WorldWideScience

Sample records for belarus

  1. Belarus,A Rising Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen; Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Republic of Belarus is situated in the heart of Europe,in the East the Republic borders the Russian Federation,in the South the Ukraine,in the Wst Poland,and in the North Lithuania and Latvia.Belarus is the gateway between Asia and Europe,bearing strategic importance.In recent years,Belarus has experienced rapid economic growth.

  2. More from Belarus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On January 20th,2008,the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Belarus celebrated the 16th anniversary of the establishment of their foreign diplomatic relationship.China was one of the first countries who recognized Belarus' independence,after which the development of Sino-Belarusian relations has enjoyed precedence in both countries' diplomatic strategic policies.From January 1995 to now,frequent top level visits have promoted cooperation,and more than 50 cooperative agreements have been reached covering all aspects of life.

  3. WIN Belarus report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vastchenko, Svetlana [Institute of Power and Nuclear Research, Sosny (Belarus)

    2008-07-01

    No reactors in operation (1962 first research reactor started and in 1998 decommissioned). Research reactors or institutes: 2 critical zero power assemblies in Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Researcher - Sosny /National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (JIPNR). Other applications of nuclear technology: Production of isotopes, Facility for gamma-irradiation of different products, Neutron generator for different purposes, Electron accelerators for investigations and technology. Planned reactors: NPP construction is planned in 2018 (two reactors). Current energy policy in few sentences: Belarus has only 12-15% own energy resources. The most power is generated on the thermal power plant using natural gas from Russia. Research and development on using wood, wind, sun, hydrogen. The NPP construction is planned in 2018. Some trend in opinion of general public: Studying of public opinion in Belarus has shown that one of the results of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences is inseparability of nuclear and radiation danger in public consciousness. Our people are exclusively frightened with radiation from NPPs, but the rest sources of radiation effect do not cause so anxiety and apprehension. Answers on questions connected with power have shown a very poor erudition of population about ecological advantages and drawbacks inherent in thermal and nuclear power plants. The majority of the respondents (about 80%) does not know about the absence of CO{sub 2} discharge and oxygen preservation in the atmosphere, what is probably one of the reasons of negative attitude to NPP (1/3 responses). Positive attitude to NPP is 1/3 responses too. One of the reason of public distrust to nuclear power is the absence of knowledge about the conditions for radioactive waste storage and therefore the population is inclined to exaggerate the radiation danger of waste for the environment. The political opposition opposes the NPP construction. They suggest the sun and wind energy. Members in

  4. Teleteaching in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevast'Yanenko, Victor G.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the first efforts at teleteaching in Belarus at the Belorussian Polytechnic Academy that will be used for secondary and higher education. Topics discussed include convincing the government of the importance of distance education programs offered to national development, economic constraints, and Internet electronic mail goals. (LRW)

  5. Belarus: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Erica; Malakhova, Irina; Novik, Irina; Famenka, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Belarusian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2008. Despite considerable change since independence, Belarus retains a commitment to the principle of universal access to health care, provided free at the point of use through predominantly state-owned facilities, organized hierarchically on a territorial basis. Incremental change, rather than radical reform, has also been the hallmark of health-care policy, although capitation funding has been introduced in some areas and there have been consistent efforts to strengthen the role of primary care. Issues of high costs in the hospital sector and of weaknesses in public health demonstrate the necessity of moving forward with the reform programme. The focus for future reform is on strengthening preventive services and improving the quality and efficiency of specialist services. The key challenges in achieving this involve reducing excess hospital capacity, strengthening health-care management, use of evidence-based treatment and diagnostic procedures, and the development of more efficient financing mechanisms. Involving all stakeholders in the development of further reform planning and achieving consensus among them will be key to its success.

  6. Summertime Thunderstorms Prediction in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapo, Palina; Sokolovskaya, Yaroslava; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    Mesoscale modeling with the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) system makes it possible to predict thunderstorm formation events by direct numerical simulation. In the present study, we analyze the feasibility and quality of thunderstorm prediction on the territory of Belarus for the summer period of 2014 based on analysis of several characteristic parameters in WRF modeling results that can serve as indicators of thunderstorms formation. These parameters include vertical velocity distribution, convective available potential energy (CAPE), K-index, SWEAT-index, Thompson index, lifted condensation level (LCL), and others, all of them being indicators of favorable atmospheric conditions for thunderstorms development. We perform mesoscale simulations of several cases of thunderstorm development in Belarus with WRF-ARW modeling system using 3 km grid spacing, WSM6 microphysics parameterization and explicit convection (no convective parameterization). Typical modeling duration makes 48 hours, which is equivalent to next-day thunderstorm prediction in operational use. We focus our attention to most prominent cases of intense thunderstorms in Minsk. For validation purposes, we use radar and satellite data in addition to surface observations. In summertime, the territory of Belarus is quite often under the influence of atmospheric fronts and stationary anticyclones. In this study, we subdivide thunderstorm cases under consideration into 2 categories: thunderstorms related to free convection and those related to forced convection processes. Our aim is to study the differences in thunderstorm indicator parameters between these two categories of thunderstorms in order to elaborate a set of parameters that can be used for operational thunderstorm forecasting. For that purpose, we analyze characteristic features of thunderstorms development on cold atmospheric fronts as well as thunderstorms formation in stable air masses. Modeling results demonstrate good predictive skill

  7. Belarus, A Chinese Fort in Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ "In recent years,we've found increasing interest from Chinese investors in the Belarus economy.Please let China know,Belarus is always ready to be a true friend to China.We have built a fort in Europe for China,"the President of Belarus,Alexander Lukashenko told Zhou Xiaochuan,President of the Bank of China,during his visit to the capital of Minsk,on January 8th,he expressed his high praise and firm confidence in the development of Sino-Belarusian relations.

  8. Belarus and China: from Trade to Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Trade cooperation between Belarus and China: does distance matter? The diplomatic relations between Belarus and China have been developing stably and successfully ever since the moment of their establishing (January 1992).The leaders of the two states have always treated these relations with great attention,responsibility,and care.The relationship has been boosted as a result of the visit of President of the Republic of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko to China in December 2005,during which Alexander Lukashenko and President of China Hu Jintao signed a joint declaration.In that document,the sides pledged they would do their utmost to boost mutual trade and work out new cooperation models.It was during that top-level meeting that President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko first voiced the trade goal which was to reach,by 2010,the trade turnover to the tune of 2 billion USD.

  9. Visits from Croatia and Belarus

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 23 September, CERN was visited by two Ministers, Anatoly Rusetsky, Chairman of the Committee on Science and Technology of the Republic of Belarus, and Professor Gvozden Flego, Croatian Minister of Science and Technology. Mr Rusetsky met with Roger Cashmore, Research Director for Collider Programmes, and Michel Della Negra, spokesperson of the CMS experiment, and visited the CMS detector assembly hall. Professor Flego also met Mr Cashmore and visited the NA49 and CAST experiments, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, the ALICE experiment cavern, and the assembly hall for the CMS experiment. From left to right: Nikola Godinovic, working at CMS, Jürgen Schukraft, ALICE spokesperson, Gordan Markotic, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations and other international organisations in Geneva, Professor Gvozden Flego, Minister of Science and Technology, Republic of Croatia.

  10. Belarus Attaches Great Importance to Trade Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Sun Yongjian

    2007-01-01

    @@ Belarus is an important trade partner of China.In January, a Belarus trade delegation, headed by Uldimir N. Bobrov, President of the Belarus Chamber of Commerce, visited China, and signed a series of agreements for economic and trade cooperation with CCPIT. When interviewed by China's Foreign Trade, he stressed that Belarus was ready to strengthen its commitment to comprehensive cooperation with China in many spheres.

  11. Rotavirus genotypes in Belarus, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeiko, Galina V; Yermalovich, Marina A; Poliakova, Nadezhda; Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Kerin, Tara K; Wasley, Annemarie; Videbaek, Dovile; Gentsch, Jon R; Bowen, Michael D; Samoilovich, Elena O

    2014-12-01

    This study describes group A rotavirus (RVA) genotype prevalence in Belarus from 2008 to 2012. In 2008, data from 3 sites in Belarus (Brest, Mogilev, Minsk) indicated that G4P[8] was the predominant genotype. Data from Minsk (2008-2012) showed that G4P[8] was the predominant RVA genotype in all years except in 2011 when G3P[8] was most frequently detected. Other RVA genotypes common in Europe (G1P[8], G2P[4]) were detected each year of the study. This study reveals the dominance of genotype G4P[8] in Belarus and helps to establish the baseline genotype prevalence prior to RVA vaccine introduction in the country.

  12. Internationalizing Teacher Education: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovtsova, Alena; Krasnova, Tatiana; Torhova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the unique characteristics of internationalization in teacher education in the Republic of Belarus, by asking how the creation of a national system of teacher education after the USSR's disintegration has both enhanced and hindered internationalization. The question is answered by providing an overview of the specific…

  13. 76 FR 5482 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... the December 19, 2010 presidential elections in Belarus and the announcement by state-run media on... parties, civil society and independent media. While the Organization for Security and Co-operation in... improvements in the electoral process. The post-election violence further marred the presidential elections...

  14. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  15. Belarus: Ready for More Advanced Trade Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Li Yinghong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Belarus was one of the 15 member countries of the former Soviet Union. It has achieved independence since 1991. Belarus is situated in the center of Europe and the main drag of the Europe-Asia Continental Bridge. It takes the leading position in many economic indicators in the CIS.

  16. Trauma management: Chernobyl in Belarus and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Ekatherina

    2016-06-01

    Although the Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in the Soviet Union in 1986, we still do not know how the most affected states - Ukraine and Belarus - have managed this tragedy since independence. Drawing on the concept of cultural trauma, this article compares Chernobyl narratives in Belarus and Ukraine over the past 28 years. It shows that national narratives of Chernobyl differ, representing the varying ways in which the state overcomes trauma. Our understanding of post-communist transformations can be improved by analysing trauma management narratives and their importance for new national identity construction. These narratives also bring new insights to our vision of cultural trauma by linking it to ontological insecurity. The article demonstrates how the state can become an arena of trauma process as it commands material and symbolic resources to deal with trauma. In general, it contributes to a better understanding of how the same traumatic event can become a source of solidarity in one community, but a source of hostility in another.

  17. [Helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of original long-term investigation (1980-2006) and literary data on the helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus is carried out. Seven species of reptiles were examined on Southern Belarus, 32 species of helminthes were found with total infestation 72.7%. It is established that the helminthofauna of reptiles in the Republic of Belarus includes 33 species (18 trematodes, two cestodes, 12 nematodes, and one acanthocephalan). The largest number of helminth species (26) was recorded in the common water snake Natrix natrix, and the least number of species (four) was recorded in the turtle Emys orbicularis and snake Coronella austriaca.

  18. Women in science: Current advances and challenges in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-01

    Women constitute 49% of all natural scientists in Belarus. However, fewer than 18% of Belarusian natural scientists who hold a doctor of science degree are women. The proportion of women decreases with increasing rank at universities and institutes in Belarus. Gender imbalance at the level of full professor is striking at just 17.5% women, and illuminates the vertical segregation of women in the natural sciences. This report reviews the positions of women in science in Belarus to draw out current advances and challenges encountered by female scientists in the former socialist country. New statistical data are broken down by gender and aimed at advancing the general agenda for women in science.

  19. Geomorphological risk analysis in the Republic of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Romanenko V. GIS-Mapping and Assessment of Geomorphological Risk in Belarus / V. Romanenko, D. Kurlovich // The geomorphology of natural hazards: mapping, analysis and prevention. Abstract book. 17th Joint Geomorphological Meeting, Liege (Belgium). 1-3 July 2014. – Liege. – P. 116. In the present study an assessment of geomorphological risk in the Republic of Belarus has been made. Geomorphological districts (according to geomorphological zoning) were the objects of the research.

  20. ON INCREASING ENERGY SECURITY OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy security is provided by the minimum required ratio of domestic and imported energy resources. Therefore, in the energy sector energy efficiency should be increased through the use of its own energy resources. Over the last hundred years of development of geological science a preferential distribution of oil and gas fields to areas (blocks of geological faults, many of which reach the surface of the foundation of our planet, has been determined. The complex process of oil and gas formation is predetermined by geological, geochemical, hydrogeological and other factors. The concepts of organic and inorganic origin of oil and gas are also relevant in the context under consideration. The formation of sufficient oil and gas fields is possible in the presence of highly porous and fractured rocks (for oil or so-called gas traps. Promising for the discovery of sufficient oil and gas fields are the central and southern areas of the Pripyat trough and the areas on the borders Mikashevichsi-Zhitkovichi ledge. The geological conditions of the areas in the Southern part of the Podlaska-Brest and the North-Eastern part of the Orsha troughs require most thorough investigations. In the area of the Belarusian anteclise, especially near the Baltic syneclise, at great depths in porous rocks the presence of oil and gas deposits of inorganic origin is possible. The use of plasma-pulse impact (that is a very effective one on the oil and gas underground reservoirs requires a study of the feasibility of their use in new and existing waste deposits. In the exploration of minerals such “exotic” methods, as the assessment of the discharge of helium, radon, radioactive analysis, etc. should also be applied. It is necessary to detect a possible fault zones and prospective search of hydrocarbon energy resources. To ensure energy security of Belarus, the evaluation of the possibility of using associated gas to supply with it a significant part of the country should

  1. The Sociological Dimension of the System of Art Education in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhodov, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    Art education in Belarus is based on two fundamental state documents, the "Law on Education in the Republic of Belarus" and the "Law on Culture in the Republic of Belarus," which spell out the prospects of the development of art education in a unity of goals, tasks, and paths of implementation. The system of art education in the Republic includes…

  2. BRCA1 founder mutations compared to ovarian cancer in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanevich, Alena; Oszurek, Oleg; Lubiński, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Narod, Steven A; Gronwald, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    In Belarus and other Slavic countries, founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer cases, but the data on contribution of these mutations to ovarian cancers are limited. To estimate the proportion of ovarian cancers in Belarus, which are dependent on BRCA1 Slavic founder mutations, we sought the presence of three most frequent mutations (BRCA1: 5382insC, C61G and, 4153delA) in 158 consecutive unselected cases of ovarian cancer. One of the three founder mutations was present in 25 of 158 unselected cases of ovarian cancer (15.8 %). We recommend that all cases of ovarian cancer in Belarus be offered genetic testing for these founder mutations. Furthermore, genetic testing of the Belarusian population will provide the opportunity to prevent a significant proportion of ovarian cancer.

  3. Language Management and Language Problems in Belarus: Education and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger, Markus; Sloboda, Marian

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Belarus, the most russified of the post-Soviet countries. It summarizes language policy and legislation, and deals in more detail with language management and selected language problems in Belarusian education. It also contributes to the work on language planning by applying…

  4. A Visit to Kindergarten No. 490 in Minsk, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Linda A.

    Although opportunities for sharing information about early childhood education increased with the disbanding of the Soviet Union in 1991, knowledge about how young children are cared for and educated in countries of the former Soviet Union remains limited. This report presents observations of a kindergarten class in Minsk, Belarus conducted…

  5. Reforming Undergraduate Instruction in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovzik, Alexander; Watts, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Deals with the restructuring of undergraduate economics instruction at Russia's Moscow State University (MSU) since 1989. Examines how changes at MSU are reflected at Belarus State University and at Kiev State University. Considers issues such as training of faculty members, and the use of translated Western textbooks. (RLH)

  6. Hypertension management in primary care in Belarus and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.G.; Rusovich, V.; Egorov, K.N.; Podpalov, V.P.; Boerma, W.G.W.

    2005-01-01

    Both in Belarus and in the Netherlands, guidelines on the management of hypertension in primary care have been developed, including recommendations about detection, treatment and follow-up. These guidelines are meant to harmonize actual practice management of hypertension of improve the quality of c

  7. Detection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis DNA in mosquitoes from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Șuleșco, Tatiana; Volkova, Tatiana; Yashkova, Svetlana; Tomazatos, Alexandru; von Thien, Heidrun; Lühken, Renke; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-09-01

    During the last two decades, Belarus faces an increase of human cases of Dirofilaria (Nematoda, Spirurida, Onchocercidae) infections. However, comprehensive analyses explaining this development and the identification of mosquito vector species are missing. Here, we present results using temperature data from Belarus and show that the annual number of human Dirofilaria cases is significantly correlated with the yearly average temperatures (Spearman's rho = 0.49, p Belarus, suggesting a high probability of autochthonous Dirofilaria transmission in the country.

  8. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  9. Norovirus infection in Belarus: occurrence and molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paklonskayal, Natallia Uladzimirauna; Amvrosieva, Tamara Vasil'evna; Dziadziulia, Kanstantsin Leanidavich; Baranouskaya, Natallia Mikalaeuna; Kishkurno, Elena Petrovna; Kluiko, Nina Leonidovna

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze molecular epidemiologic surveillance for norovirus infection in Belarus over the past five years (2009-2013). Laboratory diagnostics was carried out by RT-PCR in 684 patients. Two regions of norovirus genome, localized in RNA-polymerase and capsid protein genes, were used for phylogenetic analysis. Noroviruses were predominant causative agents in adults and second only to rotaviruses in children, they also prevailed among aetiological agents of outbreaks (66.7% of outbreaks). In 2009-2013, the major norovirus genotype was GII.4 (58.3% of all genotyped isolates). Genovariant GII.4 2006b circulated in 2009 and 2010, genovariant GII.4 2009 New Orleans - in 2010 and 2012. In addition to GII.4, genotypes GII.6 (16.6%), GII.2 (4.1%), GII.3 (2.2%), and recombinant genotypes GII.g-GII.12 and GII.g-GII.1 (10.4% and 8.3%, respectively) circulated in Belarus. The findings indicate a significant contribution of noroviruses in development of sporadic morbidity and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in Belarus. Outbreaks or prominent increases of sporadic morbidity were mostly due to the emergence of a new genotype, or an epidemic genovariant.

  10. 77 FR 33945 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004, as Amended Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority... conferred upon the President by section 8 of the Belarus Democracy Act of 2004 (Public Law 109-480; 22 U.S.C. 5811 note), as amended by section 5 of the Belarus Democracy and Human Rights Act of 2011 (Public...

  11. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination Under Section 402 (c)(2)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974-Republic of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...)(A) of the Trade Act of 1974-Republic of Belarus Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents...) of the Trade Act of 1974—Republic of Belarus Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to... with respect to Belarus will substantially promote the objectives of section 402. You are...

  12. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus... concrete reinforcing bar from Latvia and Moldova. The Commission found that the respondent interested...

  13. Transforming Educational and Business Practices in Belarus: Collaborative Learning at a Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Gaytha A.; Litoff, Judy Barrett; Ilacqua, Joseph A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bryant College Collaborative Learning at a Distance (CLD) program in Belarus. Program components include Web-based courses, international virtual roundtable discussions via e-mail, seminars on business skills and Web design, Internet protocol video conferencing between the United States and Belarus, a faculty exchange and training…

  14. Growing inequalities and reproductive health in transitional countries: Kazakhstan and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovich, Natalia

    2010-04-01

    The present study examines how growing socio-economic inequalities in transitional countries that have followed different health policy paths affect women's access to reproductive health care. I conducted surveys in Kazakhstan and Belarus and used logistic regression analyses to determine accessibility to and satisfaction with reproductive health services, reproductive status, and reproductive history based on country of residence. By all measures, access to reproductive health services was most problematic for the low-income women in Kazakhstan but to a significantly lesser extent for economically disadvantaged respondents in Belarus. Differences in education had a significant effect on women's access to reproductive health services in Kazakhstan but were not present in Belarus. Household income was the most powerful predictor of self-perceived health in Kazakhstan, but not in Belarus. The unreformed health-care system in Belarus appears to be more accessible for all women than Kazakhstan's health-care system that underwent significant market-oriented reform.

  15. [The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalutskiĭ, I V; Averkin, Iu I; Artemova, N A; Mashevskiĭ, A A

    2007-01-01

    The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus over a 36-year period has been evaluated. An increase in the age-specific and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates is a clear indicator of an actual rise in morbidity. It is unrelated to aging and most probably depends on a number of environmental factors. Due to the similarity of the incidence patterns for a number of sites, it was suggested that a single or several factors might be responsible for neoplastic development. Distinct changes in malignant tumor incidence made it correlated with certain environmental changes and new approaches to primary tumor prevention were developed.

  16. Predprinimatel'skaja sreda v Respublike Belarus': ocenka vedushhimi finskimi kompanijami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inward foreign investment stock has grown remarkably in Belarus. It increased tenfold since 2000 to reach over $14 billion by the end of 2012. According to the Central Bank of Belarus, Finnish firms have invested nearly $100 million in Belarus making Finland the sixteenth most active foreign investor in the country. Approximately 7,000 companies with foreign capital were registered in Belarus by the beginning of 2013. Finnish companies founded three dozen of these foreign firms. A lack of scientific reports on the perception of foreign businesspeople in the Belarusian business environment necessitated an empirical study. This article studies the attitudes of the directors of Finnish firms operating in Belarus on the Belarusian business environment. In September-October 2013, the author conducted interviews with directors of 10 Finnish corporations. The PEST model was used to describe the perception of the Belarusian business milieu by Finnish businesspeople. The main empirical finding can be summarised by quoting a Finnish CEO, “Belarus is like any other market on the globe with the exception that foreign firms do not want to attract publicity about their activities in the country due to the poor public image of Belarus.”

  17. Nuclear power debate and public opinion in Belarus: From Chernobyl to Ostrovets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikau, Aliaksandr

    2016-05-05

    The Belarusian government's decision of the last decade to build a nuclear power plant near the city of Ostrovets, in northern Belarus, has proven to be controversial, resulting in a great deal of debate about nuclear energy in the country. The debate was inevitably shaped by the traumatic event that affected Belarus - the Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986. The Belarusian authorities have consistently promoted a positive view of nuclear energy to the population in order to overcome the so-called 'Chernobyl syndrome' and deliberately shaped nuclear risk communication. As a result, the issue of trust remains crucial in all nuclear debates in Belarus.

  18. Radioanalytical determination of actinides and fission products in Belarus soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, H; Gasparro, J; Barci-Funel, G; Dalmasso, J; Ardisson, G; Sharovarov, G

    1999-04-01

    Alpha emitting actinides such as plutonium, americium or curium were measured by alpha-spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The short range of alpha-particles within matter requires, after a pre-concentration process, a succession of isolation and purification steps based on the valence states modification of the researched elements. For counting, actinides were electrodeposited in view to obtain the mass-less source necessary to avoid self-absorption of the emitted radiations. Activity concentrations of gamma-emitting fission products were calculated after measurement with high purity germanium detectors (HPGe). These different methods were used to analyse soils sampled in the Republic of Belarus, not far from the Chernobyl nuclear plant.

  19. Biodiversity of Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiski, Andrei; Belyasova, Natalya

    2009-03-15

    We present here the first study on the isolation and characterization of the lactococcal phage content of dairy products from various regions of the Republic of Belarus. Restriction analysis with EcoRI and HindIII was used to discriminate between isolates. Distinct isolates were then further characterized by multiplex PCR analysis and transmission electron microscopy. In total, 23 unique lactococcal phages were isolated. Fifteen of them belong to the c2 species, four to the 936 species, and four to the P034 species. The isolation of such high number of P034-like phages is unusual and suggests that this rare group of lactococcal phages may be emerging in certain regions.

  20. Climate-Induced Mortality of Spruce Stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  1. Climate-induced mortality of spruce stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  2. [Taenia martis (Cestoda, Taeniidae) from vertebrates in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Infestation of vertebrate animals with the cestode Taenia martis and its larvae was investigated in south-west Belarus during 2001-2008. Obligatory definitive host (common marten) and intermediate hosts (red-backed vole, yellow-necked mouse, striped field mouse, and red squirrel) of this helminth were established for the Republic of Belarus. Description and figure of the T. martis larva is given.

  3. Health care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, Evgenii Mikhailovich

    2014-01-01

    Belarus became a Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR in 1921. Belarus is now an independent country between Poland and Lithuania and Russia. The pharmacy sector of Belarus improved in fits and starts from 1921 to the present but serious quantitative and qualitative problems were evident until the 21st century. A number of factors caused this situation. The Soviet Republic of Belarus started with handicaps. The area, comprised of several provinces of western Russia, had no pharmaceutical factories during the imperial period and, while pharmacies were of high quality in the cities all over the Russian Empire--including Minsk, which became the capital of Belarus--pharmacies were sparse and primitive in rural areas and Belarus was basically rural. Belarus was devastated by wars--World War I, the Russian-Polish war of 1920-21, and of course, by World War II. The Bolshevik policy of nationalizing private pharmacies adversely affected dispensing between 1918 and 1921. Dispensing improved during the New Economic Policy of 1921 to 1927 with re-introduction of private enterprise and the establishment of BelMedTorg and the Mogilev Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants. The number of pharmacies and medical facilities increased during the 1930s and again after World War II. However, utopian plans to provide free or low-cost medicines to all citizens never came to fruition. Inadequate amounts of state-of the-art and even basic medicines persisted through the 1990s. The number of pharmacists also was inadequate and their education and training was on a low level. Because of shortages, citizens of Belarus often self-medicated with medicinal plants. The transition to a market economy in the 1990s made medicines expensive for citizens but opened the door to greater interaction with Western pharmaceutical practices and physical improvements in pharmacies and pharmaceutical production.

  4. Resource flows and levels of spending for the response to HIV and AIDS in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amico Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Belarus has a focused HIV epidemic concentrated among injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. However, until 2008, Belarus had no way of evaluating HIV spending priorities. In 2008, Belarus committed to undertaking a comprehensive National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA in order to analyze HIV spending priorities. NASA was used to 'follow the money' from the funding sources to agents and providers, and eventually to beneficiary populations. Findings Belarus spent the majority of its funding on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections and on securing the blood supply. International donors and NGOs working within Belarus spent the majority of their funding on preventative activities for high risk groups while Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM solely funded antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions The data and experience obtained through conducting NASA will help build capacity for future resource tracking activities for HIV and other health priorities. This experience established the foundation for enhanced and future consistent quality-reporting of National Health Accounts. Monitoring the flow of resources for Belarus' HIV response provides valuable strategic information that can improve operations and planning as well as mobilize greater resources. NASA offers Belarusian policy makers an overview of HIV activities that merit their priority attention. In addition, the findings from Belarus are particularly relevant for the rest of the Commonwealth of Independent States due to their similar epidemiological profiles and centrally planned systems. The Belarusian government faces future challenges, especially in increasing public investments in HIV prevention for female sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, and among intravenous drug users.

  5. [A new unique HIV-1 recombinant form detected in Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, V F; Gasich, E L; Sosinovich, S V

    2012-01-01

    Republican Research-and-Practical Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of Belarus, Minsk The paper presents data on the molecular genetic characteristics of a new HIV-1 recombinant form. The study has shown that the virus is referred to as HIV-1 subtype B in terms of the gag gene and HIV-1 subtype A in terms of the pol and env genes. At the same time the new isolate is closer, in terms of the gag gene, to the HIV-1 DQ207943 strain isolated in Georgia, in terms of the pol gene, to the HIV-1 AF413987.1 strain isolated in Ukraine and, in terms of the env gene to the HIV-1 AY500393 strain isolated in Russia. Thus, the described new HIV-1 recombinant form has the following structure: BgagApolAenv. The gag, pol, and env gene sequences from the new unique HIV-1 recombinant form have been registered in the international database EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ under accession numbers FR775442.1, FN995656.1, and FR775443.1.

  6. On Two Old Russian Inscriptions from Belarus and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savva M. Mikheev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two Old Russian graffiti inscriptions are examined in the present paper. The first one, dating back to the late 13th–early 14th centuries, is located on one of the walls of the Savior Transfiguration Church in the St. Euphrosyne convent in Polotsk, Belarus. It reads Marъkova žana dobra ‘Mark’s wife is good.’ The second graffito was inscribed on a knife handle excavated in Drohiczyn, Eastern Poland (Old Russian Dorogyčinъ, and dates to the end of the 11th through the 12th centuries. The inscription reads Ežьkovъ nožь a iže i ukradetь proklętъ  . . . ‘Ezhko’s knife. Whoever steals it, be cursed . . .’ Although both inscriptions have been published, the present study adds more in-depth paleographic and linguistic commentary and suggests corrected readings. The laudatory inscription from Polotsk is particularly interesting because it contains an early example of a spelling reflecting yakanye, a trait of Belarusian phonetics, whereas the interest of the Drohiczyn inscription lies in its unusual paleographic features.

  7. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  8. [Lung cancer incidence in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemova, N A; Veialkin, I V; Leusik, E A

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of our research in the trends of lung cancer incidence in the Republic of Belarus over 38 years. The number of newly diagnosed cases increased 4-fold in men (1046--1970, 4193--1996; 3710--2007) and doubled in women (277--1970, 555--2007). Lung cancer incidence in men grew significantly in 1970-1996 (28.7 +/- 1.8% per ten thousand and 28.7 +/- 1.8% per ten thousand, respectively) and stabilized later at 72.5 +/- 2.2% per ten thousand. The growth was higher in rural males than in urban residents, aged 60-79 years. A decline has been registered from the late 1990s until now (61.2 +/- 2.0% per ten thousand). A slow growth in standard incidence rates occurred in women (1970-1987). Actually, they have not changed ever since and are 4.7 +/- 5.6% per ten thousand now.

  9. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Background An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. PMID:26109873

  10. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 2009 in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkova, Slavyana; Golparian, Daniel; Titov, Leonid; Pankratova, Nataliya; Suhabokava, Nataliya; Shimanskaya, Irina; Domeika, Marius; Unemo, Magnus

    2011-08-01

    Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global concern, and ultimately gonorrhoea may become untreatable. Nonetheless, AMR data from East-Europe are scarce beyond Russia, and no AMR data or other characteristics of gonococci have been reported from Belarus for more than 20 years. The aim was to describe the prevalence of AMR, and report molecular epidemiological characteristics of gonococci circulating in 2009 in Belarus. In a sample of 80 isolates, resistance prevalences to antimicrobials used for gonorrhoea treatment in Belarus were: Ceftriaxone 0%, spectinomycin 0%, azithromycin 17.3%, tetracycline 25.9%, ciprofloxacin 34.6% and erythromycin 59.2%. The isolates displayed no penA mosaic alleles, 38 porB gene sequences and 35 N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types, of which 20 have not been described before worldwide. Due to the high levels of antimicrobial resistance, only ceftriaxone and spectinomycin can be recommended for empirical treatment of gonorrhoea in Belarus according to WHO recommendations. Continuous gonococcal AMR surveillance in Eastern Europe is crucial. This is now initiated in Belarus using WHO protocols.

  12. Strategy for elimination of iodine deficiency in Belarus: evaluation of 10 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Kachan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Article presents results of implementation of successful program of elimination of iodine deficiency in Belarus. Government decree (2001 requires mandatory use of iodized salt in food industry and public catering. While retail trade of non-iodized salt is not prohibited, all foods shops must have iodized salt on sale. All these measures resulted in increase of iodized salt consumption: 94% of house-holds in Belarus were using iodized salt. Iodine nutrition of population also sig-nificantly improved: median urinary iodine levels in general population (school-children reached 169 mcg/l and in pregnant women – 224 mcg/l. Endemic goiter morbidity decreased significantly in children, adolescents and adults as well as frequency of transitory thyroid dysfunctions in newborns. Belarus experience in prevention of iodine deficiency can be used by other industrialized countries of Europe and rest of the world.

  13. [Animal corynosomosis is a potential human helminthiasis in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2008-01-01

    In the Republic of Belarus, one representative of the genus Corynosoma - C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) that is a causative agent of corynosomosis and that is of medical value is parasitic on animals. In Belarus, this proboscis worm has been encountered only in European and American minks. The author of the paper found this helminth in 2 of the 50 examined American minks in Byelorussian Polesye in 1980-2001. In this region, there were no C. strumosum larvae in fishes (1394 fishes of 21 species were studied). It is noted that the American mink plays a dominant role in the circulation of invasion and the attention of medical workers ofBelarus is drawn to the existing risk of human infection with the pathogen of Corynosomosis.

  14. Evaluation of three serological tests manufactured in Belarus for the diagnosis of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanskaya, Iryna; Zhurauskaya, Larisa; Pankratov, Oleg; Unemo, Magnus; Ballard, Ronald C; Domeika, Marius

    2011-05-01

    The performance of three serological tests manufactured in Belarus for the diagnosis of syphilis, i.e. a microprecipitation reaction (MPR) and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were compared with internationally recognized assays, namely the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination assay (TPPA). Sera from 392 consecutive patients attending Brest (Belarus) regional dermatovenereological dispensaries were tested. The sensitivity of the MPR test was low (77.3%) compared with the rapid plasma reagin test, while the specificity was high (100%). In contrast, both Belarusian ELISAs performed well when compared with the TPPA (sensitivities of 99.2% and 100%, specificities of 98.7% and 99.0%, respectively). There is a clear need to improve the sensitivity of the existing Belarusian MPR test or to use a more sensitive screening test in order to improve diagnosis of the disease in Belarus.

  15. YOUTH LABOUR MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: PROBLEMS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Dubovik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and practical problems of formation and regulation of youth labour market inBelarus. Specific and characteristic features of the labour market segment and main problems of young people in the labour market are given in the paper. The paper reveals directions of the state regulations on a youth labour market. Some proposals pertaining to the increase of youth employment efficiency are made in the paper. The paper contains statements and conclusions which can be used while teaching social-humanitarian and economics-management subjects, while conducting investigations on youth problems, social and industrial relations and vocational education in theRepublicofBelarus.

  16. [The medical organizational resources of fertility promotion in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmach, M Iu

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of youth reproductive attitudes and the identification of the medical organizational opportunities for fertility promotion in the Republic of Belarus is considered. Relying on the data of the sociological survey of representative youth sample of national level it is established that both the reproductive attitudes and reproductive behavior of Belarus youth population does not correspond to the demographic criteria of effective population reproduction. It is revealed that the enhancement of reproductive attitudes of young women is possible in the conditions of increase of the rate of first pregnancy planning. The economic benefit due to possible implementation of this uncovered resource is evaluated.

  17. [Hydatigerosis and strobilocercosis in the Republic of Belarus and their medical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    The author presents the results of his own studies that were conducted during many years (1980-2007) and the data of Byelorussian helminthologists on the detection of the cestode of H. taeniaeformis and its larvae (strobilocercus), which induce hydatigerosis and strobilocercosis, respectively, in animals in the Republic of Belarus. This helminth (an imago and a larva) may parasite in man. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the residents of Belarus can be infected on chance ingestion of eggs of the cestode of H. taeniaeformis.

  18. Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

  19. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  20. The Belarus Business Environment as Assessed by the Management of Leading Finnish Companies Operating in the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto Kari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inward foreign investment stock has grown remarkably in Belarus. It increased tenfold since 2000 to reach over $14 billion by the end of 2012. According to the Central Bank of Belarus, Finnish firms have invested nearly $100 million in Belarus making Finland the sixteenth most active foreign investor in the country. Approximately 7,000 companies with foreign capital were registered in Belarus by the beginning of 2013. Finnish companies founded three dozen of these foreign firms. A lack of scientific reports on the perception of foreign businesspeople in the Belarusian business environment necessitated an empirical study. This article studies the attitudes of the directors of Finnish firms operating in Belarus on the Belarusian business environment. In September-October 2013, the author conducted interviews with directors of 10 Finnish corporations. The PEST model was used to describe the perception of the Belarusian business milieu by Finnish businesspeople. The main empirical finding can be summarised by quoting a Finnish CEO, “Belarus is like any other market on the globe with the exception that foreign firms do not want to attract publicity about their activities in the country due to the poor public image of Belarus.”

  1. The Labor Market in the Regions of Belarus: An Analysis of Employment Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    In Belarus, the ways in which statistics are compiled, the complex rules for registering as unemployed, and the segmentation of the labor market and job-seeking activities, all combine to hide the actual levels of employment and unemployment. This in turn makes it difficult to develop appropriate and effective labor policies, and to have support…

  2. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's Republic of...'') initiated the second Sunset Reviews of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bars from.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bars...

  3. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's Republic... Department of Commerce (``Department'') that revocation of the antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on steel concrete... of the continuation of the antidumping duty orders. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Steel...

  4. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete... views of the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4409 (July 2013), entitled Steel...

  5. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  6. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete...) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar...

  7. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Mandrik (Olena); S. Knies (Saskia); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypoth

  8. Beyond the Limits of the European Higher Education Area: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille-Belova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    All European Union (EU) member states and many former post-Soviet countries joined the Bologna Process without major obstacles during the 2000s and today belong to the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The only European country which was refused membership in the EHEA was Belarus, whose demand was rejected in 2012. The case study of this…

  9. Molecular characterisation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from Gomel region, Belarus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapalski, D.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Hasman, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    an infection outside hospitals in the Gomel region of Belarus. Thirty-one isolates were highly similar according to PFGE and MLVA typing, were multidrug-resistant, including resistance to ceftiofur, and harboured the bla(CTX-M-5) gene. These results indicate that a common source may have been responsible...

  10. Private Returns to Human Capital over Transition: A Case Study of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Francesco; Verashchagina, Alina

    2006-01-01

    The gradualist approach to economic transition in Belarus would contribute to form the a priori expectation that the rate of return to education is low and the earnings profile by work experience flat, like they supposedly were under central planning. However, the first available estimates of Mincerian earnings equations based on the Belarusian…

  11. Shifting to a New Paradigm: School Reform in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoumennov, Iouri L.

    1993-01-01

    Explains the Republic of Belarus's new educational system, stressing its universal and democratic values, national-cultural foundation, scientific character, humanistic and ecological orientation, social and practical activities, encouragement of talent and erudition, and compulsory basic (nine-year) education focus. Describes types of educational…

  12. Ethnic Identity in Post-Soviet Belarus: Ethnolinguistic Survival as an Argument in the Political Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekus, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the Belarusian case of post-communist development and the role and status of Belarusian ethnicity in Belarus' nation-formation process. "Nationalizing nationalism" (Brubaker), as realised by the Belarusian state through various social and cultural practices, is aimed at the creation of a Belarusian national…

  13. Audit in Belarus under new law and in new environment: first results, problems, prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Korotayev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the first results of application of the new law of the Republic of Belarus «On audit activity» since the 01.01.2014. The authors identify the problems inherent in auditing, propose specific measures to solve these problems, and to create the necessary conditions for the further development of audit.

  14. Analysis and critical review of the development of bioethics in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishneuskaya, Yuliya A

    2012-11-01

    The main trends of the bioethics development in Belarus have been analyzed on the basis of the materials collected by the Ethics Documentation Center (ISEU, Minsk, Belarus). A critical review of the most important publications in the field since 2000 suggests that development of bioethics in Belarus has occurred in two parallel directions distantly connected to each other: a theoretical direction and a practical one. Despite there are objective and subjective reasons for introducing bioethics in Belarus as an institutionally-organized system based on liberal values such as individual rights and freedom, a range of essential problems could be identified. Non-equivalent regulation of ethical issues in health care and other fields of biomedical research has been emphasized, as well as the problem of unclear hierarchical relationships among institutions dealing with various aspects of bioethics in the country and low ethical and educational level of the social and professional groups involved in further expansion of bioethical knowledge. The contextual aspects of the development of bioethics in the country such as the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, the prevalence of the authoritarian social morality and traditionally paternalistic nature of the relations between physicians and their patients are discussed.

  15. Comparative economic evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in Belarus and Uzbekistan.

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    Ulla K Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hib vaccine has gradually been introduced into more and more countries during the past two decades, partly due to GAVI Alliance support to low-income countries. However, since Hib disease burden is difficult to establish in settings with limited diagnostic capacities and since the vaccine continues to be relatively expensive, some Governments remain doubtful about its value leading to concerns about financial sustainability. Similarly, several middle-income countries have not introduced the vaccine. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccination in a country relying on self-financing (Belarus and a country eligible for GAVI Alliance support (Uzbekistan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision analytic model was used to estimate morbidity and mortality from Hib meningitis, Hib pneumonia and other types of Hib disease with and without the vaccine. Treatment costs were attached to each disease event. Data on disease incidence, case fatality ratios and costs were primarily determined from national sources. For the Belarus 2009 birth cohort, Hib vaccine is estimated to prevent 467 invasive disease cases, 4 cases of meningitis sequelae, and 3 deaths, while in Uzbekistan 3,069 invasive cases, 34 sequelae cases and 341 deaths are prevented. Estimated costs per discounted DALY averted are US$ 9,323 in Belarus and US$ 267 in Uzbekistan. CONCLUSION: The primary reason why the cost-effectiveness values are more favourable in Uzbekistan than in Belarus is that relatively more deaths are averted in Uzbekistan due to higher baseline mortality burden. Two other explanations are that the vaccine price is lower in Uzbekistan and that Uzbekistan uses a three dose schedule compared to four doses in Belarus. However, when seen in the context of the relative ability to pay for public health, the vaccine can be considered cost-effective in both countries.

  16. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

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    Mandrik O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olena Mandrik,1 Saskia Knies,1,2 Johan L Severens1,3 1Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 2National Health Care Institute, Diemen, 3iMTA Institute of Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results: The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839, Belarus ($21,702, and Kazakhstan ($2,295. The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion: Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Keywords: in vitro fertilization, economic value of life, developing countries

  17. [Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians : meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Woodworth, Bradley D., 1963-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Darius Staliūnas. Making Russians. Meaning and practice of russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863. On the boundary of two worlds: identity, freedom, and moral imagination in the Baltica, 11. (Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2007)

  18. Improvement in Quality of Initial Fuel Usage in Power System of Republic of Belarus

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    B. Khroustalev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a potential, energy and economic efficiency of joint activities of enterprises of the Ministry of Energy sector and enterprises of the material sector of the economic complex of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of the methodology for intensive energy saving. Such calculated values as annual savings of natural gas in Belarus – up to 1 million tons of fuel equivalent, release investment for the Ministry of Energy – up to 1 billion USD, range for changes in electricity generation during a day - up to 1 GW with a specific consumption of fuel equivalent – 160 g/(kWh have been determined while taking thermal technology of asphalt concrete mixture production and regulation of electricity generation as an example. Fuel saving system and investment return create preconditions for realization of the project by private investors.

  19. [A new approach to postexposure treatment of rabies by complex of immuno- and chemotherapy in belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishaeva, N P; Votiakov, V I; Titov, L P; Naralenkov, V A; Nekhaĭ, M R; Sinkevich, V V; Kurlukov, A I; Gorbunov, V A

    2013-01-01

    A method for preventive treatment of rabies with a complex of immuno- and chemotherapeutics was developed. Rifampicin was used a an etiotropic drug. In the experiments on laboratory animals infected with fixed and street strains of rabies virus it was shown to prolong the incubation period and to increase the survival rate. The protective mechanisms of rifampicin against rabies should be associated with inhibition of RNA transcription, as well as immunomodulating function of macrophages, dendritic cells, B- and T-cells. Since 1992, after the approval of the Ministry of Health of Belarus rifampicin is used in complex with antirabic vaccine for postexposure treatment of rabies in people after severe bites by infected animals (wolves, foxes, dogs). For an 18-year period (1992-2009) of integrated application of chemo- and immunotherapy in Belarus there was not registered any case of hydrophobia in people even after the heaviest wolf bites, incompatible with life (penetrating injuries of the skull, scalping, multiple bites).

  20. Application of the M technique to two severely disabled children in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen Rickerby, Karla; Cordell, Barbara

    2012-07-01

    Following the early-morning explosion of reactor four at the Chernobyl nuclear plant on 26 April 1986, radioactive fallout fell over 80% of Belarus. More than 2.2 million people were affected, including thousands of children. As a result, there are now over 50,000 children in 600 orphanages in Belarus. Many of the orphanages are without basic amenities and are operating in dire circumstances. This article outlines two case studies of orphaned children with profound disabilities in one of these orphanages. The first author, a nurse volunteer from Ireland, used a method of touch called the 'M technique' to calm and soothe the children. The M technique is a gentle repetitive method of touch that can be learnt in a few hours. The results suggest that even when the situation appears very challenging, simple touch can have a beneficial effect.

  1. Language and Identity in Transforming Borderlands (Case of North-West Belarus

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    Mikalai Biaspamiatnykh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The North-West region of Belarus as an ethno-cultural bordering area demonstrates the tendency towards linguistic homogeneity with the sustainability of the identities of its communities. On the basis of a constructivistic approach the models of the identification process in the region are grounded. In the framework of these models the opportunities of interpretation of the present-day linguistic structure and specificity of linguistic processes are revealed. 

  2. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  3. The contribution of founder mutations in BRCA1 to breast cancer in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglanitsa, N; Oszurek, O; Uglanitsa, K; Savonievich, E; Lubiński, J; Cybulski, C; Debniak, T; Narod, S A; Gronwald, J

    2010-10-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene increase susceptibility to both breast and ovarian cancer. In some countries, including several in Eastern Europe, founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer cases. To estimate the hereditary proportion of breast cancer in Belarus, we sought the presence of any of three founder mutations in BRCA1 (4153delA, 5382insC and C61G) in 500 unselected cases of breast cancer. These mutations have previously been identified in breast/ovarian cancer families from Belarus and from other Slavic countries, including Poland and Russia. One of the three founder mutations in BRCA1 was present in 38 of 500 unselected cases of breast cancer (7.6%). A mutation was found in 12.6% of women diagnosed before age 50 and 5.6% of women diagnosed after age 50. A mutation was identified in 2 of 251 newborn controls (0.8%). The hereditary proportion of breast cancers in Belarus is among the highest of any countries studied to date.

  4. Forensic analysis of polymorphism and regional stratification of Y-chromosomal microsatellites in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebała, Krzysztof; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Bogacheva, Anna V; Kotova, Svetlana A; Mikulich, Alexei I; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2011-01-01

    Nine loci defining minimal haplotypes and four other Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) DYS437, DYS438, DYS439 and GATA H4.1 were analysed in 414 unrelated males residing in four regions of Belarus. Haplotypes of 328 males were further extended by 7 additional Y-STRs: DYS388, DYS426, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS460 and DYS635. The 13-locus haplotype diversity was 0.9978 and discrimination capacity was 78.7%, indicating presence of identical haplotypes among unrelated males. Seven additional Y-STRs enabled almost complete discrimination of undifferentiated 13-locus haplotypes, increasing haplotype diversity to 0.9998 and discrimination capacity to 97.9%. Analysis of molecular variance of minimal haplotypes excluded the use of a Y-STR database for Belarusians residing in northeastern Poland as representative for the Belarusian population in forensic practice, and revealed regional stratification within the country. However, four additional markers (DYS437, DYS438, DYS439 and GATA H4.1) were shown to eliminate the observed geographical substructure among Belarusian males. The results imply that in case of minimal and PowerPlex Y haplotypes, a separate frequency database should be used for northern Belarus to estimate Y-STR profile frequencies in forensic casework. In case of Yfiler haplotypes, regional stratification within Belarus may be neglected.

  5. Further evidence for elevated human minisatellite mutation rate in Belarus eight years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrova, Yuri E.; Buard, Jerome; Jeffreys, Alec J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Adrian Building, University Road, Leicester (United Kingdom); Nesterov, Valeri N.; Krouchinsky, Nicolay G.; Ostapenko, Vladislav A. [Research Institute for Radiation Medicine, Mogilev (Belarus); Vergnaud, Gilles; Giraudeau, Fabienne [Laboratoire de Recherche en Genetique des Especes, Institut de Biologie, Nantes (France)

    1997-11-28

    Analysis of germline mutation rate at human minisatellites among children born in areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus heavily polluted after the Chernobyl accident has been extended, both by recruiting more families from the affected region and by using five additional minisatellite probes, including multi-locus probe 33.6 and four hypervariable single-locus probes. These additional data confirmed a twofold higher mutation rate in exposed families compared with non-irradiated families from the United Kingdom. An elevated rate was seen at all three independent sets of minisatellites (detected separately by multi-locus probes 33.15, 33.6 and six single-locus probes), indicating a generalised increase in minisatellite germline mutation rate in the Belarus families. Within the Belarus cohort, mutation rate was significantly greater in families with higher parental radiation dose estimated for chronic external and internal exposure to caesium-137, consistent with radiation induction of germline mutation. The spectra of mutation seen in the unexposed and exposed families were indistinguishable, suggesting that increased mutation observed over multiple loci arises indirectly by some mechanism that enhances spontaneous minisatellite mutation.

  6. Investigations for Heavy Metals and POPs Emission Inventory Improvement in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakareka, S.; Kukharchyk, T.

    2003-04-01

    Emission fluxes assessment acts as starting point of air pollution interpretation. The paper presents results of a 7-years activity on identification and estimation of heavy metals and POPs emission sources in Belarus, most of which are poorly inventoried. Methodology based on sources testing and emission factors has been used. The following heavy metals emission sources have been evaluated: stationary fuel combustion, ferrous industry, cement production, glass production, phosphate fertilizers production, road transport, other mobile sources and machinery, cremation, waste incineration. We can generalize that on the territory of Belarus stationary fuel combustion is the main source of emission of arsenic and nickel. Cement production is the main source of mercury, and an essential source of cadmium and lead. Electric arc furnace steel plant provides main part of zinc emissions, and significant share of cadmium and lead. In the 90s the steady reduction heavy metals emissions on the territory of Belarus occured. It especially typical for lead emissions - from in 798 tonnes in 1990 tonnes to 46 tonnes in 2000 because of prohibition of ethylated gasoline usage. As the result of POPs sources identification and estimation it was detected that main contribution into dioxin emission have non-industrial solid fuel combustion (firewood and peat), electric arc furnace and waste incineration. Firewood and peat combustion and mobile sources were revealed to make the largest contribution in PAH emissions in Belarus. Pesticides from POPs Protocol to Geneva Convention and Stockholm POPs Convention (such as DDT, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, toxaphen, endrin, dieldrine, mirex, heptachlor et. al.) are not used now in Belarus. But a large amount of them are stored in various burial sites and storage places which cause significant ecological problems due to pollutants infiltration and spills. Leakage from transformers and damaged capacitors were estimated as the main source of

  7. The Huge Reduction in Adult Male Mortality in Belarus and Russia: Is It Attributable to Anti-Alcohol Measures?

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    Pavel Grigoriev

    Full Text Available Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s.We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980-2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time.Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005-2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality effects would not have occurred.

  8. THEORETIC AND METHODOLOGIC BASICS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL LOGISTICS SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

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    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study, the aim of which is the formation of the theoretical and methodological foundations in the framework of scientific maintenance for the further development processes of the national logistics system in the Republic of Belarus. The relevance of the study relates to the fact that at present the introduction of the concept of logistics and the formation of the optimal infrastructure for its implementation are the key factors for economic development of Belarus as a transit country. At the same time the pace of development of the logistic activities in the country is currently slightly lower in comparison with the neighboring countries, as evidenced by the dynamics of the country’s position in international rankings (in particular, according to the LPI index. Overcoming these gaps requires improved competitiveness of the logistics infrastructure in the international market. This, in turn, is possible due to the clear formulation and adherence of the effective functioning principles for macro logistics system of Belarus, as well as by increasing the quality of logistics design by means of applying econometric models and methods presented in the article. The proposed auctorial approach is the differentiation of the general principles of logistics specific to the logistics systems of all levels, and the specific principles of development of the macro level logistics system related to improving its transit attractiveness for international freight carriers. The study also systematizes the model for determining the optimal location of logistics facilities. Particular attention is paid to the methodological basis of the analysis of transport terminals functioning as part of the logistics centers both in the stages of design and operation. The developed theoretical and methodological recommendations are universal and can be used in the design of the logistics infrastructure for various purposes and functions

  9. Efficiency of Using Permanent Seed Sources for Conservation of Genetic Pool of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in Belarus

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    S. I. Ivanovskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of electrophoretic isoenzyme, analysis of permanent seed sources of Scots pine from Belarus is conducted. Research revealed that almost all of the analyzed plus stands, genetic reserves, seed orchards of the I order provenance and 71.5 % of seed orchards of the II order support maintenance of the level of average heterozygosity characteristic of Scots pine in Belarus. It is shown that in the plantation and population, seed from permanent seed sources can ensure the conservation of the species gene pool at higher productivity than created forest plantations.

  10. MAIN PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN RESPECT OF ITS ENTRY TO INTERNATIONAL BOTTLED WATER MARKET

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    P. G. Nikitenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Belarus has significant reserves of ground fresh and mineral water. Consumption of bottled water in the world has a tendency of steady growth. In this regard, Belarus can increase production and sale of bottled water on the external  and domestic markets as well. The paper  describes main tendencies prevailing on the world market;  it contains an analysis of the normative and legal foundation on regulation of production and sale of bottled water in the Republic and abroad; the paper also estimates the possibilities to increase volume of export water. 

  11. [Diversity of trematode larvae in gastropod molluscs in water bodies of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimova, L N; Shimalova, V V; Bychkova, E I

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of literary data and own investigations of gastropod molluscs on existence of cercariae of trematodes in Belarus was carried out. 13 856 specimens of 11 species and 2 species complexes of freshwater gastropod molluscs were examined on infection with cercariae of trematodes in 2010 by the authors of this article. Total infestation was 13.1% and infection of some molluscs species varied from 0.4% (Dnieper River, Gomel region) to 66.7% (Lukomskoe reservoir, Vitebsk region). The cercariae of 90 trematode species were found. The majority (51 species) at the adult stage parasitize birds. The cercariae of 14 trematode species have medical significance.

  12. AND BELARUS ON THE BASIS OF GERCHIKOV’S MOTIVATION MODEL

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    Liu, W.Y.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research examined corporate motivation in Belarus and China on the basis of Gerchikov’s motivation theory. We will bring theoretical substantiation for the work and state why we have chosen Gerchikov’s motivation model as foundation for the analysis. On the basis of the results gathered with the help of the research we will propose a suggestion on what peculiarities in the framework of corporate motivation we shall pay special attention in the course of Belarusian and Chinese companies’ cooperation.

  13. [Hygienic maintenance of public health in the Republic of Belarus in the design of facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, T E; Sokolov, C M; Shevchuk, L M; Gritsenko, T D; Pshegroda, A E; Pershin, I G

    2012-01-01

    A number of sanitary norms, rules and hygienic standards governing the sizes of the sanitary protection zone for a safety to human health from the harmful (chemical, biological, physical) effects of objects has been upgraded and improved. The harmonization of ambient air quality standards with international guidelines and obligations of the Republic of Belarus on international conventions has been performed. To assess the risk to public health from the impacts of a planned activity the project of instruction for the use and the algorithm of computer software for the risk assessment have been delivered.

  14. [The ARI etiology among children in Belarus in 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkova, N V; Sivets, N V; Shmialiova, N P; Cheshenok, T V; Lapo, E P; Anoshka, O N

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of the respiratory viruses for the period of 2011-2012 is presented. The ARI etiological structure among children 0-17 years, who were admitted to the hospital for respiratory disease in Belarus, was defined by the PCR-method. It was found that the etiological agents of the infections were not only influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adeno- and respiratory syncytial viruses, but also described boca- and metapneumoviruses. The most complete spectrum of the respiratory viruses was detected among children aged 0-4 years.

  15. Study of temperature regime in Belarus according to the COSMO model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partasenok, Irina; Geyer, Beate; Groisman, Pavel; Melnik, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Long-term time series of meteorological and hydrological observations for the 1900-2012 period provide information about climatic fluctuations in Belarus. In particular, significant transformation of the temperature regime in Belarus has been observed only since 1970s, and since 1989 the rate of these changes has increased. We used simulations of the COSMO model in Climate Mode (COSMO-CLM or CCLM) for detailed assessment of climatic transformations in Belarus. CCLM is a non-hydrostatic regional climate model developed from the Local Model (LM) of the German Meteorological Service by the CLM-community. The Model output (produced at the Institute of Coastal Research of HZG; the coastDatII dataset) gives a consistent and homogeneous database used for assessment of weather statistics and climate changes for the 1948 - 2012 period with spatial grid size of 0.22° in rotated coordinates. NCEP1 global reanalysis was used in simulations as forcing and boundary conditions. The observed gridded data (E-Obs v10.0; surface air temperature and precipitation) were used for verification of the model performance. We calculated mean seasonal temperature over Belarus for the 1955-2012 and 1981-2012 periods of significant transformation of the Belorussian climate. The calculations showed differences in the coastDatII and E-Obs varied within the ±0.6 to 2oC range depending on the season. We found the largest deviations in winter (by 1.7 to 2.0oC). In spring the differences were within the 0.8 to1.0oC range, in summer within the 0.6-0.8oC range and in autumn they were about 1.0 to 1.3oC. For both periods, annual mean regional values differ by 0.9oC. In the annual cycle, the E-Obs values were higher than coastDatII temperatures except the summer season, when the CCLM-derived temperatures exceed the observations. Comparison of seasonal temperature ranges shows a lesser amplitude in CCLM than in E-Obs. Estimates of annual temperature trends for the 1955-2012 period according to the E

  16. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P.; Bataille, C. [Centre d' etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Katlabai, T. [Sprout of Life, Krasnoye (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m{sup 2}). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where {sup 137}Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m{sup 2}. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in

  17. Infant mortality trends in a region of Belarus, 1980–2000

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    Lawvere Silvana

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU in 1991 challenged the public health infrastructure in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. Because infant mortality is regarded as a sensitive measure of the overall health of a population, patterns of neonatal and postneonatal deaths were examined within the Mogilev region of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Methods Employing administrative death files, this study utilized a regional cohort design that included all infant deaths occurring among persons residing within the Mogilev oblast of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Patterns of death and death rates were examined across 3 intervals: 1980–1985 (pre-Chernobyl, 1986–1991 (post-Chernobyl & pre-FSU breakup, and 1992–2000 (post-Chernobyl & post-FSU breakup. Results Annual infant mortality rates declined during the 1980s, increased during the early 1990s, and have remained stable thereafter. While infant mortality rates in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females, this decrement appears due to decreases in postneonatal mortality. Rates of postneonatal mortality in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females. Analyses of trends for infant mortality and neonatal mortality demonstrated continuous decreases between 1990, followed by a bell-shaped excess in the 1990's. Compared to rates of infant mortality for other countries, rates in the Mogilev region are generally higher than rates for the United States, but lower than rates in Russia. During the 1990s, rates for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mogilev were two times the comparable rates for East and West Germany. Conclusions While neonatal mortality rates in Mogilev have remained stable, rates for postneonatal mortality have decreased among both males and females during the period examined. Infant mortality rates in the Mogilev region of Belarus remain

  18. Landscape-related variation in the diet composition of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo in Belarus

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    Sidorovich Anna A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined common buzzard (Buteo buteo feeding patterns in landscapes with different habitat structure in Belarus. A total of 561 pellets and prey remains were sampled in 1998-2012 from which 1065 prey and other food items were identified. Effects of habitat structure on buzzard diet composition were investigated using correlation analysis. The most abundant group in buzzards’ diets were small rodents (49-80% of the biomass consumed, followed by other mammals and birds. Reptiles, anurans, fish and invertebrates constituted the rest. Proportions of all food items varied greatly between landscapes. The mean-weighted body mass of vertebrate prey hunted by common buzzards in different landscapes ranged from 107 to 244 g, constituting on average 180 g. Among small rodents, voles of the genus Microtus were hunted selectively. The food niche breadth was directly proportional to the amount of forest habitat. With increasing amount of forest habitat, the proportion of Microtus voles in buzzards’ diets decreased and the proportions of other food items grew. These findings confirm the majority of previous results indicating feeding opportunism of the common buzzard. Our investigation enables better understanding of predator-prey interactions and the prey choice of the common buzzard in Belarus.

  19. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tick populations in Estonia, the European part of Russia and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katargina, O; Geller, J; Alekseev, A; Dubinina, H; Efremova, G; Mishaeva, N; Vasilenko, V; Kuznetsova, T; Järvekülg, L; Vene, S; Lundkvist, A; Golovljova, I

    2012-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is associated with diseases of goats, sheep, cattle, dogs and horses. In the beginning of the 1990s it was identified as a human pathogen, causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) in the USA, Europe and the far east of Russia. A. phagocytophilum is maintained in nature in an enzootic cycle including ticks as the main vector and a wide range of mammalian species as reservoirs. Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected in Estonia, Belarus and the European part of Russia and screened for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Positive samples were found only among I. ricinus, in 13.4% in the European part of Russia, 4.2% in Belarus, 1.7% in mainland Estonia and 2.6% on Saaremaa Island. Positive samples were sequenced for partial 16S rRNA, groESL and ankA genes and phylogenetic analyses were performed. The results showed that A. phagocytophilum circulating in Eastern Europe belongs to different groESL lineages and 16S rRNA gene variants and also consists of variable numbers of repetitive elements within the ankA gene.

  20. Alarming levels of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Belarus: results of a survey in Minsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrahina, Alena; Hurevich, Henadz; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Sahalchyk, Evgeni; Astrauko, Andrei; van Gemert, Wayne; Hoffner, Sven; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Zignol, Matteo

    2012-06-01

    Resistance to anti-tuberculosis (TB) medicines is a major public health threat in most countries of the former Soviet Union. As no representative and quality-assured information on the magnitude of this problem existed in Belarus, a survey was conducted in the capital city of Minsk. Between November 2009 and December 2010, 156 consecutively diagnosed new and 68 previously treated culture-positive TB patients residing in Minsk were enrolled in the survey. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained from each patient and tested for susceptibility to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs. Multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB was found in 35.3% (95% CI 27.7-42.8) of new patients and 76.5% (95% CI 66.1-86.8) of those previously treated. Overall, nearly one in two patients enrolled had MDR-TB. Extensively drug-resistant TB was reported in 15 of the 107 MDR-TB patients (14.0%, 95% CI 7.3-20.7). Patients 35 yrs. The findings of this survey in Minsk city are alarming and represent the highest proportions of MDR-TB ever recorded in the world. This study greatly contributes to the understanding of the burden of drug-resistant TB in urban areas of Belarus.

  1. RESEARCHING THE GENDER ASPECT IN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT (THE CASE OF MOLDOVA, UKRAINE AND BELARUS

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    Elena ACULAI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The SME sector covers economic operators that substantially differ by many parameters: size of enterprises, types of activity, etc., including entrepreneurs’ characteristics – their ethnic, gender, age and other peculiarities. The specificity of different groups of enterprises and entrepreneurs is important both for attracting attention of the society to their problems and for the elaboration of business regulation policy on local, national and international levels. The purpose of the paper is investigation of characteristics of female entrepreneurship in some countries with transition economy – Moldova, Ukraine, and Belarus. In particular, possibilities of women–entrepreneurs to access different types of resources are presented, peculiarities of women’s character that influence the entrepreneurial activity are elucidated, need of governmental assistance to women that initiate and develop own business is examined. Common characteristics and some peculiarities in the female business development in the three countries are outlined. The investigation is based on results of questionings and interviews with women – owners and managers of enterprises, first of all, SMEs, from Moldova, Ukraine, and Belarus.

  2. The results of population neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism reflect the effect of iodine prophylaxes in Belarus

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    N B Gusina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and before the introduction of neonatal screening programs it was one of the most frequent causes of mental retardation. CH has the incidence of about 1:3000 newborns in different populations. In Belarus the population neonatal screening for CH has been performing since 1991. By the beginning of 2010 1320580 newborns were screened, and 201 cases of CH were diagnosed. The frequency of CH was estimated as 1:6570. The most common cause of CH in Belarus is thyroid hypoplasia. Neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level is a sensitive marker of iodine deficiency, so the neonatal screening results can be used for monitoring the population iodine prophylaxes programs. In 90-th, the primary positive rate in neonatal screening for CH was 0.65–5.2% for different regions of Belarus with cut-off level of 25 mIU/L. TSH level >5 mIU/L was noticed in 50% of screened newborns. In the 21-th century the number of primary positives diminished to 0.01–0.02% with cut-off level of 15 mIU/L. TSH level >5 mIU/L is noticed in 8.9% of screened newborns. The results of population neonatal screening for CH reflect the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxes programs run in Belarus in the 21-th century.

  3. Primary care reform in Central and Eastern Europe: can Belarus be taken as the control group in international comparison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Rousovich, V.S.; Schellevis, F.G.; Egorov, K.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Health care reform proceeds differently in Belarus. The country has not followed trends visible in most other countries. Financing and provision of health care is still in the hands of the state. Health insurance funds are unknown, private practices are rare and operating outside the sys

  4. Principales características técnicas de los Tractores BELARUS series 500 y 300

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    Liudmila Shkiliova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo brindar información sobre las características técnicas de los tractores BELARUS series 500 y 300. Estas series de tractores pueden ser utilizados en varias combinaciones en los trabajos agrícolas.

  5. INCRЕASE OF EFFICIENCY INDEX OF LOGISTIC SYSTEM IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

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    R. B. Ivut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve position of the Republic of Belarus in the rating of the World Bank by a logistics index a problem pertaining to creation and development of complex logistics system which will allow to change radically the situation in the country’s market of services and to receive considerable foreign-currency resources in the Republic budget becomes rather actual one. Keeping in view this purpose it is necessary to raise efficiency of customs procedures, quality of transport infrastructure and information technologies, make international deliveries more accessible with due account of logistical environment development. The proposed measures must stimulate development of the national logistics system which permits quickly to develop transit transportations with minimum expenses

  6. The neuro-muscular system in fresh-water furcocercaria from Belarus. I Schistosomatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Chrisanfova, Galina G; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-01-01

    The neuro-muscular system (NMS) in cercariae of the family Schistosomatidae from Belarus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The specimens of Bilharziella polonica were compared with Trichobilharzia szidati and Trichobilharzia franki. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT-immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR in sensory receptors and nerves were investigated. No indications of structural differences in the musculature, the 5-HT-IR, FMRF-IR neuronal elements and the general distribution of sensory receptors were noticed between cercariae of Trichobilharzia spp. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the cercarial bodies is 16. In cercaria B. polonica, the tail musculature is weaker than in Trichobilharzia spp. A detailed schematic picture of the NMS in the tail of Trichobilharzia spp. cercaria is given. The function of NMS elements in the tail is discussed.

  7. Trends, patterns, and determinants of regional mortality in Belarus, 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Pavel; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Shkolnikov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We report analyses of regional trends in overall and cause-specific mortality in Belarus for the period 1990-2007. We explore the respective spatial patterns and attempt to determine the factors responsible for the regional mortality variation. The results show that inter-regional mortality differentials tend to rise, mainly because of the growing advantage of the capital over other regions. The increasing variation is associated with diverging trends in mortality from external causes of death. Mortality tends to be higher in the eastern part of the country. Regional data show that changes in mortality are largely explained by alcohol and socio-economic conditions, as measured by unemployment and poverty rates. Cardiovascular and external-cause mortality are strongly associated with alcohol and unemployment, while poverty is an important predictor of suicide and homicide mortality. Clusters of elevated mortality from certain cancers located in the contaminated zone point to the possible impact of the Chernobyl accident.

  8. [Alcohol sales and pulmonary tuberculosis mortality in the Republic of Belarus in 1981 to 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovskiĭ, Iu E

    2006-01-01

    The fact that there is an association of alcohol abuse with pulmonary tuberculosis is well documented. The effect of alcohol sales per capita on tuberculosis mortality rates is considerably less known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the beverage-specific effect of alcohol on pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates. Trends in pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates in Belarus from 1981 to 2001 were analyzed in relation to those in the level of sales of various alcoholic beverages per capita, by applying the time series analysis. The analysis demonstrated a positive and statistically significant effect of changes in per capita alcohol sale levels on pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates. It suggests that a 1% increase in alcohol sales per capita might cause 0.49 and 0.36% increases in pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates in males and females, respectively. This study also indicates that tuberculosis prevention programs should place more emphasis on alcohol problems.

  9. Winter cyclone frequency and following freshet streamflow formation on the rivers in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partasenok, Irina S.; Groisman, Pavel Ya; Chekan, Grigoriy S.; Melnik, Viktor I.

    2014-09-01

    We studied long-term fluctuations of streamflow and occurrence of extreme phenomena on the rivers of Belarus during the post-World War II period. It was found that formation of annual runoff within the nation has no constant tendencies and varies from year to year. At the same time, analysis of intra-annual distribution of streamflow reveals significant changes since the 1970s, first of all, increase of winter and decrease of spring streamflow. As a result, the frequency of extreme floods has decreased. These changes in water regime are associated with climatic anomalies (increase of the surface air temperatures) caused by large-scale alterations in atmospheric circulation, specifically in trajectories of cyclones. During the last two decades, the frequency of Atlantic and southern cyclones has changed and caused decreasing of cold season storms and extreme phenomena on the rivers.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of C. diphtheriae strains during different phases of the diphtheria epidemic in Belarus

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    Grimont Patrick AD

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reemergence of epidemic diphtheria in Belarus in 1990s has provided us with important information on the biology of the disease and the diversity of the causative agent Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Molecular investigations were conducted with the aim to analyze the genetic variability of C diphtheriae during the post-epidemic period. Methods The biotype and toxigenicity status of 3513 C. diphtheriae strains isolated from all areas in Belarus during a declining period of diphtheria morbidity (1996–2005 was undertaken. Of these, 384 strains were isolated from diphtheria cases, 1968 from tonsillitis patients, 426 from contacts and 735 from healthy carriers. Four hundred and thirty two selected strains were ribotyped. Results The C diphtheriae gravis biotype, which was prevalent during 1996–2000, was "replaced" by the mitis biotype during 2001–2005. The distribution of toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains also decreased from 47.1% (1996 to 5.8% (2005. Changes in the distribution of the epidemic ribotypes Sankt-Peterburg and Rossija were also observed. During 2001–2005 the proportion of the Sankt-Peterburg ribotype decreased from 24.3% to 2.3%, in contrast to the Rossija ribotype, that increased from 25.1% to 49.1%. The circulation of other toxigenic ribotypes (Otchakov, Lyon, Bangladesh, which were prevalent during the period of high diphtheria incidence, also decreased. But at the same time, the proportion of non-toxigenic strains with the Cluj and Rossija ribotypes dramatically increased and accounted for 49.3% and 30.1%, respectively. Conclusion The decrease in morbidity correlated with the dramatic decrease in the isolation of the gravis biotype and Sankt Peterburg ribotype, and the prevalence of the Rossija ribotype along with other rare ribotypes associated with non-toxigenic strains (Cluj and Rossija, in particular.

  11. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

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    Marina A Yermalovich

    Full Text Available As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV, rubella virus (RV and human parvovirus B19 (B19V. The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV and adenovirus (AdV. Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6. A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7% cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

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    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  13. Molecular analysis of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI in Poland, Belarus, Lithuania and Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurecka, Agnieszka; Piotrowska, Ewa; Cimbalistiene, Loreta; Gusina, Nina; Sobczyńska, Agnieszka; Czartoryska, Barbara; Czerska, Kamila; Õunap, Katrin; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2012-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (ARSB). Over 130 ARSB gene mutations have been identified thus far and most mutations are unique to individual families. We aimed to analyze the spectrum of mutations in the ARSB gene responsible for the disorder in Poland, Belarus and Baltic States. Twenty one families with MPS VI patients, in whom diagnosis was confirmed biochemically and enzymatically, were studied. Direct sequencing of patient genomic DNA was used to identify ARSB mutations. In total, fourteen different disease-causing mutations were found. Three novel mutations included insertion c.375_376insT, a missense mutation c.499G>A (p.G167R) and deletion/insertion c.750_754delinsCCTGAAGTCAAG. We also report 11 previously described mutations (p.A33V, p.W57C, p.Q88X, p.T92K, p.Q97X, p.R152W, p.R160Q, p.R160X, p.Y210C, p.Y266S, p.G302R). The mutation p.R152W was present at a high prevalence of 50% (21/42) the mutated alleles in this group of patients. High prevalence of p.R152W mutation in Poland, Belarus and Baltic States indicates a possible founder effect and suggests that screening for this mutation may be appropriate in MPS VI patients from this region. Our study has also provided evidence to support genotype-phenotype correlation.

  14. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  15. Human parvovirus B19 surveillance in patients with rash and fever from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermalovich, Marina A; Hübschen, Judith M; Semeiko, Galina V; Samoilovich, Elena O; Muller, Claude P

    2012-06-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in immunocompetent patients usually has a mild clinical course, but during pregnancy it can cause serious and even fatal complications in the fetus. The most common clinical presentation of B19V infection is erythema infectiosum and in this case laboratory confirmation is required for differentiation from other exanthematous diseases. Measles and rubella negative sera collected in Belarus between 2005 and 2008 from 906 patients with a rash and fever were screened for B19V infection by ELISA. More than 35% of the samples (322/906) were positive for B19V. The proportion ranged from 10.1% in 2008 to 53.2% in 2006 when an outbreak took place in Minsk city. All B19V outbreaks and cluster cases occurred during the winter-spring period, but sporadic cases were recorded basically throughout the year. The majority of the cases (56.5%) occurred among the 2 till 10 year old children, and 27.3% of the cases were observed in adults between 19 and 53 years. All 104 B19V strains sequenced in the NS1/VP1u region belonged to genotype 1 with a maximal genetic distance of 1.75%. The two phylogenetic clusters reflected the geographic origins of the viruses within the country. Forty-two unique nucleotide mutations as compared to sequences downloaded from GenBank were found in the VP1u and NS1 regions; most of these changes were nonsynonymous. This report highlights the importance of B19V infection in patients with a rash and fever in Belarus.

  16. Etiology of maculopapular rash in measles and rubella suspected patients from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermalovich, Marina A; Semeiko, Galina V; Samoilovich, Elena O; Svirchevskaya, Ekaterina Y; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M

    2014-01-01

    As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV), rubella virus (RV) and human parvovirus B19 (B19V). The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV) and adenovirus (AdV). Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7%) cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3-10 years old children and 20-29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3-6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6-11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus.

  17. Analysis of Engineering Pricing System in Belarus%白俄罗斯工程造价体系解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锐娟; 王玉平; 田京精

    2016-01-01

    对白俄罗斯工程计价体系和局部预算作详细介绍。在此基础上,以明斯克国际机场飞行区工程为实例进行预算体系说明,旨在为中国建筑企业开拓白俄罗斯市场提供技术支持。%The paper introduces Belarus engineering cost system and engineering quota in details. On this basis, illustrates the budget system of airfield area of Minsk International Airport,in order to provide technical support for Chinese constructors to explore Belarus construction market.

  18. Molecular characterization of rpoB gene mutations in rifampicine-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from tuberculosis patients in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Leonid P; Zakerbostanabad, Saeed; Slizen, Veranika; Surkova, Larisa; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, location and type of rpoB mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients in Belarus. Tuberculosis cases are increasing every year in Belarus. Moreover, resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs, especially to rifampicine, has increased. In this study, 44 rifampicine-resistance M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (including multidrug-resistant isolates) were subjected to DNA sequencing analysis of the hypervariable region (hot-spot) of the rpoB gene originating from different geographical regions in Belarus. Sixteen different types of mutations were identified. The most common point mutations were in codons 510 (47.7%), 526 (45.5%), 523 (40.86%) and 531 (29.5%). Eleven isolates (27.7%) carried one mutation and 23 (52%), 7 (16%), 3 (7%) of isolates carried 2, 3 and 4 mutations, respectively. A characteristic, prominent finding of this study was high frequency of multiple mutations in different codons of the rpoB gene (27.7%) and also the detection of unusual types of mutations in the 510 codon, comprising CAG mutations (deletion or changing, to CTG, CAC or CAT). In our study, the change TTG in codon 531 was found in 92% of isolates and the change TGC in 8% of isolates. A TAC change in codon 526 was not found, but the GAC change was found in all isolates. Isolates of M. tuberculosis isolated in Belarus were characterized by the wide spectrum of the important mutations and might belong to the epidemic widespread clones.

  19. Forming of the system of the financial providing of innovative development of economy of Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Mjatnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major condition of efficiency of realization of innovative projects and programs is their financial maintenance. In article the analysis of use of various sources of financing and the state preferences is carried out by working out and realization of innovative projects and programs. Assumptions on formation of uniform system of financial maintenance of innovative development of economy of Belarus are stated.

  20. [Treatment results of neuroblastoma in children in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proleskovskaia, I V; Savich, T V; Mareĭko, Iu E; Savva, N N; Aleĭnikova, O V

    2009-01-01

    Our investigation was concerned with effectiveness of infantile neuroblastoma treatment in Belarus and dependence of prognosis on extent of radical surgery. The study involved 115 patients with morphologically confirmed diagnosis of primary tumor who were treated at the Center (1997-2007). Ten-year overall and relapse-free survival rates for favorable prognosis, stage I, II, III, were 1.00 and 0.94 +/- 0.04, respectively. They were significantly higher than those for intermediate (0.70 +/- 0.09 and 0.61 +/- 0.09) or high risk (0.32 +/- 0.08 and 0.27 +/- 0.08), respectively, (p < or = 0.01). The results for radical local surgery were better: 5-year relapse-free survival--0.82 +/- 0.09 as compared with subtotal excision (0.62 +/- 0.12) and biopsy (0.5 +/- 0.25) among patients older than 12 months. Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) was followed by significant improvement: 6-year overall and relapse-free survival (stage IV) (0.5 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12, respectively) as compared those without ASCT (0.12 +/- 0.08 and 0.1 +/- 0.08), respectively, (p < or = 0.01). The main cause of death after ASCT was relapse. Poor results following post-ASCT treatment of stage IV tumor should be improved by more effective detection and removal of tumor cell harvest.

  1. State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

  2. Impact of Uncertainties in Exposure Assessment on Thyroid Cancer Risk among Persons in Belarus Exposed as Children or Adolescents Due to the Chernobyl Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Little

    Full Text Available The excess incidence of thyroid cancer in Ukraine and Belarus observed a few years after the Chernobyl accident is considered to be largely the result of 131I released from the reactor. Although the Belarus thyroid cancer prevalence data has been previously analyzed, no account was taken of dose measurement error.We examined dose-response patterns in a thyroid screening prevalence cohort of 11,732 persons aged under 18 at the time of the accident, diagnosed during 1996-2004, who had direct thyroid 131I activity measurement, and were resident in the most radio-actively contaminated regions of Belarus. Three methods of dose-error correction (regression calibration, Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo were applied.There was a statistically significant (p0.2.In summary, the relatively small contribution of unshared classical dose error in the current study results in comparatively modest effects on the regression parameters.

  3. STR Profiling for Discrimination between Wild and Domestic Swine Specimens and between Main Breeds of Domestic Pigs Reared in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Rabtsava, Alina A.; Kotova, Svetlana A.; Kipen, Viachaslau N.; Zhurina, Natalja V.; Gandzha, Alla I.; Tsybovsky, Iosif S.

    2016-01-01

    A panel comprising 16 short tandem repeats (STRs) and a gender-specific amelogenin marker was worked out and tested for robustness in discrimination between wild and domestic swine subspecies encountered in Europe, between regional populations of wild boars and between main breeds of domestic pigs reared in Belarus. The STR dataset comprised 310 wild boars, inhabiting all administrative regions of Belarus, and 313 domestic pigs, representing three local and three cosmopolitan lines. Additionally, a total of 835 wild boars were genotyped for the presence of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) alleles specific for domestic pigs. Correctness of assignment of STR profiles to appropriate populations was measured by log-likelihood ratios (log-LRs). All samples were correctly identified as wild boars or domestic pigs with average log-LR of 42.4 (LR = 2.6×1018). On the other hand, as many as 50 out of 835 (6.0%) genotyped wild boars from Belarus possessed MC1R alleles specific to domestic pigs, demonstrating supremacy of our STR profiling system over traditional differentiation between wild boars and domestic pigs, based on single binary markers. Mean log-LRs for allocation of wild boars to their regions of origin and of domestic pigs to appropriate breeds were 2.3 (LR = 9.7) and 13.4 (LR = 6.6×105), respectively. Our results demonstrate the developed STR profiling system to be a highly efficient tool for differentiation between wild and domestic swine subspecies and between diverse breeds of domestic pigs as well as for verification of genetic identity of porcine specimens for the purpose of forensic investigations of wildlife crimes, assurance of veterinary public health, parentage control in animal husbandry, food safety management and traceability of livestock products. PMID:27851802

  4. Variation of X-chromosomal microsatellites in Belarus within the context of their genetic diversity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Kotova, Svetlana A; Rybakova, Veranika I; Zabauskaya, Tatsiana V; Shyla, Alena A; Spivak, Alena A; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2015-05-01

    More and more X-STR data are becoming available for worldwide human populations for forensic and anthropological investigations, but the European datasets analysed so far represent mainly the central, northern, western and southern part of the continent with populations of Eastern Europe being practically uninvestigated. In the present study, we assessed genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium of 19 X-chromosomal STR markers (DXS7132, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS8377, DXS8378, DXS9895, DXS10074, DXS10075, DXS10079, DXS10101, DXS10103, DXS10134, DXS10135, DXS10146, DXS10147, DXS10148, GATA172D05, HPRTB) in four regional populations of an Eastern European state of Belarus, including 12 loci incorporated in the Argus X-12 kit. Our results revealed cumulative power of discrimination of the tested X-STR loci to amount to 0.999999999999996 and 0.999999997 in females and males, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated regional stratification within the country, excluding the use of a common X-STR database for Belarus in forensic casework. However, development of a separate X-STR database for the northwestern part of the country or exclusion of four loci displaying regional differences from the dataset were shown to eliminate the observed geographic substructure among Belarusians. Comparison of the Belarusian genotypes with X-STR data from other European populations disclosed a geography-driven northeast-southwest gradient extending from Belarus and Finland to Iberia and Italy. This study is the first extensive report on variation of X-STR markers in populations from Eastern Europe and the first comprehensive analysis of diversity of X-chromosomal microsatellites in Europe.

  5. 白俄罗斯声乐研究在中国%Belarus vocal music study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖越歌

    2014-01-01

    2013年中国与白俄罗斯两国首脑共同将两国关系提升至全面战略伙伴关系,开启了中白关系新纪元。两国间的文化交流更加稳固,白俄罗斯深厚的专业音乐教育为中国培养了一批优秀的歌唱家与声乐教育师资。我国对于白俄罗斯的声乐教育研究主要基于这些学成归国的博士、硕士学位获得者,他们在留学期间得益于语言、资料的优势,研究视角关注了身边的人和事,这对于推动中白音乐文化交流起到了重要的作用。%In 2013 China and belarus to relations between the two countries up to the heads of the two countries comprehensive strategic partnership, opens the white relations in new era. Cultural exchanges between the two countries, belarus profound professional music education for China to cultivate a batch of excellent singers and vocal music education of teachers. For belarus's vocal music education research in China is mainly based on these, Dr., master's degree gainer learn homecoming, they benefit from the advantages of language, and information during the study, the research perspectives focus on the people and things around, this to promote the white music played an important role in cultural communication.

  6. Effectiveness of countermeasures applied in Belarus to produce milk and meat with acceptable levels of radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsakova, S K

    1993-09-24

    Countermeasures taken in Belarus to reduce transfer of radiocaesium from feeds to animals have combined live monitoring and monitoring of radiocaesium (137Cs and 134Cs) in bulk milk on dairy farms with the setting of upper limits for radionuclide contents for animal feeds. Only uncontaminated feeds have been used in the final fattening of animals before slaughter. Combined with widespread soil management programmes these measures have allowed the continued use of the majority of contaminated agricultural lands without substantial changes in farming practices.

  7. [Hygienic substantiation of maximum permissible concentrations of oil products in the soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, V M; Il'yukova, I I; Kremko, L M; Prismotrov, Yu A; Samsonova, A S; Volod'ko, I K; Lukashev, O V

    2013-01-01

    Oil products are the one out of major pollutants in soil. For reduction of the technogenic load on human beings and performing preventive measures in the Republic of Belarus differentiated hygienic rate setting for oil products in the soil have been scientifically substantiated for follows different categories of Lands: agricultural lands, defense lands, lands for recreation, historical and cultural purpose, forest lands, lands of water fund, reserve lands--50 mg/kg; settlements sand, garden housing and dacha cooperatives,--100 mg/kg; industrial, transport, communication, energy, defense and other appointments lands--500 mg/kg.

  8. Prospects and Consequences of Approachment of Ukraine with the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panova Iryna O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of the modern state and tendencies of development of Ukrainian economy in the Customs Union, identification of possible losses and income from being its member and also justification of necessary measures, realisation of which would ensure immediate growth of its economy. As of now the countries members of the Customs Union have not received significant economic benefit. This is explained by the following factors: small quantity of goods, which the participants can offer each other; low competitiveness; and impact on a number of branch markets. Besides, many critics believe that the possible benefit from the common customs environment is reduced by three factors: high level of corruption; low level of economic freedoms; and low level of democracy. As of today, the issue of Ukrainian choice between the zone of free trade with EU and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia is one of the most frequently discussed. In spite of the fact that the volume of trade of Ukraine with the countries of the Customs Union is much higher than with Europe, expediency of joining the former is under question. Ukraine is considered both in the West and in the East as a new market of sales of their products. In general, the issue lies not only in the plane of economy or politics, but mostly in the plane of selection of the development vector. At the same time the issue arises: “Whether Ukrainian goods can withstand such a competition?”.

  9. Short rotation coppice as alternative land use for Chernobyl-contaminated areas of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergey; Grebenkov, Alexander; Thiry, Yves

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in the Chernobyl-affected area to assess if short rotation coppice (SRC) for energy production is a feasible alternative for contaminated land. Four willow clones were planted on sandy and peaty soil and the radiocaesium (137Cs) and radiostrontium (90Sr) transfer factors (TF) and yield relevant parameters were recorded during four growing seasons. The 137Cs and 90Sr soil-to-willow wood TF on sandy soil (second growing season) were on average 1.40+/-1.06 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1) and 130+/-74 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1), respectively. The 137Cs TF recorded for the peaty soil (fourth growing season or end of the first rotation cycle) was on average 5.17+/-1.59 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1). The 90Sr-TF was on average 2.61+/-0.44 x 10(-3) m2 kg(-1). No significant differences between clones for the 137Cs and 90Sr-TF were observed. Given the high TFs and the high deposition levels, Belarus exemption levels for fuel wood were highly exceeded. The annual average biomass production for one rotation cycle on the peaty soil ranged from 7.8 to 16.0 t ha(-1) y(-1) for one of the clones, comparable with average annual yield figures obtained for western Europe. On the sandy soils, first-year yields were 0.25 t ha(-1) y(-1). These soils are not suitable for SRC production and should better be dedicated to pine forests or drought-resistant grasses.

  10. Enteroviral infection outbreak in the Republic of Belarus: principal characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of etiological agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrosieva, Tamara V; Paklonskaya, Natallia V; Biazruchka, Aliaksei A; Kazinetz, Olga N; Bohush, Zoya F; Fisenko, Elena G

    2006-06-01

    For the last decade enterovirus outbreaks were registered in all of six districts of Belarus. Two of them, reported in 1997 (in Gomel) and in 2003 (in Minsk), were the most extensive and involved 461 and 1,351 patients respectively. Virus ECHO 30 was identified as the dominant etiologic agent of the outbreak in 1997 whereas co-circulation of ECHO 30, ECHO 6 and Coxsackievirus B5 took place in 2003. Analysis of clinical manifestations during the Minsk outbreak revealed unusually high rate of severe clinical forms of infection including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and myocardial disorders. Epidemiologic observation was ordinary for enterovirus epidemics in temperate climates: the peak of the outbreak was recorded during summer-autumn period of 2003, and 0-14 years old children predominated. Data from the case-control study indicated that illness was associated with drinking water from community water system. Also the laboratory examination demonstrated contamination of different water samples with the epidemic virus serotypes and sequence analysis showed high level of genetic similarity between waterborne and clinical isolates. For these reasons the outbreak should be classified as a waterborne one. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all Belarusian ECHO 30 isolates belong to the major genotype of ECHO 30 which has been circulating for last 15 years in Europe and North America. Viral agents of 2003 were very similar and substantially differed from isolates of 1997. Comparison of nucleotide sequences of isolates from myocarditis patients revealed their considerable genetic similarity with ECHO 30 isolates from patients with aseptic meningitis and from water. The results of the study draw attention to the importance of virological control of tap and bottled water as a relevant measure aimed at reduction of epidemiological risks.

  11. STRUCTURIZATION OF OWN FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN BASIC DIRECTIONS OF CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Rumiantsava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an analysis of scientific, reference and encyclopaedic literature, statistical information, and also main documents concerning power engineering policy a composition systemization of «own fuel-energy recourses» and «local fuel-energy recourses» categories in the Republic of Belarus is given in the paper. The paper also contains a structurization of power resources of the mentioned categories in accordance with directions of consumption of fuel-energy resources for generation of heat and electrical energy and usage of fuel-energy resources directly as a fuel.In order to increase an objectivity of actual and forecasting estimations of efficiency in respect of power resources’ usage  the paper proposes to analyze consumption of every fuel-energy resources’ type/group separately in accordance with basic directions of consumption but not as a part of boiler-oven fuel. Local fuel-energy recourses are to be considered not as end in itself, but only as a part of own fuel-energy recourses of the Republic of Belarus.

  12. Combustibility of biomass from wet fens in Belarus and its potential as a substitute for peat in fuel briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wichtmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peatland drainage has caused enormous environmental problems at global scale; in particular, ongoing greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation. In Belarus, which is rich in peatlands and a hotspot of emissions from drained peatlands, several thousand hectares have already been re-wetted but are not used productively. Moreover, vast areas of wet (undrained peatland that are designated for nature conservation are in need of mowing and biomass removal. Plants such as common reed (Phragmites australis, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea and sedges (Carex spp. which frequently dominate these areas could be harvested and used as fuel, potentially as a substitute for peat. In this study we analysed the yield and combustibility of late harvests in March/April 2009 and 2010. The yields of 3.7–11.7 t DM ha-1 were within the range reported from other studies on wetland plants. Concentrations of Cl, S, N, P, C, Ca, K, Mg and Na, as well as water and ash contents, indicated similar or better combustibility when compared to other straw-like (graminaceous plants such as Miscanthus. The full replacement of peat fuel by biomass from wet peatlands in Belarus would require an area of 680,000 ha, i.e. 'only' half of the peatland that has been drained for agriculture.

  13. Survey of computed tomography doses and establishment of national diagnostic reference levels in the Republic of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuzhyk, S A; Matskevich, S A; Filjustin, A E; Bogushevich, E V; Ugolkova, S A

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was measured on eight CT scanners at seven public hospitals in the Republic of Belarus. The effective dose was calculated using normalised values of effective dose per dose-length product (DLP) over various body regions. Considerable variations of the dose values were observed. Mean effective doses amounted to 1.4 +/- 0.4 mSv for brain, 2.6 +/- 1.0 mSv for neck, 6.9 +/- 2.2 mSv for thorax, 7.0 +/- 2.3 mSv for abdomen and 8.8 +/- 3.2 mSv for pelvis. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed by calculating the third quartiles of dose value distributions (body region/volume CTDI, mGy/DLP, mGy cm): brain/60/730, neck/55/640, thorax/20/500, abdomen/25/600 and pelvis/25/490. It is evident that the protocols need to be optimised on some of the CT scanners, in view of the fact that these are the first formulated DRLs for the Republic of Belarus.

  14. About the history of the development of the ( Polypodiophyta ) fern collection at the Central Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

    OpenAIRE

    Chertovich Valentina N.

    2015-01-01

    Today, the ( Polypodiophyta ) fern collection at the Central Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus includes 88 species and intraspecific taxa (31 genus, 12 families). It contains information about the main stages of collection’s development, options for its update, taxonomic composition and basic life forms. The collection presents possibilities for practical use of certain species.

  15. About the history of the development of the ( Polypodiophyta fern collection at the Central Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chertovich Valentina N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the ( Polypodiophyta fern collection at the Central Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus includes 88 species and intraspecific taxa (31 genus, 12 families. It contains information about the main stages of collection’s development, options for its update, taxonomic composition and basic life forms. The collection presents possibilities for practical use of certain species.

  16. Language Shift or Maintenance? An Examination of Language Usage across Four Generations as Self-Reported by University Age Students in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N. Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the degree to which language shift or maintenance is obtained across four generations in Belarus. Linguistic homogeneity and heterogeneity receive particular attention as potential contributing factors to language shift or maintenance in the home, arguably the last bastion in terms of language maintenance. In an effort to…

  17. Aerosol seasonal variations over urban sites in Ukraine and Belarus according to AERONET and POLDER measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Dubovik, O.; Kabashnikov, V.; Chaikovsky, A.; Mishchenko, M.; Sosonkin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents an investigation of aerosol seasonal variations in several urban sites in the East European region. Our analysis of seasonal variations of optical and physical aerosol parameters is based on the sun-photometer 2008-2012 data from three urban ground-based AERONET sites in Ukraine (Kyiv, Kyiv-AO, and Lugansk) and one site in Belarus (Minsk), as well as on satellite POLDER instrument data for urban areas in Ukraine. Aerosol amount and optical thickness values exhibit peaks in the spring (April-May) and late summer (August), whereas minimum values are seen in late autumn over the Kyiv and Minsk sites. The results show that aerosol fine mode particles are most frequently detected during the spring and late summer seasons. The seasonal variation similarity in the two regions points to the resemblance in basic aerosol sources which are closely related to properties of aerosol particles. However the aerosol amount and properties change noticeably from year to year and from region to region. The analysis of seasonal aerosol optical thickness variations over the urban sites in the eastern and western parts of Ukraine according to both ground-based and POLDER data exhibits the same traits. In particular, over Kyiv, the values of the Angstrom exponent are lower in April of 2011 than in 2009 and 2010, while aerosol optical thickness values are almost the same, which can be explained by an increase in the amount of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere, such as Saharan dust. Moreover, the coarse mode particles prevailed over suburbs and the center of Kyiv during a third of all available days of observation in 2012. In general, the fine and coarse mode particles' modal radii averaged over 2008-2012 range from 0.1 to 0.2 μm and 2 to 5 μm, respectively, during the period from April to September. The single scattering albedo and refractive index values of these particles correspond to a mix of urban-industrial, biomass burning, and dust aerosols. In addition

  18. Energy transit from Russia through Ukraine and Belarus. A risk for energy supply assurance in Europe?; Energietransit von Russland durch die Ukraine und Belarus. Ein Risiko fuer die europaeische Energiesicherheit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, R.

    2006-12-15

    Against the background of enhanced sensitivity for power supply problems, supply assurance of power supply from Russia is under discussion. As in the early days of power supply from Russia, when the issue was much discussed, there is a fear that Russia may use power supply as a political instrument, and there is also the new fear that petroleum and natural gas transit may be interrupted in case of political problems between Russia and its former satellite states Belarus and Ukraine. The problem is related to the vast importance of Russia for oil and gas supply to the rest of Europe. According to current forecasts, the dependence of Europe from Russian energy sources, as well as the reciprocal dependence of Russia on the European market, will continue through 2030. (orig.)

  19. Database of meteorological and radiation measurements made in Belarus during the first three months following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2013-02-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow's milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow's milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

  20. Legal basis for risk analysis methodology while ensuring food safety in the Eurasian Economic union and the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Fedorenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health risk analysis methodology is an internationally recognized tool for ensuring food safety. Three main elements of risk analysis are risk assessment, risk management and risk communication to inform the interested parties on the risk, are legislated and implemented in the Eurasian Economic Union and the Republic of Belarus. There is a corresponding organizational and functional framework for the application of risk analysis methodology as in the justification of production safety indicators and the implementation of public health surveillance. Common methodological approaches and criteria for evaluating public health risk are determined, which are used in the development and application of food safety requirements. Risk assessment can be used in justifying the indicators of safety (contaminants, food additives, and evaluating the effectiveness of programs on enrichment of food with micronutrients.

  1. [The forecasting of vertical distribution of 37Cs and 90Sr in the forest soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Perevolotskaia, T V

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the vertical profile of soil of forest biogeocenoses with different modes of moisture and species composition of woody vegetation on the "long" trail of radioactive fallout in the Republic of Belarus. The parameters of radionuclide migration are calculated for the two component quasi-diffusion equation, also based on this equation, pollution of root zone soil layers is predicted, as well as semi-refined periods and the contribution of migration in this process are defined. The intensity of radionuclide migration in the vertical profile of forest soils is found to increase with the change of the soil moisture regime from automorphic to hydromorphic.

  2. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions of drained fen peatlands in Belarus are controlled by water table, land use, and annual weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlo, Andrei; Minke, Merten; Chuvashova, Hanna; Augustin, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Narkevitch, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Drainage of peatlands causes strong emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2 and N2O, sometimes combined with a weak CH4 uptake. In Belarus drained peatlands occupy about 1505000 ha or more than 7.2 % of the country area. Joosten (2009) estimates CO2 emission from degraded peatlands in Belarus as 41.3 Mt yr-1 what equals to 47 % of total anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of country in 2011. However, it could not be checked if these numbers are correct since there are no GHG measurements on these sites up to now. Therefore we studied the GHG emissions with the closed chamber approach in four peatlands situated in central and southern Belarus over a period from August 2010 to August 2012. The measurements comprised eight site types representing different water level conditions, and ranging from grassland and arable land over abandoned fields and peat cuts to near-natural sedge fens. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were determined using the close-chamber approach every second week in snow free periods and every fourth week during winter time. The annual emissions were calculated based on linear interpolation. Carbon dioxide exchange was measured with transparent and opaque chambers every 3-4 weeks and the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was modeled according to Drösler (2005). Most of the drained sites were sources of CO2 in both years. NEE increased with lower mean annual water table level. The highest NEE value (1263.5 g CO2-C m-1yr-1) was observed at the driest site of the study; an abandoned fen formerly used for agriculture. In contrast, a former peat extraction site with moist peat and small Pinus sylvestris tress were sinks of CO2 with uptake to 389.6 g CO2-C m-1yr-1. The highest N2O emissions were recorded at a drained agricultural fen with mean annual rates of up to 2347 mg N2O-N m-2 yr-1. Significant fluxes of CH4 (15 g CH4C m-2 h-1) were observed only at the near-natural site in the first year of investigation when precipitation and the mean water

  4. MODERN SITUATION AND FORECASTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data the paper compares modern situation and forecasts of electrical power engineering development in the Republic of Belarus and Russian Federation. The paper carries out an analysis of integrated structure of fuel balances of both countries till 2015. The paper notes the fact that thermal power stations (TPS will remain a main generating source till 2020 and gas will continue to be the main type of fuel in the structure of fuel balances. The paper investigates development of technological structures in the electrical power engineering. It has been revealed that one of the main factors that hinders development of the Belarussian power system is the absence of the required financial  mechanisms for obtaining additional investment possibilities. In connection with this fact a special attention should be given to the problems that are directed on improvement of tariff policy and mechanisms of tariff formation.

  5. SOFTWARE OF MONITORING SYSTEM FOR ALLOCATED INFORMATION OF STATE PROGRAM ON INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Rybak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes main indices (indicators of realization of the State program on innovative development of the Republic of Belarus (SPIDRB, contains and justifies a hierarchical structure of data processing and display, finalizes a list of the SPIDRB participants and executors. Major functions of the units pertaining to automation of an automated SPIDRB monitoring system are determined in the paper. In order to accumulate, process and furnish information a system of documentary databases on the basis of IBM Lotus Domino/Notes 8, relational databases of IBM DB2 and MS SQL Server 2005 is used in the given paper. Interaction with data suppliers is ensured by means of e-mail. The proposed scientific principles and software allow to automate a process of SPIDRB monitoring and to raise a decision-making efficiency in the field of innovative economic development of our country.

  6. Development of a radiological protection culture in contaminated territories: lessons learned from a School Twinning Between France and Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayrault, D. [Lycee du Bois d' Amour, 86 - Poitiers (France); Schneider, T. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire(CEPN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Baumont, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a pilot project set up between a French school (Lyc du Bois d'Amour Poitiers) and two Belarussian schools of the Stolyn district (Olmany and Terebejov schools) located in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. This project has been developed within the framework of the international Programme CORE (Cooperation for Rehabilitation of living conditions in Chernobyl affected areas in Belarus) [1]. The main objective of this pilot project is to promote the development of a practical radiological culture at school through the twinning of French and Belarussian schools. This project, developed in cooperation with CEPN (Nuclear Evaluation Protection Centre) and IRSN (Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety), relies on the direct involvement of the students in the learning process of their local environment together with the international exchange for sharing the knowledge on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

  7. TO THE SUBJECT OF DEVELOPMENT OF POWER SUPPLY PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL HEAT TECHNOLOGIES AND HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khrоustalev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considers the current key energy problem – the rational and efficient use of energy resources, and the possibility of its solution, based on the concept of intensive energy conservation. As a result, the way of primary energy consumption reduction in Belarus is provided. The initial situation in the frame of program of further improvement of energy consumption until 2030 is estimated. It is shown, that for Belarus the first place in energy saving measures takes the efficiency improvement of natural gas consumption, what allows reducing the investment and saving energy resources.The possibility of usage of waste energy flows of medium-and low-temperature from industrial and municipal enterprises are discussed. To realize the described possibilities, some changes of heat supply system of enterprises and plants are required. Changes in heat supply system of the industrial enterprises, related with usage of low-temperature waste energy flows in a thermal energy generation process for heating, require the installation of additional equipment in existing heat energy supply system, such as absorption heat pumps, which are easily joint and successfully work at boiler Houses as well as at CHP. The numerous examples of fuel consumption reduction via heat industrial waste and sewage usage are shown in this article. It must be emphasized, that such an expansion of energy-saving framework not only reduce the primary energy consumption by heat generating sources, but also significantly improves the conditions of the Belarusian electrical grid operation under the conditions of nuclear power plant commissioning. The existing technical framework, that ensured the proposed changes, is also taking into account.

  8. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  9. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus -- the "D-shuttle" project --

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, N; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernandini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Guérin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molęda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2015-01-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter "D-shuttle" for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  10. Systematic Approach to Modernization of Furnace Equipment in Blank and Mechanical Assembly Production Processes at Mechanical Engineering and Automotive and Tractor Enterprises of Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers measures pertaining to construction of new industrial furnaces and modernization of existing ones at the plants of the Republic of Belarus. Concrete recommendations ensuring an increase of technological factor of thermal and heating furnaces up to 35–37 % that is by 2–3-fold higher in comparison with a current value of the index that shows efficiency of organic fuel usage.

  11. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  12. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Valentina M; Saenko, Vladimir A; Brenner, Alina V; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V; Demidchik, Yuri E; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  13. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina M Drozd

    Full Text Available One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer.

  14. Perceived control, voluntariness and emotional reactions. A study conducted in relocated areas of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, C.J. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1999-12-01

    This paper use data from a pilot study to analyse relationships between type of resettlement (voluntary or involuntary) and individuals' everyday feelings, perceptions of risk, health status and control. The data were collected in 1995, within the Joint Study Project 2, i.e., a collaborative research project of the European Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, 1991/92 - 95/96. The aim of the study was to investigate reactions to change and new life conditions of people who had been resettled due to the Chernobyl accident. Participants from the respective countries included adult individuals sampled from two age groups of less than 45 years and 45 years and older, with approximately the same number of men and women. The questionnaire presented various topics to which responses were indicated on quantitative response scales, as well as in open ended response formats. The results presented here focus on emotional reactions, perceived risk and self-rated health among resettled people. The effects of type of resettlement on emotional reactions, Perceived risk and control are discussed.

  15. [The assessment of accumulated internal irradiation doses of the inhabitants of the populated areas in Republik Belarus after Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunikhin, L A; Drozdov, D N

    2012-01-01

    A new system of evaluation methods has been developed for the assessment of the accumulated internal irradiation doses in the inhabitants of the populated areas of the Republic of Belarus that were contaminated by the Chernobyl radionuclides. The system is based on the results of WBC measurements. The model is based on the WBC-results of the State Dosimetric Register for the period of 1987-2010. The dose assessment model is based on the classification of the populated areas, on the regional features of the soils through which 137Cs can enter into the locally grown and produced foods. The model is also based on building the regressive correlations of accumulated internal doses to the contamination density of the territory of a populated area. Such regressive correlations are made for each region. The influence of indirect factors of dose forming was taken into consideration in the dose assessment. Among these factors are the population of the area, and the amount of forested territory around it, which were taken as correction coefficients. The coefficients were determined from the regressive correlation of the correction coefficients to a specific area of forest for each region. So called "countermeasure factor" was used for specification of other model results.

  16. SCIENTIFIC AND INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO PROBLEM PERTAINING TO EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF ENVIRONMENT QUALITY IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Voytov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a scientific and innovative approach to solution of an important problem in the field of rational nature management and ecology which presupposes realization of evaluation, analysis and monitoring of environment  quality  (EQ in Belarus.  This  approach is based on methods and  facilities  of  administrative-command  and  partially  automatic-control  management.   The  main components of the innovative approach are an automatic  system for  evaluation and monitoring of EQ including estimation and formation of nature-resource potential within 11 cadaster and other data base, general principles on evaluation and monitoring of EQ, structural and algorithmic schemes for evaluation of ecological state of administrative territories, calculation of generalized indices of nature-territorial complexes and solution of nature protection problems in respect of EQ monitoring. A system of equation calculation for the analysis and evaluation of technogenic load on main nature components of the environment (free air, water objects, soil cover, realization of monitoring function in respect of EQ and ecological state of local and urban territories, nature resources  and enterprises, pollution and state of some recipients and also data resources for execution of analytical calculations and functions directed on monitoring quality of nature components of the environment is advanced in the paper.

  17. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Lithuania and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudleviciene, Zivile; Didziapetriene, Janina; Mackeviciene, Irina; Cicenas, Saulius; Smolyakova, Raisa; Zhukavetc, Aliaksandr; Zivile, Gudleviciene; Janina, Didziapetriene; Irina, Mackeviciene; Saulius, Cicenas; Raisa, Smolyakova; Aliaksandr, Zhukavetc

    2014-03-01

    Overall, head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 550,000 cases annually worldwide. It is well known that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for cervical cancer development. As the incidence and the mortality of cervical cancer are closely related to the HPV prevalence, we hypothesized that there is the same association between HPV prevalence and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore we performed the study aiming to compare the level of HPV infection and HPV type distribution between two groups of Lithuanian and Belarusian patients with head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma. One hundred ninety head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma patients were included in the study, 75 from Lithuania and 115 from Belarus. PCR was used for HPV detection and typing. The distribution of HPV infection among head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma patients was similar in the Lithuanian (20.0%) and Belarusian (18.3%) patient groups, however differences were found in the distribution of HPV types.

  18. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  19. Quantitative summer and winter temperature reconstructions from pollen and chironomid data in the Baltic-Belarus area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki; Stančikaitė, Migle; Zernitskaya, Valentina; Reitalu, Triin; Gryguc, Gražyna; Heinsalu, Atko; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Vassiljev, Jüri; Heiri, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative reconstructions based on fossil pollen and chironomids are widely used and useful for long-term climate variability estimations. The Lateglacial and early Holocene period (15-8 ka BP) in the Baltic-Belarus (BB) area between 60°-51° N was characterized by sudden shifts in climate due to various climate forcings affecting the climate of the northern hemisphere and North Atlantic, including the proximity of receding ice sheets. Climate variations in BB during the LG were eminent as the southern part of the region was ice free during the Last Glacial Maximum over 19 ka BP, whereas northern Estonia became ice free no sooner than 13 ka BP. New pollen based reconstructions of summer (May-to-August) and winter (December-to-February) temperatures between 15-8 ka BP along a S-N transect in the BB area display trends in temporal and spatial changes in climate variability. These results are completed by two chironomid-based July mean temperature reconstructions (Heiri et al. 2014). The magnitude of change compared with modern temperatures was more prominent in the northern part of BB area than in the southern part. The 4 °C winter and 2 °C summer warming at the start of GI-1 was delayed in the BB area and Lateglacial maximum temperatures were reached at ca 13.6 ka BP, being 4 °C colder than the modern mean. The Younger Dryas cooling in the area was 5 °C colder than present as inferred by all proxies (Veski et al. in press). In addition, our analyses show an early Holocene divergence in winter temperature trends with modern values reaching 1 ka earlier (10 ka BP) in southern BB compared to the northern part of the region (9 ka BP). Heiri, O., Brooks, S.J., Renssen, H., Bedford, A., Hazekamp, M., Ilyashuk, B., Jeffers, E.S., Lang, B., Kirilova, E., Kuiper, S., Millet, L., Samartin, S., Toth, M., Verbruggen, F., Watson, J.E., van Asch, N., Lammertsma, E., Amon, L., Birks, H.H., Birks, J.B., Mortensen, M.F., Hoek, W.Z., Magyari, E., Muñoz Sobrino, C., Seppä, H

  20. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye, Anna L; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5-17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved.

  1. Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks from Different Geographical Locations in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye, Anna L.; Stegniy, Valentina; Mishaeva, Nina P.; Velhin, Sviataslau; Hübschen, Judith M.; Ignatyev, George; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%), 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%). Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%), Coxiella burnetii (0.9%), Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%), Bartonella henselae (0.7%), Babesia microti (0.5%) and Babesia venatorum (0.4%). On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5–17.2%), F. tularensis ssp. (5.5%) and C. burnetii (9.1%), suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved. PMID:23349900

  2. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in Belarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Reye

    Full Text Available Worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides Lyme Borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in Europe. In this study, 553 questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus (n = 327 and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226 were analysed by PCR for Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Coxiella, Francisella and Babesia species. Overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for I. ricinus and 45.6% for D. reticulatus. The majority of infections were caused by members of the spotted-fever group rickettsiae (24.4%, 9.4% of ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, with Borrelia afzelii being the most frequently detected species (40.4%. Pathogens with low prevalence rates in ticks were Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.2%, Coxiella burnetii (0.9%, Francisella tularensis subspecies (0.7%, Bartonella henselae (0.7%, Babesia microti (0.5% and Babesia venatorum (0.4%. On a regional level, hotspots of pathogens were identified for A. phagocytophilum (12.5-17.2%, F. tularensis ssp. (5.5% and C. burnetii (9.1%, suggesting established zoonotic cycles of these pathogens at least at these sites. Our survey revealed a high burden of tick-borne pathogens in questing and feeding I. ricinus and D. reticulatus ticks collected in different regions in Belarus, indicating a potential risk for humans and animals. Identified hotspots of infected ticks should be included in future surveillance studies, especially when F. tularensis ssp. and C. burnetii are involved.

  3. Analysis and adoption of the experience of the global food system diversification in the Republic of Belarus

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    Irina Anatol’evna Griboedova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main trends in the diversification of the global food system. The author proves that at the present time the dynamic development and globalization in the modern world economy require diversification of Belarusian agro-food complex in order to achieve its independence from crises, reduce risks of the external environment uncertainty, unforeseen circumstances (export embargoes and restrictions and changes in consumer preferences and, ultimately, boost competitiveness and strengthen economic immunity and stability. At the same time, the pressure of the abundant food supply in the world market segments, ensured by consumer demand, makes the manufacturers follow the principle “from fork to farm”. Thus, it is consumers’ preferences that are often drivers of contradictory and competing shifts in the transformation of food systems. The survey shows that two opposite driving forces – the consumers’ desire for ready-to-use food products with the deep level of processing and the growing elite interest in the natural healthy diet – determine the progressive development of productive forces in the agricultural complex in the direction of innovative search of diverse, adapted to consumer demand, high-tech schemes of production, processing and distribution of food. The classification of main consumer types helps substantiate the priority to develop new types of product subcomplexes. The ecological forms of agriculture have significant export potential and import substitution reserves in the Republic of Belarus and the Eurasian Economic Union as a whole. The author proposes a “road map” for the diversification of food production on the basis of organic (environmentally friendly agriculture. Its innovation is scientifically justified by the state large-scale economic, managerial and technological measures to develop a highly efficient organic sector of agricultural production in the republic

  4. Singular technology – the research area promoting sustainable noosphere d evelopment in Belarus, Russia and other CIS nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Georgievich Nikitenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to nano- and femtotechnology as the basis for sustainable noosphere development of the global socio-economic mega system “nature–man–society” in its relation with the Universe (cosmos in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine and other CIS nations. Such factors as the formation of a new (noospheric political and economic outlook and the changes in scientific and technological structure of economy are gaining paramount importance under the action of the law of time and the adequate need to change the logic of socio-economic behavior of the population of planet Earth. Singular technology can become a strategic priority in finding practical solutions to these issues. When creating new productive forces and relations of production, these technologies act as a synergetic and bifurcation (unpredictable interaction of the three system technologies: artificial intelligence, molecular nanotechnology and molecular biotechnology. As soon as man grasps the essence of singular technology, it will be possible to create a new structure of matter at the nano- and femtotechnology levels, and to exercise control over this process. The new structure of matter is the basis for the creation of new productive forces and relations of production in the noosphere economy. Technological singularity originated in the mapping of the human genome, creation of a self-replicating organism, and a self-replicating machine. The nearest strategic objective (2020–2030s of singular technology is to create an artificial brain – a “digital man” on the basis of nano-and femtotechnology. This research area and practice will open the way to new forms of energy, productive forces, industrial relations and socio-economic noosphere systems in general. The wide application of singular technology in the economy will contribute to the conservation and civilizational development of the planetary megasystem “cosmos–nature–man–society”

  5. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. I. Model description and scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk Mv, Marcel van der; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    The economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs was evaluated taking the spatial variability of environmental conditions into account. Two sequential GIS-embedded submodels were developed for a spatial assessment, which allow for spatial variation in soil contamination, soil type, and land use. These models were applied for four SRC production and four energy conversion scenarios for the entire contaminated area of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia and for a part of the Bragin district, Belarus. It was concluded that in general medium-scale SRC production using local machines is most profitable. The areas near Chernobyl are not suitable for SRC production since the contamination levels in SRC wood exceed the intervention limit. Large scale SRC production is not profitable in areas where dry and sandy soils predominate. If the soil contamination does not exceed the intervention limit and sufficient SRC wood is available, all energy conversion scenarios are profitable.

  6. [Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of enteroviruses inducing the outbreaks and seasonal rises of morbidity in different regions of the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvros'eva, T V; Poklonskaia, N V; Bezruchko, A A; Fisenko, E G

    2006-01-01

    As shown by the results of the analysis, viruses ECHO 30 circulating over the period of the last 8 years in Belarus, belonged to 3 different genetic subtypes which earlier or simultaneously circulated in other European states. The outbreaks of enterovirus infections (EVI) were facilitated by the appearance of a genetic viral subtype, relatively "new" for human population, and which had not earlier circulated on this territory. Thus, the development of outbreak morbidity in 2003 was caused by a change in the dominating subtype of virus ECHO 30, which caused the outbreak of 1997. The relatively "soft" rise of morbidity in 2004 was due to the continued circulation of the same subtype of virus ECHO 30, that in 2003. The largest outbreaks of EVI in the Republic of Belarus had a number of considerable differences: the outbreak of 1997 in Gomel was characterized by the genetic heterogeneity of infective agents, being simultaneously geographically localized within the limits of one city. However, during the outbreaks of 2003 the circulation of genetically closely related viruses of the one subtype among the population of geographically remote regions of the country was registered.

  7. Spectrum of genetic changes in patients with non-syndromic hearing impairment and extremely high carrier frequency of 35delG GJB2 mutation in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilenko, Nina; Merkulava, Elena; Siniauskaya, Marina; Olejnik, Olga; Levaya-Smaliak, Anastasia; Kushniarevich, Alena; Shymkevich, Andrey; Davydenko, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    The genetic nature of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) has so far been studied for many ethnic groups in various parts of the world. The single-nucleotide guanine deletion (35delG) of the GJB2 gene coding for connexin 26 was shown to be the main genetic cause of autosomal recessive deafness among Europeans. Here we present the results of the first study of GJB2 and three mitochondrial mutations among two groups of Belarusian inhabitants: native people with normal hearing (757 persons) and 391 young patients with non-syndromic SNHL. We have found an extremely high carrier frequency of 35delG GJB2 mutation in Belarus -5.7%. This point deletion has also been detected in 53% of the patients with SNHL. The 312del14 GJB2 was the second most common mutation in the Belarus patient cohort. Mitochondrial A1555G mt-RNR1 substitution was found in two SNHL patients (0.55%) but none were found in the population cohort. No individuals carried the A7445G mutation of mitochondrial mt-TS1. G7444A as well as T961G substitutions were detected in mitochondrial mt-RNR1 at a rate of about 1% both in the patient and population cohorts. A possible reason for Belarusians having the highest mutation carrier frequency in Europe 35delG is discussed.

  8. High time to use rapid tests to detect multidrug resistance in sputum smear-negative tuberculosis in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusovich, V; Kumar, A M V; Skrahina, A; Hurevich, H; Astrauko, A; de Colombani, P; Tayler-Smith, K; Dara, M; Zachariah, R

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Le Belarus (Europe de l'Est) est confronté à une épidémie de tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MDR). En 2012, les patients atteints de tuberculose pulmonaire (TBP) à frottis positif ont bénéficié en priorité de diagnostics moléculaires pour confirmer une TB-MDR, tandis que les patients atteints de TBP à frottis négatif (SN-PTB) ont bénéficié de méthodes conventionnelles qui retardaient souvent le diagnostic de TB-MDR de 2 à 4 mois.Objectif : Déterminer la proportion de TB-MDR parmi les patients SN-PTB enregistrés en 2012, ainsi que les facteurs cliniques et démographiques associés.Schéma : Etude de cohorte rétrospective basée sur des données émanant de tout le pays grâce au registre électronique national de la TB.Résultats : Sur 5377 cas de TB enregistrés, 2960 (55%) étaient des SN-PTB. Parmi ces derniers, 1639 (55%) avaient une culture positive, dont 768 (47%) avaient une TB-MDR : 33% (363/1084) nouveaux cas et 73% (405/555) patients déjà traités préalablement. La notion de traitement antérieur, l'âge, la région, la résidence en milieu urbain, le statut à l'égard du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine et le fait d'être retraité étaient indépendamment associés à la TB-MDR.Conclusion : Près de la moitié des patients SN-PTB à culture positive ont une TB-MDR, et dans les cas de retraitement, on arrive à plus de sept patients sur dix. La décision politique nationale d'extension des diagnostics moléculaires rapides à tous les patients TBP, y compris les patients SN-PTB, semble donc justifiée. Il est nécessaire de prendre des mesures afin d'assurer la mise en œuvre de cette priorité urgente, en raison des implications d'un diagnostic retardé à la fois pour les patients et en termes de santé publique.

  9. High frequency and allele-specific differences of BRCA1 founder mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer patients from Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, N V; Antonenkova, N N; Rogov, Y I; Karstens, J H; Hillemanns, P; Dörk, T

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer and ovarian cancer are common malignancies in Belarus accounting for about 3500 and 800 new cases per year, respectively. For breast cancer, the rates and age of onset appear to vary significantly in regions differentially affected by the Chernobyl accident. We assessed the frequency and distribution of three BRCA1 founder mutations 5382insC, 4153delA and Cys61Gly in two hospital-based series of 1945 unselected breast cancer patients and of 201 unselected ovarian cancer patients from Belarus as well as in 1019 healthy control females from the same population. Any of these mutations were identified in 4.4% of the breast cancer patients, 26.4% of the ovarian cancer patients and 0.5% of the controls. In the breast cancer patients, BRCA1 mutations were strongly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, with oestrogen receptor (ER) negative tumours and with a first-degree family history of breast cancer, although only 35% of the identified BRCA1 mutation carriers had such a family history. There were no marked differences in the regional distribution of BRCA1 mutations, so that the significant differences in age at diagnosis and family history of breast cancer patients from areas afflicted by the Chernobyl accident could not be explained by BRCA1. We next observed a higher impact and a shifted mutational spectrum of BRCA1 in the series of Byelorussian ovarian cancer patients where the three founder mutations accounted for 26.4% (53/201). While the Cys61Gly mutation appeared underrepresented in ovarian cancer as compared with breast cancer cases from the same population (p = 0.01), the 4153delA mutation made a higher contribution to ovarian cancer than to breast cancer (p < 0.01). BRCA1 mutations were significantly enriched among ovarian cancer cases with a first-degree family history of breast or ovarian cancer, whereas the median age at ovarian cancer diagnosis was not different between mutation carriers and non-carriers. Taken together, these results

  10. ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF R&D ACTIVITIES AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMIES INCLUDING REPUBLIC OF BELARUS WITH STOCHASTIC FRONTIER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates efficiency of R&D activities based on the stochastic frontier analysis across 69 counties with developed and developing economies. Gross domestic expenditures on R&D in purchasing power parity, researchers per million inhabitants, technicians per million inhabitants are treated as inputs while patents granted to residents and scientific and technical journal articles are considered as outputs. According to the analysis results Costa Rica, Israel and Singapore are the most efficient in terms of transformation of available resources into the R&D results. What concerns Belarus it is necessary that additional investments in R&D go together with increasing efficiency of available resources’ usage. 

  11. Cognitive functions and neuropsychological status of medical students with different attitudes to alcohol use: a study conducted at the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Razvodovsky, Yury E; Pereverzeva, Elena V; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2014-04-10

    This article presents findings on the effects of alcohol use on cognitive performance, functional (well-being, activity, mood) and neuropsychological status and anxiety levels of medical students. A total of 265 medical students (107 males and 158 females) from the Belarusian State Medical University, Minsk (Belarus) were administered questionnaire, containing the AUDIT, CAGE, MAST, and PAS, and other alcohol related questions. Academic Performance questionnaire was administered together with other tests. For analysis of cognitive functions, a "correction probe" test was used. The number of students who reported consumption of alcohol was 74 males and 142 females. Medical students who reported alcohol consumption had lower cognitive performance and academic success, poor self-assessment of their functional and neuropsychological states, compared to the non-alcohol users. The results of this study suggest an inverse dose-dependent relationship between alcohol consumption, and cognitive functions, academic performance and neuropsychological status of medical students.

  12. Long-term dissemination of CTX-M-5-producing hypermutable Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium sequence type 328 strains in Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyreva, Varvara K; Ilina, Elena N; Malakhova, Maja V; Carattoli, Alessandra; Azizov, Ilya S; Tapalski, Dmitry V; Kozlov, Roman S; Edelstein, Mikhail V

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present evidence of long-term circulation of cefotaxime-resistant clonally related Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains over a broad geographic area. The genetic relatedness of 88 isolates collected from multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of nosocomial salmonellosis in various parts of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan from 1996 to 2009 was established by multilocus tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates belong to sequence type 328 (ST328) and produce CTX-M-5 β-lactamase, whose gene is carried by highly related non-self-conjugative but mobilizable plasmids. Resistance to nalidixic acid and low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin is present in 37 (42%) of the isolates and in all cases is determined by various single point mutations in the gyrA gene quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). Isolates of the described clonal group exhibit a hypermutable phenotype that probably facilitates independent acquisition of quinolone resistance mutations.

  13. Workshops with expedition trips organized by the Central Botanical Gardens of NAS of Belarus - an effective instrument of international cooperation between botanical gardens

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    Spiridovich Elena Vladimirovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available NASB Central Botanical Garden (CBG in 2013-2016 made by the lead agency, the organizer of four international scientific workshops with with expedition trips "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of the natural flora" (Minsk, protected nature areas (PNAs of the Republic of Belarus, which was attended by representatives of leading botanical gardens of the US, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Poland and Lithuania. During the scientific seminars discussions and expeditions at 2013-2015 the overall goal of joint work - addressing the conservation of biodiversity of flora and strengthening the role of scientific support for optimal implementation of the Global Strategy Plant Conservation (GSPC were defined, as well as specific joint projects are elaborated.

  14. American Studies in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Stulov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of cultures is becoming an ever growing factor in the world of today. 1989 was the year that promised tremendous changes in the relations between countries and nations. The barriers that had separated people in the East and in the West were smashed, and it seemed that the future was going to be a straight thoroughfare leading to mutual understanding and prosperity. People on both sides of the Berlin Wall suddenly realized how many things they had to share and how much they cou...

  15. Belarus tops OSCE agenda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Leedu on 2011. aastal OSCE eesistujamaa. President Dalia Grybauskaite ja välisminister Andronius Azubalis rääkisid Leedu eelseisvast istumisest ning Valgevenes toimunud presidendivalimistest. Dalia Grybauskaite leiab, et Valgevene võimude otsus mitte pikendada Minskis asuva OSCE büroo mandaati mõjub halvasti sealse demokraatia arendamisele ja vähendab koostööd Valgevenega

  16. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Provides Insight into the Evolution and Genetic Composition of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Kurt R.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Slodovnikova, Vervara; Oler, Andrew J.; Quiñones, Mariam; Abeel, Thomas; Chapman, Sinead B.; Tartakovsky, Michael; Gabrielian, Andrei; Hoffner, Sven; Skrahin, Aliaksandr; Birren, Bruce W.; Rosenthal, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emergence and spread of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) are critical global health issues. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB. Using a phylogenomic approach, we estimated that the majority of MDR-TB was due to the recent transmission of already-resistant M. tuberculosis strains rather than repeated de novo evolution of resistance within patients, while XDR-TB was acquired through both routes. Longitudinal sampling of M. tuberculosis from 34 patients with treatment failure showed that most strains persisted genetically unchanged during treatment or acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones. HIV+ patients were significantly more likely to have multiple infections over time than HIV− patients, highlighting a specific need for careful infection control in these patients. These data provide a better understanding of the genomic composition, transmission, and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in Belarus and will enable improved diagnostics, treatment protocols, and prognostic decision-making. PMID:27903602

  17. Practical improvement of the radiological quality of milk produced by peasant farmers in the territories of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepicard, S; Dubreuil, G H

    2001-01-01

    The Chernobyl post-accident situation has highlighted how the sudden emergence of persistent radioactive contamination in the environment is severely affecting the quality of life of the inhabitants in the concerned territories. The management of this situation is complex, mainly conditioned by the ability of the inhabitants themselves to be directly involved in the process of improving their living conditions. In this process, quality of life cannot be restricted solely to the dimension of radiological risk, but needs to encompass the diverse aspects of daily living, including the social, psychological, economic, political and ethical aspects. This paper presents the experience of the involvement of a group of peasant farmers from a village in the Republic of Belarus, in the process of improving the radiological quality of privately produced milk. This experience took place in the context of the ETHOS project, funded by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission. The principal objective was to implement a complementary approach to the rehabilitation strategies adopted so far in the contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus. This paper retraces the process of involvement of the inhabitants in a working group. It describes the characterisation of the situation by local actors, the opening of new possible actions to improve the radiological quality of milk at the individual level and the positive consequences at the scale of the village. The ETHOS project also illustrates how the scientific knowledge accumulated over many years since the Chernobyl accident in the field of radiation protection and radioecology can enter into local practices in the form of practical tools, which can be used by the population to produce significant improvements in the radiological situation.

  18. ASPECTELE PUTERII JURIDICE A ACTULUI NORMATIV-JURIDIC PREVĂZUTE DE LEGEA REPUBLICII BELARUS NR.361-3 DIN 10.01.2000

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    Oleg POALELUNGI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available În pofida faptului că cadrul juridic naţional este în concordanţă cu cel al Uniunii Europene, procesul de armonizare a legislaţiei trebuie să fie unul continuu pentru a face faţă schimbărilor permanente generate de evoluţia vieţii. În această ordine de idei, oportunitatea de a lua drept puncte de reper unele reuşite în domeniul elaborării actelor normativ-juridice observate la statele din vecinătate racordează legislaţia Republicii Moldova la un regim de legalitate cât mai perfect. În acest context, autorii întreprind o tentativă de a comenta articolul 10 al Legii Republicii Belarus nr.361-3 din 10.01.2000 consacrat puterii juridice a actelor normativ-juridice din această ţară. Tot aici vor fi generalizate componentele ce carac-terizează puterea juridică a actului normativ-juridic şi abordate problemele teoretice care au persistat în acest domeniu, fiind creionate căile de soluţionare a acestora. Chiar de la început este propusă definiţia fenomenului putere juridică a actului normativ-juridic elaborată de autori, în acelaşi context fiind descrisă şi definiţia pe care a propus-o legiuitorul bielorus. Este descris rolul prevederilor legale ce ţin de domeniul puterii juridice. În contextul puterii juridice a actului normativ-juridic este pe larg abordată problema privind obligativitatea actului juridic. Sunt readuse în atenţie unele aspecte ce vizează conflictul de norme şi prioritatea actelor normativ-juridice, inflaţia legislativă şi evenimentele juridice. În final sunt formulate concluzii care formează viziunea autorilor asupra tematicii abordate.ASPECTS OF LEGAL FORCE OF THE NORMATIVE-LEGAL ACT PROVIDED IN THE LAW OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS NO. 361-3 OF 10.01.2000Despite of the fact that the legal framework is in line with the European Union law, harmonization process should be continuous to face constant changes that are generated by vital evolution. In this context, the opportunity to

  19. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation with the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia and Belarus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Karlberg, Olof; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Zinger, Irene

    2010-06-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral cooperation with Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in a number of projects financed by the European Union. This report gives an overview of the cooperation projects in 2009 as well as the framework in which they are performed. Summaries of each project are given in an Appendix. The project managers in the Section for Cooperation and Development in the Department of International Affairs are responsible for the cooperation projects and the implementation of the bilateral programmes. But the positive outcome of the projects is also dependent on a large number of experts at SSM who work with the regulatory functions in the nuclear and radiation protection fields in a Swedish context as well as on external consultants. Together, their experience is invaluable for the implementation of the projects. But the projects also give experience of relevance for the SSM staff.

  20. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

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    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  1. [Systemic Antimicrobials Consumption and Expenditures in Departments of Surgery of Multi-Profile Hospitals in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus: Results of Multicentre Pharmacoepidemiological Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Yu A; Rachina, S A; Kozlov, R S; Mishchenko, V M; Pavlukov, R A; Abubakirova, A I; Berezhanskiy, B V; Eliseeva, E V; Zubareva, N A; Karpov, I A; Kopylova, I A; Palyutin, Sh Kh; Portnyagina, U S; Pribytkova, O V; Samuylo, E K

    2016-01-01

    The results of the systemic antimicrobials (AM) consumption and expenditures assessment in the departments of surgery of multi-profile hospitals in different regions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in 2009-2010 based on retrospective collection and analysis of the data from the hospital expenditure notes using ATC/DDD methodology are presented. The average AM consumption and expenditure rates in the above mentioned departments varied from 24.9 DDD/100 bed-days to 61.7 DDD/100 bed-days depending on the department profile, with beta-lactams (cephalosporins and penicillins) share in the consumption being as high as 70-90%, followed by fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Only 55-70% of the consumed AM belonged to the drugs of choice, whereas the improper AM consumption and expenditure rates amounted up to 10-18%. The study outputs can be used for the budget allocation and AM distribution improvement in the departments of surgery, as well as for the development and efficacy control of the local antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  2. Spatial variability of the dose rate from (137)Cs fallout in settlements in Russia and Belarus more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsson, C; Rääf, C L; Mattsson, S

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclides from the 1986 Chernobyl accident were released and dispersed during a limited period of time, but under widely varying weather conditions. As a result, there was a high geographical variation in the deposited radioactive fallout per unit area over Europe, depending on the released composition of fission products and the weather during the 10 days of releases. If the plume from Chernobyl coincided with rain, then the radionuclides were unevenly distributed on the ground. However, large variations in the initial fallout also occurred locally or even on a meter scale. Over the ensuing years the initial deposition may have been altered further by different weathering processes or human activities such as agriculture, gardening, and decontamination measures. Using measurements taken more than two decades after the accident, we report on the inhomogeneous distribution of the ground deposition of the fission product (137)Cs and its influence on the dose rate 1 m above ground, on both large and small scales (10ths of km(2) - 1 m(2)), in the Gomel-Bryansk area close to the border between Belarus and Russia. The dose rate from the deposition was observed to vary by one order of magnitude depending on the size of the area considered, whether human processes were applied to the surface or not, and on location specific properties (e.g. radionuclide migration in soil).

  3. [Prognosis of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr in the herbage of the main types of the Belarus Polessje meadows using agrochemical soil properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podoliak, A G; Timofeev, S F; Grebenshchikova, N V; Arastovich, T V; Zhdanovich, V P

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of long-term stationary experience it was established that the minimum accumulation quantities for 137Cs and 90Sr in the herbage of the dry, lowland and flood-plain types of the Belarus Polessje meadows contaminated with Chemobyl radionuclides are determined when the optimum of basic agrochemical soil properties is achieved with application of the scientifically reasonable protective measures. For remote prognosis of radionuclide contents in natural and cultural meadow herbage the use of transfer factors (TFa, (Bq/kg)(kBq/m2)) based on the complex agrochemical parameters--agrochemical cultivation soil index (Icd) and basic saturation degree (V, %), which take into account some soil characteristics simultaneously, is a streamlined approach. This paper provides the equations of linear and multiple regressions, which can be used to calculate the transfer factors for 137Cs and 90Sr uptake and the herbage contamination degree for the main types of meadows of the region, that will allow reducing the volume of forage production (hay, green bulk), which is not adequate to established permissible levels: "Republican allowable levels of the contents of 137Cs and 90Sr in agricultural raw material and forages".

  4. Opportunities and Threats of Ukrainian Membership in WTO for Engineering under Conditions of Co-operation with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers consequences of the membership of Ukraine in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for the engineering industry when co-operating with the EU and CU (Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia countries. It shows that, after Ukraine joined WTO, tariff rates for Ukrainian products reduced in general and liberalisation of access to the world market took place. Along with it, the internal market of Ukraine became more open for imported products. The article analyses the structure of export from Ukraine after joining WTO in the context of individual types of products. The article identifies changes that took place in the market of engineering products after Ukraine joined WTO. The article shows that by main indicators of economic security the engineering industry of Ukraine cannot be considered as stable and also that, after joining WTO, main indicators of economic security of the engineering industry of Ukraine have not improved. It analyses the structure of export and import of Ukrainian engineering products to EU, CU and other countries. It proves that the most topical for the Ukrainian engineering industry is the issue of realisation of the import-replacement potential and increase of competitiveness of domestic products. It considers the state and changes, which took place after Ukraine joined WTO, in car building. It identifies main problems of domestic car building. It analyses measures of the state programme of Ukraine on economic development.

  5. “俄白哈关税同盟”对中哈经贸关系的影响%Influence of "Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan Customs Union" on Economic and Trade Relationship between China and Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方泗琤; 任华

    2011-01-01

    November 27, 2009 witnessed Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan sign the "Customs Union Customs Code", marking the establishment of "Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan Customs Union". As an important result of substantive progress of customs union within the framework of Russia led European Economic Community, "Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan Customs Union" is also an important trade partner of China, whose establishment is bound to affect economic and trade relations between China and its member states. Based on this, the paper analyzes the impact of the "Union" on economic and trade relations between China and Kazakhstan and advances strategies on how China deals with the "Union".%2009年11月27日,俄、白、哈三国签署了《关税同盟海关法典》,标志着"俄白哈关税同盟"正式成立。"俄白哈关税同盟"作为以俄罗斯为主导的欧亚经济共同体框架内在关税同盟方面取得实质性进展的成果,而中国又是哈萨克斯坦的重要贸易伙伴,"俄白哈关税同盟"的建立势必对中国与其成员国的经贸关系产生影响。基于此,本文对"关税同盟"建立后,该同盟对中国与其成员国-哈萨克斯坦经贸关系所产生的影响进行了分析,并在此基础上提出中国应对"俄白哈关税同盟"的策略。

  6. From breach to bridge: the Augustów canal, an ecotourism destination across the EU’s border with Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Marin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism has become a driver for cooperation across the EU’s Eastern borders. This holds true even in the case of such reluctant a partner as Belarus. In studying the resumption of navigation on the Augustów canal – a 180 year old waterway connecting the Vistula and Neman river basins across the Polish-Belarusian border – this paper illustrates how in “alienated” borderlands projects that develop alternative forms of tourism can foster cross-border cooperation. Shared concern for the preservation of the borderland’s natural and cultural heritage enabled a “bridging” of neighbourhood relations and bred trans-boundary region-building initiatives (Euroregion Neman. A multi-scalar screening of how the Augustów canal area is being promoted as a tourism attraction in Belarus reveals the emergence of horizontal cooperation across the border. Despite geopolitical obstacles, this network governance model empowers the local stakeholders and actors of the embryonic Belarusian civil society, thus favouring their gradual socialisation in Europe.L’écotourisme est devenu un moteur pour la coopération à travers les frontières orientales de l’UE. Cela est vrai y compris dans le cas d’un partenaire aussi réticent que la Biélorussie. En étudiant la réouverture à la navigation du canal Augustów – une voie d’eau qui depuis 180 ans relie les bassins de la Vistule et du Neman à travers la frontière polono-biélorusse – cet article illustre comment, dans des zones-frontières “aliénées”, des projets de développement de formes alternatives de tourisme encouragent la coopération transfrontalière. L’intérêt partagé pour la préservation de l’héritage naturel et culturel de la zone-frontière a permis de jeter des ponts avec les voisins et nourri les initiatives de construction d’une région transfrontalière (Eurorégion Neman. L’examen à différentes échelles de la promotion de la région du canal August

  7. Reconstruction of radiation doses to the thyroid of children in Belarus suffering from thyroid gland cancer; Rekonstruktion der Schilddruesendosis fuer Kinder mit Schilddruesenkrebs in Weissrussland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robl, R.; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1997-10-01

    About four years after the reactor accident of Chernobyl a pronounced rise in childhood tyroid gland cancer was registered throughout the republic of Belarus. It was soon understood that most likely the short-lived radioiodine isotope {sup 131}I was responsible for this effect. Therefore, methods had to be developed to reconstruct the tyroid dose of those children who suffered from thyroid cancer. To assess the tyroid dose the concentration of {sup 1}31 I in soil was then determined using the assumption of a constant release and transport ratio between {sup 129}I and {sup 131}I. The inferred {sup 131}I-deposition densities on ground were used as input data to a radiological food-chain model and an average integrated tyroid dose to certain age groups of various residence areas were calculated for the main exposure path of milk ingestion. An intercomparison between this new approach and the results of direct thyroid activity measurements was performed. In addition to these two approaches two others were applied for comparison. The first one was based on the generalisation of a correlation between the {sup 137}Cs-deposition density and a few {sup 131}I-measurements. The second approach was based on the determination of {sup 131}I-deposition by an atmospheric dispersion model. It turned out that the values which resulted from the {sup 129}I-method were higher but still closer to those of the direct measurements than the other two approaches. Thyroid doses inferred by the {sup 129}I-method generally ranged between 1 and 100 Sv, depending on the mode of deposition, whereas the values of the direct measurements were found to be in the range of 0.5-5 Sv. The two model approaches applying caesium deposition densities and atmospheric dispersion calculations of radioiodine resulted in lower thyroid exposures ranging between 0.001 and 1.0 Sv only. (orig./MG)

  8. Opportunities and Threats from Ukrainian Membership in WTO in Foreign Trade for Meat and Milk Products with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of Ukrainian membership in World Trade Organisation (WTO in foreign trade of meat and milk products with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that meat and milk products are one of the main export agricultural commodities of the country. It analyses the structure of export of agro-industrial products from Ukraine. It studies situation and changes that took place in the market of meat and meat processing products in Ukraine after its membership in WTO. It shows that Ukrainian export of meat products mainly consists of products with low added value, while products with high added value are imported to Ukraine. It also shows that due to liberalisation of customs rules and the system of trade allocation in the world market of meat and meat products the internal market of Ukraine became unprotected from imported products, which resulted in significant increase of cheaper import into Ukraine and uncompetitiveness of domestic producers of meat products. The article studies situations and shifts that took place in the market of milk and milk products in the result of Ukrainian WTO membership. It proves that the CU market stays, in the middle-term prospect, the most powerful for domestic producers of milk products. It shows that standards of milk quality, applied in EU countries, are higher than in Ukraine and CU, which means it is impossible to compete with EU high technology production. It holds that milk quality increase pursuant to EU standards requires additional investments into re-equipment of the production technology.

  9. 俄白哈关税同盟贸易效应及其影响%Trade Effects of Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union and Its Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青松

    2013-01-01

    俄、白、哈关税同盟是欧亚经济共同体框架内区域经济一体化重要的阶段性成果,本文重点分析了该关税同盟的贸易效应:2011-2012年,同盟成员国之间的贸易增幅远高于成员国与其主要贸易伙伴的贸易增速,除了哈萨克斯坦之外,俄罗斯、白俄罗斯与同盟成员国的贸易在其外贸总额的占比均有所上升,说明关税同盟促进了三国贸易往来。虽然关税同盟的运行导致了中国对哈国出口成本增加,但由于俄、哈两国与中国属于互补型贸易关系,中国与各成员国的双边贸易仍呈现快速增长状况,俄罗斯加入WTO将促进中俄双边经贸合作规范化和稳健化发展。%Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union is one of the important achievements for the Eurasian Economic Community′s economic integration .This essay emphasizes on the trade effect of this Customs Union .The study shows that the trade growth between the Customs Union member states is much higher than that with its main trading partners . The percentage of Russia and Belarus′s trade with its Customs Union member states accounting for its total amount of for-eign trade is rising besides Kazakhstan .Customs Union leads to increased cost for China′s export to Kazakhstan , but there is no great impact on China′s trade with Russia and Kazakhstan , becuase Russia and kazakhstan are complementa-ry trade relations with China .Russia′s entry into WTO, will promote the specification and robustness development of bi-lateral economic and trade cooperation between China and Russia .

  10. The A.C.R.O. in Belarus point on the actions led for one year; L'ACRO en bielorussie point sur les actions menees depuis un an

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The project aims to set up a radiological surveillance at the population service and to facilitate the access to the measures and information about the local situation at the villages level. Concretely, it is a question of opening posts of measures in the main villages of the district, of launching campaigns of measures of the internal contamination of the schooled children (anthropo-gamma-metry), to set up a observatory of the radiological situation at the villages level, to facilitate the organization of places of exchange (public meetings, meeting circles), and of information (public display of the measures results) and to develop educational actions in schools. This initiative develops within the framework of the international program C.O.R.E. which federates the projects led on the four most contaminated districts in Belarus. (N.C.)

  11. Gazprom as a Predictable Partner. Another Reading of the Russian-Ukrainian and Russian-Belarusian Energy Crises; Gazprom, partenaire previsible: relire les crises energetiques Russie-Ukraine et Russie-Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, J.

    2007-07-01

    The recent crises over oil and gas deliveries from Russia to Ukraine and Belarus have triggered alarm and virulent criticism in the West. This article describes how these conflicts are in fact not very different from those that took place in the early 1990's and reflect behind-the-scene conflicts between powerful factions inside the Kremlin and in Ukraine rather than the exercise of an 'energy weapon'. In the context of a European energy policy driven by Britain's panic at becoming a gas importer and by the ideological zeal to liberalize, the West should worry less about the exercise of a purported aggressive geopolitical strategy and more about Putin's lack thereof, and his inability to control his warring lieutenants. Above all, the West should stop considering that Russia owes Europe any gas beyond its contractual obligations, which it fulfills with alacrity. (author)

  12. INTER-COUNTRY EFFICIENCY EVALUATION IN INNOVATION ACTIVITY ON THE BASIS OF METHOD FOR DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMY, INCLUDING THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on efficiency evaluation of innovation activity in 63 countries with developed and developing economies while using a method for data envelopment analysis. The following results of innovation activity have been used for calculation of an efficiency factor: export of high-technology products as percentage of industrial product export, export of ICT services as percentage of services export and payments obtained due to realization of intellectual property rights (in US dollars. A model of the data envelopment analysis with a changeable scale-dependent effect and which is directed on maximization of the obtained results (output-oriented VRS model has been used for the analysis. The evaluation has shown that such countries as the USA, Israel, Sweden and some others have maximum efficiency of resource transformation into innovative activity output. The executed analysis has revealed that the Republic of Belarus has a potential for improvement of indices on innovation results.

  13. USAGE OF BELARUS TRANSIT POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Antioushenya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation  with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.

  14. The mysterious wolves of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    It was just after 3 a.m. as we very quietly exited the van, making sure our water-resistant clothes didn’t make too much noise. A wolf researcher howled into the cold and murky mist. We waited in darkness, hoping for an answer. A single wolf howl from about 300 meters in front of us broke the silence. We peered into the agricultural and forested expanse, straining to get a glimpse of the wolf in the faint star-light. Suddenly, from behind, another howl countered. The expedition’s leader explained that we were standing between two female wolves and their pups—both being tended to by the same male!

  15. Biological availability of (238)U, (234)U and (226)Ra for wild berries and meadow grasses in natural ecosystems of Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolik, G A; Ovsiannikova, S V; Voinikava, K V; Ivanova, T G; Papenia, M V

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of behavior of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra by determining the soil to plant transfer under different natural conditions such as forest or swamped areas and meadow lands with different soil types. The paper summarizes the data on investigation of uranium and radium uptake by wild berries and natural meadow grasses in the typical conditions of Belarus. Parameters characterizing the biological availability of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium viti-idaea), blueberry (Vaccinium iliginosum) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus palustris) as well as for widely occurring mixed meadow vegetation, which belongs to the sedge-grass or grass-sedge associations and forbs, have been established. In the sites under investigation, the deposition levels of (238+239+240)Pu were less than 0.37 kBq m(-2) and (137)Cs deposition ranged between less than 0.37 and 37 kBq m(-2). It was found that activity concentrations of radionuclides in berries varied in the ranges of 0.037-0.11 for (234)U, 0.036-0.10 for (238)U and 0.11-0.43 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, but in the mixed meadow grasses they were 0.32-4.4, 0.24-3.9 and 0.14-6.9 Bq kg(-1) accordingly. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios were 1.02 ± 0.01 for wild berries, 1.20 ± 0.09 for underground meadow grasses and 1.02 ± 0.02 for proper soils. The concentration ratios (CRs, dry weight basis) of (234)U and (238)U for mixed meadow grasses were 0.036-0.42 and 0.041-0.46 respectively. The correspondent geometric means (GM) were 0.13 and 0.15 with geometric standard deviations (GSD) of 2.4. The CRs of (226)Ra for meadow grasses were 0.031-1.0 with GM 0.20 and GSD 2.6. The CRs of (234)U, (238)U and (226)Ra for wild berries ranged within 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0034, GSD is 1.8), 0.0018-0.008 (GM is 0.0035, GSD is 1.8) and 0.005-0.033 (GM is 0.016, GSD is 2.1) accordingly. The highest CR values of uranium for mixed meadow grasses were found in the

  16. Costo energético y tiempos tecnológicos del tractor Belarus-M510 con cultivador-fertilizador CIVEMASA en caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Pereira Chirinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron los tiempos tecnológicos y el costo energético del tractor BELARUS M-150 con cultivador fer - tilizador CIVEMASA en el cultivo de la caña de azúcar en el central azucarero Trujillo del estado Trujillo. La metodología utilizada para el cronometraje fue la NC.34-37 2003 y la empleada para la determinación de los costos, apoyada por los antecedentes presentados por la ASAE. El objetivo del trabajo fue la determinación de los tiempos tecnológicos y costo energético del conjunto agrícola. El coeficiente de utilización del tiempo de turno obtenido es de 38% para un volumen de trabajo total de 14,48 ha en las labores de cultivo y fertilización. El mayor costo energético horario corresponde al combustible con un valor de 212,6 MJ/h y el mínimo valor corresponde al de la fuerza de trabajo con un valor de 0,64MJ/h.

  17. Social Capital as the Factor of the State Configuration of the Market of the Republic of Belarus Socialinis kapitalas kaip Valstybės konfigūracijos Baltarusijos Respublikos rinkoje veiksnys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ostroga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article social capital as the factor of social and economic exchange optimization (transactional costs decrease, configuration of the market and system of economic interests of the Republic of Belarus in the context of the history of this social and economic phenomenon research, the place and role of state regula­tion in economic processes and modern understanding of the market in correla­tion with economic growth and national safety is considered. Also the influence of social capital on the market system of Belarus and mechanisms of this social and economic phenomenon usage with the view of market functioning perfection is analyzed under the conditions of national and global imperatives.

    Straipsnyje socialinis kapitalas traktuojamas kaip socialinių ir ekonominių mainų optimizavimas (pavedimo išlaidų sumažėjimas, rinkos ir sistemos ekonominių interesų konfigūracija Baltarusijos Respublikoje, kuri tiriama socialinio ir ekonominio reiškinio istoriniame kontekste kaip valstybės eko­nominių procesų reguliavimo aplinkybės veiksnys, vaidmuo ir šiuolaikinis požiūris į rinką, susiejant visa tai su ekonomikos augimu ir nacionaliniu saugumu

  18. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  19. A systematic catalogue of butterflies of the former Soviet Union (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lituania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) with special account to their type specimens (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Stanislav K; Bolshakov, Lavr V

    2016-09-01

    A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera). In total: 965 species of butterflies, 174 genera, by countries: Armenia-244, Azerbaijan-225, Belarus-107, Estonia-113, Georgia-211, Kyrgyzstan-316, Kazakhstan-344, Latvia-115, Lituania-126, Moldova-87, Russia-522, Tajikistan-295, Turkmenistan-159, Ukraine-192, Uzbekistan-241. Detailed distribution and subspecific structure (if present) for every species is provided. Lectotypes of the following species-group taxa are designated: Hesperia poggei Lederer, 1858, Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861, P. eversmanni Eversmann, 1851, P. boedromius Püngeler, 1901, Limenitis moltrechti Kardakov, 1928, L. sydyi Kindermann, 1853, L. amphyssa Ménétriès, 1859, L. doerriesi Staudinger, 1892, L. helmanni duplicata Staudinger, 1892, L. homeyeri Tancré, 1881, Argynnis penelope Staudinger, 1891, A. thore borealis Staudinger, 1861, Vanessa io geisha Stichel, [1908], Melitaea maturna staudingeri Wnukowsky, 1929 (=uralensis Staudinger, 1871), M. didymina Staudinger, 1895, Papilio fascelis Esper, 1783, Thecla quercivora Staudinger, 1887, Lycaena orion var. ornata Staudinger, 1892. The following nomenclatural acts are established: Neolycaena submontana baitenovi (Zhdanko, 2011), comb. et stat.n. The following new synonymy is provided: Hesperia

  20. 75 FR 73958 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... interests in property (73 FR 29849, May 22, 2008). On September 4, 2008, before the publication of the BSR... published on February 3, 2010 (75 FR 5502). Section 548.509 of the BSR memorialized General License No. 1....C. 1705 note); E.O. 13405, 71 FR 35485; 3 CFR, 2007 Comp., p. 231. Subpart...

  1. 75 FR 5502 - Belarus Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ..., royalties, book accounts, accounts payable, judgments, patents, trademarks or copyrights, insurance policies... obligations, in interest-bearing blocked accounts. Section 548.204 of subpart B provides that all expenses... liquidated and the net proceeds placed in a blocked interest-bearing account in the name of the owner of...

  2. [Experience in teaching a biopsy-section course in Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Yu V; Malashenko, S V; Lesnichaya, O V; Krylov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the improvement of teaching a biopsy-section course (BSC). The authors have analyzed the most frequent errors in the interaction of clinicians with a pathology service and summed up the experience of the Pathological Anatomy Department in practical work and teaching the BSC. The differentiated approach to teaching the BSC to resident students of different specialties is proposed.

  3. The subject consumer service contract in Belarus Republic

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Currently, more attention is paid to construction contracts, and in particular the consumer service contract. The most important element of consumer service contract is its subject. Definition of the subject consumer service contract is important for the delimitation of the contract of domestic independent from adjacent to it contracts.

  4. Belarus opposition prepares for election battle / Jan Maksymiuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maksymiuk, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Valgevene opositsioonilised Rahvarinne, Tööpartei, Ühendatud Kodanike Partei, Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Assamblee ja Kommunistlik Partei on moodustanud koalitsiooni 17. oktoobri parlamendivalimisteks ning kavatsevad esitada presidendivalimistele ühise kandidaadi

  5. FORMATION OF EFFICIENT CAPITAL MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kotova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for creation of theoretical foundation as a basis of financial security of economic development at micro- and macro-levels is justified in the paper.A contradiction between requirements which are formed in respect of financial assets from the side of internal and foreign investors and their cash-down proposal is revealed in the paper. The paper also considers several options to solve the given contradiction on the basis of changes in structure of corporative financing and stimulation of corporative bond market.

  6. Education in the Baltic States, Ukraine, Belarus' and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiak, Janusz

    1992-01-01

    Reviews recent educational changes and issues in six republics of the former Soviet Union, including controversies over language of instruction, revision of curriculum and textbooks to eliminate Marxism and emphasize national history and culture, reappearance of religious schools and instruction, and criticisms of teacher education and teaching…

  7. Belarus - a unique case in the European context? / Kim Lausten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lausten, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Valgevene presidendi Aleksander Lukashenko autoritaarsest režiimist, sellega seonduvatest võimalikest ohtudest Valgevene naaberriikide julgeolekule. Autor analüüsib Lukashenko režiimi institutsioonilisi ning sotsiaalpoliitilisi tagamaid

  8. Grybauskaite's historic visit to Belarus / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2010-01-01

    Minskis toimunud presidentide Dalia Grybauskaite ja Aleksandr Lukašenko kohtumisel räägiti 19. detsembril toimuvatest Valgevene presidendivalimistest ja idapartnerlusest. Leedu president kohtus ka opositsiooni liikmetega. Visiidi ajal allkirjastasid riikide välisministrid Audronius Azubalis ja Sergei Martõnov lepingu, mis lihtsustab kahe riigi piiriäärsete elanike piiriületust

  9. Democratization and Instability in Ukraine, Georgia, and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    volatile coun- tries. Desperate electorates usually put too much hope in their leaders, who tend to over-promise their sup- porters , hoping for...an extent, however, that the regime fails to meet conventional minimum standards for democracy.211 In the same issue, Larry Diamond placed Georgia...2002, p. 52. 212. Larry Diamond , “Thinking about Hybrid Regimes,” Jour- nal of Democracy 13, No. 2, April 2002, p. 22. 213. A great example of this

  10. ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES FOR SELECTION OF OPTIMUM POWER-SUPPLY SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Padalko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main directions of the technological development of the Belarusian power-supply system. Comparative analysis of the economic efficiency of thermal power station modernization on the basis of steam- and gas technology, nuclear technology development and simple renovation of the worn-out generating capacities of thermal power stations has been carried out in the paper. Selection of the priority direction pertaining to optimization of industrial structure of the Belarusian power-supply system has been made on the basis of the presented minimum-specific cost criterion. The paper reveals that in the medium-term period the most optimum development of the Belarusian electrical power engineering is a technological  modernization  due to predicted  changes in natural gas and nuclear fuel costs. The modernization presupposes construction of topping plants in addition to the existing steam- and turbine equipment at thermal power stations. 

  11. Heated squabble over Belarus marks beginning of the year / Linas Jegelevicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jegelevicius, Linas

    2011-01-01

    Leedu ekspresident Valdas Adamkus on kritiseerinud president Dalia Grybauskaite välispoliitikat Valgevene suhtes. 3. jaanuaril toimunud presidendi ja välisminister Andronius Azubalise kohtumisel räägiti ka Valgevene presidendivalimistest ja sealsest olukorrast. Dalia Grybauskaite prognoose ja eesmärke 2011. aastaks on samuti kritiseeritud. Leedu on 2011. aastal OSCE eesistuja

  12. MODERN CONDITIONS OF ROAD FACILITIES AND INTERNATIONAL AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORTATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Tsarenkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For analysis of technical and economic conditions of automotive roads and determination of reserves for improvement of financial situation and usage of capital in road facilities operational efficiency of road facilities and automotive freight-traffic services that provide significant currency receipt for Republic budget. The main ways for higher export of construction services are involvement of road facilities enterprises in this activity and introduction of highly-productive technologies in their operation. The paper demonstrates an importance of non-conventional sources of investment attractions such as leasing which is used for renovation of capital assets and invests resources in the basic capital on the return basis in the natural form. For application of new technologies and modern technique it is justifiable to establish joint road-construction enterprises with foreign sub-contractors. The paper reveals main reasons of profit increase due to operation and services of road branch.

  13. The Role of Small States in the Post-Cold War Era: The Case of Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    loan at an outrageous interest rate, while the IMF gave a loan that is three times more advantageous!’29 Nevertheless, after much procrastination ...ours is already 50% deeper than in Russia. We will sell the product of conversion to the West in order to overcome the shortages which you are...to deliver S-300 missiles, it in- creasingly procrastinated and found reasons it could not deliver them. As for the Bushehr plant, Moscow endlessly

  14. Propaganda techniques in law enforcement practice: experience of the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stukanov V.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of public administration is stated – influencing the public consciousness to form values and world view, attitude of the people towards rules of law and public authorities. Propaganda is an effective means of organizing such influence. It’s proved that propaganda is a specially organized process of presenting information aimed at the assimilation of declared by the state system of moral and legal norms and values as well as social and political views by the public consciousness. Propaganda is a means of state ideology, therefore it includes value attitude to the historical, political, social and economic processes; evaluation of historical development models and the balance of political forces; attitude to legally protected values, state authorities and law enforcement agencies, criminal behaviour. The following subjects of propaganda are recognized: state, public authorities, mass media, civil society actors (political parties, trade unions, public and religious associations and foundations, national diasporas, etc.. Their information and communication activities meet the national interests declared officially. The objects of propaganda are public consciousness, the system of spiritual values, worldviews, social and political views and attitudes, as well as the historical memory of the people. The state is the source of propaganda views and ideas. It acts as methodologist of propaganda activities, developing the concept of propaganda on the basis of state ideology, and ensuring its implementation through executive and administrative authorities, political, public and other institutions. The state creates the mechanism and appropriate conditions for propaganda influence, using administrative, economic, personnel and other resources.

  15. Children's Welfare Benefits and the Demographic Policy of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revun, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the Soviet era there has been an entire system of social welfare benefits in connection with the birth and upbringing of children. Nowadays, in the independent states that came into being in the post-Soviet space, extensive use is also made of various social welfare benefits that are linked to prenatal, childbirth, and postnatal…

  16. Contemporary Historiography of Social History of Stalinism in Belarus and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viachaslau Menkouski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the historiographical direction "Social History of Stalinism" in the publications of Russian and Belarusian researchers. It is proposed an overview of the use of the term "Stalinism" in the Russian historiography. It compares the ratio of Marxist theory and the practice of socialism in the Soviet Union. The analysis of the Russian-language historiography of Stalinism abroad in the XX–XXI centuries draws attention to the influence of the English-language historiography on the Russian and Belarusian researchers.It explains the importance of "social history" to understand the Stalinist period of Soviet history. Having to replace the concept of totalitarianism, this area has allowed researchers to shift attention from the Soviet leadership to the broad social strata. The Stalinism methodology is studied and how it can be applied to other countries and other historical periods. This allowed a more accurate picture of the life of Soviet society and the State in the 1930–1950's.Attention is paid to the internationalization and globalization of modern historical research as one of the most important specific features. It provides examples of joint projects and publications that focus on the "ordinary people" of the Stalinist Soviet Union, their daily lives, and practice relationships between different social strata.

  17. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Belarus: the size of the problem and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrahina, Alena; Hurevich, Henadz; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Sahalchyk, Evgeni; Astrauko, Andrei; Hoffner, Sven; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Dadu, Andrei; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Dara, Masoud; van Gemert, Wayne; Zignol, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Évaluer le problème de la tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MR) sur le territoire biélorusse et explorer les facteurs de risque associés. MÉTHODES: Au cours d'une enquête nationale menée en 2010-2011, 1420 cas de tuberculose (TB) ont été dépistés et 934 cas nouveaux ainsi que 410 cas précédemment traités ont été jugés conformes aux critères d'inclusion. Des isolats de Mycobacterium tuberculosis provenant de chaque patient admissible ont été testés pour leur sensibilité envers les médicaments antituberculeux. Des informations sociocomportementales ont été recueillies lors d'entretiens basés sur un questionnaire structuré. RÉSULTATS: La TB-MR a été détectée dans respectivement 32,3% et 75,6% des cas nouveaux et des cas traités antérieurement, et 11,9% des 612 patients porteurs de la TB-MR présentaient une forme de tuberculose ultrarésistante (TB-UR). Un historique de traitement antérieur pour la TB représentait le principal facteur de risque indépendant pour la TB-MR (rapport des cotes, RC: 6,1; intervalle de confiance à 95%, IC: 4,8 à 7,7). Les autres facteurs de risque indépendants comprenaient l'infection par le virus d'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) (RC: 2,2; IC à 95%: 1,4 à 3,5), l’âge tuberculose en Bélarus. Les nombreux facteurs de risque identifiés pour la TB-MR et la convergence entre l’épidémie de TB-MR et l'infection par le VIH exigent non seulement de renforcer la collaboration entre les programmes antituberculeux et de lutte contre le VIH, mais aussi la mise en œuvre de mesures innovantes pour accélérer la détection de la résistance à la tuberculose et améliorer l'observance du traitement.

  18. Innovations as a development factor for the contemporary culture in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatlana Buloichyk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural institutions, being the subjects of management on one hand, and creating economic conditions on the other hand, have a significant impact on the development of the economy. However, cultural institutions themselves need to be developed. Certain economic innovations can become a development factor in the work of cultural institutions.

  19. The neuromuscular system in freshwater furcocercaria from Belarus. II Diplostomidae, Strigeidae, and Cyathocotylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-02-01

    The neuromuscular system (NMS) in cercariae of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Cotylurus szidati, Australapatemon burti, Holostephanus volgensis, and Paracoenogonimus ovatus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT immunoreactive (-IR), FMRF-amide-IR neuronal elements, and α-tubulin-IR in sensory receptors were investigated. The NMS in the five species studied were compared with each other and with three species of Schistosomatidae studied earlier (Bilharziella polonica, Trichobilharzia szidati, and Trichobilharzia franki). No major structural differences in the musculature, the 5-HT-IR or FMRF-IR neuronal elements were noticed between the cercariae. The minor variations observed in the musculature were related to the size and organization of the muscle fibers. The checked pattern formed by the transverse muscle fibers in the tail stems of D. pseudospathaceum, C. szidati, A. burti, H. volgensis, and P. ovatus was not observed in B. polonica, T. szidati, and T. franki. A trend in the differentiation of the longitudinal muscle fibers in the furca from evenly distributed fibers in H. volgensis and P. ovatus to many bundles in D. pseudospathaceum and two well-organized lateral bundles in C. szidati, A. burti, and Trichobilharzia spp. was observed. The transverse muscle fibers in the furca follow the same trend. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the cercarial bodies varied between 10 and 16. In cercariae of H. volgensis and P. ovatus, the central nervous system (CNS) was less centralized compared to the CNS in the other species studied, with only two 5-HT-IR marker neurons in each brain ganglion and the other neurons distributed evenly along the main cords. In the tails of H. volgensis and P. ovatus, many transverse 5-HT-IR comissures were found. In the tails of higher strigeidid cercariae, only a few crosslinks were observed. The number and distribution of sensory receptors on the bodies and tails of the cercarial species differed from each other. A trend in the differentiation of the sensory receptors in the tails was discerned. A process of grouping and decrease in number of ciliated receptors in the stem and in the furca from H. volgensis and P. ovatus to Schistosomatid cercariae took place.

  20. The neuro-muscular system in continuously swimming cercariae from Belarus. I Xiphidiocercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-11-01

    The neuromuscular system (NMS) in cercariae of Neoastiotrema trituri, Plagiorchis elegans, Omphalometra flexuosa, Skrjabinoeces similis and Prosthogonimus ovatus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR sensory receptors were investigated, and they were found to be rather similar in all the cercariae studied. Four species have seven paired 5-HT-IR neurons in the body, and P. elegans has eight. N. trituri has three 5-HT-IR neurons in each brain ganglion, while the other species have four. A high degree of conformity in the structure of the NMS was observed, probably reflecting the close phylogenetic relationship and the similar strategy of host finding.

  1. The neuromuscular system in continuously swimming cercariae from Belarus. II Echinostomata, Gymnocephala and Amphistomata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-12-01

    The neuromuscular system in cercariae of Moliniella anceps, Echinostoma revolutum, Cathaemasia hians, Psilochasmus oxyurus, Sphaeridiotrema globulus, Paramphistomum cervi and Diplodiscus subclavatus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR sensory receptors were investigated. The general patterns of musculature, 5-HT- and FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements in the 12 species studied here and in paper I are similar to those observed in other cercariae and reflect the morphology of the groups. The musculature of the tail shows variations which are related to the different strategies of host finding. In the Echinostomatoidea and Paramphistomoidea, the striated musculature of the tail is well developed compared to that in the Xiphidiocercariae. Specialized muscle fibres were found in S. globulus, which are able to change the shape of the tail. Nine of the species studied have seven paired 5-HT-IR neurons in the body, and two species have eight. No correlation between the body size and the number of 5-HT-IR neurons was observed. However, the size of the neurons followed the body size. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the brain ganglia increased from the primitive to the advanced forms. The number of FMRFamide-IR transverse commissures in the body correlates with the size of the cercariae. Regardless of the differences in the second intermediate host, the distribution of α-tubulin-IR sensory receptors shows a high degree of conformity in all species except in P. cervi, which encysts on plants.

  2. The Impact of Force Structures and the Army on Maintaining the Regime in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neliupšienė Jovita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes how the army and other Belarusian institutions constituting the architecture of security can make an impact on the stability of the regime. Two problematic issues are raised. The first issue deals with how the force structure system and its formal and informal control, management and definition of short-and medium-term functions determine the stability of the Belarusian regime. The second issue poses the question whether the centralization of internal and army management, definition of control and functions is the decisive factor or militarization. Attention is paid to institutional analysis. Attempts are made to reveal how and why functions of the army and security institutions are defined, which of them are formal and which are informal, and what informal institutions or organizations contribute to the efforts of formal institutions to ensure the stability of the regime.

  3. Belarus police search Latvian diplomat's apartment, level accusations of vice / Julia Balandina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balandina, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Valgevene võimud tekitasid poliitilise skandaali, süüdistades Läti diplomaati Reimo Smitsi pornostseenis ning pornograafia levitamises. Läti välisministeerium nimetab juhtumit provokatsiooniks ning rünnakuks diplomaadi ja Läti riigi vastu

  4. Convergence on Cooperation: The Driving Factors in U.S. and Russian Cooperation on Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    regime and few have dared to challenge 68 Jane’s, “Security and Foreign Forces,” 69 Henry Hale, “ Democracy and Revolution in the Postcommunist ... democracy and a developed civil society; consolidation of Russia’s positions in the world and the main thing - a considerable growth in citizens’ welfare... World in Figures: 2005 edition. London: Profile Books, 2004, 203. Fairbanks, Charles H. Jr. “Georgia’s Rose Revolution,” Journal of Democracy . Vol

  5. Belarus and Russia in OSCE Ministerial Council focus / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    6.-7. detsembril Vilniuses toimunud OSCE Ministrite Nõukogu kohtumisel räägiti inimõiguste probleemidest, meediavabadusest, Afganistanist, Araabia kevadest, Valgevenes toimuvast ja Venemaal toimunud parlamendivalimistest. Kohtumise avas Leedu president Dalia Grybauskaite. 6. detsembril kohtus USA riigisekretär Hillary Clinton president Dalia Grybauskaite ja välisminister Audronius Azubalisega

  6. MOBILE MORTAR CONCRETE PLANTS FOR BUILDING COMPLEX OF BELARUS: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main advantages and disadvantages of mobile mortar concrete plants in comparison with stationary concrete mixing units. The main idea of the mobility is to provide quick movement. In its turn, this approach imposes some restrictions on dimensions and weights of concrete mixing equipment. However in the context of the concrete mixing equipment and construction site as whole the mobility concept is considered in the form of three components: minimum expenses on site preparation for assembly of a mortar concrete plant, transportability, reduction in installation and startand-adjustment periods. In this regard processing chain for production of concrete and mortar mixes is divided in separate complete operations. Then it is necessary to develop modules which are performing the required operations. Every module is developed in accordance with the size of a shipping container in order to make transportation convenient. Detachable connections are stipulated in the place of module linkages, electrical wiring, pipelines for supply water and chemical admixtures, pneumatics. Henceforth, these connections make it possible to reduce time for on-site assembly and disassembly of the equipment.The paper presents a mobile mortar concrete unit of block-module arrangement which has been developed within the framework of the State Scientific Research Programme at the BNTU. The unit has been manufactured using production capacities of JSC “Viprotekh” and it has been successfully introduced in production process. One of the promising directions is to use the mobile mortar concrete plants which are located and which are operating directly on construction sites. Their economic efficiency becomes higher with an increase of distance to the nearest stationary mortar concrete unit and scope of concreting works. Mobile mortar concrete plants are mainly intended for construction organizations which are realizing construction projects away from urban infrastructure and transportation networks: bridges, dams, highways, transport junctions. While ensuring the same production output of concrete these plants are located in close proximity to the construction site and the required mortars can be supplied directly to the site with the help of special concrete pumps.

  7. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in aBelarussian-American-Danish collaborative project. H...

  8. CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PLATFORM MOBILE ROBOT BASED ON SERIAL TRACTOR «BELARUS 132»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Tatur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is announced an innovative project to create a prototype multi­robotic system. A distinctive feature of the project – the maximum use of components and software of domestic production. The mobile robot used the concept of multi­level management system, according to which the majority of workload is on­board computer. This will reduce the amount of data transmitted over a wireless link, and increase the efficiency of the development of algorithms for higher­level control.

  9. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  10. [Experience in setting up a morbid anatomy bureau in the Gomel Region, Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, O A

    2006-01-01

    A diversity of the clinical and morphological manifestations pf melanoma determines the great importance of each description of manifestation of this most malignant tumor. In this connection, there is a worldwide increasing rise in the number of patients with melanoma whose diagnosis present well-known difficulties, the authors describe a case of this tumor progression, which masked as uterine carcinoma.

  11. On the Shaping of the Legal Culture of Young People in Russia and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the legal culture of young people in the interaction between subjective factors and objective conditions characterizing the transformation of societies in the post-Soviet space makes it possible not only to assess the current state of that culture, but also to map out ways to improve it. In this article, the authors examine the…

  12. [Specific clinical, epidemiological patterns and laboratory diagnostics of enterovirus infection in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvros'eva, T V; Poklonskaia, N V; Bogush, Z F; Kazinets, O N; Germanovich, F A; Fisenko, E G; Titov, L P; Kvacheva, Z B; Bezruchko, A A; Scheslenok, E P

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiological patterns as well as the results of the laboratory verification of the outbreak of enterovirus infection (EVI) in Minsk during the period of summer-autumn, 2000, are presented. During this outbreak a variety of clinical forms were observed, the serous meningitis being prevalent (57.5%). Practically simultaneous occurrence of infection on the territory of all administrative districts of the city, the predominant involvement of children aged up to 14 years into the outbreak, a high proportion of simultaneous casualities in the multiple foci. A number of circulating enteroviruses (EV)--ECHO 30, ECHO 6 of three serotypes and Coxsackie B5--were simultaneously isolated from clinical material. EV of the same serotypes were isolated from tap drinking water, and neutralizing antibodies to these serotypes were often detected in the patients blood sera. Infectious EV were also present in samples of bottled water and in water reservoirs used for bathing. The routes of EV transmission and the improvement of EVI control are discussed.

  13. McCain visits Vilnius to discuss Belarus / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    USA senaatorite ja Esindajatekoja delegatsiooni Leedu visiidi käigus kohtus John McCain Leedus õppivate Valgevene üliõpilaste ja president Dalia Grybauskaitega, et rääkida Valgevenes toimuvast. Leedus toimunutest Valgevene temaatilistest konverentsidest

  14. Amortization as source of capital investments in Belarus: historiography, theoretical and practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Korotayev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the historiography of defining amortization as the source of further reproduction and creation due to the amortization of sinking funds, used by economic entities for future capital investments. Acting as the source of capital investments, sinking funds were established during the socialist era, as well as in the post-Soviet period, that is before the beginning of the 21st century. However, starting from 2010, economic entities no longer have been creating sinking funds on the balance sheet and outside it, that corresponds to the international practice, in particular the rules and principles of International Financial Reporting Standards. The author proves that the amortization, recoverable in the price of goods (works, services, is the reimbursement of the past, not future expenditures. Accordingly, the sinking funds, as the source of future investments, cannot be made at the expenses of amortization charges. At the same time, the author analyzes the possible consequences of the legal right of enterprises to unchanged amortization installments in the reporting period with the extension of the life of depreciable fixed assets for the period when no amortization charges were calculated.

  15. Monetary policy in modern conditions: Theory and Practice (on materials of the Republic of Belarus)

    OpenAIRE

    Bashlakova Ol'ga Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    Monetary-credit policy is the leading direction of the market economy state regulation, but economics hasn’t yet developed an effective mechanism and criteria of its implementation. The article analysis in detail interconnection of 2011–2014 monetary-credit policy parameters with dynamics of such macroeconomic indicators as inflation, investments, savings and credit volume.

  16. Comparison of reliability levels provided by the eurocodes and standardsof the republic of belarus СРАВНЕНИЕ УРОВНЕЙ НАДЕЖНОСТИ СТАЛЬНЫХ КОНСТРУКЦИЙ, ОБЕСПЕЧИВАЕМЫХ ЕВРОКОДАМИИ СТАНДАРТАМИ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadol’skiy Vitaliy Valer’evich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of reliability levels of steel structures designed according to the Eurocodes and to the standards of the Republic of Belarus is provided . The main differences between the basic principles of both standards (such as load combinations, the system of partial factors with a particular focus on design of steel structures are demonstrated. The main parameters characterizing load effects and resistances are compared on the general level. Probabilistic models of basic variables are adjusted to relevant conditions of the Republic of Belarus. In the numerical example, reliability of steel elements is analysed for different combinations of permanent and variable actions . It appears that the standards of the Republic of Belarus assure a lower reliability level than the Eurocodes (reliability indices ranging between 2.0 and 3.5. The main reason for this difference is attributed to the specification of design values of permanent and variable loads. As for both systems of standards under consideration, the reliability of structures exposed to the snow load is significantly lower than the reliability of structures exposed to other types of the load; therefore, further harmonization is required. Further studies concerning more complicated structural elements made of various steel grades are needed.Выполнено сравнение уровней надежности стальных конструкций, запроектированных в соответствии с Еврокодами и стандартами Республики Беларусь. Показаны основные различия между базовыми принципами обоих систем нормативных документов (например, в сочетаниях нагрузок, системах частичных коэффициентов с акцентом на проектирование стальных конструкций. Со

  17. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF HIGHER EFFICIENCY IN FUNCTIONING OF ROAD-TRANSPORT COMPLEX IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Solodkaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The road-transport complex objectively reflects the essence of efficient transportation process which is carried out by transport facilities along the highways. The complex  emphasizes an equivalent contribution of transport facilities and highways in a unified transportation process. Efficiency of the state economy rigidly depends on availability of the developed and well-functioning network of highways. Countries with the developed economy which have generally finished creation of national highway networks continue to invest money in public road systems that stimulates development of industrial sectors, agriculture and trade, etc. Their progress and efficient functioning is possible only with the balanced, overall development of the road-transport complex of the country. Functioning of the road-transport complex is inextricable connected with the operation of automotive transport and road infrastructure. Interaction of these two components of the unified economic system is determined by technical characteristics of the automotive transport and transport and operational indices of  the highways. Development of methods for optimum organization of management for functioning of the road complex is considered as an important problem of the national economy while forming market economy mechanisms. Further growth of capital expenditures including  investments will be needed in order to ensure such road conditions that meet the requirements of modern and perspective road traffic. Management of the highway network conditions presupposes a selection of such set of regulatory impacts on road conditions which will allow to minimize expenses in the road-transport complex. Elaboration and realization of the most efficient repair measures serve as such regulatory impact. The purpose is achieved while solving the problem pertaining to minimization of expenses on  transportations in the road-transport complex in the process of the realization of the most efficient repair measures at the stage of highway life cycle.

  18. Organizing and Economic Mechanism for Optimization of Industrial Structure in Electric Power Industry of the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Morozov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals economic peculiar features of innovative and investment processes in electric power industry. A scheme of organizing and economic mechanism for optimization of the industrial structure in the Belarusian electric power industry has been given in the paper. Realization of the mechanism will promote to better economic efficiency of power generation in the Belarusian power system and diversification of fuel balance of electric power industry.

  19. Accumulation and distribution of mercury in fruiting bodies by fungus Suillus luteus foraged in Poland, Belarus and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Martyna; Falandysz, Jerzy; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2016-02-01

    Presented in this paper is result of the study of the bioconcentration potential of mercury (Hg) by Suillus luteus mushroom collected from regions within Central, Eastern, and Northern regions of Europe. As determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy, the Hg content varied from 0.13 ± 0.05 to 0.33 ± 0.13 mg kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 0.038 ± 0.014 to 0.095 ± 0.038 mg kg(-1) dry matter in stems. The Hg content of the soil substratum (0-10 cm layer) underneath the fruiting bodies showed generally low Hg concentrations that varied widely ranging from 0.0030 to 0.15 mg kg(-1) dry matter with mean values varying from 0.0078 ± 0.0035 to 0.053 ± 0.025 mg kg(-1) dry matter, which is below typical content in the Earth crust. The caps were observed to be on the richer in Hg than the stems at ratio between 1.8 ± 0.4 and 5.3 ± 2.6. The S. luteus mushroom showed moderate ability to accumulate Hg with bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 3.6 ± 1.3 to 42 ± 18. The consumption of fresh S. luteus mushroom in quantities up to 300 g week(-1) (assuming no Hg ingestion from other foods) from background areas in the Central, Eastern, and Northern part of Europe will not result in the intake of Hg exceeds the provisional weekly tolerance limit (PTWI) of 0.004 mg kg(-1) body mass.

  20. Biomass structure of soil mesofauna under conditions of dynamics of vegetation diversity of floodplain meadows in the southeast of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Veremeev

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative data on structure and biomass of soil mesofauna depending on a biodiversity of vegetation of inundated meadows under conditions of anthropogenic influence are presented. By augmentation of vegetation diversity on meadows there is a tendency of increse of a biomass of soil invertebrates.

  1. Inorganic constituents in surface runoff from urbanised areas in winter: the case study of the city of Brest, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bulskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the inorganic constituents of snow and snowmelt surface runoff in a case study of the city of Brest and to indicate components that could pose a threat to the environment. Samples of snow and snowmelt runoff were analysed for the following parameters: total suspended solids, pH, the contents of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions, and of heavy metals. The concentrations of most of these pollutants were higher in the snowmelt runoff than in snow. The concentrations of pollutants in the snowmelt surface runoff exceeded the levels established by national regulations (maximum permissible concentrations.

  2. Inorganic constituents in surface runoff from urbanised areas in winter: the case study of the city of Brest, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bulskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the inorganic constituents of snow and snowmelt surface runoff in a case study of the city of Brest and to indicate components that could pose a threat to the environment. Samples of snow and snowmelt runoff were analysed for the following parameters: total suspended solids, pH, the contents of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions, and of heavy metals. The concentrations of most of these pollutants were higher in the snowmelt runoff than in snow. The concentrations of pollutants in the snowmelt surface runoff exceeded the levels established by national regulations (maximum permissible concentrations.

  3. The Use of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushkevich, Yu N; Kosmacheva, S M; Zabrodets, G V; Ignatenko, S I; Goncharova, N V; Severin, I N; Likhachev, S A; Potapnev, M P

    2015-08-01

    We studied a new method of treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells were injected intravenously (intact cells) or via lumbar puncture (cells committed to neuronal differentiation). Evaluation of the results of cell therapy after 12-month follow-up revealed slowing down of the disease progression in 10 patients in comparison with the control group consisting of 15 patients. The cell therapy was safe for the patients.

  4. [About the contents of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in forest soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Perevolotskaia, T V

    2014-01-01

    The specific activity of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in forest soil ecotopes (A2-B2-C2-D2) has been investigated. When the fertility of the soil increases from A2 to D2, then the specific activity of 40K increases in the rooting zone of the soil from 275 ± 6.9 up to 499 ± 11 Bq/kg, 232Th--from 11.8 ± 0.5 to 17.1 ± 1.1 Bq/kg, 226Ra- from 19.2 γ 0.8 to 27.9 ± 1.5 Bq/kg. The calculated capacity of the absorbed dose of γ-radiation conditioned by 40K, 232Th and 226Ra increases from A2 to D2 from 27.5 ± 0.5 to 44.1 ± 1.1 nGy / h at the height of 1 m.

  5. Diet of the White-Tailed Eagle During the Breeding Season in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri V. Yurko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla collected during breeding seasons of 2006–2015 in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve. The data included 127 records of prey remains belonging to 27 species of vertebrates collected in and under the nests. We discovered that the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle mainly consists of vertebrates of three classes: fishes (Pisces 48.1 %, birds (Aves 41.7 % and mammals (Mammalia 10.2 %. At the present, the main prey species in the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle in the breeding season are: Bream (Abramis brama – 22.0 %, Black Stork (Ciconia nigra – 12.6 %, Northern Pike (Esox lucius – 10.2 %, Wild Boar (Sus scrofa – 7.1 %, White Stork (Ciconia ciconia – 6.3 %, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos – 5.5 % and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra – 5.5 %. Together these species makes up 69.2 % or 2/3 of the diet of this raptor. We also established that cannibalism is a character feature of the local population of White-Tailed Eagle, and its proportion is 2.4 %.

  6. The repertoire of heavy chain immunoglobulin genes in B‑cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Russia and Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Biderman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutation status of the heavy chain variable region genes has long been known as an important factor in long‑term prognosis in B‑cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B‑CLL. A more detailed study of the gene sequences of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgVH led to the discovery of stereotyped antigen receptors (SAR — receptors that have the same set of VH‑, D‑ and JH‑genes used. Cells with SARs have been found almost in a quarter of all B‑CLL cases. This phenomenon is not observed in other lymphatic tumors. In our study, we confirmed and extended the basic observations concerning the repertoire of IgVH in B‑CLL. Differences in the B‑CLL IgVH gene repertoirs between Russia, Вelarus and other countries are also analysed and discussed.

  7. The repertoire of heavy chain immunoglobulin genes in B‑cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Russia and Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Biderman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutation status of the heavy chain variable region genes has long been known as an important factor in long‑term prognosis in B‑cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B‑CLL. A more detailed study of the gene sequences of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgVH led to the discovery of stereotyped antigen receptors (SAR — receptors that have the same set of VH‑, D‑ and JH‑genes used. Cells with SARs have been found almost in a quarter of all B‑CLL cases. This phenomenon is not observed in other lymphatic tumors. In our study, we confirmed and extended the basic observations concerning the repertoire of IgVH in B‑CLL. Differences in the B‑CLL IgVH gene repertoirs between Russia, Вelarus and other countries are also analysed and discussed.

  8. Reducing CO2 emissions from drained peatlands : The Kyoto Protocol as a solution? The Republic of Belarus as a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    The drainage of peatlands leads to the oxidation of the upper peat layer. As a result, green-house gas carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted into the atmosphere. Worldwide the drainage of peatlands results in the release of 800 million tons of CO2 per year, thu

  9. THE CONTENT OF CAESIUM-137 IN THE RIVERSIDE AND WATER VEGETATION VETKA AND CHECHERSK DISTRICTS OF THE GOMEL REGION OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Dajneko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of radiocaesium was studied in 58 plant samples in 2 districts with only 12 (20,6% exceeding the allowable level which equals 370 Bk/kg. In Vetka district the highest specific activity of caesium-137 (Bk/kg was demonstrated by Equisetum arvense and Comarum palustre among the medium-sized euhydrophytes in  the  second  object,  which  3,7  and  5,2  times  exceeds  the  standard.   Ceratophyllum  demersum  has  the  highest accumulation coefficient. In Chechesk district medium-sized euhydrophytes Juncus effusus and Sium latifolium in the second object exceed the standard 7,8–2,2 times. Stratiotes aloides demonstrates the highest accumulation coefficient.

  10. Spatial assessment of the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice on radioactively contaminated land in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia. II. Monte Carlo analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Perk, Marcel; Burema, Jiske; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Goor, François; Timofeyev, Sergei

    2004-09-01

    A Monte Carlo analysis of two sequential GIS-embedded submodels, which evaluate the economic feasibility of short rotation coppice (SRC) production and energy conversion in areas contaminated by Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, was performed to allow for variability of environmental conditions that was not contained in the spatial model inputs. The results from this analysis were compared to the results from the deterministic model presented in part I of this paper. It was concluded that, although the variability in the model results due to within-gridcell variability of the model inputs was considerable, the prediction of the areas where SRC and energy conversion is potentially profitable was robust. If the additional variability in the model input that is not contained in the input maps is also taken into account, the SRC production and energy conversion appears to be potentially profitable at more locations for both the small scale and large scale production scenarios than the model predicted using the deterministic model.

  11. Advocacy and coverage of needle exchange programs: results of a comparative study of harm reduction programs in Brazil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Dave

    2006-04-01

    To prevent or mitigate an AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs), effective activities need to be implemented on a large enough scale to reach and assist sufficient numbers of drug users and thereby change their risk behaviors related to drug use and sex. Recent work by UNAIDS on "high coverage sites", adopting the above strategies, has shown that one of the key elements in achieving high coverage is ongoing and sophisticated advocacy. High coverage harm reduction sites were studied through literature search and site visits, including key informant interviews, review of service statistics, and data analysis, in order to document the steps that led to scaling up, the way coverage was defined in these sites, and the lessons learned from their efforts. Syringe-exchange programs can achieve high coverage of IDUs. Monitoring to determine regular reach (those who are in regular contact with harm reduction services) should be added to uniform data collection carried out by harm reduction programs. Advocacy is crucial to achieving high coverage.

  12. Advocacy and coverage of needle exchange programs: results of a comparative study of harm reduction programs in Brazil, Bangladesh, Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation, and China

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Dave

    2006-01-01

    To prevent or mitigate an AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs), effective activities need to be implemented on a large enough scale to reach and assist sufficient numbers of drug users and thereby change their risk behaviors related to drug use and sex. Recent work by UNAIDS on "high coverage sites", adopting the above strategies, has shown that one of the key elements in achieving high coverage is ongoing and sophisticated advocacy. High coverage harm reduction sites were studied ...

  13. Soil mesofauna of flood plain meadows of a southeast of belarus in conditions of lack of moisture in summer as ecological model of their anthropogenous transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Veremeev

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents comparative analysis of species composition and quantitative characteristic of soil mesofauna of inundated meadows under conditions of lack of moisture. The reduction of species diversity, number and biomass of soil invertebrates on such meadows is observed.

  14. [Clinical and morphological features of papillary thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the Republic of Belarus: analysis of 936 post-Chernobyl carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, M V; Man'kovskaia, S V; Kras'ko, O V; Demidchik, Iu E

    2014-01-01

    There is presented clinical and morphological characteristics of post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer in 936 children and adolescents. In general, carcinoma of these patients featured by locally advanced growth - 57.4% (387 of 674 patients with this sign could be assessed), metastases in regional lymph nodes - 73,7% (N1b in 40.7%) and internal organs - 11.1%. The mean duration of follow-up was 12,4 +/- 3,5 years (range 4.3 to 19.6 years) including children 14,6 +/- 2,7 years (range 8.8 to 19.6 years) and adolescents - 10,1 +/- 3,1 years (range 4.3 to 18.8 years). Overall survival for the 20-year period was 96,6% +/- 1,2%. The causes of death were suicide (7), injuries and accidents (5), secondary malignancies (1), somatic diseases (2). Only in two patients the death was related to the main disease - lung metastases. Free-recurrence survival for the cohort of post-Chernobyl carcinomas was 92,7% +/- 1,0%.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and Pripyat Basin Province, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 84 million barrels of crude oil, 4.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 130 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Dnieper-Donets Basin Province and 39 million barrels of crude oil, 48 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Pripyat Basin Province. The assessments are part of a program to estimate these resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  16. SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT OF THE MEDICAL SECTION OF THE STATE PROGRAM OF THE BELARUS REPUBLIC FOR THE OVERCOMING OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rozhko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A twenty-five year health follow-up of the affected population has shown that a properly structured State strategy on overcoming the consequences of disaster allow to maintain stable levels of morbidity and mortality. An important achievement in the system of medical help to the affected population is the organization of dynamic follow-up, as well as creating State Register of people exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident as a tool for solving scientific and practical problems. The results of scientific researches obtained in the SO “The Republican Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology” were the basis for one of the Council of Ministers Decree and two Decrees of the Ministry of Health. Significant changes have been made in the order of assigning the causation connection of disease (disability and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and objective criteria for the formation of high radiation risk groups.In a whole, the rate of oncological morbidity in the affected population remains at the average republican level, but for certain categories of the affected population, referred to groups of enhanced radiation risk, there has been detected the presence of excess morbidity of some forms of malignant neoplasms.

  17. 3 CFR 13510 - Executive Order 13510 of July 1, 2009. Waiver Under the Trade Act of 1974 With Respect to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Trade Act of 1974 With Respect to the Republic of Belarus 13510 Order 13510 Presidential Documents... Respect to the Republic of Belarus By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the... amended (the “Act”) (19 U.S.C. 2432(c)(2)), which continues to apply to the Republic of Belarus...

  18. Оn the issue of setting priorities in the organization of risk-based supervision over the safety of consumer products traded on the common economic space of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Yu. Popova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant volumes of mutual trade between the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, combined with the urgency of protecting the population against the risks of negative impacts on the health products are aiming to optimize the supervision of the products traded in the market. One of the ways to optimize is the transition to a risk-based model of health service activities and choice of products for top-priority (priority control. The approaches to the selection of priorities are offered, based on the account of the product use, consumer contingent specificity, known types of hazards, results of inspection and enforcement activities. It was found that the priority products exported by EASE member countries on the common market and forming potentially the greatest risk of harm to the health of consumers may include: dairy products; bird eggs (FEACN group 04; fats and oils of animal or vegetable origin and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; waxes of animal or vegetable origin (FEACN group 15; sugar and sugar confectionery (FEACN group 17; meat, fish or crustaceans, mollusks or other aquatic invertebrates (FEACN group 16; alcoholic and soft drinks and so on. (FEACN group 22; vegetables, roots and tubers (FEACN group 07; toys, games and sports equipment (FEACN group 95. In relation to these groups of products the priority study of the risk profile required, as well as the development of algorithms and regulations of the supervisory and control measures and improvement of laboratory support methods.

  19. CONTENT OF 137CS AND 90SR IN THE MEDICINAL AND OTHER ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE PLANT SPECIES FROM THE KORMYANSKY DISTRICT OF THE GOMEL REGION OF THE BELARUS REPUBLIC EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION «GOMEL STATE UNIVERSITY AFTER F. SKORINA»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sapegin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation results of the contamination with 137Cs and 90Sr of the plants from natural ecosystems of four objects are being presented. 45 plant samples and 24 soil samples were analyzed. It was revealed that the permissible level for the 137Cs content of 370 Bq/kg, is exceeded for 21 samples (46.7 %. Content of 90Sr in plants varied from 3 Bq/kg to 544 Bq/kg. Most part of the radionuclides still remains in the upper soil horizons. Plant species specificity concerning the radionuclide accumulation depends on the composition of the natural ecosystem, type of soil, its agrochemical composition and humidity.

  20. About Calculation of Unified Module Recuperator (Module M-I and M-II for Heating and Thermal Furnaces at Blanking and Machine Assembling Shops of Engineering, Automotive and Tractor Plants in Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an influence of outside ribbing of heat-exchange surface of unified modules M-I and M-II on heat transfer factor of the proposed recuperator and its hydro-dynamic resistance.

  1. Investment Effect of Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union and Induced Investment Prospects%俄白哈关税同盟的投资效应及引资前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青松; 李钦

    2014-01-01

    俄白哈关税同盟是欧亚经济共同体框架内经济一体化重要的阶段性成果.自2010年成立以来,关税同盟的FDI流入水平并没有出现较大提高,区外对区内的投资创造和投资转移效应都不明显;但关税同盟区域内的投资创造和转移效应比较显著,俄罗斯与成员国(白俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦)的相互投资增长较快,与非成员国(乌克兰及其他独联体国家)的相互投资下降或增长趋缓.随着各成员国相继加入WTO及其投资环境的改善,关税同盟吸引外资的前景良好,中国对俄、白、哈三国的投资具有较大增长潜力.

  2. Оn the issue of setting priorities in the organization of risk-based supervision over the safety of consumer products traded on the common economic space of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    А.Yu. Popova; N. V. Zaitseva; I.V. May; P.Z. Shur

    2015-01-01

    Significant volumes of mutual trade between the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, combined with the urgency of protecting the population against the risks of negative impacts on the health products are aiming to optimize the supervision of the products traded in the market. One of the ways to optimize is the transition to a risk-based model of health service activities and choice of products for top-priority (priority) control. The approaches to the selection of priorities are offered...

  3. DETERMINATION OF RADIATOR COOLING SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Yakubovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for calculation of a radiator cooling surface with due account of heat transfer non-uniformity on depth of its core. Calculation of radiator cooling surfaces of «Belarus-1221» and «Belarus-3022» tractors has been carried out in the paper. The paper also advances standard size series of radiators for powerful «Belarus» tractor type.

  4. 76 FR 52384 - Designation of Additional Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13405

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Order 13405 (the ``Order'') pursuant to, inter alia, the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50... repression, electoral fraud, and public corruption in Belarus. The Order imposes economic sanctions...

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... democratic processes or institutions in Belarus, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act... detentions and disappearances; and engaged in public corruption, including by diverting or...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163096.html Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem: Report Countries with highest alcohol use during pregnancy include Belarus, Britain, Denmark, Ireland ...

  7. Charm of Serenity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The slipping-away beauty of Belarus does not expose itself to everyone;for this you have to stop and feel the surrounding world Belarus means "White Russia", a tender and poetic name that be fits this country in the best way.

  8. Under the Yoke: Europe’s Natural Gas Dependency on Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    environmental impact. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Gazprom, Nord Stream, South Stream, Nabucco, fracking , Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Qatar, Nigeria, Turkmenistan...WORD COUNT: 7,185 PAGES: 38 KEY TERMS: Gazprom, Nord Stream, South Stream, Nabucco, fracking , Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Qatar, Nigeria...extraction technique known as hydraulic fracturing or " fracking ". North America’s use of this technique is already increasing availability and

  9. 31 CFR 548.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... official who is responsible for or has engaged in public corruption related to Belarus; (iv) To have... 2 to paragraph (a) of § 548.201: The International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  10. 77 FR 36111 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... processes or institutions in Belarus, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C... and disappearances, and to engage in public corruption, including by diverting or misusing...

  11. Travelers' Health: Tickborne Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Belarus, Bosnia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, ... formulations: FSME-IMMUN (Baxter, Austria) and Encepur (Novartis, Germany). The adult formulation of FSME-IMMUN is also ...

  12. 10 CFR 110.30 - Members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MATERIAL Licenses § 110.30 Members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Argentina Australia Austria Belarus Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Canada Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary...

  13. Comprehensive verification of new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Charapitsa, Siarhei V; Markovsky, Mikhail G; Yakuba, Yurii F; Kotov, Yurii N

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed new method "Ethanol as Internal Standard" for determination of volatile compounds in alcohol products by gas chromatography is investigated from different sides. Results of experimental study from three different laboratories from Belarus and Russian Federation are presented.

  14. Cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Belinski, V

    2009-01-01

    The talk at international conference in honor of Ya. B. Zeldovich 95th Anniversary, Minsk, Belarus, April 2009. The talk represents a review of the old results and contemporary development on the problem of cosmological singularity.

  15. Tianjin Cathay Future Children’s Art Troupe Tours Five European Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Hameenlinna Cultural Centre of Finland, the Folklore Association of the Czech Republic, the Belarus Society for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, Saku Music School of Estonia and the Chil-

  16. 76 FR 35091 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions and Policies of Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... Presidential election in Belarus and its aftermath--the harsh violence against peaceful demonstrators; the... continuing repression of independent media and civil society activists--all show that the Government...

  17. Разработка и освоение технологии изготовления мелющих тел в разовых песчано-глинистых формах

    OpenAIRE

    Бусел, И.; Омельченко, И.; Писаренко, Л.; Приемко, В.

    2011-01-01

    The carried out experimental and scientific-research works enabled to organize mass production of grinding bodies, which being successfully tested at the enterprises of building industry of the Republic of Belarus now.

  18. Russian position and its function in centraAsia district economy cooperation——from CIS to Russia,Belarus,Kazakh tax union%俄罗斯的地位及其在中亚区域经贸合作中的作用——从独联体到俄白哈关税同盟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居来提·色依提; 苏来曼·斯拉木; 玉素甫·阿不来提

    2012-01-01

    by using the historical anlyzing methodology,this paper observes the process of evolution from UIC to Costume Union,the manifestation of the core interests of Russia in this process and the potential roles in the cooperation games of regional economic and trade cooperation among Middle Asia.This paper analyzes the degrees of impacts and policy direction of Russia upon the every member country of regional trade and economic cooperation among Middle Asia under the framework of Costume Union among the Russia,Prussia and Kazakhistan and points out the impacts of Costume Union and the economic integration in near future led by Russia upon the regional trade and economic cooperation policy of China towards the Middle Asia Countries.%本文以历史分析法考察从独联体到关税同盟的演变过程中俄罗斯核心利益的体现以及它对中亚区域经贸合作博弈中的潜在作用。探讨在俄白哈关税同盟框架下,俄罗斯对中亚各国经贸合作政策取向和中亚区域经贸合作进程的影响程度,提出俄罗斯为主导的关税同盟及未来的经济一体化对我国在中亚区域经贸合作政策的影响。

  19. 简析独联体国家青年中的马克思主义信仰——以俄、乌、白、摩四国共青团为例%The Belief in Marxism of the Youth in the CIS Countries:Take the Communist Youth Leagues of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍

    2014-01-01

    苏联解体以后,原苏联各加盟共和国的共产主义青年团组织历经更名、重建和分裂,在俄罗斯、乌克兰、白俄罗斯和摩尔多瓦四国得以存在和发展壮大.这些共青团组织作为本国共产党的政治盟友和助手,以马克思主义为指导制定自己的组织纲领和奋斗目标,与时俱进地在各个领域开展一系列社会活动,从而反映出独联体国家青年仍然信仰马克思主义这一社会现实.

  20. Fundamental problems of nuclear physics, atomic-power engineering and nuclear technologies : LXIV international conference «Nucleus 2014», July 1-4, 2014, Minsk, Belarus (LXIV meeting on nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear structure) : Book of abstracts / Editor А.К. Vlasnikov.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications such as: neutron-rich nuclei, nuclei far from stability valley, giant resonances, many-phonou and many-quasiparticle states in nuclei, high-spui and super-deformed states in nuclei, synthesis of super-heavy elements, reactions with radioactive nuclear beams, heavy ions, nucleons and elementary particles, fusion and fission of nuclei, manybody problem in nuclear physics, m...

  1. OBITUARY: To the memory of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Borisevich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokhin, O. N.

    2015-12-01

    Invaluable is the contribution of academician Borisevich to the development of optics, spectroscopy and their applications. He is the author of scientific discoveries and more than 600 scientific papers. For outstanding scientific achievements Nikolai Aleksandrovich was awarded the Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR and the Republic of Belarus. His scientific school gave a start in life to more than 30 candidates of science, 12 doctors, including 4 members of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS FOR WHOLESALE TRADE IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Peklina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A wholesale trade can be implemented in various organizational forms and a cash and carry warehouse is considered as one of the most perspective and least developed forms in the Republic of Belarus. The paper analyzes tendencies of a cash and carry  warehouse  development  in the Republic of Belarus. Main problems and appropriate  measures for their solution are cited in the paper. 

  3. The Global Financial Crisis: Foreign and Trade Policy Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-07

    by three percentage points or more.85 In February 2009, China reported that about 20 million of the nation’s 130 million migrant workers already had...Security Appeals for Assistance Unmet Greater Role for IMF, World Bank Return of Migrant Laborers Fall in Exports Desperation Developing Country Issues...for Belarus . Belarus also had unsuccessfully approached Russia for a $3 billion currency swap arrangement and then asked for a $2 billion bank loan

  4. The State of Play in Russia’s Near Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    and would derail the momentum for domestic reforms. ■ Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan have heavily depended on migrant worker remittances from both Russia...White Russians make common cause with the Red Russians in almost every endeavor. Belarus . The possibility of a reintegra- tion plebiscite has been...States air warning system. Only Belarus and Nicara- gua are sympathetic to the Abkhaz and South Ossetian independence declarations. The European

  5. The April 2010 Coup in Kyrgyzstan: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    of remittances from migrant workers in Russia and Kazakhstan—Bakiyev did not meet with opposition leaders or otherwise reach out to the population...Developments On May 6, 2010, Kyrgyzstan formally requested that Belarus extradite former Kyrgyz president Kurmanbek Bakiyev to face charges of murdering...civilians during the April coup. The outcome of the request is uncertain. Although Belarus has signed an international extradition accord, Belarusian

  6. The April 2010 Coup in Kyrgyzstan and its Aftermath: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    impacted Kyrgyzstan because of the decline of remittances from migrant workers in Russia and Kazakhstan—Bakiyev did not meet with opposition leaders or...meeting of security officials of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; members include Russia, Armenia, Belarus , Kazakhstan...first to Kazakhstan with a few members of his family on April 15, where he signed a resignation letter, and then flew to Belarus late on April 19. On

  7. To the memory of Nikolai Aleksandrovich Borisevich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokhin, O N [Editorial Office of ' Kvantovaya Elektronika' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    Invaluable is the contribution of academician Borisevich to the development of optics, spectroscopy and their applications. He is the author of scientific discoveries and more than 600 scientific papers. For outstanding scientific achievements Nikolai Aleksandrovich was awarded the Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR and the Republic of Belarus. His scientific school gave a start in life to more than 30 candidates of science, 12 doctors, including 4 members of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. (obituary)

  8. Epidemiology, diagnostics and long-term overall survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer in the Brest Region

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer has been the most common cancer in the world and in Belarus. Aim of the research: To evaluate the epidemiology of non-small cell lung cancer and improvements in diagnostics and treatment for the past 11 years in the Brest Region of Belarus. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of statistical data (incidence rate, mortality) in the regional cancer registry of the Brest oncological clinic since 2000 and assessed survival for 652 adul...

  9. 俄白哈关税同盟对中国与哈萨克斯坦经贸合作的影响 ——以"丝绸之路经济带"战略为背景%Effects of Russia-Belarus-Kazakhstan Customs Union on the Economic and Trade Cooperation between China and Kazakhstan—In the Context of "Silk Road Economic Belt"Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志刚; 刘伟

    2016-01-01

    2015年5月8日,国家主席习近平同俄罗斯总统普京举行会谈,一致同意中俄两国要共同推进"丝绸之路经济带"建设同欧亚经济联盟(俄白哈关税同盟基础上组建)建设对接.文章重点分析了俄白哈关税同盟对哈萨克斯坦的贸易效应、中国和哈萨克斯坦双边贸易联系程度、中国对哈萨克斯坦出口贸易额增速及主要出口商品增速、中国对哈萨克斯坦主要进口商品增速的影响,并结合引力模型分析了俄白哈关税同盟对中国和哈萨克斯坦双边贸易的影响.最后,文章结合"丝绸之路经济带"战略背景和主要结论进行了分析,并提出相应的政策建议.

  10. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander;

    2011-01-01

    of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case...... of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio...

  11. Language Problem in the Belorussian History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgij M. Gribov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyse some aspects of the language problem in the history and modern Belarus. The purpose of this paper is to define the role and place of the Belorussian language in the culture and art of Belarus in particular during the period of perestroika and formation of an independent state. The paper also presents a repetitive investigation which was conducted in Brest State Technical University. The results of this investigation show the interest of Belorussian students in the languages (culture of neighboring nations  

  12. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the development of the economic situation in each country in recent years. The starting point for discussion is the analysis of benefits of economic integration in the light of theory.

  13. ERP–systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shustova I.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed the existing ERP–systems of foreign and domestic manufacturers. Popular ERP–systems in the Republic of Belarus were considered. The leading ERP-systems in the domestic market and their features were described in detail. Finally, we described the steps that must be taken to select the most suitable ERP-system for a particular company.

  14. 22 CFR 126.1 - Prohibited exports and sales to certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... imports of defense articles and defense services, destined for or originating in certain countries. This policy applies to Belarus, Cuba, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Syria, and Venezuela. This policy also... any proscribed countries, areas, or persons in this § 126.1. (b) Shipments. A defense article...

  15. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  16. Mathematics Attitudes and Mathematics Outcomes of U.S. and Belarusian Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; MacCann, Carolyn; Krumm, Stefan; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Two multivariate studies examined the applicability of the theory of planned behavior in gauging students' attitudes toward mathematics, as well as the predictive power of mathematics attitudes in explaining students' grades in mathematics. Middle-school students from the United States (N = 382) and Belarus (N = 339) participated. Confirmatory…

  17. The philosophy of my life: journal of prison: Minsk, 2005; La philosophie de ma vie: journal de prison: Minsk, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandazhevsky, Y

    2006-07-01

    Rector of the medical institute of Gomel, in the south of Belarus, one of the area the most reached by fallout of the Chernobylsk disaster, the author has worked on the consequences of radioactivity on health, breaking the law of silence around this affair, reason for which he was arrested. In this journal are evoked his researches. (N.C.)

  18. Sedimentary geology of the middle Carboniferous of the Donbas region (Dniepr-Donets basin, Ukraine)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Abels, Hemmo A.; Bosch, Wolter; Boekhout, Flora; Kitchka, Alexander; Hamers, Maartje; Van Der Meer, Douwe G.; Geluk, Mark; Stephenson, Randell A.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets Basin in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia forms a major hydrocarbon province. Although well- and seismic data have established a 20 km thick stratigraphy, field-studies of its sediments are scarce. The inverted Donbas segment (Ukraine) exposes the middle Carboniferous part of

  19. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident; Radiologische Folgen des Tschernobyl-Ungluecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P.

    1996-05-01

    Large areas of Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine have been highly contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl. The most affected areas are around Chernobyl and east of Gomel in Belarus, where part of the radioactive fallout came down with rain. The article maps the radioactive contamination through cesium 137 and iodine 131, and summarizes the immediate action taken at the time, as well as long-term remedial action for decontamination of soils. Data are given on the radiation exposure of the population, in particular doses to the thyroid, and prognoses on the incidence of thyroid cancer. (VHE) [Deutsch] Durch den Reaktorunfall von Tschernobyl wurden groessere Flaechen von Belarus, Russland und der Ukraine stark radioaktiv kontaminiert. Besonders betroffen sind die Umgebung von Tschernobyl sowie die Gegend oestlich von Gomel (Belarus), wo die radioaktive Wolke teilweise ausregnete. Der Artikel beschreibt die Belastung mit Caesium 137 und Iod 131 sowie die ergriffenen Sofortmassnahmen und die langfristigen Massnahmen zur Dekontamination der betroffenen Boeden. Die Strahlenbelastung der Bevoelkerung, v.a. die Schilddruesendosen, werden beschrieben, fuer Schilddruesenkrebs werden Prognosen gegeben. (VHE)

  20. 78 FR 60248 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Volha Dubouskaya... States, that is, to willfully export from the United States to Belarus export-controlled items, including... of $100.00. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR'' or ``Regulations'')...

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS FOR LASER HARDENING OF INTERNAL CONTACT SURFACES OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BRAKE MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers pertaining to higher wear resistance of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanisms details are considered. Properties of ВЧ-50-cast iron are investigated due to laser hardening while using various technological methods.

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF WEAR-RESISTANCE AND SERVICE LIFE OF MULTI-DISK BRAKE MECHANISMS OF «BELARUS» TRACTOR BY LASER THERMAL HARDENING OF FAST WEARING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobjakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems concerning wear resistance improvement of «Belarus» tractor brake mechanism parts are considered in the paper. Properties of ВЧ-50-pig iron are investigated as a result of laser thermal hardening by various technological methods.

  3. MATHEMATIC MODELING IN ANALYSIS OF BIO-GAS PURIFICATION FROM CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Losiouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to involve bio-gas generated at testing grounds of hard domestic garbage in power supply system in the Republic of Belarus. An example of optimization using mathematical modeling of plant operation which is used for bio-gas enrichment is given in the paper. 

  4. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    2011-2015 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research.They are from 47 countries,including Argentina(3),Australia(13),Austria(4),Belarus(1),Belgium(3),Brazil(10),Canada(10),China(41),Czech Republic(1),Denmark

  5. Tianjin Cathay Future Children's Art Troupe Tours Five European Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnZheng

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the Haeneenlinna Cultural Centre of Finland, the Folklore Association of the Czech Republic,the Belarus Society for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, Saku Music School of Estonia and the Children and Youth Centre "Junda"of Lativa,

  6. Wit-Rusland: dictatuur en legitimiteit tussen Rusland en Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gerrits; K. Meijer

    2009-01-01

    André Gerrits & Kirsten Meijer focus on Belarus that is stereotypically presented as Europe's last dictatorship. President Aleksandr Lukashenka has established an authoritarian order, based on political stability and a relatively high standard of living, which all in all provides more than a modicum

  7. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    2011-2015 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members, representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research. They are from 47 countries, including Argentina (3), Australia (13), Austria (4), Belarus (1), Belgium (3), Brazil (10), Canada (10), China (41), Czech Republic (1), Denmark (1), Egypt (3), Estonia (1), Finland

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERSPECTIVE REINFORCING MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE ON JSC «BSW – MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF HOLDING «BMC»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Akhmetov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main stages of establishing and development of manufacture techniques for production of cold-shaped reinforcing steel in reels and a steel fiber in StPTs-3 (innovative processes in the Republic of Belarus are considered in the article. 

  9. Thyroid examination in highly radiation-exposed workers after the Chernobyl accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); M. Steinert (Marianna); J.W. Dietrich (Johannes); R.U. Peter (Ralf Uwe); D. Belyi (David); G. Wagemaker (Gerard); S. Rosinger (Silke); T.M. Friedner (Theodor); M. Weiss (Melanie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractContext: Radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl nuclear accident that happened on the morning of 26th April 1986 had a major impact on thyroid health in the Belarus region. Objective: Observational study of a cohort of 99 adults, most strongly exposed to ionizing radioactivity. Des

  10. Genetic variation among African swine fever genotype II viruses, eastern and central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Carmina; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Pelayo, Virginia; Gazaev, Ismail; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pridotkas, Gediminas; Nieto, Raquel; Fernández-Pacheco, Paloma; Bokhan, Svetlana; Nevolko, Oleg; Drozhzhe, Zhanna; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Kolvasov, Denis; Arias, Marisa

    2014-09-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first reported in eastern Europe/Eurasia in 2007. Continued spread of ASFV has placed central European countries at risk, and in 2014, ASFV was detected in Lithuania and Poland. Sequencing showed the isolates are identical to a 2013 ASFV from Belarus but differ from ASFV isolated in Georgia in 2007.

  11. СONCEPT OF TRADITIONALISM IN MODERN BELARUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Shamruk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers specificity of post-modernist trend in the modern architecture ofBelarus, which is mainly revealed in the development of context principles, interpretation of historical style and national architecture motives. Traditionalist feature is one of the methods for enriching artistic language of the modern architecture.

  12. Iodine-129 and Caesium-137 in Chernobyl contaminated soil and their chemical fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Fogh, C.L.; Kucera, J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil samples from areas in Belarus, Russia and Sweden contaminated by the Chernobyl accident were analysed for I-129 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis, as well as for Cs-137 by gamma-spectrometry. The atomic ratio of I-129/(CS)-C-137 in the upper layer of the examined soil cores ranged...

  13. СONCEPT OF TRADITIONALISM IN MODERN BELARUSSIAN ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Shamruk

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers specificity of post-modernist trend in the modern architecture ofBelarus, which is mainly revealed in the development of context principles, interpretation of historical style and national architecture motives. Traditionalist feature is one of the methods for enriching artistic language of the modern architecture.

  14. Determining Role of Temperature Chart while Evaluating Specific Expenses of Organic Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers designing principles of operational space continuous heating and heat-treating furnaces at mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. A role of temperature chart on heating metallic charge while evaluating specific expenses of organic fuel in heating and heat-treating furnaces of mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor industries. 

  15. Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished For Corruption?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chinese officials who had committed economic crimes began to flee overseas between the late 1980s and early 1990s. Although China has signed extradition treaties with 25 countries, including Thailand, Belarus, Russia and South Korea since 1993, it has not final-

  16. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in the soils of Central and Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks are presented for Central and Eastern Europe. The study uses the soil geographic and attribute data held in a 1:2 500 000 scale Soil and Terrain (SOTER) database, covering Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, P

  17. Uzbekistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    falloff in gas and oil production and lower global prices for gas exports. Also, remittances from migrant workers are likely to remain lower than...in 1999, Uzbekistan rejoined the Collective Security Treaty Organization in December 2006 (CSTO; members now include Russia, Belarus , Armenia, and

  18. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Pakistan United States European Union Russia India China Kazakhstan Turkey Turkmenistan Belarus Tajikistan UAE Bangladesh 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%0%5...and geology team is working with the MOMP to iden- tify and tender new areas of interest.536 Mining Investment and Development for Afghan

  19. 31 CFR 548.802 - Delegation by the Secretary of the Treasury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation by the Secretary of the Treasury. 548.802 Section 548.802 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS...

  20. Health workforce remuneration: Comparing wage levels, ranking, and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Tijdens (Kea); D.H. de Vries (Daniel); S.M. Steinmetz

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finlan

  1. Health Workforce Remuneration: comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; de Vries, D.H.; Steinmetz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, I

  2. Health workforce remuneration: Comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; de Vries, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on remuneration in the Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupations in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, India, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Russian Feder

  3. Eastern Partnership – at the Delineation of the Spheres of Influence between West and East [Parteneriatul Estic – la linia de demarcaţie a sferelor de influenţă dintre Vest şi Est

    OpenAIRE

    Oehler-Şincai Iulia Monica

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Partnership, encompassing EU’s relations with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine, was launched in May 2009 as an “eastern dimension” of the European Neighbourhood Policy. Its declared objective is supporting the reform process in the six former Soviet republics on their way towards the market economy and their gradual integration into the EU economy.

  4. COLD-WORKED HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Strizhak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The different types of cold-worked accessory are examined in the article. The necessity of development of such type of accessory in the Republic of Belarus due to requirements of market is shown. High emphasis is placed on the methods of increase of plasticity of cold-worked accessory from usual mill of RUP and CIS countries.

  5. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Faber, 2007), especially pp. 31– 41. 39. John Darwin , After Tamerlane: The Rise and Fall of Global Empires, 1400–2000 (London: 2007), p. 26. 138 AMERICAN...encounter be- tween three men (Yeltsin, Stanislav Shushkevich, and Leonid Kravchuk repre- senting Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine respectively) in the forests of

  6. Au Pair and Trafficked? - Recruitment, Residence in Denmark and Dreams for the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsby, Trine Mygind

    Report on the prevalence and risk of human trafficking in the situations and experiences of a group of au pairs in Denmark. The report is based on a qualitative study with interviews with 27 au pairs living in Denmark. The au pairs come from the Philippines, Belarus, Ukraine, Serbia, Nepal...

  7. Exploring the Future of Security in the Caribbean: a Regional Security Partnership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    office, along with the research librarians in the Combined Arms Research Library. My father, Lt Col (Ret’d) Nestor Ogilvie served as an invaluable...Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia, Finland , Georgia, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland

  8. Consumption of Noncommercial Alcohol among Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Razvodovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores types of alcohol and surrogates consumed, patterns of consumption, and reasons behind noncommercial alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent patients in Belarus. The study was conducted in the Belarusian city Grodno in 2012 with 223 alcoholics admitted to narcological clinic using structured interviews. The results suggest that at least 20.2% of alcohol dependent patients regularly consume samogon and 11.8% of patients use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that, according to quality criteria, samogon exceeds licensed vodka is the main motive for its consumption. The results of this study suggest the existence of the problem of consumption of noncommercial alcohol among alcohol dependent patients in Belarus.

  9. Estimation of Kazakhstan’s trade potential in the framework of the Custom Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan Nurseiit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies the features and determinants of Kazakhstan's foreign trade with other members of the Customs Union of Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus (CU, and estimates the degree of utilization of its trade potential for 1995-2011. The participation in the CU has led to an increase of Kazakhstan’s turnover with Russia and Belarus mainly due to imports from these countries, while the share of exports to these countries in its total exports has been declined since 2011. The main reason is the achievement of the potential level of mutual trade for Kazakhstan. Gravity models confirms that the inter-industry trade between the CU’s countries based on the comparative advantages comes to a standstill and to further expand their mutual trade, countries should specialize in the expansion of intra-industry trade.

  10. The development of Belarusian lakes during the Late Glacial and Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novik, Aliaksei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sediment cores from six lakes in northern, central, and southern Belarus were eõamined to establish correlationsbetween changes in lake conditions and catchment evolution since the Older Dryas. Detailed studies were conducted in three areaswith highly different landscape development history. Common patterns and synchronism in lake sedimentation and fluctuations aremore diverse during the Late Glacial and early Holocene, mainly due to the general tendency of climate warming at the beginning ofthe postglacial epoch and disappearance of permafrost, which led to the increase in infiltrating processes. During the latter half of theHolocene lake level changes were asynchronous in different regions of Belarus. At that time most of the existing differences werecaused by local factors.

  11. Calculation and Designing of Up-to-Date Gas-Flame Plants for Metal Heating and Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Тimoshpolsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of development trends in the CIS machine-building industry and current status of the heating and heat treatment furnaces of main machine-building enterprises of the Republic of Belarus as of the 1st quarter of 2008 is given in the paper.The paper presents the most efficient engineering solutions from technological and economic point of view that concern calculation and designing of up-to-date gas-flame plants which are to be applied for modernization of the current heating and heat treatment furnaces of the machine-building enterprises in the Republic of Belarus.A thermo-technical calculation of main indices of the up-to-date gas-flame plant has been carried out in the paper.

  12. Current status of the problem of heat pumps and refrigerating devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, L. L.

    2010-09-01

    In connection with the limited energy reserves in the Republic of Belarus, it is expedient to use sorption heat pumps and refrigerators in heating and refrigeration supply systems. Such heat engines possess a unique capability of utilizing the heat of low-temperature energy sources: water ponds, groundwater, and waste water and steam in combination with traditional heaters of rooms (boilers, furnaces, etc.). Adsorption reversible heat pumps developed at the A. V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus make it possible to obtain 20 to 30 kW/m3 of thermal energy and up to 5 kW/m3 of cold. Such heat pumps save up to 15-20% of primary energy (fuel) for production of electricity, heat, and cold.

  13. Russia’s Proposal for a European Security Treaty: Motives and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Towards a New Euro–Atlantic Security Architecture (London: Report of Russian Experts for the Valdai Discussion Club , December 2009), 13. 6...laws passed by the Duma authorizing military interventions to protect Russians and Russian speaking peoples in surrounding states, and in the new...Russian-dominated economic club comprised of Russia, Kazakhstan, and Belarus. Claiming that Minsk owed it approximately two hundred million U.S. dollars

  14. Bankopojištění na příkladě Běloruska

    OpenAIRE

    Belausava, Aliaksandra

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the concept of bancassurance, which is the interaction of banks and insurance companies. The aim of this paper is to identify and analyze the concept of bancassurance focused on Belarus. In the first part of the thesis the attention is paid to the study of theoretical aspects of bancassurance and analysis of the forms of bancassurance products. The starting point for the second chapter is the analysis of the development of bancassurance in the Republic of Belar...

  15. Health consequences of Chernobyl. 25 years after the reactor catastrophy; Gesundheitliche Folgen von Tschernobyl. 25 Jahre nach der Reaktorkatastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugbeil, Sebastian; Schmitz-Feuerhake, Inge [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany); Paulitz, Henrik; Claussen, Angelika [Internationale Aerzte fuer die Verhuetung des Atomkrieges, Aerzte in sozialer Verantwortung e.V. (IPPNW), Berlin (Germany). Deutsche Sektion

    2011-04-15

    The report is an evaluation of studies indicating health effects as a consequence of the reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl. The most exposed population include the cleaning personnel (liquidators), the population evacuated from the 30 km zone, the populations in highly contaminated regions in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the European population in lass contaminated regions. The following issues are discussed: the liquidators, infant mortality, genetic and teratogenic damages, thyroid carcinoma and other thyroid diseases, carcinogenic diseases and leukemia, other diseases following the Chernobyl catastrophe.

  16. Remedial actions for life conditions in contaminated territories: the Ethos project; La rehabilitation des conditions de vie dans les territoires contamines: le projet Ethos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Lochard, J. [Centre d' Etudes sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire (CEPN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Heriard Dubreuil, G. [MUTADIS, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-07-01

    The Ethos project, started three years ago in the village of Olmany in Belarus, aims to make use of a decentralized approach to allow the durable rehabilitation of conditions of life of contaminated territories inhabitants. Financed by the European Commission in the frame of research in radiation protection, this project relies on an active implication of the population and proposes an approach taking into account not only the radiological protection but also the global improvement and the life modes reorganization. (N.C.)

  17. Short rotation coppice for revaluation of contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Thiry, Y; Gommers, A; Goor, F; Jossart, J M; Holm, E; Gäfvert, T; Roed, J; Grebenkov, A; Timofeyev, S; Gäufert, T

    2001-01-01

    When dealing with large-scale environmental contamination, as following the Chernobyl accident, changed land use such that the products of the land are radiologically acceptable and sustain an economic return from the land is a potentially sustainable remediation option. In this paper, willow short rotation coppice (SRC) is evaluated on radiological, technical and economic grounds for W. European and Belarus site conditions. Radiocaesium uptake was studied in a newly established and existing SRC. Only for light-texture soils with low soil potassium should cultivation be restricted to soils with contamination levels below 100-370 kBq m-2 given the TFs on these soils (5 x 10(-4) and 2 x 10(-3) m2 kg-1) and considering the Belarus exemption limit for firewood (740 Bq kg-1). In the case of high wood contamination levels (> 1000 Bq kg-1), power plant personnel working in the vicinity of ash conveyers should be subjected to radiation protection measures. For appropriate soil conditions, potential SRC yields are high. In Belarus, most soils are sandy with a low water retention, for which yield estimates are too low to make production profitable without irrigation. The economic viability should be thoroughly calculated for the prevailing conditions. In W. Europe, SRC production or conversion is not profitable without price incentives. For Belarus, the profitability of SRC on the production side largely depends on crop yield and price of the delivered bio-fuel. Large-scale heat conversion systems seem the most profitable and revenue may be considerable. Electricity routes are usually unprofitable. It could be concluded that energy production from SRC is potentially a radiologically and economically sustainable land use option for contaminated agricultural land.

  18. Thyroid cancer among Ukrainians and Belarusians who were children or adolescents at the time of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Bogdanova, T I [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine (Ukraine); Buglova, E [Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Chepurniy, M [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute, Kyiv (Ukraine); Demidchik, Y [Belarus State Medical University, Minsk, Belarus (Belarus); Gavrilin, Y [State Research Center-Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kenigsberg, J [Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Kruk, J [Research Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Schotola, C [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Shinkarev, S [State Research Center-Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tronko, M D [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine (Ukraine); Vavilov, S [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Institute, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2006-03-15

    Our objective is to assess the regional and temporal dependences of the baseline cases contributing to thyroid cancer incidence among those exposed in childhood or during adolescence in Belarus and Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. Data are analysed for Kyiv and Sevastopol City and the 25 oblasts (regions) in Ukraine, and for Minsk and Gomel City and the 6 oblasts in Belarus. Average thyroid doses due to the Chernobyl accident were assessed for every birth year in the period from 1968 to 1985. Case data pertain to people who underwent surgical removal of thyroid cancers during the period 1986 to 2001 and who were allocated to their place of residence at the time of the accident. The 35 oblasts/cities were subdivided into an upper, middle and lower group of baseline thyroid cancer incidence. Poisson regressions were performed to estimate age, time and gender dependences of the baseline incidence rates in the three groups. The majority of oblasts/cities with high average doses and the majority of Belarusian oblasts/cities belong to the upper group of baseline thyroid cancer incidence. The baseline in the upper group is estimated to be larger than in the middle group by a factor of 2.3, and by a factor of 4.0 when compared to the lower group. The baseline incidence increases with age and with time since exposure. Estimated baseline incidence rates were found to increase from 1988 to 1999 by factors of three and two for the upper and the two lower groups respectively. The estimated thyroid cancer incidence rates in Belarus and Ukraine, and their dependences on gender and age, are consistent with observed rates found in the larger cancer registries of other countries. In conclusion, the baseline cases are found to contribute about 70% to the thyroid cancer incidence in Ukraine, and about 40% to the incidence in Belarus.

  19. Plasma accelerator experiments in Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purić, J.; Astashynski, V. M.; Kuraica, M. M.; Dojčinovié, I. P.

    2002-12-01

    An overview is given of the results obtained in the Plasma Accelerator Experiments in Belgrade, using quasi-stationary high current plasma accelerators constructed within the framework of the Yugoslavia-Belarus Joint Project. So far, the following plasma accelerators have been realized: Magnetoplasma Compressor type (MPC); MPC Yu type; one stage Erosive Plasma Dynamic System (EPDS) and, in final stage of construction two stage Quasi-Stationary High Current Plasma Accelerator (QHPA).

  20. Proliferation and the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    xo;: p?.:’Ä.fec releases Distribution unlimited s I’ U53Qś 1 echnology Assessment Board of the 103d Congress EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts...AMO HOUGHTON, New York MICHAEL G. OXLEY, Ohio ROGER C. HERDMAN (Nonvoting) rip 1 echnology Assessment Advisory Council NEIL E. HARL, Chairman...example, Belarus has large truck manufacturing facilities, some of which had been used to build mobile launchers for the SS-25 ICBM. It also has

  1. NATIONAL INSURANCE MARKETS IN FORMATION OF EURASIAN ECONOMIC SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sembekov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article considers some of the problems of national insurance markets of Kazakhstan, Belarus and the Russian Federation in terms of integration associations of the Customs Union, the Eurasian Economic Community, activities of the Eurasian Economic comission for future of EES. Presented the analysis of general indicators of the insurance markets that characterize the level of development. Based on a comparative analysis concluded conclusions and recommendations in order to ensure the competitiveness of the insurance market in Kazakhstan.

  2. Sources of Financial Assistance for the Environmental Restoration of Former Military Lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and United Nations agencies. Key Contacts Mr. Le Breton (Task Manager TACIS Environment...Assistance for Restructuring of the Economy (PHARE) Rue de la Loi 200 B-1049 Brussels, Belgium Mr. Le Breton 1 Task Manager, TACIS Environment Program...Belarus LTC Andre Amond, Jr. Etat-Major Force Terrestre Section Plans et Programmes Sous-Section Infrastructure Quarter R. Elizabeth Rue d1 Evere

  3. Competition and cooperation problems in the energy sector of the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of competition and cooperation in the field of energy in the Baltic region, first of all, those related to the export of Russian oil and oil products, the Nord Stream gas pipeline, and the construction of nuclear plants in Poland, the Kaliningrad region, Lithuania, and Belarus. The author shows that, though Russia and the EU occasionally pursue opposite goals, there is considerable interdependence between them, and a confrontation is disadvantageous for both parties.

  4. Problemy konkurencii i kooperacii v toplivno-jenergeticheskom komplekse Baltijskogo regiona [Competition and cooperation problems in the energy sector of the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of competition and cooperation in the field of energy in the Baltic region, first of all, those related to the export of Russian oil and oil products, the Nord Stream gas pipeline, and the construction of nuclear plants in Poland, the Kaliningrad region, Lithuania, and Belarus. The author shows that, though Russia and the EU occasionally pursue opposite goals, there is considerable interdependence between them, and a confrontation is disadvantageous for both parties.

  5. Lithuanian Energy Security: Lithuania’s Dependence on Energy Supply From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    European networks and has its only junction from Russia through Belarus, as well as a branch of the pipeline going from Lithuania to Kaliningrad ...tap‟ for disobedient neighbors, the Western countries will not be affected. Kaliningrad Oblast will not feel any negative effect either, because a...branch of Nord Stream to Kaliningrad will be built37. While analyzing the possibility to diversify gas supply and consequently reduce dependence on

  6. Impact of WTO Accession and the Customs Union on the Bound and Applied Tariff Rates of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Tarr, David G.

    2012-01-01

    After 18 years of negotiations, Russia has joined the World Trade Organization. This paper assesses how the tariff structure of the Russian Federation will change as a result of the phased implementation of its World Trade Organization commitments between 2012 and 2020 and how it has changed as a result of its agreement to participate in a Customs Union with Kazakhstan and Belarus. The an...

  7. Частный сектор культуры Республики Беларуси: становление и развитие (1991–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Димитрий [Dimitriĭ] А. [A.] Кривошей [Krivosheĭ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Private sector of culture of the Republic of Belarus: formation and development (1991–2008 In the given research the author on the basis of the historical and genetic analysis, methods of typology and deduction represents the basic segments of sphere of culture of the Belarus in which private subjects of culture have arisen and developed. The analysis of achievements and lacks of the given phenomenon is carried out, the factors influencing development are marked. The private sector in sphere of culture of Belarus in 1991–2008 could not create appreciable enough competition to official bodies. In cultural aspect only some projects became really platforms for experiment. First of all it concerns theatrical creativity, motion picture arts and painting. Development of a competition was not promoted by a state policy creating unequal conditions for development (tax privileges, rent decrease, etc.. Negative influence on formation of private noncommercial sector has rendered absence of the developed legislation on sponsorship and patronage of arts. Private establishments in culture sphere were created both the commercial organizations and individual businessmen, and the private persons far from business. The aspiration to profit not always was the main thing for businessmen. Private theatre in Gomel, a museum‑drugstore in Grodno, picture galleries were created by businessmen for the purposes more likely aesthetic, for confirmation of the status. The satisfaction of personal ambitions, the aspiration to be more available to public was the main thing for noncommercial projects. Most brightly it is appreciable in museum business (A. Bely, J. Gil’s museum. The projects arisen and developing on a wave of political disagreements in the country are present at a private sector of culture of the Belarus (cinéma vérité, museums. It is necessary to ascertain full absence in the country of private cinemas and film studios of game cinema, the

  8. Russia’s Revival: Ambitions, Limitations, and Opportunities for the United States (INSS Strategic Perspectives, Number 3, January 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    2030.43 A good immigration or migrant worker policy could alleviate the impact of these trends on Russia as well as smooth relations with its neighbors...still undone Soviet legacy of production assets—factories and workers —plunked down in economically un- tenable places by central planning. All these...in Russia and send remittances to support their families back home. Ukraine and Belarus share Russia’s trend toward population decline and are still

  9. The Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    creating the Nunn- Lugar program. In mid-month, Secretary of State James A. Baker III led an interagency team to Moscow, Alma-Ata, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan...Minsk, for the first of many detailed discussions of Russian weapons reductions, Ukraine-Belarus-Kazakhstan denuclearization, and potential Nunn- Lugar ...principles, and market economies. Their task is far from easy and far from over. They will need our help, and they will get it. But these dramatic changes

  10. Black Sea and Caspian Sea, Symposium II, Constanta, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    December, on the eve of the Russia-Belarus energy transit dispute, Royal Dutch Shell, along with Japanese partners Mitsui and Mitsubishi, under...enjoyed the tour of one of the prominent winery and the chances to enjoy excellent cuisine . | 139 Symposium attendees listen to a briefing on...theme of the conference, the entertainment included cultural performances by local dancers and the chance to enjoy the local cuisine . Th e

  11. Фразеология в романах Флориана Чарнышевича как языковое свидетельство образа заимоотношений польской общности на приберезинской территории в начале ХХ века

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ostrówka

    2015-06-01

    • having full semantic, lexical and grammatical equivalents in Belorussian and Russian. This division results from the historical and linguistic conditions – the Poles inhabiting ethnic Belarus lived in a multinational environment. Traditional Polish communities were located near Belorussian and Russian (Old-Believers’ villages. The genetic proximity of the Polish, Belorussian (including dialects and Russian languages gave rise to numerous language interferences. The evidence of this is the vocabulary used in Czarnyszewicz’s novels, especially idioms.

  12. Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnieks Dāvis

    2014-01-01

    With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient a...

  13. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Europe. Status December 2014; Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen in Europa. Stand: Dezember 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendebach, Boris; Imielski, Przemyslaw [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Kuehn, Kerstin; Rehs, Bernd

    2015-05-15

    The report on decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities in Europe (status December 2014) summarizes the reasons and plans for decommissioning, the regulations and responsibilities, the decommissioning strategies and the finalized decommissioning projects. The specific activities are described for Armenia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, UK, Italy, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Hungary and Belarus.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CHIPPERS BLADES OVERSEAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alifanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researches of steels used for the manufacture of imported chipper knives. Recommendations on the choice of steel grades from the CIS countries, similar on the properties of the imported knives. For the manufacture of pilot batches of blades for cutting wood chips were selected steels 5ХНВС, 6ХВ2С, intended for testing of the woodworking enterprises of the Republic of Belarus.

  15. Chernobyl-what do we need to know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor No.4 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant explodes on April 26, 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols, and gases (including iodine and caesium) are ejected into the atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant (Belarus, Ukraine) but deposits are very uneven, producing a 'leopard spot' type of pattern (Russian Federation). In Europe, propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives over France. The eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. For the contamination, ground, water, and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. In France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. It is hard to assess the impact on health in the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant; among children in southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. The doses delivered in France represent generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor No.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provide for december 2000. (N.C.)

  16. Местное приграничное передвижение как эффективный инструмент развития приграничного сотрудничества

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Local border traffic (LBT is a tool for cooperation between the EU member states and neighbouring countries. It emerged as a measure to mitigate the barrier effect of the EU’s external border. In 2006, the European Parliament authorised the EU member states to conclude bilateral agreements on a simplified border crossing regime in border areas. This article analyses local border traffic as a cross-border cooperation tool. The territory described in the study includes the external borders of the EU (and Norway with the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus. The article will be of interest to specialists in international and, particularly, in cross-border cooperation. The authors analyse the mechanism of local border traffic and identify possible trends based on the general socioeconomic situation and foreign policy background in Russia, Belarus, and the EU (Norway. The article employs the cartographic method to enhance the visual component of the study. It is concluded that the LBT mechanism is effective and it has a positive effect on the development of border contacts between countries. There is a need to continue the dialogue between Russia, Belarus and the EU countries on both expanding the geographical scope of the LBT mechanism and ensuring its qualitative development.

  17. Shift of extreme spring streamflow on the Belorussian rivers and its association with changes of cyclonic activity over Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partasenok, Irina; Chekan, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    The intra-annual distribution of precipitation is the most variable component of the water resources of Belarus. This distribution is controlled by extratropical cyclones from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean that bring most of precipitation to the nation. That's why the aim of our study was to quantify major characteristics of these cyclones and to estimate effects of their passing through the Belorussian territory on regional water budget including floods and low water conditions. We documented the long-term fluctuations of streamflow and occurrence of extreme phenomena on the rivers of Belarus during the post-World War II period. It was established that annual water budget of the nation vary from year to year without systematic tendencies. At the same time, analysis of intra-annual distribution of streamflow reveals significant changes since the 1970s: increase of winter and decrease of spring runoff. As a result, the frequency of extreme spring floods has decreased. These changes in water regime are associated with climatic anomalies caused by large-scale alterations in atmospheric circulation, specifically in trajectories of cyclones. As a manifestation of these circulation changes, we observe increase of the surface air temperatures, more frequent cold season thaws, redistribution of seasonal precipitation totals, and decrease of the fraction of frozen precipitation in the shoulder seasons. Analysis of cyclonic activity over Belarus during the past 60 years in the cold season (December through February) shows the largest number of cyclones in 1950-1970. During this period, the largest number of spring floods caused by snowmelt on the rivers of Belarus was reported. Since 1970, we observe a decrease in the total number of cyclones but also an increasing strength (deepening) of the remaining cyclones in the cold season. That has led to some precipitation increase. During the last four decades, more frequent zonal air movement in the atmosphere and

  18. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  19. Reconstruction of radiation doses in a case-control study of thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Khrouch, Valeri; Maceika, Evaldas; Zvonova, Irina; Vlasov, Oleg; Bratilova, Angelica; Gavrilin, Yury; Goulko, Guennadi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Shinkarev, Sergey; Tenet, Vanessa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Bouville, André

    2010-07-01

    A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer was carried out in contaminated regions of Belarus and Russia among persons who were exposed during childhood and adolescence to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. For each study subject, individual thyroid doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) intake of 131I via inhalation and ingestion; (2) intake of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, and 135I) and radiotelluriums (131mTe, 132Te) via inhalation and ingestion; (3) external dose from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (4) ingestion of 134Cs and 137Cs. A series of intercomparison exercises validated the models used for reconstruction of average doses to populations of specific age groups as well as of individual doses. Median thyroid doses from all factors for study subjects were estimated to be 0.37 and 0.034 Gy in Belarus and Russia, respectively. The highest individual thyroid doses among the subjects were 10.2 Gy in Belarus and 5.3 Gy in Russia. Iodine-131 intake was the main pathway for thyroid exposure. Estimated doses from short-lived radioiodines and radiotelluriums ranged up to 0.53 Gy. Reconstructed individual thyroid doses from external exposure ranged up to 0.1 Gy, while those from internal exposure due to ingested cesium did not exceed 0.05 Gy. The uncertainty of the reconstructed individual thyroid doses, characterized by the geometric standard deviation, varies from 1.7 to 4.0 with a median of 2.2.

  20. Przemiany narodowościowo-językowe ludności Białorusi na przełomie XX i XXI wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Eberhardt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic and linguistic changes of the Belarusian population at the turn of the 21th centuryThe first part of the article presents historical background of the origin of the Belarusian nation, located in the area of a confrontation between Russia and Poland. This rivalry was won by Russia, and in effect Belarusian land was incorporated into the Russian Empire, and later into the Soviet state. The next part presents the 20th century ethnic structure as the consequence of the Bolshevik Revolution and World Wars I and II, resulting in some border changes, war loses and migration movements. The main part of the article deals with the ethnic and language changes which occurred in the last decade of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st centuries. The statistical analysis and interpretation is based on data from three population censuses (1989, 1999, 2009. An ethnic structure and linguistic situation are presented with the emphasis placed on the status of the two languages commonly used in Belarus, i.e. Russian and Belarusian, as seen in two categories: of mother language and of the language used for communication at home. The conclusions prove the expansion of popularity of the Russian language and gradual decrease of the use of the Belarusian language, both in public and at home. The processes of Russification, which had begun in the Soviet period, are intensifying despite the fact that Belarus regained its political souverianity as a country. On the basis of quantitative data the author defines specific intensity and territorial distribution of the influence of the Russian language. The final part of the article shows political and geo-political consequences of these changes in Belarus.

  1. Economic Integration and New Export Opportunities for the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Volchkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At a time when oil prices are low, non-oil exports are important for the members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU. This study assesses the effects of the EAEU’s economic integration on the development of new exports. EAEU countries are far behind global export leaders in several categories according to the revealed comparative advantage, used by the Hausmann-Klinger method to assess national export baskets. Belarus exports the most products, and Russia and especially Armenia and Kazakhstan export notably fewer. The comparative advantages of Kazakhstan and Russia are concentrated mainly in minerals, chemical products and metals. The export structure for the other EAEU countries is more diverse, with a high share of foodstuffs in Armenia and textiles in Belarus. Kazakhstan and, to a greater extent, Belarus and Russia show a rather complex export basket, significantly ahead of Armenia according to this indicator. For the EAEU as an independent participant, its trade complexity index is higher than that for its member countries individually. This article uses the Hausmann-Klinger methodology to identify the future comparative advantages of the EAEU countries. These are product groups, towards which a structural transformation of the EAEU exports most likely occurs. The research focuses on the integration aspect of possible non-oil exports, seeking to identify goods, including chemicals and textiles, that can eventually provide a comparative advantage for the EAEU as a whole. Most of the products considered have a greater economic complexity than those in the EAEU’s current export basket, so would improve its overall export structure.

  2. Лингво-музыкальная лексика песни как часть этно-культурного наследия былого ВКЛ (Беларусь и приграничья

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина [Galina] Кутырёва-Чубаля [Kutyriowa-Czubala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The language of folk songs as a part of cultural heritage of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Belarus and its borderzones This paper examines the melodic and rhythmic properties of the language of songs in the area defined by the basins of Dvina, Nioman and Pripyat’ rivers. In this area, a lexical stylistic layer has been forming since the ancient times.. This layer has a few distinctive features: (1 domination of a certain type of “atomic” elements (stress feet of rhythmic morphemes in various syllabic structures; (2 presence of vocal poetic lines based on the measure typical for the area; 3 types of stanzaic organization, reflect the compositional thinking of the culture; (4 a complex of ethnophony, comprising such suprasegmental features as pitch, melody, poetic metre and caesuras, volume dynamics, rhythm. These factors combine to determine the integrity and distinctiveness of the vocal lexis and the whole phonosphere of the area, and its difference from from the lexical styles of other parts of Belarus. The main difference lies in the fact that most songs in the area are performed in the manner of incantatory declamation. This stands in stark contrast to the way in which songs are performed in the area of Dnepr basin – songs in Dnepr basin are accompanied by dancing, and could be defined rather as chants or incantations. Within the linguistic continuum of the area, it is possible to distinguish areas of different foot and rhythm modes, poetic meters, melodic properties, and compositional styles. The territorial divisions in Belarus correspond to a large extent to different dialectal areas. The historical-cultural layer of songs has its origins in ancient times, evolved in times of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and to a large extent retained its distinctive character to date.

  3. Epidemiology, diagnostics and long-term overall survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer in the Brest Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siarhei Panko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer has been the most common cancer in the world and in Belarus. Aim of the research: To evaluate the epidemiology of non-small cell lung cancer and improvements in diagnostics and treatment for the past 11 years in the Brest Region of Belarus. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of statistical data (incidence rate, mortality in the regional cancer registry of the Brest oncological clinic since 2000 and assessed survival for 652 adult patients with different stages of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC who underwent surgery in the Thoracic Surgery Department of Brest Regional Hospital in 2002–2010. Results: Lung cancer continues to have the highest incidence rate among malignant neoplasms and because of its high fatality rate is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the Brest Region and Belarus. The chest radiography screening programme of lung cancer since 2000 and the implementation of computed tomography (CT- and ultrasonography (USG-guided needle biopsy and VATS LigaSure pulmonary wedge resection for the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules has allowed an increase of diagnostic rates and improved the histological confirmation rate of lung cancer in the Brest Region. Multivariate analysis indicates that male sex, age older than seventy and incomplete surgical resection are independent predictors of poor prognosis for postoperative long-term overall survival. Conclusions : Today it is necessary to carry out low-dose spiral computerized diagnostics in the Brest Region, which would detect a greater proportion of asymptomatic lung cancers. Surgical resection remains the only consistent and successful option of a cure for patients with lung cancer.

  4. Chernobylsk: some bothering facts; Tchernobyl: quelques faits derangeants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belbeach, B

    2005-07-01

    First, are some preliminary comments about the official sanitary assessment of the Chernobyl disaster. The second point concerns the liquidators with the hot particles ( very radioactive particles of some microns) knowledge got from autopsies, from the bronchi pulmonary washing made on sick persons. Always about the liquidators the neurological disorders as post radiative encephalopathy. A third point is relative to the hot particles and the populations. The fourth point is devoted to the birth malformations, in Belarus and Ukraine with an incidence in report with the level of soil contamination (Belarus). The fifth point concerns the alteration of the genome (animals and humans), new mutations appear. The sixth point is devoted to the leukemia in Greece, increase of leukemia incidence among the infants in utero irradiated following Chernobylsk accident. The incidence leukemia of babies ( less than one year old) exposed in utero increases with the soil contamination ( 32.2/10{sup 6}/year in low contaminated soils, 71.4/10{sup 6}/year for average contaminated areas and 141.3/10{sup 6}/year for the most contaminated areas). A final point treats the question of the contamination situation in France and if there is a correlation with an increase of thyroid cancers in Corsica, East and South East of France. The lack of registers that inscribe the cancer cases in the different regions does not allow to make comparison between before and after Chernobylsk accident. But a comparison using the British incidence (0.5/10{sup 6}/year) before Chernobylsk ( in agreement with the incidence found in Belarus before Chernobylsk) shows an increase to 1.17/10{sup 6}/year for the Lorraine area and to 2.25/10{sup 6}/year for the South East and Corsica areas. (N.C.)

  5. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  6. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available European wolves (Canis lupus show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  7. EARTH’S CRUST FRACTURES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF ENGINEERING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mikhailov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a tectonics influence on construction and operation of engineering structures on the territory of Belarus.  An example of studying  tectonic  fracture zones  in  the  Soligorsk  mining region with disturbed geological medium is given in the paper. The paper contains conclusions on necessity of obligatory account of geo-dynamic factors at all stages of constructing industrial projects, pipe-line transport and automobile roads.

  8. Variation in Child Cognitive Ability by Week of Gestation Among Healthy Term Births

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Seungmi; Platt, Robert W.; Kramer, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated variations in cognitive ability by gestational age among 13,824 children at age 6.5 years who were born at term with normal weight, using data from a prospective cohort recruited in 1996–1997 in Belarus. The mean differences in the Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence were examined by gestational age in completed weeks and by fetal growth after controlling for maternal and family characteristics. Compared with the score for those born at 39–41 weeks, the full-s...

  9. Early Ukrainian-Belarusian-Polish traditional melo-massif: Interethnic wedding macro-areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through rhythm-typological analysis and cartography the author has detected a similarity in the typological structure of early traditional musical forms belonging to agricultural and wedding genres on the territory which unites Ukraine, Belarus (within its ethnic area at the beginning of the 20th century, Eastern Poland (the Vistula river basin, and Lithuania (Dzūkija and Aukštaitija. This concerns several dozen song types, composed of items from a common grammatical base, forming the Ukrainian- Belarusian-Polish early-traditional melo-massif ‒ UBPEM. These types share interethnic (2-4-lingual areals, which do not correlate with linguistic ones.

  10. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  11. Speciation of caesium-137 and plutonium-isotopes in Chernobyl soil

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstrand, Marte Varpen

    2011-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident (1986) in present day Ukraine, was the first INES level 7 nuclear accident in the history of nuclear power. About 6-8 tonnes of spend uranium fuel were released and the fallout contained a series of short- and long lived radionuclides. The main deposition was in an area 30 km around the ChNPP, and the southern parts of Belarus. The area was permanently evacuated and called the exclusion zone. Some of the most long lived radionuclides released...

  12. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  13. DESIGN AND TEST RESULTS FOR MULTIPLE-CONTACT GEAR OF «BELARUS»-TRACTOR TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Supin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gearing with high contact ratio (HCR has other properties than gearing formed with a standard original profile. The gearing is characterized by increased loading capacity. The paper presents a boundary element method (BEM which is applied to solve a problem pertaining to stress concentration at the tooth root. Gear-box casing with multiple-contact gear has remained in series production. Results of the investigations have been realized in the experimental gearbox of  the «Belarus-1523» tractor.

  14. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-12-27

    The Director`s Series on Proliferation is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The seven papers presented in this issue cover the following topics: Should the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) be amended?; NPT extension - Legal and procedural issues; An Indonesian view of NPT review conference issues; The treaty of Tlatelolco and the NPT - Tools for peace and development; Perspectives on cut-off, weapons dismantlement, and security assurances; Belarus and NPT challenges; A perspective on the chemical weapons convention - Lessons learned from the preparatory commission.

  15. The informative providing of trade education is in industry of physical culture and sport of countries of former soviet spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Svistel’nik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the innovative forms of the informative providing of educational process in institutions of higher learning of physical culture and sport of countries: Ukraine, Republic of Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Republic of Kazakhstan, Republic of Uzbekistan, Russian Federation. Material & Methods: content-analysis of web sites and web pages of sporting institutions of higher learning of these countries. Results: the informative providing of institutions of higher learning of physical culture and sport of Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and RF differs substantially, in spite of the fact that the specific of educating in these educational establishments is identical. Institutions of higher learning of physical culture and sport of Ukraine actively offer the innovative forms of the informative providing − give possibility to the students and teachers to take advantage of e-catalog, electronic repository, virtual bibliographic certificate, electronic delivery of document. Sporting institutions of higher learning of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Russian Federation carry out the informative providing by means of the electronic-library systems, in particular "Znanium.com" and "Rukont". The system "Rukont" is erected in the grade of the national inter-branch digital resource created on the base of state educational standard and contains the informative resource of different family: books, magazines, separate articles, and also audio, video data, multimedia. Collection of electronic versions of editions of electronic-library systems "Znanium.com" unites books, magazines, articles grouped on thematic and having a special purpose signs. The unique institute of higher of Republic of Moldova does not give electronic informative services, but uses the traditional forms of the informative providing by means of catalogues and card library indexes. Conclusions: higher educational establishments of physical culture and

  16. Contemporary Targets for Control of Efficient Energy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Petrusha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes main principles of the methodology for control of efficient energy use in power engineering and economy sectors as a whole. Targets for control of energy use at different levels have been considered in the paper. A special attention has been paid to technical, organizational and legal aspects of energy efficiency improvement. The paper contains an analysis of the history of the given issue, the present level of its development and near-term prospects under conditions of the Republic of Belarus.

  17. 2007 International Children’s Day & Children’s Articles Expo,Jinan,China Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>On the morning of July 6,the 2007 International Children’s Day & Children’s Articles Expo,Jinan,China with the theme of "Harmonious World and Joyful Childhood" was opened at the Shungeng International Exhibition Centre in Jinan. 330 representatives from 18 countries and regions including Germany,Russia,Belarus,France,the Republic of Korea,Japan,Indonesia,India and Ukraine and the Chinese children’s delegation attended the grand opening ceremony. Huang Sheng,deputy governor of Shandong Province,declared the inauguration of the Children’s Day activities. Zhang Jianguo,mayor of Jinan,delivered a speech.

  18. The power of law versus the law of power - Interview with Stanislav Markelov, Lawyer, Moscow, 3 June 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Merlin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available PIPSS.ORG – You worked as a lawyer on the Budanov case, and you created the Rule of Law Institute. How long since this institute was created?Stanislav Markelov: About two years.PIPSS.ORG – Who is the founder of the institute?Stanislav Markelov: I am.PIPSS.ORG – In which regions of Russia is this institute active? How many regions have branches? Stanislav Markelov: If I’m not mistaken, there are branches in 22 regions of Russia, and in other CIS countries: Belarus and Ukraine.PIPSS.ORG – What ...

  19. Putin's Dream of a Eurasian Union Background, Objectives and Possibilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin

    2011-01-01

    On October 3, 2011, Putin published a paper titled "The New Integration Plan on Eurasia: Future Born Today",1 in which heconceived a plan to create a Eurasian Union of former USSR states and integrate the European region with the Asia-Pacific region. That Russia is serious about this plan can be seen in the establishment of a Free Trade Area of the CIS, the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, and the Unified Economic Space under the framework of the Eurasian Economic Community.

  20. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CERTIFICATION AND RATIONALIZATION OF EMPLOYMENT SERVICE ENTERPRISES OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kovalev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the economic feasibility of the work on certification and rationalization of employment offices and technical service organizations, agribusiness in the case of the Republic of Belarus. Organizational effectiveness factors of the enterprise is about one-third of the total effect of the activities generated from the implementation of the "internal" reserves of plant efficiency, a significant share of this belongs to the employment factors that are associated with the improvement of the organization of labor groups and direct each worker individually.

  1. Natural and man-made radioactivity: Chernobyl soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Flowers, Alan

    2014-05-01

    In 1986 a reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant suffered a large explosion. The result had wide-ranging impacts. 31 severely exposed emergency workers died from acute radiation syndrome and 19 more later died from different causes. The perhaps controversial prediction by some authors is that around 4,000 will eventually die as a result of the increased cancer risk. A 19-mile restriction zone exists around the former reactor, but during the past 25 years radiation levels have fallen and it is now possible to take part in conducted tours of the deserted city of Pripyat, and the Chernobyl reactor site. Soil levels, however, remain highly radioactive, particularly in the restricted area. Kingston University holds:- • Soil profile sets from 3 locations in Belarus, with repeats at same location 1996 and 2000. • Lake sediment core samples. • Soil profiles at forestry sites. • Surface samples in a region suspected to have actinide content at 200km from Chernobyl. In addition to the above the impact of naturally occurring radon on human health around Chernobyl should not be ignored. About 23 per cent of homes in Ukraine are estimated to have radon levels above 100 Bq m-3, whilst concentrations of 10,000 Bq m-3 or more are known to exist in public water supplies. Some researchers have also suggested that mean annual doses of irradiation of the population caused by radon and it's progeny in air in buildings exceeds the doses received now by inhabitants of settlements located in the territories polluted by Chernobyl-derived nuclides in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Belarus. This project incorporates a temporal comparison of transport results in undisturbed soils variously over a number of years, demonstrating relative measurements using both the original and new samples. This project will also focus on lake sediments from Southern Belarus and is a 'work in progress'. However, what we can say at this stage is that it is notable that the long lived isotopes of Cs-137

  2. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  3. Republic of Moldova – the success story of the Eastern Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Rotaru

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The power change in Ukraine and the violent crackdown on the post electoral protestors in Belarus jeopardize the Eastern Partnership. The EU’s efforts to democratize and stabilize its eastern border could become more and more difficult if Brussels does not find quickly a solution to keep the six partners interested in its projects. This paper examines the latest challenges of the Eastern Partnership and the reasons why the Republic of Moldova could be the successful story the Eastern Partnership is seeking.

  4. Baltic nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlys, Gediminas; Adliene, Diana [Kaunas Univ. of Technology (Lithuania)

    2009-07-01

    The Authors discuss the Baltic energy policy with respect to new nuclear power plants for Lithuania, Belarus and the Kaliningrad region. The construction of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania would threaten Russian interests in the region. Therefore Lithuania is looking to Russian plans to build a new nuclear power plant in the Kaliningrad region as an attempt to subvert Lithuania's foreign partners and potential investors from participating in the Visaginas NPP project. However, the authors conclude, that the Visaginas NPP project is and must be the preferential project for the EU and NATO member states.

  5. RELIABILITY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF BUSES OF GROUP MAZ

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bessarab

    2013-01-01

    All over the world safety of maintained vehicles has the major value. For motor vehicles of the Republic of Belarus this problem is also actual. Maintenance of high reliability of brake systems of cars in operation is one of ways of the decision of a problem of increase of traffic safety.The analysis of reliability of brake systems of buses MAZ is carried out following the results of the state maintenance service in 2010 and the analysis of premature returns from routes of movement of buses M...

  6. Paris, Moscow, and “Europe out of the EU”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perchoc Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the presidencies of Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande, the French diplomats were keen to strengthen the partnership between Paris and Moscow as it served French interests on the international stage. In this context, this article demonstrates that Eastern-Central Europe (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the Caucasus is of secondary interest for French diplomacy, unless it provides an opportunity to highlight Paris’ role in international affairs. The Georgian war in 2008, the Mistral issue, and the Ukraine crises are several good illustrations of this phenomenon.

  7. Ordinary Men? Collaboration and Resistance in Occupied Mogilevskaya Oblast'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Rodeheffer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is to examine developments in Mogilevskaya Oblast' in eastern Belarus. How the region fell under occupation, the attitudes of the thousands of Soviet citizens who decided to collaborate with the fascist occupiers, and the divisions that developed in the population as a result of collaboration are discussed. At roughly the same time, a resistance movement, made up of partisans and underground urban fighters, developed in these occupied territories. The development, tactics, and effectiveness of these partisans and resistance fighters will be analyzed, along with the reactions of the occupying powers to this insurgency.

  8. [Toxic complications of high-dose polychemotherapy in the transplantation of bone marrow and of peripheral blood stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uss, A L; Milanovich, N F; Skriagin, A E; Zmachinskiĭ, V A; Snegir', V M; Batan, Z E; Komarovskaia, M E; Mitskevich, P B; Levin, V I

    1997-01-01

    The authors propose their own system of assessment of high-dose polychemotherapy toxicity. The system was applied to toxic complications of high-dose polychemotherapy in 31 patients with hematological malignancies subjected to allogenic, autologous bone marrow transplantation and transplantation of stem cells from peripheral blood within the scope of different protocols of high-dose polychemotherapy in conditioning regimen. A special scale developed in the Belarus Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation basing on the above system provides prediction of survival in early post-transplantation period.

  9. Occupational exposure at a contemplated Belarussian power plant fired with contaminated biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper...... focuses on the radiation doses that may be received by workers at such a power plant. By Monte Carlo modelling based on a Danish biofuel power plant design it was found that the highest dose rates within the power plant would be those to people standing near the fly ash silo, bottom ash containers and so...

  10. Technical and Economic Advantages of Turbo-Drive Variant with TRB Turbines over Turbo-Generator Variant in Low Power Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Panteley

    2008-01-01

    The paper contains a comparative analysis of turbo-driven variant application with TRB turbines and turbo-generator variant in the low power engineering. High efficiency of steam-turbine drive application with TRB turbines is proved by calculation which is made on the basis of a SE-1250-140 network pump at one of the boilers of the Republic of Belarus taken as an example. Calculation has been made for the following steam parameters: turbo-drive input – 12 kgs/cm and 250 and parameters behind ...

  11. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  12. Resolution VII International Conference Working Group on Birds of Prey of Northern Eurasia “Birds of Prey of Northern Eurasia: Problems and Adaptation Under Modern Conditions”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From 19 to 24 September, 2016 VII International Conference of the Working Group on Raptors of Northern Eurasia “Birds of prey of Northern Eurasia: problems and adaptation under modern conditions” was held on the basis of the Sochi National Park. Materials for the conference were presented by 198 ornithologists from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Austria, Great Britain, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Estonia and the USA, who published 148 articles in two collections “Birds of prey of Northern Eurasia” and “Palearctic Harriers”.

  13. Immediate and long-term efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy with Photolon (Fotolon): a seven-year clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Yuri P.; Kaplan, Michael A.; Shliakhtsin, Siarhei V.; Lapzevich, Tatsiana P.; Cerkovsky, Dmitriy A.; Marchanka, Ludmila N.; Fedulov, Alexander S.; Trukhachova, Tatsiana V.

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to summarize data on the long-term efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photolon in patients with malignant tumors of various types and localizations. The data obtained show that PDT with Photolon is a highly effective therapeutic modality for the treatment of skin tumors, cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, lung cancers, disseminated forms of melanoma, primary and metastatic brain tumors, several ophthalmologic diseases. This paper provides a review of most illustrative studies of the application of PDT with Photolon for the treatment of different oncological and non-oncological diseases performed in leading clinical centers of the Republic of Belarus and Russia.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE SETTLEMENTS LOCATED IN THE TERRITORIES CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the average annual effective exposure doses of the inhabitants of the territories contaminated due to the Chernobul accident had been developed according to the method of the assessment of the average annual effective exposure doses of the settlements inhabitants. The cost-efficacy of the use of the average annual effective dose assessment method was 250 000 USD for the current 5 years. Average annual effective dose exceeded 1 mSv/year for 191 Belarus settlements from 2613. About 50 000 persons are living in these settlements.

  15. Отношение к беженцам в Беларуси

    OpenAIRE

    Выборный, Виталий Дмитриевич

    2001-01-01

    Раздел - "Международное право" The article presents the results of a public opinion poll "The attitude towards refugees in Belarus". The Mogilev City Association "Humanitarian Initiative" has made an attempt to fill in the gap in information on this problem within the framework of a joint project with the International Public Association for UN Studies, Information and Educational Programmes and the UNHCR. The rise of the migrational activities, wide uncontrolled movement of displ...

  16. Classifying Failing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    To Amy High and the other AFIT librarians , thank you for repeatedly going above and beyond your call to track down crucial information, often...Liechtenstein Bangladesh Ethiopia Lithuania Barbados Fiji Luxembourg Belarus Finland Macau Belgium France Macedonia Belize French Polynesia Madagascar Benin...0.017 0.006 -0.905 1.752 Poland Core Core 0.841 0.015 0.143 0.267 1.784 Denmark Core Core 0.985 0.014 0.000 -1.902 1.788 Finland Core Core 0.986 0.013

  17. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T. (eds.); Antipkin, Yu.G. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L.P. [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D.A. [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)] (and others)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  18. The consequences of Chernobyl. Challenges and problem solutions; Die Folgen von Tschernobyl. Herausforderungen und Auswege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moltmann, B. [ed.; Sahm, A. [ed.; Sapper, M. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    International environmental policy requires three kinds of competency: adequate expert knowledge in matters of reactor safety, environmental and health hazards, economic competency, and competency in the social and political sciences, which place issues in their social context and investigate how wills are formed and decision processes are made; finally the desire to draw conclusions from insight gained. But the example of Chernobyl shows that the boundary conditions of environmental policy in eastern Europe are distinct from the ones in western industrial societies. The papers that make up this book document the dialogue between natural science experts, technical experts, social and political science, and active politics. Experts heard are from Germany, Russia and Belarus, as well as from international organizations. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Internationale Umweltpolitik erfordert dreierlei Kompetenz: die Faehigkeit der Fachwissenschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit, Umwelt und Gesundheitsbelastungen, Energiewirtschaft, dann aber auch die Kenntnisse der Sozial- und Politikwissenschaft, die die Sachprobleme gesellschaftlich vermitteln und Willensbildung und Entscheidungsprozesse untersuchen, und schliesslich den Willen, aus gewonnenen Einsichten auch Schlussfolgerungen zu ziehen. Dabei zeigt das Beispiel Tschernobyl, dass Umweltpolitik in Osteuropa unter anderen Rahmenbedingungen als in den westlichen Industriegesellschaften stattfindet. Die Beitraege in diesem Buch dokumentieren den Dialog zwischen natur- und technikwissenschaftlichen Experten, Sozial- und Politikwissenschaft, aber auch der politischen Praxis. Dabei kommen Fachleute aus Deutschland, Russland und Belarus sowie Angehoerige internationaler Organisationen zu Wort. (orig./HP)

  19. Chernobyl; Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report relates the Chernobylsk accident, why following a succession of technical malfunctions and human errors, reactor no. 4 of the Chernobylsk nuclear power plant explodes on April 26. 1986. Radioactive dust, aerosols and gases (including caesium and iodine) are ejected into atmosphere. The regions worst hit are in the immediate vicinity of the plant, but deposits are very uneven, producing a leopard spot type of pattern. Propelled by easterly winds, the radioactive cloud disperses increasingly, scattering deposits over the whole of Europe. At the beginning of May, the cloud arrives in France. the eastern portion of the country is most strongly affected. Ground, water and agriculture are contaminated by caesium deposits in Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation. About the contamination in France, ground contamination is slight, fourteen years later, however, it is still detectable. Relative to the impact on health in the vicinity of Chernobylsk plant, it is hard to assess this impact. Among children in Southern Belarus, the number of thyroid cancers has risen one hundred-fold. In France, the doses delivered represents generally less than 1% of the average annual dose from radioactivity of natural origin. But some of the doses received were higher. Today, the protective sarcophagus covering the damaged reactor is fragile. Reactor no.3, still in operation, continues to pose a risk but the shutdown is provided for december 2000. (N.C.)

  20. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T. [International Fund Arnica, Minsk (Belarus); Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V. [Brest Regional Endocrinological Dispensary, Brest (Belarus); Branovan, I. [Chernobyl Project, New-York (United States); Biko, I.; Reiners, C. [Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wursburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  1. Lessons learned from post-accident management at Chernobyl: the P.a.r.e.x. project; Retour d'experience sur la gestion post-accidentelle de Tchernobyl: le projet Parex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G. [Mutadis Consultants, 75 - Paris (France); Lochard, J.; Bataille, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Ollagnon, H. [AgroParisTech, 75 - Paris (France); Baude, St. [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-07-15

    Return of experience on Chernobyl post-accident management: the PAREX study Belarus is the country the most affected by the Chernobyl fallouts and is among the most significant experiences in the nuclear post-accident field. Despite specificities inherent to the political and social situation in Belarus, the experience of post-accidental management in this country holds a wealth of lessons in the perspective of preparation to a post-accidental situation in the French and European context. Through the PAREX project (2005-2006), the French Nuclear Safety Authority analysed the return of experience of Chernobyl post-accident management from 1986 to 2005 in order to draw its lessons in the perspective of a preparation policy. The study was led by a group of experts and involved the participation of a pluralistic group of about thirty participants (public authorities, local governments, NGOs, experts, operators). PAREX highlighted the complexity of a situation of long-lasting radioactive contamination (diversity of stakeholders and of dimensions at stake: health, environment, economy, society...). Beyond traditional public crisis management tools and frameworks, post-accident strategies also involves in the longer term a territorial and social response, which relies on local capacities of initiative. Preparation to such process requires experimenting new modes of operation that allow a diversity of local actors to take part to the response to a situation of contamination and to the surveillance system, with the support of public authorities. The conclusions of PAREX include a set of recommendations in this perspective. (authors)

  2. Spatial Distribution of Carbonaceous Aerosol in the Southeastern Baltic Sea Region (Event of Grass Fires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudoitis, Vadimas; Byčenkienė, Steigvilė; Plauškaitė, Kristina; Bozzetti, Carlo; Fröhlich, Roman; Mordas, Genrik; Ulevičius, Vidmantas

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol chemical composition in air masses affected by large vegetation fires transported from the Kaliningrad region (Russia) and southeast regions (Belarus and Ukraine) during early spring (March 2014) was characterized at the remote background site of Preila, Lithuania. In this study, the chemical composition of the particulate matter was studied by high temporal resolution instruments, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and a seven-wavelength aethalo-meter. Air masses were transported from twenty to several hundred kilometres, arriving at the measurement station after approximately half a day of transport. The concentration-weighted trajectory analysis suggests that organic aerosol particles are mainly transported over the Baltic Sea and the continent (southeast of Belarus). Results show that a significant fraction of the vegetation burning organic aerosol is transformed into oxidised forms in less than a half-day. Biomass burning aerosol (BBOA) was quantified from the ACSM data using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, while its spatial distribution was evaluated using air mass clustering approach.

  3. Spatial distribution of carbonaceous aerosol in the southeastern Baltic Sea region (event of grass fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudoitis Vadimas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol chemical composition in air masses affected by large vegetation fires transported from the Kaliningrad region (Russia and southeast regions (Belarus and Ukraine during early spring (March 2014 was characterized at the remote background site of Preila, Lithuania. In this study, the chemical composition of the particulate matter was studied by high temporal resolution instruments, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM and a seven-wavelength aethalometer. Air masses were transported from twenty to several hundred kilometres, arriving at the measurement station after approximately half a day of transport. The concentration-weighted trajectory analysis suggests that organic aerosol particles are mainly transported over the Baltic Sea and the continent (southeast of Belarus. Results show that a significant fraction of the vegetation burning organic aerosol is transformed into oxidised forms in less than a half-day. Biomass burning aerosol (BBOA was quantified from the ACSM data using a positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis, while its spatial distribution was evaluated using air mass clustering approach.

  4. How accreditation stimulates business school change: evidence from the Commonwealth of independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Istileulova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is scarce or almost non-existing research on changes that take place in business schools in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS. Changes in CIS business schools (B-schools are influenced by different external factors (e.g. socioeconomic system, market forces, financial crisis, demographic problems, changes in policies of higher education; influence of the Bologna process. On the other hand, B-schools in the CIS need to make internal changes to gain the external accreditation. We look into the nature of change processes taking place in CIS B-schools, observing them through the prism of ongoing external accreditation processes. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of the accreditation process on CIS B-school changes. We used a comparative analysis based on the study of 22 Bschools from four countries (Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. We discovered that these changes refer to introducing more strict entrance requirements, strengthening financial resources, and improving efforts to reach the accreditation standards. Moreover, schools have to review their mission, decrease their student-to-faculty ratio, introduce measurement metrics for learning goals, and internationalise their programs. The advanced B-schools in Russia and Kazakhstan usually start with an international programme accreditation, and then move to an institutional one. The trend has begun spreading to schools from non-Bologna countries like Belarus, but it is still a long-time agenda item for Kyrgyzstan.

  5. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator- Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-04-28

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  6. (90)Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe.

  7. Franco-German initiative for Chernobylsk health project; Initiative Franco-Allemande pour Tchernobyl projet sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The works led within the framework of the French-German initiative ( I.F.A.) on the health of the populations exposed to the ionizing radiations concentrated on the main useful indicators of health for the study of the excess incidence of cancers after a relatively long latency period. No net difference of the tendencies of leukaemia incidence was revealing between exposed regions and not exposed regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. As regards solid tumors, the rates of incidence presented the same tendencies of increase in the course of time whatever are the studied regions. On the other hand, the works showed a net increase of the rate of incidence of the thyroid cancers in the exposed regions, notably at the aged persons of less than ten years at the time of the accident. In Belarus, the national register of cancers allowed to bring to light a very high number of thyroid cancers, from the beginning 1990 at the children of less than 15 years and net increase of these cancers, since 1998, in the slice of 15/29 the years. So for this exposed population, the risk of thyroid cancer continues to express itself 20 years after the accident. Besides, no tangible difference from the point of view of the tendencies between exposed and not exposed regions was revealing for the congenital malformations. (N.C.)

  8. Relationship between caesium (137Cs) load, cardiovascular symptoms, and source of food in 'Chernobyl' children -- preliminary observations after intake of oral apple pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandazhevskaya, G S; Nesterenko, V B; Babenko, V I; Yerkovich, T V; Bandazhevsky, Y I

    2004-12-18

    Seventeen years after the nuclear power accident at Chernobyl, most of the radio-contamination among the population of Southern Belarus is caused by incorporation of long-lived radioisotopes. The varying levels of 137Cs observed among children in this area are explained by the source of their food, especially by the consumption of contaminated milk produced privately. We stratified children from rural areas of Belarus (caesium [137Cs] contamination >5 Ci/km(2)) by their 137Cs loads into three distinct groups (group 1, <5 Bq/kg body weight [BW]; group 2, 38.4 +/- 2.4 Bq/kg BW; group 3, 122 +/- 18.5 Bq/kg BW). We determined the relationship between the 137Cs load and the children's main source of food and recorded their cardiovascular symptoms. Cardiovascular symptoms, ECG alterations, and arterial hypertension were significantly more frequent in children with high 137Cs burden than in children with very low 137Cs burden. Children with moderate and high 137Cs loads (groups 2 and 3) received apple pectin, a food additive, for 16 days. Apple pectin significantly decreased 137Cs loads in these groups (39% and 28%, respectively). ECG alterations improved, while cardiovascular symptoms and hypertension did not change in any group.

  9. NOT SO WIDE, EUROPE: RECONSIDERING THE NORMATIVE POWER OF THE EU IN EUROPEAN FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of political conditionality, the European Union (EU exercises what Ian Manners has termed ‘normative power’, which many scholars and political analysts have regarded as the primary force behind the speedy democratization process of the 2004 enlargement of the EU. The two most recent enlargements of the EU have extended the Union into a new neighbourhood bordering still relatively democratically infant and unstable states such as Belarus and Ukraine. Following the relative success of conditionality during the enlargement process, the ENP was developed in 2003 to once again take advantage of conditionality to spread EU ‘norms’ and secure political stability at its borders, this time without the incentive of membership. This article analyzes the ability of the EU to exercise normative power in Eastern Europe. It presents the argument that despite systematic attempts to spread EU policies, or so-called ‘norms’ beyond the Union’s external borders, disparities in norm-adoption among ENP target-states exemplifies incongruence in the success of the EU’s normative power in foreign relations. To address the question of whether the EU demonstrates normative power through its application of the Neighbourhood Policy, the authors’ analysis will address the cases of Ukraine and Belarus.

  10. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  11. Chernobyl post-accident management: the ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, G H; Lochard, J; Girard, P; Guyonnet, J F; Le Cardinal, G; Lepicard, S; Livolsi, P; Monroy, M; Ollagnon, H; Pena-Vega, A; Pupin, V; Rigby, J; Rolevitch, I; Schneider, T

    1999-10-01

    ETHOS is a pilot research project supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (DG XII). The project provides an alternative approach to the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the CIS in the post-accident context of Chernobyl. Initiated at the beginning of 1996, this 3-y project is currently being implemented in the Republic of Belarus. The ETHOS project involves an interdisciplinary team of European researchers from the following institutions: the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire CEPN (radiological protection, economics), the Institute National d'Agronomie de Paris-Grignon INAPG (agronomy, nature & life management), the Compiegne University of Technology (technological and industrial safety, social trust), and the Mutadis Research Group (sociology, social risk management), which is in charge of the scientific co-ordination of the project. The Belarussian partners in the ETHOS project include the Ministry of Emergencies of Belarus as well as the various local authorities involved with the implementation site. The ETHOS project relies on a strong involvement of the local population in the rehabilitation process. Its main goal is to create conditions for the inhabitants of the contaminated territories to reconstruct their overall quality of life. This reconstruction deals with all the day-to-day aspects that have been affected or threatened by the contamination. The project aims at creating a dynamic process whereby acceptable living conditions can be rebuilt. Radiological security is developed in the ETHOS project as part of a general improvement in the quality of life. The approach does not dissociate the social and the technical dimensions of post-accident management. This is so as to avoid radiological risk assessment and management being reduced purely to a problem for scientific experts, from which local people are excluded, and to take into

  12. Evolution of canals system linking the Vistula, Dnieper and Neman basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykala, Dariusz; Badziai, Vitali

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to reconstruct landscape changes in the Polesie Region - one of the largest European swampy areas (Belarus), as a result of the creation and operation of a network of canals. From the 16th century efforts were undertaken to connect the Polish areas located in the drainage basins of the Black Sea and Baltic Sea with canals. Already in 1631 the Polish Sejm (parliament) approved the project to build a canal linking the River Berezina (Dnieper basin) with the River Neris (Neman basin). However, the complicated political and economic situation of the country did not allow doing this. Only in the second half of the 18th c. hetman Ogiński financed the construction of a canal linking the Dnieper and Neman basins. The canal connecting the River Szczara (Neman basin) with the River Jasiołda (Pripyat basin) was named after its creator - the Ogiński Canal. At the same time the construction of the Królewski (Royal) Canal linking the River Muchavets (Vistula basin) and the River Pina (Pripyat basin) was under way. The construction of the canal was completed in 1783. The winding channels of the Pina and Muchavets were straightened, and the numerous canals feeding the waterway system drained vast area of marshes and wetlands of the Polesia Region. The last element that connects the catchments of the Vistula and Neman is the Augustów Canal built in the years 1825-1839 (linking the catchments of the Biebrza and Neman). Numerous changes in political boundaries in the watershed area between the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea drainage basins caused the destruction of the hydraulic structures. All the analysed canals were completely destroyed during the two world wars. In the last 200 years the amount and type of locks and weirs has changed. For example, there were no weirs on the Royal Canal in the late 18th c., in the middle of the 19th c. there were 22 such structures, while now that number has gone down to 10. All canals were created for economic reasons

  13. Patterns and trends in human papillomavirus-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Znaor, Ariana; Brotons, Maria; Poljak, Mario; Arbyn, Marc

    2013-12-31

    This article provides an overview of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in Central and Eastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and the Former Yugoslav Republic [FYR] of Macedonia) and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan). Despite two- to three-fold variations, cervical cancer incidence rates are high in many countries in these two regions relative to other populations on the European and Asian continents. In Central and Eastern Europe, Romania and the FYR of Macedonia had the highest rates in 2008 alongside Bulgaria, Lithuania and Serbia, while in Central Asia, rates are elevated in Kyrgyzstan (the highest rates across the regions), Kazakhstan and Armenia. In each of these countries, at least one woman in 50 develops cervical cancer before the age of 75. The high cervical cancer burden is exacerbated by a lack of effective screening and an increasing risk of death from the disease among young women, as observed in Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. In several countries with longstanding cancer registries of reasonable quality (Belarus, Estonia and the Russian Federation), there are clear birth cohort effects; the risk of onset of cervical cancer is increasing in successive generations of women born from around 1940-50, a general phenomenon indicative of changing sexual behaviour and increasing risk of persistent HPV infection. There are limited data for other HPV-related cancers and other diseases at present in these countries. While options for reducing the HPV-related disease burden are resource-dependent, universal HPV vaccination with enhanced screening would maximally reduce the burden of

  14. Tra comunismo e globalizzazione: crisi della coscienza critica della cultura (Ucraina e Bielorussia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Pachlovska

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Between Communism and Globalization: The Crisis of Culture's Critical Conscience (Ukraine and Belarus' The fall of the Berlin Wall did not bring about . as people hoped . a rapid shift to democracy in Eastern European countries. The changeover from a .closed society. to an .open society. has proved to be much tougher than expected, fraught as it is with uncertainty and social unrest. First and foremost, the necessary straightforward coming to terms with the totalitarian past has not taken place. As a result, the gap between development in the West and the East has grown wider. Moreover, The West has been confronted with a most fragmented East ranging from Central Eastern Europe to Russia and the Balcans. Obviously, specific cultural traits underlie so many different tacks on the road to democracy. In going deeper into the phenomenon, two basic factors stand out: the political factor proper and the cultural factor at large. In point of fact, the road to democracy is particularly tough when it comes to the countries of Eastern Christianity, heirs to Byzanthium.s cultural heritage. In this area the tradition of a top-down structure is still very much alive, hampering on one side the building up of a civil society worth the name, and, on the other side, harbouring a new harvest of mafia-oriented economic ventures. As a matter of fact, politologists are actually talking of neototalitarianism on the political level, and neocolonization on the cultural level. The .Unfinished Revolution. has not led to a fruitful encounter between East and West, but rather to basic lack of communication, if not downright clash. The .Byzantine Slavic Triangle. (Russia, Belarus. and Ukraine is quite pecular, with centrifugal and centripetal forces at work all at once. To start with, Russia is busy working on the building of a neo-imperialistic identity of its own, Eurasia. In its attempt, Russia is basically alien to those very principles that lie at the foundation of a

  15. Foreign Experience of Activity of Chambers of Commerce and Industry and Prospects of its Introduction in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Bohdana V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts analysis of foreign experience of activity of chambers of commerce and industry under conditions of market economy. It studies specific features of its formation and establishment in the countries of European Union and Commonwealth of Independent States. In particular, it analyses activity of chambers of commerce and industry of Germany, Denmark, Great Britain, Russia, Moldova and Belarus. It considers continental, anglo-saxon, state and mixed models of activity of a chamber of commerce and industry. It identifies specific features of functioning of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ukraine. Having analysed the progressive experience, it offers measures for improvement of the procedure of interaction of business with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ukraine at the national, regional and branch levels.

  16. Author's internet blog as information and communication technologies in the educational space within the physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilnitskaya A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop a web blog to attract students to physical culture and reveal their attitudes toward physical education. Material : in the survey participated 800 students from different cities of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus. Results : Internet blog created on the server "Vkontakte" as a social group called "Sport and motivation. It's nothing personal." With the help of questionnaires using internet blog revealed that of all the attractive aspects of physical fitness and physical development of students give greater preference beautiful physique. In the second place they have is health, then - endurance, agility, strength, speed, flexibility. Girls prefer a beautiful body, flexibility, plasticity, the boys prefer strength, endurance, agility and quickness. Conclusion : the need for the development and application of information and communication technologies and non-traditional forms of physical education to improve the effectiveness of the educational process in physical education in higher education institutions.

  17. Language Situation in the Slavic World Countries: Topical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayupova L. L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examine the problem of language situation researching in the Slavic world, and in all other countries. These studies are among the topical directions of modern linguistics, in particular – sociolinguistics. The language situation concept as a key scientific concept of modern linguistics approved in works of domestic and foreign scholars.. The article suggests ways of further development of the category on this basis through the study of the language situation in the modern cities of the Slavic world (Ljubljana (Slovenia, Minsk (Belarus, cities of the Russian Federation (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Saratov. This will open the way for further comprehensive research of sociolinguistic problems in different regions of the world.

  18. 私营部门在住房建设中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EvgenyShirokov; 王瀛

    2004-01-01

    The modern socio-economical policy of the Republic of Belarus aims at solving the problems of sustainable functioning of urban and rural settlements, and creation and maintenance of a high quality housing for the population. Housing construction is the most socially significant and capital-intensive part of the economy everywhere. There is a close relationship between the housing sector and other economic spheres both in urban and rural settlements. The State implements an active housing policy to: increase the supply of housing, improve housing quality, meet the standards of the 21st century, develop an effective demand on dwelling, elaborate regulations for subsidizing housing construction and support regions most in need. The general direction of housing reforms is the transition from State housing to a well functioning housing market. This paper will highlight most of the above mentioned issues.

  19. Słowiańskie nazwy ‘źrenicy’ w świetle materiałów gwarowych i źródeł historycznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Siatkowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Slavic names of the ‘pupil’ (‘źrenica’ in the light of dialect materials and historic sources Despite a considerable mixture of names of “the pupil”, their collateral use and not quite distinct borders of ranges of specified lexemes, it is possible to specify several express, albeit not quite well-defined, areals (map 1. In Russia and in eastern regions of Belarus and Ukraine, the name *z//orčьkъ (// > d dominates. In the areal of this name, it is possible to define the areal of a separate or collateral occurrence of names *Z//ьrъkъ, more rarely *z//irъkъ (Z > s, ž; // > v southward and eastward from Moscow, names *ględělьce, *ględělьca and *ględělьcь in the vicinity of Pskov and Novgorod and *čьrnyšь, *čьrnyšьkъ and *čьrnyšьko in the north of Russia. In Poland and in the Czech Republic, *GЪpanьnъka (GЪ > ø occur, besides, *zьrěnica also occurs in Poland. In Ukraine and in eastern Belarus, *čelověčьkъ dominates, while *čelověčьko is less numerous; in southern Bulgaria, Macedonia and in Slavic settlements on the territory of  Greece and Turkey the forms  *čELoVěčę, *čELověčьlę and *čELoVěčьčь (EL > ø; V > ø dominate. In Serbia and Croatia and somewhat in Slovenia and south-western Bulgaria, the name *zěnica prevails. Map 2 (motivation map shows most visibly two types: from the verbs meaning ‘patrzeć’ („to see”, which occur in the prevailing part of the Slavic territory, and from the words meaning persons and things that are reflected in „the pupil” (‘źrenica’ and are represented in western Ukraine and western Belarus, on the prevailing territory of Poland, in the Czech Republic and Moravia, in the south-eastern part of Slovakia and also in Macedonia, southern Bulgaria and in Slavic settlements on the territory of Greece and Turkey. Both of these types were registered as a certain mixed type, in particular, in eastern Ukraine and eastern Belarus

  20. Viktor S. Rumyantsev 1945-2003

    CERN Multimedia

    Russakovich, N A

    It is with deep regret that we announce the death of Dr. Viktor S. Rumyantsev on 28 February 2003. His scientific carrier began at the Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences (Minsk, Belarus) where he performed experimental research in the field of particle physics. In 1974 he started working in close collaboration with the colleagues from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia), where he investigated multi-particle production in pion-nucleus collisions. In 1994 Viktor Rumyantsev was elected as Deputy Director of the Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of JINR, Dubna. Since that time he has been engaged in the ATLAS Collaboration, especially in the construction of the Tile Calorimeter Barrel, and also the Liquid Argon Calorimeter and the MDT chambers. At that time Viktor also contributed to the WA-102 experiment at the CERN OMEGA spectrometer, aimed at searching for exotic mesons in Double Pomeron Exchange processes. From 1999 he headed the Particle Physics Laboratory of th...

  1. REPLACEMENT CONTROL OF INNOVATION MANAGERS: ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gurina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates phases of specialists’ replacement ensuring innovation development of the national economy in Belarus, i.e. managers of innovation activity. Realization of replacement phases is presented within the system consisting of four blocks – objective, managing, controllable and providing. Analysis results of the current state of the innovation activity managers replacement system reveal main problems in interaction of its basic agents. The paper considers solution of specified problems in the context of formation of organizational and economic approaches to managing the innovation activity managers replacement system which presupposes modernization of organizational interrelations between state- run public authorities in the managing block and micro-incentive structures in the controllable block as well as the usage of the process approach in every phase of the replacement process. 

  2. [On the implementation by Rospotrebnadzor (Federal service for the oversight of consumer protection and welfare) common principles and rules of technical regulation within the agreement of the Customs Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the Agreement of the Customs Union on sanitary measures between the Government of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Kazakhstan in the customs territory of the Customs Union the Uniform sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic requirements for goods subject to sanitary-epidemiological control are applied. Common sanitary requirements are binding for executive authorities of the Member States of the Customs union, local authorities, legal persons, whatever legalform, individual entrepreneurs, individuals. Currently, out of 47 planned to take priority technical regulations of the Customs Union 31 regulation, including the safety of railway rolling stock, production of perfumery and cosmetics, toys and products for children and teenagers, food products, grain, and other furniture products was adopted.

  3. Sports magazines in the system of scholarly communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svistel'nik I.R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the sports scientific journals that form the system of documentary research information. We describe the formation, development and progress of scientific publications and their typological features of forming and problem-oriented content. Outlined sufficiency specialized sports magazines. Analysis of scientific publications in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, presented their names and entry into the national and international abstracting. Posted sports for scientific publications USA, UK, China, Poland and many other countries that carry information for sports, sports training, medical and biological problems of physical education. It is shown that most of the study sports science publications printed in the United States, slightly less than in the UK, Poland and Germany. Determined that scientific journals help speed the spread of sports information, disseminate the results of modern research.

  4. Countdown to zero Day stuxnet and the launch of the world's first digital weapon

    CERN Document Server

    Zetter, Kim

    2014-01-01

    In January 2010, inspectors with the International Atomic Energy Agency noticed that centrifuges at an Iranian uranium enrichment plant were failing at an unprecedented rate. The cause was a complete mystery—apparently as much to the technicians replacing the centrifuges as to the inspectors observing them. Then, five months later, a seemingly unrelated event occurred: A computer security firm in Belarus was called in to troubleshoot some computers in Iran that were crashing and rebooting repeatedly. At first, the firm’s programmers believed the malicious code on the machines was a simple, routine piece of malware. But as they and other experts around the world investigated, they discovered a mysterious virus of unparalleled complexity. They had, they soon learned, stumbled upon the world’s first digital weapon. For Stuxnet, as it came to be known, was unlike any other virus or worm built before: Rather than simply hijacking targeted computers or stealing information from them, it escaped the d...

  5. SPELEOTHERAPY DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA ON THE WORLD CONTEXT AND PERSPECTIVES FOR USE OF SOME SALT MINES AND KARST CAVES FOR SPELEOTHERAPEUTIC AND BALNEOCLIMATIC TOURISM PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionca Iuri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Speleotherapy (ST is a relatively new method of complementary medicine, although, as is well known ancient tribes appreciated isolation in underwater caves, salt or karst caves, or possessing various ores and was officially recognized in the years 1950-1960 in Germany (K.Spannagel, 1961 and Poland (M. Skulimowski, 1965. Professor Mieczyslaw Skulimowski has granted of speleotherapy in "Wieliczka" Salt Mine, the name of subterraneotherapy, soon to be also called the Skulimowski method. Number of speleotherapeutic centers and speleotherapy symposiums has increased considerably (H.Trimmel, 1994. Speleotherapy in the underground now is an effective therapeutic method for the treatment of obstructive respiratory tract diseases, especially of patients with bronchial asthma (BA, the upward and effective practice in Central and Eastern Europe, but also in the West: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Hungary etc.

  6. Research of the influence of air chemical pollutions on the health of urban population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, T.; Smirnov, M.; Amvrosiev, P.; Kurganskaya, G.; Gritsenko, T. [The Byelorussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Inst., Minsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The main problem of environmental hygiene in the Republic of Belarus is ecological situation health effects extent determination and risk assessment. The different epidemiological studies of ecological risk for public health due to atmosphere industry emissions, directed to hygiene standards correction and epidemiological and ecological situation management were conducted by the Belarussian Sanitation and Hygiene Research Institute. Atmosphere pollution of heavy industry enterprises, pharmaceutical production, the electric power stations and its impact on people morbidity in adjacent and sanitary protection areas was studied. The objective of the research is hygienic assessment and determination of public health changes, caused by atmosphere pollution, and preventive measures programs elaboration in such industrial cities as Brest, Gomel, Minsk, Grodno, Mogilev, Novopolotsk. (author)

  7. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

  8. Occupational Exposure at a Contemplated Belarussian Power Plant Fired with Contaminated Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Fogh, C.L.; Roed, J

    1999-07-01

    To meet the current demand in Belarus for remediation of the vast forest areas that were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident and at the same time establish a much needed energy production, applying contaminated forest biomass as fuel in special power plants is being considered. This paper focuses on the radiation doses that may be received by workers at such a power plant. By Monte Carlo modelling based on a Danish biofuel power plant design it was found that the highest dose rates within the power plant would be those to people standing near the fly ash silo, bottom ash containers and so-called 'big bags' filled with fly ash waste. Inhalation doses were estimated to be low. External doses received while working at the power plant do not appear to be highly significant compared with the doses from environmental contamination in the area where the power plant is expected to be constructed. (author)

  9. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S;

    2017-01-01

    ) and neighbouring countries were represented at the conference: Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. EACS guidelines version 7.1 were used in 14 (87%) countries. In 11 (69%) countries, national...... implementation across the region and neighbouring countries and to present the current obstacles in benchmarking HIV care in Europe. METHODS: During a 2-day meeting, there were country-based presentations using a predefined template so as to make the data comparable and focus the discussion. Areas covered were...... country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. RESULTS: In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE...

  10. CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arus Tunian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the problem of economic growth in Armenia. It is identified the nature of the balance of payments of the country, indicating a net debtor position, which leads to inherent deterioration of the international investment position. A small open economy of Armenia moves to a new phase of development, in the frame of the integration processes within the Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. One of the main characteristics of the Armenian economy vulnerability remains a negative balance in foreign trade, which continues to grow, despite the export growth. Economic growth is provided, as before, mostly due to the sale of raw materials - non-ferrous metals and metal ores, both in the primary as well as in the previous preprocessing. Estimating the econometric VAR models revealed that the negative current account impacts on GDP growth negatively.

  11. Court of the Eurasian Economic Community welcome Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sokolovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the President of the Court of the Eurasian Economic Community I am very proud to appear on the pages of Russian Law Journal, a new promising project initiated by leading Russian scholars. The RLJ is of a particular interest for the Court of the Eurasian Economic Community, a body hearing cases involving companies from all over the world in relation to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, since its’ main purpose is to expand cross-fertilization between the legal cultures. This purpose is very important in course of the Eurasian integration which will culminate in 2015 with creation of the Eurasian Union, transforming markets of the member states into the large single one. I am wishing the RLJ’s Editorial Council and Board productive work in establishing this forum for discussion.

  12. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    2011-2015The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research.They are from 47 countries,including Argentina(3),Australia(13),Austria(4),Belarus(1),Belgium(3),Brazil(10),Canada(10),China(41),Czech Republic(1),Denmark(1),Egypt(3),Estonia(1),Finland(1),France(5),Germany(21),Greece(6),Hungary(4),India(18),Iran(6),Ireland(1),Israel(4),Italy(35),Japan(34),Lebanon(1),Lithuania(3),Mexico(2),Netherlands(10),New Zealand(2),Norway(2),Pakistan(2),Philippines(1),Poland(3),Portugal(2),Romania(1),Russia(1),Saudi Arabia(2),Singapore(3),Slovenia(1),South Africa(1),South Korea(16),Spain(13),Sweden(3),Switzerland(1),Thailand(4),Turkey(7),United Kingdom(20),and United States(84).

  13. Technical and Economic Advantages of Turbo-Drive Variant with TRB Turbines over Turbo-Generator Variant in Low Power Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Panteley

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a comparative analysis of turbo-driven variant application with TRB turbines and turbo-generator variant in the low power engineering. High efficiency of steam-turbine drive application with TRB turbines is proved by calculation which is made on the basis of a SE-1250-140 network pump at one of the boilers of the Republic of Belarus taken as an example. Calculation has been made for the following steam parameters: turbo-drive input – 12 kgs/cm and 250 and parameters behind turbo-drive – 1kgs/cm. Comparative analysis has been prepared on the basis of data presented by BelNIPIenergoprom in respect of regional boiler No.3 of Mogilev.

  14. Sectoral Structure Change Modeling of European Oil and Gas Producing Country’S Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepelkin Viacheslav Alexandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider identifying features of sectoral structuring within the national economy that has definite foreign trade product specialization. Examination of the sector-specific division methodology enabled identification of its strong association with certain sector dominance in the economy. It is against this background that we offer an explanation for the delay in transferring from the post-Soviet to the applicable international classification of economic structure elements in Russia and Belarus. We perform analysis of the three-component P-S-T model (primary, secondary, tertiary sector using statistical and econometric methods and define properties of the sectoral shares dynamics in national economies of oil and gas producing countries. Analysis of the Russian and Norwegian economies’ intersectoral changes suggests that it is necessary for the government to develop and implement selective structural policy to overcome the existing structural disproportions.

  15. Current status of African swine fever virus in a population of wild boar in eastern Poland (2014-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Łyjak, Magdalena; Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) was detected in wild boar in eastern Poland in early 2014. So far, 65 cases of ASFV infection in wild boar have been recognised. The methods used for ASFV detection included highly specific real-time PCR with a universal probe library (UPL), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an immunoperoxidase test (IPT) for identification of anti-ASFV antibodies. The positive ASF cases were located near the border with Belarus in Sokółka and Białystok counties. Some of the countermeasures for disease prevention include early ASF diagnosis by ASFV DNA identification as well as detection of specific antibodies by systematic screening. The aim of this study was to assess the current ASF status in a Polish population of wild boar during the last two years (2014-2015).

  16. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  17. RELIABILITY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF BUSES OF GROUP MAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bessarab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world safety of maintained vehicles has the major value. For motor vehicles of the Republic of Belarus this problem is also actual. Maintenance of high reliability of brake systems of cars in operation is one of ways of the decision of a problem of increase of traffic safety.The analysis of reliability of brake systems of buses MAZ is carried out following the results of the state maintenance service in 2010 and the analysis of premature returns from routes of movement of buses MAZ-103 and МАZ-104 one of the motor transportation enterprises of a city of Minsk. Principal causes of structural parameters modification of brake pneumatic system of buses, the brake mechanism and elements АBS are considered.

  18. Computer technology of genogeographic analysis of a gene pool: II. Statistical transformation of maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balanovskaya, E.V.; Nurbaev, S.D.; Rychkov, Yu.G. [Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-11-01

    Transformations of computer maps of geographic distribution of gene frequencies using basic mathematical statistical procedures are considered. These transformations are designated as statistical transformation of maps. Two transformation groups are considered: of one map separately and of a group of maps. Transformations possess a value beyond their use as intermediate stages of more complicated cartographical analysis: the resulting maps carry entirely new information on the geography of genes or a gene pool. This article considers three examples of obtaining new genetic profiles using statistical transformation algorithms. These profiles are of: (1) heterozygosity (of HLA-A, B, C loci in northeastern Eurasia); (2) disease risk (Rh-incompatibility of mother and child with simultaneous registration of Rh and ABO blood groups in Eastern Europe); (3) genetic distances (from own mean ethnic values for Belarus and from mean Russian values for the gene pool of Eastern Europe). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Results from ISTC frame work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Under International Science Research Center (ISTC) projects, JAERI Nuclear Data Center has been taking a role of collaborator and monitor for following items; (1) Measurement of the Fission Neutron Spectra of the Minor Actinides and Spontaneous Fission of Curium Isotopes (ISTC no. 183: V.I. Khlopin Radium Institute, KRI, St. Petersburg, Russia), (2) Measurement and Analysis of the Basic Nuclear Data for Minor Actinides (ISTC no. 304: Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, IPPE, Obninsk, Russia), and Evaluation of Actinide Nuclear Data (ISTC no. CIS-3: Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute, RPCPI, Minsk, Belarus). These are related to the Japanese OMEGA Project and expected to supply minor actinide (MA) nuclear data, since Russia has good quality MA samples, experimental technique and nuclear data evaluation experiences. In this report, out-line and some results of above three projects are reviewed. (author)

  20. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF RADIATION DANGER EXPERIENCE AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF THE POPULATION FROM CONTAMINATED AREAS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of evaluation of social-psychological consequences of radiation danger experience among different age groups of the population from contaminated areas of Russia (Oryol, Kaluga, Bryansk, Tula areas among whom the unfavorable emotional and personal changes were registered due to subjective features of perception of radiation threat have been represented (“risk” group. Experimental sample of the research consisted of 1 544 people from Russia. One of the main results of this research is establishment of the fact that adverse emotional and personal changes in connection with subjective features of perception of radiation threat were revealed for 53,9% of respondents of advanced age and more than 20% of respondents of middle and young age from contaminated areas of Russia. Among the respondents from contaminated areas of Belarus, about a third surveyed from each age group get to “risk” group.

  1. {sup 137}Cs airborne levels in the vertical plane from observations taken at high altitude European locations, after the arrival of the Fukushima-labeled air masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson, O. [IRSN - Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (France); Estier, S. [Federal Office of Public Health (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima-labeled air masses reached Europe at different times according to the location. Airborne levels of the released radionuclides also exhibited some discrepancies at local or regional scales, with a corridor of higher activity levels that extended along a NW to SE axis from Scandinavia, across eastern Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic and Belarus. These observations were mostly based on lowlands air samplings, We compare here the variations in the vertical plane by using the maximum airborne {sup 137}Cs levels registered at high altitude European locations with what was observed at the closest lowland location. {sup 137}Cs levels were systematically lower in altitude. The relation [{sup 137}Cs]max vs. altitude shows a linear relationship and thus the concentration of activity in the vertical plane was not homogenous even after a long travel time and that Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. INTERGEO - Central/East European Collaboration Network on direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovski, K. [Central/East European Collaboration Network on Direct Application of Geothermal Energy, Bitola (Yugoslavia); Arpasi, M. [International Geothermal Association - European Branch, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-01

    A proposal for organisation of a Network to be known as INTERGEO is presented, which should extend and reinforce the cooperation for the development of the direct application of geothermal energy between the developed EC countries and the ones of the so called Central/East European region. Unter the term `developed countries` for this particular energy source utilisation mainly Italy, France and Germany should be understood. The Central/East European region consists the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lituania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Roumania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. The idea itself, the need and possibilities for organisation, possible plan of action and expected benefits for the EC and Central/East European countries are elaborated in order to come to the conclusions for the proposal justifiableness and feasibility for realisation. (orig.)

  3. ENHANCING REGIONAL INTEGRATION THROUGH COMMERCIAL TIES IN THE EASTERN NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Lucian Moga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic unification across Europe has been the main impetus for the European integration process and this rationale stood also behind the European Union (EU approach towards its neighbourhood. Since the launch of the European Neighbourhood Policy (2004, the economic incentives have been the most effective instruments for generating structural change in the neighbourhood, taking into account the fact that EU membership has not been yet considered. Our research will aim at investigating the potential of the European Union to promote economic cooperation in its Eastern vicinity by seeking to include the Eastern Partnership states into a network that shares the same economic principles and values. Among these values, we argue that deep economic engagement through bilateral and multilateral frameworks of trade relations has played a major in enhancing the economic development of the six-Post Soviet states: Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia.

  4. On the reduction of internal radiation doses due to the ingestion of CS-137 in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, P.; Schlager, M.; Vogel, V.; Hille, R. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich (Germany); Nesterenko, A.V.; Nesterenko, V.B. [BELRAD, Minsk, (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    After the Chernobyl reactor accident wide areas of Belarus have been contaminated with radioactive fallout. The verification and documentation of the long-term development of radiation doses is still going on. A population group of special concern are the children living in contaminated regions. Of the two million Belarussian children, approximately 80000 live in regions contaminated after the Chernobyl accident by a {sup 137}Cs deposition of more than 185 kBq/m. A German-Belarussian project is investigating radiation doses of children in those regions since several years. In a recent paper [1] it has been shown, that the annual dose limit of 1 mSv/a is still exceeded in some cases, essentially due to high body burdens of Cs -137 as indicated by screening measurements with portable incorporation monitors. Means of dose reduction such as remediation of agricultural land had been investigated in the past and generally already contribute to a reduction of food contamination. Also the use of clean food and the control of food contamination has generally proven its effectiveness and the latter is exercised by official authorities and private initiatives. In situations, where this is not sufficient, the clarification of the usefulness of additional means, such as the cure-like application of pectin preparations, makes sense. A dose lowering effect is presumed by Belarussian and Ukrainian scientists. In the framework of the present German-Belarussian project special attention is given to the cure-like application of a Belarussian pectin-preparation (Vitapect). Vitapect consists of apple pectins with added vitamins, mineral nutrients and flavour substances. It is currently in use in Belarus in accordance with legal regulations and licensed by the Belarus authorities. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study, several groups of contaminated children were treated with Vitapect for a two -week period during their stay in a sanatorium. For comparison the same number of

  5. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being.

  6. Scientific Opinion on African swine fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The risk for endemicity of ASF in the eastern neighbouring countries of the EU and spread of ASFV to unaffected areas was updated until 31/01/2014. The assessment was based on a literature review and expert knowledge elicitation. The risk that ASF is endemic in Georgia, Armenia and the Russian Federation has increased from moderate to high, particularly due to challenges in outbreak control in the backyard production sector. The risk that ASFV will spread further into unaffected areas from these countries, mainly through movement of contaminated pork, infected pigs or contaminated vehicles, has remained high. In Ukraine and Belarus, the risk for ASF endemicity was considered moderate. Although only few outbreaks have been reported, which have been stamped out, only limited activities are ongoing to facilitate early detection of secondary spread. Further, there is a continuous risk of ASFV re-introduction from the Russian Federation, due to transboundary movements of people, pork or infected wild boar. The number of backyard farms is greatest in the west of Ukraine and westwards spread of ASFV could result in an infected area near the EU border, difficult to control. In Georgia, Armenia and the Russian Federation, the risk for endemicity of ASF in the wild boar population is considered moderate, mainly due to spill-over from the domestic pig population, whereas in Ukraine and Belarus this was considered to be low. In those areas in the Russian Federation where wild boar density is high, this risk may be higher. Intensive hunting pressure in affected wild boar populations may increase the risk for spread, possibly with severe implications across international borders. The risk for different matrices to be infected/contaminated and maintain infectious ASFV at the moment of transportation into the EU was assessed and ranged from very high for frozen meat, to very low for crops.

  7. Government revenue-expenditure nexus: Evidence from several transitional economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konukcu-Önal Debi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficits and the debate on the sources of deficit finance have been on the agenda of public economics ever since the 1980s. However recently in the post-communist countries fiscal imbalances appear to be an important problem due to prolonged periods of growing poverty resulting from the transition process. Poverty alleviation policies considerably affect the revenue and expenditure decisions of governments, which are subject to hard budget constraints in an open transitional economy and do not have room for departing from sound fiscal policies. The public finance literature provides a vast number of studies analyzing the relationship between public revenues and expenditures. These studies are mostly characterized by efforts to reveal the attitude of the fiscal authority towards maintaining the budget balance. In this respect, budgetary dynamics in which past government revenues have predictive power on the current level of government expenditures are accepted as evidence of the so-called tax-and-spend hypothesis. On the other hand, the revenue-expenditure nexus running from expenditures to revenues is known in the literature as the spend-and-tax hypothesis. The objective of this study is to analyze empirically the relationship between government revenues and expenditures in four of the transitional economies, i.e. Belarus, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Russian Federation. The empirical findings of this study, which are based on Granger causality tests, indicate evidence supporting the tax-and-spend hypothesis in Belarus and the Russian Federation and fiscal synchronization in Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic. The empirical support for the tax-and-spend hypothesis in these economies implies that increasing government revenues may not end up with lower budget deficits due to their stimulating effect on the demand for public goods and services.

  8. Topical issues of patients’ rights protection in cross-border healthcare in the aspect of directive 2011/24/EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenara Robertovna Klimovskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective the present study is carried out to analyse the provisions of the European Council and Parliament Directive 201124EU on the patients39 rights protection in crossborder healthcare the doctrine and practice of the European Court in this area for future comparative legal analysis of the legislation of the European Union EU on the rights protection of crossborder patients with the legislation of the Union state Russia and Belarus as well as the Eurasian Economic Union. Methods general and specific scientific methods of research were used including systematic and structured problemtheoretical formallegal logical methods etc. Results the provisions of the Directive 201124EU were analyzed regarding the rights of patients who use health services or receive medical emergency aid on the territory of another member state of the EU the doctrine and practice of the European Court in the field of crossborder healthcare were studied and analyzed. Scientific novelty for the first time the analysis of the Directive 201124EU was carried out which synthesized the recent practice of the European Court in the field of crossborder healthcare establishing new regulations to ensure high quality and efficient health service in the territory of another member state of the EU the assumptions were studied and analyzed that have been the reasons fro codification of patients39 rights at the supranational level. Practical significance the researched provisions could be used in law enforcement scientific and legislative practice in the implementation of patients39 rights in crossborder aspect of the Union states of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus and with the deepening of the Eurasian integration ndash by the Eurasian Economic Union. nbsp

  9. EXPOSURE DOSES ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION AT LONG-TERM PERIOD AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study which had been conducted in the period from 1990 to 2000’s in the settlements ofGomelregion showed that the average internal exposure doses of population living in the settlements situated on territories with equal levels of contamination density were considerably different. The reasons for the difference have been revealed. It was shown that not only radiation contamination of territory but also a range of factors of non-radiation origin have influence on formation of internal exposure dose. The hypothesis has been approved that internal exposure dose of each individual and also of each family has its certain place, constant in time at a dose distribution curve. This appropriateness had been used as a methodological basis for reconstruction of subjects’ individual doses for any time period. Method for estimating the average annual effective exposure doses of inhabitants living in contaminated settlements of theBelarusRepublichad been developed. The results of the Whole Body Counter measurements had been used for direct assessment of internal exposure dose and as the basis for developing a model. Model for the dose estimation is based on the classification of settlements according to regional characteristics of soil, which cause 137Cs in taking with locally produced foodstuff. The model is also based on regression of daily 137Cs intake on the density contamination of the soil for each region. The effect of the indirect factors on the dose forming had been taken into account: the number of inhabitants and the area of forest around the settlement. According to the developed method, there had been created a Catalog of Average Annual Effective Doses of Residents of the Belarus Republic.

  10. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-09-11

    This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

  11. A comprehensive evaluation of health effects in Europe-two decades after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, C.; Maringer, F.J. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science Vienna, Low-Level Counting Lab. Arsenal, Wien (Austria); Maringer, F.J. [BEV-Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV), Wien (Austria); Bossew, P. [BEV-Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV), Mathematics and analytics, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    This report sums up radioactive environmental contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in various regions all over Europe (Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Sweden, Austria and Greece). Most of the radionuclides released with the reactor accident possess short-lives (e.g. 131 I) of a few hours or several days and weeks or were deposed in low quantities (e.g. 90 Sr). So the main focus was put on 137 Cs, because this radionuclide has a long half-life (30 years), is measurable till this day and gives a presentable view of radiation exposure in contaminated regions. The decrease of 137 Cs activity concentrations in soil, surface water, foodstuffs and air was shown in the course of time. The comparison of radioactive environmental contamination shows, that the 137 Cs-activity concentration in nearly all media has decreased faster than the physical half-life. Part of this elaboration was also to describe the contribution of the reactor accident to the radiation exposure of selected population groups in the last 20 years. The second part of the report follows a valuation of European studies, which are linked to late health effects of the Chernobyl accident specially thyroid cancer, leukaemia and other solid tumours. These studies has been discussed and evaluated. Only in countries with the highest impact like Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, an increased number of infant thyroid cancer has been observed but up to now no increases in leukaemia or malignant deceases in this or other European countries can be detected. (authors)

  12. INVESTIGATION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCE ON BRIDGE WITH ROUGH RIDING SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Verbitskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays heavy vehicles constitute a considerable volume in the transportation flow on the territory of the Republic of Belarus and bridge inequalities significantly increase a load on their bearing elements and cause a vibration in bridge superstructures. This leads to rapid wear and reduction in time between bridge repairs. The given problem has been insufficiently studied and it is considered as an actual one. Revision of analytical models is required in order to make prediction and evaluation of bridge structure wear. These models must take into account a dynamic impact of heavy vehicles caused by their movement on bridge rough riding surface.The purpose of scientific investigations is to develop a dynamic interactional model of a vehicle and a bridge plate. The paper proposes such dynamic model that permits to investigate impact forces of a heavy vehicle on bridge superstructures which have been initiated by bridge traffic-way inequalities. Weight of an vehicle and plate, rigidity and viscous damping of vehicle suspensions, a plate and piers have been taken into account while making the required calculations.An analysis of free oscillatory motions of the plate and vehicle have been carried out with due account of viscous damping. A dynamic interactional calculation for a vehicle and a plate has been made in the paper. Character of plate oscillatory motions has been determined at various parameters of the dynamic model. In this case non-linearity of reinforced concrete plate deformation has been taken into account and its calculation has been executed in accordance with the norms of the Republic of Belarus. The calculations have made it possible to obtain dynamic interaction coefficients of front axle wheels and bridge plate at various bench heights and also investigate its influence on maximum bending moments in plate sections.

  13. Over 400 m.y. metamorphic history of the Fennoscandian lithospheric segment in the Proterozoic (the East European Craton)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, G.; Bogdanova, S.; Taran, L.; Baginski, B.; Krzeminska, E.; Wiszniewska, J.; Whitehouse, M.

    2009-04-01

    Several Palaeoproterozoic terranes in the Fennoscandian lithospheric segment of the East European Craton (EEC) evolved differently prior to their final amalgamation at c. 1.8 Ga. South-westward younging of the major tectono-thermal events characterizes the Baltic -Belarus region between the Baltic and Ukrainian Shields of the EEC. While at c.1.89-1.87 Ga and 1.85-1.84 Ga rocks of some northern and eastern terranes (Estonia, Belarus and eastern Lithuania) experienced syncollisional, moderate P metamorphism, subduction-related volcanic island arc magmatism still dominated southwestern terranes in Lithuania and Poland. The available age determinations of metamorphic zircon (SIMS/NORDSIM and TIMS methods, Stockholm, SHRIMP method, RSES, ANU, Canberra) and metamorphic monazite (TIMS, Stockholm and EPMA method, Warsaw University) allow to distinguish several metamorphic events related to major orogenic processes: - 1.90-1.87 Ga amphibolite-facies H/MP metamorphism occurred along with emplacements of juvenile TTG-type granitoids in the North Estonian and Lithuanian-Belarus terranes. They are coeval with the main accretionary growth of the crust in the Svecofennian Domain in the Baltic Shield (e.g. Lahtinen et al., 2005). - 1.84-1.79 Ga high-grade metamorphism affected sedimentary and igneous rocks in almost all the terranes and is assumed to have been related to the major aggregation of the EEC (Bogdanova et al, 2006, 2008). In the metasedimentary granulites of western Lithuania, a prograde metamorphism commenced with monazite growth prior garnet at 1.84-1.83 Ga. The sediments and mafic igneous rocks in Lithuania, felsic igneous rocks in NE Poland underwent peak metamorphism and deformation at 1.81-1.79 Ga (zircon and monazite ages). The 1.83-1.79 Ga metamorphism has the same age as a metamorphic imprint and strong shearing of the crust in central Sweden (Andersson et al., 2004). The postcollisional granulite metamorphism of mafic intrusions at 1.80-1.79 Ga in Belarus

  14. Analysis of Temperature Distributions in Nighttime Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telyak, Oksana; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid; Barodka, Siarhei

    2015-04-01

    Adequate prediction of temperature inversion in the atmospheric boundary layer is one of prerequisites for successful forecasting of meteorological parameters and severe weather events. Examples include surface air temperature and precipitation forecasting as well as prediction of fog, frosts and smog with hazardous levels of atmospheric pollution. At the same time, reliable forecasting of temperature inversions remains an unsolved problem. For prediction of nighttime inversions over some specific territory, it is important to study characteristic features of local circulation cells formation and to properly take local factors into account to develop custom modeling techniques for operational use. The present study aims to investigate and analyze vertical temperature distributions in tropospheric inversions (isotherms) over the territory of Belarus. We study several specific cases of formation, evolution and decay of deep nighttime temperature inversions in Belarus by means of mesoscale numerical simulations with WRF model, considering basic mechanisms of isothermal and inverse temperature layers formation in the troposphere and impact of these layers on local circulation cells. Our primary goal is to assess the feasibility of advance prediction of inversions formation with WRF. Modeling results reveal that all cases under consideration have characteristic features of radiative inversions (e.g., their formation times, development phases, inversion intensities, etc). Regions of "blocking" layers formation are extensive and often spread over the entire territory of Belarus. Inversions decay starts from the lowermost (near surface) layer (altitudes of 5 to 50 m). In all cases, one can observe formation of temperature gradients that substantially differ from the basic inversion gradient, i.e. the layer splits into smaller layers, each having a different temperature stratification (isothermal, adiabatic, etc). As opposed to various empirical techniques as well as

  15. ON REASONABLE ESTIMATE OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS SUSTENANCE WITH CENTRALIZED HEAT-SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As consisted with Directive No 3 of President of the Republic of Belarus of June, 14th 2007 ‘Economy and Husbandry – the Major Factors of Economic Security of the Republic of Belarus’, saving fuel-and-energy resources over the republic in 2010–2015 should amount to 7,1–8,9 MIO tons of fuel equivalent including 1,00–1,25 MIO tons of fuel equivalent at the expense of heat-supply optimization and 0,25–0,40 MIO tons of fuel equivalent at the expense of increasing enclosing structures heat resistance of the buildings, facilities and housing stock. It means, where it is expected to obtain around 18 % of general thermal resources economy in the process of heat-supply optimization, then by means of enhancing the cladding structure heat resistance of the buildings and constructions of various applications – only about 3–5 % and even a bit less so of the housing stock. Till 1994, in residential sector of the Republic of Belarus, the annual heat consumption of the heating and ventilation averaged more than 130 kW×h/(m2×year (~56 %, of the hot-water supply – around 100 kW×h/(m2×year (~44 %. In residential houses, built from 1994 to 2009, heat consumption of the heating and ventilation is already 90 kW×h/(m2×year, of the hot-water supply – around 70 kW×h/(m2×year. In buildings of modern mainstream construction, they expend 60 kW×h/(m2×year (~46 % on heating and ventilation and 70 kW×h/(m2×year (~54 % on hot-water supply. In some modern residential buildings with the exhausted warm air secondary energy resource utilization, the heating and ventilation takes around 30–40 kW×h/(m2×year of heat. Raising energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat expenses on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy performance process are producing heat and transporting it over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In

  16. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  17. Rehabilitation of living conditions in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: the ETHOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochard, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    The ETHOS Project, supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (EC), was implemented in the mid-1990's with the support of the Belarus authorities as a pilot project to initiate a new approach for the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the Republic. This initiative followed a series of studies performed in the context of the EC Community of Independent States cooperation program to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), which clearly brought to the fore that a salient characteristic of the situation in these territories was the progressive and general loss of control of the population on its daily life. Furthermore, due to the economic difficulties during the years following the breakdown of the USSR, the population was developing private production and, in the absence of know-how and adequate means to control the radiological quality of foodstuffs, the level of internal exposure was rising significantly. The aim of the project was primarily to involve directly the population wishing to stay in the territories in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation with the goal of improving their protection and their living conditions. It was based on clear ethical principles and implemented by an interdisciplinary team of European experts with specific skills in radiation protection, agronomy, social risk management, communication, and cooperation in complex situations, with the support of local authorities and professionals. In a first phase (1996-1999), the ETHOS Project was implemented in a village located in the Stolyn District in the southern part of Belarus. During this phase, a few tens of villagers were involved in a step-by-step evaluation of the local radiological situation to progressively regain control of their daily life. In a second phase (1999-2001), the ETHOS Project was extended to four other localities of the District with the objective to

  18. Scientists help children victims of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Report on project phase 1 and annex to the report on phase 1: 1.4.1993 - 31.3.1996; Wissenschaftler helfen Tschernobyl-Kindern. Bericht der Phase I und Anhang zum Bericht der Phase I: 1.4.1993 - 31.3.1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Streffer, C. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie; Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Heinemann, G. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Pfob, H. [Badenwerk AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The bilateral project of Belarus and Germany was commissioned on 1.04.1993 and is placed under the scientific guidance of the Gemeinschaftsausschuss Strahlenforschung. In the framework of the project part devoted to ``therapy and medical training``, covering the period from 1.04.1993 until 31.03.1996, all in all 99 children from Belarus suffering from advanced-stage tumors of the thyroid received a special radio-iodine therapy in Germany. In about 60% of the children complete removal of the tumor was achieved. Another task of the project was to train over the reporting period 41 doctors and physicists from Belarus in the fields of nuclear medical diagnostic evaluation and therapy of thyroid tumors. The project part ``biological dosimetry`` was to investigate the role of micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes, and whether their presence in the lymphocytes permits to derive information on the radiation dose received even several years after the reactor accident. The scientists also exmained the role of the micronuclei in follow-up examinations of the radio-iodine therapy. Further studies used the relatively large number of tumors in the children, as compared to the literature available until the accident, to examine whether there are specific mutation patterns to be found in tumot suppressor genes (p-53) in thyroid tumors which might be used as indicators revealing radiation-induced onset of tumor growth. The project part ``retrospective dosimetry and risk analysis`` was in charge of detecting information answering the question of whether the release of I-131, suspected to be critical nuclide, really was the cause of enhanced incidence of thyroid tumors in the children. The project part ``coordination and examination center at Minsk`` was to establish and hold available the support required by the GAST project participants. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Am 01.04.1993 wurde ein bilateral weissrussisch-deutsches Projekt begonnen, das unter der wissenschaftlichen Begleitung des

  19. ON THE ISSUE OF RATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXTILE AND KNITWEAR ENTERPRISES HEAT AND POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers organization of the industrial enterprise heat and power supply system (HPSS, to be rational from the structure and flow parameter standpoint. Developing HPSS is one of the main lines of implementing energy-saving potential in volumes complying with dictates of the time on reducing the production cost energy component, which is especially vital for the light industry enterprises of Belarus. To reduce the complexity of the task the authors employ the hierarchical structure of HPSS. With regard to textile and knitwear enterprises, they show the irregularity of energy supply on the one hand, and of energy use on the other. The finishing departments of the specified enterprises ensure their thermo-technological status. It is proverbial that accomplished in terms of energy thermo-technological enterprises should not consume the electric energy produced in condensation electric power plants. Instead, for their production needs, they should use thermal energy and electricity generated in the CHP. At the same time, steam turbine CHPs of low power, and consequently of low initial parameters, cannot provide the required electrical and heat energy flow generation balance. The indicated circumstance among others accounts for prevalence of condensation electric power plants in the scheme of electrogenerating capacities that provide work for the light industry enterprises. And this leads to irregularity of their energy supply. Transition to gas CHPs with required scheme of the energy flow generation is associated primarily with creation of inherent generating sources, which in its turn poses a number of challenges on modification of the thermal treatment schemes of technological flows. The problem is solved in package with developing energy consumption of the finishing department as well as the entire enterprise. The study shows the capability of utilizing low pressure hot water alongside with steam, which paves the way to the recuperative

  20. Integration of the Belarusian Space Research Potential Into International University Nanosatellite Programm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir; Ablameyko, Sergey; Ponariadov, Vladimir

    Belarus has inherited a significant space research potential created back in the Soviet era. It is one of the countries in the world capable of research, engineering and production across a wide range of space technologies, such as remote sensing systems, satellite telecommunication systems and positioning systems etc. Despite these strengths, the participation of Belarusian space organizations in the UN space activity and International research programs is very low. Belarusian State University (BSU) is the leading research and high school education organization of Belarus in several fields of research and development. It was deeply involved into various space research projects, including Soviet Lunar Program, Space Station “Mir”, Space Shuttle “Buran”. From 2004, when the national space programs were restarted, branches of BSU like Institute of Physics and Aerospace Technologies (IPAT), Center for aerospace education, Research laboratory of applied space technologies are leading the research and development works in the field of space communication systems, Earth observation tools and technologies, electronic and optic sensors, etc. The mail fields of activity are: • Hard and software development for small satellites and university satellites in particular. • Development of sensor satellite systems. • Small satellite research experiments (biological and medical in particular). • Earth, airplane and satellite remote monitoring systems including hard and software. • Early warning ecological and industrial Systems. • Geographic information systems of several natural and industrial areas. • Climate change investigation. We have partners from several universities and research institutes from Russian Federation, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Germany etc. We have a ground station to receive satellite data in RF L and X bands and are very interested to be incorporated into international remote monitoring network. This activity can be combined with

  1. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF THE LED-LINES BY METHOD OF ELECTRICАL TRANSIENT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Manеgo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the solid lighting facilities operational energy-efficiency in the national economy of the Republic of Belarus is of current concern. The modern problems of energy-saving lighting are multifaceted and broad-ranging. It is particularly burning amidst the energy crisis and the world commercial slump. Thus, the lighting demands 10–13 % of the total electric energy consumption in Belarus. That is to say, there is a significant potential of energy saving in transition to energy-efficient lighting. The paper considers the issues of reliability and service period of the solid-state lighting devices created on the basis of lines of light-emitting-diodes (LED produced by Paragon Semiconductor Lighting Technology Co., Ltd. The optoelectronic apparatuses reliability assessment is based on investigation of the development principles and deterioration mechanisms leading to failures of one kind or another. The deterioration causes ascertainment is indispensable for acting upon them later on and thus reducing the degradation speed and extent. One of the LED-devices deterioration main sources is the temperature overheat of the LED-chip active area. Therefore, techniques for evaluating the heat characteristics of solid lighting devices become the issue of the day. The article investigates thermal properties of high-capacity blue LED-lines by method of electrical transient processes. The authors calculate temperatures in the LED-lines active areas at various heat-dissipation conditions and injection currents values. They realize computer generated simulation of the heated lines thermal fields applying the ANSYS packet. The study concludes that out of the degree of temperature-distribution heterogeneity along the line impossibility of the line chip structural units thermal characteristics extraction arises based on all LEDs homogenized over the line temperature-time dependences. The paper indicates that one can with reasonable accuracy obtain the LED

  2. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevic Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS, countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU among N = 55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less. Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan to 62% (in Belarus. Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.76, 0.89. Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR = .75, 95%CI = 0.71, 0.79. In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with

  3. Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica from Sardinia based on sequence analysis of genomic and mitochondrial gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjallah, Sarra; Ben Slimane, Badreddine; Piras, Cristina Maria; Amor, Nabil; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) (n=66) from sheep and cattle from two localities of Sardinia and to compare them with available data from other localities by partial sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) genes. Comparison of the sequences from Sardinia with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. hepatica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all Sardinian samples, comparing with two ITS-2 haplotypes in standard F. hepatica, showing a substitution C/T in 20 position 859, reported previously from Tunisia, Algeria, Australia, Uruguay and Spain. The present study shows that in Sardinian sheep and cattle there is the most frequent haplotype (FhITS-H1) of F. hepatica species from South Europe. Considering NDI sequences, the phylogenetic trees showed reliable grouping among the haplotypes of F. hepatica from Sardinia and the mitochondrial lineage I, including the main N1 haplotype, observed previously from Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Bulgaria), Armenia, West Africa (Nigeria), America (Uruguay and USA), Asia (Turkey, Japan, and China), Georgia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Australia. Furthermore, common haplotypes FhCOI-H1 and FhCOI-H2 of F. hepatica from Sardinia also corresponded mostly to the first lineage including the main C1 haplotype reported previously from Eastern European and Western Asian populations, they belonged just to a phylogenically distinguishable clade, as F. hepatica from Australia, France, Turkey, Uruguay, Russia, Armenia, Ukraine, Belarus

  4. {sup 90}Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara [Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute, Maritime Branch, 42 Waszyngtona Av., PL 81-342 Gdynia (Poland); Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology, Gdańsk University, 63 Wita Stwosza Str., PL 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland); Wang, Yuanzhong [Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 2238 Beijing Road, Panlong District, 650200 Kunming (China); Falandysz, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.falandysz@ug.edu.pl [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Ecotoxicology, Gdańsk University, 63 Wita Stwosza Str., PL 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-02-01

    The {sup 90}Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996–2013. Measurement of {sup 90}Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed {sup 90}Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the {sup 90}Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass in 1998–2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed {sup 90}Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. Concentration of {sup 90}Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. In several other species from Poland {sup 90}Sr was at < 0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass. Activity concentrations of {sup 90}Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (< 1 Bq kg{sup −1} dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. - Highlights: • Mushrooms are an important food in some regions of the world. • Radioactive strontium ({sup 90}Sr) in mushrooms from Europe and China was measured. • Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus from Yunnan in China accumulates {sup 90}Sr.

  5. Very Low Dose Fetal Exposure to Chernobyl Contamination Resulted in Increases in Infant Leukemia in Europe and Raises Questions about Current Radiation Risk Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Busby

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following contamination from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 excess infant leukemia (0–1 y was reported from five different countries, Scotland, Greece, Germany, Belarus and Wales and Scotland combined. The cumulative absorbed doses to the fetus, as conventionally assessed, varied from 0.02 mSv in the UK through 0.06 mSv in Germany, 0.2 mSv in Greece and 2 mSv in Belarus, where it was highest. Nevertheless, the effect was real and given the specificity of the cohort raised questions about the safety of applying the current radiation risk model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP to these internal exposures, a matter which was discussed in 2000 by Busby and Cato [7,8] and also in the reports of the UK Committee examining Radiation Risk from Internal Emitters. Data on infant leukemia in the United Kingdom, chosen on the basis of the cohorts defined by the study of Greece were supplied by the UK Childhood Cancer Research Group. This has enabled a study of leukemia in the combined infant population of 15,466,845 born in the UK, Greece, and Germany between 1980 and 1990. Results show a statistically significant excess risk RR = 1.43 (95% CI 1.13 < RR < 1.80 (2-tailed; p = 0.0025 in those born during the defined peak exposure period of 01/07/86 to 31/12/87 compared with those born between 01/01/80 and 31/12/85 and 01/01/88 and 31/12/90. The excess risks in individual countries do not increase monotonically with the conventionally calculated doses, the relation being biphasic, increasing sharply at low doses and falling at high doses. This result is discussed in relation to fetal/cell death at higher doses and also to induction of DNA repair. Since the cohort is chosen specifically on the basis of exposure to internal radionuclides, the result can be expressed as evidence for a significant error in the conventional modeling for such internal fetal exposures.

  6. Main post-accident management stakes: IRSN's point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre Oudiz [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (France)

    2006-07-01

    scrutiny. 2) New governance modes reflection: IRSN is carrying out analysis and implementation of expertise procedures aimed at directly involving the stakeholders. Openness to stakeholders is from now on a strategic orientation of the Institute, hence the implementation of a 'stakeholders' mission within IRSN. In the context of the recovery phase, the EURANOS programme provides the opportunity to work with local actors originating from SNASA in Norway, from Dunkirq, Rouillac and Montbeliard in France, on designing adequate governance modes to handle the social, economical, psychological, cultural consequences of a potential long lasting contamination (radiological or chemical) in a territory. Besides, IRSN is involved in the CORE (Cooperation for Rehabilitation) programme implemented in Belarus, more particularly in the 'Health' and 'Radiological culture, education, memory' projects. These projects allow the IRSN teams working in close cooperation with health professionals, mothers, teachers and local education staff in several Belarus districts which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident fall out. (author)

  7. Euroasian Integration Process and Effective Institutional Mechanism Creation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article "Euroasian Integration Process and Effective Institutional Mechanism Creation Problems" author investigates the problem of effective and balanced decision-making mechanism in the integration communities creation. Process of the Customs union creation on the Euroasian space began relatively long ago. Creation of such union was started by the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in the 1995. The same year Republic of Kazakhstan joined an integration process. A little later Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan joined the Customs union – in 1996 and in 1999 respectively. Author on the basis of careful study of the decision-making mechanisms in the Customs union, CIS, EurAsEC and EU, carries out the comparative analysis of the specified mechanisms. Author conducts detailed analytics, gives opinions of jurists, state and public figures, proves own opinions. On the basis of the comparative research conducted by the author the criteria of legal mechanism of decision-making in the integration process efficiency are researched and discussed, what allows to speak about the integration of the legal system. At the end of the article author draws a conclusion that coordination of sovereign desires of states in the integration community represents difficult and many-sided process which has to be based on the balanced decision-making mechanism, which is a main criterion of the institutional mechanism of integration efficiency.

  8. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  9. East Eurasian ancestry in the middle of Europe: genetic footprints of Steppe nomads in the genomes of Belarusian Lipka Tatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Vasili; Litvinov, Sergei; Kassian, Alexei; Shulhin, Dzmitry; Tchebotarev, Lieve; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Möls, Märt; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Rootsi, Siiri; Metspalu, Ene; Golubenko, Maria; Ekomasova, Natalia; Akhatova, Farida; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Heyer, Evelyne; Endicott, Phillip; Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Metspalu, Mait; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard; Kushniarevich, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Medieval era encounters of nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe and largely sedentary East Europeans had a variety of demographic and cultural consequences. Amongst these outcomes was the emergence of the Lipka Tatars—a Slavic-speaking Sunni-Muslim minority residing in modern Belarus, Lithuania and Poland, whose ancestors arrived in these territories via several migration waves, mainly from the Golden Horde. Our results show that Belarusian Lipka Tatars share a substantial part of their gene pool with Europeans as indicated by their Y-chromosomal, mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Nevertheless, Belarusian Lipkas still retain a strong genetic signal of their nomadic ancestry, witnessed by the presence of common Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA variants as well as autosomal segments identical by descent between Lipkas and East Eurasians from temperate and northern regions. Hence, we document Lipka Tatars as a unique example of former Medieval migrants into Central Europe, who became sedentary, changed language to Slavic, yet preserved their faith and retained, both uni- and bi-parentally, a clear genetic echo of a complex population interplay throughout the Eurasian Steppe Belt, extending from Central Europe to northern China. PMID:27453128

  10. Vienna Summit Declaration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-21

    The leaders of the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (USA) met June 2006 in Vienna to respond to the concerns of their citizens for peace, security, stability and prosperity in an increasingly globalised world. They welcome that over the past year the Transatlantic Partnership has delivered real results as shown by the political and economic Progress Reports issued during the summit (http://www.eu2006.at/en/The{sub C}ouncil{sub P}residency/EU-USSummit/index.html). They remain committed to finding common or complementary lines of action in many areas. Over the last year there have been many examples of how productive the relationship is, in the Middle East, Iran, the Western Balkans, Belarus, on the frozen conflicts, and Sudan, as well as in the efforts to promote transatlantic trade and investment under last Summit's Economic Initiative. They have decided to further strengthen the strategic Partnership by adopting a number of priority actions to support cooperation in the following four areas: Promoting peace, human rights and democracy worldwide; Confronting global challenges, including security; Fostering prosperity and opportunity; and Promoting strategic cooperation on energy and energy security, climate change and sustainable development.

  11. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes in children and adolescents with Hashimoto`s 1 thyroiditis from the areas contaminated as aa result of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molostvov, G.S. [Research Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Minsk (Belarus)

    1996-12-31

    m6o-color immunophenotyping of lymphocyte subsets using a lysed whole blood method was performed in 46 children and adolescents with Hashimoto`s thyroiditis (HT) from contaminated areas and in 18 children with HT from `pure` areas of Belarus. 46 healthy children of matched age and sex distribution were used as control group. Analysis of lymphocyte subsets in children with HT living in contaminated areas showed a considerable decrease in the levels of total lymphocytes, CD8+T cells (T-suppressors), total B cells, and CD5+B cells together with an activation of NK and CD56+, CD8+CD57+T cells (T-killers not restricted by HLA antigens). The study of cellular immunity in children with different doses of incorporated radionuclids revealed that prolonged influence of very small doses of ionizing radiation resulted in significant changes in lymphocyte subsets; interestingly, B cell subsets were the most sensitive to such influence while radiosensitivity of T-killers and NK was the lowest. These changes were the greatest in children with HT with the highest dose of incorporated radionuclides. Significant correlation between the levels of main lymphocyte subsets and the doses of accumulated radionuclids observed in this study also indicated that their relation was dose-dependent.(orig.)

  12. A New Technology Developed to Remove Aqueous Radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Radioiodine is considered as a critical radionuclide by the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP) in terms of the radiation and radiotoxicity risks to nature and human health. In addition, there were reports about great increases of thyroid cancer in children in Belarus from 1990. In natural environments, there were several reports for the unusual increase of radioactive iodine ratios in most environmental samples (i.e. soils, vegetables, and seafoods). Iodine usually exists as iodide, iodate, and organic iodine in the environment. Iodide is considered as the most difficult form among the iodine species to treat by the conventional adsorption-based technology. This is why urgent new technology is needed to suppress such a progressive accumulation of radioiodine in natural environments. The conventional methods based on the anion-exchange and adsorption techniques have been difficult to manage the growing release of radioiodine for decades. Here we suggest a new solution that uses a biostimulant way to isolate radioiodine. We discovered that natural SRB can play an important intermediary role to get anionic iodide and cationic copper combined strongly as perfect counterions by enzymatic Cu-reduction.

  13. Sedimentary geology of the middle Carboniferous of the Donbas region (Dniepr-Donets Basin, Ukraine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Abels, Hemmo A; Bosch, Wolter; Boekhout, Flora; Kitchka, Alexander; Hamers, Maartje; van der Meer, Douwe G; Geluk, Mark; Stephenson, Randell A

    2015-03-20

    The Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets Basin in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia forms a major hydrocarbon province. Although well- and seismic data have established a 20 km thick stratigraphy, field-studies of its sediments are scarce. The inverted Donbas segment (Ukraine) exposes the middle Carboniferous part of the basin's stratigraphy. Here, we provide detailed sedimentological data from 13 sections that cover 1.5 of the total of 5 km of the Bashkirian and Moscovian stages and assess the paleoenvironment and paleo-current directions. Middle Carboniferous deposition occurred in a shelf environment, with coal deposition, subordinate fluvial facies, and abundant lower and middle shoreface facies, comprising an intercalated package of potential source and reservoir rocks. Sedimentary facies indicate a paleodepth range from below storm wave base to near-coastal swamp environments. Sedimentation and subsidence were hence in pace, with subtle facies changes likely representing relative sea-level changes. Paleocurrent directions are remarkably consistently southeastward in time and space in the different sedimentary facies across the Donbas Fold Belt, illustrating a dominant sedimentary infill along the basin axis, with little basin margin influence. This suggests that the middle Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Dniepr-Donets basin to the northwest probably contains significant amounts of fluvial sandstones, important for assessing hydrocarbon reservoir potential.

  14. Health of Europeans twenty years after the fall of Berlin wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    The failure of central planning in the totalitarian systems of the USSR and its satellites adversely affected not only the economy and social relations but also the population health. While in the countries with established democracy (DEM) the general health and the life expectancy (LE) steadily improved, in countries declaring socialism (SOC) the LE was stagnant and in the USSR even decreased. Dramatic changes in Russia after the demise of Soviet Union resulted in an extraordinary destabilization of LE that reached a minimum in 1994. Remarkably, even twenty years after the breakdown of the Iron Curtain there persists a gap in the general health between the DEM and the SOC regions of Europe. Within the territory of the former Soviet influence there are additional differences in LE: Central Europe is much better off than Russia and its neighbours. Main cause of relatively high mortality in the post totalitarian Europe is the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Among females about 80% difference in LE between DEM and SOC countries is related to premature CVD mortality. In SOC males compared to DEM, about 50% of the higher mortality is caused by CVD, 20% is related to external factors (trauma, suicide) and 10% is oncologic disorders. The main suggested cause of such excess mortality, besides a low socioeconomic level and limited funding for health care, is an improper life style: alcoholism, smoking and inadequate intake of protective nutrients. Alcoholism, especially binge drinking is a prominent factor in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and in the Baltic Republics (Fig. 6, Tab. 4, Ref. 20).

  15. An analysis of the origin of an early medieval group of individuals from Gródek based on the analysis of stable oxygen isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowska-Gaczorek, A; Kozieł, S; Cienkosz-Stepańczak, B; Mądrzyk, K; Pawlyta, J; Gronkiewicz, S; Wołoszyn, M; Szostek, K

    2016-08-01

    In the early Middle Ages, the region of the Cherven Towns, which is now located on both sides of the Polish-Ukrainian border, was fiercely contested by Slavs in the process of forming their early states. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the homogeneity of an early medieval population uncovered in that region, in the town of Gródek on the Bug River, by screening for non-local individuals. The origin of the studied skeletons was ascertained using analysis of oxygen isotopes in the phosphates isolated from bone tissue. In this paper, the isotope ratios obtained for samples collected from 62 human skeletons were compared to the background δ(18)O (in precipitation water) from the regions of Kraków (south-eastern Poland), Lviv (western Ukraine), Brest (western Belarus), and Gródek, as well as to the ratios determined for the animals coexisting with the studied population. Proportions of oxygen isotopes obtained for all the studied individuals were found to be similar to those for the precipitation water and animals, which indicates the absence of bone fragments of individuals originating in other regions.

  16. [The reduction of the HIV vulnerability of women involved in the sex business in Ukraine through social mobilization and the creation of self-support networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushchak, L I; Khodakevich, L N

    2000-01-01

    The importance of making plans on projects and measures, aimed at the prevention of HIV infection and the social development of female sex workers (FSW) with due regard to observing the principles of human rights protection, is discussed. The materials and resolutions of the First International Conference "Social Development of HIV-Vulnerable Groups of Population", held of Kiev on December 26, 1998, are presented. The conference was attended by representatives of state and public organizations, specialists on the organization of the prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases among FSW, lawyers, physicians and representatives of the HIV-vulnerable target group (FSW) from 7 Ukrainian cities and from Belarus. All these activities contributed to the implementation of the Project "FSW Network Initiative with NGOs" in 11 Ukrainian cities, starting from September 1999, with the support of UNAIDS. The possibility of the mobilization of FSW for organizing self-support groups with a view to protect their rights and to take themselves measures for HIV/AIDS prevention among FSW is shown.

  17. CMS Honours Three Russian and Bielorussian companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 7 March, CMS handed out the three latest Gold Awards under its scheme for honouring its best suppliers suppliers (c.f. Bulletin n°10/2003). Three Russian and Bielorussian firms were honoured, on the occasion of a visit by dignitaries from the two countries. CERN played host to Anatoly Sherbak, Head of the Fundamental Research Department of the Russian Federation Ministry of Industry and Science, Ambassador Sergei Aleinik, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Belarus to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva, Andrei Pirogov, Assistant Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the Office of the United Nations, and Alexei Sissakian, Vice Director of the JINR (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) at Dubna in Russia. The directors of the three Russian and Bielorussian firms have received their awards and are seen with the visiting Russian and Bielorussian dignitaries and the CMS leaders in front of the CMS hadron calorimeter, on the spot where the detector is being assembled.These promi...

  18. Results of long-term genetic monitoring of animal populations chronically irradiated in the radiocontaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharova, R.; Riabokon, N. [Institute of Genetics and Cytology, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The artificial geochemical land where all organisms lived and will live under the conditions of increased level of radiation was set up due to the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. An urgent necessity for studying the various biological effects of chronic influence of low intensity radiation on both individual organisms and populations arose. Combined cytogenetic and radioecological investigations in wild populations of terrestrial small mammals (bank vole = Clethrionomys glareolus, Schreber and yellow-necked mouse = Apodemus flavicollus, Melchior) and in laboratory mice have been carried out by our laboratory since 1986. Our test organisms have contacted closely with low intensity radiation in the radiocontaminated areas of Belarus and absorbed low whole-body dose. We study the following problems: dynamics of radionuclide concentration in wild populations of small rodents; dynamics of mutation process in somatic and germ cells over many generations as well as embryonal lethality; dynamics of population density, age and sex structure of mammalian populations. The large part of results obtained are presented here. (J.P.N.)

  19. Characterization of a new ViI-like Erwinia amylovora bacteriophage phiEa2809.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagonenko, Alexander L; Sadovskaya, Olga; Valentovich, Leonid N; Evtushenkov, Anatoly N

    2015-04-01

    Erwinia amylovora is a Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria causing fire blight disease in many Rosaceae species. A novel E. amylovora bacteriophage, phiEa2809, was isolated from symptomless apple leaf sample collected in Belarus. This phage was also able to infect Pantoea agglomerans strains. The genome of phiEa2809 is a double-stranded linear DNA 162,160 bp in length, including 145 ORFs and one tRNA gene. The phiEa2809 genomic sequence is similar to the genomes of the Serratia plymutica phage MAM1, Shigella phage AG-3, Dickeya phage vB DsoM LIMEstone1 and Salmonella phage ViI and lacks similarity to described E. amylovora phage genomes. Based on virion morphology (an icosahedral head, long contractile tail) and genome structure, phiEa2809 was classified as a member of Myoviridae, ViI-like bacteriophages group. PhiEa2809 is the firstly characterized ViI-like bacteriophage able to lyse E. amylovora.

  20. DNA-damage response associated with occupational exposure, age and chronic inflammation in workers in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Natalya V; Smal, Marharyta P; Kuzhir, Tatyana D; Ershova-Pavlova, Alla A; Goncharova, Roza I

    2012-10-09

    The evaluation of genome integrity in populations occupationally exposed to combine industrial factors is of medical importance. In the present study, the DNA-damage response was estimated by means of the alkaline comet assay in a sizeable cohort of volunteers recruited among workers in the automotive industry. For this purpose, freshly collected lymphocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide (100μM, 1min, 4°C) in vitro, and the levels of basal and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage, and the kinetics and efficiency of DNA repair were measured during a 180-min interval after exposure. The parameters studied in the total cohort of workers were in a range of values prescribed for healthy adult residents of Belarus. Based on the 95th percentiles, individuals possessing enhanced cellular sensitivity to DNA damage were present in different groups, but the frequency was significantly higher among elderly persons and among individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases. The results indicate that the inter-individual variations in DNA-damage response should be taken into account to estimate adequately the environmental genotoxic effects and to identify individuals with an enhanced DNA-damage response due to the influence of some external factors or intrinsic properties of the organism. Underling mechanisms need to be further explored.

  1. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tokarevsky, V. [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  2. Water level, vegetation composition and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Minke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rewetting of temperate continental cutover peatlands generally implies the creation of flooded areas, which are – dependent on water depth – colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported to be large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. This paper describes the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic in Belarus. Greenhouse emissions were measured with manual chambers in weekly to few – weekly intervals over a two years period and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions were generally associated with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Small sedges were minor methane emitters and net CO2 sinks, while Phragmites australis sites released large amounts of methane and sequestered very much CO2. Variability of both fluxes increased with site productivity. Floating mats composed of Carex tussocks and Typha latifolia were a source for both methane and CO2. We conclude that shallow, stable flooding is a better measure to arrive at low GHG emissions than deep flooding, and that the risk of high GHG emissions consequent on rewetting is larger for eutrophic than for mesotrophic peatlands.

  3. Radiation monitoring using imaging plate technology: A case study of leaves affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and JCO criticality accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Shinzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a photostimulable phosphor screen imaging technique to detect radioactive contamination in the leaves of wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris L and fern (Dryopteris filix-max CL. Schoff plants affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The imaging plate technology is well known for many striking performances in two-dimensional radiation detection. Since imaging plate comprises an integrated detection system, it has been extensively applied to surface contamination distribution studies. In this study, plant samples were collected from high- and low-contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus, which were affected due to the Chernobyl accident and exposed to imaging technique. Samples from the highly contaminated areas revealed the highest photo-stimulated luminescence on the imaging plate. Moreover, the radio nuclides detected in the leaves by gamma and beta ray spectroscopy were 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. Additionally, in order to assess contamination, a comparison was also made with leaves of plants affected during the JCO criticality accident in Japan. Based on the results obtained, the importance of imaging plate technology in environmental radiation monitoring has been suggested.

  4. Thyroid cancer in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident (in the framework of the Ukraine–US Thyroid Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronko, Mykola; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Hatch, Maureen; Likhtarev, Ilya; Bouville, Andre; Oliynik, Valeriy; McConnell, Robert; Shpak, Viktor; Zablotska, Lydia; Tereshchenko, Valeriy; Brenner, Alina; Zamotayeva, Galyna

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, millions of residents of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine were exposed to large doses of radioactive iodine isotopes, mainly I-131. The purpose of the Ukraine–American (UkrAm) and Belarus–American (BelAm) projects are to quantify the risks of thyroid cancer in the framework of a classical cohort study, comprising subjects who were aged under 18 years at the time of the accident, had direct measurements of thyroid I-131 radioactivity taken within two months after the accident, and were residents of three heavily contaminated northern regions of Ukraine (Zhitomir, Kiev, and Chernigov regions). Four two-year screening examination cycles were implemented from 1998 until 2007 to study the risks associated with thyroid cancer due to the iodine exposure caused during the Chernobyl accident. A standardised procedure of clinical examinations included: thyroid palpation, ultrasound examination, blood collection followed by a determination of thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine content test, and fine-needle aspiration if required. Among the 110 cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed in UkrAm as the result of four screening examinations, 104 cases (94.5%) of papillary carcinomas, five cases (4.6%) of follicular carcinomas, and one case (0.9%) of medullary carcinoma were diagnosed. PMID:22394669

  5. Sedimentary geology of the middle Carboniferous of the Donbas region (Dniepr-Donets basin, Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Abels, Hemmo A.; Bosch, Wolter; Boekhout, Flora; Kitchka, Alexander; Hamers, Maartje; van der Meer, Douwe G.; Geluk, Mark; Stephenson, Randell A.

    2015-03-01

    The Paleozoic Dniepr-Donets Basin in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia forms a major hydrocarbon province. Although well- and seismic data have established a 20 km thick stratigraphy, field-studies of its sediments are scarce. The inverted Donbas segment (Ukraine) exposes the middle Carboniferous part of the basin's stratigraphy. Here, we provide detailed sedimentological data from 13 sections that cover 1.5 of the total of 5 km of the Bashkirian and Moscovian stages and assess the paleoenvironment and paleo-current directions. Middle Carboniferous deposition occurred in a shelf environment, with coal deposition, subordinate fluvial facies, and abundant lower and middle shoreface facies, comprising an intercalated package of potential source and reservoir rocks. Sedimentary facies indicate a paleodepth range from below storm wave base to near-coastal swamp environments. Sedimentation and subsidence were hence in pace, with subtle facies changes likely representing relative sea-level changes. Paleocurrent directions are remarkably consistently southeastward in time and space in the different sedimentary facies across the Donbas Fold Belt, illustrating a dominant sedimentary infill along the basin axis, with little basin margin influence. This suggests that the middle Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Dniepr-Donets basin to the northwest probably contains significant amounts of fluvial sandstones, important for assessing hydrocarbon reservoir potential.

  6. Prognostic value of MRD-dynamics in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to the MB-2002/2008 protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshko, Alexander N; Savva, Natalia N; Fedasenka, Uladzimir U; Romancova, Alexandra S; Krasko, Olga V; Eckert, Cornelia; von Stackelberg, Arend; Aleinikova, Olga V

    2011-10-01

    Detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) during the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by RQ-PCR analysis of clonal Ig/TCR rearrangements is used for risk group stratification in European treatment protocols. In Belarus patients with childhood ALL are treated according to ALL-MB protocols, which do not use MRD-based risk stratification. To evaluate the prognostic significance of MRD for ALL-MB-2002/2008 protocols, MRD was quantified by RQ-PCR in 68 ALL patients at four time points: on day 15, on day 36, before and after maintenance therapy (MT). MRD positivity, as well as quantitative level of MRD were analyzed and compared between patients who stayed in remission and relapsed. Relapse-free survival revealed to be significantly associated with MRD levels at different time points. Unfavorable prognosis was shown for MRD≥10(-3) on day 36 (pPCR in children with ALL treated with ALL-MB protocols is feasible and independently associated with outcome. MRD may be a suitable parameter for treatment stratification in MB protocols in future.

  7. PREFACE: 17th Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb/2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averkiev, Nikita S.; Poniaev, Sergey A.; Sokolovskii, Grigorii S.

    2015-12-01

    The seventeenth Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb) was held from 28-30 October 2014 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The Conference continues the tradition of Saint Petersburg Seminars on Physics and Astronomy originating from the mid-1990s. Since then PhysicA.SPb maintains both the scientific and educational quality of contributions delivered to the young audience. This is the main feature of the Conference that makes it possible to combine the whole spectrum of modern Physics and Astronomy within one event. PhysicA.SPb/2014 has brought together more than 200 students, young scientists and their professor colleagues from many universities and research institutes across the whole of Russia as well as from Belarus, Ukraine, Finland, the Netherlands, France and Germany. Oral and poster presentations were combined into the well-defined sections of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Optics and spectroscopy, Physics of ferroics, Nanostructured and thin-film materials, Mathematical physics and numerical methods, Biophysics, Plasma physics, hydro- and aero-dynamics, and Physics of quantum structures. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series presents the extended contributions from participants of PhysicA.SPb/2014 that were peer-reviewed by expert referees through processes administered by the Presiders of the Organising and Programme Committees to the best professional and scientific standards.

  8. INTERNATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF IMPACTS OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT: THE CHERNOBYL FORUM (2003–2005 AND UNSCEAR (2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Balonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiological consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP were recently revisited by the UN Chernobyl Forum (2003-2005 and UNSCEAR (2005-2008. For the first time environmental impacts were considered in detail, including radioactive contamination of terrestrial and aquatic environments, application and effectiveness of countermeasures and effects on biota. Updated dosimetric data were presented for more than half a million of emergency and recovery operation workers, about 100 million inhabitants of the three most affected countries, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, and for 500 million inhabitants of other European countries. Several hundred of the emergency workers received high radiation doses; of whom 28 persons died in 1986 due to acute radiation sickness. Children at the time of the accident, who drank milk with high levels of radioactive iodine, received high doses to the thyroid. Since early 1990s there was the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence among them. Also in 1990s there was some increase of leukaemia in most exposed workers. The UN Chernobyl Forum concluded that severe social and economic depression of the affected regions and associated psychological problems of the general public and the workers had become the most significant problem. The vast majority of the population need not live in fear of serious health consequences from the Chernobyl accident.

  9. MODELING OF CONVECTIVE FLOWS IN PNEUMOBASED OBJECTS. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khrustalyov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer modeling process of three-dimensional forced convection proceeding from computation of thermodynamic parameters of pneumo basic buildings (pneumo supported structures is presented. The mathematical model of numerical computation method of temperature and velocity fields, pressure profile in the object is developed using the package Solid works and is provided by grid methods on specified software. Special Navier–Stokes, Clapeyron–Mendeleev, continuity and thermal-conductivity equations are used to calculate parameters in the building with four supply and exhaust channels. Differential equations are presented by algebraic equation systems, initial-boundary conditions are changed by differential conditions for mesh functions and their solutions are performed by algebraic operations. In this article the following is demonstrated: in pneumo basic buildings convective and heat flows are identical structures near the surfaces in unlimited space, but in single-multiply shells (envelopescirculation lines take place, geometrical sizes of which depend on thermal-physical characteristics of gas(airin envelopes, radiation reaction with heated surfaces of envelopes with  sphere, earth surface, neighboring buildings. Natural surveys of pneumo-basic buildings of different purposes were carried out in Minsk, in different cities of Belarus and Russia, including temperature fields of external and internal surfaces of air envelopes, relative humidity, thermal (heatflows, radiation characteristics and others.The results of research work are illustrated with diagrams of temperature, velocity, density and pressure dependent on coordinates and time.

  10. Direct determination of amino acids and carbohydrates by high-performance capillary electrophoresis with refractometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivano, A R; Nazimov, I V; Lobazov, A P; Popkovich, G B

    2000-10-13

    This is an initial report to propose a novel approach in high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) for the direct detection of compounds without natural absorbance in the UV and visible spectral range, such as amino acids and carbohydrates. A refractometry detector with the 2 nl cell (Applied Systems, Minsk, Belarus) was employed to identify amino acids and carbohydrates without derivatization. The first results are provided on separation of seven free amino acids in the phosphate running buffer and three free carbohydrates in the borate-sodium dodecyl sulfate running buffer and detection by refractometer. Fused capillaries of 50 or 75 microm internal diameter and separation voltage (10-23 kV) were applied. Detection limits ranged typically from 10 to 100 fmol and the response was linear over two orders of magnitude for most of the amino acids and carbohydrates. The HPCE system demonstrated good long-term stability and reproducibility with a relative standard deviation, less than 5% for the migration time (n=10).

  11. Prediction of survival in patients with Stage IV kidney cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mirilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment was evaluated and the predictors of adjusted survival (AS were identified in patients with disseminated kidney cancer treated at the Republican Research and Practical Center for Oncology and Medical Radiology in 1999 to 2011 (A.E. Okeanov, P.I. Moiseev, L.F. Levin. Malignant tumors in Belarus, 2001–2012. Edited by O.G. Sukonko. Seven factors (regional lymph node metastases; distant bone metastases; a high-grade tumor; sarcomatous tumor differentiation; hemoglobin levels of < 125 g/l in women and < 150 g/l in men; an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 40 mm/h; palliative surgery were found to have an independent, unfavorable impact on AS. A multidimensional model was built to define what risk group low (no more than 2 poor factors, moderate (3–4 poor factors, and high (more than 4 poor factors the patients with Stage IV kidney cancer belonged to. In these groups, the median survival was 34.7, 17.2, and 4.0 months and 3-year AS rates were 48.6, 24.6, and 3.2 %, respectively. 

  12. Chemical Composition of Ceramic Tile Glazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Zhukova, I. I.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out laser emission and x-ray fluorescence spectral analysis of glaze before and after its application to ceramic tile produced by Keramin JSC (Belarus). We have studied the internal microstructure of the ceramic samples. It was established that on the surface and within the bulk interior of all the samples, there are micropores of sizes ranging from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and microcracks as long as several hundred micrometers. The presence of micropores on the surface of the ceramic tile leads to an increase in the water absorption level and a decrease in frost resistance. It was found that a decrease in the surface tension of ceramic tile coatings is promoted by substitution of sodium by potassium, silica by boric anhydride, magnesium and barium by calcium, CaO by sodium oxide, and SiO2 by chromium oxide. We carried out a comparative analysis of the chemical composition of glaze samples using S4 Pioneer and ElvaX x-ray fluorescence spectrometers and also an LIBS laser emission analyzer.

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA: SYMBIOSIS OR COMPETITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Corduneanu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation and trust between Russia and the European Union (EU, two of the most important international actors, have reached the lowest level since the Cold War. The main bone of contention has been the future of countries situated in Eastern Europe, in the so-called ‘in-between’/’buffer’ region. On the one hand, the EU aims at strengthening links with the six Eastern European partners – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine – by encouraging reforms and by luring them to embrace European core values. However, Russia’s counteractions have mitigated the EU’s plans towards its vicinity - as the case of Ukraine best points out. Apart from the geopolitical competition over the ‘shared’ neighbourhood, the EU-Russia relation has started to depend heavily on the energy issues further complicating the already complex background. Russia uses the energy card as tool to influence the shape of the regional context, whereas the EU responds with a superior technological advantage and a more attractive economic and political agenda. Having this a backdrop, this paper aims to underline that a clear competition between the two players exists, fomented by a fundamental ideological difference in perceiving the outside world.

  14. Footprint areas of pollen from alder (Alnus and birch (Betula in the UK (Worcester and Poland (Wrocław during 2005–2014

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    Carsten Ambelas Skjøth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed daily pollen concentrations of Alnus spp. and Betula spp. from Worcester, UK and Wrocław, Poland. We analyzed seasonality, annual pollen index and footprint areas for the observed pollen concentrations by using the trajectory model hybrid single particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT. We examined 10 years of data during the period 2005–2014 and found substantial differences in the seasonality, pollen indices and footprint areas. For both genera, concentrations in Wrocław are in general much higher, the seasons are shorter and therefore more intense than in Worcester. The reasons appear to be related to the differences in overall climate between the two sites and more abundant sources in Poland than in England. The footprint areas suggest that the source of the pollen grains are mainly local trees but appear to be augmented by remote sources, in particular for Betula spp. but only to a small degree for Alnus spp. For Betula spp., both sites appear to get contributions from areas in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium, while known Betula spp. rich regions in Russia, Belarus and Scandinavia had a very limited impact on the pollen concentrations in Worcester and Wrocław. Substantial and systematic variations in pollen indices are seen for Betula spp. in Wrocław with high values every second year while a similar pattern is not observed for Worcester. This pattern was not reproduced for Alnus spp.

  15. INVESTIGATIONS ON OPERATION OF ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

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    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace (RTF is a new type of fuel furnaces, that provide the most efficient heating and recycling of polydisperse materials. The paper describes results of the investigations on thermal processes in the RTF, movement of materials and non-isothermal gas flow during kiln rotary process. The investigations have been carried out while using physical and computer simulations and under actual operating conditions applying the pilot plant. Results of the research have served as a basis for development of recommendations on the RTF calculations and designing and they have been also used for constructional design of a rotary tilting furnace for heating and melting of cast iron chips, reduction smelting of steel mill scale, melting of aluminum scrap, melting of lead from battery scrap. These furnaces have a high thermal efficiency (~50 %, technological flexibility, high productivity and profitability. Proven technical solutions for recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals develop the use of RTF in the foundry and metallurgical industry as the main technological unit for creation of cost-effective small-tonnage recycling of metal waste generated at the plants. The research results open prospects for organization of its own production for high-quality charging material in Belarus in lieu of imported primary metal. The proposed technology makes it possible to solve environmental challenge pertaining to liquidation of multi-tonnage heaps of metal-containing wastes.

  16. EU-CIS joint study project 2. Intervention criteria in CIS, risk assessments and non-radiological factors in decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Demin, V.F. [Russian Reserch Centre `Kurchatov Inst.`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Konstantinov, Y.O. [Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Likhtarev, I.A. [Ukrainian Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Rolevich, I.V. [Chernobyl State Commiettee, Minsk (Belarus); Schneider, T. [Centre d`etudes sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, CEPN, Paris (France)

    1996-05-01

    An extensive radiation risk estimation methodology has recently been developed in Russia and used for estimates of risk in exposed populations in the republics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Results based on demographic data for the three republics are presented and compared with risk estimates from the EU risk model ASQRAD. The intervention criteria in the CIS republics have been evolving since the Chernobyl accident. The development of criteria in each of the three republics has been analysed and the CIS-Criteria have been compared to international guidance on intervention. After a nuclear or radiological emergency both radiological and non-radiological protection factors will influence the level of protective actions being introduced. The role of non-radiological protection factors in the overall optimization of health protection is addressed. It is argued that optimization of the overall health protection is not a question of developing radiation radiation protection philosophy to fully include socio-psychological factors. It is rather a question of including these factors - in parallel with the radiological protection factors - in cooperation between radiation protection experts and psychological specialists under the responsibility of the decision maker. (au) 19 tabs., 10 ills., 45 refs.

  17. PREFACE: 16th Russian Youth Conference on Physics and Astronomy (PhysicA.SPb/2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The sixteenth Russian Conference on Physics and Astronomy PhysicA.SPb was held 23-24 October 2013 in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. The Conference continues the tradition of Saint-Petersburg Seminars on Physics and Astronomy originating from mid-90s. Since then PhysicA.SPb maintains both scientific and educational quality of contributions delivered to the young audience. This is the main feature of the Conference that makes it possible to combine the whole spectrum of modern Physics and Astronomy within one event. PhysicA.SPb/2013 has brought together about 200 students, young scientists and their colleague professors from many universities and research institutes across whole Russia as well as from Belarus, Ukraine, Switzerland, Turkey, Finland and France. Oral and poster presentations were combined into a few well-defined sections among which one should name Astronomy and Astrophysics, Plasma physics, hydro- and aero-dynamics, Physics of quantum-sized structures, Nanostructured and thin-film materials, Biophysics, THz and UHF materials and devices, Optoelectronic devices, Optics and spectroscopy, Atomic and elementary particles physics, Defects and impurities in solid state, Physics and technology of the alternative energetics. This issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series presents the extended contributions from participants of PhysicA.SPb/2013 that were peer-reviewed by expert referees through processes administered by the Presiders of the Organising and Programme Committees to the best professional and scientific standards. The Editors: Nikita S. Averkiev, Sergey A. Poniaev and Grigorii S. Sokolovskii

  18. Czytając Snydera. Refleksje białoruskiego historyka

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    Aleksander Smalanczuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading Snyder. Reflections of a Belarusian historian Timothy Snyder has carried out a detailed comparison of mass extermination practices of two different though similar regimes. His comparison indicates basic resemblances as well as a large number of discrepancies. At the same time, the conclusions drawn by the author of Bloodlands challenge numerous commonly accepted theses from the field of political history. However, it is easy for a historian from Belarus to notice some inaccuracies regarding the “Belarusian theme.” Timothy Snyder is not familiar with the most important works of Belarusian historiography, which refer to the question of the monograph directly (the works by Jerzy Turonek, Eugeniusz Mironowicz, Igor Kuzniecow and others. Whereas Snyder’s approach to the “Polish theme” lacks some criticism. Nevertheless, Snyder’s book offers quite a comprehensive analysis of the history of mass extermination. Bloodlands demonstrates that the main victim of these murders was Human: death annihilates all national and cultural differences, whereas the most important is the human aspect of the tragedy suffered by the millions, which should not be regarded as statistics.

  19. Sex-Dependent Individual Differences and the Correlational Relationship Between Proprioceptive and Verbal Tests

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    Liutsko Liudmila

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between proprioceptive and verbal tests on personality in both sexes separately due to existing proprioceptive differences in fine motor behavior between men and women in our previous studies [1, 2, 3]. Material and methods. 114 middle-aged participants from Belarus completed verbal tests (personality: Eysenck's EPQ, Big Five in Hromov's Russian adaptation, and Rosenberg's Self-esteem together with Proprioceptive Diagnostics of Temperament and Character (by Tous. Complementary information, such as tests of time perception, was collected and used in correlative and ANOVA analyses with the use of SPSS v.19. Results. The relationship between proprioceptive variables in personality and individual differences, time perception and the results of verbal tests were determined for each sex subgroup and discussed. ANOVA results reflected the corresponding differences and similarities between men and women in the variables of each test. Time perception was found to be significantly correlated to all five dimensions of the Big Five Test in both sexes, and both had a significant relationship to the same variables of the DP-TC test. Conclusions. Time perception can be used as an indirect indicator of personality. Existing individual and personality differences should be taken into account in coaching and education to obtain more effective results.

  20. A novel method of facial rejuvenation using a 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser with spatially modulated ablation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, M A; Khomchenko, V; Alcolea, J M; Martínez-Carpio, P A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a novel method of facial rejuvenation using a 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser with Spatially Modulated Ablation™. A pilot study was performed in 16 women with moderate to severe signs of facial aging relative to chronological age, who underwent two treatment sessions with an Er:YAG laser coupled to the RecoSMA™ technology (Linline, Minsk, Belarus). The whole face was treated in all patients. Clinical efficacy, tolerance, adverse effects, complications, and histological changes due to the treatment were evaluated. Clinical photographs and biopsies were taken before treatment and 3 months after the second treatment session. All patients completed the study and presented no significant complications. Histological changes in the epidermis and dermis as a result of treatment were found. Fine lines, wrinkles, and overall facial aging improved significantly (p < 0.0001). The mean reduction of fine lines and wrinkles was 59 % (r = 40-75 %). The mean improvement of overall facial aging was 74 % (r = 55-90 %). After showing the patients the comparative photographs before and after treatment, 75 % of women stated that they were satisfied or very satisfied and would recommend the treatment. Preliminary results show an excellent safety/efficacy profile for this novel technology, which, based on observed results, can be considered to have advantages over other methods of facial rejuvenation with lasers.