditions formed the radioactive trace.Dose commitments on thyroid cancer caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2,5 months after the accident. The space distribution of malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of Belarus in the period from 1986 to 1995 map was made. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland cancer incidences among children on the territory of

  1. Investigations for Heavy Metals and POPs Emission Inventory Improvement in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakareka, S.; Kukharchyk, T.

    2003-04-01

    Emission fluxes assessment acts as starting point of air pollution interpretation. The paper presents results of a 7-years activity on identification and estimation of heavy metals and POPs emission sources in Belarus, most of which are poorly inventoried. Methodology based on sources testing and emission factors has been used. The following heavy metals emission sources have been evaluated: stationary fuel combustion, ferrous industry, cement production, glass production, phosphate fertilizers production, road transport, other mobile sources and machinery, cremation, waste incineration. We can generalize that on the territory of Belarus stationary fuel combustion is the main source of emission of arsenic and nickel. Cement production is the main source of mercury, and an essential source of cadmium and lead. Electric arc furnace steel plant provides main part of zinc emissions, and significant share of cadmium and lead. In the 90s the steady reduction heavy metals emissions on the territory of Belarus occured. It especially typical for lead emissions - from in 798 tonnes in 1990 tonnes to 46 tonnes in 2000 because of prohibition of ethylated gasoline usage. As the result of POPs sources identification and estimation it was detected that main contribution into dioxin emission have non-industrial solid fuel combustion (firewood and peat), electric arc furnace and waste incineration. Firewood and peat combustion and mobile sources were revealed to make the largest contribution in PAH emissions in Belarus. Pesticides from POPs Protocol to Geneva Convention and Stockholm POPs Convention (such as DDT, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, toxaphen, endrin, dieldrine, mirex, heptachlor et. al.) are not used now in Belarus. But a large amount of them are stored in various burial sites and storage places which cause significant ecological problems due to pollutants infiltration and spills. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors were estimated as the main source of

  2. Development of System Regulating and Support for Nuclear Security in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safeguards strengthening in Belarus is realized as complex for measures of legal authorities building, advance staff education and international cooperation. The main scope of complex coordinated activities is to provide the sustainable development of national regulatory system and support for current and future challenges in a more globalized world to assure relevant safeguards measures and implements, to get the sustainable international and regional cooperation. Collected and implemented information and knowledge, analytical thinking of involved specialists will improve cooperation between IAEA and States to optimize technical support and experience exchange. Some authorities are responsible in regulating and oversighting for nuclear security in Belarus. The main challenge of national system development is realization the conception of effective coordination. The nuclear regulatory authority (the Ministry for Emergency Situations/ Gosatomnadzor) has the responsibility either to build up own technical capabilities for detailed review and assessment of processes and activities of the NPP operator or to make sure that a technical support organization equipped with sufficient knowledge and structural capabilities is involved in assessment and analysis of processes at all phases of the NPP use. There is developed the conception for creation of analytical and technical support laboratory including both stationary and mobile equipment and techniques for nuclear security prevention and control measures and arrangements. It is actually the realization of conception the Joint Center for Nuclear Security Competence in Belarus for national and cooperational purposes. The implementation of strengthening plans and put-up arrangements will lead to integrated regulatory activities in order to allow practical optimization of the resources to get benefits from exchange of experience and issues from safety analysis and oversighting as synergy effect. (author)

  3. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time

  4. The restoration of radioactive-contaminated territories of Belarus after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Chernobyl catastrophes the system of radiation monitoring of the environment in Belarus has ensured the collection and analysis of information about radioactive contamination of an atmospheric air, surface waters and territories. These results of radiation monitoring are used for an estimation of a radiation condition of a environment and prognosis it of restoring. The analysis of results of monitoring shows, that in the first period after catastrophe the maximum levels of a exposure gamma-ray dose in cities were fixed in Bragin (April 30, 1986). The numerical prognosis shows, that the restoring of this magnitude lakes before catastrophe is possible to expect approximately in 65 years. The map of contamination of Belarus by Cs-137 was constructed about use Geo Information System based of results of monitoring, which are introduced in an automated data bank. Due to use GIS the prognosis of restoring of the contaminated territories, contaminated by Cs-137 to 2016 and 2046 was obtained. The analysis of dynamics of squares of contamination more than 37 kBq/sq.m for period 1986 - 2046 shows: The square of initial contamination (1986) by Cs-137 more than 37 kBq/sq.m was equaled 23,7 %; In 30 years (2016) squares of contamination will make approximately 16 %, i.e. will decrease in 1,5 on a comparison 1986; In 60 years (2046) squares of contamination will make approximately 10 %, i.e. will decrease in 2,4 on a comparison 1986. The prognosis of space distribution of activity Am-241 in Belarus shows, that the high levels of contamination will be in 30-km to a zone Chernobyl NPP and on around territories, where the population lives. Maximum volumes the activity of Am-241 will achieve to 2060 and will exceed activity of Pu-238,239,240 approximately in 2 times

  5. Dynamics of state of Belarus children health living under ecologically unfavorable conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcomes of a cohort prospective complex clinico-laboratory examination of children living on the Republic of Belarus territories varying by their radiation levels and ecologic characteristics were analyzed. The morbidity relative risk was determined to be higher in those children. The data stratification by the time factor confirmed that the risk remained permanent in various age groups. The studies fulfilled allowed to suppose that the children's endoecologic status worsening was one of the major causes of the children morbidity increase for it led to changes in the cellular membranes structural and functional state of the systems and organs activity regulation neurohumoral mechanisms violation resulting in development of ecologic disadaptation syndrome (authors)

  6. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m2). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where 137Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m2. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in the process of rehabilitation of living

  7. Study of temperature regime in Belarus according to the COSMO model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partasenok, Irina; Geyer, Beate; Groisman, Pavel; Melnik, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Long-term time series of meteorological and hydrological observations for the 1900-2012 period provide information about climatic fluctuations in Belarus. In particular, significant transformation of the temperature regime in Belarus has been observed only since 1970s, and since 1989 the rate of these changes has increased. We used simulations of the COSMO model in Climate Mode (COSMO-CLM or CCLM) for detailed assessment of climatic transformations in Belarus. CCLM is a non-hydrostatic regional climate model developed from the Local Model (LM) of the German Meteorological Service by the CLM-community. The Model output (produced at the Institute of Coastal Research of HZG; the coastDatII dataset) gives a consistent and homogeneous database used for assessment of weather statistics and climate changes for the 1948 - 2012 period with spatial grid size of 0.22° in rotated coordinates. NCEP1 global reanalysis was used in simulations as forcing and boundary conditions. The observed gridded data (E-Obs v10.0; surface air temperature and precipitation) were used for verification of the model performance. We calculated mean seasonal temperature over Belarus for the 1955-2012 and 1981-2012 periods of significant transformation of the Belorussian climate. The calculations showed differences in the coastDatII and E-Obs varied within the ±0.6 to 2oC range depending on the season. We found the largest deviations in winter (by 1.7 to 2.0oC). In spring the differences were within the 0.8 to1.0oC range, in summer within the 0.6-0.8oC range and in autumn they were about 1.0 to 1.3oC. For both periods, annual mean regional values differ by 0.9oC. In the annual cycle, the E-Obs values were higher than coastDatII temperatures except the summer season, when the CCLM-derived temperatures exceed the observations. Comparison of seasonal temperature ranges shows a lesser amplitude in CCLM than in E-Obs. Estimates of annual temperature trends for the 1955-2012 period according to the E

  8. Rußland-Belarus : Die Zweier-Union im Zeichen von Konzeptions- und Interessendivergenzen

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Heinz

    1999-01-01

    Ende Dezember 1998 unterzeichneten die Präsidenten Jelzin und Lukaschenko in Moskau eine 'Erklärung über die weitere Vereinigung von Belarus und Rußland'. Den Kern des Dokuments bildet die Absicht, den Prozeß des Zusammenschlusses beider Länder zu einem Unionsstaat mit supranationalen Organen voranzutreiben, allerdings unter prinzipieller Wahrung der nationalen Souveränität der Partner. Angestrebt wird die Schaffung gleicher Rahmenbedingungen für die Wirtschaft, nicht zuletzt als Voraussetzun...

  9. Infant mortality trends in a region of Belarus, 1980–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawvere Silvana

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU in 1991 challenged the public health infrastructure in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. Because infant mortality is regarded as a sensitive measure of the overall health of a population, patterns of neonatal and postneonatal deaths were examined within the Mogilev region of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Methods Employing administrative death files, this study utilized a regional cohort design that included all infant deaths occurring among persons residing within the Mogilev oblast of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Patterns of death and death rates were examined across 3 intervals: 1980–1985 (pre-Chernobyl, 1986–1991 (post-Chernobyl & pre-FSU breakup, and 1992–2000 (post-Chernobyl & post-FSU breakup. Results Annual infant mortality rates declined during the 1980s, increased during the early 1990s, and have remained stable thereafter. While infant mortality rates in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females, this decrement appears due to decreases in postneonatal mortality. Rates of postneonatal mortality in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females. Analyses of trends for infant mortality and neonatal mortality demonstrated continuous decreases between 1990, followed by a bell-shaped excess in the 1990's. Compared to rates of infant mortality for other countries, rates in the Mogilev region are generally higher than rates for the United States, but lower than rates in Russia. During the 1990s, rates for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mogilev were two times the comparable rates for East and West Germany. Conclusions While neonatal mortality rates in Mogilev have remained stable, rates for postneonatal mortality have decreased among both males and females during the period examined. Infant mortality rates in the Mogilev region of Belarus remain

  10. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P.; Bataille, C. [Centre d' etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Katlabai, T. [Sprout of Life, Krasnoye (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m{sup 2}). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where {sup 137}Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m{sup 2}. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in

  11. Determining economic cost of medical interventions in Belarus due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Using Chernobyl's impact on Belarus as an example, the goal of this project is to determine the health-related costs of a major nuclear accident to aid in contingency planning for all nations, educate the public about the potential impact on health of man-made nuclear accidents and to provide more impetus for development of safer nuclear power generation. An assessment of these costs by an international group will support Republic of Belarus in its studies of the costs and benefits of ongoing Chernobyl-related health care activities. This study is a retrospective analysis of the costs in Chernobyl radiation exposed populations associated with medical care and illness prevention. Data selection for analysis was determined by estimated financial impact. All factors expected to influence total cost by less than 1 % were not analyzed. Medical consequences, such as reduced birth rate, which did not increase medical expenditures where also not included. Normal health expenditures where subtracted. Most expenditures are being estimated from the services provided. Data to be included has been gathered since 1986 and is lo in various sites, including budgets and reports of various ministries of the Republic of Belarus and records in the Republican Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology, the Chernobyl Committee of the Ministry of Health, and other locations. Therefore, some figures will be estimated based on best evidence and current literature. Outcomes of sensitivity studies and uncertainty estimates will be performed once the data collection is completed and assessed. Data to be included in the financial estimate includes: Evacuation from restricted territories; Added medical facilities and establishment of preventive health measures; Decontamination and radiation monitoring of contaminated areas; Costs associated with research activities on related problems; General categories of medical costs, including impact of psychosocial factors

  12. Energy policy of the former Soviet Union republics by the example of Belarus and Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There was a centralized energy supply policy of the former Soviet republics before the collapse of the USSR. After that these republics became independent states, the situation changed dramatically. Now each country has become forced to conduct its own energy policies. Some countries like Belarus were without significant domestic fuel and energy resources, others such as Azerbaijan, became the exporters of energy resources. Both categories of states set themselves first of all two main objectives: economic growth and energy security. Key words: energy policy, energy security, energy efficiency, diversity of supply

  13. AND BELARUS ON THE BASIS OF GERCHIKOV’S MOTIVATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu, W.Y.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research examined corporate motivation in Belarus and China on the basis of Gerchikov’s motivation theory. We will bring theoretical substantiation for the work and state why we have chosen Gerchikov’s motivation model as foundation for the analysis. On the basis of the results gathered with the help of the research we will propose a suggestion on what peculiarities in the framework of corporate motivation we shall pay special attention in the course of Belarusian and Chinese companies’ cooperation.

  14. Dynamics of radioactive pollution of atmospheric air on the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of atmospheric air radioactive pollution on the territory of Belarus in the first period (April-May 1986) after the catastrophe on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant has been considered. Dynamics of gamma-radiation exposure dose rate in several towns of the Republic for the period 1986-1993 has been presented. Average monthly values of total beta activity in near earth layer of the atmosphere in Brest, Gomel, Mozyr, Minsk, Mogilev for the period 1987-1989 have been given. The atmospheric air pollution by caesium-137 and strontium-90 in Mozyr, Gomel and Mogilev have also been shown. (author)

  15. Gametogenesis of pikes (Esox lucius L.) in condition of radioactive contamination of water reservoirs of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of histological analysis of pike oocytes (Esox lucius L.) from a radioactive contaminated water reservoirs of Belarus part of Chernobyl zone are described. The oocyte degenerative alterations (irregular cell shape, change of oocyte envelope structure) in the investigated fish from the water reservoirs with different level of radioactive contamination (Perstok and Smerzhov lakes) were identified. Some slight breaches in growth and development of gonad's cells were revealed in pikes from river Pripyat' aquatic system with relatively low level of radioactive contamination in places of fishing. It was concluded that the revealed morphology functional changes in gonads of fish were connected with the level of radioactive contamination of environment

  16. Genetic monitoring of natural drosophila populations in radiation contaminated regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic monitoring of natural Drosophila melanogaster populations inhabiting regions of Belarus with different levels of contamination after the reactor accidents at the Chernobylsk NPP (Vetka and Svetilovichi villages) as compared with populations from the Berezinsky biosphere reserve (the control area) is carried out. The dominant and recessive lethal mutations levels and the genetic structure of populations are analyzed for frequencies of F- and S-alleles of alcohol dehydrogenase,glycerinophosphate dehydrogenase and superoxidase dismutase loci. Populations inhabiting contamination regions demonstrate higher frequency of lethal mutations and higher heterozygosity than those from the control area. The nonspecific adaptation of Drosophila populations from contaminated villages of the Gomel region is reveled

  17. MAIN PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN RESPECT OF ITS ENTRY TO INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Nikitenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Belarus has significant reserves of ground fresh and mineral water. Consumption of bottled water in the world has a tendency of steady growth. In this regard, Belarus can increase production and sale of bottled water on the external  and domestic markets as well. The paper  describes main tendencies prevailing on the world market;  it contains an analysis of the normative and legal foundation on regulation of production and sale of bottled water in the Republic and abroad; the paper also estimates the possibilities to increase volume of export water. 

  18. RESEARCHING THE GENDER ASPECT IN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT (THE CASE OF MOLDOVA, UKRAINE AND BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ACULAI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The SME sector covers economic operators that substantially differ by many parameters: size of enterprises, types of activity, etc., including entrepreneurs’ characteristics – their ethnic, gender, age and other peculiarities. The specificity of different groups of enterprises and entrepreneurs is important both for attracting attention of the society to their problems and for the elaboration of business regulation policy on local, national and international levels. The purpose of the paper is investigation of characteristics of female entrepreneurship in some countries with transition economy – Moldova, Ukraine, and Belarus. In particular, possibilities of women–entrepreneurs to access different types of resources are presented, peculiarities of women’s character that influence the entrepreneurial activity are elucidated, need of governmental assistance to women that initiate and develop own business is examined. Common characteristics and some peculiarities in the female business development in the three countries are outlined. The investigation is based on results of questionings and interviews with women – owners and managers of enterprises, first of all, SMEs, from Moldova, Ukraine, and Belarus.

  19. Concept and problems on modernization of existing points for radioactive waste disposal in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present Belarus has no operating nuclear power plants (NPP) on its territory, the works with fissile materials carried out at the available nuclear and physical benches have been stopped. But not long ago a research reactor IRT-M with the capacity of 5000 kw was under operation from 1962 to 1986 at the Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, now reorganized (located in Sosny settlement, 10 kilometers from Minsk-city), and a prototype of a small-sized mobile NPP with electric capacity of 630 kw was tested in 1985-1987, as well as a whole complex of nuclear and technical benches were into service, such as large-scale reactor loop plants for testing fuel elements and critical assemblies. About 1000 industrial, medical, scientific and research institutions use radioactive materials and the devices containing them in Belarus. Annually about 8000 kg of RAW and 6000 units of the spent sources of ionizing radiation (SIR) are generated by these enterprises which are to be obligatory disposed. Annual disposal of such RAW and SIR constitutes 10-50 tons with activity of 1-5).103 Ci. The paper presents the recommendations on extraction, reprocessing and conditioning of radioactive waste from the existing storages when PDWD reconstruction which have been developed with using the created computer database on the stored RAW

  20. Optimal electricity generation system expansion and nuclear power option in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having declared independence, the Republic of Belarus was forced to import 90% of fuel consumed and 25% of electricity. The deficit of peak electric capacity reached 40%. The imported fuel covers the last years because the drop in the production reduced the energy consumption in the Republic but not the needs of the energy sector. Annual payments for imported fuel and electricity are equal to the sum of an annual state budget of Belarus (about 1.5 billion USD) and current debts were not lower 300 million. Comparative analysis of the different scenarios of the electricity generation system expansion showed that an optimum way for electricity generation is installation of the combine cycle units and construction nuclear power plants. The results of the study also showed that the option based on replacement of deficit of the electricity generation by the way of the construction combine cycle units with capacities 450 MW turned out to be the best solution among non nuclear options. (author)

  1. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on a rural population in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent research endeavour under programme ECP9 (transfer of radionuclides to animals, their comparative importance under different agricultural system and appropriate countermeasures) three distinct sites in the Republics of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus were selected for detailed radioecological study. The objective of this investigation was to identify the sources of radiocesium and radiostrontium intake to a specific segment of the population, i.e. subsistence farmers residing in areas where high contamination levels persist after the Chernobyl accident. The results was obtained from the District of Bragin in Belarus. Contamination levels in foodstuffs produced in the selected site were assessed by means of two approaches using a geographical modelling approach of estimating contamination levels in food products through deposition information and transfer parameters, and via direct measurements of activity levels in foodstuffs from private households. This information was combined with food consumption rates derived from dietary surveys on the population of the area in order to calculate radiocesium and radiostrontium intake. The results were then compared to data from whole body activity measurements

  2. 20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

  3. Updating Variants Pertaining to Small Capacity Power-and-Heat Supply Sources in the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sednin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power stations of small capacity in the Belarus power system are sources of heat supply in the heat supply systems of some cities or urban districts with 100% electric power generation using heat consumption. Presently it is necessary to find optimum technical solutions concerning their reconstruction.

  4. Updating Variants Pertaining to Small Capacity Power-and-Heat Supply Sources in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Sednin; M. L. Bogdanovich

    2014-01-01

    Thermal power stations of small capacity in the Belarus power system are sources of heat supply in the heat supply systems of some cities or urban districts with 100% electric power generation using heat consumption. Presently it is necessary to find optimum technical solutions concerning their reconstruction.

  5. Primary care reform in Central and Eastern Europe: can Belarus be taken as the control group in international comparison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Rousovich, V.S.; Schellevis, F.G.; Egorov, K.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Health care reform proceeds differently in Belarus. The country has not followed trends visible in most other countries. Financing and provision of health care is still in the hands of the state. Health insurance funds are unknown, private practices are rare and operating outside the sys

  6. Communication of 18 June 1996 received from the Permanent Mission of Belarus to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following documents received on 18 June 1996 from the Resident Representative of Belarus are reproduced here: the 'Appeal to States Members of the United Nations on the tenth anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant' signed by the Secretary General of the United Nations and the 'Resolution of the European Parliament on the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident'

  7. Collection of regulations, methodical, administrative documents of the Republic of Belarus in field of radiation monitoring and protection. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contents regulations, methodical, administrative documents of the Republic of Belarus in field of radiation monitoring and protection which need for authority bodies, checking bodies, specialists of radiation monitoring and control - lows, government regulations, standards of contamination levels for food, agriculture and medical raw materials, peat and wood, hygienic rules and standards of sample preparation

  8. The analysis of the emergency preparedness categories to a radiation emergency on radiation facilities in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities which can lead to the nuclear or radiological emergencies in the territory of the Belarus has been considered. The activities have been break up into the five emergency preparedness categories that were suggested in accordance with the nuclear or radiological emergency consequences. (authors)

  9. 25 years after Chernobyl NPP accident: experience and trends of radioactive contaminated soils rehabilitation in Belarus - 59242

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The paper describes the developed and applied soil decontamination measures and methods in Belarus after the Chernobyl NPP accident. It is considered the possibility of using of organo-mineral amendments based on natural raw materials (sapropel) and industrial wastes (hydrolyzed lignin, clay-salt slimes) for rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated soils. (author)

  10. Soil unitization in accordance with cesium-137 migration intensity in typical soils of Belarus NPP influence zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper results of soil unitization in accordance with cesium-137 migration intensity in typical soils of Belarus NPP influence zone are presented. It is shown that more than 70% of the Belarusian territory of 30-km NPP zone occupies soils in which mobility Cs 137 is low or moderated. (authors)

  11. The results of population neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism reflect the effect of iodine prophylaxes in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B Gusina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and before the introduction of neonatal screening programs it was one of the most frequent causes of mental retardation. CH has the incidence of about 1:3000 newborns in different populations. In Belarus the population neonatal screening for CH has been performing since 1991. By the beginning of 2010 1320580 newborns were screened, and 201 cases of CH were diagnosed. The frequency of CH was estimated as 1:6570. The most common cause of CH in Belarus is thyroid hypoplasia. Neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level is a sensitive marker of iodine deficiency, so the neonatal screening results can be used for monitoring the population iodine prophylaxes programs. In 90-th, the primary positive rate in neonatal screening for CH was 0.65–5.2% for different regions of Belarus with cut-off level of 25 mIU/L. TSH level >5 mIU/L was noticed in 50% of screened newborns. In the 21-th century the number of primary positives diminished to 0.01–0.02% with cut-off level of 15 mIU/L. TSH level >5 mIU/L is noticed in 8.9% of screened newborns. The results of population neonatal screening for CH reflect the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxes programs run in Belarus in the 21-th century.

  12. Mission Report on the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR), 18-29 June 2012, Minsk, Republic of Belarus. Counterpart: Ministry of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a letter dated 23 November 2011, the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Belarus to the International Organizations in Vienna requested the IAEA to carry out an Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review Mission (INIR). The Republic of Belarus (hereafter Belarus) also provided their self-evaluation report (in Russian and English) entitled: Report on the Assessment of the National Nuclear Infrastructure of the Republic of Belarus. After preparatory activities, the INIR mission was conducted from 18 to 29 June 2012 in Minsk and represents an evaluation of the development status of the infrastructure issues described in the Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1). The methodology for the evaluation is described in Evaluation of the Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development (Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-T-3.2). Given the status of Belarus's programme, the mission covered conditions for both Phases 1 and 2. Belarus began its preparations for nuclear power in the 1980s but stopped after the Chernobyl accident. In July 2006, after strategic energy planning activities, Belarus decided to again consider the possibility of introducing nuclear power into the national energy mix. Subsequently on September 17, 2007, The Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus was approved by the Decree No. 433 of the President and included a plan to commission two nuclear power units with total power capacity of 2000 MWe by 2020. The Resolution of the Security Council of Belarus in 2008 approved the construction. The Law on the Use of Atomic Energy in Belarus was adopted on July 30, 2008 and provides the legal basis for safe nuclear power development. In 2009, the Master Plan of Key Organizational Measures for Construction of Nuclear Power Plant was adopted. The mission team concluded that the Government of Belarus has made a clear commitment to a nuclear power programme, which is important to

  13. Dynamics of cytogenetic injuries in natural populations of bank vole in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequencies of different types of mutation as well as radionuclide content in bank vole populations in regions of Belarus with various densities of radiocontamination were studied. There were approximately 12-18 generations of animals over the period 1986-1991. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells of animals in the most contaminated stations (90 and 1524 kBq.m-2 for 137Cs) remained at high level during this period. The frequencies of genomic mutations (polyploid cells) gradually rose until 1991. Since the radiation load on vole populations was reduced by 1991, it can be stated that there is higher sensitivity of the hereditary apparatus of somatic cells of subsequent animal generations in comparison with ones prior to the Chernobyl fallout. In other words, there is no genetic adaptation to the mutagenic effect of low level radioisotope radiation for the whole investigation period in natural populations of bank vole. (Author)

  14. The radioecological monitoring of the fishes in water reservoirs of the Belarus Poles'e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was conducted radioecological monitoring of some fish species in water reservoirs of the Belarus Poles'e with different level of radioactive contamination. The content of cesium 134 and 137 exceeded permissible level in muscle of perch and roach from the Chernobyl NPP 30 km area in 2-4 times. The fishes from the lake Perstok was characterized by high content of cesium radionuclides in organs and tissues, it was higher than in the control in 17-40 times for tench, in 25-30 times for crucian and in 30-50 times for pike. It was revealed the disorder of gametogenesis in studied female fishes. Germinative cells of male fishes were more resistant in comparison with oocytes. Fertility of perches in the lake Perstok was less than the one in the river Pripyat', that was possible to be connected with degenerative changes in fish germinative cells

  15. Development of meat cattle breeding under respecialization programs in the Gomel area [Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there was studied scientific management of introduction of 8 programmes of meat cattle breeding in regions of radioactive pollution in Gomel region. In course of the realized study there were analyzed land areas of the local farms, degree of soil contamination with radionuclides, coefficients of radionuclide transfer into plants and animal husbandry products, rate of production volumes, structure of arable lands and main herds, economic indexes of realized activities, etc. Introduction of programs of development of meat cattle breeding in the polluted areas made it possible to increase both the total and pedigree stock in the Gomel area, to create industrial base for reproduction of livestock and a wide circulation of specialized meat livestock in other farms of the polluted regions

  16. Winter cyclone frequency and following freshet streamflow formation on the rivers in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partasenok, Irina S.; Groisman, Pavel Ya; Chekan, Grigoriy S.; Melnik, Viktor I.

    2014-09-01

    We studied long-term fluctuations of streamflow and occurrence of extreme phenomena on the rivers of Belarus during the post-World War II period. It was found that formation of annual runoff within the nation has no constant tendencies and varies from year to year. At the same time, analysis of intra-annual distribution of streamflow reveals significant changes since the 1970s, first of all, increase of winter and decrease of spring streamflow. As a result, the frequency of extreme floods has decreased. These changes in water regime are associated with climatic anomalies (increase of the surface air temperatures) caused by large-scale alterations in atmospheric circulation, specifically in trajectories of cyclones. During the last two decades, the frequency of Atlantic and southern cyclones has changed and caused decreasing of cold season storms and extreme phenomena on the rivers.

  17. Knowledge of the inhabitants of Belarus on the radiation and power problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anonymous questionnaire of the inhabitants living in various regions of Belarus and having different age and level of education ha been done. The poll has been carried out aiming at definition of a general radiation erudition, as well as revealing the knowledge of the population about the effect of power stations (nuclear and thermal) on the environment and the health of a human being. The analysis of answers shows that people have a rather vague idea in the sphere considered. The analysis of the questionnaires shows that women are informed worse than men about the problems on radiation subjects. The investigation carried out has shown what problems on nuclear power (and radiation safety) should be given the more serious consideration when working with population, especially with women's audience, in order to raise the level of accepting nuclear power as the necessary source of energy. (author)

  18. Incidence of developmental abnormalities among human fetuses in different regions of Belarus after the chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of developmental abnormalities (DA) among 5 to 12-week human embryos collected in Minsk during abortions before the Chernobyl' accident was compared to that in Minsk, Mogilev, and southeastern districts of Gomel' and Mogilev oblasts before and after the accident. The incidence of DA among human embryos from the most radionuclide-contaminated rural regions of Belarus exceeds that of the control group and of the urban population after the Chernobyl' accident by a factor of 1.5 - 2. The mutagenic effect of irradiation is the most probable cause of the increased DA frequency. These data suggest that recording of DA in embryos obtained by medical abortions is a new promising approach to the monitoring of genetic consequences of irradiation in human populations

  19. The A.C.R.O. in Belarus point on the actions led for one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project aims to set up a radiological surveillance at the population service and to facilitate the access to the measures and information about the local situation at the villages level. Concretely, it is a question of opening posts of measures in the main villages of the district, of launching campaigns of measures of the internal contamination of the schooled children (anthropo-gamma-metry), to set up a observatory of the radiological situation at the villages level, to facilitate the organization of places of exchange (public meetings, meeting circles), and of information (public display of the measures results) and to develop educational actions in schools. This initiative develops within the framework of the international program C.O.R.E. which federates the projects led on the four most contaminated districts in Belarus. (N.C.)

  20. BRCA mutations in women from Belarus exposed to radiation from Chernobyl compared to controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are several reports of studies that suggest a causal association between exposure to ionizing radiation and the subsequent development of breast cancer. Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, there has been a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after radiation exposure, especially among those who were exposed as young children and living in the areas with the greatest contamination. One early report found that women exposed to radiation from Chernobyl had a slight, but significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer. No other data are reported about additional risks for the development of breast cancer in this population. With funding from a NIH R03 grant application and the Child Health International Foundation, we are investigating the molecular epidemiology of breast cancer in Belarusian women exposed at ages < 40 years to high radiation doses from the Chernobyl accident compared to controls for the common Eastern European BRCA 1/2 mutations. As occurred 20+ years after exposure of Japanese women exposed to radiation fallout from atomic bombs in 1945, we expect to find a sustained increase in breast cancer for the coming decade and longer. We accomplished nearly all of the following objectives in the evaluation of Belarusian women with breast cancer and controls who were exposed to sustained high doses of ionizing radiation in 1986. When our US collaborators visited the Republic of Belarus, they (a) met with Belarusian consultants, co-investigators, other health care professionals and administrators and developed a formal collaboration to study breast cancer, BRCA mutations and radiation exposure; (b) recruited Belarusian cancer epidemiologists, Chernobyl radiation dosimetrists, and cancer registry/database management personnel; (c) began a collaboration with the Director of Breast Cancer Surgery for the Republic of Belarus and met several breast cancer specialists in surgery and oncology under his direction; and (d) met medical directors

  1. The neuro-muscular system in fresh-water furcocercaria from Belarus. I Schistosomatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Chrisanfova, Galina G; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-01-01

    The neuro-muscular system (NMS) in cercariae of the family Schistosomatidae from Belarus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The specimens of Bilharziella polonica were compared with Trichobilharzia szidati and Trichobilharzia franki. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT-immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR in sensory receptors and nerves were investigated. No indications of structural differences in the musculature, the 5-HT-IR, FMRF-IR neuronal elements and the general distribution of sensory receptors were noticed between cercariae of Trichobilharzia spp. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the cercarial bodies is 16. In cercaria B. polonica, the tail musculature is weaker than in Trichobilharzia spp. A detailed schematic picture of the NMS in the tail of Trichobilharzia spp. cercaria is given. The function of NMS elements in the tail is discussed. PMID:21614541

  2. The prognosis of radioactive contamination of an environment of Belarus after catastrophe on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On the 26th of April 1986 an accident at the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP took place. The accident became known to the whole world as a Chernobyl catastrophe. By its scale, by complexity of global problems stipulated by the accident, by long-term consequences it is the largest and the gravest catastrophe in the history of nuclear energy application. After Chernobyl catastrophe the system of radiation monitoring of the environment in Belarus has ensured the collection and analysis of information about radioactive contamination of an atmospheric air, surface waters and territories. These results of radiation monitoring are used for an estimation of a radiation condition of an environment and prognosis in future. The analysis of results of monitoring shows, that in the first period after catastrophe the maximum levels of an exposure gamma-rates in cities were fixed in Bragin (April 30, 1986). The results of monitoring show, that exposure gamma-rates decreases in a result of processes of natural radioactive decay and vertical migration of radionuclides in soil. The results of monitoring of exposure gamma-rates allow to make the prognosis and to calculate a year, when exposure gamma-rates will be equal to levels before the catastrophe on ChNPP. The numerical prognosis shows, that in Bragin town exposure gamma-rates will be equal to level before the catastrophe on ChNPP approximately after 65 years, in Slavgorod and Chechersk towns - after 23-24 years. Due to use GIS the prognosis of restoring of the contaminated territories, contaminated by Cs- 37 to 2016 and 2046 was obtained. The analysis of the evolution of area under contamination exceeding 37 kBq/m2 for the period 1986 - 2046 shows: - In 30 years (2016) the territory contaminated with levels in excess of 37 kBq/m2 will be approximately 16%, i.e. a decrease with a factor 1,5 in comparison with 1986; - In 60 years (2046) contaminated surface will be approximately 10%, i.e. will decrease with a factor 2

  3. External gamma-dose rates delivered from the Chernobyl fallout in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-dose rates in air were measured in time at various reference sites which had different environmental characteristics. It appears that the dose rate had fallen off from its peak value and more or less stabilized by the end of 1990. The model presented describes this behaviour and fits the experimental data well. All the study sites are subdivided into four groups according to the dose-decrease time constants which range between 2.9 and 7.1 years. Causes of such different temporal decreases at various sites are discussed. Dose commitment conversion factors were computed which allow estimation of external dose commitments at every site for various time periods. The findings may be applicable to other sites in Belarus with similar climate and landscape characteristics

  4. Winter cyclone frequency and following freshet streamflow formation on the rivers in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied long-term fluctuations of streamflow and occurrence of extreme phenomena on the rivers of Belarus during the post-World War II period. It was found that formation of annual runoff within the nation has no constant tendencies and varies from year to year. At the same time, analysis of intra-annual distribution of streamflow reveals significant changes since the 1970s, first of all, increase of winter and decrease of spring streamflow. As a result, the frequency of extreme floods has decreased. These changes in water regime are associated with climatic anomalies (increase of the surface air temperatures) caused by large-scale alterations in atmospheric circulation, specifically in trajectories of cyclones. During the last two decades, the frequency of Atlantic and southern cyclones has changed and caused decreasing of cold season storms and extreme phenomena on the rivers. (paper)

  5. Radiation situation on the territory of the republic of belarus in post-Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of radioactive pollution of the territory of the Republic of Belarus is presented. Dynamics and the forecast of radiation conditions in the settlements in zones of radioactive pollution is given. Change of average annual effective doses of irradiation of the inhabitants living on the territory of radioactive pollution is analysed. The grouping of administrative areas according to degree of pollution of farmlands 137Cs and 90Sr is conducted. Depending on relative density of the polluted lands as a part of farmlands four groups of areas are allocated – with weak, average, strong and very strong degree of pollution. Dynamics of agricultural production with the maintenance above permitted standard of radionuclide pollution is presented. (authors)

  6. Frequency changes of inherited anomalies in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex cytogenetic, embryologic and clinical studies of possible genetic consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for the population of Belarus have been carried out. They showed that groups of the population (pregnant women, fetuses, school children) had received biologically significant doses of radiation, as assessed by the registration of ring and dicentric chromosomes in blood lymphocytes. The study of more than 22,000 embryos and fetuses, and of 4090 neonates with compulsory registered congenital malformations, showed a considerable increase of anomalies of intrauterine origin since 1987. They correlated with the level of 137Cs contamination in the areas, but did not correlate with the preconception dose to the mother from the same radionuclide. Teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl pollution have not been conclusively idenitifed. The increase of embryonal anomalies was mainly due to the group of multifactorial defects, and to the anomalies with a large contribution from dominant mutations. The Down's syndrome incidence showed to increase. (Author)

  7. Safety aspects related to the radioactively contaminated forest areas in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses currently received in Belarus through various pathways related to the contamination of forests are evaluated through calculations. A major pathway is, as expected, generally found to be the external radiation from a contaminated forest floor. Also other pathways may in some cases be highly significant. Generally, it is found that the dose contributions to people spending time in the contaminated forest or consuming forest products are highest, whereas for instance doses received from domestic use of fire-wood are found to be negligible. Recommendations for storage of waste from combustion plants fired with radioactive forest material are also given, together with an estimate of the specific activity of the waste to be disposed of

  8. Thyroid status and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid function, lipid peroxidation (LPO) products content and antioxidant defense in pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides in Belarus are studied. The levels of malonic dialdehyde, vitamins A, C and E, reduced glutathion, and activity of enzymatic antioxidants were measured in the blood of 60 women living in Minsk and 90 pregnant women living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The functions of the thyroid was assessed from the blood levels of tri-iodothyronine, thyroxin, thyroidbinding globulin, and T4/TSH ratio. It is shown that the content of LPO products is increased higher and the levels of antioxidant vitamins and reduced glutathion decreased lower in the residents of contaminated territories. Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in pregnant women depend on the function of the thyroid

  9. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of C. diphtheriae strains during different phases of the diphtheria epidemic in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimont Patrick AD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reemergence of epidemic diphtheria in Belarus in 1990s has provided us with important information on the biology of the disease and the diversity of the causative agent Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Molecular investigations were conducted with the aim to analyze the genetic variability of C diphtheriae during the post-epidemic period. Methods The biotype and toxigenicity status of 3513 C. diphtheriae strains isolated from all areas in Belarus during a declining period of diphtheria morbidity (1996–2005 was undertaken. Of these, 384 strains were isolated from diphtheria cases, 1968 from tonsillitis patients, 426 from contacts and 735 from healthy carriers. Four hundred and thirty two selected strains were ribotyped. Results The C diphtheriae gravis biotype, which was prevalent during 1996–2000, was "replaced" by the mitis biotype during 2001–2005. The distribution of toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains also decreased from 47.1% (1996 to 5.8% (2005. Changes in the distribution of the epidemic ribotypes Sankt-Peterburg and Rossija were also observed. During 2001–2005 the proportion of the Sankt-Peterburg ribotype decreased from 24.3% to 2.3%, in contrast to the Rossija ribotype, that increased from 25.1% to 49.1%. The circulation of other toxigenic ribotypes (Otchakov, Lyon, Bangladesh, which were prevalent during the period of high diphtheria incidence, also decreased. But at the same time, the proportion of non-toxigenic strains with the Cluj and Rossija ribotypes dramatically increased and accounted for 49.3% and 30.1%, respectively. Conclusion The decrease in morbidity correlated with the dramatic decrease in the isolation of the gravis biotype and Sankt Peterburg ribotype, and the prevalence of the Rossija ribotype along with other rare ribotypes associated with non-toxigenic strains (Cluj and Rossija, in particular.

  11. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Yermalovich

    Full Text Available As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV, rubella virus (RV and human parvovirus B19 (B19V. The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV and adenovirus (AdV. Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6. A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7% cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  12. On the long-term evaluation of post-Chernobyl dose burdens in Korma county (Belarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 the development of environmental contamination and population doses was investigated by several national and international institutions. In 1991 a German three-year measuring campaign was started. The results concerning the ingestion dose by in-vivo monitoring had shown that the international annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a had only been exceeded in less than 2% of all 317,000 measured cases. In following years the expected downward trend of mean annual doses did not occur and internal doses did not continue to decrease or even increased. Therefore, several small follow-up studies were initiated in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. One of these studies is the Korma Project in Belarus, where two municipalities in Korma county were selected for further investigations: Vornovka, a purely agricultural municipality with the villages of Vornovka and Vissokoe, and Volincy, an agricultural and forestal municipality with the inhabited villages of Volincy, Kljapin and Kljapinskaja-Buda. The ground contamination of these two areas was between 300 kBq/m2 and 630 kBq/m2 in 1991. In contrast to Vornovka the municipality of Volincy is surrounded by a contaminated forest area and isolated from the main part of Korma county by a highly contaminated evacuation zone along the river Sosch. First results were envisaged in May 2000. The study was finished last year and the results of these measurements are presented here. They are representative for smaller villages where people provide their families with locally produced food, which is in these higher contaminated districts more common than elsewhere. Today prevention measures including food restrictions installed shortly after the accident are increasingly ignored due to the poor economic situation

  13. Development of infrastructure for epidemiological studies in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 raised worldwide concern about the health effects of the radiation fallout. International collaborations were established between scientist; to investigate the long-term consequences of the accident. However, lack of knowledge abut the mechanisms of data collection and the quality of basic epidemiological tools, such as mortality and cancer incidence, has been recognized as a major limitation for the conduct of epidemiological investigations according to international standards in the Newly Independent States (NIS). In the framework of a collaboration which aims to develop and implement epidemiological infrastructure in Belarus, the Russian Federation and he Ukraine, a survey on cancer registration techniques was conducted. A system of compulsory reporting of all new cases of cancer was introduced in 1953 throughout hie former Soviet Union for health planning purposes. This cancer registration system, however, was developed entirely independent from similar activities in other parts of hie World. In each of the countries surveyed, a nationwide network of regional dispensary-based cancer registries exists. Cancer registration in the NIS relies on passive reporting from hospital and laboratory sources. Death certificates are searched actively. Whereas: in Belarus and the Ukraine computerized cancer registration has been developed in recent years, cancer registration in most areas of the Russian Federation is still a manual operation. Although computerization was identified as the major objective in all tree countries, further efforts are required to assess the completeness and the quality of the information collected. The introduction of internationally recognized classifications wold considerably improve the comparability with registries in other parts of the World. In addition to preparing annual statistics for health planning purposes, cancer registries should consider reporting cancer incidence for research purposes following

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  15. Analysis of Engineering Pricing System in Belarus%白俄罗斯工程造价体系解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锐娟; 王玉平; 田京精

    2016-01-01

    对白俄罗斯工程计价体系和局部预算作详细介绍。在此基础上,以明斯克国际机场飞行区工程为实例进行预算体系说明,旨在为中国建筑企业开拓白俄罗斯市场提供技术支持。%The paper introduces Belarus engineering cost system and engineering quota in details. On this basis, illustrates the budget system of airfield area of Minsk International Airport,in order to provide technical support for Chinese constructors to explore Belarus construction market.

  16. Radioecological problems of the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and the ways of their solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on the scale of contamination of Belarus with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident are given. The overall contaminated areas with radiation density of caesium-137 exceeding 3.7 * 10-circumflex 4 Bq/sq.km amount to 46,5 thousands of square kilometers. It is shown, that in 1993 the radioactivity at the territory of Belarus accounts for more than 3.7 * 10-circumflex 16 Bq. The paper presents the characteristics of the main contributors to the radiological situation. The characterization of the patterns of contamination of soil, water systems, forests is considered. The paper gives the organizing structure of control over the processes of elimination of the post-effects of the Chernobyl accident. The need for urgent development of the project for changing the contaminated territories into ecologically safe system is indicated. The suggestions on organizing the International Safety System against accidents at potentially hazardous industrial enterprises are given. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Estimation and forecast of the radiation situation on the territory of the republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl NNP catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 10 years after the accident et the ChNPP the large amounts of the date on the content of radionuclides in the soil have been collected, using the network of the radiation monitoring stations. In the after-accident period, the aerial photography of the territory of Belarus has been done, all populated areas have been investigated, including the agricultural and forest areas. The information has been processed with use of the geoinformation RECASS system of construction of maps of distribution of caesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes on the territory of the Republic. The maps of the distribution of caesium-137, strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes on the territory of Belarus after the accident have been presented. (author)

  18. PECULIAR FEATURES OF CRITERIA PERTAINING TO SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS AND THEIR DIFFERENCE IN BELARUS, RUSSIA AND POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Kozel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are definite criteria that help to classify individual entrepreneurs and organizations as small and medium business categories. Definition of an economic management subject as a small enterprise and an individual entrepreneur provides possibilities to obtain tax privileges and other preferences in some countries.The paper considers peculiar features of criteria that allow to define an economic management subject as a small and medium business in Belarus, Russia and Poland. Comparison has been carried out according to such criteria as average manpower, type of economic activity, annual turnover, purpose of the activity and founder staff.The comparative analysis has made it possible to reveal similar features and significant differences between criteria used for definition of small entrepreneurship in the above-mentioned countries. Corresponding conclusions in respect of Belarus are made in the paper. The paper also contains evaluation of application of some criteria in our country.

  19. Geoecological features of Belarus lakes – the habitats of relict species Isoëtes lacustris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Boris

    2012-01-01

    In Belarus 16 habitats of relict species lake quillwort (Isoëtes lacustris L.) are registered. Lakes were studied in the period from 1972 to 2011. Populations of Isoëtes lacustris L. in the lakes differ with morphology of plants, abundance, frequency of occurrence, partial projected foliage cover. Development of populations of the spe-cies is limited by morphometric characteristics of lake hollow, hydrophysical and hydrochemical parameters of the environment. Evaluation of lake quillwort tole...

  20. Small doses of ionizing radiation and possible genetic consequences for the residents of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Republic of Belarus National Genetic Monitoring for Congenital Malformations and Regional Monitoring for the Anomalies Found in Embryos and Fetuses showed an increased anomaly frequency in embryos and fetuses. The increase correlated with Cs-137 contamination density, but no linear dependence on collective and average individual doses for the individuals of reproductive age has been found. No direct teratogenic effect of Chernobyl accident has been revealed, but the effect through mutations in gamets is possible. (author)

  1. Forming of the system of the financial providing of innovative development of economy of Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Mjatnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major condition of efficiency of realization of innovative projects and programs is their financial maintenance. In article the analysis of use of various sources of financing and the state preferences is carried out by working out and realization of innovative projects and programs. Assumptions on formation of uniform system of financial maintenance of innovative development of economy of Belarus are stated.

  2. Vegetation pattern and sedimentation changes in the context of the Lateglacial climatic events: Case study of Staroje Lake (Eastern Belarus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zernitskaya, Valentina; Vlasov, Boris

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A lake sediment core collected from the Staroje Lake, southeastern Belarus, reveals significant changes of the terrestrial and limnic environmental during the Lateglacial and Early Holocene in the periglacial zone of the Late Weichselian Glaciation. The combination of lithological (loss-on-ignition), palaeobotanical (pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, diatoms) and isotopic (d18O, d13C, 14C) proxy parameters was applied for the reconstruction of the vegetation pattern and...

  3. The right and ownership on cultural heritage of Ukraine, historical and cultural values of the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Мартиненко, Ігор

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the features of the right of ownership of cultural heritage monuments and other cultural values. A comparative analysis of the legislation of the Republic of Belarus and Ukraine, the rules governing the ownership and protection of cultural heritage. Proposals for improving the legislation of the two countries. The results can be used in legislative activities in the educational process. English abstract   I. Martynenka The right and ownership on cultural heritage of Ukra...

  4. Trade impact of non-tariff trade costs. An Assessment of the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Mkrtchyan Arevik

    2013-01-01

    The recently established Eurasian Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan has generated considerable research interest. Using a rich panel data, this paper analyses the impact of the common external tariff and changes in non-tariff trade barriers on bilateral trade patterns. Tariff increases have expected negative impact on the trade ows. The Customs Union abolished the customs controls between the members in two stages. This allows to estimate the effect of border elimination which i...

  5. The thyroid dose assessments of Belarus population by iodine 131 after the Chernobyl accident derived with method of radioecological modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Chernobyl accident large activities of iodine were released (more than 1850 GBq). The most important radioiodine isotope was I-131, its deposition varied from from 0.2 to 37 MBq/m2 in five from six Belarus districts. Therefore, in the first few months, the thyroid was the most exposed organ. The correct information on a large group people needs for the thyroid dose estimation and risk assessment. The radioecological model was applied to estimate age-dependence thyroid doses for the Belarus population. The average thyroid doses were calculated for 0-18 age group and adults for 23 thousand 325 settlements of all Belarus areas and Gomel and Minsk cities. The maximum values of thyroid dose were estimated for the inhabitants of the Gomel area and city. The average thyroid dose for the Mogilev area is similar to Brest area. In the Mogilev area, there was predominantly wet deposition leading to a relatively higher initial contamination of the plant, whereas in the Brest area, the deposition was mixed. The estimates for Grodno and Minsk areas are very similar. The lowest thyroid doses were derived for Vitebsk area with the lowest level of depositions (author)

  6. High treason. The activity of The Communist Party of Western Belarus in Vilnius in 1930 – 1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiusz Łukasiewicz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to attempt to explain the activities of the Communist Party of Western Belarus in Vilnius during the first half of the thirties of the twentieth century. The author's aim is to show the organisation, theory and practice of this illegal party. Furthermore, the intention is to present the activities of Vilnius police towards communist sympathizers and activists. Founded in 1923 in Vilnius, the Communist Party of Western Belarus was a branch of The Communist Party of Poland. This organization like the polish communist party was illegal. Its aim was to combat the Polish state and to perform electioneering for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Although the name of the party could indicate a desire for independence of Belarus, in practice it was for the removal of the north eastern provinces of the Second Republic of Poland to the USSR. CPWB activity had a special dimension in Vilnius. As the region's largest city and former capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnus was home for many nations, religions and cultures. Moreover, Vilnius was the most important field for communist action . Given the number of inhabitants, industrialized multi-ethnic character, communists had the opportunity to develop wide subversive and conspiratorial work. In addition, the city was the great centre of production and distribution of communist publications, which allowed the spread of propaganda in both its administrative boundaries and in the Vilnius Voivodeship.

  7. Impact of 1986 Chernobyl accidental radioactive release on biomass supply for industrial use in central western Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1986 reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in Ukraine had caused considerable radioactive fallouts throughout much of Belarus. It has been estimated that more than 20 % of Belarus would still remain contaminated with radionuclides 30 years after the NPP accident. Residual Cs-137 radionuclide is considered to be the most important. The physical half-life of Cs-137 is 30 years. Relatively high level of Cs-137 was identified to have been deposited in the top soil of several areas in the western region of Grodno oblast, during the first decade after the NPP accident. The mobility of Cs-137 in the soil is similar to that of K. In the 2004 survey data released by the United Nations, Cs-137 in the top soil of most of Belarus appeared to have dissipated largely into the natural cycle, including physical decay, high water solubility, and transference from the soil into the growing biomass (e.g., annual grain crops) which is exported from the affected region. The accumulation of Cs-137 in wood residues could be very problematic. Unlike annual cereal crops, trees are harvested typically in ~80-year cycles. Repeated exposure of workers to fugitive Cs-137 in wood wastes could pose a significant health hazard

  8. Strategy for the restoration of rural settlements in Belarus contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Problems and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of the protective actions taken in Belarus in the wake of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident can provide useful insights for specialists who are considering strategies for restoring areas contaminated with radionuclides. Data on the protective actions performed in Belarus after this accident are presented briefly, and the efficiency assessment used for the resettlement of certain categories of population is discussed, The levels allowed by the state for radioactive contamination in food and the averted doses are reviewed. The current number of contaminated settlements and their population are given. Particulars concerning the nature of the doses and the differences in their formation for the urban and rural populations are examined. Existing criteria for decision making, radiological and non-radiological factors which affect the decision making processes are explained. The experience in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident shows that the decision making process for remediation actions must consider both radiological and non-radiological factors. Moreover, as the annual dose tends to approach established limits over time, non-radiological factors start to play a more important role in the decision making process. (author)

  9. Water resources change in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the post-soviet period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In recent decades large changes in the state, formation and utilization of water resources have taken place on the territory of the former Soviet Union. There are several reasons for this. Water resources change is caused by different natural and anthropogenic factors. The main reason is climatic, first of all warming during cold seasons and augmentation of rainfall in winter and in summer. During the last 15 years on the territories of Russia and Belarus the rise in river runoff has been observed. Changes in the river runoff in Ukraine were not so certain in the ninetieth but at the very end of the 20th century the raise was also seen. Change of the climatic conditions coincides with the human impact on water resources. After the collapse of the Soviet Union there were great changes in political, social and economic spheres of the new formed states. The economic recession as well as the economic rise since the last years of the 20th century has affected the state of water resources. During the last 15 years water use and therefore water sewage reduction has been well seen. The structure of water consumption and therefore of all water management is defined by climatic conditions. First of all it is seen in irrigated agriculture, but also takes place in other branches of water management. We tried to show the dependence of some water consumption characteristics on the mean annual air temperature and on its correlation with the annual precipitation in the regions of the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. It was found out that in the regions of Russia with low air temperature water consumption per area unit is less than on the territories with high air temperature. This is typical for the period of economic recession after the collapse of the USSR, as well as for the period of economic growth during the last years. Besides, more severe climate in Russia causes lower water consumption per area unit, at the same time in Russia self-purification is less intensive

  10. The ecological-commerce (ECO-COM) zone concept for developing biomass energy from contaminated resources: A new demonstration zone for the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl Accident, about 17,000 km2 of forested area in the Gomel Oblask of Belarus was contaminated with radioactive material. Remediation and productive utilization of these resources is proposed through the use of the forest biomass as a source of energy. The energy sector of Belarus requires rapid development of new sources of power generating capacity if projected needs are to be met. The current energy balance in the region of the Contaminated Territories shows a deficit of almost 600 MW which is currently being imported. The next five years will see a significant reduction of the energy production capacity of Belarus due to retirement of a large portion of existing facilities. The World Bank has stressed the importance of biomass energy development in Belarus to reduce reliance on imported sources of energy. This proposal addresses this need. A Non-Profit Corporation (NPC) is proposed to manage all identified resources in the contaminated territories in Belarus for use by a duty-free / tax-free Ecological - Commerce (ECO-COM) Zone. The ECO-COM Zone would produce energy, pulp, paper, and other products directly from radioactively contaminated materials. A board of internationally recognized specialists in radiological safety would insure that these products meet internationally acceptable safety norms. A primary benefit for Belarus would be the creation of significant electrical energy capacity as well as expanded pulp and paper production in addition to the removal of a large fraction of the total radioactive source-term from the contaminated land. A short list of projects is presented at the end of this report that meet basic infrastructural, economic, industrial, and energy savings activities permitting the rapid payback of investments. This list was compiled for ECO-COM and recommended by the Ministry of Energy Savings in the framework of the Energy Efficiency 2000 (EE 2000) Demonstration Zone program adopted for Belarus

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF FINANCIAL PERSONNEL NUMBER IN ARMED FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bolshakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to reduction of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus and necessity to carry out economically reasonable reforms optimizing strength of financial personnel with the purpose to decrease its number but without undermining financial and operational activities of the Armed Forces as a whole. It has been proposed to optimize strength of financial personnel in the Armed Forces while executing organizational staff transformations such as introduction of a centralized accounting system for service personnel by an example of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.Normative for financial personnel strength of the supposed unified financial centre which is involved in accounting recordings on salary and other payments has been calculated on the basis of inter-branch standards. While taking as an example a conventional organization “B” with staff strength which is equal to the strength of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus the possible efficiency in introduction of the centralized accounting system for service personnel has been determined in the paper. According to represented calculations reduction of financial personnel dealing with accounting recordings on salary and other payments in the whole organization “B” can constitute up to 60 persons with more than 200 branches which are carrying out independent payment accounting for personnel concerned.Dependence of strength normative on number of financial bodies, percentage of personnel receiving payments through a unified financial centre and concentration of financial and economic document circulation has been determined in the paper. It has been pointed out that it is not sufficient to determine quantitative indices in order to ensure an objective reflection of the efficiency of possible introduction of the centralized accounting system for service personnel in the Armed Forces. In order to obtain complete information it is

  12. Autoantibodies in children with alopecia areata from various radioecological areas of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a nonscarring form of hair loss in humans. The most widely held belief is that AA is an autoimmune disease. After Chernobyl accident there has been an increase in autoimmunity pathology in Belarus including AA. The aim of the study was to asses the prevalence of autoantibodies in children with AA from various radioecological areas of Belarus. 87 patients (mean age - 10.3 +- 0.4) with AA were included in this study. 250 healthy children of the same age were studied as a control. Hair follicle antibodies (AB-HF) were measured by Western immunoblotting. Autoantibodies to thyroidperoxidase (AB-TPO) and thyroglobuline (AB-TG) were measured by radioimmunoassay using Medipan diagnostic kits. Autoantibodies to DNA were detected by immunopresipitation assay. We divided all children with AA on three groups: 1 - 14 children from noncontaminated area; 2 - 39 children from radio contaminated region and 3- patients from Minsk-city. The frequency of positive AB-TG in patients from group 2 (12%) was significantly higher in comparison to group 1 and 3 (0%). The proportion of children positive for both AB-TPO and AB-TG also was higher in group from contaminated area (8% vs 0%, 0%, p<0.001). There was significant difference in the incidence of AB-DNA between children from Minsk-city and children from non contaminated area (18.5% vs 0%, p<0.05). The frequency of positive both AB-TPO and AB-DNA in group 2 (6.9%) was almost the same as in the group 3 (7.1%). The prevalence of non-specific for AA autoantibodies was significantly higher in patients from radio contaminated area than in children from non contaminated region (44.9% vs 9%, p<0,001). The prevalence of specific hair follicle autoantibodies was significantly higher in children from contaminated region than patients from non contaminated area (50% vs 18%, p<0.05). Positive levels of were found in 36% of patients from Minsk-city. The increase of frequency specific and non-specific autoantibodies in children

  13. The major regularities of the air radioactive contamination of Belarus territory after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first days after the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity of surface air in different regions of Belarus has increased in tens and hundred thousand time. The regular control of air radioactive contamination in the zone of alienation and nearest to it is carried out from the end 1989. The radioactive air monitoring carried out in territories with various contamination density (from 0,2 up to 9,6 MBq/m2 on Cs-137). The measurements of the Cs-137 contents in ashes of air sampler filters were carried out by gamma - spectrometer ADCAM-300 MCA. The measurement of the Pu-240,239 and Sr-90 contents was carried out by usual radiochemical techniques. The used techniques and equipment allow to define in a sample of the minimal activity: Pu-239,240 - 0,001 Bq, Cs-137 - 0,5 Bq, Sr-90 - 0,1 Bq. The initial contamination of ground happened a near zone within approximately first 2 weeks after accident. Since the end of May, 1986 till present time the air radioactive contamination is formed under action of processes of secondary wind rise and carry of radioactive particles with contaminated territories, which depends from a number factors of both natural and anthropogenous origin. The relations of Pu-238/Pu-239 and Sr-90/Pu-239 in aerosol particles practically coincide with the same relations in fuel blown up reactor. The ratio of Cs-137/Pu-239 activities in aerosols considerably exceeds the resettlement ratio for fuel. Strontium and plutonium are in structure of fuel particles, and cesium aerosol have other origin. The analysis of changes annual radioisotopes concentration in air of towns of Belarus specifies existence of the tendency to slow decrease of contamination of atmosphere by radioisotopes of industrial origins. The basic tendency of formation of air radioactive contamination is determined by the contents of a dust at surface layer of an atmosphere and its specific activity. Annual average dust content of air in a zone resettlement was least and made about 10 mk g

  14. Mortality studies in children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident in the district of Gomel, Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, the district of Gomel in Belarus has become the most contaminated area within the former USSR. A comparative pilot study conducted by the authros to establish the mortality in that district during the 1984-1992 period has not yet revealed any elevated mortality among children aged 0 to <15 years for the period after the accident. Diseases of the respiratory system and congential anomalies were found to be the principal causes of death in this age group (ICD9: classes VIII and XIV). Owing to the low number of children born during the study period and the concomitant small number of deaths from neoplasms, a clear analysis of changes in the structure of mortality from neoplasma (ICD9: class II) has not yet been possible. The birth rate in the Gomel district where the highest radiation exposure was experienced has dropped: There was an obvious decrease suring 1987, i.e. during the year which immediately followed that of the accident, to rise again in 1992 to levels comparable to those of other study areas. (orig.)

  15. An example of rehabilitation strategies for radioactive contaminated areas in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for remediation and rehabilitation of areas contaminated by radionuclides is largely based on the predictions of individual doses, the internal doses being estimated by the potential contribution of major food products. As an example, the Chechersk region in the Gomel district has been selected to represent areas where, in 1995, individual doses exceeded the national dose limit of 1 mSv/yr. For this area, the contribution of food consumption to the total dose has been estimated, and measures for its reduction are proposed. The radical improvement of pastures for grazing of private dairy cows is one of the most effective measures to reduce internal 137Cs doses. It is shown that the use of herbage from a cultivated pasture with an average 137Cs contamination level of 405 kBq/m2 during five subsequent years leads to an individual accumulative averted dose from milk consumption of 0.98 mSv, which is below the given dose limit of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. In this paper estimates of fluxes of mainly 137Cs and to a smaller extent of 90Sr associated with foodstuffs derived from various ecosystems are given and account is also taken of the radioactivity exported from the area

  16. The implementation of RODOS in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad agreement has been achieved between institutes and institutions in the European Union, Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine to cooperate in the development of the RODOS system, a decision support system for general application in Eastern and Western European countries. This is being coordinated within the Joint Study Project 1 (JSP1) of the EC/CIS Agreement for International Collaboration on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident The ultimate goal of this joint venture is the integration of an operational RODOS system into the national emergency management arrangements. To provide a standard platform for the common R and D work within JSP1, the hardware and software components of RODOS have been implemented at SPA 'Typhoon', Obninsk, IMMS CC, Kiev, and GLAVHYDROMET, Minsk. This paper summarizes the activities of the CIS institutes in generating their RODOS teams, educating and training the personnel involved and to organize cooperation with other institutes for securing access to meteorological and radiological monitoring data, national geographical information and specific expertise necessary to adapt models and data of the RODOS system to local, regional and national conditions. The problems encountered during implementation, the status of the installation of data transmission lines for the remote operation of RODOS and for information exchange with RODOS teams in other countries and the current RODOS development activities are discussed

  17. Determination of radionuclides in foods from Minsk, Belarus, from Chernobyl to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been monitoring the food supply in the United States for radioactivity since 1961. This Radionuclide in Foods Program is maintained to allow the FDA to respond to any nuclear emergency that may affect the food supply. The Three Mile Island incident in 1979 was one of these. In 1986 the Chernobyl incident occurred. As a result, the FDA began extensive monitoring of imported foods, especially those from Europe. One of its sister agencies has personnel in the areas affected by the latter incident and requested that the FDA analyze selected food samples from these places. Since that time, they have requested on a periodic basis, selected food samples be analysed. One such city was Minsk in Belarus. This paper will discuss the radionuclides of interest such as iodine-131, cesium-134/137, strontium-90, ruthenium-106 and other short-lived ones. It will discuss the types of foods sampled and the methodology used in determining the concentrations found in these items. The results will be compared to the permissible levels allowed in the US. In addition it will show the lower limits of detection for each of the radionuclides of interest. (author)

  18. [Treatment results of neuroblastoma in children in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proleskovskaia, I V; Savich, T V; Mareĭko, Iu E; Savva, N N; Aleĭnikova, O V

    2009-01-01

    Our investigation was concerned with effectiveness of infantile neuroblastoma treatment in Belarus and dependence of prognosis on extent of radical surgery. The study involved 115 patients with morphologically confirmed diagnosis of primary tumor who were treated at the Center (1997-2007). Ten-year overall and relapse-free survival rates for favorable prognosis, stage I, II, III, were 1.00 and 0.94 +/- 0.04, respectively. They were significantly higher than those for intermediate (0.70 +/- 0.09 and 0.61 +/- 0.09) or high risk (0.32 +/- 0.08 and 0.27 +/- 0.08), respectively, (p < or = 0.01). The results for radical local surgery were better: 5-year relapse-free survival--0.82 +/- 0.09 as compared with subtotal excision (0.62 +/- 0.12) and biopsy (0.5 +/- 0.25) among patients older than 12 months. Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) was followed by significant improvement: 6-year overall and relapse-free survival (stage IV) (0.5 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12, respectively) as compared those without ASCT (0.12 +/- 0.08 and 0.1 +/- 0.08), respectively, (p < or = 0.01). The main cause of death after ASCT was relapse. Poor results following post-ASCT treatment of stage IV tumor should be improved by more effective detection and removal of tumor cell harvest. PMID:19514379

  19. Possibilities of wood fuel use on the territory of the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus has some experience of wood biomass use for power engineering aims. All the necessary equipment, assigned for power production, is manufactured at own enterprises. Belarus possesses great forest resources, total forests area makes up 8 676,1 thou ha. In the average as for the republic the percentage of forests volume makes up 37,7%. The greatest percent of forest scope have Gomel and Vitebsk regions (44,6% and 38,1% correspondingly). Of 118 administrative regions the forest scope above 20% have 15 regions (Rossonskij - 66,8%, Lel'chitsy - 66,5%). The forest scope less 20% is marked on the territory of 8 regions (Nesvizh - 9,6%, Berestovitsy - 14,6%, Zel'venskij - 14,8%). Wood reserves make up 1 437,9 mln. m3 on the republic's territory. The greatest wood reserves are noted on the territory of Gomel, (323,6 mln. m3 ), Minsk (286,4 mln. m3 ) and Vitebsk (272,0 mln. m3 ) regions. The least ones - Brest and Grodno regions (191, and 158,7 mln. m3 correspondingly). Reserves of coniferous sorts make up 955,9 mln. m3 , solid-leaf-bearing breeds - 532,8 mln. m3 , soft-leaf-bearing ones - 427,8 mln. m3. The Republic of Belarus fuel timber potential resources consist of: 1. Wood to be stores as: a) main use of forests; b) cuts due to forest management; c) sanitary cuts; d) other cuts. 2. Logging waste. 3. Wood sawing waste due to timber processing. Lumbering resources make up the basis of fuel potential of the Republic of Belarus in wood fuel and directly refer to fuel resources resulting from lumbering and timber processing. Main scope of forest funds to be assigned for industrial use is under the authority of Ministry of Forest Management. Amount of forest cuts waste (knots, branches, foliage, needles, stumps, roots) makes up 35% of trunk wood volume. As a calculated forest cuts of 7,2 mln. m3 in 2006 1,2-1,3 mln. m3 (0,8...0,9 ml t) may be used as a fuel. By 2015 this scope may reach 2,0-2,5 mln. m3 (1,4-1,8 ml t). Most reserves of liquid timber have district

  20. Remediation Strategy and Practice on Agricultural Land Contaminated with 137Cs and 90Sr in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to review existing data on the efficiency and acceptability of agricultural countermeasures for reducing of internal exposures introduced by consumption of foodstuff produced on land contaminated by 137Cs and 90Sr. Currently, there are strongly reduced state budget resources for mitigating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. No more than 50% of the required agricultural protective measures could be financed in the last years. There is an increased need for an optimal use of available resources. New efforts are needed to identify sustainable ways to make use of the most affected areas that reflect the radiation hazard, but also revive the economic potential for the benefit of the community. For this reason the practical complex assessment and justifying of countermeasure application in the most contaminated rural districts of Belarus are the main directions of rehabilitation activity to ensure the radiation protection of people for long term after Chernobyl accident. Countermeasures have to lead to the profitable or self-sufficient production of harvests with low radionuclide contamination. The complex of the effective countermeasures has been worked out and implemented mostly in public sector of agriculture. However, particular attention must be given to the production of private farms of several hundred settlements, where samples of milk still contain radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr in excess relative to the established limits

  1. Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure Assessment on Thyroid Cancer Risk among Persons in Belarus Exposed as Children or Adolescents Due to the Chernobyl Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available The excess incidence of thyroid cancer in Ukraine and Belarus observed a few years after the Chernobyl accident is considered to be largely the result of 131I released from the reactor. Although the Belarus thyroid cancer prevalence data has been previously analyzed, no account was taken of dose measurement error.We examined dose-response patterns in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 11,732 persons aged under 18 at the time of the accident, diagnosed during 1996-2004, who had direct thyroid 131I activity measurement, and were resident in the most radio-actively contaminated regions of Belarus. Three methods of dose-error correction (regression calibration, Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo were applied.There was a statistically significant (p0.2.In summary, the relatively small contribution of unshared classical dose error in the current study results in comparatively modest effects on the regression parameters.

  2. The retrospective estimation of radiation situation on the territory of Republic of Belarus in the first period after the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most complicated situation at the territory of Belarus has been observed in the first period after the accident at the ChNPP owing to the great quantity of the deposited short-lived radionuclides and the radionuclides with half-lives up to 1 year. In 26 April 1986, the radioactive isotopes, including radioactive noble gases and iodine isotopes have initially reached the height of 1.8 km and began transport with air flows in the North-West direction through the western and central areas of Belarus. The analyzis of the subsequent meteorological situation has shown, that the meteorological conditions of the movement of the radiation-contaminated air masses in 26 April to 10 May, 1986 have determined the radioactive contamination of Belarus, in the first phase with short-lived radionuclides. (author)

  3. Experience of work with population concerning the problem on state of the objects radioecologically dangerous located close by the Minsk-City, the capital of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belarus has no operating reactors at present. But the Chernobyl syndrome has roused the increased and morbid interest of the population for the state of nuclear and radiation dangerous objects located in the settlement Sosny being at km from Minsk-city where Academician Science and Technical Complex - Sosny. The Institute was engaged in creation of nuclear power plants with a new type of coolant. Nuclear reactors unique in Belarus were operated here, such as the research reactor IRT-M and a pilot small-sized mobile NPP which was tested. Moreover, the only point for storing radioactive waste in Belarus is situated in proximity of Sosny. In 1998 after the visit of the President of the Republic of Belarus some journalists have made statements at a non-qualification level in their transmissions by television, publications in newspapers about the fact that there are two tons of weapons plutonium and highly enriched uranium in nuclear storage facilities of ASTC Sosny. Five years ago Belarus joined the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, International Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Nuclear materials are stored under supervision of the IAEA from 1996. It is naturally that the presence of a large radioactive waste disposal facility (PDWD) near Minsk-city rises alarm in population. At present the project on PDWD reconstruction has been carried out. The project of PDWD reconstruction has passed through the ecological examination according to the order accepted in Belarus and has been discussed in various departments and bodies of local authorities

  4. Estimation of thyroid doses received by the population of Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within weeks of the Chernobyl accident, about 300000 measurements of human thyroidal 131I content were conducted in the more contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus. Results of these and other measurements form the basis of thyroid-dose reconstruction for residents of Belarus. Preliminary estimates of thyroid doses have been divided into three classes. Class 1 ('measured' doses). Individual doses are estimated directly from the measured thyroidal 131I content of the person considered, plus information on life style and dietary habits. Such estimates are available for about 130000 individuals from the contaminated areas of Gomel and Mogilev Region and Minsk city. Class 2 ('passport' doses). For every settlement with a sufficient number of residents with 'measured' doses, individual thyroid-dose distributions are determined for several age groups and levels of milk consumption. This action has been called the 'passportization' of the settlement. A population of about 2.7 million people resides in the 'passportized' settlements. Class 3 ('inferred' doses). For any settlement where the number of residents with 'measured' doses is small or equal to zero, individual thyroid doses are derived from the relationship obtained between the mean adult-thyroid dose and the deposition density of 131I or 137Cs in settlements with 'passport' doses presenting characteristics similar to those of the settlement considered. This method can be applied to the remainder of the population (about 7.3 million people). An approximate estimate of the collective thyroid dose for the residents of Belarus is presented. Illustrative results of individual thyroid dose and associated uncertainty are discussed for rural settlements and urban areas

  5. Problems of perception of radiation risk as a brake of the development of nuclear industry in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The development of nuclear industry is very important task for Belarus, for the country without own alternative sources of energy. At the same time this task is difficult for country that is one of the most suffered form Chernobyl accident. Psychological distress arising from the accident and its aftermath has had a profound impact on individual and community perception of radiation risk by population of Belarus. Although accurate information is accessible and many attempts at dissemination have made, the gloomy stereotype of Chernobyl has developed in public consciousness. At the present day misconceptions and myths about the threat of radiation persist, promoting a paralyzing fatalism among resident in questions of the development of nuclear industry in Belarus. People still lack the information they need about real radiation risk. In such situation good-quality, in time and correctly sent information can be very important in system of measures on reduction of a mental and emotional pressure, on preparation of the population for the decision of socio-economic problems. The creation of uniform information system with use of resources of a global computer network is accepted as new innovation ways of increase of the public knowledge about radiation danger. The creation of such system will allow to carry out by the most modern methods uniform information and socially-rehabilitation politics directed on formation and education of the population in the field of radiating safety and radioecology, on overcoming socially-psychological stress and radio phobia, increase of the vital activity, the formation of a safe image of the life, i.e. on overcoming of consequences of Chernobyl accident in consciousness of the people. (author)

  6. 白俄罗斯声乐研究在中国%Belarus vocal music study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖越歌

    2014-01-01

    2013年中国与白俄罗斯两国首脑共同将两国关系提升至全面战略伙伴关系,开启了中白关系新纪元。两国间的文化交流更加稳固,白俄罗斯深厚的专业音乐教育为中国培养了一批优秀的歌唱家与声乐教育师资。我国对于白俄罗斯的声乐教育研究主要基于这些学成归国的博士、硕士学位获得者,他们在留学期间得益于语言、资料的优势,研究视角关注了身边的人和事,这对于推动中白音乐文化交流起到了重要的作用。%In 2013 China and belarus to relations between the two countries up to the heads of the two countries comprehensive strategic partnership, opens the white relations in new era. Cultural exchanges between the two countries, belarus profound professional music education for China to cultivate a batch of excellent singers and vocal music education of teachers. For belarus's vocal music education research in China is mainly based on these, Dr., master's degree gainer learn homecoming, they benefit from the advantages of language, and information during the study, the research perspectives focus on the people and things around, this to promote the white music played an important role in cultural communication.

  7. Least cost analysis of Belarus electricity generation system with focus on nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A basic feature of the Belarus electricity system is that about 50% of the installed power capacity is used to produce heat for the central heating supply system. The Republic has one of the most developed districts heating system in Europe. The installation started in 1930, and developed very fast after 1945. Co-generation of electricity and thermal energy in central power plants has played a fundamental role in the local economy. Presently, Belarus electricity generation system includes: Total installed capacities of condensing turbines 3665 MW; Total installed capacities of co-generation turbines 3889 MW. It is expected that in 2020 in accordance with electricity demand forecast peak load demand will be equaled approximately 9500 MW. Taking into account that operation time of 60 % existent co-generation turbine and 70 % of condensing turbine can be extended up to 2020 during the period 2005 - 2020 it is necessity to install about 1500 MW of new co-generation units and about 2000 MW of condensing turbines. To select the least cost scenario for electricity generation system expansion improved computer code WASP-IV for Windows had been used. As far code WASP-IV do not allow finding out optimal solution for electricity generation system with high share of co-generation directly the methodology of application of this program for this case had been developed. Methodology is based on utilization of code WASP-IV for simulation condensing turbines and module BALANCE for modeling co-generation part of the system. The scenarios for the electricity system expansion plan included only conventional technologies. Presently, the works connected with the preparedness for NPP construction in the Republic including site survey for NPP are being carried out. The first stage of siting process according to the IAEA classification has been completed. It was based on a set of criteria answered to A Safety Guide of the IAEA Site Survey for Nuclear Power Plants and requirements to be

  8. Implementation of electron and deuteron accelerators in medicine, science and industry in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Research in the field of radiation chemistry, studying the peculiarities of interaction of ionizing irradiation with polymer materials, application of studying for production of medicinal preparations, sterilization of medical products and so on was started in Belarus in the late 60s on the basis of Co-60 source, 400 kCi and are being continued from 1993 with using linear electron accelerator installed at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute. The nominal average beam power is 10 kW with electron energy 10 MeV. The accelerators are equipped with a conveyer with the regulator velocity. The electron scheme for the conveyer's control is applied to carry boxes with the sizes of 45x75 cm2 to the electron accelerator with the velocity from 0.5 cm/s up to 5.0 cm/s. This industrial type facility allows to carry out investigations not only in the field of radiation chemistry, but also in medicine, industry and agriculture. Till today the only facility in Belarus where the radiation treatment of foodstuffs, medical herbs, sterilization of different types of medical devices, pharmaceuticals and raw materials, wound dressing, some food products are performed in a commercial scale. The Ministry of Health of the Republic has given permission for radiation treatment of the following food products: lactose, egg powder, spices, gelatin, meat of poultry, medical herbs. For radiation sterilization of medical devices and for radiation treatment of solid pharmaceuticals the dose 25 kGy was specified by the National State Authority.The project 'The Pilot-Scale Production of Hydrogel Dressings for Medical Purposes' (BYE/8/003) was approved within the framework of TC Program IAEA for 2001-2002 and was started in January. The project will be performed using electron accelerator. In the practice of radiation treatment EGS4 computer code is used to calculate the absorbed dose distribution in the boxes with the products to be irradiated. In 1998 the Institute

  9. Recommendations on health care and medical monitoring to the governments of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following recommendations on health care and medical monitoring to the governments of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine were presented: Continue annual medicals, including cardiovascular exams, on ARS survivors. Reconsider medical follow-up of persons exposed to < 1 Gy. Such follow-up programs are very unlikely to be cost-effective use funds saved to improve general health care programs, continue thyroid cancer screening for adults exposed as children, but evaluate this at intervals for cost-benefit and expected number of cases. Maintain high quality cancer registries to assist allocate public health resources and research. Monitor incidence rates of childhood leukaemia in highly exposed populations. Continue eye examinations in highly exposed populations; new information on radiation-induced cataracts at lower doses may come. Continue local registers on reproductive effects; may not be useful for research but may reassure the population. Inform local populations of the Forum results, including through health care professionals Chernobyl. Some key questions to follow-up: What will be the incidence of various cancers in highly exposed Chernobyl populations (emergency workers and resident of highly contaminated territories)? Will there be an excess risk of thyroid cancers in adults? What are the uncertainties in the estimates of thyroid doses? What is the role of radiation on the induction of cardiovascular disease? Studies should be conducted under a joint protocol with the 3 affected countries participating cooperatively. What is the effect of high doses of radiation on the immune. WHO will continue to participate in activities related to the health consequences and research. The Chernobyl Forum's goals of providing scientifically sound information and recommendations to the affected governments on how to provide more effective health care is a good model that should be used for other large accident areas

  10. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of 131 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the 137Cs-deposition density and a few 131I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of 131I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the 129I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the 129I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  11. Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

  12. First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine on the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First International Conference of European Commission, Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine on the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident has been held in Minsk, 18-22 March 1996. During the Conference 84 lectures as well as 74 posters have been presented. The most important problems connected with general topic was: the radiation contaminations and their measurements; environmental aspects and between them; radionuclide migration and remedial actions in contaminated areas; healthy consequences with irradiated people curing and epidemiology; thyroid neoplasms in children; organization rescue actions during future radiation disasters

  13. The role of Palesse state radiation environmental reserve in preserving of biological variety of surface vertebrates in belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    6 species rodents, 1 species ungulate and 4 - predators are brought in to the third edition of the Red Data Book of Belarus. From these three groups on territory Palesse State radioecological reservation (PSRER) is registered 6 species (54,5 %), from 72 rare birds - is registered 34 (47,2 %) species, from 4 species reptiles and amphibians - 3 (75 %). Territory PSRER not only territory of preservation biodiversity of region of Palesse and Republic, but also having the international meaning for preservation rare and maintenance of stability of populations of usual species of animals. (authors)

  14. The ethos project for post-accident rehabilitation in the area of belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Accident in 1986 has had a significant impact locally, regionally and, indeed, globally. While the acute health effects of the accident are perhaps not as serious as had been feared, uncertainties remain as to the consequences of prolonged exposure to low doses of radiation. Beyond that, the psychological effect of the accident has been significant if less easy to measure for those still living in the areas officially designated as contaminated in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. And, of course, the broad socio-economic consequences for those areas should not be underestimated. The impact of the accident was also felt throughout the world in the form of a diminution, even a breakdown, of public confidence in both the nuclear industry and the authorities charged with regulating it and responding to any problems. Nowhere was this more acute than in the regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine most directly affected by the contamination. In the context of such a breakdown in confidence the Soviet, and later the post-independence, authorities in these countries needed to make a significant effort to build public trust to a point where confidence returned. After setting out the background situation in some more detail (section 2), this case study examines the reactions of people in a number of villages in the contaminated area of Belarus to the efforts of those authorities (section 3). It then examines an innovative approach to post-accident rehabilitation implemented by a French team working in the region from 1996 onwards, the ETHOS project (sections 4 and 5), before considering the local people's responses to that new approach (section 6). It then sets out the people's own ideas for future improvements to post-accident rehabilitation efforts as an indication of the way in which the ETHOS approach has had a positive effect on the population's attitude to its long term future in the region (section 7). The study then provides a conceptual analysis of

  15. The ethos project for post-accident rehabilitation in the area of belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Accident in 1986 had a significant impact locally, regionally and, indeed, globally. At each level, this took the form not only of tangible radioactive contamination of varying degrees of severity, but also of a less tangible, but no less real, breakdown in public confidence in the nuclear industry and the authorities charged with regulating it and responding to any problems. Nowhere was this more acute than in the regions of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine most directly affected by the contamination. In the context of such a breakdown in confidence the authorities here faced an unprecedented task as they sought to develop and implement rehabilitation programmes. (author)

  16. Border monitoring and control: The experience of the customs bodies of the Republic of Belarus in the prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the experience of the customs bodies of the Republic of Belarus in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials.There exists a real threat of unauthorized movement of radioactive materials on the territory of Belarus, because of its geographical situation. The tasks of customs bodies in the realization of border monitoring and control are presented, along with examples of illicit trafficking. The border monitoring and control equipment used by the customs bodies, international technical co-operation and the creation of an automated system of radiation control are discussed. (author)

  17. Database of meteorological and radiation measurements made in Belarus during the first three months following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow's milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow's milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. - Highlights: ► Meteorological and radiation measurements done after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus were collected. ► Data were verified and incorporated into a single database. ► Results of this study is being used to improve the thyroid dose estimates after the Chernobyl accident.

  18. U.S./Belarus/Ukraine joint research on the biomedical effects of the Chernobyl Reactor Accident. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Cancer Institute has negotiated with the governments of Belarus and Ukraine (Ministers/Ministries of Health, institutions and scientists) to develop scientific research protocols to study the effects of radioactive iodine released by the Chernobyl accident upon thyroid anatomy and function in defined cohorts of persons under the age of 19 years at the time of the accident. These studies include prospective long term medical follow-up of the cohort and the reconstruction of the radiation dose to each cohort subject's thyroid. The protocol for the study in Belarus was signed by the US and Belorussian governments in May 1994 and the protocol for the study in Ukraine was signed by the US and Ukraine in May 1995. A second scientific research protocol also was negotiated with Ukraine to study the feasibility of a long term study to follow the development of leukemia and lymphoma among Ukrainian cleanup workers; this protocol was signed by the US and Ukraine in October 1996

  19. Change of the radionuclide content of landscapes contamination in the small catchment at the Bryansk-Belarus caesium spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the joint Russian-Belarus RFBR-BelRFBR project no. 02-05-81011 will be shown. Information on the spatial redistribution of 137Cs within small catchment and through the connected landscapes is an important background for estimating consequences of the Chernobyl contamination. 137Cs can be used as a tracer for study the direction and intensity of geo-chemical processes in landscapes of small catchment. The experimental data on the modern radionuclide content of soil and plant contamination have been received at the expeditions of 2000-2004 in the regions situated on distances 50, 150 and 250 km from the Chernobyl NPP on territories of Belarus and Russia. Some small catchment in the Dnieper basin have been studied (Braginka, Sozh and Moskovka rivers). The content of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am in soils will be presented. The modern variability of contamination levels in each of connected landscapes will be compared with the variability estimated immediately after the Chernobyl accident. The high spatial fixation of Caesium spots by the Polessye landscapes will be shown. (author)

  20. Radiation monitoring of the inhabitants and the foods in the Chernobyl zone of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of independent radiation monitoring for contaminated territories of Belarus includes 370 local centres for radiation control (LCRC). After the analysis of the information obtained in 1996 on cesium 137 contents in food-stuffs and animal feed from private households as well as in nature products, the data are as follows: in the Gomel Region the percentage of probes, having higher of the radiation protection levels (RPL), is 11.1%; in the Mogilev Region it is 4.6%; in the Brest Region this percentage is 16%. The analysis of the information on cesium 137 contents in milk from private households in 1996 showed, that in the Gomel Region the percentage of probes exceeding RPL (111 Bq/l) is 10.7%, maximum value of contamination being in the village Mlynok, the Elsk Region (1181 Bq/l). In the Mogilev Region the percentage is 3.1%, maximum value of contamination being in the village Moshevoe, the Kostyukovichi Region (215 Bq/l). In the Brest Region it is 34.3% with maximum value being in the village Olmany, the Stolin Region (1910 Bq/l). Comparing the data of LCRC obtained in 1993-1996, one can notice that in the period of 4 years the share of contaminated food-stuffs and milk from private households has not reduced. Moreover in the Brest Region there is a tendency of growth of this share. Check of the residents made with the help of SRP (spectrometer of radiation of a person) shows, that people, especially children, living on the contaminated territories and consuming local food-stuffs have a high level of radioactivity accumulation in the organisms. In connection with these facts was recommended to take the following general preventive measures: to take into account the information of LCRC and SRP checks on accumulation of radioactivity in the organisms of the residents in some localities while making out health improving measures for the Chernobyl Zone residents; to improve the net of local centres of radiation control; to work systematically to improve the

  1. Aerosol seasonal variations over urban sites in Ukraine and Belarus according to AERONET and POLDER measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Dubovik, O.; Kabashnikov, V.; Chaikovsky, A.; Mishchenko, M.; Sosonkin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents an investigation of aerosol seasonal variations in several urban sites in the East European region. Our analysis of seasonal variations of optical and physical aerosol parameters is based on the sun-photometer 2008-2012 data from three urban ground-based AERONET sites in Ukraine (Kyiv, Kyiv-AO, and Lugansk) and one site in Belarus (Minsk), as well as on satellite POLDER instrument data for urban areas in Ukraine. Aerosol amount and optical thickness values exhibit peaks in the spring (April-May) and late summer (August), whereas minimum values are seen in late autumn over the Kyiv and Minsk sites. The results show that aerosol fine mode particles are most frequently detected during the spring and late summer seasons. The seasonal variation similarity in the two regions points to the resemblance in basic aerosol sources which are closely related to properties of aerosol particles. However the aerosol amount and properties change noticeably from year to year and from region to region. The analysis of seasonal aerosol optical thickness variations over the urban sites in the eastern and western parts of Ukraine according to both ground-based and POLDER data exhibits the same traits. In particular, over Kyiv, the values of the Angstrom exponent are lower in April of 2011 than in 2009 and 2010, while aerosol optical thickness values are almost the same, which can be explained by an increase in the amount of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere, such as Saharan dust. Moreover, the coarse mode particles prevailed over suburbs and the center of Kyiv during a third of all available days of observation in 2012. In general, the fine and coarse mode particles' modal radii averaged over 2008-2012 range from 0.1 to 0.2 μm and 2 to 5 μm, respectively, during the period from April to September. The single scattering albedo and refractive index values of these particles correspond to a mix of urban-industrial, biomass burning, and dust aerosols. In addition

  2. Language Shift or Maintenance? An Examination of Language Usage across Four Generations as Self-Reported by University Age Students in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the degree to which language shift or maintenance is obtained across four generations in Belarus. Linguistic homogeneity and heterogeneity receive particular attention as potential contributing factors to language shift or maintenance in the home, arguably the last bastion in terms of language maintenance. In an effort to…

  3. The formation of congenital heart defects (tetralogy of Fallot) in children living in adverse environmental areas of Gomel and Mogilev regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work were analyzed data on the frequency of occurrence UPU tetralogy of Fallot in the Republic of Belarus for the period 2007-2012. Studied comparative characteristics of morbidity of children tetralogy of Fallot in Mogilev, Gomel and Vitebsk regions. (authors)

  4. Estimation of possible internal irradiation collective doses of the population of Belarus at optimization of soil acidity contaminated by Sr 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigation on estimation of Sr 90 gross removal by grain crops on soils contaminated by radionuclides as a result of failure on the Chernobyl NPP and efficiency of optimization of soil acidity on decrease of internal collective dose of irradiation of the population of Belarus are presented. (author)

  5. Retrospective estimation of contamination with short-lived nuclides of belarus territory and modeling of doses to the thyroid gland of population after accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observed in Belarus a growth of thyroid pathology in population attracted attention of the specialists to the problem of reconstruction of radiation situation and doses from short-lived radionuclides particularly iodine isotopes. However, available data regarding radiation situation and obtained dose estimates to thyroid could not explain this fact. (authors)

  6. State and dynamics of the radiation contamination of foodstuffs for children in the Chernobyl zone of ?Belarus according to the data from local radiation control centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations of the 137Cs-contamination of local foodstuffs in the Chernobyl zone of Belarus was studied. The permanent consuming of foodstuffs contaminated with 137Cs causes the radionuclide concentrations in children that are dangerous for their health. All these facts testify about the necessity of the intensification of protective measures against the 137Cs entry in local foodstuffs

  7. Measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Republic of Belarus strives to take an active part in international cooperation in the field of prevention and interception of illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources through: multilateral international agreements and bilateral interagency treatments; information exchange within the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database; participation in different international seminars, workshops, conferences including those under the IAEA auspices etc. Belarus is constantly improving regulatory, legal and technical aspects of activities aimed at: accounting, control and ensuring of physical protection of nuclear material and security of radioactive sources; exercising efficient control over their export and import; detecting cases of their illicit uses and illegal cross-border movements and informing of such cases through the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database; developing and providing training opportunities for personnel. Through Resolution 'On Measures for Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials' issued by the Council of Ministers in 1993, Committee for Supervision of Industrial and Nuclear Safety (PROMATOMNADZOR) was appointed as the authority responsible for ensuring physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. Through Resolution 'On Measures for Fulfillment of Provisions of the Non-Proliferation Treaty' issued by the Council of Ministers in 1993, Promatomnadzor was designated as the national competent authority responsible for the establishment and maintenance of the State System of Accounting and Control of nuclear material. The system accounts all the nuclear material meeting the criteria defined in the Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. The system includes two levels: i.e. on-site accounting and control and state accounting and control exercised by Promatomnadzor. Apart from reporting to the Agency, the system also provides for national tasks being accomplished: control over uses of nuclear material, its physical protection, access

  8. Assessment of radiation risk as a part of ecological risk in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of the work: foundation for principles of planning protection measures, that provide safety for population activity on the territories, contaminated with radio-nuclides, by analysing radio-chemical situation, using risk assessment methods. Problems set in the work: -) Analyses of radiation risk in the structure of ecological risk in the territory of the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident; -) Investigation of chemical risk level, connected with air pollution from stationary objects exhausts, for the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides; -) Modelling of the combined impact of ionising radiation and chemical carcinogen for the possible ecological risk assessment; -) Involving modern geo informational systems in the radio-ecological risk assessment process; -) Foundation for the assessment methodology of the complex influence of negative factors in the territories, contaminated with Chernobyl radio-nuclides. The problems are solved by carrying out specific experiments and by analysing published and own data on radioactive and chemical contamination of some regions of Belarus. Major findings: Radiation input to the really registered carcinogens is estimated to app. 10 %. In case of multiple factors influence of different contaminators of industrial and natural origin (i.e. radiation is not the only negative factor), ignorance of non-radiation origin factors may seriously distort estimation of radiation risk, when it is related to the registered effects. Radiation should be in no way treated as the major factor of real ecological risk in Belarus. Method for comparative analysis of territories' ecological risk level is developed and implemented. A GIS segment, that includes subsystem of the real and forecasted radio-ecological mapping, is created. The authors grounded the experimental model for study the complex influence of radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical carcinogen) factors. Revealed dependencies 'dose

  9. Thyroid cancer in Belarus after Chernobyl: International thyroid project. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has demonstrated what was always known but perhaps has not been as fully acknowledged as it might, namely that national or other geographical boundaries are no defence against radioactive fallout. Much (some 2.2 millions) of the approximately 10 million population of Belarus have been, and are still being, exposed to the radiation resulting from the accident. The most obvious adverse effect of the radiation is on the condition of the thyroid system in children. Now, only just over eight years after the accident, we are experiencing an increase in childhood thyroid cancer which is particularly marked in those closest to the site of the accident. In young children thyroid cancer is an extremely rare condition and thus although at present the numbers of cases (more than 250 since the accident) is not large in absolute terms it is a sufficiently important development to capture the interest of the international medical and scientific community and to give rise to considerable apprehension as to the future development of the outbreak. Although this increase in thyroid cancer has not been definitively attributed to the Chernobyl accident, and indeed a major aim of this project is to elucidate the cause of the cancer, the fact of the exposure of the population of Belarus to the isotopes of iodine at the time of accident, and what we have learned from the experience in the Marshall Islands following the testing of the first hydrogen bomb on Bikini Atoll lead us to consider the accident as the most likely cause of the increase. Belarus is a relatively small and newly independent country. By any standards the Chernobyl accident was a technological disaster of enormous proportions causing damage to the environment over vast land areas. Necessarily it must be a major concern for us and an issue to be considered in the planning of our future. Its impact on the future health of our nation must be assessed as objectively and dispassionately as possible and

  10. Absorbed radiation dose in plants of natural complexes in Belarus over the past 10 years following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An absorbed radiation dose in plant of the natural complexes in Belarus for 10 years following the Chernobyl accident was calculated. The data on dynamics of the exposure dose rate in the area for 10 years were used for calculating the absorbed dose due to external irradiation and the data on the specific activity of the plants due to incorporation of cesium 137 and strontium 90 were taken into consideration when calculating the absorbed dose due to internal irradiation. Maximal absorbed doses in plants (to 40 Gy) were fixed in the zone with the high density of contamination. It resulted in visible somatic damages of separated plant organs. The highest contribution to formation of absorbed doses of ionizing radiation in plants in the contaminated zones belongs to internal irradiation of plant organisms due to incorporated radionuclides, in particular cesium 137

  11. Radiation effects on the population of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and the prediction of stochastic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of conditions of exposure during the post-accident period makes it possible to identify two periods in the radiation exposure of Belarus's population. As a result of our investigations we obtained data about doses for four different categories in the exposed population: people who lived in the contaminated territories without evacuation and relocation; evacuated people; cleanup workers (''liquidators''); and people who were exposed in childhood, especially for thyroid exposure. The total doses for these categories in different time periods were analyzed. Evaluation of doses received by the Belarusian population due to the Chernobyl accident shows no evidence of doses, that could lead to the deterministic consequences of radiation exposure. For all exposed groups we made predictions about different types of stochastic consequences of exposure. 10 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Thermodynamic and transport properties of some alternative ozone-safe refrigerants for industrial refrigeration equipment: Study in Belarus and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, A. J.; Zhelezny, V. P.; Klepatsky, P. M.; Beljajeva, O. V.; Chernjak, Yu. A.; Kotelevsky, Yu. G.; Timofejev, B. D.

    1996-05-01

    The study of several hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and fluorocarbons (FC) and their binary mixtures that have no ozone-depleting ability is being carried Out in the framework of Belarus National Program. The fluids include HFCs R134a. R152a, R135, and R32, and FC R218. The following properties are being investigated: ( I ) phase equilibrium parameters including the boiling and condensing curve and critical point, thermophysical properties at these parameters, and heat of evaporation: (2) isobaric and isochoric heat capacity, ethalpy, and entropy in the gas and liquid state: (3) speed of sound, thermal conductivity. viscosity, and density in the gas and liquid state: (4) dielectric properties and surface tension: (5) behavior of combined construction materials inside the refrigerant medium: and (6) solubility in compressor oils and other technological characteristics. The series of results obtained by authors during the period 1990 1993 is presented.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions of drained fen peatlands in Belarus are controlled by water table, land use, and annual weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlo, Andrei; Minke, Merten; Chuvashova, Hanna; Augustin, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Narkevitch, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Drainage of peatlands causes strong emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2 and N2O, sometimes combined with a weak CH4 uptake. In Belarus drained peatlands occupy about 1505000 ha or more than 7.2 % of the country area. Joosten (2009) estimates CO2 emission from degraded peatlands in Belarus as 41.3 Mt yr-1 what equals to 47 % of total anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of country in 2011. However, it could not be checked if these numbers are correct since there are no GHG measurements on these sites up to now. Therefore we studied the GHG emissions with the closed chamber approach in four peatlands situated in central and southern Belarus over a period from August 2010 to August 2012. The measurements comprised eight site types representing different water level conditions, and ranging from grassland and arable land over abandoned fields and peat cuts to near-natural sedge fens. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were determined using the close-chamber approach every second week in snow free periods and every fourth week during winter time. The annual emissions were calculated based on linear interpolation. Carbon dioxide exchange was measured with transparent and opaque chambers every 3-4 weeks and the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was modeled according to Drösler (2005). Most of the drained sites were sources of CO2 in both years. NEE increased with lower mean annual water table level. The highest NEE value (1263.5 g CO2-C m-1yr-1) was observed at the driest site of the study; an abandoned fen formerly used for agriculture. In contrast, a former peat extraction site with moist peat and small Pinus sylvestris tress were sinks of CO2 with uptake to 389.6 g CO2-C m-1yr-1. The highest N2O emissions were recorded at a drained agricultural fen with mean annual rates of up to 2347 mg N2O-N m-2 yr-1. Significant fluxes of CH4 (15 g CH4C m-2 h-1) were observed only at the near-natural site in the first year of investigation when precipitation and the mean water

  14. SOFTWARE OF MONITORING SYSTEM FOR ALLOCATED INFORMATION OF STATE PROGRAM ON INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Rybak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes main indices (indicators of realization of the State program on innovative development of the Republic of Belarus (SPIDRB, contains and justifies a hierarchical structure of data processing and display, finalizes a list of the SPIDRB participants and executors. Major functions of the units pertaining to automation of an automated SPIDRB monitoring system are determined in the paper. In order to accumulate, process and furnish information a system of documentary databases on the basis of IBM Lotus Domino/Notes 8, relational databases of IBM DB2 and MS SQL Server 2005 is used in the given paper. Interaction with data suppliers is ensured by means of e-mail. The proposed scientific principles and software allow to automate a process of SPIDRB monitoring and to raise a decision-making efficiency in the field of innovative economic development of our country.

  15. Data bank for the data at early measurements of radioactive contamination in Belarus after Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to active participation of many organizations in the works on selection and measurement of soil samples, as well as to timely processing of the data with the help of the formed data bank, in August 1986 the map of the contamination with 137Cs of the whole territory of Belarus was drawn up at the Institute, and in November 1996 - the maps of contamination with 90Sr and isotopes of plutonium. For mapping more than 11,600 gamma spectrometric measurements of the objects of the environment from 1386 settlements and about 2100 radiochemical measurements were used. Further the data bank was modified to some extent and added with a package of applied programs what made the preliminary processing and verification of the data be easy. (author)

  16. Epidemiology of cancer in population living in contaminated territories of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data of oncology service of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia on the number of new patients with cancer and leukemia in 1980-1994 in 12 regions adjacent to the Chernobyl NPP are generalized. Spatio-temporal for incidence of malignant diseases in population are developed. The analysis of possible connections between the effective dose and incidence of cancer in population living in the area contaminated by radionuclides is performed. Spatio-temporal models for the incidence of cancer including leukemias and lymphomas are found to be the same in the pre- and post-accidental periods. Nine years after the Chernobyl accident there are no scientific evidence for the excess of incidence of malignant tumors, except thyroid cancer, attributed to radiation factor, even in the most contaminated areas. Appearance of previously unregistered thyroid cancer cases in children living in the territory, where considerable amount of radioactive iodine was deposited, can indicate stochastic radiation effects in thyroid

  17. Development of a radiological protection culture in contaminated territories: lessons learned from a School Twinning Between France and Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayrault, D. [Lycee du Bois d' Amour, 86 - Poitiers (France); Schneider, T. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire(CEPN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Baumont, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a pilot project set up between a French school (Lyc du Bois d'Amour Poitiers) and two Belarussian schools of the Stolyn district (Olmany and Terebejov schools) located in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. This project has been developed within the framework of the international Programme CORE (Cooperation for Rehabilitation of living conditions in Chernobyl affected areas in Belarus) [1]. The main objective of this pilot project is to promote the development of a practical radiological culture at school through the twinning of French and Belarussian schools. This project, developed in cooperation with CEPN (Nuclear Evaluation Protection Centre) and IRSN (Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety), relies on the direct involvement of the students in the learning process of their local environment together with the international exchange for sharing the knowledge on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

  18. Development of a radiological protection culture in contaminated territories: lessons learned from a School Twinning Between France and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to present a pilot project set up between a French school (Lyc du Bois d'Amour Poitiers) and two Belarussian schools of the Stolyn district (Olmany and Terebejov schools) located in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. This project has been developed within the framework of the international Programme CORE (Cooperation for Rehabilitation of living conditions in Chernobyl affected areas in Belarus) [1]. The main objective of this pilot project is to promote the development of a practical radiological culture at school through the twinning of French and Belarussian schools. This project, developed in cooperation with CEPN (Nuclear Evaluation Protection Centre) and IRSN (Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety), relies on the direct involvement of the students in the learning process of their local environment together with the international exchange for sharing the knowledge on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

  19. The mobility of 137Cs and 90Sr in agricultural soils in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from studies concerning the behavior of the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in soil-plant agricultural systems in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia during 1991. The sites, representing ploughed and natural pastures, were located at varying distances between 50 and 650 km and varying directions from the Chernobyl reactor site. The 137Cs activity concentrations in the upper 0-5 cm soil layer ranged from 25-1,000 kBq m-2 and were higher in natural pastures as compared to ploughed pastures. For 90Sr, activity levels ranged from 1.4-40 kBq m-2, and the highest 90Sr deposition was observed in the Gomel Region, Belarus. The highest 90Sr:137Cs ratio was also observed in the Gomel soils, i.e., 15% as compared to between 0.72 and 7.4% in the other soils. The mobility of radionuclides was studied by means of sequential extraction. For all soils, between 60 and 95% of the 137Cs was found to be strongly bound to soil components. In the Russian and Ukrainian soils, between 40 and 98% of the 90Sr was found in the easily extractable fractions, and the distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr followed that of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of cesium and strontium. However, in the Gomel soils, between 20 and 50% of the 90Sr was easily extractable and the distribution of 90Sr within the extraction fractions did not follow that observed for stable strontium. These results are though to reflect the association of 90Sr with fuel particles deposited in the Gomel Region. The mobility of 90Sr is expected to increase with time (as the particles weather) in these soils. 24 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  20. TO THE SUBJECT OF DEVELOPMENT OF POWER SUPPLY PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL HEAT TECHNOLOGIES AND HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khrоustalev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Considers the current key energy problem – the rational and efficient use of energy resources, and the possibility of its solution, based on the concept of intensive energy conservation. As a result, the way of primary energy consumption reduction in Belarus is provided. The initial situation in the frame of program of further improvement of energy consumption until 2030 is estimated. It is shown, that for Belarus the first place in energy saving measures takes the efficiency improvement of natural gas consumption, what allows reducing the investment and saving energy resources.The possibility of usage of waste energy flows of medium-and low-temperature from industrial and municipal enterprises are discussed. To realize the described possibilities, some changes of heat supply system of enterprises and plants are required. Changes in heat supply system of the industrial enterprises, related with usage of low-temperature waste energy flows in a thermal energy generation process for heating, require the installation of additional equipment in existing heat energy supply system, such as absorption heat pumps, which are easily joint and successfully work at boiler Houses as well as at CHP. The numerous examples of fuel consumption reduction via heat industrial waste and sewage usage are shown in this article. It must be emphasized, that such an expansion of energy-saving framework not only reduce the primary energy consumption by heat generating sources, but also significantly improves the conditions of the Belarusian electrical grid operation under the conditions of nuclear power plant commissioning. The existing technical framework, that ensured the proposed changes, is also taking into account.

  1. Republic of Belarus; 2009 Article IV Consultation and Second Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement-Staff Report Informational Annex; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Press Release

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that Belarus has so far escaped a significant fall in output, despite a sharp fall in external demand. GDP declined 0.5 percent year over year in the first eight months of 2009, comparing favorably to Belarus’ main trading partners. Economic activity has been bolstered by strong domestic demand, especially for housing construction financed under government programs. Executive Directors have applauded the authorities’ commitment to a tight fisca...

  2. Methods and results of reconstruction of 131I concentration in milk from total beta-activity measurements in Belarus after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the first few weeks following the Chernobyl accident a large scale monitoring of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs locally produced was carried out in the most contaminated areas of Belarus. Due to a lack of spectrometric instruments, radiometric devices (DP-100) were used for beta activity measurements mostly of milk and milk products. Because the intake of 131I with milk was the main contributor of the thyroid dose for the Belarus population, it is very important to reconstruct levels of 131I in milk for Belarus settlements. The purpose of the paper is to present the methods and results of assessing the 13I concentration in milk based on historical records of total-beta activity measurements carried out in April-June 1986 in Belarus. The results of reconstruction of the 131I concentration in milk will be used in on-going epidemiologic studies of a cohort of Belarus children. About 20,000 total-beta activity measurements were used in the analysis; for about 50% of those, the measurement result exceeded the minimum detectable activity. Estimates of 131I concentration in milk at the date of sampling and of time-integrated milk concentrations were reconstructed for 482 settlements in Gomel Oblast and for 100 settlements in Mogilev Oblast, the most contaminated areas in Belarus, where at least one milk measurement was available. The assessment of the 131I concentrations in milk involved: 1) An analysis of the calibration coefficients of the detectors for radionuclides available in milk (the main radionuclides were 131I, 1324Cs, 137Cs, 89Sr, 90Sr); and 2) An assessment of the relative activity distribution of those radionuclides in milk. Only measurements made before 21 May 1986 were considered to be reliable, as the measurements conducted late May and in June were found to be unreliable because of the decrease in 131I concentrations and the growing influence of other radionuclides with longer half-lives. Analysis of multiple measurements

  3. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus -- the "D-shuttle" project --

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, N; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernandini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Guérin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molęda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2015-01-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter "D-shuttle" for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  4. Operational conditions of storages for products of decontamination of the territories of Belarus after the accident at Chernobyl NPP and evaluation of their radioecological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of carrying out the measures on decontamination of the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident, the storages for radioactive products of decontamination have been arranged in the Republic. Up to now, 69 storage sites for radioactive products of decontamination have been examined and registered. Six of them, the most typical, with the highest activity, are under constant control with the help of the network of the hydrogeological observation holes. The analysis of the field conditions of the storage sites at the territory of Belarus has shown that there is the violation of requirements for safe storage practically for all storages. The evaluation of protection of the ground water against radioactive contamination has shown, that in 10--100 years, the contamination of the ground water with caesium-137 is possible in concentrations lower than the Republican permissible levels and with strontium in concentrations significantly exceeding the specified values

  5. The requirements and basic principles of the system of radiation monitoring of the environment to ensure radiation safety in the republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Republic of Belarus, the problem of radiation safety is one of the most important tasks of ensuring national security. In this regard, development of a framework methodology management radio-logical monitoring of the environment is an important scientific challenge both in terms of retrospective assessment of the effectiveness of radiation monitoring in the period 1963–2011 years and in terms of the proposed activity, in the first place, the construction of nuclear power (NPP) in Belarus. The article presents the conceptual framework of radiation monitoring, data analysis of internal and external sources of threats and risks of radiation safety, assessed their dynamics. described signs of a problem situation and ways to resolve it. Formulated system requirements and basic principles of radiation monitoring system and its programs. A model of radiation monitoring as an essential part of the complex operational and long-term measures for preventing and managing risks, challenges and threats of radiation safety. (authors)

  6. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries. PMID:26613195

  7. Nuclear and Physical Methods of Control For soil and Near-ground Air Contamination With Plutonium and Americium-241 in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident considerable territories of Belarus have been contaminated with Pu and 241Am. The absence of instrumental techniques for a direct analysis of transuranium elements (TUE) in the objects of the environment has made the using of laborious radiochemical methods inevitable what, in its turn, has limited a necessary scale of investigations on TUE problem. The paper presents the more cheap and express instrumental nuclear and physical techniques for Pu and 241Am analysis in soils and near-ground layer of air having been developed at the Institute of Power Engineering Problems / National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (IPEP NASB), as well as some results having been obtained using these techniques

  8. CORE health project: production and use of environmental radioactivity measurement data and internal contamination data for the health status follow-up of children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large regions in Belarus remain contaminated particularly with 137Cs at such a level that it has to be taken into account on day-to-day life. Hundreds of thousands inhabitants live in these territories. Their concerns are mainly focused on child health problems, and they lack of means to evaluate radioactivity in their environment to better manage it. IRSN has initiated a programme in the Chechersk district (Belarus) to improve information about child sanitary status; this project is developed in collaboration with two NGOs, ACRO and Medecins du Monde, which will be respectively in charge of improving radiological quality, pregnancy follow-ups and actions with the population in order to identify their expectations. (authors)

  9. Features Of Civil Process And Civil Regulation In The Sphere Of The State And Confessional Relations In Armenia, Belarus And Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Nina V. Volodina

    2015-01-01

    Features of civil process and civil regulation in the former Soviet Union, in the CIS countries are considered (in Armenia, Belarus, Moldova). Features of the state and confessional relations in each certain state are marked out. It is noted that in the Republic of Armenia the church is separated from the state and freedom of activity to the religious organizations, but at the same time in the Fundamental law of the Armenian church as national, the leading mission for preservation of identity...

  10. Radiation WBC monitoring of cesium 137 contents in children from the Chernobyl regions of Belarus and necessity of their long-term radiation protection by pectins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Radiation Safety 'Belrad' has performed 270 thousand measurements of cesium 137 in children of the Chernobyl regions of Belarus. In some cases there are some big value of the specific activity. In connection with this the Institute performed the pectin cures with the application of the preparation 'Vitapect' applied as means of radiation protection of the health of children with the purpose of the decrease of internal radiation dose. (authors)

  11. Spatial structure of food contamination with 137Cs and estimation of long-term internal dose loads on population of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of 53,207 records of 137Cs contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure by eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different types of geostatical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk could be used in decision making. (author)

  12. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  13. Opportunities and Threats from Ukrainian Membership in WTO in Foreign Trade for Meat and Milk Products with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kyzym Mykola O.; Yaroshenko Ihor V.; Matiushenko Ihor Yu.; Semyhulina Iryna B.; Makhanyova Yuliia M.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of consequences of Ukrainian membership in World Trade Organisation (WTO) in foreign trade of meat and milk products with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU). The article shows that meat and milk products are one of the main export agricultural commodities of the country. It analyses the structure of export of agro-industrial products from Ukraine. It studies situation and changes that took place in the market of meat and mea...

  14. Investigation of Apparatus Reliability Applied for Protection of Power Networks in Emergency Operational Cases at Dwelling Sector of the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    G. T. Kulakov; A. N. Kukharenko

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of statistic data analysis it has been established that nearly 10 % of fires that oc­curred in the dwelling sector of the Republic of Belarus in 2006 are related with emergency regime of electric equipment, electric devices and power networks. The paper contains results of experimental comparative investigations concerning operation of fuses for 25 A current and automatic thread fuses for nominal 25 A current.The investigations have shown that fuses do not ensure protection of po...

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CORPORATE MOTIVATION BETWEEN COMPANIES IN CHINA AND BELARUS ON THE BASIS OF GERCHIKOV’S MOTIVATION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    W. Y. Liu; Cherednik M, Y.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined corporate motivation in Belarus and China on the basis of Gerchikov’s motivation theory. We will bring theoretical substantiation for the work and state why we have chosen Gerchikov’s motivation model as foundation for the analysis. On the basis of the results gathered with the help of the research we will propose a suggestion on what peculiarities in the framework of corporate motivation we shall pay special attention in the course of Belarusian and Chinese companies’ ...

  16. The project to provide a medical team to facilitate the establishment of an organized system for earlier detection and treatment of thyroid diseases in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Kyushu Assistance Movement to Chernobyl is a Japanese NGO to send humanitarian support to people affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We have been providing a medical team to facilitate the establishment of an organized system for earlier detection and treatment of thyroid diseases in the Stolin region and in Brest town, Brest Region in Belarus. The Belarus Red Cross gives us its total support in the administration procedures necessary for acceptance of our medical team, our medical supplies and support for both the affected people and the medical facilities. Exchange programs have been held and concrete cooperation geared towards sharing medical information and techniques have been carried out between a Post-Graduate Medical Academy in Belarus and some Japanese specialists. The group of doctors who are our partners in Brest Region also belong to the staff of the International Red Cross's mobile medical examination project that travels through contaminated areas. Their all year long preliminary mass-screening for thyroid diseases all over Brest Region is a great help to making our project more effective. The Biopsy system is extremely effective if not essential for detection of thyroid cancer in its early stages. Experienced Belarussian doctors who have participated in our project for several years have started to transfer biopsy technology to other local doctors. It now seems quite possible that in the near future Belarussian doctors will be able to detect and treat thyroid cancer in its early stages by themselves. A presentation will be made of the activities, achievements and prospects of the project to provide a medical team to facilitate the establishment of an organized system for earlier detection and treatment of thyroid diseases in Belarus

  17. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  18. Radioactive contamination of the Belarus' territory causing to destruction of the building constructions of the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adverse scripts of development of events, causing to destruction of object 'UKRYTIE' and to contamination of the territory of Republic of Belarus are considered. The number of designs of the 4th unit has visually observed damages. Also there are hypothetically unstable constructive elements, at installation of which in a conditions of 1986 the application of reliable welded or bolt connections was impossibly. Initial events of the considered hypothetical accident are earthquake or aircraft accident. Settlement data on contamination of territory for considered accident are indicated. The account was made for a moderate- stable condition of atmosphere by the Gauss model for process of the dust particles precipitation. In this case the radionuclide falling out will take place basically on already contaminated territory of Belarus. The additional contamination may be about 2 Ci/sq.km in the Mozyr' region and 20 Ci/sq.km in Chernobyl NPP territory. In case of imposing of acts of nature (the earthquake or tornado), the all dust fraction, which available in object, may be released in atmosphere. The total activity of the dust falling out will be about 1.3 MCi, that can lead to more powerful contaminated of the south part of Belarus. Despite the hypothetical character of the scripts, the probability of their realisation at long operation of object will increase. Thus, the transformation of object 'UKRYTIE' to a safe system is an urgent problem. 1 ref., 3 figs

  19. A network game analysis of strategic interactions in the international trade of Russian natural gas through Ukraine and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas is an important source of relatively low-emission, low-cost, non-nuclear and abundant energy; however, the difficulty of storage and transportation adds geopolitical and geostrategic complexity to its international trade. Much of the global natural gas trade occurs through natural gas pipelines, which as an infrastructure is strictly specific to the transportation of natural gas. Therefore, the very structure of natural gas pipeline networks can dictate the strategic relationship among countries involved in its trade. This paper applies a Network Game Model where these pipeline networks are modeled as graphs and respective value functions, and employs the Link-based Flexible Network Allocation Rule developed by Jackson (2005) as a solution concept to measure the relative power structure among these natural gas trading countries. The paper analyzes the case of trade between Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Western Europe, and compares the results to existing analyses that employ a Cooperative Game Model in Characteristic Function Form and the Shapley Value as the solution concept. Whereas the results of the analysis conducted in the previous literature indicate that Russia's relative power was significantly stronger than other players both before and after the construction of the Nord Stream pipeline, the results provided in this paper draw a different conclusion. Ukraine's relative power was already equal to that of Russia before the Nord Stream. This may be understood as one of the underlying causes for the prolonged conflicts that occurred repeatedly in this region concerning natural gas trade

  20. Perceived control, voluntariness and emotional reactions. A study conducted in relocated areas of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper use data from a pilot study to analyse relationships between type of resettlement (voluntary or involuntary) and individuals' everyday feelings, perceptions of risk, health status and control. The data were collected in 1995, within the Joint Study Project 2, i.e., a collaborative research project of the European Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, 1991/92 - 95/96. The aim of the study was to investigate reactions to change and new life conditions of people who had been resettled due to the Chernobyl accident. Participants from the respective countries included adult individuals sampled from two age groups of less than 45 years and 45 years and older, with approximately the same number of men and women. The questionnaire presented various topics to which responses were indicated on quantitative response scales, as well as in open ended response formats. The results presented here focus on emotional reactions, perceived risk and self-rated health among resettled people. The effects of type of resettlement on emotional reactions, Perceived risk and control are discussed

  1. SCIENTIFIC AND INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO PROBLEM PERTAINING TO EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF ENVIRONMENT QUALITY IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Voytov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a scientific and innovative approach to solution of an important problem in the field of rational nature management and ecology which presupposes realization of evaluation, analysis and monitoring of environment  quality  (EQ in Belarus.  This  approach is based on methods and  facilities  of  administrative-command  and  partially  automatic-control  management.   The  main components of the innovative approach are an automatic  system for  evaluation and monitoring of EQ including estimation and formation of nature-resource potential within 11 cadaster and other data base, general principles on evaluation and monitoring of EQ, structural and algorithmic schemes for evaluation of ecological state of administrative territories, calculation of generalized indices of nature-territorial complexes and solution of nature protection problems in respect of EQ monitoring. A system of equation calculation for the analysis and evaluation of technogenic load on main nature components of the environment (free air, water objects, soil cover, realization of monitoring function in respect of EQ and ecological state of local and urban territories, nature resources  and enterprises, pollution and state of some recipients and also data resources for execution of analytical calculations and functions directed on monitoring quality of nature components of the environment is advanced in the paper.

  2. Perceived control, voluntariness and emotional reactions. A study conducted in relocated areas of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, C.J. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1999-12-01

    This paper use data from a pilot study to analyse relationships between type of resettlement (voluntary or involuntary) and individuals' everyday feelings, perceptions of risk, health status and control. The data were collected in 1995, within the Joint Study Project 2, i.e., a collaborative research project of the European Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, 1991/92 - 95/96. The aim of the study was to investigate reactions to change and new life conditions of people who had been resettled due to the Chernobyl accident. Participants from the respective countries included adult individuals sampled from two age groups of less than 45 years and 45 years and older, with approximately the same number of men and women. The questionnaire presented various topics to which responses were indicated on quantitative response scales, as well as in open ended response formats. The results presented here focus on emotional reactions, perceived risk and self-rated health among resettled people. The effects of type of resettlement on emotional reactions, Perceived risk and control are discussed.

  3. Citizenship approach to promote a radiological protection and risk assessment culture at the school level; educational project in Belarus and French schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autret, J.C.; Josset, M. [ACRO NGO, 14 - Herouville Saint Clair (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the international C.O.R.E. programme (Cooperation for Rehabilitation of living conditions in Chernobyl affected areas in Belarus), an educational project was launched in 2004 meant so that the pupils of the Bragin district schools (in the south east of Belarus) will get involved in learning the practice of a radiological culture. Since the damages of radioactivity are cumulative, it is important to reduce the inhabitants daily intake of radioactivity. In the daily life, the understanding of radioactivity issues and the current recommendations concerning food and the environment are not always applied and accessible to the public. By showing that monitoring could help them to reduce the dose of radioactive elements, this project aims at breaking a fatalistic turn of mind. A steady radioecological education is the key element in establishing a practical radiological culture within the population. This project is essentially centred on children who represent both the future generation and the most sensitive group among contaminated by the radioactive effect. Children represent also the best way to realise in -depth contact with the whole population. To facilitate the development of the educational projects, Belarus teams of teachers will receive in -depth expert training in cooperation of the local professionals which will enable them to become active participants in conceiving and carrying out their own educational projects. A more specific training, concerning radiation protection is also be implemented by our N.G.O., with the help of the local organisation Rastok Gesne (Sprout of Life N.G.O.). The pedagogic actions are based on a complete and active involvement of the children and within an interdisciplinary approach will make it possible to include the different activities linked to radiological culture, and more widely, all the other aspects of living in a contaminated area so as to be able to face the risk

  4. Citizenship approach to promote a radiological protection and risk assessment culture at the school level; educational project in Belarus and French schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the international C.O.R.E. programme (Cooperation for Rehabilitation of living conditions in Chernobyl affected areas in Belarus), an educational project was launched in 2004 meant so that the pupils of the Bragin district schools (in the south east of Belarus) will get involved in learning the practice of a radiological culture. Since the damages of radioactivity are cumulative, it is important to reduce the inhabitants daily intake of radioactivity. In the daily life, the understanding of radioactivity issues and the current recommendations concerning food and the environment are not always applied and accessible to the public. By showing that monitoring could help them to reduce the dose of radioactive elements, this project aims at breaking a fatalistic turn of mind. A steady radioecological education is the key element in establishing a practical radiological culture within the population. This project is essentially centred on children who represent both the future generation and the most sensitive group among contaminated by the radioactive effect. Children represent also the best way to realise in -depth contact with the whole population. To facilitate the development of the educational projects, Belarus teams of teachers will receive in -depth expert training in cooperation of the local professionals which will enable them to become active participants in conceiving and carrying out their own educational projects. A more specific training, concerning radiation protection is also be implemented by our N.G.O., with the help of the local organisation Rastok Gesne (Sprout of Life N.G.O.). The pedagogic actions are based on a complete and active involvement of the children and within an interdisciplinary approach will make it possible to include the different activities linked to radiological culture, and more widely, all the other aspects of living in a contaminated area so as to be able to face the risk

  5. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  6. Quantitative summer and winter temperature reconstructions from pollen and chironomid data in the Baltic-Belarus area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki; Stančikaitė, Migle; Zernitskaya, Valentina; Reitalu, Triin; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heinsalu, Atko; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Vassiljev, Jüri; Heiri, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative reconstructions based on fossil pollen and chironomids are widely used and useful for long-term climate variability estimations. The Lateglacial and early Holocene period (15-8 ka BP) in the Baltic-Belarus (BB) area between 60°-51° N was characterized by sudden shifts in climate due to various climate forcings affecting the climate of the northern hemisphere and North Atlantic, including the proximity of receding ice sheets. Climate variations in BB during the LG were eminent as the southern part of the region was ice free during the Last Glacial Maximum over 19 ka BP, whereas northern Estonia became ice free no sooner than 13 ka BP. New pollen based reconstructions of summer (May-to-August) and winter (December-to-February) temperatures between 15-8 ka BP along a S-N transect in the BB area display trends in temporal and spatial changes in climate variability. These results are completed by two chironomid-based July mean temperature reconstructions (Heiri et al. 2014). The magnitude of change compared with modern temperatures was more prominent in the northern part of BB area than in the southern part. The 4 °C winter and 2 °C summer warming at the start of GI-1 was delayed in the BB area and Lateglacial maximum temperatures were reached at ca 13.6 ka BP, being 4 °C colder than the modern mean. The Younger Dryas cooling in the area was 5 °C colder than present as inferred by all proxies (Veski et al. in press). In addition, our analyses show an early Holocene divergence in winter temperature trends with modern values reaching 1 ka earlier (10 ka BP) in southern BB compared to the northern part of the region (9 ka BP). Heiri, O., Brooks, S.J., Renssen, H., Bedford, A., Hazekamp, M., Ilyashuk, B., Jeffers, E.S., Lang, B., Kirilova, E., Kuiper, S., Millet, L., Samartin, S., Toth, M., Verbruggen, F., Watson, J.E., van Asch, N., Lammertsma, E., Amon, L., Birks, H.H., Birks, J.B., Mortensen, M.F., Hoek, W.Z., Magyari, E., Muñoz Sobrino, C., Seppä, H

  7. Studies on the current 137Cs body burden of children in Belarus - Can the dose be further reduced?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus were contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. The annual dose limit of 1 mSv is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of 137Cs as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. In this situation the evaluation of possible dose reduction measures in addition to the control of food contamination is being investigated. Special attention is given to the therapeutic application of a pectin preparation (Vitapect), for which a dose-lowering effect is presumed by Belarusian scientists. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children received a pectin compound named Vitapect for a two-week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of control groups were given a placebo preparation. The 137Cs body burden of the children was measured at the beginning and the end. The mean relative reduction of the specific activity within the Vitapect groups was found to be ∼33%, whereas the specific activity of the children who received a placebo decreased only by ∼14%, due to clean food supply. It is known that pectins chemically bind cations like caesium in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby increase faecal excretion. Theoretical calculations based on this assumption and considering metabolism processes are qualitatively consistent with the experimentally found retention of radiocaesium in the human body after pectin treatment. (authors)

  8. Studies on the current Cs-137 body burden of children in Belarus - can the dose be further reduced?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. The annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs-137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. In this situation the evaluation of possible dose reduction measures in addition to the control of food contamination is being investigated. Special attention is given to the cure-like application of a pectin-preparation (Vitapekt), for which a dose-lowering effect is presumed by Belarusian scientists. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapekt for a two-week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of control groups were given a placebo preparation. The Cs-137 body burden of the children was measured at the beginning and the end. First results indicate a mean relative reduction of the specific activity within the Vitapekt groups of about 35 %, whereas the specific activity of the children who received a placebo decreased only by about 15 %. It is proposed that pectins chemically bind cesium in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby increase fecal excretion. Theoretical calculations based on this assumption are qualitatively consistent with the experimentally found retention of radiocesium in the human body after a pectin treatment. (author)

  9. Mobility of radionuclides in undisturbed and cultivated soils in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia six years after the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six years after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the behaviour of radionuclides in soils in rural areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia has been studied. Measurements were made to determine the total radioactive contamination, the fuel particle contribution, and the distribution and extractability of the radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr. Inside the 30 km restriction zone around the plant, particles of highly irradiated fuel accounted for most of the radioactive contamination. The radioactivity in the soil, in decreasing order, was due to 137Cs>90Sr> 144Ce≥ 134Cs> 241Am> 125Sb> 154Eu> 155Eu. Outside the 30 km zone, condensed radionuclides were dominant and here the radionuclide content of the soil was 137Cs> 134Cs> 125Sb> 90Sr. The mobility of 137Cs in the soil increased with increasing distance from the reactor: this was in line with the fact that the 137Cs in condensed form, relative to that in fuel particles, also increased with increasing distance from the reactor. There was greater migration of the γ-emitting radionuclides 125Sb, 137Cs and 144Ce in peaty soils than in soddy podsolic, sandy and loamy soils. In undisturbed soddy podsolic sandy soils, more than 95% of the 137Cs was found in the top 6 cm layer. Not surprisingly, in the cultivated soils, the radionuclides were found more or less homogeneously distributed in the 0-25 cm layer. In the undisturbed soils, the γ-emitters had all migrated down to about the same depth except for the 125Sb which had moved rather deeper. (Author)

  10. Mobility of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in a peatbog system within the catchment of the Pripyat River, Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in a hydrologically isolated bog system in the catchment of the Pripyat River, Belarus was investigated. Measurements were made of 137Cs activities in the solids and pore waters of the bog soils, as well as the variability in activity in water draining from the bog. It was found that the radiocaesium activity of the pore water, and hence the measured distribution coefficient, Kd, was dependent upon the pressure at which the water was removed from the soil. Measured values of Kd were of the order 102 l/kg at an extraction pressure of 0.8 MPa, approximately one order of magnitude lower than those measured in a similar system, Devoke Water, in the UK. Results of comparative measurements suggested that this was a result of the different pore water extraction techniques used. The vertical migration of radiocaesium was modelled using a solution of the advection-diffusion equation. Using a mass balance approach, it was estimated that 137Cs was removed from the system at a rate of 0.3% of the catchment inventory per year, 8 years after the Chernobyl accident. It was shown that both vertical migration and removal of 137Cs is best modelled using a Kd based on a measurement of pore water held at low pressure in the soil, 103 l/kg. 137Cs activities in soil pore waters and in drainage waters were very strongly related to the aqueous potassium concentration, and both showed concentration minima in drainage water during the spring. It was shown that runoff coefficients of radiocaesium from peat bogs 8 years after the Chernobyl accident were approximately one order of magnitude greater than those from unsaturated soils of higher mineral content

  11. Thyroid exposure, cancer incidence and excess risk in Belarus and Ukraine in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of excess thyroid cancer risks are performed based on data for 469 settlements in Belarus and for 719 settlements in Ukraine in which more than 10 measurements of the 131I activity in the human thyroid were performed during the first seven weeks after the Chernobyl accident. Methods were developed to derive from the whole set of measurements representative age and gender dependencies of thyroid doses in cities and in rural areas as well as scaling factors for each of the settlements with which estimates of age and gender specific doses for each of the settlements could be derived. The risk analyses is performed with population data for the year 1986 and with all thyroid cancer cases among the birth cohort 1968 to 1985 from the 1188 settlements that were operated in the period 1986 to 2001. In a second study, simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the possible influence of enhanced medical surveillance of the thyroid (screening effects) was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of 366,397 children in a total of 743 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The ecologic bias was estimated for each of the scenarios. Two analytical equations allow the exact numerical computation of the bias which is determined by the screening factor, the number of screened individuals, and some covariance terms in the input data

  12. Estimation of radioecological condition waters systems of Belarus on the basis of monitoring data after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From common total activity of Cs-137, which was runoff by each of the rivers during 9 years (1987-1996), 80 % of activity was runoff by surface waters Iput river during 2 years, Sozh river - during 3 years, Besed river - during 4 years and by waters of Dnepr river - during 6 years. The cause of such distinctions in structure of water runoff of Cs-137 can be connected with distinctions in size of stocks Cs-137, in the forms of its finding in soils, in a building and structure of soil covers river of watersheds, lithology, capacity and water penetration of airing zones, values of bias an earthly surface and speed of drainage territories, degree of bog of watersheds and etc.. Besides it should note higher of hypsometric mark of watershed Sozh river in limits of contaminated territories. Significant decrease of coefficients of liquid of Cs-137 from the areas of watershed of the rivers of Belarus takes place in comparison with years 1987 - 1988. It is possible to explain by stabilization of the mobile forms of Cs-137 and transition them in the unchanged forms. The analysis of the experimental data for period 1987 - 1998 years shows, that the concentration of radionuclides such as Cs-137 and Sr-90 in surface waters of control sites is much lower HDL of the standards of radiation safety (SRS-76/87) and does not exceed RPL-92,96 (Republican Permissible Levels, for Cs-137 (18,5 Bq/l), Sr-90 (0,37 Bq/l) in these content in drinking water). (authors)

  13. Die neuen Nachbarn und die Europäische Union : Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Integration am Beispiel Ukraine und Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie geht der Frage nach, welche Annäherungs- und Integrations-Strategien von der EU bisher gegenüber der Ukraine und Belarus eingeschlagen wurden und welche sich vor dem Hindergrund der von der EU definierten Ziele für diesen Raum als erfolgsversprechend anbieten. Die Arbeit konzentriert sich dabei auf die wirtschaftlichen Aspekte einer verstärkten Integration. Angesichts der engen Verknüpfung von wirtschaftlichen und politischen Aspekten in diesem Prozess konnten aber poli...

  14. Cluster of Down's syndrome cases registered in january 1987 in republic of Belarus as a possible effect of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The birth incidence of Down's syndrome (DS) was analyzed for the period of 1981-2001 in the Republic of Belarus. The time of appearance and the spatial distribution of Down's syndrome among children born in January 1987 assume an association with the exposure due to passage of radioactive clouds. Interference of known modifying factors (contribution of prenatal diagnosis, changes in maternal age distribution and registration completeness) were excluded. Insufficient dosimetric information, relatively low occurrence of the disorder, lack of information on proband's families, and contradictory epidemiological results in Europe prevent from unambiguous conclusions

  15. Features Of Civil Process And Civil Regulation In The Sphere Of The State And Confessional Relations In Armenia, Belarus And Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Volodina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of civil process and civil regulation in the former Soviet Union, in the CIS countries are considered (in Armenia, Belarus, Moldova. Features of the state and confessional relations in each certain state are marked out. It is noted that in the Republic of Armenia the church is separated from the state and freedom of activity to the religious organizations, but at the same time in the Fundamental law of the Armenian church as national, the leading mission for preservation of identity of the Armenian people is taken away is guaranteed. In Belarus the relations of the state and religious associations is under construction on the principles of equality of religions and the rights of citizens independently to define the relation to religions that in general meets the universally recognized international standards, it is rigidly controlled not only activity of religious associations, but also activity of the officials answering for these questions. Republic of Moldova – the secular state, but most of the population adheres to orthodox religion that was reflected in the Law "About Cults" in which the relations of the state with orthodox church are allocated in a special way.

  16. Collection of the normative, methodical, establishment and order documents of the Republic of Belarus in the field of radiation control and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the collection are given the main normative, methodical and order documents of the Republic of Belarus in the field of radiation control and protection, which are necessary for the experts participating in works for minimization of the Chernobyl accidents consequences - the laws, concepts and decrees of the government, normative documents of ministries and other state management bodies; the standard of cesium 137 and strontium 90 contents in foodstuff, drinking water, agricultural raw material and forages, forest products, medicinal raw material; control levels of radioactive contamination of surfaces of buildings, equipment, ground; techniques of radioactivity measurements of various samples and radiometric inspection of establishments and inhabited buildings; the standards of the Republic of Belarus for selection of tests of production of animal industries, milk and dairy products, foodstuff, bread products, vegetables, fruit, berries, potatoes and root crops, agricultural raw material and forages, surface and waste waters, atmospheric air for radiation control, as well as for preparation of tests for detection of strontium 90 by radiochemical methods

  17. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. I. Model description and scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk Mv, Marcel van der; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    The economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs was evaluated taking the spatial variability of environmental conditions into account. Two sequential GIS-embedded submodels were developed for a spatial assessment, which allow for spatial variation in soil contamination, soil type, and land use. These models were applied for four SRC production and four energy conversion scenarios for the entire contaminated area of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia and for a part of the Bragin district, Belarus. It was concluded that in general medium-scale SRC production using local machines is most profitable. The areas near Chernobyl are not suitable for SRC production since the contamination levels in SRC wood exceed the intervention limit. Large scale SRC production is not profitable in areas where dry and sandy soils predominate. If the soil contamination does not exceed the intervention limit and sufficient SRC wood is available, all energy conversion scenarios are profitable. PMID:15294354

  18. The achievements of a Radioecological Environmental Research Programme arising from the collaboration of the EC and the republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Radiation Research Programme refocused some of its research effort within EU countries to consider the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident within the third framework period from 1985 to 1989. A gradual improvement in contacts with the Soviet Union occurred from 1990 and allowed the development of research collaboration between EC and Soviet scientists. In response, a programme of Experimental Collaborative Projects (ECP) and Joint Study Projects (JSP) were launched by the EC-DGXII's Radiation Protection Research Action. Within these projects, Western European and Eastern European scientists collaborated on assessing the consequences of the accident, considering remedial actions and acquiring much basic scientific information on the behaviour of radionuclides in the contaminated territories in Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation. The major goal of all these studies was to provide practical and theoretical assistance to the relevant authorities, based on a fundamental approach of understanding the environmental factors which control the different exposure rates to both the urban and rural populations living in the contaminated areas. The scientific results of the radioecological projects have been summarised at the First International Conference on the Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. This Conference was organised by the European Commission and the Belarus, Russian and Ukrainian Ministries on Chernobyl affairs, Emergency Situations and Health. This paper summarises the achievements of the radioecological programme. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Vlasov B. Natural properties of Karst lakes in Belarus / B. Vlasov // Lakes and artificial water reservoirs – functioning, revitalization and protection. – Cosnowiec, 2005. – Р. 249–255.

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Boris

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Karst lakes of Belarus belong to the azonal type and are distributed in Polesje region in the area of superficial deposition of chalk rocks. Specific features of these type lakes include: small water surface, tunneled form of a hollow, low water exchange rate and increased level of water mineralization; the lakes refer to mesotrophic or eutrophic types.

  20. Creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education for solving the problems of national strategy of sustainable socio-economic development of the Republic of Belarus (NSSD-2020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of creation of the system of continuing radiation safety education in the Republic of Belarus are considered. The discussion is made on the necessity of radiation safety education spreading on all education levels, isolation of the distinct course of Radiation safety and creation of special educational institutions

  1. Belarus tops OSCE agenda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Leedu on 2011. aastal OSCE eesistujamaa. President Dalia Grybauskaite ja välisminister Andronius Azubalis rääkisid Leedu eelseisvast istumisest ning Valgevenes toimunud presidendivalimistest. Dalia Grybauskaite leiab, et Valgevene võimude otsus mitte pikendada Minskis asuva OSCE büroo mandaati mõjub halvasti sealse demokraatia arendamisele ja vähendab koostööd Valgevenega

  2. Adopting of methods for measurement of radoncontaining in natural environments for serially produced gamma radiometers in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serially produced compact gamma and beta dosimeters and radiometers in Belarus are used for measurements of radon in natural water, soil air and indoor air. Prospective devices from ATOMTEX for measurements of radongenering and radoncontaining in natural environments include the RKG-AT1320 spectrometric gamma radiometer (NaI(Tl) 63 mm x 63 mm diam.), MKS-AT1125 dosimeter-radiometer and RKG-02A radiometer (NaI(Tl) 40 mm x 25 mm diam.). Methods are presented for the sampling of radon and short-lived radon daughter products (RDP) on volume fibrous filters for measuring in Marinelli beakers (0.5 L and 1 L). The MKS-AT6130 dosimeter-radiometer (end-type G.-M.) can be used for measuring of indoor radon jointly with sampling on an effective filter. New approaches to known methods of radionuclide sorption have been developed. The main task is to apply new fibrous sorbents for sampling. The adopted methods for sampling and initial preparation of samples of water and soil air for analysis of radoncontaining are outlined. The time of sampling and initial preparation does not exceed 4 h. Possessing a high exchange capacity for cations and anions (20-100%), 'FIBAN' fibrous ion exchangers are used. Carbon fibres have been planned for the sorption of radon. A simple preparation, which can be performed both in-situ and in field conditions, is an asset of the proposed method. Thus the tentative result can be known in-situ immediately. Conceptual elements of designed methods are as follows: 1. Radon is sorbed by a fibrous carbon sorbent only. 2. RDP are sorbed by both FIBAN and a carbon sorbent. FIBAN-K-1 is used for sorption of RDP. Particles of any heavy metal may be precipitated in air flow on an available plane membrane or fibrous filter. 3. The sorption factors of radon on a carbon fibrous sorbent as well as RDP on FIBAN and a carbon fiber are constant for the given measuring conditions (air flux, mass of sorbents, type of measuring geometry etc.). 4. Radon is sorbed on a

  3. Functional state of the vegetative nervous system of children from the Belarus monitoring areas and its dependence on the lead and nitrate content in the blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    74 children in age of 9-15 years from the Belarus controllable polluted zones were surveyed to study the features of a functional state of the vegetative nervous system and compare them with whole-body counting and levels of the accumulation of lead and nitrates in blood. Correlation between parameters of a functional state of a vegetative nervous system and levels of the pathogenesis accumulation was established. It is shown pathogenesis accelerate a realization of inheritance diseases, especially cardiovascular. Multielement monitoring has allowed to allocate groups of the heaviest ecological risk and to define the most important pollutants: 137Cs, 90Sr, 131I, Pu, Pb and nitrates. The complaints on stomach ache (53 %), ostealgia (45 %), increased tire (49 %), head ache (60 %), increased tendency to perspire (45 %), irritable (37 %) were typical for surveyed children. 2 tabs

  4. Assessment of averted fatal cancer cases due to limitation of radiocaesium intake with milk for population of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident different protective measures for radiation protection of Belorussian population were carried out. As a result, annual reduction of exposure and prevention of significant doses for people of Belarus are registered. Exposure doses for overwhelming majority of population during all phases of accidental period are conditioned, mainly by the levels of internal doses. For inhabitants of clean and low contaminated territories total doses are formed only by means of internal exposure from consumed foodstuffs, contaminated by radionuclides. For 1.3 million of inhabitants of contaminated territories (with density of radiocaesium contamination more than 37 kBq/sq.m internal doses are higher than external doses in most cases. Only for inhabitants of individual settlements with densities of radiocaesium contamination of territories more than 185 kBq/sq.m, external exposure doses play an important role in total dose formation. (author)

  5. Practical improvement of the radiological quality of milk produced by peasant farmers in the territories of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl accident The ETHOS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl post-accident situation has highlighted how the sudden emergence of persistent radioactive contamination in the environment is severely affecting the quality of life of the inhabitants in the concerned territories. The management of this situation is complex, mainly conditioned by the ability of the inhabitants themselves to be directly involved in the process of improving their living conditions. In this process, quality of life cannot be restricted solely to the dimension of radiological risk, but needs to encompass the diverse aspects of daily living, including the social, psychological, economic, political and ethical aspects. This paper presents the experience of the involvement of a group of peasant farmers from a village in the Republic of Belarus, in the process of improving the radiological quality of privately produced milk. This experience took place in the context of the ETHOS project, funded by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission. The principal objective was to implement a complementary approach to the rehabilitation strategies adopted so far in the contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus. This paper retraces the process of involvement of the inhabitants in a working group. It describes the characterisation of the situation by local actors, the opening of new possible actions to improve the radiological quality of milk at the individual level and the positive consequences at the scale of the village. The ETHOS project also illustrates how the scientific knowledge accumulated over many years since the Chernobyl accident in the field of radiation protection and radioecology can enter into local practices in the form of practical tools, which can be used by the population to produce significant improvements in the radiological situation

  6. Thyroid doses in Belarus resulting from the Chernobyl accident: comparison of the estimates based on direct thyroid measurements and on measurements of 131I in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial increase of childhood cancer cases observed in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia after the Chernobyl accident has been associated with thyroid exposure to radio iodines following the accident. A large number of direct thyroid measurements (i.e. measurement of the exposure rate near the thyroid of the subject)were conducted in Belarus during a few weeks after the accident. Individual thyroid doses based on results of the direct thyroid measurements were estimated for about 126,000 Belarusian residents and settlement-average thyroid doses for adults were calculated for 426 contaminated settlements in Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts. Another set of settlement-average thyroid doses for adults was estimated based on results of activity measurements in milk samples for 28 settlements (with not less than 2 spectrometric measurements) and 155 settlements (with not less than 5 total beta-activity measurements) in Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts. Concentrations of 131I in milk were derived from these measurements. In the estimation of this set of thyroid doses, it was assumed that adults consumed 0.5 L d-1 of milk locally produced. The two sets of dose estimates were compared for 47 settlements, for which simultaneously were available a dose estimate based on thyroid measurements and a dose estimate based either on spectrometric or radiometric milk data. The settlement average thyroid doses based on milk activity measurements were higher than those based on direct thyroid measurements by a factor of 1.8 for total beta-activity measurements (30 settlements were compared) and by a factor of 2.4 for spectrometric measurements (17 settlements). This systematic difference can be explained by overestimation of the milk consumption rate used in the calculation of the milk-based thyroid doses and/or by application of individual countermeasures by people. (author)

  7. State of health of the population Belarus on the data of the Belarussian state register of the persons who have undergone to effect of radiation owing to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose - to estimate a state of health of the population of Belarus, injured of Chernobyl accident. In 2006 in comparison with 1995 among the population of Belarus, injured of Chernobyl accident, on 25,5 % the incidence rate by neoplasms, including on 65,6 % by malignant tumors and on 12,2 % - benign has grown. Among malignant tumor the greatest rate of increase characterized a case rate by malignant tumor of urinary paths, lymphatic and hemopoietic tissue, organs of digestion. The body height of incidence by the acquired hypothyrosis, autoimmune thyroiditis, diabetes mellitus, cataract, glaucoma, illnesses described by boosted bloody pressure, acute myocardial infarction, subarachnoidal hemorrhage was prolonged. From a total number of diseases registered among the population of Belarus, injured of Chernobyl accident, 66,5 % were necessary on the persons who were taking part in liquidation of Chernobyl accident, 29,6 % on the persons living or living in territories with density of contamination Cs137 more 555 kBq/m2. The relation of a prevalence and incidence rate has made in 1995 year - 1,7, in 2006 year - 4,2, that testifies to essential accumulation of a chronic pathology. During 1995-2006 years the dynamics of a mortality from all reasons among the population of Belarus, injured of Chernobyl accident had the expressed tendency to body height. In 2006 among the persons recognized by the invalids, 71,3 % were necessary on liquidators, 24,0 % - on territories with density of contamination 137Cs more 555 kBq/m2. For period 1995 - 2006 years the tendency to lowering gravity of invalidism was planned. Since 1998, the invalidism has no the tendency to body height. In frame of reasons of invalidism the diseases of the system of a circulation, neoplasm both illness of the osteomuscular system and connective tissue predominated. (author)

  8. Production of biomass in wet peatlands (paludiculture). The EU-AID project 'Wetland energy' in Belarus. Solutions for the substitution of fossil fuels (peat briquettes) by biomass from wet peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichtmann, Wendelin [Michael Succow Stiftung fuer den Schutz der Natur, Greifswald (Germany); Haberl, Andreas; Tanneberger, Franziska

    2012-07-01

    In Belarus, a pilot project demonstrating site adapted management of wet peatlands for biomass production have started recently. In cooperation with local stakeholders, the currently environmentally unfriendly peat extraction for energy will be converted into a sustainable land use system. By replacing the peat briquettes with locally produced briquettes using biomass from rewetted peatlands the income situation of remote and rural areas will be improved. In various combustion trials of peatland biomass in Germany and Belarus the suitability of the material for energy production has been demonstrated. The EU-Aid funded project in Belarus is realized by the Michael Succow Foundation in cooperation with the International Sacharov Environmental University (ISEU) and the Institute for Nature Management of the National Academy of Sciences (IfNM). Applied, site-specific management concepts, employing site adapted machinery for reed and sedge vegetation on wet peatlands will not only result in avoidance of environmentally harmful peat extraction, but also in benefits for distinctive biodiversity. This site adapted peatlands management (paludiculture) comprises the reduction of greenhousegas (GHG) emissions by rewetting of drained peatlands and by the replacement of fossil fuels by biomass from these sites. Under favourable conditions additionally CO{sub 2} sequestration by new peat formation reestablished. The biomass will be harvested with site adapted machinery and processed to fuel briquettes. (orig.)

  9. Reconstruction of dose loads on population in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident and estimation of thyroid cancer risk in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident caused significant long-term consequences to the environment, public health, and economic status of Belarus. The contamination from short-lived radionuclides, in particular iodine 131, was so high that the subsequent exposure of millions of people has been termed 'iodine shock'. During the first days of the accident, the majority of the dose of radiation received by the residents of Belarus was to the thyroid gland. This will affect the health of the population for a long time to come. The resulting epidemic of childhood thyroid cancer is the first indisputable health after-effect of the Chernobyl accident. Thyroid cancer morbidity among children increased more than 10 fold in the post-Chernobyl period. Maps of cesium 137, which has a half life of 37 years, have been published, but it is evident, that the distribution of thyroid cancer morbidity differs from the known distribution of cesium 137 in soil. Territorial distribution of thyroid cancer morbidity is often compared to distribution of cesium 137 in the soil. This practice is inaccurate but often utilized since no maps of iodine 131 contamination exist, due to its short half life of 8.04 days. Reconstruction of the spatial distribution of short-lived isotopes in the first days after the accident, could clarify the impact of radiation on human health and allow for a spatial and temporal prognosis of the development of the cancer epidemic, particularly, thyroid cancer. Due to the unfortunate fact that the measuring equipment was inadequate to properly monitor the scale of radiation exposure during the early period of the accident, detailed direct information on the deposition of the short-lived radionuclides and the doses to the population has been irretrievably lost. Now the only way to reconstruct the dynamics of the radioecological situation of the initial period of the Chernobyl accident is to make a retrospective assessment of radiation exposures related to the short

  10. [Systemic Antimicrobials Consumption and Expenditures in Departments of Surgery of Multi-Profile Hospitals in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus: Results of Multicentre Pharmacoepidemiological Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Yu A; Rachina, S A; Kozlov, R S; Mishchenko, V M; Pavlukov, R A; Abubakirova, A I; Berezhanskiy, B V; Eliseeva, E V; Zubareva, N A; Karpov, I A; Kopylova, I A; Palyutin, Sh Kh; Portnyagina, U S; Pribytkova, O V; Samuylo, E K

    2016-01-01

    The results of the systemic antimicrobials (AM) consumption and expenditures assessment in the departments of surgery of multi-profile hospitals in different regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in 2009-2010 based on retrospective collection and analysis of the data from the hospital expenditure notes using ATC/DDD methodology are presented. The average AM consumption and expenditure rates in the above mentioned departments varied from 24.9 DDD/100 bed-days to 61.7 DDD/100 bed-days depending on the department profile, with beta-lactams (cephalosporins and penicillins) share in the consumption being as high as 70-90%, followed by fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Only 55-70% of the consumed AM belonged to the drugs of choice, whereas the improper AM consumption and expenditure rates amounted up to 10-18%. The study outputs can be used for the budget allocation and AM distribution improvement in the departments of surgery, as well as for the development and efficacy control of the local antimicrobial stewardship programs. PMID:27337864

  11. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation with the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral cooperation with Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in a number of projects financed by the European Union. This report gives an overview of the cooperation projects in 2009 as well as the framework in which they are performed. Summaries of each project are given in an Appendix. The project managers in the Section for Cooperation and Development in the Department of International Affairs are responsible for the cooperation projects and the implementation of the bilateral programmes. But the positive outcome of the projects is also dependent on a large number of experts at SSM who work with the regulatory functions in the nuclear and radiation protection fields in a Swedish context as well as on external consultants. Together, their experience is invaluable for the implementation of the projects. But the projects also give experience of relevance for the SSM staff.

  12. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  13. INPRO Assessment of the Planned Nuclear Energy System of Belarus. A report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was started in 2001 on the basis of IAEA General Conference resolution GC(44)/RES/21. INPRO activities have since been continuously endorsed by IAEA General Conference resolutions and by the General Assembly of the United Nations. The objectives of INPRO are to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute, in a sustainable manner, to the goal of meeting the energy needs of the 21st century, and to bring together technology holders and users so that they can jointly consider the international and national actions required for ensuring sustainability of nuclear energy through innovations in technology and/or institutional arrangements. To fulfill these objectives, INPRO has developed a set of basic principles, user requirements and criteria, and an assessment method which, taken together, comprise the INPRO methodology for the evaluation of the long term sustainability of innovative nuclear energy systems. The INPRO methodology is documented in IAEA-TECDOC-1575 Rev.1, comprising an overview volume and eight additional volumes covering economics, institutional measures (infrastructure), waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection, environment (impact of stressors and availability of resources), safety of reactors, and safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This publication is the final report of an assessment of the planned nuclear energy system of Belarus using the INPRO methodology. The assessment was performed in 2009-2011 by Belarusian experts in a strategic partnership with the Russian Federation and with support from the IAEA's INPRO Group

  14. Decision making strategy on rehabilitation of wide territories of the Republic of Belarus contaminated by long-lived radionuclides following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the remote period following radiation accidents accompanied by wide scaled contamination of the territory by long-lived radionuclides inevitably problem of the territory rehabilitation is raised. Actually, we are speaking about difficulties, for state authorities and for society, in a decision making process aimed at taking out territories, settlements, residing and/or working people from the status of accident and at return to 'normality'. Difficulty in the decision making is caused by insufficient development of dose criteria, levels of intervention when really existing annual effective doses is less than 5 mSv, justification of usage, scales and duration of countermeasures. The laws accepted in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident are practicing privileges and compensation of damage to population, residing in territories with density of soil contamination by 137Cs exceeding 37 kBq/sq.m or annual effective dose exceeding 1 mSv. This makes the idea of rehabilitation unattractive. To simplify the process of decisions making perception by society, it is suggested a step by step way of decision making aimed at rehabilitation, based on radiological and non-radiological criteria. As to radiological criteria, it is necessary to refer to a level of annual effective dose and derived values (exposure dose rate, permissible levels of contamination for foodstuffs and environment). Nonradiological criteria include psychological and social-economic factors (attractiveness of rehabilitating territories for residing and making business, reservation of some privileges, maintenance of high level of medical service). (author)

  15. Prognosis of accumulation value of 137SCs and 90Sr in the herbages of the main types of the Belarus Polesje meadows utilizing agrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of long-term stationary experience it was established that the minimum accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr in the herbage of the waterless valley, marshed and flood types of the Belarus Polesje meadows contaminated by Chernobyl radionuclides is seen when the optimum basic agrochemical soil properties are achieved with the application of the scientifically reasonable protective measures. It was demonstrated that in the remote period of the accident for the prognosis of radionuclides contents in natural and cultural meadows herbage it is advisable to use of transfer factors (TFa, Bq/kg : kBq/square m) based on the complex agrochemical parameters - basic saturation degree (V, %) and agrochemical cultivation soils index (Iac), which take into account several soil characteristics simultaneously. This article provides the equations of linear and multiple regressions that can be used to calculate the transfer factors for 137Cs and 90Sr uptake and the herbage contamination degree for the main types of meadows of the region, which will allow one to reduce the volume of forages production (hay, green bulk) that is not adequate to the established permissible levels: Republican allowable levels of the contents of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in agricultural raw material and forages

  16. Dynamics of radiation situation on the territory of Belarus and migration of radionuclides in different types of soils after Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is the network of the Stationary stations for radioecological monitoring of the ecosystems, working according to special programs, at the territory of the Republic of Belarus. The State Committee for Hydrometeorology carries out the radioecological monitoring of the soil at the sampling sites, which includes 18 landscape-geochemical areas and 181 sampling sites. Study and forecast of vertical and horizontal migration of radionuclides is carried out at the landscape-geochemical areas with different types and variations of soil in various radioecological and physico - geographical conditions. The samples of soil for analysis were sampled in 1992-1998 years and radionuclides concentrations in different horizontal layers were measured. The treatment of experimental data was carried out on the base of assumption of quasi-diffusion radionuclide migration process. Distribution of quasi-diffusion coefficient, mean diffusion coefficient and linear velocity of radionuclide migration were estimated. The results of the control of radionuclides in different types of soil are accumulated in the Republican data bank. The mathematical model for calculation of characteristics of radionuclide migration in soils have been developed in Republican Centre of Radiation and Environment Monitoring. Quasi-diffusion coefficient for Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-238,239,240 and Am-241 in different types of soil have been calculated. Prognosis of relative content of Cs-137 and Sr-90 Pu-238,239,240 and Am-241 in the depth of the soil profile for various types of soil was obtained. (authors)

  17. Stakeholder involvement in the rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated territories affected by the Chernobyl accident. The ETHOS Project in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of the Chernobyl post-accident situation is a complex process comprising not only radiological protection but also psychological, social, economic, political and ethical dimensions. Involving in this process local communities who are directly concerned by the consequences of the accident is a strong lever in improving their living conditions as well as restoring their confidence in experts and the authorities. This paper presents the experience of the involvement of a group of mothers from a village in the Republic of Belarus in activities to improve the radiological protection of their children. This experience took place in the framework of the ETHOS Project supported by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission with the objective of implementing an alternative approach to the rehabilitation strategies adopted so far in the contaminated territories of the CIS. The first part of the paper presents briefly the main features of the methodological and practical approach of the ETHOS Project. The second part describes in more detail how the mothers voluntarily got involved in a working group set up within the framework of the Project, the characterization of the radiological situation they carried out, the concrete approach they developed to regain control of the situation, the way the health care system has been involved in the process and finally, the results they achieved in reducing the internal contamination of their children. (author)

  18. Spatial variability of the dose rate from (137)Cs fallout in settlements in Russia and Belarus more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsson, C; Rääf, C L; Mattsson, S

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclides from the 1986 Chernobyl accident were released and dispersed during a limited period of time, but under widely varying weather conditions. As a result, there was a high geographical variation in the deposited radioactive fallout per unit area over Europe, depending on the released composition of fission products and the weather during the 10 days of releases. If the plume from Chernobyl coincided with rain, then the radionuclides were unevenly distributed on the ground. However, large variations in the initial fallout also occurred locally or even on a meter scale. Over the ensuing years the initial deposition may have been altered further by different weathering processes or human activities such as agriculture, gardening, and decontamination measures. Using measurements taken more than two decades after the accident, we report on the inhomogeneous distribution of the ground deposition of the fission product (137)Cs and its influence on the dose rate 1 m above ground, on both large and small scales (10ths of km(2) - 1 m(2)), in the Gomel-Bryansk area close to the border between Belarus and Russia. The dose rate from the deposition was observed to vary by one order of magnitude depending on the size of the area considered, whether human processes were applied to the surface or not, and on location specific properties (e.g. radionuclide migration in soil). PMID:26245870

  19. “俄白哈关税同盟”对中哈经贸关系的影响%Influence of "Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan Customs Union" on Economic and Trade Relationship between China and Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方泗琤; 任华

    2011-01-01

    November 27, 2009 witnessed Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan sign the "Customs Union Customs Code", marking the establishment of "Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan Customs Union". As an important result of substantive progress of customs union within the framework of Russia led European Economic Community, "Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan Customs Union" is also an important trade partner of China, whose establishment is bound to affect economic and trade relations between China and its member states. Based on this, the paper analyzes the impact of the "Union" on economic and trade relations between China and Kazakhstan and advances strategies on how China deals with the "Union".%2009年11月27日,俄、白、哈三国签署了《关税同盟海关法典》,标志着"俄白哈关税同盟"正式成立。"俄白哈关税同盟"作为以俄罗斯为主导的欧亚经济共同体框架内在关税同盟方面取得实质性进展的成果,而中国又是哈萨克斯坦的重要贸易伙伴,"俄白哈关税同盟"的建立势必对中国与其成员国的经贸关系产生影响。基于此,本文对"关税同盟"建立后,该同盟对中国与其成员国-哈萨克斯坦经贸关系所产生的影响进行了分析,并在此基础上提出中国应对"俄白哈关税同盟"的策略。

  20. From breach to bridge: the Augustów canal, an ecotourism destination across the EU’s border with Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Marin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism has become a driver for cooperation across the EU’s Eastern borders. This holds true even in the case of such reluctant a partner as Belarus. In studying the resumption of navigation on the Augustów canal – a 180 year old waterway connecting the Vistula and Neman river basins across the Polish-Belarusian border – this paper illustrates how in “alienated” borderlands projects that develop alternative forms of tourism can foster cross-border cooperation. Shared concern for the preservation of the borderland’s natural and cultural heritage enabled a “bridging” of neighbourhood relations and bred trans-boundary region-building initiatives (Euroregion Neman. A multi-scalar screening of how the Augustów canal area is being promoted as a tourism attraction in Belarus reveals the emergence of horizontal cooperation across the border. Despite geopolitical obstacles, this network governance model empowers the local stakeholders and actors of the embryonic Belarusian civil society, thus favouring their gradual socialisation in Europe.L’écotourisme est devenu un moteur pour la coopération à travers les frontières orientales de l’UE. Cela est vrai y compris dans le cas d’un partenaire aussi réticent que la Biélorussie. En étudiant la réouverture à la navigation du canal Augustów – une voie d’eau qui depuis 180 ans relie les bassins de la Vistule et du Neman à travers la frontière polono-biélorusse – cet article illustre comment, dans des zones-frontières “aliénées”, des projets de développement de formes alternatives de tourisme encouragent la coopération transfrontalière. L’intérêt partagé pour la préservation de l’héritage naturel et culturel de la zone-frontière a permis de jeter des ponts avec les voisins et nourri les initiatives de construction d’une région transfrontalière (Eurorégion Neman. L’examen à différentes échelles de la promotion de la région du canal August

  1. Rehabilitation of living conditions in the post-Chernobyl context: Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just after the Chernobyl accident, in the mid nineties, a radiation monitoring system was introduced to allow the Belarusian authorities to manage the situation but it failed to involve the general population. This resulted in the fact that a significant fraction of people living in contaminated areas continued to receive exposures that could have been avoided or reduced, if authorities had better taken into account the individual behaviours. Face to this situation, the goal of this project is to contribute to the development of a sustainable system of radiological monitoring handled by the local professionals and the population. It was launched in 2004 in the Bragin district (Belarus) in the framework of the CORE Programme (Cooperation for Rehabilitation) whose general objective is to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Bragin district is adjacent to the 30-kilometre exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Beginning in April 2004, existing infrastructure and means of measurement in the Bragin district were significantly modernised and completed. Today, the monitoring system relies on measurements of contamination of the body and measurements of the radiological quality of food stuffs (measurements of the caesium-137 concentration). In particular, whole-body scan measurement campaigns are carried out every six months in the schools in the district. On the basis of the results of measurements, the most severely contaminated children are systematically identified. Local health professionals and specialists of measurements work, with their families, to determine causes of the contamination and identify the scope for practical reduction of the intake of caesium. In a general manner, they periodically diffuse the results of measurements in the villages of the district via brochures or articles in newspapers. They also constitute a solid network that provides people with reliable

  2. On the time development of the population dose in selected settlements of Korma county in Belarus about 13 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 the time development of environmental contamination and population doses was investigated by several national and international institutions. One of the most comprehensive projects was the German three-year measuring campaign that was started in 1991. Though concerning the ingestion dose in-vivo monitoring proved, that the international annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a had only been exceeded in less than 2% of 317,000 cases, an a priori unexpected upward trend of mean annual doses showed the necessity of further studies to verify the long-term evaluation of the population dose. Several small follow-up studies were initiated in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. This paper reports especially on a study in Belarus, where two municipalities in Korma county were selected for further investigations: Wornovka, a purely agricultural municipality, and Volincy, an agricultural and forestal municipality. The ground contamination of these two areas was between 300 kBq/m2 and 630 kBq/m2 in 1991. In contrast to Wornovka the municipality of Volincy is surrounded by a contaminated forest area and isolated from the main part of Korma county by a highly contaminated evacuation zone and the river Sosch. Both the internal contamination of people as well as the contamination of the environment and food have been assessed using mobile in-vivo and environmental monitoring systems. Measurements of soil contamination in 1998 show a drop down to a mean of less than 200 kBq/m2 in both municipalities. The evaluation of the internal contamination with time is however quite different: in the year 1992 the mean value at Wornovka was 0.8 kBq, 1.7 kBq in 1997 and 2.8 kBq in autumn 1998. At Volincy the internal contamination increased from 6.1 kBq in 1992 to 14.1 kBq in 1998 and even 51.2 kBq in early summer 1999 corresponding to an internal dose of about 2 mSv/a. Body burdens of up to 660 kBq 137Cs have been observed. Due to the severe economic situation

  3. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  4. European region case study the ethos project for post-accident rehabilitation in the area of belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the worst civilian nuclear accident, the Chernobyl disaster presented the authorities first in the Soviet Union and then in the independent republics with an unprecedented problem. Strenuous and costly efforts were made to limit the effects of the accident and then to cope with the evacuation or rehabilitation as appropriate of the contaminated areas. By the mid-1990's, however, there was increasing evidence that the problems were over-taxing traditional responses. Into this context, a French team of specialists from a range of disciplines entered with a view to attempting improvements, but without preconceived ideas of what they would do or how they would do it. Beginning by listening to the people of the area of Belarus selected for the so-called ETHOS project, they discovered a profound distrust of the authorities and experts born of the perceived shortcomings of the official responses to the problems to date. They thus worked in close co-operation with the people both to identify the problems that concerned them and to develop solutions that took account of local opportunities and constraints. This interim report on a case study examining the ETHOS project is based on interviews with a wide range of people in the area of the project. It presents the problems identified by interviewees with the initial responses of the authorities and then their assessment of the ETHOS approach. The overall finding is that where public confidence has been lost in the context of an event such as the Chernobyl disaster, the authorities need to make a special effort to establish trust to a point where confidence returns. Traditional top-down responses appear to have exacerbated and reinforced the loss of confidence in this case whereas the approach of the ETHOS team appears to have succeeded in building trust to a significant degree - perhaps even to a point where there may be evidence that confidence is returning. (author)

  5. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer; Rekonstruktion der Schilddruesendosis fuer Kinder mit Schilddruesenkrebs in Weissrussland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robl, R.; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1997-10-01

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope {sup 131}I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of {sup 1}31 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I. The inferred {sup 131}I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs-deposition density and a few {sup 131}I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of {sup 131}I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the {sup 129}I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the {sup 129}I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  6. Opportunities and Threats from Ukrainian Membership in WTO in Foreign Trade for Meat and Milk Products with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of Ukrainian membership in World Trade Organisation (WTO in foreign trade of meat and milk products with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that meat and milk products are one of the main export agricultural commodities of the country. It analyses the structure of export of agro-industrial products from Ukraine. It studies situation and changes that took place in the market of meat and meat processing products in Ukraine after its membership in WTO. It shows that Ukrainian export of meat products mainly consists of products with low added value, while products with high added value are imported to Ukraine. It also shows that due to liberalisation of customs rules and the system of trade allocation in the world market of meat and meat products the internal market of Ukraine became unprotected from imported products, which resulted in significant increase of cheaper import into Ukraine and uncompetitiveness of domestic producers of meat products. The article studies situations and shifts that took place in the market of milk and milk products in the result of Ukrainian WTO membership. It proves that the CU market stays, in the middle-term prospect, the most powerful for domestic producers of milk products. It shows that standards of milk quality, applied in EU countries, are higher than in Ukraine and CU, which means it is impossible to compete with EU high technology production. It holds that milk quality increase pursuant to EU standards requires additional investments into re-equipment of the production technology.

  7. Agreement of 14 April 1995 between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Belarus and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 22 November 1994 and in Minsk on 14 April 1995. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 2 August 1995

  8. Oncohematological sickness rates of the Belarus population in the period before (1979-1985) and after the Chernobyl accident (1986-1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Register of Blood Diseases keeps information about the primary sickness rates for hemopathies, invalidism and mortality rates of the population of Belarus since 1979. It enables to foresee the development of these indices, to determine the possible ways of the oncohematological pathologies' prophylaxis, to scientifically substantiate and calculate the needs of the population for specialized hematological aid, including medical preparations, which helps form the pharmaceutical industry. Making use of the Register one can develop concrete recommendations how to decrease the sickness rates, invalidism and mortality rates, to improve the treatment and diagnostics of patients, decreasing the costs of the specialized medical aid and retaining the labour resources. Of special significance are the Register's data for the scientific monitoring of the oncohematological sickness rates of the population of the hard control areas most strongly exposed to the Chernobyl catastrophe. To survey the annual stochastic fluctuations of the standardized sickness rate indices calculated per 100,000 of population, it was singled out three equal 7-year periods of monitoring. Out of 32,742 adults who fell ill with hemablastoses in the period of 1979-1999, in Period 1 (7 years before the Chernobyl accident) 8,721 persons fell ill, which amounts of 26.9% of all those who fell ill during the 21 years of monitoring. In the early post-Chernobyl period (Period 2, 1986-1992), 11,415 adulthood hemablastoses were registered (35.1%); and in the more remote period (Period 3, 1993-1999), 12,336 persons fell ill (38.0% of the total number during the 21 years of observation). Out of 32,472 adulthood hemablastoses, 17,325 persons fell ill with leukemia (L) during the 21 years of monitoring (53.3% of the total number of hemablastoses). Among them 4,900 persons had the diagnosis of acute leukemia (AL), and 12,425 persons - that of chronic leukemia (CL). Multiple myeloma was registered among 3

  9. Universe association between age at the time of radiation exposure and extent of disease in cases of radiation-induced childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma, particularly in the youngest children, has been reported from Belarus since the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986. The relation between disease severity and age at the time of the accident, not previously established in this cohort, was analyzed in this study. The authors studied the association between disease severity, expressed by TNM classification, and age at radiation exposure in a cohort of 483 patients younger than 8 years at the time of the Chernobyl accident who have been diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma since 1986 at the Center for Thyroid Cancer in Minsk. The associations between age at radiation exposure and TNM categories were compared among 4 groups of patients who were ages <2, 2.1-4, 4.1-6, and 6.1-8 years at the time of the accident. Multivariate discriminant analysis was performed to examine the effects of age at the time of the accident, gender, histology, tumor stage, and N classification on the frequency of distant metastasis. Younger age at the time of Chernobyl accident was associated with greater extra thyroidal tumor extension (P<0.01) and more lymph node involvement (P<0.0001) and tended to be associated with more distant metastases (P=0.09). Compared with patients who were ages 6.1-8 years at the time of the accident, patients who were younger than 2 years had significantly more extra thyroidal tumor invasion (P = 0.004), lymph node involvement (P =0.004), and distant metastases (P = 0.05). The age at diagnosis increased with older age at the time of radiation exposure (linear regression analysis; correlation coefficient = 0.67; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age at the time of the accident (P = 0.001) and advanced coco regional tumor extension (P<0.001) were the only powerful factors influencing the risk for distant metastasis of this malignancy. The severity of disease was associated inversely with age at the time of radiation exposure

  10. Dynamics of contamination of an atmospheric air on the database of the network of a radiation control and environment monitoring on the Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of the radiation control and monitoring of the natural environment which are carried out by Department of hydrometeorology of the Ministry of natural resources and preservation of the environment, includes supervision over pollution of surface waters, bottom sediments, atmospheric air and soil by radionuclides. Supervision is realized at 57 servers, where exposure gamma rate (EDR) is daily measured. The radioactive fallout's from atmospheric air are controlled with use of horizontal plane tables on 30 servers located on all the territory of the Republic. In five towns of Belarus (Minsk, Mogilev, Gomel, Brest, Pinsk) a content of radioactive aerosols in the air is daily measured with the use of the filter-ventilating station In the first period of the catastrophe the levels of exposure gamma rate in Bragin have made - 46000 micro R/h (distance up to Chernobyl NPP - 50 kms), in Chechersk - 10000 micro R/h (distance up to Chernobyl NPP - 180 kms) In June 2002 the maximum single levels were fixed in Bragin - 105 micro R/h and in July in Chechersk - 32 micro R/h. On the rest of the territory the exposure doze rate of gamma - radiation does not exceed the levels of natural gamma - hum noise (up to 20 micro R/h). In regional towns the average annual levels have made from 10 up to 15 micro R/h. The statistical data processing of measurements of exposure gamma rate in 10 most typical the settlements shows, that two groups of the settlements can be selected: with low values EDR up to 20 micro R/h: Lel'chitsy, Mozyr', Slutsk, Mogilev, Pinsk and with values EDR more than 20 micro R/h: Slavgorod, Khojniki, Bragin, Chechersk and Narovlya. The analysis of outcomes of observations behind a state of an atmospheric air has shown, that in 2002 it is not revealed short-lived radionuclides, is not marked of essential changes in behavior cesium-137 and strontium -90 in an atmosphere in comparison with the previous years in post-accident period. Investigation, which are

  11. USAGE OF BELARUS TRANSIT POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Antioushenya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation  with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.

  12. The mysterious wolves of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    It was just after 3 a.m. as we very quietly exited the van, making sure our water-resistant clothes didn’t make too much noise. A wolf researcher howled into the cold and murky mist. We waited in darkness, hoping for an answer. A single wolf howl from about 300 meters in front of us broke the silence. We peered into the agricultural and forested expanse, straining to get a glimpse of the wolf in the faint star-light. Suddenly, from behind, another howl countered. The expedition’s leader explained that we were standing between two female wolves and their pups—both being tended to by the same male!

  13. Nuclear and physical methods of monitoring of the content of technogeneous (Pu, Am) and nature (Rn) radionuclides in the environment used in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    samples from the interfering radionuclides Cs and Sb first of all). The minimum detectable activity Amin is 1,0 Bk/kg for 241Am and 80 Bk/kg for 238,239,240Pu. The cost and time of such analysis is less in several times than at the radiochemical analysis with the following alpha-spectrometry. Technique is described in details. To carry out large-scale radon measurements in air of building the method was applied, based on using passive integral radonometers with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) and allowed to obtaining results averaged vs. long time interval (up to 3 months) and thus taking into account temporal variation of radon exhalation from soil and real regime of ventilation of building. The nitrocellulose KODAK film LR-115 was used as the SSNTD. The equipment used allowed performing subsequent chemical treatment of large amount of SSNTDs (up to 100) after its exposition and automatic electrospark accounting of tracks. In this paper we describe equipment and some results of indoor radon measurements carried out using this technique. The radon chamber, used as a standard radon source, is also described. The reliability of the results obtained is verified by interlaboratory comparisons. The results of measurements of radon volumetric activity are presented, obtained in the framework of the program of interlaboratory comparisons in Belarus

  14. INTER-COUNTRY EFFICIENCY EVALUATION IN INNOVATION ACTIVITY ON THE BASIS OF METHOD FOR DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMY, INCLUDING THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on efficiency evaluation of innovation activity in 63 countries with developed and developing economies while using a method for data envelopment analysis. The following results of innovation activity have been used for calculation of an efficiency factor: export of high-technology products as percentage of industrial product export, export of ICT services as percentage of services export and payments obtained due to realization of intellectual property rights (in US dollars. A model of the data envelopment analysis with a changeable scale-dependent effect and which is directed on maximization of the obtained results (output-oriented VRS model has been used for the analysis. The evaluation has shown that such countries as the USA, Israel, Sweden and some others have maximum efficiency of resource transformation into innovative activity output. The executed analysis has revealed that the Republic of Belarus has a potential for improvement of indices on innovation results.

  15. The A.C.R.O. in Belarus point on the actions led for one year; L'ACRO en bielorussie point sur les actions menees depuis un an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The project aims to set up a radiological surveillance at the population service and to facilitate the access to the measures and information about the local situation at the villages level. Concretely, it is a question of opening posts of measures in the main villages of the district, of launching campaigns of measures of the internal contamination of the schooled children (anthropo-gamma-metry), to set up a observatory of the radiological situation at the villages level, to facilitate the organization of places of exchange (public meetings, meeting circles), and of information (public display of the measures results) and to develop educational actions in schools. This initiative develops within the framework of the international program C.O.R.E. which federates the projects led on the four most contaminated districts in Belarus. (N.C.)

  16. The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological

  17. INDUSTRIAL ENTERPISE IN A FOCUS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC EXPECTATIONS OF MIGRANTS FROM BELARUS (BASED ON TIMBER INDUSTRY OF REPUBLIC OF KARELIA DURING THE PERIOD OF 1944-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Igorevich Kulagin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study became the analysis of the role of a timber industry enterprise as the main subject of social and economic expectations of migrants from Belarus in Karelia during the second half of XX – beginning of XXI century.Methodology. The base of methodology became elements of micro-institutional analysis of industrial enterprise, which represented in papers of G.B. Kleiner.Results. By analyzing of archival documents and scientific literature shows, that a combination of natural, economic, social and demographic conditions of the region promoted transformation of timber enterprises often into the only actor of creation and maintaining of social and living environment for both local and newcomer population, whose past, present and future was put in direct dependence on the success of the timber industry. The analysis allows to conclude, that by the end of the Soviet period, different directions of social and economic expectations of society and the state led to the fact that the level of social development and material welfare of the population of Karelia, which accounted for a significant portion of immigrants from Belarus, did not comply with its contribution to the national economy. Mass closure of the timber industry enterprises during the 1990s – 2000s by now transformed the former forest settlements in marginal habitats, consisting of the population is doomed to extinction.Practical implications. The conclusions allow not only to form problematic vision at the socio-economic history of Karelia, but also contribute to the expansion of knowledge about the history of the Belarusian diaspora in Karelia.

  18. Development of a method for the retrospective reconstruction of the thyroid dose for children in Belarus after the reactor accident of Chernobyl by determination of the 129I-concentration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl, a pronounced rise in childhood thyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the shortlived radioiodine isotope 131I was responsible for this effect. As there were only a few direct measurements performed to measure the iodine activity in thyroids, other methods had to be developed to reconstruct the thyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. First approaches to this task were performed by the determination of caesium deposition densities on ground which were correlated to a few available measurements of 131I in soil samples. But soon it had to be realized that this approach was not appropriate for a consistent retrospective dose reconstruction due to the patchy depositions patterns and the different release and transport mechanisms between caesium and iodine. For a new approach it was suggested to determine the 129I concentration in soil by introducing a newly developed extraction procedure that produces samples which can be measured for 129I by means of Accelerator Mass-spectrometry (AMS). Both techniques were sequentially applied to soil samples taken during two successive field-expeditions to Belarus. They are discussed in detail in this thesis. To assess the thyroid dose the concentration of 131I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between 129I and 131I. The inferred 131I deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated thyroid dose to certain age groups of various resistance areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalization of a correlation

  19. Costo energético y tiempos tecnológicos del tractor Belarus-M510 con cultivador-fertilizador CIVEMASA en caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Pereira Chirinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron los tiempos tecnológicos y el costo energético del tractor BELARUS M-150 con cultivador fer - tilizador CIVEMASA en el cultivo de la caña de azúcar en el central azucarero Trujillo del estado Trujillo. La metodología utilizada para el cronometraje fue la NC.34-37 2003 y la empleada para la determinación de los costos, apoyada por los antecedentes presentados por la ASAE. El objetivo del trabajo fue la determinación de los tiempos tecnológicos y costo energético del conjunto agrícola. El coeficiente de utilización del tiempo de turno obtenido es de 38% para un volumen de trabajo total de 14,48 ha en las labores de cultivo y fertilización. El mayor costo energético horario corresponde al combustible con un valor de 212,6 MJ/h y el mínimo valor corresponde al de la fuerza de trabajo con un valor de 0,64MJ/h.

  20. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum 2003-2005. Second revised version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  1. Chernobyl's legacy: Health, environmental and socio-economic impacts and recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The Chernobyl Forum: 2003-2005. Second revised version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 20 years after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, many questions remained unanswered regarding the health, environmental, and socio-economic consequences of the disaster. The individuals and countries most affected had yet to obtain a clear scientific consensus on the impact of the accident and authoritative answers to outstanding questions. To fill this void and to promote better understanding and improved measures to deal with the impacts of the accident, the Chernobyl Forum was established in 2003. The Chernobyl Forum is an initiative of the IAEA, in cooperation with the WHO, UNDP, FAO, UNEP, UN-OCHA, UNSCEAR, the World Bank and the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. The Forum was created as a contribution to the United Nations' ten-year strategy for Chernobyl, launched in 2002 with the publication of Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - A Strategy for Recovery. To provide a basis for achieving the goal of the Forum, the IAEA convened an expert working group of scientists to summarize the environmental effects, and the WHO convened an expert group to summarize the health effects and medical care programmes in the three most affected countries. The information presented in this document and in the two full expert group reports has been drawn from scientific studies undertaken by the IAEA, WHO, UNSCEAR and numerous other authoritative bodies. In addition, UNDP has drawn on the work of eminent economists and policy specialists to assess the socio-economic impact of the Chernobyl accident, based largely on the 2002 UN study as above

  2. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  3. 75 FR 5502 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Act (50 U.S.C. 1701- 1706) (``IEEPA''), issued Executive Order 13405 (71 FR 35485, June 20, 2006) (``E... note); E.O. 13405, 71 FR 35485; 3 CFR, 2007 Comp., p. 231. Subpart A--Relation of This Part to Other...: (1) Any person listed in the Annex to Executive Order 13405 of June 16, 2006 (71 FR 35485, June...

  4. 75 FR 73958 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... interests in property (73 FR 29849, May 22, 2008). On September 4, 2008, before the publication of the BSR... published on February 3, 2010 (75 FR 5502). Section 548.509 of the BSR memorialized General License No. 1....C. 1705 note); E.O. 13405, 71 FR 35485; 3 CFR, 2007 Comp., p. 231. Subpart...

  5. Decontamination of Belarus research reactor installation by strippable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to develop new strippable coatings using water-based solutions of polyvinyl alcohol and active additives for decontamination of research reactor equipment. The employment of strippable coatings makes it possible to minimize the quantity of liquid radioactive waste. The selection of strippable decontaminating coatings was carried out on the basis of general requirements to decontaminating solutions: successfully dissolve corrosion deposits; ensure the desorption of radionuclides from the surfaces and the absence of resorption; introduce minimal corrosion effect of construction materials; to be relatively cheap and available in reagents. The decontaminating ability and adhesion properties of these coatings depending on metal and deposit sorts were investigated. Research on the chemical stability of solid wastes was carried out. The data obtained were the base for recommendations on waste management procedure for used films and pastes. A full-scale case-study analysis was performed for comparing strippable coatings with decontaminating solutions. (author)

  6. Lichens of historical manor parks in northwest-central Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    YATSYNA A.; YURCHENKO E.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the study of lichenized Ascomycota in six sample manor parks, situated in Minsk region, 119 species were identified. The parks belong to the two categories: species-rich (with 65-72 lichen species) and species-poor (with 38-47 species). Cluster analysis based on relative abundance of the species showed small differences between species-poor parks and significant differences between species-rich parks. The presence of numerous old-aged trees, wetlands, stone aggregations, ruins,...

  7. Belarus opposition prepares for election battle / Jan Maksymiuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maksymiuk, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Valgevene opositsioonilised Rahvarinne, Tööpartei, Ühendatud Kodanike Partei, Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Assamblee ja Kommunistlik Partei on moodustanud koalitsiooni 17. oktoobri parlamendivalimisteks ning kavatsevad esitada presidendivalimistele ühise kandidaadi

  8. Country Waste Profile Report for Belarus. Reporting Year: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  9. Country Waste Profile Report for Belarus. Reporting Year: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  10. Country Waste Profile Report for Belarus. Reporting Year: 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  11. Country Waste Profile Report for Belarus. Reporting Year: 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  12. Country Waste Profile Report for Belarus. Reporting Year: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  13. Grybauskaite's historic visit to Belarus / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2010-01-01

    Minskis toimunud presidentide Dalia Grybauskaite ja Aleksandr Lukašenko kohtumisel räägiti 19. detsembril toimuvatest Valgevene presidendivalimistest ja idapartnerlusest. Leedu president kohtus ka opositsiooni liikmetega. Visiidi ajal allkirjastasid riikide välisministrid Audronius Azubalis ja Sergei Martõnov lepingu, mis lihtsustab kahe riigi piiriäärsete elanike piiriületust

  14. Belarus - a unique case in the European context? / Kim Lausten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausten, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Valgevene presidendi Aleksander Lukashenko autoritaarsest režiimist, sellega seonduvatest võimalikest ohtudest Valgevene naaberriikide julgeolekule. Autor analüüsib Lukashenko režiimi institutsioonilisi ning sotsiaalpoliitilisi tagamaid

  15. The information provision of rehabilitation measures in Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most important post-Chernobyl problems is the formation of an efficient system of the population's informing. It is of significant importance to provide population with objective and available information on radioecological situation, radiation safety and protective measures while solving social and economical problems. Available information should be presented in a form, suitable for perception by wide public. Different categories of population (children, workers of various professional groups, pensioners) need practical recommendations on how to provide safe life conditions. It has been carried out 'The Concept of information supply on Chernobyl problems'. The Concept is aimed to advance the efficiency of the measures on overcoming the aftermath of Chernobyl catastrophe. The profound explanatory work on the contaminated territories is considered to be the essence of the population's informing, which is directed to change the man's behavior models. Current expositions 'Overcoming of Chernobyl catastrophe consequences' in the most contaminated areas of Gomel, Mogilev and Brest regions are one of the most important elements of the system of people's informing. Today they are created in 21 areas. In 2002 the Russian-Belarussian information centre was created. One of its major tasks is the minimization of the social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. In 2005 it has been developed The Strategy of information work on the basis of modern computer technologies. Its major point is the creation of the system, which provides a wide access of the Internet-users to the information of Chernobyl character. The Coordination council in informing and propaganda (on Chernobyl problems) was created, in which the represents of the bodies of state management are included, who are participating in the realization of the Concept of information supply. The examination of information work in the contaminated districts of Gomel, Mogilev and Brest regions allowed to have made some conclusions referring to its efficiency. The analysis of the results of the population's social and psychological monitoring on the contaminated territories of Gomel' region has been provided. The number of people, who could have adapted to the living conditions, has considerably increased in Bragin and Khojniki districts - to 71,3 and 65,1 % accordingly. The social surveys, which are being provided, show that the information work is gradually reducing the acuteness of perception of Chernobyl disaster

  16. A microeconomic model for subsidies allocation: The case of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlov, Nikolay M.; Kazakevich, Iryna A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops a microeconomic methodological framework that allows approaching subsidy allocation across the types of assets and impact of subsidies on agricultural outputs and profits. The methodology is based on a non-parametric production frontier estimation. The empirical application is made to 1084 Belarusian corporate farms. The results suggest targeting governmental support at grain and milk production. In this case, 4.14 trillion Belarusian roubles of subsidies increase the overa...

  17. The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

  18. The current issues in a contaminated territory of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the accident in the Chernobyl nuclear Power Station 27 456 hectares of farming land and 42 243 hectares of forest are concerned with radioactive contamination. Almost all farming lands concerned with radioactive contamination, apart from 189 hectares, are still used for agricultural production. All farming enterprises own a part of radioactive land. Territories where the average annual contamination dose for the population is likely to exceed 1 mSv are referred either to the zone of compulsory evacuation or to the zone of optional evacuation according to the density of contamination in the soil. Funds for radiological protection are taken from the national budget. The Stolyn district program of protection actions was awarded nearly 10,000 million roubles in 1997. In the district various actions are set up to decrease the contamination of produces and to specify new specialization trends for production. (R.P.)

  19. ZTE IN BELARUS: GLOBAL COMPANY IN LOCAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, T.; Yao, J

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes ZTE activity in the Belarusian market focu- sing on the challenges and perspectives provided by a local market to a globalizer. Having made full use of local resources as well as research and development strategies, ZTE has spurred other Chinese companies’ entry to the Belarusian market overcoming wrong assumptions and clash of cultures

  20. Country Waste Profile Report for Belarus. Reporting Year: 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  1. Country Waste Profile Report for Belarus. Reporting Year: 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  2. Radionuclides and microelements in fish's scale from Perstok lake (Belarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of some microelements and a-radiating, fissionable radionuclides was studied in fish's scale from Perstok lake. The possibility of using scale for long-term monitoring of the Chernobyl accident consequences and incorporation of the fuel particles into fish organism was shown. (authors)

  3. Country Waste Profile Report for Belarus. Reporting Year: 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Country Waste Profile Reports include data on: • Waste in Storage and Disposal (including historical disposal no longer practiced); • Treatment & Conditioning Capabilities; • Major milestones in programme and facility development; • Regulatory Authorities; • Policies, Laws & Regulations; • Disused Radioactive Sources (for some Member States)

  4. The subject consumer service contract in Belarus Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonenko-Kulichenko N. S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, more attention is paid to construction contracts, and in particular the consumer service contract. The most important element of consumer service contract is its subject. Definition of the subject consumer service contract is important for the delimitation of the contract of domestic independent from adjacent to it contracts.

  5. Assessment of Competitiveness of Regions of Ukraine and Belarus as Part of Cross-Border Cooperation Оценка конкурентоспособности регионов Украины и Беларуси в рамках приграничного сотрудничества

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanova Yelena V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the theoretical foundations of the study of competitiveness of regions is made. Special attention was paid to the competitiveness of the border regions. It was shown the results of evaluation of the competitiveness of the border regions of Ukraine and Belarus, the main strengths and weaknesses, opportunities to threats.В статье проведен анализ теоретических основ изучения конкурентоспособности регионов. Особое внимание уделено изучению конкурентоспособности приграничных регионов. Показаны результаты оценки конкурентоспособности приграничных регионов Украины и Беларуси, основные сильные и слабые стороны, возможности на угрозы.

  6. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, People's Republic of China, Poland, Republic of Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777... South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007). On July 2, 2012, the... of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 77 FR...

  7. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... on July 2, 2012 (77 FR 39254) and determined on October 5, 2012 that it would conduct full reviews (77 FR 64127, October 18, 2012). Notice of the scheduling of the Commission's reviews and of a public... Register on December 3, 2012 (77 FR 71631). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on April 25, 2013,...

  8. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777 (September 7, 2001). On August 9, 2007, the Department revoked the... Reinforcing Bars from South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007). DATES... be revoked.\\3\\ \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 77 FR 39218, 39219 (July 2,...

  9. Results of radioiodine treatment in 158 children from Belarus with thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 134 out of 158 children more than one course of radioiodine treatment has been performed in Germany up to now.In 101 out of 134 children (75%) complete remissions of thyroid cancer could be achieved up to now.In the remaining 25% of the cases,we were able to recognise partial remissions defined as decrease in tumour volume,tumour marker serum level or intensity of radioiodine uptake for at least 50%.In no single case has progression of disease been observed

  10. 137Cs radiation burden on children from a highly contaminated area of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation burden from 137Cs sources on 22 children from a small Byelorussian village was studied from 1992 to 1994. Foodstuff, whole body burden and urinary excretion of 137Cs were measured, intake rates, biological half-lives and doses were calculated. The median value for the 137Cs whole body incorporation level was found to be 124 Bq, the biological half life was calculated as 68 d for girls and 50 d for boys. The internal dose caused by 137Cs was found to be negligible in comparison to that from external sources. No deviation from normal values could be shown in simultaneously studied clinico-chemical parameters

  11. Seasonal variations of Cinnamomum camphora leaf aroma volatiles in greenhouse condition of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Hetka, Nelly; Rogovoy, Pavel; Subach, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Buvo tiriama kokybinė ir kiekybinė introdukuoto augalo Cinnamomum camphora džiovintuose lapuose esančių lakiųjų aromatinių medžiagų sudėtis. Šie augalai buvo auginami šiltnamio sąlygomis Baltarusijos nacionalinės mokslų akademijos Botanikos sodo šiltnamiuose. Birželio mėnesį visai vasarai augalai buvo išnešami į lauką, o žiemą, gruodžio mėnesį, tiriami chromatografu Model 5090. Buvo nustatyta kamparo, kuris yra pagrindinė Cinnamomum camphora lapų aromatinių medžiagų sudedamoji dalis, dalis pr...

  12. MODERN CONDITIONS OF ROAD FACILITIES AND INTERNATIONAL AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORTATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Tsarenkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For analysis of technical and economic conditions of automotive roads and determination of reserves for improvement of financial situation and usage of capital in road facilities operational efficiency of road facilities and automotive freight-traffic services that provide significant currency receipt for Republic budget. The main ways for higher export of construction services are involvement of road facilities enterprises in this activity and introduction of highly-productive technologies in their operation. The paper demonstrates an importance of non-conventional sources of investment attractions such as leasing which is used for renovation of capital assets and invests resources in the basic capital on the return basis in the natural form. For application of new technologies and modern technique it is justifiable to establish joint road-construction enterprises with foreign sub-contractors. The paper reveals main reasons of profit increase due to operation and services of road branch.

  13. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in a Belarussian-American-Danish collaborative project. Here the total radiological impact of the scheme is considered. This means that not only the dose reductive effect of the forest decontamination is taken into account, but also the possible adverse health effects in connection with the much needed bio-energy production. This report presents the results of an in-country, commercial-scale investigation of the effect of a baghouse filter in retaining contaminants so that they are not released to the atmosphere in the biomass energy production process. Approximately 99,5 % of the activity of a commercially representative, dust-laden boiler flue gas was removed from the stream by using a combination of a cyclone and a baghouse filter. (au)

  14. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.;

    2000-01-01

    of an in-country, commercial-scale investigation of the effect of a baghouse filter in retaining contaminants so that they are not released to theatmosphere in the biomass energy production process. Approximately 99.5% of the activity of a commercially representative, dust-laden boiler flue gas was removed...... from the stream by using a combination of a cyclone and a baghouse filter....

  15. ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTION OF OPTIMUM POWER-SUPPLY SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Padalko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main directions of the technological development of the Belarusian power-supply system. Comparative analysis of the economic efficiency of thermal power station modernization on the basis of steam- and gas technology, nuclear technology development and simple renovation of the worn-out generating capacities of thermal power stations has been carried out in the paper. Selection of the priority direction pertaining to optimization of industrial structure of the Belarusian power-supply system has been made on the basis of the presented minimum-specific cost criterion. The paper reveals that in the medium-term period the most optimum development of the Belarusian electrical power engineering is a technological  modernization  due to predicted  changes in natural gas and nuclear fuel costs. The modernization presupposes construction of topping plants in addition to the existing steam- and turbine equipment at thermal power stations. 

  16. Contemporary Historiography of Social History of Stalinism in Belarus and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viachaslau Menkouski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the historiographical direction "Social History of Stalinism" in the publications of Russian and Belarusian researchers. It is proposed an overview of the use of the term "Stalinism" in the Russian historiography. It compares the ratio of Marxist theory and the practice of socialism in the Soviet Union. The analysis of the Russian-language historiography of Stalinism abroad in the XX–XXI centuries draws attention to the influence of the English-language historiography on the Russian and Belarusian researchers.It explains the importance of "social history" to understand the Stalinist period of Soviet history. Having to replace the concept of totalitarianism, this area has allowed researchers to shift attention from the Soviet leadership to the broad social strata. The Stalinism methodology is studied and how it can be applied to other countries and other historical periods. This allowed a more accurate picture of the life of Soviet society and the State in the 1930–1950's.Attention is paid to the internationalization and globalization of modern historical research as one of the most important specific features. It provides examples of joint projects and publications that focus on the "ordinary people" of the Stalinist Soviet Union, their daily lives, and practice relationships between different social strata.

  17. Estimation of soya cultivation efficiency in conditions of Belarus lands polluted by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of high-protein soya crop including lands polluted by radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident, causes to the necessity of carrying out research to study the radionuclide transfer into production of this crop. As a result of research the transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr from soil into seeds and green mass of various soya varieties have been determined to allow a prediction of radionuclide transfer into production. Limiting densities of radionuclide pollution for moderately improved sod - podzol sandy soils for production of the soya products corresponding of 137Cs and 90Sr content to the national permissible levels are established. Use of the crop in plant cultivation and cattle-breeding branch is accompanied by high energy - conserving effects. Soya products contains high quantity of total energy per kilogram of forage. The most highly energy-conserving forages are waste products of soya processing: an oil cake - up to 87,4 Mj and soil-seed meal up to 79,7 Mj. High profitability of this crop cultivation is provided by production for seeds. It is economically defensible a soya beans cultivation for processing and for fodder. For reception of seeds for food purposes there are restrictions on pollution of soil: 1125 kBk/square ? (30 Ci/square km) and 90Sr to 2,6 kBk/square ? (0,07 Ci/square km)

  18. The small anomalies of heart development of children which live in radionuclide contaminated territories in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 1000 children from radionuclide contaminated territories (1-5 Ci/km2) were examined for small heart malformation. 25% children have anomalous position of cardiac chord in left ventricular cavity. Causes of suspicion are given

  19. Children's Welfare Benefits and the Demographic Policy of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revun, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the Soviet era there has been an entire system of social welfare benefits in connection with the birth and upbringing of children. Nowadays, in the independent states that came into being in the post-Soviet space, extensive use is also made of various social welfare benefits that are linked to prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal…

  20. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  1. Heated squabble over Belarus marks beginning of the year / Linas Jegelevicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jegelevicius, Linas

    2011-01-01

    Leedu ekspresident Valdas Adamkus on kritiseerinud president Dalia Grybauskaite välispoliitikat Valgevene suhtes. 3. jaanuaril toimunud presidendi ja välisminister Andronius Azubalise kohtumisel räägiti ka Valgevene presidendivalimistest ja sealsest olukorrast. Dalia Grybauskaite prognoose ja eesmärke 2011. aastaks on samuti kritiseeritud. Leedu on 2011. aastal OSCE eesistuja

  2. On the Shaping of the Legal Culture of Young People in Russia and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the legal culture of young people in the interaction between subjective factors and objective conditions characterizing the transformation of societies in the post-Soviet space makes it possible not only to assess the current state of that culture, but also to map out ways to improve it. In this article, the authors examine the…

  3. McCain visits Vilnius to discuss Belarus / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    USA senaatorite ja Esindajatekoja delegatsiooni Leedu visiidi käigus kohtus John McCain Leedus õppivate Valgevene üliõpilaste ja president Dalia Grybauskaitega, et rääkida Valgevenes toimuvast. Leedus toimunutest Valgevene temaatilistest konverentsidest

  4. Belarus and Russia in OSCE Ministerial Council focus / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    6.-7. detsembril Vilniuses toimunud OSCE Ministrite Nõukogu kohtumisel räägiti inimõiguste probleemidest, meediavabadusest, Afganistanist, Araabia kevadest, Valgevenes toimuvast ja Venemaal toimunud parlamendivalimistest. Kohtumise avas Leedu president Dalia Grybauskaite. 6. detsembril kohtus USA riigisekretär Hillary Clinton president Dalia Grybauskaite ja välisminister Audronius Azubalisega

  5. Radiation monitoring of local foodstuffs in some settlements in Belarus located not far from woodlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here are the results of radiation monitoring performed by the local centres for radiation control in some settlements located in radiation contaminated territories not far from woodlands. It is shown that within the decennial period from 1993 to 2003 the Caesium 137 radiation contamination of mushrooms, game and milk from private household makes significant values and do not have the decreasing tendency. It is recommended to use possible radioprotective measures of the population under above stated circumstances. (authors)

  6. Radiation control of food and forest industry production in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Service of the Ministry of Health ( 151 radiology laboratories ) and The Ministry of Agriculture ( 1330 radiology laboratories ) carry out the permanent control of the content of radionuclides in food. Last years there was no case registered of drinking water with the content of radioactive substances exceeding the permissible level. Radiation control of food and agricultural raw products is carried out in several stages: at the place of production, during reprocessing and a control of ready made product. The fact that there was no case of delivery of the products with the content of radionuclides higher than permissible level for sale says about the reliability of the system of the control. The permissible levels of the content of radionuclides are presented for food, drinking water, products of forest industry and agricultural production. 1 tab

  7. Contribution of the pectin in the cesium elimination in organism. results of analysis on Belarus children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results make appear that the cesium 137 would be eliminated less quick than what the ICRP considered for its models. Pectin would accelerate the cesium elimination but less quick than what is announced by its promotors. Politically speaking, the pectin is ignored by the officials of medicine and radiation protection at the pretext that its efficiency is not proved but no study is made. (N.C.)

  8. Proceedings of 1. Congress of the Belarus therapeutic radiologists-oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The edition is devoted to urgent problems of use of a beam component and modern radiotherapeutic complex in treatment of oncological diseases. It includes materials submitted by the leading experts of many countries, about experience of the beam therapy use at lungs cancer, as well as information of leading firms of the world about their participation in development modern radiotherapeutic complexes and clinical experience of their use. The edition is intended for radiologists, oncologists, physics engineers as well as other experts, engaging by problems of beam therapy and its both hardware and software support. (authors)

  9. Sociological aspects of reproductive health of young people in Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this survey we analyzed responses of 1,500 15-25-year-old young people. The survey included responses to the questions about knowledge of the ecological situation in the places of their permanent residence. It has been noted that the overwhelming majority of respondents from all regions are not sufficiently informed about the state of ecological situation in their places of residence. (Authors)

  10. CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PLATFORM MOBILE ROBOT BASED ON SERIAL TRACTOR «BELARUS 132»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Tatur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is announced an innovative project to create a prototype multi­robotic system. A distinctive feature of the project – the maximum use of components and software of domestic production. The mobile robot used the concept of multi­level management system, according to which the majority of workload is on­board computer. This will reduce the amount of data transmitted over a wireless link, and increase the efficiency of the development of algorithms for higher­level control.

  11. Intervention during late phase of the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: Gained experience and future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various measures, introduced to reduce external and internal radiation doses of inhabitants of territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, are described. Average annual doses are given. It is concluded that while factors such as reduction of psychoemotional tension need to be explored, risk coefficients for chronic exposure at low doses should be specified. (author)

  12. The neuromuscular system in continuously swimming cercariae from Belarus. II Echinostomata, Gymnocephala and Amphistomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-12-01

    The neuromuscular system in cercariae of Moliniella anceps, Echinostoma revolutum, Cathaemasia hians, Psilochasmus oxyurus, Sphaeridiotrema globulus, Paramphistomum cervi and Diplodiscus subclavatus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR sensory receptors were investigated. The general patterns of musculature, 5-HT- and FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements in the 12 species studied here and in paper I are similar to those observed in other cercariae and reflect the morphology of the groups. The musculature of the tail shows variations which are related to the different strategies of host finding. In the Echinostomatoidea and Paramphistomoidea, the striated musculature of the tail is well developed compared to that in the Xiphidiocercariae. Specialized muscle fibres were found in S. globulus, which are able to change the shape of the tail. Nine of the species studied have seven paired 5-HT-IR neurons in the body, and two species have eight. No correlation between the body size and the number of 5-HT-IR neurons was observed. However, the size of the neurons followed the body size. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the brain ganglia increased from the primitive to the advanced forms. The number of FMRFamide-IR transverse commissures in the body correlates with the size of the cercariae. Regardless of the differences in the second intermediate host, the distribution of α-tubulin-IR sensory receptors shows a high degree of conformity in all species except in P. cervi, which encysts on plants. PMID:22941527

  13. The neuromuscular system in freshwater furcocercaria from Belarus. II Diplostomidae, Strigeidae, and Cyathocotylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-02-01

    The neuromuscular system (NMS) in cercariae of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Cotylurus szidati, Australapatemon burti, Holostephanus volgensis, and Paracoenogonimus ovatus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT immunoreactive (-IR), FMRF-amide-IR neuronal elements, and α-tubulin-IR in sensory receptors were investigated. The NMS in the five species studied were compared with each other and with three species of Schistosomatidae studied earlier (Bilharziella polonica, Trichobilharzia szidati, and Trichobilharzia franki). No major structural differences in the musculature, the 5-HT-IR or FMRF-IR neuronal elements were noticed between the cercariae. The minor variations observed in the musculature were related to the size and organization of the muscle fibers. The checked pattern formed by the transverse muscle fibers in the tail stems of D. pseudospathaceum, C. szidati, A. burti, H. volgensis, and P. ovatus was not observed in B. polonica, T. szidati, and T. franki. A trend in the differentiation of the longitudinal muscle fibers in the furca from evenly distributed fibers in H. volgensis and P. ovatus to many bundles in D. pseudospathaceum and two well-organized lateral bundles in C. szidati, A. burti, and Trichobilharzia spp. was observed. The transverse muscle fibers in the furca follow the same trend. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the cercarial bodies varied between 10 and 16. In cercariae of H. volgensis and P. ovatus, the central nervous system (CNS) was less centralized compared to the CNS in the other species studied, with only two 5-HT-IR marker neurons in each brain ganglion and the other neurons distributed evenly along the main cords. In the tails of H. volgensis and P. ovatus, many transverse 5-HT-IR comissures were found. In the tails of higher strigeidid cercariae, only a few crosslinks were observed. The number and distribution of sensory receptors on the bodies and tails of the cercarial species differed from each other. A trend in the differentiation of the sensory receptors in the tails was discerned. A process of grouping and decrease in number of ciliated receptors in the stem and in the furca from H. volgensis and P. ovatus to Schistosomatid cercariae took place. PMID:21748349

  14. The neuro-muscular system in continuously swimming cercariae from Belarus. I Xiphidiocercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-11-01

    The neuromuscular system (NMS) in cercariae of Neoastiotrema trituri, Plagiorchis elegans, Omphalometra flexuosa, Skrjabinoeces similis and Prosthogonimus ovatus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR sensory receptors were investigated, and they were found to be rather similar in all the cercariae studied. Four species have seven paired 5-HT-IR neurons in the body, and P. elegans has eight. N. trituri has three 5-HT-IR neurons in each brain ganglion, while the other species have four. A high degree of conformity in the structure of the NMS was observed, probably reflecting the close phylogenetic relationship and the similar strategy of host finding. PMID:22868890

  15. Chemical transformation kinetics of Pu and Am in soils of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of available experimental data the constant of destruction rate of fuel particles and constants of formation rate of plutonium and americium fulvates which determine migration kinetics of metals - ions in a soil - plant system are calculated. The long-term forecast of accumulation of mobile forms of Pu and Am in soil is carried out. (authors)

  16. Animal breeding state on radioactive contaminated territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl' NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measures providing for thyroid dose loading decreasing realized in May 1986 in the zone neighbouring the Chernobyl' NPP are analyzed. Dispensary surveillances of argicultural animals are organized begining from 1988. Experiments aimed at acceleration of radioactive cesium excretion from animal muscle tissue by using pharmacological and chemical preparations for different levels of diet contamination are conducted. Milk with increased radioactive cesium concentration is processed into butter from the first day of radioactive effuent up to now. The final product contains radioactive cesium amount decreased by the factor of 6 as compared with that for milk, and radioactive cesium traces only are present in melted butter. Sheep-breeding is forbidden in contaminated territories

  17. Influence of the environmental safety indicator on the structure of power generation capacity in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions in the world (60%) come from the energy sector. Greenhouse gas emissions during the electricity and heat production strongly depend on the fuel mix and combustion technologies, tariff and tax policy, etc. The environmental factor at present is considered as one of the energy security indicators. Specific greenhouse gas emission per unit of heat and electricity produced was chosen as such indicator. The MESSAGE model was used for the Belantsian energy system for analysis of the scenarios by considering possible diversification by type of energy resources and by suppliers. For the considered scenarios specific emissions of CO2 per unit of heat and electricity produced had been calculated. The tax on fossil fuels burning was taken as an influencing factor on the environmental indicator. Established results show its impact on optimal structure of the generating capacity and greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector. (author)

  18. Geochemical study of military bases impact on the environment in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been established that the geochemical and ecological situation in the sites formerly occupied by military bases does not satisfy nature management and living standards. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Mo and Cu), oil products and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil and ground which exceed the permissible contamination limits make them dangerous for utilisation and require cleaning up measures

  19. Development of barrier composite coating technology for low level radioactive waste disposal. Appendix 1: Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to research relating to the development of new thin film barrier coatings, the associated preparation technique, and their use for solving various scientific and engineering problems associated with the improvement of the performance of low level waste disposal facilities. The work presents the main results of zirconium dioxide thin film coatings preparation process by organometallic composite solutions on various substrates and bases with subsequent thermal treatment at 400-1000 deg. C. Experimental work on the formation of isolating corrosion-resistant ZrO2 (Y2O3) coatings over different substrates and bases, including microporous ones, indicate potential applications of the technology to coating barrier materials such as quartz, sand, concrete, alumina

  20. Self-help countermeasure strategies for populations living within contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countermeasures have been effectively employed within intensive agricultural systems in areas of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) affected by the Chernobyl accident. However, ingestion doses continue to be elevated in some areas as a result of few foodstuffs which are collected from the wild or produced by the household. Forest fungi and berries, and milk from privately owned cattle are the most notable contributors to 137Cs intakes amongst these foodstuffs. In this paper we consider advice which would help affected populations to both understand the importance of these exposure routes and to reduce their exposure. In addition to the potential radiological benefits, self-help schemes are highly cost-effective and likely to have a positive psychological influence on populations living within contaminated areas of the FSU. Evidence to suggest that the transfer of radiocaesium to cow milk is considerably higher in the FSU than within western Europe and North America is discussed

  1. Propaganda techniques in law enforcement practice: experience of the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stukanov V.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of public administration is stated – influencing the public consciousness to form values and world view, attitude of the people towards rules of law and public authorities. Propaganda is an effective means of organizing such influence. It’s proved that propaganda is a specially organized process of presenting information aimed at the assimilation of declared by the state system of moral and legal norms and values as well as social and political views by the public consciousness. Propaganda is a means of state ideology, therefore it includes value attitude to the historical, political, social and economic processes; evaluation of historical development models and the balance of political forces; attitude to legally protected values, state authorities and law enforcement agencies, criminal behaviour. The following subjects of propaganda are recognized: state, public authorities, mass media, civil society actors (political parties, trade unions, public and religious associations and foundations, national diasporas, etc.. Their information and communication activities meet the national interests declared officially. The objects of propaganda are public consciousness, the system of spiritual values, worldviews, social and political views and attitudes, as well as the historical memory of the people. The state is the source of propaganda views and ideas. It acts as methodologist of propaganda activities, developing the concept of propaganda on the basis of state ideology, and ensuring its implementation through executive and administrative authorities, political, public and other institutions. The state creates the mechanism and appropriate conditions for propaganda influence, using administrative, economic, personnel and other resources.

  2. Belarus police search Latvian diplomat's apartment, level accusations of vice / Julia Balandina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balandina, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Valgevene võimud tekitasid poliitilise skandaali, süüdistades Läti diplomaati Reimo Smitsi pornostseenis ning pornograafia levitamises. Läti välisministeerium nimetab juhtumit provokatsiooniks ning rünnakuks diplomaadi ja Läti riigi vastu

  3. Corporate Social Responsibility for Innovation and Economic Performance Improvement: Evidence from Belarus as an Emerging Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Siarheu Manzhynski

    2014-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) could be an essential driver for innovation and high economic performance in a long-run perspective. First movers can exploit the business opportunities and gain a comparative advantage. But at the same time implementation of strategies and practices based on CSR requires additional costs and distraction from core activities. To what extent can efforts in building up of a social responsible company pay off these costs and benefit? What role does staff’s p...

  4. MOBILE MORTAR CONCRETE PLANTS FOR BUILDING COMPLEX OF BELARUS: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main advantages and disadvantages of mobile mortar concrete plants in comparison with stationary concrete mixing units. The main idea of the mobility is to provide quick movement. In its turn, this approach imposes some restrictions on dimensions and weights of concrete mixing equipment. However in the context of the concrete mixing equipment and construction site as whole the mobility concept is considered in the form of three components: minimum expenses on site preparation for assembly of a mortar concrete plant, transportability, reduction in installation and startand-adjustment periods. In this regard processing chain for production of concrete and mortar mixes is divided in separate complete operations. Then it is necessary to develop modules which are performing the required operations. Every module is developed in accordance with the size of a shipping container in order to make transportation convenient. Detachable connections are stipulated in the place of module linkages, electrical wiring, pipelines for supply water and chemical admixtures, pneumatics. Henceforth, these connections make it possible to reduce time for on-site assembly and disassembly of the equipment.The paper presents a mobile mortar concrete unit of block-module arrangement which has been developed within the framework of the State Scientific Research Programme at the BNTU. The unit has been manufactured using production capacities of JSC “Viprotekh” and it has been successfully introduced in production process. One of the promising directions is to use the mobile mortar concrete plants which are located and which are operating directly on construction sites. Their economic efficiency becomes higher with an increase of distance to the nearest stationary mortar concrete unit and scope of concreting works. Mobile mortar concrete plants are mainly intended for construction organizations which are realizing construction projects away from urban infrastructure and transportation networks: bridges, dams, highways, transport junctions. While ensuring the same production output of concrete these plants are located in close proximity to the construction site and the required mortars can be supplied directly to the site with the help of special concrete pumps.

  5. Radiologic research on hunting industry species of the mammalian fauna of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special features of accumulation and allocation of radionuclides in organs and tissues of hunted mammals in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl NPP were revealed in dependence on population density and time. The population states, character and direction of species were evaluated. The direct relationship between accumulated radionuclides in the tissues and the contamination of area was obtained.(author). 16 refs., 1 figs

  6. INNOVATIONS AS A DEVELOPMENT FACTOR FOR THE CONTEMPORARY CULTURE IN BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    Sviatlana Buloichyk

    2010-01-01

    : Cultural institutions, being the subjects of management on one hand, and creating economic conditions on the other hand, have a significant impact on the development of the economy. However, cultural institutions themselves need to be developed. Certain economic innovations can become a development factor in the work of cultural institutions.

  7. Safety analysis of the Chernobyl accident origin decontamination waste burials in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential dangerous of the decontamination waste burials was estimated by means of the generalized multicompartmental model. Characteristics of 24 the most large and unfavorable decontamination waste burials are shown and an estimate of their safety is given. The burial effect zones were determined (100-300 m). A reliability of the forecasting estimate of potential dangerous radioactive contamination of ground waters near the burials was checked on example of the Dudichi decontamination waste burial

  8. MOBILE MORTAR CONCRETE PLANTS FOR BUILDING COMPLEX OF BELARUS: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Leonovich; A. I. Olgomets; V. Yu. Gurinovich; S. L. Karpovich

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers main advantages and disadvantages of mobile mortar concrete plants in comparison with stationary concrete mixing units. The main idea of the mobility is to provide quick movement. In its turn, this approach imposes some restrictions on dimensions and weights of concrete mixing equipment. However in the context of the concrete mixing equipment and construction site as whole the mobility concept is considered in the form of three components: minimum expenses on site preparat...

  9. Inorganic constituents in surface runoff from urbanised areas in winter: the case study of the city of Brest, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bulskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the inorganic constituents of snow and snowmelt surface runoff in a case study of the city of Brest and to indicate components that could pose a threat to the environment. Samples of snow and snowmelt runoff were analysed for the following parameters: total suspended solids, pH, the contents of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions, and of heavy metals. The concentrations of most of these pollutants were higher in the snowmelt runoff than in snow. The concentrations of pollutants in the snowmelt surface runoff exceeded the levels established by national regulations (maximum permissible concentrations.

  10. Management of the yield and radiological quality of potatoes cultivated by population on radioactive contaminated land of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of rural inhabitants in processes of self-rehabilitation and self-development could be considered as a way to improve the quality life on radioactive contaminated territory after Chernobyl accident. The results of the application of experimental technology for potato cultivation on radioactive contaminated land developed by participants in cooperation with scientists are described. The potato yield in experiment was higher on 13-27 t.ha-1 or in 1.6 times than on control plots. The 137Cs content in potatoes in experiment was lower on 20-30% than in control plots and lower than republican permissible level of radionuclide content. The 1 EURO invested to the potato experiment provided 2.0 EURO of net return. Therefore the management of yield and radiological quality of potatoes cultivated on private contaminated plots allowed to reduce of irradiation dose on rural inhabitants and to increase the outcome of their family. (orig.)

  11. The CORE programme in Belarus. A new approach to the rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topical Project provides training in practical radioactive protection for pregnant women subjected to chronic low-dose radiation exposure. The CORE Programme Topical Projects include: Establishment of an association for development of bee-keeping in Slavgorod district The goal is to create an enabling environment for the development of bee-keeping in the affected district, Preservation and development of pottery-making traditions on the territory of the village Gorodnaia (Stolin district) The Project aims to create a Pottery Centre as a way to improve the living conditions of the affected population. In this case the community designed projects on their immediate needs and mobilised resources for its implementation

  12. Peculiarities of integral brain activity under compromised thyroid gland function of children and adolescent from radionuclide contaminated territories of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    80 children with thyroid gland hypertrophy (50 girls + 30 boys, 10 - 17 years old) from Luninets town, the Brest region, were investigated for integral brain activity. Quantitative determination of thyrotropic hormone level in blood serum was made by using enzyme immunodetection. Mentation, attention and memory were tested by questionnaire design. Results of experiments are given

  13. Results of the thyroid and diabetes-associated autoantibodies screening in children and adolescents living in various regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently among the factors capable to induce autoimmune reaction, it is ionizing radiation that is discussed, along with virus infections and chemical influences. Investigation of 540 healthy children and adolescents (age range 12-19 y.o.) living in radionuclide contaminated areas (average cesium 137 contamination 0,19-0,56 MBq/m2) and in conditionally clear regions revealed significant differences in levels of diabetes-associated (AB-GAD, AB-IA2) and thyroid (AB-TG, AB-TPO) autoantibodies. At the same time frequencies of positive AB-IA2, AB-TPO and AB-TG were higher in persons from contaminated regions. Obtained results correlate with the increase of the type 1 diabetes incidence in children and adolescents from Gomel region and dictate the necessity to continue the such study

  14. Experience of the Republic of Belarus in solving the problems of rehabilitation of the territories affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the result of the Chernobyl accident, about a quarter of the Belarussian territory has been contaminated by radionuclides. More than one and a half million of people live on the contaminated territory. The legislation and radiological standards were developed in all spheres related to overcoming of the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Significant range of countermeasures is applied in agriculture. The system of social protection of all population categories is under implementation. Considerable part of work has been done to improve living conditions in the contaminated territories. The rehabilitation of the contaminated territories includes a complex of measures aimed at restoration of the economy, social infrastructure, physical and psychological health of people. Although a long time passed since the Chernobyl accident, a lot of problems of rehabilitation of affected areas still remain to be solved. In this regard, both national efforts and international collaboration are very important. (author)

  15. Americium 241 in vegetation of natural biocenoses and agrocenoses on Belarus territories contaminated with Chernobyl fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of beta-decay of plutonium 241 the content of americium 241 increases progressively in soils, contaminated with Chernobyl trans uranium elements. Americium 241 displayed higher (0,5 - 1,5-fold) biological mobility than isotopes of plutonium 239, 240. Activity of americium 241 in surface phyto mass of wild and cultural plants varies from 0,04 to 5,9 Bq/kg of dry weight. Americium 241 contribution to the total trans uranium elements contamination of plants made up 60 - 80% in 1996 - 1998. Investigation of trials from the areas adjacent to the 30-km zone showed that mobility of americium 241 and plutonium was 5 - 15 times as high as in the zone

  16. Morphological peculiarities of chronic gastritis in children and adolescents of Belarus under conditions of low dose radiation-chemical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, the unfavourable ecological situation due to chemical contamination of the environment was aggravated by the radiation effect. At present, radionuclides of caesium and lead, as well as the nitrates, are the most widely distributed ecotoxicants. Under conditions of the negative ecological effect as the result of per os penetration of the majority of xenobiotics, the gastro-intestinal tract is at particular risk. During 1990-1994, 442 children and adolescents aged 10-17 residing at the ecologically different regions of the Republic have been examined. The program of examination included morphological investigation of bioptates of the stomach mucous membrane, determination of the radiocaesium specific activity in the body and the evaluation of lead content in blood and nitrates content in urine. (author)

  17. Recommendations to the governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on environmental monitoring, remediation and research [Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental transfer and bioaccumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr are now well understood and the is little need for major new research programmes. Requirement for continued but more limited targeted monitoring of the environments. Long term monitoring of 137Cs and 90Sr is required to: To assess levels of human exposure and contamination of foods to determine the need for remedial actions; To inform the general public about the radioactive contamination in food products and its seasonal and annual variability in natural food products as well as give dietary advice.To determine parameters of long-term transfer of radionuclides in various ecosystems and different natural conditions to improve predictive models; To determine mechanisms of radionuclide behaviour in less studied ecosystems (e.g., role of fungi in the forest). Remediation and countermeasures; Different effective long-term remediation measures are available but their use should be justified and optimized. The general public should be informed and involved in the decision-making process

  18. Methods of planning and preparation for restoration of Belarus territories contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to 1994, the works on restoration of contaminated territories have not been practically carried out. The problems of carrying out the restoration, methods of planning and preparation for it based on the ''cost-benefit'' analysis are considered. Technical and economic aspects of restoration of contaminated territories are analyzed. It is shown, that the combined methods of clean-up are the most promising. Determination of advisability of clean-up is carried out on the basis of economic evaluation of risk when a person is chronically exposed to 1 man-rem, with allowance for risk factors: premature death, shortening of lifetime, loss of ability to work, reduction in life standards. It should be recognized, that restoration must be done in complex for several regions, as the clean-up of a single region can lead to its secondary contamination. Determination of the clean-up consequences of the affected regions is an important problem. In addition, common criteria and methods should be worked out for all countries with contaminated territories. It would be advisable to create the united financial center and the international group of executors. 10 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  19. Concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn, Zr, Cr, Co and Sn) in soils of the Central area of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Позняк, С.

    2011-01-01

    Исследования по изучению содержания тяжелых металлов в почвах Центральной зоны Республики Беларусь позволили получить новые данные о содержании в них валовых форм Рb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn, Zr, Cr, Co и Sn. Экспериментально установлено, что пространственные изменения содержания валовых форм тяжелых металлов более значительные, чем временные. По результатам исследований определена загрязненность почв тяжелыми металлами в радиусе 10 км вокруг города ЖодиноStudy of heavy metals concentration in soils o...

  20. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; YAMASHITA, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thy...

  1. The study of mutations of low penetrates candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in patients from different regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most widespread malignancy in the world. It is supposed, that all factors influencing on breast cancer onset can be divided into 4 groups: environmental factors, state of woman's health, heredity and concomitant disease. The inherited disposition towards breast cancer is complex, and many genetic variants and polymorphisms have been postulated to play a role in this condition. Despite genes with a high penetrance, known some genes with a low penetrance, such as ATM, CHEK2 and XRCC4. Ionizing radiation is for long being recognized as a potent carcinogen. The link between exposition to high doses of radiation and a subsequent development of breast cancer has been shown in numerous epidemiological studies. Because mutations in the known genes explain less than half of all multiple-case families, other genes involved in these repair pathways are now under current investigation in many different labs worldwide to define their role in breast cancer predisposition. The purpose of this paper is to study mutations of low penetrate candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in Byelorussian patients. This study is for the first time reveals the mutations of breast cancer genes in the Byelorussian population. Were used such methods as extraction of DNA, PCR, ARMAS-PCR and restriction analysis for this study. As a result of the work frequent mutations of CHEK2 and XRCC4 were found in family cases. It is shown that following methods are useful for cancer risk prediction for patients and their blood relatives. (authors)

  2. The dynamics of radioactive contamination of soils and plants of natural complexes in unsettled zone of the Chernobyl NPP in the territory of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of measuring of radioactivity of soils and plants in unsettled zone of Chernobyl NPP having been made since 1986 are discussed. It revealed that the radioactivity of plants remained at high level and it was under strong annual influence of the weather conditions

  3. From ambassador in retirement to head of a secret operation: the work of the advisory and monitoring group in Belarus, 1997- 2001.

    OpenAIRE

    Belskaya, Alina

    2009-01-01

    Endast avhandlingens sammandrag. Pappersexemplaret av hela avhandlingen finns för lÀsesalsbruk i Statsvetenskapliga biblioteket (Unionsgatan 35). Dessa avhandlingar fjÀrrutlånas endast som microfiche. Abstract only. The paper copy of the whole thesis is available for reading room use at the Library of Social Sciences (Unioninkatu 35) . Microfiche copies of these theses are available for interlibrary loans. Vain tiivistelmÀ. OpinnÀytteiden sidotut arkistokappaleet ovat luettavissa ...

  4. The peculiarities of the accumulation of Cs-137 and the content of photosynthetic pigments and protein in plants of natural associations of south-east Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiarities of accumulation of Cs-137 by various components of meadow associations of Polesky State radioecological reserve (PSRER) were studied. The specific radioactivity of soil totalled 12000-290000 Bq/kg, and specific radioactivity of overground phytomass was 200-252000 Bq/kg. The inverse dependence between the specific radioactivity and the coefficient of accumulation of plants was observed, and the direct dependence between the acidity of salt extract (1H KCL) and the coefficient of accumulation. The content of photosynthetic pigments of Agropyron repens L. was less in the phase of florescence and fruitage than at the beginning of vegetation. That is said about the principal decrease of the content of chlorophyll b comparing with chlorophyll a and the both green pigments comparing with carotenoids. The fourth month's period of vegetation of plants in the conditions of increased radiation background was not observed the changing neither by the of chlorophyll a and b and carotinoids nor by the content of total protein that was testified about the high stability of pigmental system. (author)

  5. Uncertainty of the thyroid dose assessment of Belarus population by iodine-131 after the Chernobyl accident derived with method of radioecological modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The every result of radioecological modeling is connecting with uncertainty. The realization of analyze of uncertainty allows to assess the reliability of dose estimation. For this purpose Monte-Carlo method was used. Accordingly to function of probability density for each parameter, using Latin hypercube sampling method, the value was generated. Based on derived quantities dose estimation was made. The uncertainty analyze showed, that the density function of likelihood for average thyroid dose estimation on settlement level is the curve of lognormal distribution. In this case the uncertainty factor was defined with the geometric standard deviation of result and it amounted 3.1 for dry and 3.3 for wet deposition. These values of uncertainty factor are considered as moderate values and thyroid dose assessments are characterized by average degree of reliability (author)

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Certain Requirements of Food Legislation in the European Union and the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a comparative analysis of the food legislation requirements of the European Union (EU) and the Customs Union. Its purpose is to guide food business operators and public authorities engaged in reforming national food safety systems in the peculiarities of EU and Customs Union legal requirements and help them evaluate their capabilities in meeting those requirements. Thi...

  8. SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT OF THE MEDICAL SECTION OF THE STATE PROGRAM OF THE BELARUS REPUBLIC FOR THE OVERCOMING OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rozhko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A twenty-five year health follow-up of the affected population has shown that a properly structured State strategy on overcoming the consequences of disaster allow to maintain stable levels of morbidity and mortality. An important achievement in the system of medical help to the affected population is the organization of dynamic follow-up, as well as creating State Register of people exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident as a tool for solving scientific and practical problems. The results of scientific researches obtained in the SO “The Republican Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology” were the basis for one of the Council of Ministers Decree and two Decrees of the Ministry of Health. Significant changes have been made in the order of assigning the causation connection of disease (disability and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and objective criteria for the formation of high radiation risk groups.In a whole, the rate of oncological morbidity in the affected population remains at the average republican level, but for certain categories of the affected population, referred to groups of enhanced radiation risk, there has been detected the presence of excess morbidity of some forms of malignant neoplasms.

  9. Chernobyl hot particles in the lungs of personnel involved in the post-accident clean-up actions and of inhabitants of the contaminated Ukrainian and Belarus territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the body content by direct or indirect methods permits to determine the amount of the radioactivity inhaled and the relevant averaged over an organ committed dose. According to traditional dosimetry approach that is enough or rough prediction of committed detriment. For the real prognosis of the hazard due to aerosol inhalation in accordance with the alternative radiobiological model, it is necessary to know the microdistribution of deposited radioactive material as well as the relevant microdistribution of the deposited energy in target microstructures of the lungs. The only technique for investigating the microdistribution of a radioactivity is the histoautoradiographic examination of autopsy material

  10. Distribution of cesium 137 and other chemical elements on the physical chemical barriers of a boundary zone of the Belarus Poles'e marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effect of the physical chemical barriers on distribution of cesium-137 and other chemical elements has been considered on the example of landscape-geochemical profile 'White Marsh' formed under conditions typical of Poles'e landscape-geochemical characteristics of the profile is presented. (authors). 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  11. The study of mutations of high penetrates candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in patients from different regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common lethal malignancy of women all over the world. Despite considerable efforts, many predisposing factors remain poorly defined. Epidemiological studies have shown that higher age and a positive family history of breast cancer are associated with the highest risk. Familial clustering of breast cancer, often in conjunction with cancer at other sites, is frequently caused by a hereditary disposition. Known genes with a high penetrance such as BRCA1 and BRCA2. Hereditary and environmental factors may have acted synergistically in many breast cancer cases, and a number of environmental factors may modulate the probability and progression of the disease. Ionizing radiation is for long being recognized as a potent carcinogen. The purpose of this paper is to study mutations of high penetrate candidate genes, participating in appearance of breast cancer in Byelorussian patients. This study is for the first time reveals the mutations of breast cancer genes in the Byelorussian population. Were used such methods as extraction of DNA, PCR and restriction analysis for this study. As a result of the work frequent mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were found in family cases. It is shown that following methods are useful for cancer risk prediction for patients and their blood relatives. (authors)

  12. The account of thin isotope structure of contamination in the Belarus territory, caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident, for reconstruction of the contamination level of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive trace formed as a result of Chernobyl accident, was formed in the complex conditions which are not giving in to correct mathematical modeling. Emission of a radioactivity occurred during enough long time from various parts of the reactor core with a different degree of fuel burning out and, hence, with miscellaneous radionuclide structure of emission. Meteorological conditions changing during this time have led to rather complex radioactive contamination of territory and non-uniform both on a level of contamination and on radionuclide structure. (authors)

  13. The simulation of environment contamination and the assessment of external and inhalation doses in the Gomel's region of Belarus after Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulation of environment contamination by some radionuclides at the short post period after Chernobyl accident has been performed on the basis of the Lagrangian trajectory model and computer code NIKAT. Afterwards the reconstruction of external and inhalation population doses has been done. (orig.)

  14. Retrospective reconstruction of emergency dose exposed to the population of belarus affected by the Chernobyl accident by the method of tooth enamel epr dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to the retrospective reconstruction of emergency doses for EPR of tooth enamel was developed, which allows to take into account the contribution to the dose load of side electromagnetic radiation (background radiation, medical X-rays, ultraviolet light) and the mechanical effect of dental borers on enamel during dental treatment. It was found that the highest emergency doses of radiation were received by the liquidators in 1986 accident involvement, then in a descending order by the citizens of areas with soil contamination of 137Cs 15-40, 5-15 and 1-5 Ci/km2 (authors)

  15. Guide for agriculture management in conditions of the soils radioactive contamination of the Republic of Belarus for a 1997-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The researches have shown that behaviour of radionuclides in the soil - plant system continued to change for a 1992-1996. The further decrease of mobility of cesium 137 due to transition it in unexchange - absorbed state and increase of mobility of strontium 90 is established. It has caused changes of biological availability of radionuclides. In comparison with 1991 the availability of cesium 137 for plants has been decreased in 1,5 times in average, whereas of strontium 90 has been increased on 5-25%. In this connection there was a necessity of amendment of transition factors for cesium and strontium from soils to agricultural cultures. The introduction of the new republican tolerance dose levels for strontium 90 and cesium 137 in foodstuff and drinking water (RTDL-96), which for cesium 137 on a number positions are much below former (RTDL-92), as well as an increase of mobility of strontium 90 in soil requires the further perfection of a complex of protective measures directed on manufacture of agricultural production adequate radiation safety in the radioactive contaminated zones. The results of researches of the both institutes of Agrarian Sciences Academy and regional design chemization stations were reflected in the present manual. The system of measures directed on maintenance of agricultural production manufacture in according to tolerance levels of the radionuclides contents for both a public and personal (farmer) agriculture is specified. Are considered the problems of organization of fodder base, feature of operation of reclamation projects on the drained grounds and both fruit and vegetable growing on the contaminated territories. Are specified the plants protection measures against pests, illnesses and weeds for both grain and tilled cultures, list of pesticides which are permitted to application on soils with contamination density more 15 Ci/km2. Are established the factors of radionuclides transition to grasses on water-logged grounds, as well as to vegetables, garden fruit and berries, differentiated in depending on granulometric structure and acidity of soils and contents of exchange potassium. The factors of radionuclides transition from daily ration to cattle-breeding production, exemplary feeding rations of cattle and young fat stock are specified

  16. The Accession of Central European Countries to the European Union: The Trade and Investment Effects on Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Elzbieta Kawecka-Wyrzykowska; Dariusz Rosati

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the coming enlargement of the European Union and the economic consequences for both the EU member states, the new EU members and the economies that will border the new enlarged EU.

  17. Dynamics of process of braking of the wheeled tractor-analogue of “Belarus 3022 DV” with hydrostatic-mechanical transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Самородов, Вадим Борисович; Бондаренко, Анатолій Ігорович

    2013-01-01

    Increasing volume of agricultural production is impossible without increase of the volume of transportation in this area. Wide range of goods transported, sharp fluctuations in demand for transport in the course of year are conditions for effective use of wheeled tractors in agriculture. At the same time, the increase of transport speeds of wheeled tractors and the emergence of new types of transmissions sharpen the problem of maintaining security in the braking mode. That is why there is an ...

  18. Two clinical cases of renal syndrome caused by Dobrava/Saaremaa hantaviruses imported to the Netherlands from Poland and Belarus, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H.; Goeijenbier, Marco; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Litjens, Eline; Bos, Willem-Jan; Pas, Suzan D.; Medonça Melo, Mariana; Koopmans, Marion; Lundkvist, Åke; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the rare event of two imported cases in the Netherlands presenting with renal syndrome caused by Dobrava (DOBV)/Saaremaa (SAAV) hantaviruses. DOBV/SAAV hantaviruses are not circulating in the Netherlands and their clinical manifestation is typically more severe than that of the endemic Puumala virus (PUUV). This report aims to increase awareness among healthcare professionals and diagnostic laboratories to consider different hantaviruses as a cause of renal failure. PMID:26818411

  19. Two clinical cases of renal syndrome caused by Dobrava/Saaremaa hantaviruses imported to the Netherlands from Poland and Belarus, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Goeijenbier, Marco; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Litjens, Eline; Bos, Willem-Jan; Pas, Suzan D; Melo, Mariana Medonça; Koopmans, Marion; Lundkvist, Åke; Reusken, Chantal B E M

    2016-01-01

    We report the rare event of two imported cases in the Netherlands presenting with renal syndrome caused by Dobrava (DOBV)/Saaremaa (SAAV) hantaviruses. DOBV/SAAV hantaviruses are not circulating in the Netherlands and their clinical manifestation is typically more severe than that of the endemic Puumala virus (PUUV). This report aims to increase awareness among healthcare professionals and diagnostic laboratories to consider different hantaviruses as a cause of renal failure. PMID:26818411

  20. Belarusian Business Associations:Problems and Potential Development

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Belskaya; Daria Uryutina

    2012-01-01

    The article aims to examine the existing obstacles for doing business in Belarus, as well as analyze the compliance of business associations activity in Belarus with the needs of business associations members and business in general.

  1. Перспективы развития национальной экологической сети Беларуси

    OpenAIRE

    Воробьёв, Дмитрий Сергеевич; Гагина, Наталья Владимировна

    2012-01-01

    Principles of organization and the current state of the national ecological network of Belarus considered. Evaluation of natural ecological potential physiographic regions of Belarus and the placement of objects of national ecological network is made. Prospects for the development of the national ecological network of Belarus taking into account natural ecological potential are defined.

  2. Структура и свойства композиционных электрических NI –, CR – покрытий, содержащих углеродные наноматериалы

    OpenAIRE

    Войтехович, А. Г.; Чаевский, В. В.

    2012-01-01

    Principles of organization and the current state of the national ecological network of Belarus considered. Evaluation of natural ecological potential physiographic regions of Belarus and the placement of objects of national ecological network is made. Prospects for the development of the national ecological network of Belarus taking into account natural ecological potential are defined.

  3. Fifteen years after accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is devoted to 15th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. Four problems have been reflected in the book: contamination of territories of Western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation by cesium-137; plutonium, americium and other actinides on territory of Belarus; problems of radioactive wastes management of Chernobyl origin; influence of various factors on oncology morbidity in the Republic of Belarus

  4. 切尔诺贝利核事故对白俄罗斯生态环境的影响%Impact of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident on the Ecological Environment in Belarus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雷; 丁保君

    2012-01-01

    2011年3月日本地震导致福岛核电站核泄漏事件引起国际社会的高度关注.本文回溯切尔诺贝利核事故给白俄罗斯带来的生态灾难,并详细介绍和分析白俄罗斯境内放射性元素污染情况及修复措施,期待为人们应对当前日本核事故对人体健康和自然界的影响和危害提供有价值的参考.

  5. Improvement of dosimetry for I-131 therapy of lung metastases with special regard to children with thyroid cancer from Belarus following the Chernobyl accident. Final report 1997-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main problem in treating disseminated pulmonary metastases in children with papillary thyroid cancer is to find a balance between an insufficient dose for the ablation of metastatic tissue and unnecessary high radiation exposure to the lungs and the bone marrow. This can hardly be achieved without quantitative dosimetry for the more or less inhomogeneously distributed 1-131 in high dosed radioiodine therapy. The major goal of this project is to improve the concept for treating patients with lung metastases induced by thyroid carcinoma. Almost all of the patients with lung metastases are treated in more than one therapy course. After each course the knowledge of the doses to the tumor tissue, the lung, and the bone marrow is of crucial importance for a well funded decision about further treatment. In the cases of either the tumor doses being inefficient for ablation or substantial impairment of residuing pulmonary metastases or the cumulated doses to lung and bone marrow exceeds empirically defined ''critical'' limits the fractionated radioiodine treatment has to be stopped to avoid side effects such as lung fibrosis or leukemia in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The decision which has to be taken must consider that prognosis with respect to mortality and quality of life even in the case of persisting lung metastases may be better than after the induction of progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Up to now, patients are treated more or less empirically until complete remission is achieved and no tumor uptake is visible in post-therapeutic scans with a gamma camera or the cumulative activity of 1-131 taken up by the lungs exceeds 3 GBq (80 mCi) according to recommendations given by Benua and Leaper in 1962. This project combines empirical approaches with theoretical research at cellular level to optimize the dose to the tumor cells with protection of healthy lung tissue. (orig.)

  6. Prussian Blue boli as a simple countermeasure against 137Cs contamination of milk and meat in livestock from regions of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident resulted in contamination of large territories of Byelorus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine. Of particular significance is 137Cs which migrates through the soil-plant-animal food chain and accumulates in milk and meat. The implementation of certain land reclamation and organizational measures has made it possible to maintain much of the milk and meat within the temporary permissible levels (TPLs) for 137Cs adopted by the three states. Some reduction of radionuclide intake by livestock is achieved through a variety of measures such as: prohibiting grazing on highly contaminated pastures, indoor feeding, access to improved pastures, exclusion of feeds harvested from unimproved meadows, and feeding with maize, silage, fodder beet and hay produced on arable land. These countermeasures are extremely costly but remain very effective in reducing the 137Cs in milk and meat. Prussian Blue is the name given to a number of ferric hexacyanoferrates which have these binding properties. Ammonium ferric cyanoferrate or AFCF -NH4Fe and Fe(CN)6N)is perhaps the most studied of these Cs-binding compounds. In the gastrointestinal tract it slowly dissolves into a soluble colloidal form which reacts with ionic Cs to form a complex that cannot penetrate biological membranes. As a result of the studies, the Prussian Blue boli approach has been officially accepted by the three CIS countries as a simple, safe and highly costeffective technique for producing 'clean' milk and meat in the Chernobyl affected areas. (author)

  7. About Calculation of Unified Module Recuperator (Module M-I and M-II for Heating and Thermal Furnaces at Blanking and Machine Assembling Shops of Engineering, Automotive and Tractor Plants in Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an influence of outside ribbing of heat-exchange surface of unified modules M-I and M-II on heat transfer factor of the proposed recuperator and its hydro-dynamic resistance.

  8. Advocacy and coverage of needle exchange programs: results of a comparative study of harm reduction programs in Brazil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation, and China Advocacy e cobertura de projetos de troca de agulhas: resultados de um estudo comparativo sobre programas de redução de danos no Brasil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ucrânia, Federação Russa e China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Burrows

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent or mitigate an AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs, effective activities need to be implemented on a large enough scale to reach and assist sufficient numbers of drug users and thereby change their risk behaviors related to drug use and sex. Recent work by UNAIDS on "high coverage sites", adopting the above strategies, has shown that one of the key elements in achieving high coverage is ongoing and sophisticated advocacy. High coverage harm reduction sites were studied through literature search and site visits, including key informant interviews, review of service statistics, and data analysis, in order to document the steps that led to scaling up, the way coverage was defined in these sites, and the lessons learned from their efforts. Syringe-exchange programs can achieve high coverage of IDUs. Monitoring to determine regular reach (those who are in regular contact with harm reduction services should be added to uniform data collection carried out by harm reduction programs. Advocacy is crucial to achieving high coverage.Para prevenir ou mitigar uma epidemia de AIDS entre usuários de drogas injetáveis (UDI, atividades eficazes devem ser implementadas numa escala suficiente para atingir e ajudar um número suficiente de usuários e, portanto, modificar seus comportamentos de risco em relação ao uso de drogas e práticas sexuais. Um estudo recente do UNAIDS sobre "locais de cobertura alta", ao adotar as estratégias propostas acima, demonstrou que um dos elementos centrais para atingir uma cobertura alta é a advocacy permanente e bem-elaborada. Locais de redução de danos que apresentavam altas taxas de cobertura foram estudados através de uma revisão bibliográfica e visitas aos locais de maior cobertura, incluindo entrevistas com informantes principais, revisão de dados estatísticos dos serviços e análise de dados para poder documentar os passos que levaram à ampliação do alcance dos projetos, à definição da cobertura dos programas e às lições aprendidas. Os programas de redução de danos podem alcançar uma ampla cobertura de UDI. Além da coleta de dados rotineiros, os programas devem monitorar os projetos para definir o alcance sistemático (ou seja, dos UDI que estão em contato permanente com os serviços de redução de danos. A advocacy é fundamental para alcançar taxas de cobertura altas.

  9. Obchodní a kulturní zvláštnosti Běloruska

    OpenAIRE

    Špačková, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter describes basic realia of Belarus and defines demographic population structuren. The second chapter summarizes the state of the Belarusian economy and impacts on business and investment activities. The third chapter focuses on the cultural specifics of Belarus and their impact on current communication and trade negotiations in particular. The fourth chapter describes the cooperation of the Czech Republic and Belarus, and defines the most common shortcomings and offences in b...

  10. 77 FR 31434 - Finding That JSC CredexBank Is a Financial Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... commercial participation, as well as real estate operation.\\47\\ Separately, a global business registry... Institutions in Belarus'' ( http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2006-06-20/pdf/06-5592.pdf ). E.O. 13405 blocks the... financial services industry in the UK.\\42\\ \\43\\ \\37\\ ``Belarus on a Roll,'' Business New Europe, July...

  11. Charm of Serenity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The slipping-away beauty of Belarus does not expose itself to everyone;for this you have to stop and feel the surrounding world Belarus means "White Russia", a tender and poetic name that be fits this country in the best way.

  12. Zvláštní aspekty účetnictví v Bělorusku

    OpenAIRE

    Akulovich, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with studying the system of accounting in Belarus, focusing on differences between Belarusian and Czech accounting principles. Its aim is to describe Belarusian accounting regulation, clarify the aspects varying from the Czech regulation and the impact of tax laws, using an optimized translation. Key words: Belarus, accounting, taxes, balance sheet, accounts.

  13. Dopravní infrastruktura Běloruska

    OpenAIRE

    Yemialyanava, Kseniya

    2010-01-01

    The work provides basic information about the infrastructure of Belarus. The work is divided into five chapters. each of them provides information about rail, auto, aviation and water transport. The last chapter is devoted to statistic data that show the development of transport in Belarus in recent years.

  14. 75 FR 32841 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 8, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010... undermine Belarus democratic processes or institutions, to commit human rights abuses related to political... reforms related to democracy, human rights, and the rule of law in Belarus, serious challenges remain....

  15. Thyroid cancer among the Belarussian and Russian population exposed by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large increase of the thyroid cancer incidence among those who were children at the time of the accident was observed in Belarus and in Ukraine.The dose reconstruction in Belarus based on a radioecological model with parameters derived from measurements of 131I and 137Cs contents in soil,grass and milk,which were performed in May/June 1986

  16. Proceedings of international scientific conference 'Sakharov readings 2004: Environmental problems of the XXI century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication represents the collection of materials of a scientific conference, which was organized by Ministry for Education of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of International A. Sakharov Environmental University (Minsk, Republic of Belarus). The ecological problems were viewed on the following directions: medical and biological ecology, radioecology and ecological monitoring, eco priority power engineering, social ecology

  17. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL SCIENCE: REALITY AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhdanok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on the beginning, state and prospects of nanotechnology application in the construction industry inBelarus. These technologies are based on the national carbon nano-materials, obtained at theInstituteofHeatand Mass Transfer of NAS of Belarus

  18. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL SCIENCE: REALITY AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Zhdanok; Khroustalev, B.; E. Batyanowski; S. Leonovich

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents information on the beginning, state and prospects of nanotechnology application in the construction industry inBelarus. These technologies are based on the national carbon nano-materials, obtained at theInstituteofHeatand Mass Transfer of NAS of Belarus

  19. Potenciál obnovitelných zdrojů energie v Běloruské republice

    OpenAIRE

    Sarakavik, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the situation in the field of the renewable energy sources (RES) in the Republic of Belarus. It describes the current state of the economy and energy industry in Belarus. It also contains a description of the impact of political, economic and social factors on the development of the renewable energy sources. The aim of this work is to evaluate which renewable energy sources can be used in conditions of the Republic of Belarus and also determine the technical and economi...

  20. Fundamental problems of nuclear physics, atomic-power engineering and nuclear technologies : LXIV international conference «Nucleus 2014», July 1-4, 2014, Minsk, Belarus (LXIV meeting on nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear structure) : Book of abstracts / Editor А.К. Vlasnikov.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications such as: neutron-rich nuclei, nuclei far from stability valley, giant resonances, many-phonou and many-quasiparticle states in nuclei, high-spui and super-deformed states in nuclei, synthesis of super-heavy elements, reactions with radioactive nuclear beams, heavy ions, nucleons and elementary particles, fusion and fission of nuclei, manybody problem in nuclear physics, m...

  1. Contribution of the pectin in the cesium elimination in organism. results of analysis on Belarus children; Du role de la pectine dans l'elimination du cesium dans l'organisme. Resultats d'analyses sur des enfants bielorusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The results make appear that the cesium 137 would be eliminated less quick than what the ICRP considered for its models. Pectin would accelerate the cesium elimination but less quick than what is announced by its promotors. Politically speaking, the pectin is ignored by the officials of medicine and radiation protection at the pretext that its efficiency is not proved but no study is made. (N.C.)

  2. Radiation doses on persons dealing with forest fire extinguishing in radiation-contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports the results of research on natural fire danger in the forest fund of Belarus and describes the impact of wildfires breaking out in radiation-contaminated areas on external doses on persons dealing with forest fire extinguishing

  3. Cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Belinski, V

    2009-01-01

    The talk at international conference in honor of Ya. B. Zeldovich 95th Anniversary, Minsk, Belarus, April 2009. The talk represents a review of the old results and contemporary development on the problem of cosmological singularity.

  4. Records of the 11. regular session (26 September - 2 October 1967) 116. plenary meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statements by the delegates of: Federal Republic of Germany Turkey Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Iran Pakistan Bolivia Peru Brazil Czechoslovakia Paragraphs 151 1 belarus ukraine csech republic

  5. ГЕЛЬМИНТОЗЫ ДИКИХ ХИЩНЫХ МЛЕКОПИТАЮЩИХ И ВЕТЕРИНАРНОСАНИТАРНЫЕ МЕРОПРИЯТИЯ ПО ИХ ПРОФИЛАКТИКЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Анисимова, Е.И.; СУББОТИН А.М.; Д.И.Шамович

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives data on the invasion by parasitic worms of the basic species of carnivorous mammals that are their carriers and spreaders in the territory of Belarus. A number of veterinarysanitary measures on their prophylaxis are suggested.

  6. Comprehensive verification of new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography is investigated from different sides. Results of experimental study from three different laboratories from Belarus and Russian Federation are presented.

  7. РАЗРАБОТКА И ОСВОЕНИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ИЗГОТОВЛЕНИЯ МЕЛЮЩИХ ТЕЛ В РАЗОВЫХ ПЕСЧАНО-ГЛИНИСТЫХ ФОРМАХ

    OpenAIRE

    Бусел, И.; Омельченко, И.; Писаренко, Л.; Приемко, В.

    2011-01-01

    The carried out experimental and scientific-research works enabled to organize mass production of grinding bodies, which being successfully tested at the enterprises of building industry of the Republic of Belarus now.

  8. Usage of Vegetal Wastes for Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Karpunin; V. V. Kuzmich; T. F. Balabanova

    2014-01-01

    An analysis on usage of vegetal wastes for energy production is presented in the paper.The paper reveals that logging debris and linen chaffs are considered as a prospective raw material for energy production in theRepublicofBelarus.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND MASTERING OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF GRINDING BODIES IN DISPOSABLE SAND- CLAY MOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Busel; I. E. Omelchenko; L. Z. Pisarenko; V. M. Priemko

    2015-01-01

    The carried out experimental and scientific-research works enabled to organize mass production of grinding bodies, which being successfully tested at the enterprises of building industry of the Republic of Belarus now.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND MASTERING OF PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF GRINDING BODIES IN DISPOSABLE SAND- CLAY MOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Busel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The carried out experimental and scientific-research works enabled to organize mass production of grinding bodies, which being successfully tested at the enterprises of building industry of the Republic of Belarus now.

  11. Labour force survey: methodological problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bokun, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    The main principles, characteristics and problems of Labour Force Survey (LFS), conducted by the State Statistics of Belarus are considered. The purposes, sampling plan, sample design, data collection mode, the methods of estimation are analyzed.

  12. THE FOREIGN TRADE IN FEBRUARY 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda Volovik

    2015-01-01

    Early in 2015, a drop in the main indices of the Russian foreign trade amounted to the 2009 crisis level. The existing non-tariff barriers between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus highly complicate trade.

  13. СОЦИАЛЬНАЯ ОТВЕТСТВЕННОСТЬ И УСТОЙЧИВОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ ОБЩЕСТВА

    OpenAIRE

    Ермалович, Людмила Павловна

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in social responsibility issue in Belarus. Social responsibility promotes the steady growth of economics. A company’s management deals with three most important problems such as economic, social and ecological.

  14. APPRAISAL OF FINAL TAILINGS APPLICABILITY FOR PROCESSING AND PRODUCTION OF MODIFIERS OF IRON-CARBON ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Panasugin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of rating of the galvanic final tailings applicability for further processing in the interests of needs of metallurgical production of the Republic Belarus is offered.

  15. Принуждение к выполнению обязательств и хищения: вопросы разграничения и квалификации

    OpenAIRE

    Лапцевич, И. И.

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides investigation of topical theoretical and practical issues concerning differentiation between compulsion to fulfil obligations (article 384 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Belarus) and larceny (articles 205–212 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Belarus). The paper provides a comparative analysis of the above-mentioned criminal norms and discusses qualification problems. The author concludes with suggestions to improve court practice by expanding instruction...

  16. Internet: Infrastructure, users, regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Doroshevich; Marina Sokolova

    2014-01-01

    By the end of 2014, Belarus totaled over 5 million Internet users, which constitutes 70% of the population aged 15 to 74. The Internet has become not only an integral part of everyday life, but also a platform for activities of state-controlled and private companies and organizations. Infrastructural development (like broadband Internet) remains a key element of the strategy of an informationoriented society. The download speed in Belarus is lower than in the neighboring countries and the cos...

  17. The Future of the System of Directed Lending (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Dzmitry Kruk

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with directed lending in Belarus and aims at selecting the best option for reforming it. The study visualizes main specific features of directed lending in Belarus and the channels of its impact on economic growth. Directed lending causes allocative inefficiency, lower capital productivity, and inefficiency in financial intermediation, which dampens economic growth. Furthermore, in a short-term perspective, the practice of directed lending may generate shocks at the money mar...

  18. Belarusian economic growth decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Dzmitry Kruk; Kateryna Bornukova

    2016-01-01

    Belarus experienced rapid economic growth in the 2000's, which abruptly came to halt after 2008. The authors found that the major source of growth was capital accumulation, while growth in total factor productivity (TFP) was modest. Moreover, government interventions and controls on the capital market contributed to misallocation which lowered aggregate productivity. Lack of productivity growth led to the loss of competitiveness on the international markets. Comparisons of TFP in Belarus with...

  19. Pojišťovnictví v Bělorusku

    OpenAIRE

    Barysenka, Krystsina

    2014-01-01

    This final thesis deals with the characterization and analysis of the development of insurance industry in Belarus and comparison with selected European countries. First of all, thesis defines the general characteristics of Belarus in terms of different indicators and also describes the legal platform on which Belarusian insurance sector is based. Then, on the basis of this information an analysis of the Belarusian insurance market is done. Finally, a big attention is paid to existing problem...

  20. NATO: the view from the East

    OpenAIRE

    S. White; Korosteleva, J.; Allison, R.

    2006-01-01

    Relations between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus and NATO have placed more emphasis on cooperation than confrontation since the Cold War, and Ukraine has begun to move towards membership. At the popular level, on the evidence of national surveys in 2004 and 2005, NATO continues to be perceived as a significant threat, but in Russia and Ukraine it comes behind the United States (in Belarus the numbers are similar). There are few socioeconomic predictors of support for NATO membership that are ...