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Sample records for beitel gj unexpected

  1. Benchmarking GJ436b for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Vivien; Stevenson, Kevin; Crossfield, Ian; Morley, Caroline; Fortney, Jonathan; Showman, Adam; Lewis, Nikole; Line, Mike

    2017-10-01

    GJ436b is a slightly eccentric, Neptune size planet with an equilibrium temperature of approximately 770K, it is the only Neptune size planet with a thermal emission measurement. With the coming JWST GTO observations of it's emission spectrum, GJ436b will become a benchmark object of the population of Neptune-size planets that will be discovered by TESS and characterized by JWST in the coming years. The current set of 19 secondary eclipses observed by Spitzer points toward a metal-rich, well mixed, tidally heated atmosphere in disequilibrium chemistry. However, no self-consistent forward models are currently able to fit the dayside spectrum of the planet, whereas retrieval models lead to solutions that are inconsistent with the observed planet density. Clearly, some piece of the puzzle is missing to understand the atmospheric properties of this planet. Although the coming JWST observations will likely improve our understanding of this planet, it won't be able to break the degeneracies between metallicity, internal flux and energy redistribution. We propose to observe a full phase curve of GJ436b at 3.6 microns. We will obtain a measurement of the nightside flux of GJ436b at 3.6 microns. Combined with the already observed 8 microns phase curve, we will obtain the first low resolution spectrum of the nightside of a Neptune size exoplanet. By comparing the nightside flux at 3.6 and 8 microns, we will be able to place constraints on the tidal heating and the metallicity of GJ436b that will be complimentary to the the dayside spectrum that will be obtained with JWST. As seen with the example of hot Jupiters, for which much more data is available, measurements of the nightside spectrum is fundamental to understand the planet atmosphere as a whole and correctly interpret the dayside emission. As a consequence, the proposed observation is crucial for the interpretation of the coming JWST observations. As a secondary goal, our observation should be able to confirm the

  2. Konverents Gjøvikis tuleb juunis / Sirje Virkus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Virkus, Sirje, 1956-

    1999-01-01

    1.-4. maini toimus Gjøvikis rahvusvahelise konverentsi "Telecommunication in Education and Training : TET 99" ettevalmistuskomisjoni koosolek, mille tööst võttis osa konverentsi programmikomitee liige Sirje Virkus

  3. NARROW-K-BAND OBSERVATIONS OF THE GJ 1214 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colón, Knicole D.; Gaidos, Eric, E-mail: colonk@hawaii.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    GJ 1214 is a nearby M dwarf star that hosts a transiting super-Earth-size planet, making this system an excellent target for atmospheric studies. Most studies find that the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b is flat, which favors either a high mean molecular weight or cloudy/hazy hydrogen (H) rich atmosphere model. Photometry at short wavelengths (<0.7 μm) and in the K band can discriminate the most between these different atmosphere models for GJ 1214b, but current observations do not have sufficiently high precision. We present photometry of seven transits of GJ 1214b through a narrow K-band (2.141 μm) filter with the Wide Field Camera on the 3.8 m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. Our photometric precision is typically 1.7 × 10{sup –3} (for a single transit), comparable with other ground-based observations of GJ 1214b. We measure a planet-star radius ratio of 0.1158 ± 0.0013, which, along with other studies, also supports a flat transmission spectrum for GJ 1214b. Since this does not exclude a scenario where GJ 1214b has an H-rich envelope with heavy elements that are sequestered below a cloud/haze layer, we compare K-band observations with models of H{sub 2} collision-induced absorption in an atmosphere for a range of temperatures. While we find no evidence for deviation from a flat spectrum (slope s = 0.0016 ± 0.0038), an H{sub 2}-dominated upper atmosphere (<60 mbar) cannot be excluded. More precise observations at <0.7 μm and in the K band, as well as a uniform analysis of all published data, would be useful for establishing more robust limits on atmosphere models for GJ 1214b.

  4. Introduction. G.J. Hoogewerff, Explorer in Art History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, Wessel; van Egmond, Anna-Maria; Chavannes-Mazel, Claudine A.

    2014-01-01

    G.J. Hoogewerff (1884-1963) was director of the Netherlands Historical Institute in Rome, professor at the University of Utrecht, and director of the Netherlands Art Historical Institute in Florence. In 2012, it was the 75th anniversary of the publication of his five-volume history of medieval

  5. Chaotic Excitation and Tidal Damping in the GJ 876 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranam, Abhijit; Batygin, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    The M-dwarf GJ 876 is the closest known star to harbor a multi-planetary system. With three outer planets locked in a chaotic Laplace-type resonance and an appreciably eccentric short-period super-Earth, this system represents a unique exposition of extrasolar planetary dynamics. A key question that concerns the long-term evolution of this system, and the fate of close-in planets in general, is how the significant eccentricity of the inner-most planet is maintained against tidal circularization on timescales comparable to the age of the universe. Here, we employ stochastic secular perturbation theory and N-body simulations to show that the orbit of the inner-most planet is shaped by a delicate balance between extrinsic chaotic forcing and tidal dissipation. As such, the planet’s orbital eccentricity represents an indirect measure of its tidal quality factor. Based on the system’s present-day architecture, we estimate that the extrasolar super-Earth GJ 876 d has a tidal Q ∼ 104–105, a value characteristic of solar system gas giants.

  6. Interlock system of electron beam machine GJ-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnada, Nada

    1999-01-01

    As an irradiation installation facility, the electron beam machine (EBM) irradiation facility which use radionuclide as radiation source. There are three safety aspects to be considered in the facility i.e the safeties for human, machines, and samples to be irradiated. The safety aspect for human is to the radiation hazard and the safety aspect for machine and sample is to the damage as the result of operating failure. In the EBM GJ-2 (made in China) twelve interlock system parameter are installed to keep all of the safety aspects. Each interlock system consist transducer that controls a certain switch, a magnetic relay, and visible and audible interlock indicators to improve the reliability of interlock systems a method called redundancy method is applied to the systems of operation of high voltage. (author)

  7. Unexpected high plasma cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan F B; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that more than 8% of patients examined for vitamin B12 deficiency unexpectedly have increased plasma levels of the vitamin, but so far there are no guidelines for the clinical interpretation of such findings. In this review, we summarise known associations between high plasma...... cobalamin binding proteins, transcobalamin and haptocorrin. Based on current knowledge, we suggest a strategy for the clinical interpretation of unexpected high plasma cobalamin. Since a number of the associated diseases are critical and life-threatening, the strategy promotes the concept of 'think...

  8. An unexpected pulmonary bystander

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M.; Vorm, van der P. A.; Koning, K. J.; van der Werf, T. S.

    A 30-year-old man from Eritrea was admitted with a pulmonary bacterial abscess. Unexpectedly, histopathology of the resected lobe also revealed an infection with Schistosoma mansoni with surrounding granulomatous tissue and fibrosis. Patients from endemic areas are often asymptomatic with blood

  9. Microphysical Modeling of Mineral Clouds in GJ1214 b and GJ436 b: Predicting Upper Limits on the Cloud-top Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Kazumasa; Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2018-05-01

    The ubiquity of clouds in the atmospheres of exoplanets, especially of super-Earths, is one of the outstanding issues for the transmission spectra survey. Understanding the formation process of clouds in super-Earths is necessary to interpret the observed spectra correctly. In this study, we investigate the vertical distributions of particle size and mass density of mineral clouds in super-Earths using a microphysical model that takes into account the vertical transport and growth of cloud particles in a self-consistent manner. We demonstrate that the vertical profiles of mineral clouds significantly vary with the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei and atmospheric metallicity. We find that the height of the cloud top increases with increasing metallicity as long as the metallicity is lower than the threshold. If the metallicity is larger than the threshold, the cloud-top height no longer increases appreciably with metallicity because coalescence yields larger particles of higher settling velocities. We apply our cloud model to GJ1214 b and GJ436 b, for which recent transmission observations suggest the presence of high-altitude opaque clouds. For GJ436 b, we show that KCl particles can ascend high enough to explain the observation. For GJ1214 b, by contrast, the height of KCl clouds predicted from our model is too low to explain its flat transmission spectrum. Clouds made of highly porous KCl particles could explain the observations if the atmosphere is highly metal-rich, and hence the particle microstructure might be a key to interpret the flat spectrum of GJ1214 b.

  10. An HST/STIS Optical Transmission Spectrum of Warm Neptune GJ 436b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothringer, Joshua D.; Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Henry, Gregory W.; Morley, Caroline; Dragomir, Diana; Barman, Travis; Knutson, Heather; Kempton, Eliza; Fortney, Jonathan; McCullough, Peter; Howard, Andrew W.

    2018-02-01

    GJ 436b is a prime target for understanding warm Neptune exoplanet atmospheres and a target for multiple James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Guaranteed Time Observation programs. Here, we report the first space-based optical transmission spectrum of the planet using two Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) transit observations from 0.53 to 1.03 μm. We find no evidence for alkali absorption features, nor evidence of a scattering slope longward of 0.53 μm. The spectrum is indicative of moderate to high metallicity (∼100–1000× solar), while moderate-metallicity scenarios (∼100× solar) require aerosol opacity. The optical spectrum also rules out some highly scattering haze models. We find an increase in transit depth around 0.8 μm in the transmission spectra of three different sub-Jovian exoplanets (GJ 436b, HAT-P-26b, and GJ 1214b). While most of the data come from STIS, data from three other instruments may indicate this is not an instrumental effect. Only the transit spectrum of GJ 1214b is well fit by a model with stellar plages on the photosphere of the host star. Our photometric monitoring of the host star reveals a stellar rotation rate of 44.1 days and an activity cycle of 7.4 years. Intriguingly, GJ 436 does not become redder as it gets dimmer, which is expected if star spots were dominating the variability. These insights into the nature of the GJ 436 system help refine our expectations for future observations in the era of JWST, whose higher precision and broader wavelength coverage will shed light on the composition and structure of GJ 436b’s atmosphere.

  11. A SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN THE NASA EPOXI OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEM GJ 436

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, Sarah; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J.; Fabrycky, Daniel; Deming, Drake; Barry, Richard K.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Hampton, Don L.; Lisse, Carey M.; Seager, Sara; Veverka, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    We present time series photometry of the M dwarf transiting exoplanet system GJ 436 obtained with the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization (EPOCh) component of the NASA EPOXI mission. We conduct a search of the high-precision time series for additional planets around GJ 436, which could be revealed either directly through their photometric transits or indirectly through the variations these second planets induce on the transits of the previously known planet. In the case of GJ 436, the presence of a second planet is perhaps indicated by the residual orbital eccentricity of the known hot Neptune companion. We find no candidate transits with significance higher than our detection limit. From Monte Carlo tests of the time series, we rule out transiting planets larger than 1.5 R + interior to GJ 436b with 95% confidence and larger than 1.25 R + with 80% confidence. Assuming coplanarity of additional planets with the orbit of GJ 436b, we cannot expect that putative planets with orbital periods longer than about 3.4 days will transit. However, if such a planet were to transit, we would rule out planets larger than 2.0 R + with orbital periods less than 8.5 days with 95% confidence. We also place dynamical constraints on additional bodies in the GJ 436 system, independent of radial velocity measurements. Our analysis should serve as a useful guide for similar analyses of transiting exoplanets for which radial velocity measurements are not available, such as those discovered by the Kepler mission. From the lack of observed secular perturbations, we set upper limits on the mass of a second planet as small as 10 M + in coplanar orbits and 1 M + in non-coplanar orbits close to GJ 436b. We present refined estimates of the system parameters for GJ 436. We find P = 2.64389579 ± 0.00000080 d, R * = 0.437 ± 0.016 R sun , and R p = 3.880 ± 0.147 R + . We also report a sinusoidal modulation in the GJ 436 light curve that we attribute to star spots. This signal is

  12. Gj 832c: A super-Earth in the habitable zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Marshall, J. P.; Bailey, J.; Salter, G. S.; Wright, D. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Tuomi, Mikko; Jones, H. R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Butler, R. P.; Arriagada, P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Anglada-Escudé, Guillem [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Carter, B. D. [Computational Engineering and Science Research Centre, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); O' Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Crane, J. D.; Schectman, S. A.; Thompson, I. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Minniti, D. [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Jenkins, J. S.; Diaz, M., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Casilla 36-D, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-08-20

    We report the detection of GJ 832c, a super-Earth orbiting near the inner edge of the habitable zone of GJ 832, an M dwarf previously known to host a Jupiter analog in a nearly circular 9.4 yr orbit. The combination of precise radial-velocity measurements from three telescopes reveals the presence of a planet with a period of 35.68 ± 0.03 days and minimum mass (m sin i) of 5.4 ± 1.0 Earth masses. GJ 832c moves on a low-eccentricity orbit (e = 0.18 ± 0.13) toward the inner edge of the habitable zone. However, given the large mass of the planet, it seems likely that it would possess a massive atmosphere, which may well render the planet inhospitable. Indeed, it is perhaps more likely that GJ 832c is a 'super-Venus', featuring significant greenhouse forcing. With an outer giant planet and an interior, potentially rocky planet, the GJ 832 planetary system can be thought of as a miniature version of our own solar system.

  13. Precise Masses & Radii of the Planets Orbiting K2-3 and GJ3470

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiarek, Molly; Crossfield, Ian; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Livingston, John; Howard, Andrew; Fulton, Benjamin; Hirsch, Lea; Isaacson, Howard; Petigura, Erik; Sinukoff, Evan; Weiss, Lauren; Knutson, Heather; Bonfils, Xavier; Benneke, Björn; Beichman, Charles; Dressing, Courtney

    2018-01-01

    We report improved masses, radii, and densities for two planetary systems, K2-3 and GJ3470, derived from a combination of new radial velocity and transit observations. Both stars are nearby, early M dwarfs. K2-3 hosts three super-Earth planets between 1.5 and 2 Earth-radii at orbital periods between 10 and 45 days, while GJ 3470 hosts one 4 Earth-radii planet with a period of 3.3 days. Furthermore, we confirmed GJ3470's rotation period through multi-year ground-based photometry; RV analysis must account for this rotation signature. Due to the planets' low densities (all stars, they are among the best candidates for transmission spectroscopy with JWST and HST in order to characterize their atmospheric compositions.

  14. Lande gJ factors for even-parity electronic levels in the holmium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, D.; Werbowy, S.; Krzykowski, A.; Furmann, B.

    2018-05-01

    In this work the hyperfine structure of the Zeeman splitting for 18 even-parity levels in the holmium atom was investigated. The experimental method applied was laser induced fluorescence in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. 20 spectral lines were investigated involving odd-parity levels from the ground multiplet, for which Lande gJ factors are known with high precision, as the lower levels; this greatly facilitated the evaluation of gJ factors for the upper levels. The gJ values for the even-parity levels considered are reported for the first time. They proved to compare fairly well with the values obtained recently in a semi-empirical analysis for the even-parity level system of Ho I.

  15. SECRETLY ECCENTRIC: THE GIANT PLANET AND ACTIVITY CYCLE OF GJ 328

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Boss, Alan P.

    2013-01-01

    We announce the discovery of a ∼2 Jupiter-mass planet in an eccentric 11 yr orbit around the K7/M0 dwarf GJ 328. Our result is based on 10 years of radial velocity (RV) data from the Hobby-Eberly and Harlan J. Smith telescopes at McDonald Observatory, and from the Keck Telescope at Mauna Kea. Our analysis of GJ 328's magnetic activity via the Na I D features reveals a long-period stellar activity cycle, which creates an additional signal in the star's RV curve with amplitude 6-10 m s –1 . After correcting for this stellar RV contribution, we see that the orbit of the planet is more eccentric than suggested by the raw RV data. GJ 328b is currently the most massive, longest-period planet discovered around a low-mass dwarf

  16. ASTROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND HABITABLE ZONE OF THE EXOPLANET HOSTING STAR GJ 581

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; McAlister, Harold A.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Riedel, Adric R.; Van Belle, Gerard T.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Subasavage, John P.; Schaefer, Gail; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Mazingue, Jude; Turner, Nils H.; Farrington, Chris; Goldfinger, P. J.; Ridgway, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    GJ 581 is an M dwarf host of a multiplanet system. We use long-baseline interferometric measurements from the CHARA Array, coupled with trigonometric parallax information, to directly determine its physical radius to be 0.299 ± 0.010 R sun . Literature photometry data are used to perform spectral energy distribution fitting in order to determine GJ 581's effective surface temperature T EFF = 3498 ± 56 K and its luminosity L = 0.01205 ± 0.00024 L sun . From these measurements, we recompute the location and extent of the system's habitable zone and conclude that two of the planets orbiting GJ 581, planets d and g, spend all or part of their orbit within or just on the edge of the habitable zone.

  17. SPITZER TRANSITS OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraine, Jonathan D.; Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gillon, Michaeel; Jehin, Emmanueel [Institute d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium); Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jfraine@astro.umd.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using warm Spitzer at 4.5 {mu}m wavelength during a 20 day quasi-continuous sequence in 2011 May. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a reanalysis of previous transit observations by Desert et al. In total, we analyze 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 {mu}m, 3 transits at 3.6 {mu}m, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe and Burrows. Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke and Seager and Howe and Burrows using a {chi}{sup 2} analysis. We find that the best-fit model exhibits an increase in transit radius at short wavelengths due to Rayleigh scattering. Pure water atmospheres are also possible. However, a flat line (no atmosphere detected) remains among the best of the statistically acceptable models, and better than pure water atmospheres. We explore the effect of systematic differences among results from different observational groups, and we find that the Howe and Burrows tholin-haze model remains the best fit, even when systematic differences among observers are considered.

  18. Vekst, metabolisme og ølbrygging med melkesyrebakterier og gjær

    OpenAIRE

    Kvam, Guro

    2017-01-01

    Ølbrygging er et håndverk forbundet med lange tradisjoner, med røtter tilbake til det 12. århundrets Europa. Før dagens mikrobiologiske teknikker ble oppfunnet var all øl spontangjæret med en kompleks sammensetning av ulike gjær- og bakteriestammer. I dag produseres fremdeles enkelte av disse ølsortene under navn som lambic, geuze eller Berliner weisse, og interessen for slike ølsorter har økt betraktelig de siste årene. Mange bryggerier benytter i dag kjente kulturer av gjær og melkesyrebakt...

  19. Astrophysical Parameters and Habitable Zone of the Exoplanet Hosting Star GJ 581

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Kaspar; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Kane, Stephen R.; van Belle, Gerard T.; Ciardi, David R.; Lόpez-Morales, Mercedes; McAlister, Harold A.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.; Schaefer, Gail; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Ridgway, Stephen; Sturmann, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    GJ 581 is an M dwarf host of a multiplanet system. We use long-baseline interferometric measurements from the CHARA Array, coupled with trigonometric parallax information, to directly determine its physical radius to be $0.299 \\pm 0.010 R_{\\odot}$. Literature photometry data are used to perform spectral energy distribution fitting in order to determine GJ 581's effective surface temperature $T_{\\rm EFF}=3498 \\pm 56$ K and its luminosity $L=0.01205 \\pm 0.00024 L_{\\odot}$. From these measuremen...

  20. High-Contrast 3.8 Micron Imaging of the Brown Dwarf/Planet-Mass Companion to GJ 758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne M.; Bailey, Vanessa; Fabrycky, Daniel; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rodigas, Timothy; Hinz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    We present L' band (3.8 Micron) MMT/Clio high-contrast imaging data for the nearby star GJ 758, which was recently reported by Thalmann et al. (2009) to have one - possibly two - faint comoving companions (GJ 7588 and "C", respectively). GJ 758B is detected in two distinct datasets. Additionally, we report a \\textit{possible} detection of the object identified by Thalmann et al as "GJ 758C" in our more sensitive dataset, though it is likely a residual speckle. However, if it is the same object as that reported by Thalmann et al. it cannot be a companion in a bound orbit. GJ 7588 has a H-L' color redder than nearly all known L-T8 dwarfs. 8ased on comparisons with the COND evolutionary models, GJ 7588 has Te approx. 560 K (+150 K, -90 K) and a mass ranging from approx.10-20 Mj if it is approx.1 Gyr old to approx. 25-40 Mj if it is 8.7 Gyr old. GJ 7588 is likely in a highly eccentric orbit, e approx. 0.73 (+0.12,-0.21), with a semimajor axis of approx. 44 AU (+32 AU, -14 AU). Though GJ 7588 is sometimes discussed within the context of exoplanet direct imaging, its mass is likely greater than the deuterium-burning limit and its formation may resemble that of binary stars rather than that of jovian-mass planets.

  1. Step-parent adoption gone wrong: GT v CT [2015] 3 ALL SA 631 (GJ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of the immense impact on a child, the rescission of an adoption order has to be handled with kid gloves. In GT v CT [2015] 3 ALL SA 631 (GJ) two children had been legally adopted by their stepfather while the Child Care Act was in operation. After the implementation of the Children's Act 38 of 2005, however, ...

  2. The role of the Cx43 C-terminus in GJ plaque formation and internalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayakanon, Praween; Bhattacharjee, Rajib; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cx43-GFP or -DsRed fusion proteins were expressed in HeLa cells. ► Roles of C-terminus were examined using various mutants. ► Gap junction plaque size was dependent on the length of C-terminus. ► C-terminus dependent gap junction plaque internalization was observed. -- Abstract: Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a major gap junction (GJ) protein found in many mammalian cell types. The C-terminal (CT) domain of Cx43 has unique characteristics in terms of amino acid (aa) sequence and its length differs from other connexins. This CT domain can be associated with protein partners to regulate GJ assembly and degradation, which results in the direct control of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). However, the essential roles of the CT regions involved in these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the specific regions of Cx43CT involved in GJ formation and internalization. Wild type Cx43 (382aa) and 10 CT truncated mutants were stably expressed in HeLa cells as GFP or DsRed tagged proteins. First, we found that the deletion of 235–382aa from Cx43 resulted in failure to make GJ and establish GJIC. Second, the Cx43 with 242–382aa CT deletion could form functional GJs and be internalized as annular gap junctions (AGJs). However, the plaques consisting of Cx43 with CT deletions (Δ242–382aa to Δ271–382aa) were longer than the plaques consisting of Cx43 with CT deletions (Δ302–382aa). Third, co-culture experiments of cells expressing wild type Cx43 (382) with cells expressing Cx43CT mutants revealed that the directions of GJ internalization were dependent on the length of the respective CT. Moreover, a specific region, 325–342aa residues of Cx43, played an important role in the direction of GJ internalization. These results showed the important roles of the Cx43 C-terminus in GJ expression and its turnover.

  3. Dosimetry measurements during the commissioning of the GJ-2 electron accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chosdu, R.; Hilmy, N.; Tobing, R.

    1995-01-01

    The GJ-2 electron accelerator (made in China, Sanghai) was put into operation at the Centre for Application of Isotopes and Radiation in Jakarta, Indonesia. In the course of the commissioning of the machine its main technical parameters were measured under different operating conditions. The elec......The GJ-2 electron accelerator (made in China, Sanghai) was put into operation at the Centre for Application of Isotopes and Radiation in Jakarta, Indonesia. In the course of the commissioning of the machine its main technical parameters were measured under different operating conditions......, ethanol-chlorobenzene dosimeter solution and FWT-60 film dosimeters. The applicability of polystyrene calorimeters designed for low electron energies at Ris phi National Laboratory was also tested for nominal dose determination....

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transiting planet GJ 1132 (Southworth+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, J.; Mancini, L.; Madhusudhan, N.; Molliere, P.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, T.

    2018-05-01

    Light curves of 10 transits of the extrasolar planetary system GJ 1132 are presented. The data were obtained using the MPG 2.2m telescope with GROND imager, and observed simultaneously in the g, r, i, z, J, H and K passbands. The errorbars for each transit have been scaled so the best-fitting model (obtained using the JKTEBOP code) has a reduced chi-squared value of 1.0. (1 data file).

  5. The impact of red noise in radial velocity planet searches: only three planets orbiting GJ 581?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2013-03-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest HARPS and Keck radial velocity data for the planet-hosting red dwarf GJ 581, which attracted a lot of attention in recent time. We show that these data contain important correlated noise component (`red noise') with the correlation time-scale of the order of 10 d. This red noise imposes a lot of misleading effects while we work in the traditional white-noise model. To eliminate these misleading effects, we propose a maximum-likelihood algorithm equipped by an extended model of the noise structure. We treat the red noise as a Gaussian random process with an exponentially decaying correlation function. Using this method we prove that (i) planets b and c do exist in this system, since they can be independently detected in the HARPS and Keck data, and regardless of the assumed noise models; (ii) planet e can also be confirmed independently by both the data sets, although to reveal it in the Keck data it is mandatory to take the red noise into account; (iii) the recently announced putative planets f and g are likely just illusions of the red noise; (iv) the reality of the planet candidate GJ 581 d is questionable, because it cannot be detected from the Keck data, and its statistical significance in the HARPS data (as well as in the combined data set) drops to a marginal level of ˜2σ, when the red noise is taken into account. Therefore, the current data for GJ 581 really support the existence of no more than four (or maybe even only three) orbiting exoplanets. The planet candidate GJ 581 d requests serious observational verification.

  6. RAYLEIGH SCATTERING IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE WARM EXO-NEPTUNE GJ 3470B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir, Diana [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Benneke, Björn [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pearson, Kyle A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Barman, Travis [Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Eastman, Jason [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Biddle, Lauren I., E-mail: diana@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    GJ 3470b is a warm Neptune-size planet transiting an M dwarf star. Like the handful of other small exoplanets for which transmission spectroscopy has been obtained, GJ 3470b exhibits a flat spectrum in the near- and mid-infrared. Recently, a tentative detection of Rayleigh scattering in its atmosphere has been reported. This signal manifests itself as an observed increase of the planetary radius as a function of decreasing wavelength in the visible. We set out to verify this detection and observed several transits of this planet with the LCOGT network and the Kuiper telescope in four different bands (Sloan g, Sloan i, Harris B, and Harris V). Our analysis reveals a strong Rayleigh scattering slope, thus confirming previous results. This makes GJ 3470b the smallest known exoplanet with a detection of Rayleigh scattering. We find that the most plausible scenario is a hydrogen/helium-dominated atmosphere covered by clouds which obscure absorption features in the infrared and hazes which give rise to scattering in the visible. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of exoplanet atmospheric characterization from the ground, even with meter-class telescopes.

  7. RAYLEIGH SCATTERING IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE WARM EXO-NEPTUNE GJ 3470B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir, Diana; Benneke, Björn; Pearson, Kyle A.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Barman, Travis; Eastman, Jason; Biddle, Lauren I.

    2015-01-01

    GJ 3470b is a warm Neptune-size planet transiting an M dwarf star. Like the handful of other small exoplanets for which transmission spectroscopy has been obtained, GJ 3470b exhibits a flat spectrum in the near- and mid-infrared. Recently, a tentative detection of Rayleigh scattering in its atmosphere has been reported. This signal manifests itself as an observed increase of the planetary radius as a function of decreasing wavelength in the visible. We set out to verify this detection and observed several transits of this planet with the LCOGT network and the Kuiper telescope in four different bands (Sloan g, Sloan i, Harris B, and Harris V). Our analysis reveals a strong Rayleigh scattering slope, thus confirming previous results. This makes GJ 3470b the smallest known exoplanet with a detection of Rayleigh scattering. We find that the most plausible scenario is a hydrogen/helium-dominated atmosphere covered by clouds which obscure absorption features in the infrared and hazes which give rise to scattering in the visible. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of exoplanet atmospheric characterization from the ground, even with meter-class telescopes

  8. GJ 1214: Rotation period, starspots, and uncertainty on the optical slope of the transmission spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallonn, M.; Herrero, E.; Juvan, I. G.; Essen, C. von; Rosich, A.; Ribas, I.; Granzer, T.; Alexoudi, X.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2018-06-01

    Aims: Brightness inhomogeneities in the stellar photosphere (dark spots or bright regions) affect the measurements of the planetary transmission spectrum. To investigate the star spots of the M dwarf GJ 1214, we conducted a multicolor photometric monitoring from 2012 to 2016. Methods: The time-series photometry was analyzed with the light curve inversion tool StarSim. Using the derived stellar surface properties from the light curve inversion, we modeled the impact of the star spots when unocculted by the transiting planet. We compared the photometric variability of GJ 1214 to published results of mid- to late M dwarfs from the MEarth sample. Results: The measured variability shows a periodicity of 125 ± 5 days, which we interpret as the signature of the stellar rotation period. This value overrules previous suggestions of a significantly shorter stellar rotation period. A light curve inversion of the monitoring data yields an estimation of the flux dimming of a permanent spot filling factor not contributing to the photometric variability, a temperature contrast of the spots of 370 K and persistent active longitudes. The derived surface maps over all five seasons were used to estimate the influence of the star spots on the transmission spectrum of the planet from 400 to 2000 nm. The monitoring data presented here do not support a recent interpretation of a measured transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b as to be caused by bright regions in the stellar photosphere. Instead, we list arguments as to why the effect of dark spots likely dominated over bright regions in the period of our monitoring. Furthermore, our photometry proves an increase in variability over at least four years, indicative for a cyclic activity behavior. The age of GJ 1214 is likely between 6 and 10 Gyr. Conclusions: The long-term photometry allows for a correction of unocculted spots. For an active star such as GJ 1214, there remains a degeneracy between occulted spots and the transit parameters used

  9. The multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette–Johnson (GJ) equation hierarchy and its super-integrable coupling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun; Zhang Hongqing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a set of multicomponent matrix Lie algebra, which is used to construct a new loop algebra à M . By using the Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multicomponent equation hierarchy is generated, which possesses the Hamiltonian structure. As its reduction cases, the multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette–Johnson (GJ) hierarchy is given. Finally, the super-integrable coupling system of multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional GJ hierarchy is established through enlarging the spectral problem

  10. ASTROMETRY AND RADIAL VELOCITIES OF THE PLANET HOST M DWARF GJ 317: NEW TRIGONOMETRIC DISTANCE, METALLICITY, AND UPPER LIMIT TO THE MASS OF GJ 317b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Boss, Alan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Butler, R. Paul; Thompson, Ian B.; Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.

    2012-01-01

    We have obtained precision astrometry of the planet host M dwarf GJ 317 in the framework of the Carnegie Astrometric Planet Search project. The new astrometric measurements give a distance determination of 15.3 pc, 65% further than previous estimates. The resulting absolute magnitudes suggest that it is metal-rich and more massive than previously assumed. This result strengthens the correlation between high metallicity and the presence of gas giants around low-mass stars. At 15.3 pc, the minimal astrometric amplitude for planet candidate GJ 317b is 0.3 mas (edge-on orbit), just below our astrometric sensitivity. However, given the relatively large number of observations and good astrometric precision, a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis indicates that the mass of planet b has to be smaller than twice the minimum mass with a 99% confidence level, with a most likely value of 2.5 M Jup . Additional radial velocity (RV) measurements obtained with Keck by the Lick-Carnegie Planet search program confirm the presence of an additional very long period planet candidate, with a period of 20 years or more. Even though such an object will imprint a large astrometric wobble on the star, its curvature is yet not evident in the astrometry. Given high metallicity, and the trend indicating that multiple systems are rich in low-mass companions, this system is likely to host additional low-mass planets in its habitable zone that can be readily detected with state-of-the-art optical and near-infrared RV measurements.

  11. ASTROMETRY AND RADIAL VELOCITIES OF THE PLANET HOST M DWARF GJ 317: NEW TRIGONOMETRIC DISTANCE, METALLICITY, AND UPPER LIMIT TO THE MASS OF GJ 317b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Boss, Alan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Butler, R. Paul [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Thompson, Ian B. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, Eugenio J., E-mail: anglada@dtm.ciw.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-02-10

    We have obtained precision astrometry of the planet host M dwarf GJ 317 in the framework of the Carnegie Astrometric Planet Search project. The new astrometric measurements give a distance determination of 15.3 pc, 65% further than previous estimates. The resulting absolute magnitudes suggest that it is metal-rich and more massive than previously assumed. This result strengthens the correlation between high metallicity and the presence of gas giants around low-mass stars. At 15.3 pc, the minimal astrometric amplitude for planet candidate GJ 317b is 0.3 mas (edge-on orbit), just below our astrometric sensitivity. However, given the relatively large number of observations and good astrometric precision, a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis indicates that the mass of planet b has to be smaller than twice the minimum mass with a 99% confidence level, with a most likely value of 2.5 M{sub Jup}. Additional radial velocity (RV) measurements obtained with Keck by the Lick-Carnegie Planet search program confirm the presence of an additional very long period planet candidate, with a period of 20 years or more. Even though such an object will imprint a large astrometric wobble on the star, its curvature is yet not evident in the astrometry. Given high metallicity, and the trend indicating that multiple systems are rich in low-mass companions, this system is likely to host additional low-mass planets in its habitable zone that can be readily detected with state-of-the-art optical and near-infrared RV measurements.

  12. A System of Three Super Earths Transiting the Late K-Dwarf GJ 9827 at 30 pc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Eastman, Jason D.; Mann, Andrew W.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Ciardi, David R.; Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N.

    2018-02-01

    We report the discovery of three small transiting planets orbiting GJ 9827, a bright (K = 7.2) nearby late K-type dwarf star. GJ 9827 hosts a 1.62 ± 0.11 {R}\\oplus super Earth on a 1.2 day period, a {1.269}-0.089+0.087 {R}\\oplus super Earth on a 3.6 day period, and a 2.07 ± 0.14 {R}\\oplus super Earth on a 6.2 day period. The radii of the planets transiting GJ 9827 span the transition between predominantly rocky and gaseous planets, and GJ 9827 b and c fall in or close to the known gap in the radius distribution of small planets between these populations. At a distance of 30 pc, GJ 9827 is the closest exoplanet host discovered by K2 to date, making these planets well-suited for atmospheric studies with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. The GJ 9827 system provides a valuable opportunity to characterize interior structure and atmospheric properties of coeval planets spanning the rocky to gaseous transition.

  13. QUANTITATIVELY ASSESSING THE ROLE OF CLOUDS IN THE TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF GJ 1214b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, Kevin [NASA Ames Research Center, 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Vissher, Channon, E-mail: cmorley@ucolick.org [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    Recent observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b show that it has a relatively featureless transmission spectrum. One suggestion is that these observations indicate that the planet's atmosphere is vertically compact, perhaps due to a water-rich composition that yields a large mean molecular weight. Another suggestion is that the atmosphere is hydrogen/helium-rich with clouds that obscure predicted absorption features. Previous models that incorporate clouds have included their effect without a strong physical motivation for their existence. Here, we present model atmospheres of GJ 1214b that include physically motivated clouds of two types. We model the clouds that are present in chemical equilibrium, as has been suggested to occur on brown dwarfs, which include KCl and ZnS for this planet. We also include clouds that form as a result of photochemistry, forming a hydrocarbon haze layer. We use a photochemical kinetics model to understand the vertical distribution and available mass of haze-forming molecules. We model both solar and enhanced-metallicity cloudy models and determine the cloud properties necessary to match observations. In enhanced-metallicity atmospheres, we find that the equilibrium clouds can match the observations of GJ 1214b if they are lofted high into the atmosphere and have a low sedimentation efficiency (f{sub sed} = 0.1). We find that models with a variety of hydrocarbon haze properties can match the observations. Particle sizes from 0.01 to 0.25 μm can match the transmission spectrum with haze-forming efficiencies as low as 1%-5%.

  14. SEARCH FOR RAYLEIGH SCATTERING IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF GJ1214b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mooij, E. J. W.; Jayawardhana, R.; Brogi, M.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Hoekstra, H.; Otten, G. P. P. L.; Bekkers, D. H.; Haffert, S. Y.; Van Houdt, J. J.; De Kok, R. J.; Croll, B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the atmosphere of GJ1214b, a transiting super-Earth planet with a low mean density, by measuring its transit depth as a function of wavelength in the blue optical portion of the spectrum. It is thought that this planet is either a mini-Neptune, consisting of a rocky core with a thick, hydrogen-rich atmosphere, or a planet with a composition dominated by water. Most observations favor a water-dominated atmosphere with a small scale-height, however, some observations indicate that GJ1214b could have an extended atmosphere with a cloud layer muting the molecular features. In an atmosphere with a large scale-height, Rayleigh scattering at blue wavelengths is likely to cause a measurable increase in the apparent size of the planet toward the blue. We observed the transit of GJ1214b in the B band with the FOcal Reducing Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope and in the g band with both ACAM on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). We find a planet-to-star radius ratio in the B band of 0.1162 ± 0.0017, and in the g band 0.1180 ± 0.0009 and 0.1174 ± 0.0017 for the WHT and INT observations, respectively. These optical data do not show significant deviations from previous measurements at longer wavelengths. In fact, a flat transmission spectrum across all wavelengths best describes the combined observations. When atmospheric models are considered, a small scale-height water-dominated model fits the data best.

  15. Lyman-alpha transit observations of the warm rocky exoplanet GJ1132b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalkes, William; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Newton, Elisabeth; Dittmann, Jason; Bourrier, Vincent; Ehrenreich, David; Kempton, Eliza; Will

    2018-06-01

    GJ1132b is one of the few known Earth-sized planets, and at 12pc away it is also one of the closest known transiting planets. With an equilibrium temperature of 500 K, this planet is too hot to be habitable but we can use it to learn about the presence and volatile content of rocky planet atmospheres around M dwarf stars. Using Hubble STIS spectra obtained during primary transit, we search for a Lyman-α transit. If we were to observe a deep Lyman-α transit, that would indicate the presence of a neutral hydrogen envelope flowing from GJ1132b. On the other hand, ruling out deep absorption from neutral hydrogen may indicate that this planet has either retained its volatiles or lost them very early in the star’s life. We carry out this analysis by extracting 1D spectra from the STIS pipeline, splitting the time-tagged spectra into higher resolution samples, and producing light curves of the red and blue wings of the Lyman-α line. We fit for the baseline stellar flux and transit depths in order to constrain the characteristics of the cloud of neutral hydrogen gas that may surround the planet. We do not conclusively detect a transit but the results provide an upper limit for the transit depth. We also analyze the stellar variability and Lyman-α spectrum of GJ1132, a slowly-rotating 0.18 solar mass M dwarf with previously uncharacterized UV activity. Understanding the role that UV variability plays in planetary atmospheres and volatile retention is crucial to assess atmospheric evolution and the habitability of cooler rocky planets.

  16. Framing the Arctic: Reconsidering Roald Amundsen’s Gjøa Expedition Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Høvik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1906 Roald Amundsen’s Gjøa Expedition returned to Norway after three years in the Arctic. The first to complete a Northwest Passage by sea, the expedition also brought back a substantial amount of ethnographic material concerning the Netsilik Inuit, with whom Amundsen and his crew had been in sustained contact during their stay on King William Island in Nunavut between 1903 and 1905. This material included a large number of photographs, forty-two of which were included as illustrations in his expedition narrative, titled Nordvest-passagen and first released in Norwegian in 1907. Focusing on a selection of published and unpublished photographs from Amundsen’s voyage and their interrelationships, this article examines the degree to which the Gjøa Expedition’s use of photography formed part of a planned project that intersected with anthropological concerns and practices of its time. My purpose is further to demonstrate that there is a discernible change in the representation of indigeneity that occurs when particular photographs were selected and then contextually reframed as illustrations in Nordvest-passagen. On the one hand, the extensive body of photographs taken in the field elaborates the close interaction between crew and Inuit recorded in Amundsen’s personal diary and published narrative, testifying to the existence of an active and dynamic contact zone. In this regard, the original photographs could arguably be read as a dialogic portrayal of the unique individuals Amundsen’s crew met while in the Arctic. On the other hand, a peculiar distancing seems to have taken place as the Gjøa Expedition’s photographs were selected and reproduced as illustrations for Amundsen’s expedition narrative. Likely connected to a desire to match his expedition narrative to existing scientific visual and literary conventions, this shift suggests Amundsen’s attempts through textual and visual means to deny the Netsilik Inuit

  17. Angucycline Glycosides from Mangrove-Derived Streptomyces diastaticus subsp. SCSIO GJ056

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Gui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nine new angucycline glycosides designated urdamycins N1–N9 (1–9, together with two known congener urdamycins A (10 and B (11, were obtained from a mangrove-derived Streptomyces diastaticus subsp. SCSIO GJ056. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configurations of 6–9 were assigned by electronic circular dichroism calculation method. Urdamycins N6 (6 and N9 (9 represent the first naturally occurring (5R, 6R-angucycline glycosides, which are diastereomers of urdamycins N7 (7 and N8 (8, respectively.

  18. TWO NEARBY SUB-EARTH-SIZED EXOPLANET CANDIDATES IN THE GJ 436 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Harrington, Joseph; Lust, Nate B.; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio; Campo, Christopher J.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Montagnier, Guillaume; Moses, Julianne I.; Visscher, Channon

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of UCF-1.01, a strong exoplanet candidate with a radius 0.66 ± 0.04 times that of Earth (R ⊕ ). This sub-Earth-sized planet transits the nearby M-dwarf star GJ 436 with a period of 1.365862 ± 8 × 10 –6 days. We also report evidence of a 0.65 ± 0.06 R ⊕ exoplanet candidate (labeled UCF-1.02) orbiting the same star with an undetermined period. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure the dimming of light as the planets pass in front of their parent star to assess their sizes and orbital parameters. If confirmed today, UCF-1.01 and UCF-1.02 would be designated GJ 436c and GJ 436d, respectively, and would be part of the first multiple-transiting-planet system outside of the Kepler field. Assuming Earth-like densities of 5.515 g cm –3 , we predict both candidates to have similar masses (∼0.28 Earth-masses, M ⊕ , 2.6 Mars-masses) and surface gravities of ∼0.65 g (where g is the gravity on Earth). UCF-1.01's equilibrium temperature (T eq , where emitted and absorbed radiation balance for an equivalent blackbody) is 860 K, making the planet unlikely to harbor life as on Earth. Its weak gravitational field and close proximity to its host star imply that UCF-1.01 is unlikely to have retained its original atmosphere; however, a transient atmosphere is possible if recent impacts or tidal heating were to supply volatiles to the surface. We also present additional observations of GJ 436b during secondary eclipse. The 3.6 μm light curve shows indications of stellar activity, making a reliable secondary eclipse measurement impossible. A second non-detection at 4.5 μm supports our previous work in which we find a methane-deficient and carbon monoxide-rich dayside atmosphere.

  19. Two nearby Sub-Earth-sized Exoplanet Candidates in the GJ 436 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Harrington, Joseph; Lust, Nate B.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Montagnier, Guillaume; Moses, Julianne I.; Visscher, Channon; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio; Campo, Christopher J.

    2012-08-01

    We report the detection of UCF-1.01, a strong exoplanet candidate with a radius 0.66 ± 0.04 times that of Earth (R ⊕). This sub-Earth-sized planet transits the nearby M-dwarf star GJ 436 with a period of 1.365862 ± 8 × 10-6 days. We also report evidence of a 0.65 ± 0.06 R ⊕ exoplanet candidate (labeled UCF-1.02) orbiting the same star with an undetermined period. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure the dimming of light as the planets pass in front of their parent star to assess their sizes and orbital parameters. If confirmed today, UCF-1.01 and UCF-1.02 would be designated GJ 436c and GJ 436d, respectively, and would be part of the first multiple-transiting-planet system outside of the Kepler field. Assuming Earth-like densities of 5.515 g cm-3, we predict both candidates to have similar masses (~0.28 Earth-masses, M ⊕, 2.6 Mars-masses) and surface gravities of ~0.65 g (where g is the gravity on Earth). UCF-1.01's equilibrium temperature (T eq, where emitted and absorbed radiation balance for an equivalent blackbody) is 860 K, making the planet unlikely to harbor life as on Earth. Its weak gravitational field and close proximity to its host star imply that UCF-1.01 is unlikely to have retained its original atmosphere; however, a transient atmosphere is possible if recent impacts or tidal heating were to supply volatiles to the surface. We also present additional observations of GJ 436b during secondary eclipse. The 3.6 μm light curve shows indications of stellar activity, making a reliable secondary eclipse measurement impossible. A second non-detection at 4.5 μm supports our previous work in which we find a methane-deficient and carbon monoxide-rich dayside atmosphere.

  20. THEORETICAL TRANSIT SPECTRA FOR GJ 1214b AND OTHER 'SUPER-EARTHS'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Alex R.; Burrows, Adam S., E-mail: arhowe@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We present new calculations of transit spectra of super-Earths that allow for atmospheres with arbitrary proportions of common molecular species and haze. We test this method with generic spectra, reproducing the expected systematics and absorption features, then apply it to the nearby super-Earth GJ 1214b, which has produced conflicting observational data, leaving the questions of a hydrogen-rich versus hydrogen-poor atmosphere and the water content of the atmosphere ambiguous. We present representative transit spectra for a range of classes of atmosphere models for GJ 1214b. Our analysis supports a hydrogen-rich atmosphere with a cloud or haze layer, although a hydrogen-poor model with {approx}<10% water is not ruled out. Several classes of models are ruled out, however, including hydrogen-rich atmospheres with no haze, hydrogen-rich atmospheres with a haze of {approx}0.01 {mu}m tholin particles, and hydrogen-poor atmospheres with major sources of absorption other than water. We propose an observational test to distinguish hydrogen-rich from hydrogen-poor atmospheres. Finally, we provide a library of theoretical transit spectra for super-Earths with a broad range of parameters to facilitate future comparison with anticipated data.

  1. GJ 3236: A NEW BRIGHT, VERY LOW MASS ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM DISCOVERED BY THE MEARTH OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Latham, David W.; Torres, Guillermo; Blake, Cullen H.; Burke, Christopher J.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Fueresz, Gabor; Mink, Douglas J.; Nutzman, Philip; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H.; Calkins, Michael L.; Falco, Emilio E.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Starr, Dan L.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of eclipses in GJ 3236, a bright (I = 11.6), very low mass binary system with an orbital period of 0.77 days. Analysis of light and radial velocity curves of the system yielded component masses of 0.38 ± 0.02 M sun and 0.28 ± 0.02 M sun . The central values for the stellar radii are larger than the theoretical models predict for these masses, in agreement with the results for existing eclipsing binaries, although the present 5% observational uncertainties limit the significance of the larger radii to approximately 1σ. Degeneracies in the light curve models resulting from the unknown configuration of surface spots on the components of GJ 3236 currently dominate the uncertainties in the radii, and could be reduced by obtaining precise, multiband photometry covering the full orbital period. The system appears to be tidally synchronized and shows signs of high activity levels as expected for such a short orbital period, evidenced by strong Hα emission lines in the spectra of both components. These observations probe an important region of mass-radius parameter space around the predicted transition to fully convective stellar interiors, where there are a limited number of precise measurements available in the literature.

  2. Training to handle unexpected events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of conducting hands-on training to deal with complex situations is well recognized. Since most utilities now own or have ordered their own control room simulators, access to simulator training facilities has improved greatly. Most utilities now have a control room shift rotation that includes a dedicated training shift. The opportunities for practicing operational control over unexpected and off-normal events are just beginning to be recognized. Areas that are being enhanced include teamwork training, diagnostics training, expanded simulator training programs, improvements in simulator instructor training, emergency procedures training, and training on the use of probabilistic risk assessment studies. All these efforts are aimed at the goal of improving the plant staff's ability to cope with unexpected and off-normal events

  3. The atmospheric circulation of the super Earth GJ 1214b: Dependence on composition and metallicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, J. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S., E-mail: tkataria@lpl.arizona.edu [NASA Ames Research Center 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models of GJ 1214b, a 2.7 Earth-radius, 6.5 Earth-mass super Earth detected by the MEarth survey. Here we explore the planet's circulation as a function of atmospheric metallicity and atmospheric composition, modeling atmospheres with a low mean molecular weight (MMW; i.e., H{sub 2}-dominated) and a high MMW (i.e., water- and CO{sub 2}-dominated). We find that atmospheres with a low MMW have strong day-night temperature variations at pressures above the infrared photosphere that lead to equatorial superrotation. For these atmospheres, the enhancement of atmospheric opacities with increasing metallicity lead to shallower atmospheric heating, larger day-night temperature variations, and hence stronger superrotation. In comparison, atmospheres with a high MMW have larger day-night and equator-to-pole temperature variations than low MMW atmospheres, but differences in opacity structure and energy budget lead to differences in jet structure. The circulation of a water-dominated atmosphere is dominated by equatorial superrotation, while the circulation of a CO{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere is instead dominated by high-latitude jets. By comparing emergent flux spectra and light curves for 50× solar and water-dominated compositions, we show that observations in emission can break the degeneracy in determining the atmospheric composition of GJ 1214b. The variation in opacity with wavelength for the water-dominated atmosphere leads to large phase variations within water bands and small phase variations outside of water bands. The 50× solar atmosphere, however, yields small variations within water bands and large phase variations at other characteristic wavelengths. These observations would be much less sensitive to clouds, condensates, and hazes than transit observations.

  4. Time-Resolved Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of The M-Dwarf GJ 876 Exoplanetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Tian, Feng; Froning, Cynthia S.; Roberge, Aki

    2012-01-01

    Extrasolar planets orbiting M-stars may represent our best chance to discover habitable worlds in the coming decade. The ultraviolet spectrum incident upon both Earth-like and Jovian planets is critically important for proper modeling of their atmospheric heating and chemistry. In order to provide more realistic inputs for atmospheric models of planets orbiting low-mass stars, we present new near- and far-ultraviolet (NUV and FUV) spectroscopy of the M-dwarf exoplanet host GJ 876 (M4V). Using the COS and STIS spectrographs on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured the 1150-3140 A spectrum of GJ 876. We have reconstructed the stellar H1 Ly alpha emission line profile, and find that the integrated Ly alpha flux is roughly equal to the rest of the integrated flux (1150-1210 A + 1220-3140 A) in the entire ultraviolet bandpass (F(Ly alpha)/F(FUV+NUV) equals approximately 0.7). This ratio is approximately 2500x greater than the solar value. We describe the ultraviolet line spectrum and report surprisingly strong fluorescent emission from hot H2 (T(H2) greater than 2000 K). We show the light curve of a chromospheric + transition region flare observed in several far-UV emission lines, with flare/quiescent flux ratios greater than or equal to 10. The strong FUV radiation field of an M-star (and specifically Ly alpha) is important for determining the abundance of O2--and the formation of biomarkers-in the lower atmospheres of Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of low-mass stars.

  5. TIME-RESOLVED ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE M-DWARF GJ 876 EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Tian, Feng; Roberge, Aki

    2012-01-01

    Extrasolar planets orbiting M-stars may represent our best chance to discover habitable worlds in the coming decade. The ultraviolet spectrum incident upon both Earth-like and Jovian planets is critically important for proper modeling of their atmospheric heating and chemistry. In order to provide more realistic inputs for atmospheric models of planets orbiting low-mass stars, we present new near- and far-ultraviolet (NUV and FUV) spectroscopy of the M-dwarf exoplanet host GJ 876 (M4V). Using the COS and STIS spectrographs on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured the 1150-3140 Å spectrum of GJ 876. We have reconstructed the stellar H I Lyα emission line profile, and find that the integrated Lyα flux is roughly equal to the rest of the integrated flux (1150-1210 Å + 1220-3140 Å) in the entire ultraviolet bandpass (F(Lyα)/F(FUV+NUV) ≈ 0.7). This ratio is ∼2500× greater than the solar value. We describe the ultraviolet line spectrum and report surprisingly strong fluorescent emission from hot H 2 (T(H 2 ) > 2000 K). We show the light curve of a chromospheric + transition region flare observed in several far-UV emission lines, with flare/quiescent flux ratios ≥10. The strong FUV radiation field of an M-star (and specifically Lyα) is important for determining the abundance of O 2 —and the formation of biomarkers—in the lower atmospheres of Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of low-mass stars.

  6. THE LEECH EXOPLANET IMAGING SURVEY: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COLDEST DIRECTLY IMAGED EXOPLANET, GJ 504 b, AND EVIDENCE FOR SUPERSTELLAR METALLICITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Leisenring, Jarron; Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip; Defrére, Denis; Apai, Dániel; Close, Laird; Eisner, Josh [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Ave. Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan [University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High St. Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zimmerman, Neil T.; Buenzli, Esther; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Biller, Beth; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Skrutskie, Michael F. [University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Esposito, Simone [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125, Florence (Italy); Crepp, Justin R. [Notre Dame University, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); De Rosa, Robert J. [Arizona State University, 781 South Terrace Rd, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Desidera, Silvano [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Padova Astronomical Observatory, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2016-02-01

    As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and the appearance of strong methane absorption. While there are hundreds of known T-type brown dwarfs, the first generation of directly imaged exoplanets were all L type. Recently, Kuzuhara et al. announced the discovery of GJ 504 b, the first T dwarf exoplanet. GJ 504 b provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a new type of exoplanet with a ∼500 K temperature that bridges the gap between the first directly imaged planets (∼1000 K) and our own solar system's Jupiter (∼130 K). We observed GJ 504 b in three narrow L-band filters (3.71, 3.88, and 4.00 μm), spanning the red end of the broad methane fundamental absorption feature (3.3 μm) as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. By comparing our new photometry and literature photometry with a grid of custom model atmospheres, we were able to fit GJ 504 b's unusual spectral energy distribution for the first time. We find that GJ 504 b is well fit by models with the following parameters: T{sub eff} = 544 ± 10 K, g < 600 m s{sup −2}, [M/H] = 0.60 ± 0.12, cloud opacity parameter of f{sub sed} = 2–5, R = 0.96 ± 0.07 R{sub Jup}, and log(L) = −6.13 ± 0.03 L{sub ⊙}, implying a hot start mass of 3–30 M{sub jup} for a conservative age range of 0.1–6.5 Gyr. Of particular interest, our model fits suggest that GJ 504 b has a superstellar metallicity. Since planet formation can create objects with nonstellar metallicities, while binary star formation cannot, this result suggests that GJ 504 b formed like a planet, not like a binary companion.

  7. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Characterization of the Coldest Directly Imaged Exoplanet, GJ 504 b, and Evidence for Superstellar Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Zimmerman, Neil T.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Leisenring, Jarron; Buenzli, Esther; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Bailey, Vanessa; Hinz, Philip; Defrére, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Apai, Dániel; Biller, Beth; Brandner, Wolfgang; Close, Laird; Crepp, Justin R.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Desidera, Silvano; Eisner, Josh; Fortney, Jonathan; Freedman, Richard; Henning, Thomas; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Kopytova, Taisiya; Lupu, Roxana; Maire, Anne-Lise; Males, Jared R.; Marley, Mark; Morzinski, Katie; Oza, Apurva; Patience, Jenny; Rajan, Abhijith; Rieke, George; Schertl, Dieter; Schlieder, Joshua; Stone, Jordan; Su, Kate; Vaz, Amali; Visscher, Channon; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E.

    2016-02-01

    As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and the appearance of strong methane absorption. While there are hundreds of known T-type brown dwarfs, the first generation of directly imaged exoplanets were all L type. Recently, Kuzuhara et al. announced the discovery of GJ 504 b, the first T dwarf exoplanet. GJ 504 b provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a new type of exoplanet with a ˜500 K temperature that bridges the gap between the first directly imaged planets (˜1000 K) and our own solar system's Jupiter (˜130 K). We observed GJ 504 b in three narrow L-band filters (3.71, 3.88, and 4.00 μm), spanning the red end of the broad methane fundamental absorption feature (3.3 μm) as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. By comparing our new photometry and literature photometry with a grid of custom model atmospheres, we were able to fit GJ 504 b's unusual spectral energy distribution for the first time. We find that GJ 504 b is well fit by models with the following parameters: Teff = 544 ± 10 K, g Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrophisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  8. Gastric Adenomyoma: The Unexpected Mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Adriana Duran Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric adenomyoma is a rare benign tumor composed of epithelial structures and smooth muscle stroma. Here, we report an unusual case of gastric adenomyoma mostly composed of smooth muscle that was incidentally found during a laparoscopic intervention. On radiology, it mimicked an acquired hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an adult patient, and pathologically it resembled a pure smooth muscle hamartoma. Complete submission of the lesion for histology was necessary to find the epithelial component and make the right diagnosis. As a mimicker of benign and malignant entities, gastric adenomyoma is usually an unexpected finding after surgery. The aim of this report is to analyze this adenomyoma variant in the setting of an unexplained thickening of the gastric wall, with explanations concerning histogenesis and biological potential.

  9. Fournier gangrene and unexpected death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Danielle; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    Fournier gangrene represents a rare but progressive perineal infection that may result in rapid death. A 70-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and alcohol abuse is reported who was found unexpectedly dead. He had last been contacted the night before his death. At autopsy, the most striking finding was deep necrotic ulceration of the scrotum with exposure of underlying deep muscles and testicles, with blood cultures positive for Escherichia coli. Death was, therefore, attributed to necrotic ulceration/gangrene of the perineum (Fournier gangrene) that was due to E. coli sepsis with underlying contributing factors of diabetes mellitus and alcoholism. In addition there was morbid obesity (body mass index 46.9), cirrhosis of the liver, and marked focal coronary artery atherosclerosis with significant cardiomegaly. Fournier gangrene may be an extremely aggressive condition that can result in rapid death, as was demonstrated by the rapid progression in the reported case. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. PWR type overpower tests at 1620 GJ/KGU (18,800 MWD/MTU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, P.; Bagger, C.; Carlsen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Three PWR type test fuel pins accumulated a burnup of 1620 GJ/kgU at heat loads decreasing from 45 to 28 kW/m (avg. test levels). One pin was ramped to 43 kW/m at 31 W/m/s; after 15 ks the power was increased to 45 kW/m and held constant for 1.9 Ms without failure indication. The other two pins were ramped to 44 kW/m at 23 W/m/s and then to 49 kW/m in a further 1.2 ks; both failed after max. 360 s. The post-irradiation examination revealed large stress-corrosion (SCC) type cladding cracks. Other cracks, down to a few μm deep, were probably early stages of large SCC cracks. Fission gas release in the intact pin was as high as 42% and estimated to be much lower for the two failed pins

  11. KEPLER FLARES. II. THE TEMPORAL MORPHOLOGY OF WHITE-LIGHT FLARES ON GJ 1243

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Johnson, Emily C.; Peraza, Jesus; Jansen, Tiffany C.; Larsen, Daniel M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hebb, Leslie [Department of Physics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 300 Pulteney Street, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Wisniewski, John P.; Malatesta, Michael; Keil, Marcus; Silverberg, Steven M.; Scheffler, Matthew S.; Berdis, Jodi R. [HL Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kowalski, Adam F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hilton, Eric J., E-mail: jrad@astro.washington.edu [Universe Sandbox, 911 E. Pike Street #333, Seattle, WA 98122 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We present the largest sample of flares ever compiled for a single M dwarf, the active M4 star GJ 1243. Over 6100 individual flare events, with energies ranging from 10{sup 29} to 10{sup 33} erg, are found in 11 months of 1 minute cadence data from Kepler. This sample is unique for its completeness and dynamic range. We have developed automated tools for finding flares in short-cadence Kepler light curves, and performed extensive validation and classification of the sample by eye. From this pristine sample of flares we generate a median flare template. This template shows that two exponential cooling phases are present during the white-light flare decay, providing fundamental constraints for models of flare physics. The template is also used as a basis function to decompose complex multi-peaked flares, allowing us to study the energy distribution of these events. Only a small number of flare events are not well fit by our template. We find that complex, multi-peaked flares occur in over 80% of flares with a duration of 50 minutes or greater. The underlying distribution of flare durations for events 10 minutes and longer appears to follow a broken power law. Our results support the idea that sympathetic flaring may be responsible for some complex flare events.

  12. KEPLER FLARES. II. THE TEMPORAL MORPHOLOGY OF WHITE-LIGHT FLARES ON GJ 1243

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Johnson, Emily C.; Peraza, Jesus; Jansen, Tiffany C.; Larsen, Daniel M.; Hebb, Leslie; Wisniewski, John P.; Malatesta, Michael; Keil, Marcus; Silverberg, Steven M.; Scheffler, Matthew S.; Berdis, Jodi R.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Hilton, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    We present the largest sample of flares ever compiled for a single M dwarf, the active M4 star GJ 1243. Over 6100 individual flare events, with energies ranging from 10 29 to 10 33 erg, are found in 11 months of 1 minute cadence data from Kepler. This sample is unique for its completeness and dynamic range. We have developed automated tools for finding flares in short-cadence Kepler light curves, and performed extensive validation and classification of the sample by eye. From this pristine sample of flares we generate a median flare template. This template shows that two exponential cooling phases are present during the white-light flare decay, providing fundamental constraints for models of flare physics. The template is also used as a basis function to decompose complex multi-peaked flares, allowing us to study the energy distribution of these events. Only a small number of flare events are not well fit by our template. We find that complex, multi-peaked flares occur in over 80% of flares with a duration of 50 minutes or greater. The underlying distribution of flare durations for events 10 minutes and longer appears to follow a broken power law. Our results support the idea that sympathetic flaring may be responsible for some complex flare events

  13. Cognitive Readiness: Preparing for the Unexpected

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, J. D

    2004-01-01

    .... Anticipated operational requirements can be decomposed into specific tasks, conditions, and standards, but how should individuals, teams, and units prepare for the unexpected, which, by definition...

  14. Determination of Lande gJ - factors of La I levels using laser spectroscopic methods: Complementary investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Ł. M.; Windholz, L.; Kwela, J.

    2017-11-01

    Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) and Optogalvanic Spectroscopy (OG) were used for the investigation of the Zeeman hyperfine structures of 26 spectral lines of La I in the wavelength range between 569.7 and 665.4 nm. As a source of free La atoms a hollow cathode discharge lamp was used. The spectra were recorded in the presence of a magnetic field of about 800G produced by a permanent magnet for two linear polarizations of the exciting laser light. As a result of the study, we determined for the first time the Landé gJ- factors of 20 levels of La I. For several other levels the Landé gJ- factors were re-investigated and determined with higher precision.

  15. 3D MODELING OF GJ1214b's ATMOSPHERE: FORMATION OF INHOMOGENEOUS HIGH CLOUDS AND OBSERVATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charnay, B.; Meadows, V.; Misra, A.; Arney, G. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98125 (United States); Leconte, J., E-mail: bcharnay@uw.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-11-01

    The warm sub-Neptune GJ1214b has a featureless transit spectrum that may be due to the presence of high and thick clouds or haze. Here, we simulate the atmosphere of GJ1214b with a 3D General Circulation Model for cloudy hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, including cloud radiative effects. We show that the atmospheric circulation is strong enough to transport micrometric cloud particles to the upper atmosphere and generally leads to a minimum of cloud at the equator. By scattering stellar light, clouds increase the planetary albedo to 0.4–0.6 and cool the atmosphere below 1 mbar. However, the heating by ZnS clouds leads to the formation of a stratospheric thermal inversion above 10 mbar, with temperatures potentially high enough on the dayside to evaporate KCl clouds. We show that flat transit spectra consistent with Hubble Space Telescope observations are possible if cloud particle radii are around 0.5 μm, and that such clouds should be optically thin at wavelengths >3 μm. Using simulated cloudy atmospheres that fit the observed spectra we generate transit, emission, and reflection spectra and phase curves for GJ1214b. We show that a stratospheric thermal inversion would be readily accessible in near- and mid-infrared atmospheric spectral windows. We find that the amplitude of the thermal phase curves is strongly dependent on metallicity, but only slightly impacted by clouds. Our results suggest that primary and secondary eclipses and phase curves observed by the James Webb Space Telescope in the near- to mid-infrared should provide strong constraints on the nature of GJ1214b's atmosphere and clouds.

  16. Bayesian analysis of radial velocity data of GJ667C with correlated noise: evidence for only two planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroz, F.; Hobson, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    GJ667C is the least massive component of a triple star system which lies at a distance of about 6.8 pc (22.1 light-year) from the Earth. GJ667C has received much attention recently due to the claims that it hosts up to seven planets including three super-Earths inside the habitable zone. We present a Bayesian technique for the analysis of radial velocity (RV) data sets in the presence of correlated noise component (`red noise'), with unknown parameters. We also introduce hyper-parameters in our model in order to deal statistically with under- or overestimated error bars on measured RVs as well as inconsistencies between different data sets. By applying this method to the RV data set of GJ667C, we show that this data set contains a significant correlated (red) noise component with correlation time-scale for HARPS data of the order of 9 d. Our analysis shows that the data only provide strong evidence for the presence of two planets: GJ667Cb and c with periods 7.19 and 28.13 d, respectively, with some hints towards the presence of a third signal with period 91 d. The planetary nature of this third signal is not clear and additional RV observations are required for its confirmation. Previous claims of the detection of additional planets in this system are due the erroneous assumption of white noise. Using the standard white noise assumption, our method leads to the detection of up to five signals in this system. We also find that with the red noise model, the measurement uncertainties from HARPS for this system are underestimated at the level of ˜50 per cent.

  17. Constraints on Neutral Hydrogen Outflow from the Warm Rocky Planet GJ1132b using Lyman-alpha Transit Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalkes, William; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Newton, Elisabeth; Dittmann, Jason; Bourrier, Vincent; Ehrenreich, David; Kempton, Eliza

    2018-01-01

    GJ1132b is one of the few known Earth-sized planets, and at 12 pc away it is also one of the closest known transiting planets. With an equilibrium temperature of 500 K, this planet is too hot to be habitable but we can use it to learn about the presence and volatile content of rocky planet atmospheres around M dwarf stars. Using Hubble STIS spectra during primary transit, we explore the potential for UV transit detections of GJ1132b. If we were to observe a deep Lyman-α transit, that would indicate the presence of a neutral hydrogen envelope flowing from GJ1132b. On the other hand, ruling out deep absorption from neutral hydrogen may indicate that this planet has either retained its volatiles or lost them very early in the star’s life. We carry out this analysis by extracting 1D spectra from the STIS pipeline, splitting the time-tagged spectra into higher resolution samples, and producing light curves of the red and blue wings of the Lyman-α line. We fit for the baseline stellar flux and transit depths in order to constrain the characteristics of the cloud of neutral hydrogen gas that may surround the planet. Our work extends beyond the transit study into an analysis of the stellar variability and Lyman-α spectrum of GJ1132, a slowly-rotating 0.18 MSun M dwarf with previously uncharacterized UV activity. Understanding the role that UV variability plays in planetary atmospheres and volatile retention is crucial to assess atmospheric evolution and the habitability of cooler rocky planets.

  18. Direct Imaging of a Cold Jovian Exoplanet in Orbit around the Sun-Like Star GJ 504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, M.; Tamura, M.; Kudo, T.; Janson, M; Kandori, R.; Brandt, T. D.; Thalmann, C.; Spiegel, D.; Biller, B.; Carson, J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Several exoplanets have recently been imaged at wide separations of >10 AU from their parent stars. These span a limited range of ages ( 0.5 mag), implying thick cloud covers. Furthermore, substantial model uncertainties exist at these young ages due to the unknown initial conditions at formation, which can lead to an order of magnitude of uncertainty in the modeled planet mass. Here, we report the direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet around the Sun-like star GJ 504, detected as part of the SEEDS survey. The system is older than all other known directly-imaged planets; as a result, its estimated mass remains in the planetary regime independent of uncertainties related to choices of initial conditions in the exoplanet modeling. Using the most common exoplanet cooling model, and given the system age of 160(+350/-60) Myr, GJ 504 b has an estimated mass of 4(+4.5/-1.0) Jupiter masses, among the lowest of directly imaged planets. Its projected separation of 43.5 AU exceeds the typical outer boundary of approx.. 30 AU predicted for the core accretion mechanism. GJ 504 b is also significantly cooler (510(+30/-20) K)) and has a bluer color (J - H = -0.23 mag) than previously imaged exoplanets, suggesting a largely cloud-free atmosphere accessible to spectroscopic characterization. Thus, it has the potential of providing novel insights into the origins of giant planets, as well as their atmospheric properties.

  19. Study of the early signal perturbations due to GJ and Elves using the LWPC code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Amor, Samir; Ghalila, Hassen; Bouderba, Yasmina

    2015-04-01

    Early events are a Very Low Frequencies (VLF) signal perturbations recorded during a lightning activity. The properties of these signal perturbations and their association to the lightning peak current and/or Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) were widely studied. In a recently analysis a new early signal perturbations whose recovery time persists for several minutes were discovered. The underlying cause of these events is still unclear. In a recently published work, these events were attributed to the lightning peak current and the type of associated TLE. In others, and newly published papers, analyzes were done where all kind of early events were considered. Statistical results showed that the occurrence of long recovery events is independent of the lightning current amplitude and/or TLEs type. To understand which is the main cause of these events, we analyzed two types of early signal perturbations: One was a typical event (~200s time duration) in association with a Gigantic Jet and the second was a long recovery event in association with an elve recorded on December 12 2009 during the EuroSprite campaign. In addition to the VLF signal analysis, we used the Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code to simulate the unperturbed and perturbed signal parameters (amplitude and phase), to determine the signal modes attenuation coefficient and then to infer the electron density increases in the disturbed region. The results showed that the reference height was reduced from its ambient value (87km) to 66.4 km in the case of the GJ and 74.3 km for the elve. These reference heights decreases affected the propagating signal at the disturbed region by increasing the modes attenuation coefficient. Effectively, the number of modes was reduced from 28 at ambient condition to 9 modes (in the case of GJ) and 17 (in the case of elve). This high attenuation of modes leads to the appearance of null signal perturbations positions due to the interferences. Between two null positions

  20. Surprisingly different star-spot distributions on the near equal-mass equal-rotation-rate stars in the M dwarf binary GJ 65 AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. R.; Jeffers, S. V.; Haswell, C. A.; Jones, H. R. A.; Shulyak, D.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jenkins, J. S.

    2017-10-01

    We aim to understand how stellar parameters such as mass and rotation impact the distribution of star-spots on the stellar surface. To this purpose, we have used Doppler imaging to reconstruct the surface brightness distributions of three fully convective M dwarfs with similar rotation rates. We secured high cadence spectral time series observations of the 5.5 au separation binary GJ 65, comprising GJ 65A (M5.5V, Prot = 0.24 d) and GJ 65B (M6V, Prot = 0.23 d). We also present new observations of GJ 791.2A (M4.5V, Prot = 0.31 d). Observations of each star were made on two nights with UVES, covering a wavelength range from 0.64 - 1.03μm. The time series spectra reveal multiple line distortions that we interpret as cool star-spots and which are persistent on both nights suggesting stability on the time-scale of 3 d. Spots are recovered with resolutions down to 8.3° at the equator. The global spot distributions for GJ 791.2A are similar to observations made a year earlier. Similar high latitude and circumpolar spot structure is seen on GJ 791.2A and GJ 65A. However, they are surprisingly absent on GJ 65B, which instead reveals more extensive, larger, spots concentrated at intermediate latitudes. All three stars show small amplitude latitude-dependent rotation that is consistent with solid body rotation. We compare our measurements of differential rotation with previous Doppler imaging studies and discuss the results in the wider context of other observational estimates and recent theoretical predictions.

  1. Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se Yeon; Choi, Eun A; Lee, Jae Joon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2015-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol-lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health-promoting product were explored. Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin-enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol-lowering effects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. DIRECT IMAGING OF A COLD JOVIAN EXOPLANET IN ORBIT AROUND THE SUN-LIKE STAR GJ 504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzuhara, M. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tamura, M.; Kandori, R.; Hori, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Suenaga, T.; Takahashi, Y. H.; Kwon, J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kudo, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Janson, M.; Brandt, T. D.; Spiegel, D.; Burrows, A.; Turner, E. L.; Moro-Martin, A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Thalmann, C. [Astronomical Institute ' ' Anton Pannekoek' ' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Biller, B.; Henning, T. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); McElwain, M. W., E-mail: m.kuzuhara@nao.ac.jp [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2013-09-01

    Several exoplanets have recently been imaged at wide separations of >10 AU from their parent stars. These span a limited range of ages (<50 Myr) and atmospheric properties, with temperatures of 800-1800 K and very red colors (J - H > 0.5 mag), implying thick cloud covers. Furthermore, substantial model uncertainties exist at these young ages due to the unknown initial conditions at formation, which can lead to an order of magnitude of uncertainty in the modeled planet mass. Here, we report the direct-imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet around the Sun-like star GJ 504, detected as part of the SEEDS survey. The system is older than all other known directly imaged planets; as a result, its estimated mass remains in the planetary regime independent of uncertainties related to choices of initial conditions in the exoplanet modeling. Using the most common exoplanet cooling model, and given the system age of 160{sup +350}{sub -60} Myr, GJ 504b has an estimated mass of 4{sup +4.5}{sub -1.0} Jupiter masses, among the lowest of directly imaged planets. Its projected separation of 43.5 AU exceeds the typical outer boundary of {approx}30 AU predicted for the core accretion mechanism. GJ 504b is also significantly cooler (510{sup +30}{sub -20} K) and has a bluer color (J - H = -0.23 mag) than previously imaged exoplanets, suggesting a largely cloud-free atmosphere accessible to spectroscopic characterization. Thus, it has the potential of providing novel insights into the origins of giant planets as well as their atmospheric properties.

  3. Holocene glacier activity reconstructed from proglacial lake Gjøavatnet on Amsterdamøya, NW Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Gregory A.; Balascio, Nicholas L.; D'Andrea, William J.; Bakke, Jostein; Bradley, Raymond S.; Perren, Bianca

    2018-03-01

    Well-dated and highly resolved paleoclimate records from high latitudes allow for a better understanding of past climate change. Lake sediments are excellent archives of environmental change, and can record processes occurring within the catchment, such as the growth or demise of an upstream glacier. Here we present a Holocene-length, multi-proxy lake sediment record from proglacial lake Gjøavatnet on the island of Amsterdamøya, northwest Svalbard. Today, Gjøavatnet receives meltwater from the Annabreen glacier and contains a record of changes in glacier activity linked to regional climate conditions. We measured changes in organic matter content, dry bulk density, bulk carbon isotopes, elemental concentrations via Itrax core-scanning, and diatom community composition to reconstruct variability in glacier extent back through time. Our reconstruction indicates that glacially derived sedimentation in the lake decreased markedly at ∼11.1 cal kyr BP, although a glacier likely persisted in the catchment until ∼8.4 cal kyr BP. During the mid-Holocene (∼8.4-1.0 cal kyr BP) there was significantly limited glacial influence in the catchment and enhanced deposition of organic-rich sediment in the lake. The deposition of organic rich sediments during this time was interrupted by at least three multi-centennial intervals of reduced organic matter accumulation (∼5.9-5.0, 2.7-2.0, and 1.7-1.5 cal kyr BP). Considering our chronological information and a sedimentological comparison with intervals of enhanced glacier input, we interpret these intervals not as glacial advances, but rather as cold/dry episodes that inhibited organic matter production in the lake and surrounding catchment. At ∼1.0 cal kyr BP, input of glacially derived sediment to Gjøavatnet abruptly increased, representing the rapid expansion of the Annabreen glacier.

  4. The Transiting System GJ1214: High-Precision Defocused Transit Observations and a Search for Evidence of Transit Timing Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kennet Bomann West; Hardis, S.; Hinse, T. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We present 11 high-precision photometric transit observations of the transiting super-Earth planet GJ1214b. Combining these data with observations from other authors, we investigate the ephemeris for possible signs of transit timing variations (TTVs) using a Bayesian approach. Methods......: The observations were obtained using telescope-defocusing techniques, and achieve a high precision with random errors in the photometry as low as 1mmag per point. To investigate the possibility of TTVs in the light curve, we calculate the overall probability of a TTV signal using Bayesian methods. Results...

  5. HIGH METALLICITY AND NON-EQUILIBRIUM CHEMISTRY IN THE DAYSIDE ATMOSPHERE OF HOT-NEPTUNE GJ 436b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudhan, N.; Seager, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the dayside atmosphere of the hot-Neptune GJ 436b, based on recent Spitzer observations. We report statistical constraints on the thermal and chemical properties of the planetary atmosphere, study correlations between the various molecular species, and discuss scenarios of equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemistry in GJ 436b. We model the atmosphere with a one-dimensional line-by-line radiative transfer code with parameterized molecular abundances and temperature structure. We explore the model parameter space with 10 6 models, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo scheme. Our results encompass previous findings, indicating a paucity of methane, an overabundance of CO and CO 2 , and a slight underabundance of H 2 O, as compared to equilibrium chemistry with solar metallicity. The concentrations of the species are highly correlated. Our best-fit, and most plausible, constraints require a CH 4 mixing ratio of 10 -7 to10 -6 , with CO ≥10 -3 , CO 2 ∼10 -6 to10 -4 , and H 2 O ≤10 -4 ; higher CH 4 would require much higher CO and CO 2 . Based on calculations of equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemistry, we find that the observed abundances can potentially be explained by a combination of high metallicity (∼10x solar) and vertical mixing with K zz ∼ 10 6 -10 7 cm 2 s -1 . The inferred metallicity is enhanced over that of the host star which is known to be consistent with solar metallicity. Our constraints rule out a dayside thermal inversion in GJ 436b. We emphasize that the constraints reported in this work depend crucially on the observations in the two Spitzer channels at 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm. Future observations with warm Spitzer and with the James Webb Space Telescope will be extremely important to improve upon the present constraints on the abundances of carbon species in the dayside atmosphere of GJ 436b.

  6. Orbital misalignment of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b with the spin of its cool star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrier, Vincent; Lovis, Christophe; Beust, Hervé; Ehrenreich, David; Henry, Gregory W.; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Allart, Romain; Bonfils, Xavier; Ségransan, Damien; Delfosse, Xavier; Cegla, Heather M.; Wyttenbach, Aurélien; Heng, Kevin; Lavie, Baptiste; Pepe, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    The angle between the spin of a star and the orbital planes of its planets traces the history of the planetary system. Exoplanets orbiting close to cool stars are expected to be on circular, aligned orbits because of strong tidal interactions with the stellar convective envelope. Spin–orbit alignment can be measured when the planet transits its star, but such ground-based spectroscopic measurements are challenging for cool, slowly rotating stars. Here we report the three-dimensional characterization of the trajectory of an exoplanet around an M dwarf star, derived by mapping the spectrum of the stellar photosphere along the chord transited by the planet. We find that the eccentric orbit of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b is nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. Both eccentricity and misalignment, surprising around a cool star, can result from dynamical interactions (via Kozai migration) with a yet-undetected outer companion. This inward migration of GJ 436b could have triggered the atmospheric escape that now sustains its giant exosphere.

  7. Mammalian play: training for the unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinka, M; Newberry, R C; Bekoff, M

    2001-06-01

    In this review, we present a new conceptual framework for the study of play behavior, a hitherto puzzling array of seemingly purposeless and unrelated behavioral elements that are recognizable as play throughout the mammalian lineage. Our major new functional hypothesis is that play enables animals to develop flexible kinematic and emotional responses to unexpected events in which they experience a sudden loss of control. Specifically, we propose that play functions to increase the versatility of movements used to recover from sudden shocks such as loss of balance and falling over, and to enhance the ability of animals to cope emotionally with unexpected stressful situations. To obtain this "training for the unexpected," we suggest that animals actively seek and create unexpected situations in play through self-handicapping; that is, deliberately relaxing control over their movements or actively putting themselves into disadvantageous positions and situations. Thus, play is comprised of sequences in which the players switch rapidly between well-controlled movements similar to those used in "serious" behavior and self-handicapping movements that result in temporary loss of control. We propose that this playful switching between in-control and out-of-control elements is cognitively demanding, setting phylogenetic and ontogenetic constraints on play, and is underlain by neuroendocrinological responses that produce a complex emotional state known as "having fun." Furthermore, we propose that play is often prompted by relatively novel or unpredictable stimuli, and is thus related to, although distinct from, exploration. We present 24 predictions that arise from our new theoretical framework, examining the extent to which they are supported by the existing empirical evidence and contrasting them with the predictions of four major alternative hypotheses about play. We argue that our "training for the unexpected" hypothesis can account for some previously puzzling

  8. The Global and Small-scale Magnetic Fields of Fully Convective, Rapidly Spinning M Dwarf Pair GJ65 A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochukhov, Oleg; Lavail, Alexis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, Uppsala SE-75120 (Sweden)

    2017-01-20

    The nearby M dwarf binary GJ65 AB, also known as BL Cet and UV Cet, is a unique benchmark for investigation of dynamo-driven activity of low-mass stars. Magnetic activity of GJ65 was repeatedly assessed by indirect means, such as studies of flares, photometric variability, X-ray, and radio emission. Here, we present a direct analysis of large-scale and local surface magnetic fields in both components. Interpreting high-resolution circular polarization spectra (sensitive to a large-scale field geometry) we uncovered a remarkable difference of the global stellar field topologies. Despite nearly identical masses and rotation rates, the secondary exhibits an axisymmetric, dipolar-like global field with an average strength of 1.3 kG while the primary has a much weaker, more complex, and non-axisymmetric 0.3 kG field. On the other hand, an analysis of the differential Zeeman intensification (sensitive to the total magnetic flux) shows the two stars having similar magnetic fluxes of 5.2 and 6.7 kG for GJ65 A and B, respectively, although there is evidence that the field strength distribution in GJ65 B is shifted toward a higher field strength compared to GJ65 A. Based on these complementary magnetic field diagnostic results, we suggest that the dissimilar radio and X-ray variability of GJ65 A and B is linked to their different global magnetic field topologies. However, this difference appears to be restricted to the upper atmospheric layers but does not encompass the bulk of the stars and has no influence on the fundamental stellar properties.

  9. Unexpected uncertainty, volatility and decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Rachel Bland

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of uncertainty in decision making is receiving greater attention in the fields of cognitive and computational neuroscience. Several lines of evidence are beginning to elucidate different variants of uncertainty. Particularly, risk, ambiguity and expected and unexpected forms of uncertainty are well articulated in the literature. In this article we review both empirical and theoretical evidence arguing for the potential distinction between three forms of uncertainty; expected uncertainty, unexpected uncertainty and volatility. Particular attention will be devoted to exploring the distinction between unexpected uncertainty and volatility which has been less appreciated in the literature. This includes evidence from computational modelling, neuromodulation, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies. We further address the possible differentiation of cognitive control mechanisms used to deal with these forms of uncertainty. Particularly we explore a role for conflict monitoring and the temporal integration of information into working memory. Finally, we explore whether the Dual Modes of Control theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding the distinction between unexpected uncertainty and volatility.

  10. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    such as prototypes in order to travel. It was made mobile via relational sites or situations providing safe and accessible connections with Chureca residents. Paradoxically, these places also allowed extraordinary connections between actors located in different scales and spaces, facilitating unexpected local...

  11. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    such as prototypes in order to travel. It was made mobile via relational sites or situations providing safe and accessible connections with Chureca residents. Paradoxically, these places also allowed extraordinary connections between actors located in different scales and spaces, facilitating unexpected local...

  12. Unexpected complications of bonded mandibular lingual retainers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsaros, C.; Livas, C.; Renkema, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) retainer is the most frequently used type of fixed retainer bonded on all 6 anterior teeth. Our aim in this article was to demonstrate unexpected posttreatment changes in the labiolingual position of the mandibular anterior teeth associated with the use

  13. Characterization of the haloacid dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 and sequencing of the dhlB gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Ploeg, J; Van Hall, Gerrit; Janssen, D B

    1991-01-01

    B) was cloned and could be allocated to a 6.5-kb EcoRI-BglII fragment. Part of this fragment was sequenced, and the dhlB open reading frame was identified by comparison with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein. The gene was found to encode a protein of 27,433 Da that showed considerable homology...... chromatography. The enzyme was active with 2-halogenated carboxylic acids and converted only the L-isomer of 2-chloropropionic acid with inversion of configuration to produce D-lactate. The activity of the enzyme was not readily influenced by thiol reagents. The gene encoding the haloacid dehalogenase (dhl...... (60.5 and 61.0% similarity) with the two other haloacid dehalogenases sequenced to date but not with the haloalkane dehalogenase from X. autotrophicus GJ10....

  14. THE LICK-CARNEGIE EXOPLANET SURVEY: A URANUS-MASS FOURTH PLANET FOR GJ 876 IN AN EXTRASOLAR LAPLACE CONFIGURATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Eugenio J.; Laughlin, Gregory; Vogt, Steven S.; Meschiari, Stefano; Butler, R. Paul; Haghighipour, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Continued radial velocity (RV) monitoring of the nearby M4V red dwarf star GJ 876 with Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph has revealed the presence of a Uranus-mass fourth planetary companion in the system. The new planet has a mean period of P e = 126.6 days (over the 12.6-year baseline of the RV observations), and a minimum mass of m e sin i e = 12.9 ± 1.7 M + . The detection of the new planet has been enabled by significant improvements to our RV data set for GJ 876. The data have been augmented by 36 new high-precision measurements taken over the past five years. In addition, the precision of all of the Doppler measurements have been significantly improved by the incorporation of a high signal-to-noise template spectrum for GJ 876 into the analysis pipeline. Implementation of the new template spectrum improves the internal rms errors for the velocity measurements taken during 1998-2005 from 4.1 m s -1 to 2.5 m s -1 . Self-consistent, N-body fits to the RV data set show that the four-planet system has an invariable plane with an inclination relative to the plane of the sky of i = 59. 0 5. The fit is not significantly improved by the introduction of a mutual inclination between the planets 'b' and 'c', but the new data do confirm a non-zero eccentricity, e d = 0.207 ± 0.055 for the innermost planet, 'd'. In our best-fit coplanar model, the mass of the new component is m e = 14.6 ± 1.7 M + . Our best-fitting model places the new planet in a three-body resonance with the previously known giant planets (which have mean periods of P c = 30.4 and P b = 61.1 days). The critical argument, ψ Laplace = λ c - 3λ b + 2λ e , for the Laplace resonance librates with an amplitude of Δψ Laplace = 40 0 ± 13 0 about ψ Laplace = 0 0 . Numerical integration indicates that the four-planet system is stable for at least a billion years (at least for the coplanar cases). This resonant configuration of three giant planets orbiting an M dwarf primary differs from the

  15. DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION AND SPIN–ORBIT RESONANCES OF POTENTIALLY HABITABLE EXOPLANETS: THE CASE OF GJ 581d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, Valeri V.; Berghea, Ciprian; Efroimsky, Michael

    2012-01-01

    GJ 581d is a potentially habitable super-Earth in the multiple system of exoplanets orbiting a nearby M dwarf. We investigate this planet's long-term dynamics with an emphasis on its probable final rotation states acquired via tidal interaction with the host. The published radial velocities for the star are re-analyzed with a benchmark planet detection algorithm to confirm that there is no evidence for the recently proposed two additional planets (f and g). Limiting the scope to the four originally detected planets, we assess the dynamical stability of the system and find bounded chaos in the orbital motion. For the planet d, the characteristic Lyapunov time is 38 yr. Long-term numerical integration reveals that the system of four planets is stable, with the eccentricity of the planet d changing quasi-periodically in a tight range around 0.27, and with its semimajor axis varying only a little. The spin-orbit interaction of GJ 581d with its host star is dominated by the tides exerted by the star on the planet. We model this interaction, assuming a terrestrial composition of the mantle. Besides the triaxiality-caused torque and the secular part of the tidal torque, which are conventionally included in the equation of motion, we also include the tidal torques' oscillating components. It turns out that, depending on the mantle temperature, the planet gets trapped into the 2:1 or an even higher spin-orbit resonance. It is very improbable that the planet could have reached the 1:1 resonance. This improves the possibility of the planet being suitable for sustained life.

  16. Cloning of 1,2-Dichloroethane Degradation Genes of Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 and Expression and Sequencing of the dhlA Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Pries, Frens; Ploeg, Jan van der; Kazemier, Bert; Terpstra, Peter; Witholt, Bernard

    1989-01-01

    A gene bank from the chlorinated hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 was prepared in the broad-host-range cosmid vector pLAFR1. By using mutants impaired in dichloroethane utilization and strains lacking dehalogenase activities, several genes involved in

  17. TWO PLANETARY COMPANIONS AROUND THE K7 DWARF GJ 221: A HOT SUPER-EARTH AND A CANDIDATE IN THE SUB-SATURN DESERT RANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, Pamela; Minniti, Dante [Department of Astronomy, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Wende, Sebastian, E-mail: parriaga@astro.puc.cl [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We report two low-mass companions orbiting the nearby K7 dwarf GJ 221 that have emerged from reanalyzing 4.4 yr of publicly available HARPS spectra complemented with 2 years of high-precision Doppler measurements with Magellan/PFS. The HARPS measurements alone contain the clear signal of a low-mass companion with a period of 125 days and a minimum mass of 53.2 M{sub Circled-Plus} (GJ 221b), falling in a mass range where very few planet candidates have been found (sub-Saturn desert). The addition of 17 PFS observations allows the confident detection of a second low-mass companion (6.5 M{sub Circled-Plus }) in a hot orbit (3.87 day period, GJ 221c). Spectroscopic and photometric calibrations suggest that GJ 221 is slightly depleted ([Fe/H] {approx} -0.1) compared to the Sun, so the presence of two low-mass companions in the system confirms the trend that slightly reduced stellar metallicity does not prevent the formation of planets in the super-Earth to sub-Saturn mass regime.

  18. THE FLAT TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b FROM WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Désert, Jean-Michel; Irwin, Jonathan; Miller-Ricci Kempton, Eliza; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip; McCullough, Peter R.; Burke, Christopher J.; Homeier, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Capitalizing on the observational advantage offered by its tiny M dwarf host, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) grism measurements of the transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b. These are the first published WFC3 observations of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere. After correcting for a ramp-like instrumental systematic, we achieve nearly photon-limited precision in these observations, finding the transmission spectrum of GJ1214b to be flat between 1.1 and 1.7 μm. Inconsistent with a cloud-free solar composition atmosphere at 8.2σ, the measured achromatic transit depth most likely implies a large mean molecular weight for GJ1214b's outer envelope. A dense atmosphere rules out bulk compositions for GJ1214b that explain its large radius by the presence of a very low density gas layer surrounding the planet. High-altitude clouds can alternatively explain the flat transmission spectrum, but they would need to be optically thick up to 10 mbar or consist of particles with a range of sizes approaching 1 μm in diameter.

  19. Unexpected secoiridoid glucosides from Manulea corymbosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Jensen, Søren R

    2014-03-28

    From an extract of Manulea corymbosa were isolated four known secoiridoid glucosides (1-4), 10 new monoterpenoid esters of secologanol, namely, manuleosides A-I (5-11, 13, and 14) and dimethyl rhodanthoside A (12), and four new phenylpropanoid esters of carbocyclic iridoid glucosides, manucorymbosides I-IV (15-18). Also, the caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside was isolated. The presence of secoiridoids apparently derived from loganic acid in the family Scrophulariaceae is unprecedented and greatly unexpected.

  20. Unexpected Secoiridoid Glucosides from Manulea corymbosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2014-01-01

    From an extract of Manulea corymbosa were isolated four known secoiridoid glucosides (1–4), 10 new monoterpenoid esters of secologanol, namely, manuleosides A–I (5–11, 13, and 14) and dimethyl rhodanthoside A (12), and four new phenylpropanoid esters of carbocyclic iridoid glucosides, manucorymbo......, manucorymbosides I–IV (15–18). Also, the caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside was isolated. The presence of secoiridoids apparently derived from loganic acid in the family Scrophulariaceae is unprecedented and greatly unexpected....

  1. Circadian variation in unexpected postoperative death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H; Ramsing, T

    1992-01-01

    Unexpected deaths still occur following major surgical procedures. The cause is often unknown but may be cardiac or thromboembolic in nature. Postoperative ischaemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death may be triggered by episodic or constant arterial hypoxaemia, which increases during the night...... deaths occurred at night-time. These results suggest a need for further studies of sleep- and respiration-related effects on postoperative nocturnal cardiac function. The efficacy of monitoring during this apparent high-risk period should be evaluated....

  2. A SPITZER TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM FOR THE EXOPLANET GJ 436b, EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR VARIABILITY, AND CONSTRAINTS ON DAYSIDE FLUX VARIATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, Heather A.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Agol, Eric; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Henry, Gregory W.; Homeier, Derek; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Seager, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a uniform analysis of eight transits and eleven secondary eclipses of the extrasolar planet GJ 436b obtained in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 μm bands using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope between UT 2007 June 29 and UT 2009 February 4. We find that the best-fit transit depths for visits in the same bandpass can vary by as much as 8% of the total (4.7σ significance) from one epoch to the next. Although we cannot entirely rule out residual detector effects or a time-varying, high-altitude cloud layer in the planet's atmosphere as the cause of these variations, we consider the occultation of active regions on the star in a subset of the transit observations to be the most likely explanation. We find that for the deepest 3.6 μm transit the in-transit data have a higher standard deviation than the out-of-transit data, as would be expected if the planet occulted a star spot. We also compare all published transit observations for this object and find that transits observed in the infrared typically have smaller timing offsets than those observed in visible light. In this case, the three deepest Spitzer transits are all measured within a period of five days, consistent with a single epoch of increased stellar activity. We reconcile the presence of magnetically active regions with the lack of significant visible or infrared flux variations from the star by proposing that the star's spin axis is tilted with respect to our line of sight and that the planet's orbit is therefore likely to be misaligned. In contrast to the results reported by Beaulieu et al., we find no convincing evidence for methane absorption in the planet's transmission spectrum. If we exclude the transits that we believe to be most affected by stellar activity, we find that we prefer models with enhanced CO and reduced methane, consistent with GJ 436b's dayside composition from Stevenson et al. It is also possible that all transits are significantly affected by this

  3. HADES RV Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. VI. GJ 3942 b behind dominant activity signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, M.; Ribas, I.; Damasso, M.; Morales, J. C.; Affer, L.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; Micela, G.; Maldonado, J.; González Hernández, J. I.; Rebolo, R.; Scandariato, G.; Leto, G.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.; Benatti, S.; Bignamini, A.; Borsa, F.; Carbognani, A.; Claudi, R.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, M.; Lafarga, M.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Herrero, E.; Molinari, E.; Nascimbeni, V.; Pagano, I.; Pedani, M.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Rosich, A.; Sozzetti, A.; Toledo-Padrón, B.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Short- to mid-term magnetic phenomena on the stellar surface of M-type stars can resemble the effects of planets in radial velocity data, and may also hide them. Aims: We analyze 145 spectroscopic HARPS-N observations of GJ 3942 taken over the past five years and additional photometry in order to disentangle stellar activity effects from genuine Doppler signals as a result of the orbital motion of the star around the common barycenter with its planet. Methods: To achieve this, we use the common methods of pre-whitening, and treat the correlated red noise by a first-order moving average term and by Gaussian-process regression following an MCMC analysis. Results: We identify the rotational period of the star at 16.3 days and discover a new super-Earth, GJ 3942 b, with an orbital period of 6.9 days and a minimum mass of 7.1 M⊕. An additional signal in the periodogram of the residuals is present, but at this point we cannot claim with sufficient significance that it is related to a second planet. If confirmed, this planet candidate would have a minimum mass of 6.3 M⊕ and a period of 10.4 days, which might indicate a 3:2 mean-motion resonance with the inner planet. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La Palma by the INAF - Fundación Galileo Galilei at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC); photometric observations from the APACHE array located at the Astronomical Observatory of the Aosta Valley; photometric observations made with the robotic APT2 (within the EXORAP program) located at Serra La Nave on Mt. Etna.Table 9 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/608/A63

  4. HELIUM ATMOSPHERES ON WARM NEPTUNE- AND SUB-NEPTUNE-SIZED EXOPLANETS AND APPLICATIONS TO GJ 436b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Renyu; Yung, Yuk L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Seager, Sara, E-mail: renyu.hu@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Warm Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets in orbits smaller than Mercury’s are thought to have experienced extensive atmospheric evolution. Here we propose that a potential outcome of this atmospheric evolution is the formation of helium-dominated atmospheres. The hydrodynamic escape rates of Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets are comparable to the diffusion-limited escape rate of hydrogen, and therefore the escape is heavily affected by diffusive separation between hydrogen and helium. A helium atmosphere can thus be formed—from a primordial hydrogen–helium atmosphere—via atmospheric hydrodynamic escape from the planet. The helium atmosphere has very different abundances of major carbon and oxygen species from those of a hydrogen atmosphere, leading to distinctive transmission and thermal emission spectral features. In particular, the hypothesis of a helium-dominated atmosphere can explain the thermal emission spectrum of GJ 436b, a warm Neptune-sized exoplanet, while also being consistent with the transmission spectrum. This model atmosphere contains trace amounts of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, with the predominance of CO over CH{sub 4} as the main form of carbon. With our atmospheric evolution model, we find that if the mass of the initial atmosphere envelope is 10{sup −3} planetary mass, hydrodynamic escape can reduce the hydrogen abundance in the atmosphere by several orders of magnitude in ∼10 billion years. Observations of exoplanet transits may thus detect signatures of helium atmospheres and probe the evolutionary history of small exoplanets.

  5. submitter Quench Protection of Very Large, 50-GJ-Class, and High-Temperature-Superconductor-Based Detector Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mentink, Matthias; Mulder, Tim; Van Nugteren, Jeroen; ten Kate, Herman

    2016-01-01

    An investigation is performed on the quench behavior of a conceptual 50-GJ 8-T high-temperature-superconductor-based solenoid. In this design, a 50-kA conductor-on-round-core cable-in-conduit conductor utilizing ReBCO technology is envisioned, operating at 40 K. Various properties such as resistivity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity are very different at this temperature, which affects the quench behavior. It is found that the envisioned conductor is very stable with a minimum quench energy of about 2 kJ. However, the quench propagation velocity is typically about 20 mm/s, so that creating a wide-spread normal zone throughout the coil is very challenging. Moreover, an extraction voltage exceeding 20 kV would be required to ensure a hot-spot temperature below 100 K once a thermal runaway occurs. A novel concept dubbed “rapid quench transformation” is proposed whereby the superconducting conductor is co-wound with a normal conductor to achieve a high degree of inductive coupling. This geometry allow...

  6. HELIUM ATMOSPHERES ON WARM NEPTUNE- AND SUB-NEPTUNE-SIZED EXOPLANETS AND APPLICATIONS TO GJ 436b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Renyu; Yung, Yuk L.; Seager, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Warm Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets in orbits smaller than Mercury’s are thought to have experienced extensive atmospheric evolution. Here we propose that a potential outcome of this atmospheric evolution is the formation of helium-dominated atmospheres. The hydrodynamic escape rates of Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets are comparable to the diffusion-limited escape rate of hydrogen, and therefore the escape is heavily affected by diffusive separation between hydrogen and helium. A helium atmosphere can thus be formed—from a primordial hydrogen–helium atmosphere—via atmospheric hydrodynamic escape from the planet. The helium atmosphere has very different abundances of major carbon and oxygen species from those of a hydrogen atmosphere, leading to distinctive transmission and thermal emission spectral features. In particular, the hypothesis of a helium-dominated atmosphere can explain the thermal emission spectrum of GJ 436b, a warm Neptune-sized exoplanet, while also being consistent with the transmission spectrum. This model atmosphere contains trace amounts of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, with the predominance of CO over CH 4 as the main form of carbon. With our atmospheric evolution model, we find that if the mass of the initial atmosphere envelope is 10 −3 planetary mass, hydrodynamic escape can reduce the hydrogen abundance in the atmosphere by several orders of magnitude in ∼10 billion years. Observations of exoplanet transits may thus detect signatures of helium atmospheres and probe the evolutionary history of small exoplanets

  7. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GJ 3470 b: A VERY LOW-DENSITY NEPTUNE-SIZE PLANET ORBITING A METAL-RICH M DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neves, Vasco; Santos, Nuno [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Rogers, Leslie [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gillon, Michaeel [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17, Bat. B5C, Liege 1 (Belgium); Horch, Elliott [Department of Physics, 501 Crescent Street, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Sullivan, Peter [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bonfils, Xavier; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Udry, Stephane [Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Smalley, Barry, E-mail: demory@mit.edu [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST55BG (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    We present Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 {mu}m transit photometry of GJ 3470 b, a Neptune-size planet orbiting an M1.5 dwarf star with a 3.3 day period recently discovered in the course of the HARPS M-dwarf survey. We refine the stellar parameters by employing purely empirical mass-luminosity and surface brightness relations constrained by our updated value for the mean stellar density, and additional information from new near-infrared spectroscopic observations. We derive a stellar mass of M{sub *}= 0.539{sup +0.047}{sub -0.043} M{sub sun} and a radius of R{sub *}= 0.568{sup +0.037}{sub -0.031} R{sub sun}. We determine the host star of GJ 3470 b to be metal-rich, with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.20 {+-} 0.10 and an effective temperature of T{sub eff} = 3600 {+-} 100 K. The revised stellar parameters yield a planetary radius R{sub p}= 4.83{sub -0.21}{sup +0.22} R{sub Circled-Plus} that is 13% larger than the value previously reported in the literature. We find a planetary mass M{sub p}= 13.9{sup +1.5}{sub -1.4} M{sub Circled-Plus} that translates to a very low planetary density, {rho}{sub p}= 0.72{sup +0.13}{sub -0.12} g cm{sup -3}, which is 33% smaller than the original value. With a mean density half of that of GJ 436 b, GJ 3470 b is an example of a very low-density low-mass planet, similar to Kepler-11 d, Kepler-11 e, and Kepler-18 c, but orbiting a much brighter nearby star that is more conducive to follow-up studies.

  8. SEMI-EMPIRICAL MODELING OF THE PHOTOSPHERE, CHROMOPSHERE, TRANSITION REGION, AND CORONA OF THE M-DWARF HOST STAR GJ 832

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontenla, J. M. [NorthWest Research Associates, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Witbrod, Jesse [University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); France, Kevin [LASP, University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0600 (United States); Buccino, A.; Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), C.C. 67, Sucursal 28, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Walkowicz, Lucianne M., E-mail: johnf@digidyna.com, E-mail: jlinsky@jila.colorado.edu, E-mail: jesse.witbrod@colorado.edu, E-mail: kevin.france@lasp.colorado.edu, E-mail: abuccino@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: pablo@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: mariela@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: LWalkowicz@adlerplanetarium.org [The Adler Planetarium, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Stellar radiation from X-rays to the visible provides the energy that controls the photochemistry and mass loss from exoplanet atmospheres. The important extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region (10–91.2 nm) is inaccessible and should be computed from a reliable stellar model. It is essential to understand the formation regions and physical processes responsible for the various stellar emission features to predict how the spectral energy distribution varies with age and activity levels. We compute a state-of-the-art semi-empirical atmospheric model and the emergent high-resolution synthetic spectrum of the moderately active M2 V star GJ 832 as the first of a series of models for stars with different activity levels. We construct a one-dimensional simple model for the physical structure of the star’s chromosphere, chromosphere-corona transition region, and corona using non-LTE radiative transfer techniques and many molecular lines. The synthesized spectrum for this model fits the continuum and lines across the UV-to-optical spectrum. Particular emphasis is given to the emission lines at wavelengths that are shorter than 300 nm observed with the Hubble Space Telescope , which have important effects on the photochemistry of the exoplanet atmospheres. The FUV line ratios indicate that the transition region of GJ 832 is more biased to hotter material than that of the quiet Sun. The excellent agreement of our computed EUV luminosity with that obtained by two other techniques indicates that our model predicts reliable EUV emission from GJ 832. We find that the unobserved EUV flux of GJ 832, which heats the outer atmospheres of exoplanets and drives their mass loss, is comparable to the active Sun.

  9. FORWARD AND INVERSE MODELING OF THE EMISSION AND TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF GJ 436B: INVESTIGATING METAL ENRICHMENT, TIDAL HEATING, AND CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Line, Michael [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 781 South Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Teal, Dillon [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thorngren, Daniel [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Marley, Mark S.; Lupu, Roxana, E-mail: caroline.morley@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Neptune-mass GJ 436b is one of the most studied transiting exoplanets with repeated measurements of its thermal emission and transmission spectra. We build on previous studies to answer outstanding questions about this planet, including its potentially high metallicity and tidal heating of its interior. We present new observations of GJ 436b’s thermal emission at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m, which reduce uncertainties in estimates of GJ 436b’s flux at those wavelengths and demonstrate consistency between Spitzer observations spanning more than 7 yr. We analyze the Spitzer thermal emission photometry and Hubble WFC3 transmission spectrum. We use a dual-pronged modeling approach of both self-consistent and retrieval models. We vary the metallicity, intrinsic luminosity from tidal heating, disequilibrium chemistry, and heat redistribution. We also study clouds and photochemical hazes, but do not find strong evidence for either. The self-consistent and retrieval models combine to suggest that GJ 436b has a high atmospheric metallicity, with best fits at or above several hundred times solar metallicity, tidal heating warming its interior with best-fit intrinsic effective temperatures around 300–350 K, and disequilibrium chemistry. High metal enrichments (>600× solar) occur from the accretion of rocky, rather than icy, material. Assuming the interior temperature T {sub int} ∼ 300–350 K, we find a dissipation factor Q ′ ∼ 2 × 10{sup 5}–10{sup 6}, larger than Neptune’s Q ′, implying a long tidal circularization timescale for the orbit. We suggest that Neptune-mass planets may be more diverse than imagined, with metal enhancements spanning several orders of magnitude, to perhaps over 1000× solar metallicity. High-fidelity observations with instruments like the James Webb Space Telescope will be critical for characterizing this diversity.

  10. GICLAS 112-29 (=NLTT 18149), A VERY WIDE COMPANION TO GJ 282 AB WITH COMMON PROPER MOTION, COMMON PARALLAX, COMMON RADIAL VELOCITY AND COMMON AGE

    OpenAIRE

    A. Poveda; A. Hernández-Alcántara; R. Costero; J. Echevarría

    2008-01-01

    En una búsqueda de compa~neras con movimiento propio común para las binarias separadas de la vecindad solar encontramos que GJ 282AB tiene una compañera distante (NLTT 18149), a una separaci on de s = 1:09°. Las paralajes trigonométricas (Hipparcos), velocidades radiales y edades son similares, y sugieren que éste es un sistema físico.

  11. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GJ 3470 b: A VERY LOW-DENSITY NEPTUNE-SIZE PLANET ORBITING A METAL-RICH M DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Torres, Guillermo; Neves, Vasco; Santos, Nuno; Rogers, Leslie; Gillon, Michaël; Horch, Elliott; Sullivan, Peter; Bonfils, Xavier; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Udry, Stephane; Smalley, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm transit photometry of GJ 3470 b, a Neptune-size planet orbiting an M1.5 dwarf star with a 3.3 day period recently discovered in the course of the HARPS M-dwarf survey. We refine the stellar parameters by employing purely empirical mass-luminosity and surface brightness relations constrained by our updated value for the mean stellar density, and additional information from new near-infrared spectroscopic observations. We derive a stellar mass of M * = 0.539 +0.047 -0.043 M sun and a radius of R * = 0.568 +0.037 -0.031 R sun . We determine the host star of GJ 3470 b to be metal-rich, with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.20 ± 0.10 and an effective temperature of T eff = 3600 ± 100 K. The revised stellar parameters yield a planetary radius R p = 4.83 -0.21 +0.22 R ⊕ that is 13% larger than the value previously reported in the literature. We find a planetary mass M p = 13.9 +1.5 -1.4 M ⊕ that translates to a very low planetary density, ρ p = 0.72 +0.13 -0.12 g cm –3 , which is 33% smaller than the original value. With a mean density half of that of GJ 436 b, GJ 3470 b is an example of a very low-density low-mass planet, similar to Kepler-11 d, Kepler-11 e, and Kepler-18 c, but orbiting a much brighter nearby star that is more conducive to follow-up studies.

  12. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). II. A LOW-MASS COMPANION TO THE YOUNG M DWARF GJ 3629 SEPARATED BY 0.''2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    We present the discovery of a 0.''2 companion to the young M dwarf GJ 3629 as part of our high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets around low-mass stars with the Keck-II and Subaru telescopes. Two epochs of imaging confirm that the pair is comoving and reveal signs of orbital motion. The primary exhibits saturated X-ray emission which, together with its UV photometry from GALEX, points to an age younger than {approx}300 Myr. At these ages the companion lies below the hydrogen burning limit with a model-dependent mass of 46 {+-} 16 M{sub Jup} based on the system's photometric distance of 22 {+-} 3 pc. Resolved YJHK photometry of the pair indicates a spectral type of M7 {+-} 2 for GJ 3629 B. With a projected separation of 4.4 {+-} 0.6 AU and an estimated orbital period of 21 {+-} 5 yr, GJ 3629 AB is likely to yield a dynamical mass in the next several years, making it one of only a handful of brown dwarfs to have a measured mass and an age constrained from the stellar primary.

  13. Unpredictable Root Canal Morphology: Expect the Unexpected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohez J Makani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A maxillary first molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when two of these canals are detected, with separate apical foramen in the distal root. The inability to locate the unexpected canals of various anatomical configuration and subsequently treat them , may lead to therapeutic failures. Endodontic retreatment is usually the modality of choice in such cases. This report describes a case of a maxillary first molar with five canals (two mesial canals in mesial root, two distal canals in two distal roots and a palatal canal in palatal root. Additionally it shows a rare anatomic configuration and emphasizes the importance of identifying additional canals.

  14. Sudden unexpected death in infancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...

  15. Unexpected flood loss correlations across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Naomi; Boyd, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Floods don't observe country borders, as highlighted by major events across Europe that resulted in heavy economic and insured losses in 1999, 2002, 2009 and 2013. Flood loss correlations between some countries occur along multi-country river systems or between neighbouring nations affected by the same weather systems. However, correlations are not so obvious and whilst flooding in multiple locations across Europe may appear independent, for a re/insurer providing cover across the continent, these unexpected correlations can lead to high loss accumulations. A consistent, continental-scale method that allows quantification and comparison of losses, and identifies correlations in loss between European countries is therefore essential. A probabilistic model for European river flooding was developed that allows estimation of potential losses to pan-European property portfolios. By combining flood hazard and exposure information in a catastrophe modelling platform, we can consider correlations between river basins across Europe rather than being restricted to country boundaries. A key feature of the model is its statistical event set based on extreme value theory. Using historical river flow data, the event set captures spatial and temporal patterns of flooding across Europe and simulates thousands of events representing a full range of possible scenarios. Some known correlations were identified, such as between neighbouring Belgium and Luxembourg where 28% of events that affect either country produce a loss in both. However, our model identified some unexpected correlations including between Austria and Poland, and Poland and France, which are geographically distant. These correlations in flood loss may be missed by traditional methods and are key for re/insurers with risks in multiple countries. The model also identified that 46% of European river flood events affect more than one country. For more extreme events with a return period higher than 200 years, all events

  16. Water in stars: expected and unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, T.; Aoki, W.; Ohnaka, K.

    1999-03-01

    We have confirmed the presence of water in the early M giant α Cet (M1.5III) and supergiant KK Per (M2Iab) by the highest resolution grating mode of SWS, but this result is quite unexpected from present model atmospheres. In late M giant and supergiant stars, water observed originates partly in the photosphere as expected by the model atmospheres, but ISO SWS has revealed that the 2.7 mic\\ absorption bands appear to be somewhat stronger than predicted while 6.5 mic\\ bands weaker, indicating the contamination by an emission component. In the mid-infrared region extending to 45 mic, pure rotation lines of hho\\ appear as distinct emission on the high resolution SWS spectra of 30g Her (M7III) and S Per (M4-7Ia), along with the dust emission at 10, 13, 20 mic\\ and a new unidentified feature at 30 mic. Thus, together with the dust, water contributes to the thermal balance of the outer atmosphere already in the mid-infrared. The excitation temperature of hho\\ gas is estimated to be 500 - 1000 K. In view of this result for late M (super)giants, unexpected water observed in early M (super)giants should also be of non-photospheric in origin. Thus, ISO has finally established the presence of a new component of the outer atmosphere - a warm molecular envelope - in red giant and supergiant stars from early to late types. Such a rather warm molecular envelope will be a site of various activities such as chemical reactions, dust formation, mass-outflow etc.

  17. 77 FR 42947 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... unexpected and urgent refugee and migration needs, including by contributions to international, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations and payment of administrative expenses of the Bureau of Population...

  18. Theory of mind for processing unexpected events across contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, James A; Stepanovic, Michael; Young, Liane

    2016-08-01

    Theory of mind, or mental state reasoning, may be particularly useful for making sense of unexpected events. Here, we investigated unexpected behavior across both social and non-social contexts in order to characterize the precise role of theory of mind in processing unexpected events. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how people respond to unexpected outcomes when initial expectations were based on (i) an object's prior behavior, (ii) an agent's prior behavior and (iii) an agent's mental states. Consistent with prior work, brain regions for theory of mind were preferentially recruited when people first formed expectations about social agents vs non-social objects. Critically, unexpected vs expected outcomes elicited greater activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, which also discriminated in its spatial pattern of activity between unexpected and expected outcomes for social events. In contrast, social vs non-social events elicited greater activity in precuneus across both expected and unexpected outcomes. Finally, given prior information about an agent's behavior, unexpected vs expected outcomes elicited an especially robust response in right temporoparietal junction, and the magnitude of this difference across participants correlated negatively with autistic-like traits. Together, these findings illuminate the distinct contributions of brain regions for theory of mind for processing unexpected events across contexts. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Ombud's Corner: unexpected turn in the conversation?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    Regular informal conversations with colleagues play a very important part in weaving the fabric of team spirit. They allow us to build the working relationships that are vital to the success of our projects and to create an environment of good will that is instrumental in averting potential conflict or crises. However, sometimes they can come with unexpected surprises…   Eric and his colleagues always meet on Monday mornings to have coffee together, before starting the working week. This is a very privileged moment for the team when there are no formal barriers or professional concerns: Mary may talk about a film that she saw at the weekend, Eric often goes hiking in the Jura with his friend Stefan, Hans has always got a story about his son’s prowess on the school football team and occasionally there is a bit of special news such as Louisa’s recent marriage, Pierre’s baby’s christening or Claude’s daughter’s graduation&...

  20. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  1. 42 CFR 493.861 - Standard; Unexpected antibody detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. 493.861 Section 493.861 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.861 Standard; Unexpected antibody detection. (a) Failure to...

  2. Unexpected allergic reactions to food, a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelsen-Huisman, A.D.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Versluis, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Unexpected reactions occur in patients with food allergy, but frequency data are scare. This prospective study investigates the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in adults with a doctor's diagnosed food allergy. Participants complete an online questionnaire

  3. Unexpected observations of muons from Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbert, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    One surface experiment (Kiel) and two underground experiments (Soudan and Mt. Blanc) have detected unexpectedly large fluxes of cosmic ray muons from the approximate direction of Cygnus X-3, with signals showing the precise period of the system. The muon signals cannot be produced by any known type of elementary particle unless unexpected processes are involved

  4. 77 FR 21389 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... April 3, 2012 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the... 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended, (22 U.S.C... United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund, for the purpose of meeting unexpected and...

  5. Cost effective purification of intein based syntetic cationic antimicrobial peptide expressed in cold shock expression system using salt inducible E. coli GJ1158

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetha Ram Kotra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide (SC-AMP is an important and upcoming therapeutic molecule against onventional antibiotics. In this study, an attempt was made to purify the SC-AMP without the enzymatic cleavage of the affinity tag, by using an intein-based system. Methods:The intein sequence was amplified from pTYB11 vector using PCR methodologies and the N-terminal of intein was ligated with SC-AMP. The designed construct, intein-SC-AMP was cloned into MCS region of cold shock expression vector, pCOLDI and the recombinant peptide was purified on a chitin affinity column by cleaving intein with 50 mM DTT without applying enzymatic cleavage. Later the peptide was quantified and its antibacterial activity of the purified peptide was studied using well diffusion method. Results: Initially, intein-SC-AMP was expressed as a fusion protein in both IPTG inducible E. coli BL21(DE3 and salt inducible E. coli GJ1158. Single step purification using CBD (chitin binding domain - intein tag in salt inducible E. coli GJ1158, yields the SC-AMP in the soluble form at a oncentration of 208 mg/L. The antibacterial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the purified SC-AMP was studied against both Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms. Conclusion: For the first time, single step purification of soluble SC-AMP was carried out using chitin-binding domain affinity tag in salt inducible E. coli GJ1158 without an application of enzymatic cleavage. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1:13-19

  6. A PLANETARY SYSTEM AROUND THE NEARBY M DWARF GJ 667C WITH AT LEAST ONE SUPER-EARTH IN ITS HABITABLE ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Arriagada, Pamela; Minniti, Dante [Department of Astronomy, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, Eugenio J. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian B. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Monoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Carter, Brad D. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Tinney, C. G.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Bailey, Jeremy A. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); O' Toole, Simon J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping 1710 (Australia); Jones, Hugh R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, Herts, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Jenkins, James S., E-mail: anglada@dtm.ciw.edu [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-05-20

    We re-analyze 4 years of HARPS spectra of the nearby M1.5 dwarf GJ 667C available through the European Southern Observatory public archive. The new radial velocity (RV) measurements were obtained using a new data analysis technique that derives the Doppler measurement and other instrumental effects using a least-squares approach. Combining these new 143 measurements with 41 additional RVs from the Magellan/Planet Finder Spectrograph and Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer spectrometers reveals three additional signals beyond the previously reported 7.2 day candidate, with periods of 28 days, 75 days, and a secular trend consistent with the presence of a gas giant (period {approx}10 years). The 28 day signal implies a planet candidate with a minimum mass of 4.5 M{sub Circled-Plus} orbiting well within the canonical definition of the star's liquid water habitable zone (HZ), that is, the region around the star at which an Earth-like planet could sustain liquid water on its surface. Still, the ultimate water supporting capability of this candidate depends on properties that are unknown such as its albedo, atmospheric composition, and interior dynamics. The 75 day signal is less certain, being significantly affected by aliasing interactions among a potential 91 day signal, and the likely rotation period of the star at 105 days detected in two activity indices. GJ 667C is the common proper motion companion to the GJ 667AB binary, which is metal-poor compared to the Sun. The presence of a super-Earth in the HZ of a metal-poor M dwarf in a triple star system supports the evidence that such worlds should be ubiquitous in the Galaxy.

  7. A PLANETARY SYSTEM AROUND THE NEARBY M DWARF GJ 667C WITH AT LEAST ONE SUPER-EARTH IN ITS HABITABLE ZONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul; Arriagada, Pamela; Minniti, Dante; Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian B.; Haghighipour, Nader; Carter, Brad D.; Tinney, C. G.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Bailey, Jeremy A.; O'Toole, Simon J.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Jenkins, James S.

    2012-01-01

    We re-analyze 4 years of HARPS spectra of the nearby M1.5 dwarf GJ 667C available through the European Southern Observatory public archive. The new radial velocity (RV) measurements were obtained using a new data analysis technique that derives the Doppler measurement and other instrumental effects using a least-squares approach. Combining these new 143 measurements with 41 additional RVs from the Magellan/Planet Finder Spectrograph and Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer spectrometers reveals three additional signals beyond the previously reported 7.2 day candidate, with periods of 28 days, 75 days, and a secular trend consistent with the presence of a gas giant (period ∼10 years). The 28 day signal implies a planet candidate with a minimum mass of 4.5 M ⊕ orbiting well within the canonical definition of the star's liquid water habitable zone (HZ), that is, the region around the star at which an Earth-like planet could sustain liquid water on its surface. Still, the ultimate water supporting capability of this candidate depends on properties that are unknown such as its albedo, atmospheric composition, and interior dynamics. The 75 day signal is less certain, being significantly affected by aliasing interactions among a potential 91 day signal, and the likely rotation period of the star at 105 days detected in two activity indices. GJ 667C is the common proper motion companion to the GJ 667AB binary, which is metal-poor compared to the Sun. The presence of a super-Earth in the HZ of a metal-poor M dwarf in a triple star system supports the evidence that such worlds should be ubiquitous in the Galaxy.

  8. Magellan/PFS Radial Velocities of GJ 9827, a Late K dwarf at 30 pc with Three Transiting Super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Johanna K.; Wang, Sharon; Wolfgang, Angie; Dai, Fei; Shectman, Stephen A.; Butler, R. Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Ian B.

    2018-04-01

    The Kepler mission showed us that planets with sizes between that of Earth and Neptune appear to be the most common type in our Galaxy. These “super-Earths” continue to be of great interest for exoplanet formation, evolution, and composition studies. However, the number of super-Earths with well-constrained mass and radius measurements remains small (40 planets with σ mass Earth planets were detected by the K2 mission around the nearby star GJ 9827/HIP 115752, at only 30 pc away. The radii of the planets span the “radius gap” detected by Fulton et al. (2017), and all orbit within ∼6.5 days, easing follow-up observations. Here, we report radial velocity (RV) observations of GJ 9827, taken between 2010 and 2016 with the Planet Finder Spectrograph on the Magellan II Telescope. We employ two different RV analysis packages, SYSTEMIC and RADVEL, to derive masses and thus densities of the GJ 9827 planets. We also test a Gaussian Process regression analysis but find the correlated stellar noise is not well constrained by the PFS data and that the GP tends to over-fit the RV semi-amplitudes resulting in a lower K value. Our RV observations are not able to place strong mass constraints on the two outer planets (c and d) but do indicate that planet b, at 1.64 R ⊕ and ∼8 M ⊕, is one of the most massive (and dense) super-Earth planets detected to date.

  9. Unexpected pathological findings after laparoscopic cholecystectomy - analysis of 1131 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosiak, Katarzyna; Liszka, Maciej; Drazba, Tomasz; Paśnik, Krzysztof; Janik, Michal R

    2018-03-01

    Gallbladder specimens are routinely sent for histopathological examination after cholecystectomy in order to rule out the presence of unexpected pathological findings. To establish the overall incidence of unexpected pathological findings in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallbladder disease and determine whether the macroscopic appearance of the gallbladder in ultrasound examination could be a valid method for identifying patients with gallbladder malignancy. A retrospective study was conducted between 2013 and 2015. All histological reports (n = 1131) after cholecystectomy were searched for unexpected pathological findings. In cases where unexpected pathological findings were identified the additional analysis of preoperative abdominal ultrasound examination (USG) was done to determine the usefulness of USG in diagnosis of gallbladder malignancy. Of the 1131 patients included in the study, 356 (31.47%) were male and 774 (68.43%) were female. Unexpected pathological findings were present in 21 cases. The overall incidence of unexpected pathological findings was 1.86%. Only in 5 patients were suspicious appearances of gallbladder observed in preoperative ultrasound examination. In 16 patients there was no suspicion of malignancy. The positive predictive value of USG was 0.238. The incidence of unexpected pathological findings after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 1.86%. Ultrasonography has low positive predictive value for identifying patients with malignant findings in a gallbladder specimen.

  10. Adaptation of Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 to bromoacetate due to activation and mobilization of the haloacetate dehalogenase gene by insertion element IS1247

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Ploeg, J; Willemsen, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    B gene. In mutant GJ10M50, a DNA fragment (designated IS1247) had copied itself from a position on the chromosome that was not linked to the dhlB region to a site immediately upstream of dhlB, resulting in a 1,672-bp insertion. IS1247 was found to encode an open reading frame corresponding to 464 amino...... acids which showed similarity to putative transposases from two other insertion elements. In most of the other MBA-resistant mutants of GJ10, IS1247 was also present in one more copy than in the wild type, which had two copies located within 20 kb. After insertion to a site proximal to dhlB, IS1247...... was able to transpose itself together with the dhlB gene to a plasmid, without the requirement of a second insertion element being present downstream of dhlB. The results show that IS1247 causes bromoacetate resistance by overexpression and mobilization of the haloacid dehalogenase gene, which mimics steps...

  11. Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    by the Army Acquisition Executive contains the following language . As a recently delegated Acquisition Category IC program, the AH-64E Apache...Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis, Project Leader Margaret L. Giles David M. Tate I...F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-8490 Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis

  12. Unexpected Expectations The Curiosities of a Mathematical Crystal Ball

    CERN Document Server

    Wapner, Leonard M

    2012-01-01

    Unexpected Expectations: The Curiosities of a Mathematical Crystal Ball explores how paradoxical challenges involving mathematical expectation often necessitate a reexamination of basic premises. The author takes you through mathematical paradoxes associated with seemingly straightforward applications of mathematical expectation and shows how these unexpected contradictions may push you to reconsider the legitimacy of the applications. The book requires only an understanding of basic algebraic operations and includes supplemental mathematical background in chapter appendices. After a history o

  13. Gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Ahmed, Saba; Pasha, Syed Bilal; Hussain, Syed Ather; Fatima, Huda; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal conditions are a less common cause of sudden unexpected death when compared to other conditions such as cardiovascular conditions, but they are equally important. Various congenital and acquired gastrointestinal conditions that have resulted in sudden unexpected death are discussed. The possible lethal mechanisms behind each condition, along with any associated risk factors or secondary diseases, have been described. Through this article, we aim to highlight the need for physicians to prevent death in such conditions by ensuring that subclinical cases are diagnosed correctly before it is too late and by providing timely and efficacious treatment to the patient concerned. In addition, this review would certainly benefit the forensic pathologist while dealing with cases of sudden unexpected death due to gastrointestinal causes. This article is a review of the major gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death. In addition, related fatal cases encountered occasionally in forensic autopsy practice are also included. There are several unusual and rare causes of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding that may lead to sudden unexpected death to cover all the entities in detail. Nevertheless, this article is a general guide to the topic of gastrointestinal causes of sudden unexpected death.

  14. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    New Light on Cannibalism in the Local Group of Galaxies The Local Group of Galaxies consists of a few large spiral galaxies - for instance the Milky Way galaxy in which we live, and the Andromeda galaxy that is visible to the unaided eye in the northern constellation of the same name - as well as two dozen much smaller galaxies of mostly irregular shape. Whereas the larger galaxies have extended halos of very old stars, no such halos have ever been seen around the smaller ones. Now, however, Dante Minniti and Albert Zijlstra [1], working at the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), have found a large halo of old and metal-poor stars around one of the dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. This finding is quite unexpected. It revises our understanding of star formation in these galaxies and provides important information about the past evolution of galaxies [2]. Galaxy halos The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a large, roughly spherical halo of old stars. The diameter is about 100,000 light years and the stars therein, known as Population II stars, are among the oldest known, with ages of 10 billion years or even more. They also differ from the younger stars nearer to the main plane of the Milky Way (in which our 4.7 billion year old Sun is located) by being very metal-poor. Many of the halo stars consist almost solely of hydrogen and helium, reflecting the composition of matter in the young Universe. This halo is important for our understanding of the processes that led to the formation of the Milky Way galaxy. It is believed that many of the halo stars and those of the same type found in globular clusters existed already before the Milky Way had fully formed. Galaxy cannibalism Many astronomers suspect that galaxies evolve and gradually grow larger and heavier by practising cannibalism on their own kind. In this picture, when two galaxies collide in space, the stars and nebulae in the smaller one will disperse and soon be taken over by the larger one, which

  15. Optical to near-infrared transit observations of super-Earth GJ 1214b: water-world or mini-Neptune?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mooij, E. J. W.; Brogi, M.; de Kok, R. J.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Nefs, S. V.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Greiner, J.; Hanse, J.; Heinsbroek, R. C.; Lee, C. H.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2012-02-01

    Context. GJ 1214b, the 6.55 Earth-mass transiting planet recently discovered by the MEarth team, has a mean density of ~35% of that of the Earth. It is thought that this planet is either a mini-Neptune, consisting of a rocky core with a thick, hydrogen-rich atmosphere, or a planet with a composition dominated by water. Aims: In the case of a hydrogen-rich atmosphere, molecular absorption and scattering processes may result in detectable radius variations as a function of wavelength. The aim of this paper is to measure these variations. Methods: We have obtained observations of the transit of GJ 1214b in the r- and I-band with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), in the g-, r-, i- and z-bands with the 2.2 m MPI/ESO telescope, in the Ks-band with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and in the Kc-band with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT). By comparing the transit depth between the the different bands, which is a measure for the planet-to-star size ratio, the atmosphere is investigated. Results: We do not detect clearly significant variations in the planet-to-star size ratio as function of wavelength. Although the ratio at the shortest measured wavelength, in g-band, is 2σ larger than in the other bands. The uncertainties in the Ks and Kc bands are large, due to systematic features in the light curves. Conclusions: The tentative increase in the planet-to-star size ratio at the shortest wavelength could be a sign of an increase in the effective planet-size due to Rayleigh scattering, which would require GJ 1214b to have a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. If true, then the atmosphere has to have both clouds, to suppress planet-size variations at red optical wavelengths, as well as a sub-solar metallicity, to suppress strong molecular features in the near- and mid-infrared. However, star spots, which are known to be present on the host-star's surface, can (partly) cancel out the expected variations in planet-to-star size ratio, because the lower surface temperature of the

  16. Unexpected marked seizure improvement in paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Mathiasen, René; Uldall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epilepsy surgery is performed based on the assumption that medical refractory epilepsy will continue. Rarely seizure freedom occurs before surgery is performed, while the patient is being evaluated as an epilepsy surgery candidate. The aim of this study was to describe the number...... of children withdrawn from an epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected seizure improvement. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 173 children under 18 years with medical refractory epilepsy referred for epilepsy surgery between 1996 and 2010. Medical records were reviewed in 2012 and 2015. RESULTS......: At the first evaluation point in 2012, 13 patients were withdrawn from the epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected marked improvement. In 2015, 6 of them were still seizure free. They had unexpected seizure freedom due to change in AED treatment (n=3) or after a febrile episode (n=3). The mean number...

  17. Structural imaging biomarkers of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandschneider, Britta; Koepp, Matthias; Scott, Catherine; Micallef, Caroline; Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Thom, Maria; Harper, Ronald M; Sander, Josemir W; Vos, Sjoerd B; Duncan, John S; Lhatoo, Samden; Diehl, Beate

    2015-10-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is a major cause of premature death in people with epilepsy. We aimed to assess whether structural changes potentially attributable to sudden death pathogenesis were present on magnetic resonance imaging in people who subsequently died of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. In a retrospective, voxel-based analysis of T1 volume scans, we compared grey matter volumes in 12 cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (two definite, 10 probable; eight males), acquired 2 years [median, interquartile range (IQR) 2.8] before death [median (IQR) age at scanning 33.5 (22) years], with 34 people at high risk [age 30.5 (12); 19 males], 19 at low risk [age 30 (7.5); 12 males] of sudden death, and 15 healthy controls [age 37 (16); seven males]. At-risk subjects were defined based on risk factors of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy identified in a recent combined risk factor analysis. We identified increased grey matter volume in the right anterior hippocampus/amygdala and parahippocampus in sudden death cases and people at high risk, when compared to those at low risk and controls. Compared to controls, posterior thalamic grey matter volume, an area mediating oxygen regulation, was reduced in cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and subjects at high risk. The extent of reduction correlated with disease duration in all subjects with epilepsy. Increased amygdalo-hippocampal grey matter volume with right-sided changes is consistent with histo-pathological findings reported in sudden infant death syndrome. We speculate that the right-sided predominance reflects asymmetric central influences on autonomic outflow, contributing to cardiac arrhythmia. Pulvinar damage may impair hypoxia regulation. The imaging findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and people at high risk may be useful as a biomarker for risk-stratification in future studies. The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of

  18. Unexpected Coexisting Myocardial Infarction Detected by Delayed Enhancement MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Gerbaud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an unexpected coexisting anterior myocardial infarction detected by delayed enhancement MRI in a 41-year-old man following a presentation with a first episode of chest pain during inferior acute myocardial infarction. This second necrotic area was not initially suspected because there were no ECG changes in the anterior leads and the left descending coronary artery did not present any significant stenoses on emergency coronary angiography. Unrecognised myocardial infarction may carry important prognostic implications. CMR is currently the best imaging technique to detect unexpected infarcts.

  19. [Development of the unexpected reality scale for childcare training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yuko; Shitara, Saeko; Hamada, Shoko

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a scale for unexpected reality for childcare training (Study 1) and examine the change and influence it exerts on the efficacy of preschool teachers (Study 2). In Study 1, the sample consisted of 571 university and junior college students enrolled in a childcare course. After exploratory factor analysis, four factors were extracted: “actual feelings for childcare as a field of study,” “difficulties faced during involvement with children,” “negative aspects of the childcare worker,” and “severity of work.” The study’s scale was shown to be internally consistent and valid. In Study 2, the sample consisted of 122 junior college students enrolled in a childcare course. The results showed that the high-scoring groups of each unexpected reality subscales experienced less unexpected reality in the subsequent training session. Moreover, the results of multiple regression showed that preschool teacher efficacy was predicted positively by “actual feelings for childcare as a field of study” and negatively by “difficulties faced during involvement with children.” Thus, we suggest that for effective pre- and post-guidance of childcare training, unexpected realities should be considered.

  20. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  1. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  2. Unexpected pathological findings in skills training and assessing skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boendermaker, PM; Pols, J; Scherpbier, AJJA

    This article draws attention to unexpected pathological findings encountered by students and teachers when examining one another and/or simulated patients in skips training and assessment sessions. Although no literature on the subject was found it appears to be not uncommon far students and

  3. Unexpected sneezing after a peribulbar injection in a patient for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... anaesthetic in awake patients. We present a case report of an awake elderly male who experienced unexpected continuous sneezing immediately after the removal of the needle used for the peribulbar block, which was subsequently relieved with pheniramine maleate. Keywords: peribulbar block, pheniramine maleate, ...

  4. Mathematics Placement Test: Typical Results with Unexpected Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of a prior case-study analysis of mathematics placement at one university, the mathematics department developed and piloted a mathematics placement test. This article describes the implementation process for a mathematics placement test and further analyzes the test results for the pilot group. As an unexpected result, the…

  5. Unexpected findings and promoting monocausal claims, a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Samantha Marie

    2017-10-01

    Stories of serendipitous discoveries in medicine incorrectly imply that the path from an unexpected observation to major discovery is straightforward or guaranteed. In this paper, I examine a case from the field of research about chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). In Norway, an unexpected positive result during clinical care has led to the development of a research programme into the potential for the immunosuppressant drug rituximab to relieve the symptoms of CFS. The media and public have taken up researchers' speculations that their research results indicate a causal mechanism for CFS - consequently, patients now have great hope that 'the cause' of CFS has been found, and thus, a cure is sure to follow. I argue that a monocausal claim cannot be correctly asserted, either on the basis of the single case of an unexpected, although positive, result or on the basis of the empirical research that has followed up on that result. Further, assertion and promotion of this claim will have specific harmful effects: it threatens to inappropriately narrow the scope of research on CFS, might misdirect research altogether, and could directly and indirectly harm patients. Therefore, the CFS case presents a cautionary tale, illustrating the risks involved in drawing a theoretical hypothesis from an unexpected observation. Further, I draw attention to the tendency in contemporary clinical research with CFS to promote new research directions on the basis of reductive causal models of that syndrome. Particularly, in the case of CFS research, underdetermination and causal complexity undermine the potential value of a monocausal claim. In sum, when an unexpected finding occurs in clinical practice or medical research, the value of following up on that finding is to be found not in the projected value of a singular causal relationship inferred from the finding but rather in the process of research that follows. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. THE OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ 1214b: FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR A METAL-RICH ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Jacob L.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Stalder, Brian; Berta, Zachory K.; Kabath, Petr; Seager, Sara; Miller-Ricci Kempton, Eliza; Homeier, Derek; Walsh, Shane; Seifahrt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We present an investigation of the transmission spectrum of the 6.5 M ⊕ planet GJ 1214b based on new ground-based observations of transits of the planet in the optical and near-infrared, and on previously published data. Observations with the VLT + FORS and Magellan + MMIRS using the technique of multi-object spectroscopy with wide slits yielded new measurements of the planet's transmission spectrum from 0.61 to 0.85 μm, and in the J, H, and K atmospheric windows. We also present a new measurement based on narrow-band photometry centered at 2.09 μm with the VLT + HAWKI. We combined these data with results from a reanalysis of previously published FORS data from 0.78 to 1.00 μm using an improved data reduction algorithm, and previously reported values based on Spitzer data at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. All of the data are consistent with a featureless transmission spectrum for the planet. Our K-band data are inconsistent with the detection of spectral features at these wavelengths reported by Croll and collaborators at the level of 4.1σ. The planet's atmosphere must either have at least 70% H 2 O by mass or optically thick high-altitude clouds or haze to be consistent with the data.

  7. Unexpected strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfino, A.; Frederico, T.

    1992-06-01

    The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle non-local potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unexpected large attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of φ as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states. (author)

  8. Unexpected brain finding in pre-autopsy postmortem CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaraki, Vasiliki; Bolliger, Stephan A; Thali, Michael J; Eggert, Sebastian; Ruder, Thomas D

    2017-09-01

    A case is presented in which pre-autopsy postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) revealed an unexpected brain abscess with a related frontal sinusitis and an erosion of the posterior wall of the frontal sinus. PMCT findings enabled the forensic pathologists to adapt protective measures during autopsy and protect their health from infection. Pre-autopsy PMCT has been also useful in the early differential diagnosis procedure. The complementary use of postmortem imaging and autopsy can improve the quality of forensic death investigations.

  9. Investigating Initial Disclosures and Reactions to Unexpected, Positive HPV Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Hernandez, Rachael; Catona, Danielle

    2014-07-01

    Initial disclosures of health conditions are critical communication moments. Existing research focuses on disclosers; integrating confidants into studies of initial disclosures is needed. Guided by the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM; Greene, 2009), this study examined what diagnosed persons and confidants may say when faced with unexpected test results and unexpected disclosures, respectively. Participants ( N = 151) recorded an audio-visual message for another person, after imagining that they or the other person had just received unexpected, positive HPV test results. The qualitative analysis revealed four themes: (1) impression management and social distance, (2) invisible symptoms and advice regarding future disclosures, (3) expressing and acknowledging emotional reactions, and (4) misunderstandings and lacking knowledge about HPV. These findings suggested that DD-MM may be a relevant framework for understanding not only when disclosers share, but what disclosers and confidants say in early conversations about new diagnoses. While disclosers' and confidants' messages showed marked similarities, important differences appeared. For example, confidants focused on assuaging disclosers' fear about the consequences, whereas disclosers expressed distress related to their uncertainty about the prognosis of an HPV infection and how to prepare for next steps. The discussion highlighted implications for the DD-MM, HPV disclosures, and future interventions.

  10. Three decades after Gjönnaess's laparoscopic ovarian drilling for treatment of PCOS; what do we know? An evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hashim, Hatem; Al-Inany, Hesham; De Vos, Michel; Tournaye, Herman

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) by Gjönnaess in 1984 as a substitute for ovarian wedge resection created opportunities for extensive research given its worldwide application for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To critically evaluate and summarize the current body of literature regarding the role of LOD for the management of PCOS entailing its different preoperative, operative and postoperative aspects. In addition, long-term efficacy, cost-effectiveness, patient preference and health-related quality of life issues will be evaluated together with other available alternatives of ovulation induction treatments. A PubMed search was conducted looking for the different trials, reviews and various guidelines relating to the role of LOD in the management of PCOS. LOD whether unilateral or bilateral is a beneficial second-line treatment in infertile women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant PCOS. It is as effective as gonadotrophin treatment but without the risk of multiple pregnancy or ovarian hyperstimulation and does not require intensive monitoring. Increased responsiveness of the ovary to CC especially in patients who remain anovulatory following LOD is another advantage. Recent evidence suggests that relatively novel oral methods of ovulation induction, e.g. CC plus metformin, CC plus tamoxifen, rosiglitazone plus CC and aromatase inhibitors represent a successful alternative to LOD in CC-resistant PCOS. Meanwhile current evidence does not support LOD as a first-line approach in PCOS-related anovulation or before IVF. LOD is currently recommended as a successful and economical second-line treatment for ovulation induction in women with CC-resistant PCOS.

  11. Unexpected Anal Squamous Cells Carcinoma after Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarra Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o’clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area.

  12. Unexpected Symmetry in the Nodal Structure of the He Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressanini, Dario; Reynolds, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The nodes of even simple wave functions are largely unexplored. Motivated by their importance to quantum simulations of fermionic systems, we have found unexpected symmetries in the nodes of several atoms and molecules. Here, we report on helium. We find that in both ground and excited states the nodes have simple forms. In particular, they have higher symmetry than the wave functions they come from. It is of great interest to understand the source of these new symmetries. For the quantum simulations that motivated the study, these symmetries may help circumvent the fermion sign problem

  13. Unexpected death holograms: Animitas urban appeal in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lautaro Ojeda Ledesma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at performing an integral analysis of the relation between popular religiousness and urban space in Chilean animitas [little shrines] practices. In order to do this, we propose a multipurpose analysis scheme, holding the concept of "unexpected death hologram". This scheme puts forward three supplementary classifications: animita as a holographic subject, as a holographic object and as a holographic place. Finally, these three classifications supplemented by interviews and topologic analyses show almost all the sociospatial factors present in this practice, accounting for the urban importance that this type of popular practice has

  14. Alopecia associated with unexpected leakage from electron cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, B.C.; Pennington, E.C.; Hussey, D.H.; Jani, S.K.

    1989-06-01

    Excessive irradiation due to unexpected leakage was found on a patient receiving electron beam therapy. The cause of this leakage was analyzed and the amount of leakage was measured for different electron beam energies. The highest leakage occurred with a 6 x 6 cm cone using a 12 MeV electron beam. The leakage dose measured along the side of the cone could be as great as 40%. Until the cones are modified or redesigned, it is advised that all patient setups be carefully reviewed to assure that no significant patient areas are in the side scatter region.

  15. Process improvement methodologies uncover unexpected gaps in stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuner, Anthony D; Schemmel, Andrew J; Pooler, B Dustin; Yu, John-Paul J

    2018-01-01

    Background The diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke requires timed and coordinated effort across multiple clinical teams. Purpose To analyze the frequency and temporal distribution of emergent stroke evaluations (ESEs) to identify potential contributory workflow factors that may delay the initiation and subsequent evaluation of emergency department stroke patients. Material and Methods A total of 719 sentinel ESEs with concurrent neuroimaging were identified over a 22-month retrospective time period. Frequency data were tabulated and odds ratios calculated. Results Of all ESEs, 5% occur between 01:00 and 07:00. ESEs were most frequent during the late morning and early afternoon hours (10:00-14:00). Unexpectedly, there was a statistically significant decline in the frequency of ESEs that occur at the 14:00 time point. Conclusion Temporal analysis of ESEs in the emergency department allowed us to identify an unexpected decrease in ESEs and through process improvement methodologies (Lean and Six Sigma) and identify potential workflow elements contributing to this observation.

  16. When an Object Appears Unexpectedly: Object Circumvention in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmut, Kate; Du, Wenchong; Barnett, Anna L

    2017-01-01

    Obstacles often appear unexpectedly in our pathway and these require us to make immediate adjustments. Despite how regularly we encounter such situations only few studies have considered how we adjust to unexpected obstacles in the pathway that require us to walk around them. The authors considered how adults adjust to the possibility of an obstacle appearing and then also how foot placement is adjusted to circumvent an obstacle. Fifteen healthy adults walked down an 11-m walkway, initially they were told this was a clear pathway and nothing in the environment would change (no gate), they then performed a series of trials in which a gate may (gate close) or may not (gate open) partially obstruct their pathway. The authors found that mediolateral trunk velocity and acceleration was significantly increased when there was the possibility of an obstacle but before the obstacle appeared. This demonstrates an adaptive walking strategy that seems to enable healthy young adults to successfully circumvent obstacles. The authors also categorized foot placement adjustments and found that adults favored making shorter and wider steps away from the obstacle. They suggest this combination of adjustments allows participants to maintain stability while successfully circumventing the obstacle.

  17. Complex and unexpected dynamics in simple genetic regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Yanika; Ullner, Ekkehard; Alagha, Afnan; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Nesbeth, Darren; Zaikin, Alexey

    2014-03-01

    One aim of synthetic biology is to construct increasingly complex genetic networks from interconnected simpler ones to address challenges in medicine and biotechnology. However, as systems increase in size and complexity, emergent properties lead to unexpected and complex dynamics due to nonlinear and nonequilibrium properties from component interactions. We focus on four different studies of biological systems which exhibit complex and unexpected dynamics. Using simple synthetic genetic networks, small and large populations of phase-coupled quorum sensing repressilators, Goodwin oscillators, and bistable switches, we review how coupled and stochastic components can result in clustering, chaos, noise-induced coherence and speed-dependent decision making. A system of repressilators exhibits oscillations, limit cycles, steady states or chaos depending on the nature and strength of the coupling mechanism. In large repressilator networks, rich dynamics can also be exhibited, such as clustering and chaos. In populations of Goodwin oscillators, noise can induce coherent oscillations. In bistable systems, the speed with which incoming external signals reach steady state can bias the network towards particular attractors. These studies showcase the range of dynamical behavior that simple synthetic genetic networks can exhibit. In addition, they demonstrate the ability of mathematical modeling to analyze nonlinearity and inhomogeneity within these systems.

  18. Unexpected properties of Radim-type radon monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plch, J.; Burian, I.; Jilek, K.; Vosahlik, J.

    2004-01-01

    The results of numerous experiments carried out using Radim-type monitors are summarized. The monitor, which is based on collection of ions on the surface of a semiconductor detector in an electric field, exhibits enormous efficiency in collecting ions, which attains a value of 70% in the optimum case. The collection efficiency exhibits low dependence on the humidity: the efficiency decreases by 7.4% when the humidity changes from 50 to 90%. The dependence on the humidity is linear to 10% - in contradiction with the published results. The work gives the experimentally determined decreases in the presence of smoke and VOCs, which are acceptable even when the smoke and VOC concentrations are enormous. The results are analyzed and an attempt was made to theoretically explain these unexpected results. (author)

  19. Unexpected findings of a female team in Xochimilco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salgado, C

    1999-01-01

    This is a reflection about the methodological circumstances that led the author to certain unexpected information during the course of a qualitative approach to the perception of health problems of a group of poor families in the south of Mexico City. Special attention is paid to the influence of the research team composition (four women with different professional backgrounds, ages, marital statuses, and styles of personal interaction) and the psychoanalytic technique that influenced the study. The inclusion of people of different ages, professions, and personality traits proved extremely valuable both as a means of widening the possibilities for empathetic relations between the research group and the population studied and for increasing the shades of meaning that the team was able to capture.

  20. Wikiwijs: An unexpected journey and the lessons learned towards OER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schuwer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science has funded a five years program to encourage the use, creation and sharing of Open Educational Resources (OER by teachers from various types of education. This program is known as Wikiwijs. Ultimo 2013, the program has come to an end. As some of the assumptions at the start of Wikiwijs proved to work out in unexpected ways the lessons learned could fuel the next steps in developing Wikiwijs. Besides, other national initiatives on opening up education may also benefit from the lessons learned reported here. The main conclusion from five years Wikiwijs was that to accomplish mainstreaming OER, the Wikiwijs program should go along with other interventions that are more oriented toward prescriptive policies and regulations. In particular: the Dutch government should be more directive in persuading executive boards and teachers on schools to adopt OER as an important part of educational reform and the acquisition of 21st century skills.

  1. Unexpected radionuclide uptake due to calcification in muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khier, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A male patient aged 27 years was injected with 1000 MBq of 99 Tc m -MDP. The patient was an active man indulging in contact sport. He presented with lower back and pelvic pain. Spot pictures were made of the pelvis, lumbar spine and femurs. Unexpected active radionuclide uptake in the muscles was seen. In the delayed static images, there was focal accumulation of tracer uptake in the muscles overlying the mid-shaft of the left femur consistent with myositis ossificans. Myositis ossificans is a benign ossifying process that is generally solitary and well circumscribed. It is most commonly found in the muscles but it may occur in other connective tissues, especially tendons and subcutaneous fat. This was presumably associated with chronic muscular injuries contracted during sports activity

  2. Nuclear fission - the unexpected discovery seventy years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Seventy years ago, on December 17, 1938, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassmann discovered nuclear fission. It was a serendipitous discovery resulting from the consistent pursuit, for many years, of occasionally unexpected radiochemical experimental findings. Hardly any other scientific discovery has had such direct bearing on our life, changing our view of the world. It over-threw the tenet of physics, believed to be incontestable, that the atom was indivisible. The use of nuclear power it has made possible has given rise to immense benefits, but it has also allowed mankind's most dreadful weapon so far to be developed. All this is ample reason seventy years later to recall the discovery, the discoverers and their times. It will also be shown what later generations have made of this discovery, and what economic and ecological prospects it continues to hold. (orig.)

  3. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Arida, Ricardo M; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Terra, Vera C; de Albuquerque, Marly; Machado, Hélio R; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2010-04-01

    Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most important direct epilepsy-related cause of death. Information concerning risk factors for SUDEP is conflicting, but high seizure frequency is a potential risk factor. Additionally, potential pathomechanisms for SUDEP are unknown, but it is very probable that cardiac arrhythmias during and between seizures or transmission of epileptic activity to the heart via the autonomic nervous system potentially play a role. In parallel, several studies have shown a link between hormones and epilepsy. However, exact knowledge regarding the association of thyroid hormones and epilepsy is lacking. As subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, we propose in this paper that SUDEP, at least in some cases, could be related with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sudden unexpected death under acute influence of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Kauferstein, Silke; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Daldrup, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The acute toxicity of cannabinoids is said to be low and there is little public awareness of the potentially hazardous cardiovascular effects of cannabis, e.g. marked increase in heart rate or supine blood pressure. We describe the cases of two young, putative healthy men who died unexpectedly under the acute influence of cannabinoids. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of suspected fatal cannabis intoxications where full postmortem investigations, including autopsy, toxicological, histological, immunohistochemical and genetical examinations, were carried out. The results of these examinations are presented. After exclusion of other causes of death we assume that the young men experienced fatal cardiovascular complications evoked by smoking cannabis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cannibalistic-morph Tiger Salamanders in unexpected ecological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Stockwell, Craig A.; Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Barred tiger salamanders [Ambystoma mavortium (Baird, 1850)] exhibit two trophic morphologies; a typical and a cannibalistic morph. Cannibalistic morphs, distinguished by enlarged vomerine teeth, wide heads, slender bodies, and cannibalistic tendencies, are often found where conspecifics occur at high density. During 2012 and 2013, 162 North Dakota wetlands and lakes were sampled for salamanders. Fifty-one contained A. mavortium populations; four of these contained cannibalistic morph individuals. Two populations with cannibalistic morphs occurred at sites with high abundances of conspecifics. However, the other two populations occurred at sites with unexpectedly low conspecific but high fathead minnow [Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)] abundances. Further, no typical morphs were observed in either of these later two populations, contrasting with earlier research suggesting cannibalistic morphs only occur at low frequencies in salamander populations. Another anomaly of all four populations was the occurrence of cannibalistic morphs in permanent water sites, suggesting their presence was due to factors other than faster growth allowing them to occupy ephemeral habitats. Therefore, our findings suggest environmental factors inducing the cannibalistic morphism may be more complex than previously thought.

  6. Electrocardiographic features of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyou, Janice Y; Friedman, Daniel; Cerrone, Marina; Slater, William; Guo, Yu; Taupin, Daniel; O'Rourke, Sean; Priori, Silvia G; Devinsky, Orrin

    2016-07-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of epilepsy-related mortality. We hypothesized that electrocardiography (ECG) features may distinguish SUDEP cases from living subjects with epilepsy. Using a matched case-control design, we compared ECG studies of 12 consecutive cases of SUDEP over 10 years and 22 epilepsy controls matched for age, sex, epilepsy type (focal, generalized, or unknown/mixed type), concomitant antiepileptic, and psychotropic drug classes. Conduction intervals and prevalence of abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis (QRS ≥110 msec), abnormal ventricular conduction pattern (QRS <110 msec, morphology of incomplete right or left bundle branch block or intraventricular conduction delay), early repolarization, and features of inherited cardiac channelopathies were assessed. Abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis and pattern distinguished SUDEP cases from matched controls. Abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis was present in two cases and no controls. Abnormal ventricular conduction pattern was more common in cases than controls (58% vs. 18%, p = 0.04). Early repolarization was similarly prevalent in cases and controls, but the overall prevalence exceeded that of published community-based cohorts. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. A "present" for the future: the unexpected value of rediscovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Kim, Tami; Brooks, Alison Wood; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2014-10-01

    Although documenting everyday activities may seem trivial, four studies reveal that creating records of the present generates unexpected benefits by allowing future rediscoveries. In Study 1, we used a time-capsule paradigm to show that individuals underestimate the extent to which rediscovering experiences from the past will be curiosity provoking and interesting in the future. In Studies 2 and 3, we found that people are particularly likely to underestimate the pleasure of rediscovering ordinary, mundane experiences, as opposed to extraordinary experiences. Finally, Study 4 demonstrates that underestimating the pleasure of rediscovery leads to time-inconsistent choices: Individuals forgo opportunities to document the present but then prefer rediscovering those moments in the future to engaging in an alternative fun activity. Underestimating the value of rediscovery is linked to people's erroneous faith in their memory of everyday events. By documenting the present, people provide themselves with the opportunity to rediscover mundane moments that may otherwise have been forgotten. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Unexpected Far-Ultraviolet Photometric Characteristics On Mimas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, E. M.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    While infrared and visible are the most common wavelength domains used to investigate planetary surfaces, ultraviolet (UV) data are significant and useful. Here, we present the first far-UV phase curves of Mimas, thus displaying another piece of the Saturnian System puzzle. Our preliminary results shows that, one more time, Mimas surface properties are far from what we was expected. Namely, we observe a leading hemisphere brighter than the trailing hemisphere at some far-UV wavelengths. We used the far-UV channel of the Cassini/UVIS instrument, ranging from 118 to 190 nm. Disk-integrated phase curves for the leading hemisphere and the trailing hemisphere, at 180nm, have been produced. Data points span from 0.5 to 163.5 degrees in phase angle. Mimas displays a leading hemisphere brighter than its trailing hemisphere, when theory and previous Voyager observations at longer wavelengths attest of a brighter trailing hemisphere due to the impact of the E-ring grains on this face of the satellite. Surprisingly, UVIS data show a very bright opposition effect on Mimas leading hemisphere, greater than what is observed on Tethys or Dione leading hemisphere at the same wavelength of 180 nm. Preliminary results of photometric properties modeling seem to indicate an important contribution of the coherent-backscattering process in the opposition surge. Exogenic processes such as bombardment by energetic electrons and/or E-ring grains are discussed to explain this unexpected surface property of Mimas.

  9. Unexpected demography in the recovery of an endangered primate population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B Strier

    Full Text Available Assessments of the status of endangered species have focused on population sizes, often without knowledge of demographic and behavioral processes underlying population recovery. We analyzed demographic data from a 28-year study of a critically endangered primate, the northern muriqui, to investigate possible changes in demographic rates as this population recovered from near extirpation. As the population increased from 60 to nearly 300 individuals, its growth rate declined due to increased mortality and male-biased birth sex ratios; the increased mortality was not uniform across ages and sexes, and there has been a recent increase in mortality of prime-aged males. If not for a concurrent increase in fertility rates, the population would have stabilized at 200 individuals instead of continuing to grow. The unexpected increase in fertility rates and in adult male mortality can be attributed to the muriquis' expansion of their habitat by spending more time on the ground. The demographic consequences of this behavioral shift must be incorporated into management tactics for this population and emphasize the importance of understanding demographic rates in the recovery of endangered species.

  10. Preferences of Patients for Discussing Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sūna Normunds

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy have increased mortality rates, which is partially attributed to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy syndrome (SUDEP. Poor seizure control appears to be the strongest SUDEP risk factor. Management of epilepsy and adherence to therapy is critical to seizure control. The belief by caregivers of negative influence caused by being informed about the syndrome is the main reason SUDEP is not disclosed. There are no clear recommendations when to disclose the risk of SUDEP and how much information should be provided. We addressed the preferences of Latvian epilepsy patients for discussing SUDEP as well as awareness of the syndrome. Our study involved 55 epilepsy patients. We found that, as in other studies, our patients were relatively well informed about SUDEP. We found that a considerable proportion of patients preferred to receive information about SUDEP from a general practitioner. We note the belief of patients that the disclosure of SUDEP would either improve or have no effect on the quality of life. We were able to identify groups of patients with a self-reported belief of more frequent expected anxiety and poor adherence to medical treatment. Our data improves the understanding of preferences of patient for discussing the negative aspects of epilepsy.

  11. Finding the unexpected: pathological examination of surgically resected femoral heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornasier, V.L.; Battaglia, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    To study the clinically diagnosed disease process but also identify additional, clinically undetected pathologies in femoral heads resected for replacement arthroplasty. A retrospective review was carried out of the pathological findings in 460 surgically resected femoral heads. Serial sections were submitted to low-energy fine-detail radiography, then decalcified sections stained by the WHO method were examined. The preoperative clinical and imaging diagnoses were compared with the pathological findings and special interest was placed on assessing the clinical significance of any unexpected, clinically undetected findings. The most common findings included the presence of bone islands (solitary osteomas) and areas of avascular necrosis in addition to the primary joint disease for which the patient underwent surgery. The preoperative symptomatology did not distinguish between the known primary disease and the additional pathological findings. Some of the clinically unidentified lesions were of a size that fell below the ability of current clinical investigations to detect. However, the finding of lesions by tissue fine-detail radiography indicates that current, more sensitive clinical imaging techniques may identify them. Careful examination of surgically resected femoral heads is important to ensure that all pathologies are identified and assessed for clinical relevance. (orig.)

  12. Finding the unexpected: pathological examination of surgically resected femoral heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasier, V.L. [St. Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Battaglia, D.M. [St. Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); St. Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Division of Pathology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-06-01

    To study the clinically diagnosed disease process but also identify additional, clinically undetected pathologies in femoral heads resected for replacement arthroplasty. A retrospective review was carried out of the pathological findings in 460 surgically resected femoral heads. Serial sections were submitted to low-energy fine-detail radiography, then decalcified sections stained by the WHO method were examined. The preoperative clinical and imaging diagnoses were compared with the pathological findings and special interest was placed on assessing the clinical significance of any unexpected, clinically undetected findings. The most common findings included the presence of bone islands (solitary osteomas) and areas of avascular necrosis in addition to the primary joint disease for which the patient underwent surgery. The preoperative symptomatology did not distinguish between the known primary disease and the additional pathological findings. Some of the clinically unidentified lesions were of a size that fell below the ability of current clinical investigations to detect. However, the finding of lesions by tissue fine-detail radiography indicates that current, more sensitive clinical imaging techniques may identify them. Careful examination of surgically resected femoral heads is important to ensure that all pathologies are identified and assessed for clinical relevance. (orig.)

  13. Unexpected magnetism in low dimensional systems: the role of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, MC; Chico, L; Lopez-Sancho, MP; Beltran, JI; Gallego, S; Cerda, J

    2006-01-01

    The symmetry underlying the geometric structure of materials determines most of their physical properties. In low dimensional systems the role of symmetry is enhanced and can give rise to new phenomena. Here, we report on unexpected magnetism in carbon nanotubes and O-rich surfaces of ionic oxides, to show how its existence is closely related to the symmetry conditions. First, based on tight-binding models, we demonstrate that chiral carbon nanotubes present spin splitting at the Fermi level in the absence of a magneticfield, whereas achiral tubes preserve spin degeneracy. These remarkably different behaviors of chiral and non-chiral nanotubes are due to the intrinsic symmetry dependence of the spin-orbit interaction. Second, the occurrence of spin-polarization at ZrO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and MgO surfaces is proved by means of abinitio calculations within the density functional theory. Large spin moments develop at O-ended polar terminations, transforming the non-magnetic insulator into a half-metal. The magnetic moments mainly reside in the surface oxygen atoms, and their origin is related to the existence of 2p holes of well-defined spin polarization at the valence band of the ionic oxide. The direct relation between magnetization and local loss of donor charge shows that at the origin of these phenomena is the reduced surface symmetry

  14. Unexpected Molecular Sieving Properties of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chen

    2012-08-16

    We studied molecular sieving properties of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) by estimating the thermodynamically corrected diffusivities of probe molecules at 35 °C. From helium (2.6 Å) to iso-C 4H 10 (5.0 Å), the corrected diffusivity drops 14 orders of magnitude. Our results further suggest that the effective aperture size of ZIF-8 for molecular sieving is in the range of 4.0 to 4.2 Å, which is significantly larger than the XRD-derived value (3.4 Å) and between the well-known aperture size of zeolite 4A (3.8 Å) and 5A (4.3 Å). Interestingly, because of aperture flexibility, the studied C 4 hydrocarbon molecules that are larger than this effective aperture size still adsorb in the micropores of ZIF-8 with kinetic selectivities for iso-C 4H 8/iso-C 4H 10 of 180 and n-C 4H 10/iso-C 4H 10 of 2.5 × 10 6. These unexpected molecular sieving properties open up new opportunities for ZIF materials for separations that cannot be economically achieved by traditional microporous adsorbents such as synthetic zeolites. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Unexpected Molecular Sieving Properties of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chen; Lively, Ryan P.; Zhang, Ke; Johnson, Justin R.; Karvan, Oguz; Koros, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We studied molecular sieving properties of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) by estimating the thermodynamically corrected diffusivities of probe molecules at 35 °C. From helium (2.6 Å) to iso-C 4H 10 (5.0 Å), the corrected diffusivity drops 14 orders of magnitude. Our results further suggest that the effective aperture size of ZIF-8 for molecular sieving is in the range of 4.0 to 4.2 Å, which is significantly larger than the XRD-derived value (3.4 Å) and between the well-known aperture size of zeolite 4A (3.8 Å) and 5A (4.3 Å). Interestingly, because of aperture flexibility, the studied C 4 hydrocarbon molecules that are larger than this effective aperture size still adsorb in the micropores of ZIF-8 with kinetic selectivities for iso-C 4H 8/iso-C 4H 10 of 180 and n-C 4H 10/iso-C 4H 10 of 2.5 × 10 6. These unexpected molecular sieving properties open up new opportunities for ZIF materials for separations that cannot be economically achieved by traditional microporous adsorbents such as synthetic zeolites. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Unexpected levels and movement of radon in a large warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Espinosa, G.

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-track detectors, used in screening for radon, identified a large warehouse with levels of radon as high as 20 p Ci/l. This circumstance was unexpected because large bay doors were left open for much of the day to admit 1 8-wheeler trucks, and exhaust fans in the roof produced good ventilation. More detailed temporal and spatial investigations of radon and air-flow patterns were made with electret chambers, Lucas-cell flow chambers, tracer gas, smoke pencils and pressure sensing micrometers. An oval-dome shaped zone of radon (>4 p Ci/L) persisted in the central region of each of four separate bays composing the warehouse. Detailed studies of air movement in the bay with the highest levels of radon showed clockwise rotation of air near the outer walls with a central dead zone. Sub slab, radon-laden air ingresses the building through expansion joints between the floor slabs to produce the measured radon. The likely source of radon is air within porous, karst bedrock that underlies much of north-central Tennessee where the warehouse is situated

  17. Unexpected high-energy γ emission from decaying exotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gottardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The N=52 Ga83 β decay was studied at ALTO. The radioactive 83Ga beam was produced through the ISOL photofission technique and collected on a movable tape for the measurement of γ-ray emission following β decay. While β-delayed neutron emission has been measured to be 56–85% of the decay path, in this experiment an unexpected high-energy 5–9 MeV γ-ray yield of 16(4% was observed, coming from states several MeVs above the neutron separation threshold. This result is compared with cutting-edge QRPA calculations, which show that when neutrons deeply bound in the core of the nucleus decay into protons via a Gamow–Teller transition, they give rise to a dipolar oscillation of nuclear matter in the nucleus. This leads to large electromagnetic transition probabilities which can compete with neutron emission, thus affecting the β-decay path. This process is enhanced by an excess of neutrons on the nuclear surface and may thus be a common feature for very neutron-rich isotopes, challenging the present understanding of decay properties of exotic nuclei.

  18. Bah humbug: Unexpected Christmas cards and the reciprocity norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocity norm refers to the expectation that people will help those who helped them. A well-known study revealed that the norm is strong with Christmas cards, with 20% of people reciprocating a Christmas card received from a stranger. I attempted to conceptually replicate and extend this effect. In Study 1, 755 participants received a Christmas card supposedly from a more- versus less-similar stranger. The reciprocation rate was unexpectedly low (2%), which did not allow for a test of a similarity effect. Two potential reasons for this low rate were examined in Study 2 in which 494 participants reported their likelihood of reciprocating a Christmas card from a stranger as well as their felt suspicions/threat about the card and their frequency of e-mail use. Reciprocation likelihood was negatively correlated with perceived threat/suspicion and e-mail use. It appears that reciprocating a gift from a stranger in offline settings may be less likely than expected.

  19. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Ruiz, R F; Blaum, K; Ekström, A; Frömmgen, N; Hagen, G; Hammen, M; Hebeler, K; Holt, J D; Jansen, G R; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Nazarewicz, W; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Papenbrock, T; Papuga, J; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Wendt, K A; Yordanov, D T

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain ‘magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-...

  20. Lifting an unexpectedly heavy object : the effects on low-back loading and balance loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, J C; van Dieën, J H; Toussaint, H M

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effects of lifting an unexpectedly heavy object on low-back loading and loss of balance. BACKGROUND: It is often suggested that lifting an unexpectedly heavy object may be a major risk factor for low-back pain. This may lead to an increase in muscle activation,

  1. Communication of Unexpected and Significant Findings on Chest Radiographs With an Automated PACS Alert System.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Sara A

    2014-08-01

    An integral part of realizing the enormous potential of imaging in patient care is close communication between radiologists and referring physicians. One key element of this process is the communication of unexpected significant findings. The authors examined the performance of a PACS-based alert system in the appropriate communication of reports containing unexpected significant findings to referring physicians.

  2. Unexpected Functional Divergence of Bat Influenza Virus NS1 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Hannah L; Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Tsolakos, Nikos; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Schwemmle, Martin; Hale, Benjamin G

    2018-03-01

    Recently, two influenza A virus (FLUAV) genomes were identified in Central and South American bats. These sequences exhibit notable divergence from classical FLUAV counterparts, and functionally, bat FLUAV glycoproteins lack canonical receptor binding and destroying activity. Nevertheless, other features that distinguish these viruses from classical FLUAVs have yet to be explored. Here, we studied the viral nonstructural protein NS1, a virulence factor that modulates host signaling to promote efficient propagation. Like all FLUAV NS1 proteins, bat FLUAV NS1s bind double-stranded RNA and act as interferon antagonists. Unexpectedly, we found that bat FLUAV NS1s are unique in being unable to bind host p85β, a regulatory subunit of the cellular metabolism-regulating enzyme, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Furthermore, neither bat FLUAV NS1 alone nor infection with a chimeric bat FLUAV efficiently activates Akt, a PI3K effector. Structure-guided mutagenesis revealed that the bat FLUAV NS1-p85β interaction can be reengineered (in a strain-specific manner) by changing two to four NS1 residues (96L, 99M, 100I, and 145T), thereby creating a hydrophobic patch. Notably, ameliorated p85β-binding is insufficient for bat FLUAV NS1 to activate PI3K, and a chimeric bat FLUAV expressing NS1 with engineered hydrophobic patch mutations exhibits cell-type-dependent, but species-independent, propagation phenotypes. We hypothesize that bat FLUAV hijacking of PI3K in the natural bat host has been selected against, perhaps because genes in this metabolic pathway were differentially shaped by evolution to suit the unique energy use strategies of this flying mammal. These data expand our understanding of the enigmatic functional divergence between bat FLUAVs and classical mammalian and avian FLUAVs. IMPORTANCE The potential for novel influenza A viruses to establish infections in humans from animals is a source of continuous concern due to possible severe outbreaks or pandemics. The

  3. Unexpected photoreactivation of Vibrio harveyi bacteria living in ionization environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alifano, P.; Tala, A.; Tredici, S. M.; Nassisi, V.; Siciliano, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria undergoing environmental effects is extremely interesting for structural, mechanistic, and evolutionary implications. Luminescent bacteria that have evolved in a specific ambient have developed particular responses and their behavior can give us new suggestions on the task and production of luciferina proteins. To analyze the UV interaction under controlled laboratory conditions, we used photoluminescent bacterial strains belonging to a new species evolutionarily close to Vibrio harveyi sampled from a coastal cave with a high radon content that generates ionizing radiation. The survival of the bacterial strains was analyzed, in the light and in the dark, following a variety of genotoxic treatments including UV radiation exposure. The strains were irradiated by a germicide lamp. The results demonstrated that most of the strains exhibited a low rate of survival after the UV exposure. After irradiation by visible light following the UV exposure, all strains showed a high capability of photoreactivation when grown. This capability was quite unexpected because these bacteria were sampled from a dark ambient without UV radiation. This leads us to hypothesize that the photoreactivation in these bacteria might have been evolved to repair DNA lesions also induced by different radiation sources other than UV (e.g., x-ray) and that the luminescent bacteria might use their own light emission to carry out the photoreactivation. The high capability of photoreactivation of these bacteria was also justified by the results of deconvolution. The deconvolution was applied to the emission spectra and it was able to show evidence of different light peaks. The presence of the visible peak could control the photolysis enzyme.

  4. Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Neville F

    2012-09-01

    Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen-free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson's disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre-hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen-free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the "copper cost" of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question "can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?" A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates.

  5. Sudden unexpected death in infancy: place and time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, J F T; Thompson, A J; Ingram, P J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many babies who die of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) in Northern Ireland are found dead in bed--i.e. co-sleeping--with an adult. In order to assess its frequency autopsy reports between April 1996 and August 2001 were reviewed and linked to temporal factors. The day and month of death, and the place where the baby was found were compared to a reference population of infant deaths between one week of age and the second birthday. Although the rate of SUDI was lower than the UK average, 43 cases of SUDI were identified, and two additional deaths with virtually identical autopsy findings that were attributed to asphyxia caused by suffocation due to overlaying. Thirty-two of the 45 (71%) were less than four months of age. In 30 of the 45 cases (67%) the history stated that the baby was bed sharing with others; 19 died sleeping in an adult bed, and 11 on a sofa or armchair. In 16 of the 30 (53%) there were at least two other people sharing the sleeping surface, and in one case, three. SUDI was twice as frequent at weekends (found dead Saturday-Monday mornings) compared to weekdays (psharing a place of sleep per se may not increase the risk of death, our findings may be linked to factors such as habitual smoking, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs as reported in case-control studies. In advising parents on safer childcare practices, health professionals must be knowledgeable of current research and when, for example, giving advice on co-sleeping this needs to be person-specific cognisant of the risks within a household. New and better means of targeting such information needs to be researched if those with higher risk life-styles are to be positively influenced.

  6. Unexpected variation in neuroanatomy among diverse nematode species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziduan eHan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are considered excellent models for understanding fundamental aspects of neuron function. However, nematodes are less frequently used as models for examining the evolution of nervous systems. While the habitats and behaviors of nematodes are diverse, the neuroanatomy of nematodes is often considered highly conserved. A small number of nematode species greatly influences our understanding of nematode neurobiology. The free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans and, to a lesser extent, the mammalian gastrointestinal parasite Ascaris suum are, historically, the primary sources of knowledge regarding nematode neurobiology. Despite differences in size and habitat, C. elegans and Ascaris suum share a surprisingly similar neuroanatomy. Here, we examined species across several clades in the phylum Nematoda and show that there is a surprising degree of neuroanatomical variation both within and among nematode clades when compared to C. elegans and Ascaris. We found variation in the numbers of neurons in the ventral nerve cord and dye-filling pattern of sensory neurons. For example, we found that Pristionchus pacificus, a bacterial feeding species used for comparative developmental research, had 20% fewer ventral cord neurons compared to C. elegans. Steinernema carpocapse, an insect-parasitic nematode capable of jumping behavior, had 40% more ventral cord neurons than C. elegans. Interestingly, the non-jumping congeneric nematode, S. glaseri showed an identical number of ventral cord neurons as S. carpocapsae. There was also variability in the timing of neurodevelopment of the ventral cord with two of five species that hatch as second-stage juveniles showing delayed neurodevelopment. We also found unexpected variation in the dye-filling of sensory neurons among examined species. Again, sensory neuron dye-filling pattern did not strictly correlate with phylogeny. Our results demonstrate that variation in nematode neuroanatomy is more prevalent

  7. Unexpectedly high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in very young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Megan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis has generally been reported in children 6-24 months of age. Young infants are thought to be partially protected by maternal antibodies acquired transplacentally or via breast milk. The purpose of our study was to assess the age distribution of children with confirmed community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis presenting to an urban referral hospital. Methods Children presenting to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with acute gastroenteritis have been monitored for the presence of rotavirus antigen in the stool by ELISA (followed by genotyping if ELISA-positive since the 1994-95 epidemic season. Results Over the last 12 rotavirus seasons prior to the introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in 2006, stool specimens from 1646 patients tested positive for community-acquired rotavirus infection. Gender or age was not recorded in 6 and 5 cases, respectively. Overall, 58% of the cases occurred in boys. G1 was the predominant VP7 serotype, accounting for 72% of cases. The median (IQR age was 11 (5-21 months. A total of 790 (48% cases occurred in children outside the commonly quoted peak age range, with 27% in infants 24 months of age. A total of 220 (13% cases occurred during the first 3 months of life, and the highest number of episodes per month of age [97 (6%] was observed during the second month of life. Conclusions The incidence of community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis monitored over 12 seasons in the prevaccine era at a major university hospital was nearly constant for each month of age during the first year of life, revealing an unexpectedly high incidence of symptomatic rotavirus disease in infants

  8. The accrual anomaly - focus on changes in specific unexpected accruals results in new evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    are specifically analyzed, namely the unexpected inventory accrual component and the unexpected accounts receivable accrual component, i.e. changes in accruals not motivated by corresponding changes in company activity-level. Additionally and for comparison, the accounting accruals are split into expected...... and unexpected accruals, estimated by the extended Jones model like in both some US-analyses and some international studies of the accrual anomaly phenomenon. It is found that the persistence of earnings is decreasing in the magnitude of the unexpected accrual components of earnings and that the persistence...... of current earnings performance is particularly decreasing in the magnitude of unexpected changes in inventory. The special accrual parts are related to the perceptions of earnings persistence implicit in the market prices, and it is found that the differences in earnings persistence are not rationally...

  9. HADES RV Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. V. A super-Earth on the inner edge of the habitable zone of the nearby M dwarf GJ 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Mascareño, A.; González Hernández, J. I.; Rebolo, R.; Velasco, S.; Toledo-Padrón, B.; Affer, L.; Perger, M.; Micela, G.; Ribas, I.; Maldonado, J.; Leto, G.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.; Scandariato, G.; Damasso, M.; Sozzetti, A.; Esposito, M.; Covino, E.; Maggio, A.; Lanza, A. F.; Desidera, S.; Rosich, A.; Bignamini, A.; Claudi, R.; Benatti, S.; Borsa, F.; Pedani, M.; Molinari, E.; Morales, J. C.; Herrero, E.; Lafarga, M.

    2017-09-01

    We report the discovery of a super-Earth orbiting at the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star GJ 625 based on the analysis of the radial-velocity (RV) time series from the HARPS-N spectrograph, consisting of 151 HARPS-N measurements taken over 3.5 yr. GJ 625 b is a planet with a minimum mass Msini of 2.82 ± 0.51 M⊕ with an orbital period of 14.628 ± 0.013 days at a distance of 0.078 AU from its parent star. The host star is the quiet M2 V star GJ 625, located at 6.5 pc from the Sun. We find the presence of a second radial-velocity signal in the range 74-85 days that we relate to stellar rotation after analysing the time series of Ca II H&K and Hα spectroscopic indicators, the variations of the FWHM of the CCF, and the APT2 photometric light curves. We find no evidence linking the short-period radial-velocity signal to any activity proxy. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La Palma by the INAF - Fundación Galileo Galilei at the Roche de Los Muchachos Observatory of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC); photometric observations made with the robotic telescope APT2 (within the EXORAP programme) located at Serra La Nave on Mt. Etna; and lucky imaging observations made with the Telescopio Carlos Sánchez operated on the island of Tenerife by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide.Tables A.1-A.5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A92

  10. Unexpected Impacts of Global warming on Extreme Warm Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; McColl, C.; Penland, C.

    2017-12-01

    It is generally presumed that the likelihood of extreme warm spells around the globe has increased, and will continue to increase, due to global warming. However, we find that this is generally not true in three very different types of global observational datasets and uncoupled atmospheric model simulations of the 1959 to 2012 period with prescribed observed global SSTs, sea ice, and radiative forcing changes. While extreme warm spells indeed became more common in many regions, in many other regions their likelihood remained almost the same or even decreased from the first half to the second half of this period. Such regions of unexpected changes covered nearly 40 percent of the globe in both winter and summer. The basic reason for this was a decrease of temperature variability in such regions that offset or even negated the effect of the mean temperature shift on extreme warm spell probabilities. The possibility of such an impact on extreme value probabilities was highlighted in a recent paper by Sardeshmukh, Compo, and Penland (Journal of Climate 2015). The consistency of the changes in extreme warm spell probabilities among the different observational datasets and model simulations examined suggests that they are robust regional aspects of global warming associated with atmospheric circulation changes. This highlights the need for climate models to represent not just the mean regional temperature signals but also the changes in subseasonal temperature variability associated with global warming. However, current climate models (both CMIP3 and CMIP5) generally underestimate the magnitude of the changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated temperature variability. A likely major cause of this is their continuing underestimation of the magnitude of the spatial variation of tropical SST trends. By generating an overly spatially bland tropical SST warming in response to changes in radiative forcing, the models spuriously mute tropically

  11. Entering into the Unexpected: Managing Resilience in Extreme Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, F.; Travadel, S.

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of the concept of safety culture has provided useful support for deterministic approaches to safety. The inclusion of ‘beyond design’ cases in severe accident management guidelines opened up the debate on the precautionary principle. However, a reflexive and vibrant safety culture should not stop there: even the most precautionary measures can prove to be lacking. Our discussion therefore focuses on the management of radical disruption caused by the collapse of pre-established frameworks for action. It goes beyond any objectivist consideration of the necessary conditions for rational decision-making in the event of an accident. Here, we are interested in ‘extreme situations’. Specifically, a management situation faced by operators who, should they lose control of their production facility, must take action despite the hazards and the lack of critical resources. They must respond to a social emergency that, if not satisfactorily resolved, will lead to damage on a scale never before seen. The Fukushima Daiichi accident is a useful case study of such a scenario. The short period from 11 to 15 March 2011 contains all of the ingredients of an extreme situation that was the result of an unexpected event. From the perspective of the management of engineering organizations, the question of entry into resilience arises. Prior to any normative prescription, this concerns the poorly understood mechanisms through which collective action develops in response to hazards and social pressure. In particular we study the sense making process through which actors regain control of the situation, and create an informal and ephemeral organizational kernel. The issue is addressed in terms of the human being as a whole, a subject whose actions are consistent with a defined purpose and affects and who is endowed with a representational capacity. Our epistemic perspective is constructivist and relies on the latest theoretical developments related to sensemaking. In

  12. 75 FR 67015 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... September 3, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee And Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding InPakistan... humanitarian needs resulting from recent devastating flooding in Pakistan. You are authorized and directed to...

  13. Dealing with unexpected events : efficient and safe solutions to emergent repair on NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekens Massazza, I.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Facilities are constantly challenged with unexpected events occurring on Primary Circuit components. A solution must be deployed quickly to minimize impact on the scheduled outage duration while guaranteeing safety, quality and ALARA standards. AREVA NP has demonstrated worldwide recognized capabilities and expertise through efficient management of various unexpected forced events through the time. Turnkey packaged solutions which are proposed are based on proven technics which can be quickly adapted and qualified to the specific problem, resulting in customers’ full satisfaction. (Author)

  14. An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,5:367,2010 An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq CPT Jeremy B. Fisher, SP USA *; CPT...Christopher E. Curtis, MC USAt 188143 ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cases have been...Turkey.3-S We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old active duty Army male, on a deployment to northern Iraq

  15. New product trial, use of edibles, and unexpected highs among marijuana and hashish users in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Duke, Jennifer C; Nonnemaker, James M; Bradfield, Brian R; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between trial of new marijuana or hashish products and unexpected highs, and use of edible products and unexpected highs. We conducted an online survey of 634 adult, past-year marijuana users in Colorado. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between new product trial or edible use and unexpected highs. In the first year that recreational marijuana was legal in Colorado, 71.4% of respondents tried a new marijuana or hashish product, and 53.6% used an edible product. Trial of new products was associated with greater odds of experiencing an unexpected high after controlling for age, gender, education, mental health status, current marijuana or hashish use, and mean amount of marijuana or hashish consumed in the past month (OR=2.13, pmarijuana or hashish products, or use edible marijuana or hashish products, are at greater risk for an unexpected high. It is possible that some negative outcomes associated with marijuana use and unexpected highs may be averted through a better understanding of how to use product packaging to communicate with consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, A; Knulst, A C; Kruizinga, A G; Michelsen, A; Houben, G F; Baumert, J L; van Os-Medendorp, H

    2015-02-01

    Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to food. The frequency, severity and causes of such reactions are unknown. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in food allergic patients aged > 12 years, in order to develop improved strategies to deal with their allergy. A systematic review was carried out by two researchers, in six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo and Scopus). The search was performed with keywords relating to the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food. This resulted in 24 studies which met the inclusion criteria; 18 observational and six qualitative studies. This review shows that knowledge about the frequency of unexpected reactions is limited. Peanut, nuts, egg, fruit/vegetables and milk are the main causal foods. Severe reactions and even fatalities occur. Most reactions take place at home, but a significant number also take place when eating at friends' houses or in restaurants. Labelling issues, but also attitude and risky behaviour of patients can attribute to unexpected reactions. We conclude that prospective studies are needed to get more insight in the frequency, severity, quantity of unintended allergen ingested and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food, to be able to optimize strategies to support patients in dealing with their food allergy. Although the exact frequency is not known, unexpected reactions to food occur in a significant number of patients and can be severe. For clinical practice, this means that patient education and dietary instructions are necessary. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. An investigation into the causes of unexpected intra-operative transoesophageal echocardiography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, H J; Mahmoud, A; Uddin, A; Mathew, T

    2012-04-01

    There is uncertainty regarding echocardiography before cardiac surgery, especially with regard to timing and disease progression as well as potential errors. We investigated the causes of unexpected intra-operative transoesophageal echocardiography findings by performing a 33-month audit. We found that there were 50/797 (6%) unexpected findings that led to an alteration in surgical strategy in 34 (4%) patients. Of the unexpected findings, 25 (50%) were unrelated to pre-operative pathology. After reviewing pre-operative studies and reports, unexpected findings were found to be due to: reporting errors in 20 patients (44%); limitations in transthoracic compared to transoesophageal echocardiography in 14 patients (30%); disease progression in 10 patients (22%); and inter-observer variability in two patients (4%). We identified six reports out of 797 (0.8%) that contained potentially serious errors. Surgical management changed in 18/20 (90%) patients in whom the unexpected change was due to reporting error, compared to 16/30 (53%) patients whose pre-operative echocardiogram was correctly reported (p = 0.006). Our study suggests that pre-operative echocardiography reporting errors are common and important. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Many unexpected abdominal findings on staging computed tomography in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmsted, Kim; Nørring, Keld; Laustrup, Lene Collatz

    2011-01-01

    ; an issue that was previously studied in relation to CT colonography, but not in relation to staging CT with intravenous contrast in CRC patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the number and significance of such unexpected findings on staging CTs in CRC patients.......Computed tomography (CT) was proven to be superior to preoperative abdominal ultrasound in the preoperative setting for detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC). The higher sensitivity of CT has resulted in a number of unexpected abdominal findings of varying importance...

  19. 75 FR 34617 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Somalia and Food Pipeline Breaks for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... unexpected and urgent refugee and migration needs, including by contributions to international, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations and payment of administrative expenses of the Bureau of Population...

  20. Autistic Traits Affect P300 Response to Unexpected Events, regardless of Mental State Inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiko Ishikawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited use of contextual information has been suggested as a way of understanding cognition in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, it has also been argued that individuals with ASD may have difficulties inferring others’ mental states. Here, we examined how individuals with different levels of autistic traits respond to contextual deviations by measuring event-related potentials that reflect context usage. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ was used to quantify autistic-like traits in 28 university students, and 19 participants were defined as Low or High AQ groups. To additionally examine inferences about mental state, two belief conditions (with or without false belief were included. Participants read short stories in which the final sentence included either an expected or an unexpected word and rated the word’s degree of deviation from expectation. P300 waveform analysis revealed that unexpected words were associated with larger P300 waveforms for the Low AQ group, but smaller P300 responses in the High AQ group. Additionally, AQ social skill subscores were positively correlated with evaluation times in the Unexpected condition, whether a character’s belief was false or not. This suggests that autistic traits can affect responses to unexpected events, possibly because of decreased availability of context information.

  1. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  2. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  3. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, A.; Knulst, A.C.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Michelsen, A.; Houben, G.F.; Baumert, J.L.; Os-Medendorp, H. van

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to

  4. The creative use of unexpected responses in the hypnotherapy of patients with conversion disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moene, F.C.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    1999-01-01

    In a previously completed empirical study examining the use of hypnosis in a comprehensive treatment program with 85 patients who suffered motor conversion symptoms, 16 patients were reported by their therapists to have had unusual and unexpected responses during hypnosis. This article summarizes

  5. 76 FR 53295 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ...-12 of August 8, 2011--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa... Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested... Department of State, related to the humanitarian crisis in the Horn of Africa. You are authorized and...

  6. 76 FR 14271 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... March 7, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya Memorandum for the... States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as... million from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund, for the purpose of meeting...

  7. 75 FR 67013 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... August 26, 2010 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan... laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of... amount not to exceed $9.5 million from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund...

  8. Tourism Stocks in Times of Crises: An Econometric Investigation of Unexpected Non-macroeconomic Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zopiatis (Anastasios); C.S. Savva (Christos); N. Lambertides (Neophytos); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFollowing the recent terrorist attacks in Paris, the European media emphatically pronounced that billions of Euros were wiped from tourism related stocks. The theoretical relationship of the industry with such unexpected non-macro incidents received moderate academic coverage.

  9. Adaptation to sudden unexpected loading of the low back - the effects of repeated trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, J.H.; Fallentin, N.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term changes in reactions to sudden unexpected loading of the low back. The study utilized a set-up where a horizontal force of 58 N pointing forward suddenly was applied to the upper part of the subject's trunk. EMG activity from the erector...

  10. The unexpected in primary care: a multicenter study on the emergence of unvoiced patient agenda.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltenburg, M.; Fischer, J.E.; Bahrs, O.; Dulmen, S. van; Brink-Muinen, A. van den

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Within the time constraints of a typical physician-patient encounter, the full patient agenda will rarely be voiced. Unexpectedly revealed issues that were neither on the patient's list of items for discussion nor anticipated by the physician constitute an emerging agenda. We aimed to

  11. Effects of unexpected chords and of performer's expression on brain responses and electrodermal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Kilches, Simone; Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Schelinski, Stefanie

    2008-07-09

    There is lack of neuroscientific studies investigating music processing with naturalistic stimuli, and brain responses to real music are, thus, largely unknown. This study investigates event-related brain potentials (ERPs), skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate (HR) elicited by unexpected chords of piano sonatas as they were originally arranged by composers, and as they were played by professional pianists. From the musical excerpts played by the pianists (with emotional expression), we also created versions without variations in tempo and loudness (without musical expression) to investigate effects of musical expression on ERPs and SCRs. Compared to expected chords, unexpected chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN, reflecting music-syntactic processing) and an N5 (reflecting processing of meaning information) in the ERPs, as well as clear changes in the SCRs (reflecting that unexpected chords also elicited emotional responses). The ERAN was not influenced by emotional expression, whereas N5 potentials elicited by chords in general (regardless of their chord function) differed between the expressive and the non-expressive condition. These results show that the neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing operate independently of the emotional qualities of a stimulus, justifying the use of stimuli without emotional expression to investigate the cognitive processing of musical structure. Moreover, the data indicate that musical expression affects the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of musical meaning. Our data are the first to reveal influences of musical performance on ERPs and SCRs, and to show physiological responses to unexpected chords in naturalistic music.

  12. Frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, A.; Knulst, A. C.; Kruizinga, A. G.; Michelsen, A.; Houben, G. F.; Baumert, J. L.; van Os-Medendorp, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Food allergic patients have to deal with an avoidance diet. Confusing labelling terms or precautionary labels can result in misinterpretation and risk-taking behaviour. Even those patients that strictly adhere to their diet experience (sometimes severe) unexpected allergic reactions to

  13. Unexpected nitrile formation in bio-based mesoporous materials (Starbons®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Jennifer; Milescu, Roxana; Budarin, Vitaliy; Matharu, Avtar S; Clark, James H

    2018-01-16

    The bio-based mesoporous materials made from polysaccharides, Starbons® can be modified by two different routes to give high levels of N-content, unexpectedly including significant quantities of nitrile groups which can improve the materials performance in applications including metal capture.

  14. Challenging Ideals of Reciprocity in Undergraduate Teaching: The Unexpected Benefits of Unpredictable Cross-Cultural Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Laura A.; Bilous, Rebecca H.; James, Sarah W.; Trau, Adam M.; Suchet-Pearson, Sandie

    2014-01-01

    Geographers are increasingly grappling with the theoretical and practical implications of integrating an ethics of reciprocity into undergraduate learning and teaching. This paper draws on the unexpected experiences of a third-year human geography research methods fieldtrip to examine the process of balancing undergraduate student learning and…

  15. The Investigation of Unexpected Arsenic Compounds Observed in Routine Biological Monitoring Urinary Speciation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Leese

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the identity of two unexpected arsenic species found separately in a number of urine samples sent to the Health and Safety Executive’s Health and Safety Laboratory for arsenic speciation (arsenobetaine, AB; arsenite, As3+; arsenate, As5+; monomethylarsonic acid, MMA5+; and dimethylarsinic acid, DMA5+. Micro liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (µLC-ICP-MS and electrospray time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS were used to identify the two arsenic peaks by comparison to several characterized arsenicals: arsenocholine, AC; trimethyl arsine oxide, TMAO; dimethylarsenoacetate, DMAA; dimethylarsenoethanol, DMAE; thio-dimethylarsinate, thio-DMA; thio-dimethylarsenoacetate, thio-DMAA and thio-dimethylarsenoethanol, thio-DMAE. The results from both the ICP-MS and ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS investigations indicate that the unexpected arsenic species termed peak 1 was thio-DMA. While the unexpected arsenic species termed peak 2 has yet to be identified, this investigation shows that it was not AC, TMAO, DMAA, DMAE, thio-DMA, thio-DMAA or thio-DMAE. This study demonstrates the incidence of unexpected arsenic species in both routine and non-routine urine samples from both workers and hospital patients.

  16. Teach Students to Dig for Understanding Using an Unexpected Technological Shovel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Susan E. L.

    2004-01-01

    Online genealogy tools is an unexpected resource as these tools not only serve valuable for genealogy research, but also can be used by students to learn about their country's past and learn to use primary materials to draw conclusions. Some of these Online sources like the 1880 census available at www.ancestry.com, www.thepastwhispers.com, which…

  17. Unexpected MRI findings in clinically suspected Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobert, Philip F.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Strouse, Peter J.; Hernandez, Ramiro J. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital/F3503, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    In the setting of clinically suspected Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease and negative/equivocal radiographs, contrast-enhanced MRI can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. To determine the frequency of unexpected causes of hip pain as identified by MRI in children with clinically suspected LCP disease and negative/equivocal radiographs. All pediatric contrast-enhanced MRI examinations of the pelvis and hips performed between January 2000 and February 2009 to evaluate for possible LCP disease in the setting of negative/equivocal radiographs were identified. MRI examinations performed to evaluate for secondary avascular necrosis were excluded. Imaging reports were retrospectively reviewed for unexpected clinically important causes of hip pain. Thirty-six pediatric patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI examinations for clinically suspected LCP disease in the setting of negative/equivocal radiographs. Twenty-two (61%) imaging studies were normal, while four (11%) imaging studies demonstrated findings consistent with LCP disease. Ten (28%) imaging studies revealed unexpected clinically important causes of hip pain, including nonspecific unilateral joint effusion and synovitis (n = 7, juvenile chronic arthritis was eventually diagnosed in 3 patients), sacral fracture (n = 1), apophyseal injury (n = 1), and femoral head subluxation (n = 1). MRI frequently reveals unexpected clinically important causes of hip pain in children with suspected LCP disease and negative/equivocal radiographs. (orig.)

  18. The own and social effects of an unexpected income shock: Evidence from the Dutch Postcode Lottery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, P.J.; Kooreman, P.; Soetevent, A.R.; Kapteyn, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the Dutch Postcode Lottery a postal code (19 households on average) is randomly selected weekly, and prizes - consisting of cash and a new BMW - are awarded to lottery participants living in that postal code. On average, this generates a temporary, unexpected income shock equal to about eight

  19. Manganese-Catalyzed C−H Functionalizations: Hydroarylations and Alkenylations Involving an Unexpected Heteroaryl Shift

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chengming

    2017-06-24

    A manganese-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective hydroarylation of allenes is reported. The C−H functionalization method provides access to various alkenylated indoles in excellent yields. Moreover, a hydroarylation/cyclization cascade involving an unexpected C−N bond cleavage and aryl shift has been developed, which provides a new synthetic approach to substituted pyrroloindolones.

  20. Unexpectedly slow decrease of Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in air and deposition in Bavaria/Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the corresponding data observed after the termination of the fresh fallout of Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs, and discuss possible reasons for the unexpectedly slow decrease of radiocesium in the air and in the total deposition to the ground. (SR)

  1. Unexpectedly slow decrease of Chernobyl-derived radiocesium in air and deposition in Bavaria/Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunzl, K. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Hoetzl, H. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Rosner, G. [Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Winkler, R. [Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the corresponding data observed after the termination of the fresh fallout of Chernobyl-derived {sup 137}Cs, and discuss possible reasons for the unexpectedly slow decrease of radiocesium in the air and in the total deposition to the ground. (SR)

  2. All Intimate Grammars Leak: Reflections on "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroskrity, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    In this discussion of a set of studies that fits the trope of "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places," I explore the obvious necessity of developing a relevant notion of linguistic "leakage" following a famous image from the writings of the linguistic anthropologist Edward Sapir. Though in its original use, the concept applied more to the order of…

  3. Effects of unexpected lateral mass placement on trunk loading in lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, J.C.E.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Study Design. A repeated measurements experiment of spinal loading in healthy subjects. Objectives. To test whether unexpected lateral mass placement increases low back loading and trunk movement when subjects are lifting a mass in upright posture. Summary of Background Data. Epidemiologic studies

  4. Manganese-Catalyzed C−H Functionalizations: Hydroarylations and Alkenylations Involving an Unexpected Heteroaryl Shift

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chengming; Wang, Ai; Rueping, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    A manganese-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective hydroarylation of allenes is reported. The C−H functionalization method provides access to various alkenylated indoles in excellent yields. Moreover, a hydroarylation/cyclization cascade involving an unexpected C−N bond cleavage and aryl shift has been developed, which provides a new synthetic approach to substituted pyrroloindolones.

  5. Working memory representations persist in the face of unexpected task alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Garrett; Wyble, Brad; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    It is well known that information can be held in memory while performing other tasks concurrently, such as remembering a color or number during a separate visual search task. However, it is not clear what happens to stored information in the face of unexpected tasks, such as the surprise questions that are often used in experiments related to inattentional and change blindness. Does the unpredicted shift in task context cause memory representations to be cleared in anticipation of new information? To answer this question, we ran two experiments where the task unexpectedly switched partway through the experiment with a surprise question. Half of the participants were asked to report the same attribute (Exp. 1 = Identity, Exp. 2 = Color) of a target stimulus in both presurprise and postsurprise trials, while for the other half, the reported attribute switched from identity to color (Exp. 1) or vice versa (Exp. 2). Importantly, all participants had to read an unexpected set of instructions and respond differently on the surprise trial. Accuracy on the surprise trial was higher for the same-attribute groups than the different-attribute groups. Furthermore, there was no difference in reaction time on the surprise trial between the two groups. These results suggest that information participants expected to report can survive an encounter with an unexpected task. The implication is that failures to report information on a surprise trial in many experiments reflect genuine differences in memory encoding, rather than forgetting or overwriting induced by the surprise question.

  6. Responding In-the-Moment: Learning to Prepare for the Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John

    2015-01-01

    Becoming aware of something unexpected can be a form of awakening: sharpening attention, enriching noticing, opening up fresh possibilities of action, and educating awareness so as to enable a sensitive response to similar situations in the future. However it can also trigger tunnel vision (few if any actions available) or freezing (no actions…

  7. Critical Neural Substrates for Correcting Unexpected Trajectory Errors and Learning from Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutha, Pratik K.; Sainburg, Robert L.; Haaland, Kathleen Y.

    2011-01-01

    Our proficiency at any skill is critically dependent on the ability to monitor our performance, correct errors and adapt subsequent movements so that errors are avoided in the future. In this study, we aimed to dissociate the neural substrates critical for correcting unexpected trajectory errors and learning to adapt future movements based on…

  8. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents... to the Continuing Conflict in Pakistan Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested...

  9. Differences in investigations of sudden unexpected deaths in young people in a nationwide setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inherited disease may be causative in many young sudden unexpected death cases. Autopsy is essential in the counselling of the bereaved, as the family of the victim may be at risk too. In a nationwide setting operating under the same set of laws, we hypothesized that regional differen...

  10. Nationwide survey of rotavirus-associated encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro; Ihira, Masaru; Hashimoto, Shuji; Taniguchi, Koki; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2014-08-01

    Rotavirus can cause severe complications such as encephalopathy/encephalitis and sudden unexpected death. The incidence of rotavirus-associated encephalopathy/encephalitis or sudden unexpected death remains unknown. To clarify the clinical features of rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death, we conducted a nationwide survey in Japan. A two-part questionnaire was designed to determine the number of the cases and the clinical features of severe cases of rotavirus infection, including encephalitis/encephalopathy and sudden unexpected death, between 2009 and 2011. Of the 1365 questionnaires sent to hospitals, 963 (70.5%) were returned and eligible for analysis. We determined 58 cases of rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy and 7 cases of sudden unexpected death. These patients were diagnosed with rotavirus infection by immunochromatography. Although 36/58 (62.1%) encephalitis/encephalopathy patients had no sequelae, 15/58 (25.9%) patients had neurological sequelae, and 7/58 (12.1%) patients had fatal outcomes. Pleocytosis was observed in 9/40 (22.5%) patients and cerebrospinal fluid protein levels were elevated in only 4/40 (10%) patients. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (>500 IU/L) or acidemia (pHdeath were 44.0 and 4.9 cases in Japan, respectively. Elevated LDH (>500 IU/L) or acidemia (pH<7.15) were related to a poor prognosis of the encephalitis/encephalopathy. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Unexpected visitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-12-01

    More than 500 storm petrels invaded the Hibernia platform during October 1997, apparently attracted by the lights on the platform. Storm petrels are seabirds that can only take flight from the water, or by being tossed into the air. However, they are night flyers, so they must be tossed overboard at night to prevent them from being eaten up by seagulls. For this reason, the birds were collected during the day, kept in a box, and launched on their way at night. The Canadian Wildlife Service expressed interest in being kept informed about future seabird interactions with the platform.

  12. Lower incidence of unexpected in-hospital death after interprofessional implementation of a bedside track-and-trigger system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Gitte; Samuelson, Karin Samuelsonkarin; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In-hospital patients may suffer unexpected death because of suboptimal monitoring. Early recognition of deviating physiological parameters may enable staff to prevent unexpected in-hospital death. The aim of this study was to evaluate short- and long-term effects of systematic interprofessional u...... of early warning scoring, structured observation charts, and clinical algorithms for bedside action....

  13. Investigating Teachers' Appraisal of Unexpected Moments and Underlying Values: An Exploratory Case in the Context of Changing Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Jillian M.; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth; Seah, Wee Tiong

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an exploratory case study that examines what one teacher indicated as unexpected as she worked to become more purposeful about her classroom discourse practices. We found that she highlighted three areas as being unexpected: (1) aspects of lesson enactment; (2) characteristics of student learning and (3) her own…

  14. Frequentie en oorzaak van onverwachte allergische reacties op voedsel [Frequency and cause of unexpected allergic reactions to food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelsen-Huisman, A.D.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Versluis, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Houben, G.F.; Knulst, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Unexpected reactions occur in patients with food allergy, but frequency data are scare. This prospective study investigates the frequency, severity and causes of unexpected allergic reactions to food in adults with a doctor's diagnosed food allergy. Participants complete an online questionnaire

  15. Incidentally found and unexpected tumors discovered by MRI examination for temporomandibular joint arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Asaumi, Jun-ichi E-mail: asaumi@md.okayama-u.ac.jp; Maki, Yuu; Murakami, Jun; Hisatomi, Miki; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Konouchi, Hironobu; Honda, Yosutoshi; Kishi, Kanji

    2003-07-01

    We examined the frequency of incidentally found or unexpected tumors discovered at the time of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region for patients with suspicion of TMJ arthrosis. Five MR images (T1-weighted transverse scout image and proton density and T2-weighted oblique sagittal images at the open and closed mouth) were acquired. In 2776 MRI examinations of TMJ arthrosis, two tumors were discovered. They consisted of an adenoid cystic carcinoma in the deep portion of the parotid gland, and a malignant tumor extending from the infratemporal fossa to the parapharyngeal space. The rate of incidentally founded or unexpected tumors in TMJ examinations was low (0.072%), but the two tumors found were malignant tumors, and therefore, scout image should be carefully examined, not only used for positing the slice.

  16. Openness to the unexpected: Our Pathways to Careers in a Federal Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kurt R.; Bunnell, David B.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Many fisheries professionals may not be in the job they originally envisioned for themselves when they began their undergraduate studies. Rather, their current positions could be the result of unexpected, opportunistic, or perhaps even “lucky” open doors that led them down an unexpected path. In many cases, a mentor helped facilitate the unforeseen trajectory. We offer three unique stories about joining a federal fisheries research laboratory, from the perspective of a scientist, a joint manager-scientist, and a manager. We also use our various experiences to form recommendations that should help the next generation of fisheries professionals succeed in any stop along their journey, including being open to opportunities, setting high expectations, and finding a strong and supportive team environment to work in.

  17. Incidentally found and unexpected tumors discovered by MRI examination for temporomandibular joint arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Asaumi, Jun-ichi; Maki, Yuu; Murakami, Jun; Hisatomi, Miki; Matsuzaki, Hidenobu; Konouchi, Hironobu; Honda, Yosutoshi; Kishi, Kanji

    2003-01-01

    We examined the frequency of incidentally found or unexpected tumors discovered at the time of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region for patients with suspicion of TMJ arthrosis. Five MR images (T1-weighted transverse scout image and proton density and T2-weighted oblique sagittal images at the open and closed mouth) were acquired. In 2776 MRI examinations of TMJ arthrosis, two tumors were discovered. They consisted of an adenoid cystic carcinoma in the deep portion of the parotid gland, and a malignant tumor extending from the infratemporal fossa to the parapharyngeal space. The rate of incidentally founded or unexpected tumors in TMJ examinations was low (0.072%), but the two tumors found were malignant tumors, and therefore, scout image should be carefully examined, not only used for positing the slice

  18. Pupil dilation during recognition memory: Isolating unexpected recognition from judgment uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Ravi D; O'Connor, Akira R; Dobbins, Ian G

    2016-09-01

    Optimally discriminating familiar from novel stimuli demands a decision-making process informed by prior expectations. Here we demonstrate that pupillary dilation (PD) responses during recognition memory decisions are modulated by expectations, and more specifically, that pupil dilation increases for unexpected compared to expected recognition. Furthermore, multi-level modeling demonstrated that the time course of the dilation during each individual trial contains separable early and late dilation components, with the early amplitude capturing unexpected recognition, and the later trailing slope reflecting general judgment uncertainty or effort. This is the first demonstration that the early dilation response during recognition is dependent upon observer expectations and that separate recognition expectation and judgment uncertainty components are present in the dilation time course of every trial. The findings provide novel insights into adaptive memory-linked orienting mechanisms as well as the general cognitive underpinnings of the pupillary index of autonomic nervous system activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The unexpected product of Diels-Alder reaction between "indanocyclon" and maleimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Michał A.; Roszkowski, Piotr; Struga, Marta; Szulczyk, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    A heterocyclic compound commonly known as "indanocyclon" undergoes an unexpected Diels-Alder addition with maleimide. The resulting product has been isolated and characterized in order to get an information about its structure and possible mechanism of the reaction. Extensive comparison of single crystal properties of 3-(2,8-dioxo-1,3-diphenyl-2,8-dihydrocyclopenta[a]inden-8a(1H)-yl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione and favorable product of the reaction has been also performed.

  20. Effects of unexpected chords and of performer's expression on brain responses and electrodermal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koelsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is lack of neuroscientific studies investigating music processing with naturalistic stimuli, and brain responses to real music are, thus, largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigates event-related brain potentials (ERPs, skin conductance responses (SCRs and heart rate (HR elicited by unexpected chords of piano sonatas as they were originally arranged by composers, and as they were played by professional pianists. From the musical excerpts played by the pianists (with emotional expression, we also created versions without variations in tempo and loudness (without musical expression to investigate effects of musical expression on ERPs and SCRs. Compared to expected chords, unexpected chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN, reflecting music-syntactic processing and an N5 (reflecting processing of meaning information in the ERPs, as well as clear changes in the SCRs (reflecting that unexpected chords also elicited emotional responses. The ERAN was not influenced by emotional expression, whereas N5 potentials elicited by chords in general (regardless of their chord function differed between the expressive and the non-expressive condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that the neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing operate independently of the emotional qualities of a stimulus, justifying the use of stimuli without emotional expression to investigate the cognitive processing of musical structure. Moreover, the data indicate that musical expression affects the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of musical meaning. Our data are the first to reveal influences of musical performance on ERPs and SCRs, and to show physiological responses to unexpected chords in naturalistic music.

  1. Sunburn as a Cause of Unexpected Neutrophilia in a Healthy Pregnant Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Background. Neutrophilia has a broad differential diagnosis and represents a systemic response to an infection or other inflammatory pathologies. Case. A 31-year-old woman, Gravida 3, Para 2 at 28 weeks of gestation, presented to the day assessment unit following routine blood tests that showed an unexpected marked neutrophilia. The underlying cause of the neutrophilia was sunburn. The sunburn recovered and her neutrophil count spontaneously normalised. Conclusion. Clinicians can add sunburn ...

  2. Sunburn as a Cause of Unexpected Neutrophilia in a Healthy Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neutrophilia has a broad differential diagnosis and represents a systemic response to an infection or other inflammatory pathologies. Case. A 31-year-old woman, Gravida 3, Para 2 at 28 weeks of gestation, presented to the day assessment unit following routine blood tests that showed an unexpected marked neutrophilia. The underlying cause of the neutrophilia was sunburn. The sunburn recovered and her neutrophil count spontaneously normalised. Conclusion. Clinicians can add sunburn to the broad differential diagnosis of neutrophilia.

  3. Dynamic Asset Allocation Strategies Based on Volatility, Unexpected Volatility and Financial Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, David Borkner

    2015-01-01

    Masteroppgave økonomi og administrasjon- Universitetet i Agder, 2015 This master thesis looks at unexpected volatility- and financial turbulence’s predictive ability, and exploit these measures of financial risk, together with volatility, to create three dynamic asset allocation strategies, and test if they can outperform a passive and naively diversified buy-and-hold strategy. The idea with the dynamic strategies is to increase the portfolio return by keeping the portfolio risk at a low a...

  4. Unexpected optical limiting properties from MoS2 nanosheets modified by a semiconductive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Chang, Meng-Jie; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhen-Tong; Zhai, Xin-Ping; Zirak, Mohammad; Moshfegh, Alireza Z; Song, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2015-08-07

    Direct solvent exfoliation of bulk MoS2 with the assistance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) produces a novel two-dimensional organic/inorganic semiconductor hetero-junction. The obtained P3HT-MoS2 nanohybrid exhibits unexpected optical limiting properties in contrast to the saturated absorption behavior of both P3HT and MoS2, showing potential in future photoelectric applications.

  5. An unexpected cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in a kidney transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, Manuel; Jahn, Kathleen D; Tzankov, Alexandar; Wiese, Mark; Bubendorf, Lukas; Tamm, Michael; Savic, Spasenija

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening condition requiring urgent treatment. There are many different treatment-relevant causes of DAH, making the diagnostic approach to these patients complex and necessitating a multidisciplinary team. We report the case of a kidney transplant recipient in whom all diagnostic efforts did not reveal the cause of DAH, and only autopsy was able to establish an unexpected diagnosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Epilepsy and risk of death and sudden unexpected death in the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of premature death from all causes and likely also from sudden unexplained death (SUD). Many patients with epilepsy have significant comorbidity, and it is unclear how much of the increased risk can be explained by epilepsy itself. We aimed to chart...... the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and estimate the risk of death from all causes and SUD conferred by epilepsy independently....

  7. On the unexpected oscillation of the total cross section for excitation in He2+ + H collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.R.; Reinhold, C.O.; Krstic, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    Recent calculations and measurements have revealed unexpected oscillations of the total cross section for excitation in low- to intermediate-energy He 2+ + H collisions. A physical explanation of this behavior is given here stemming from analysis of classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, molecular orbital close coupling calculations, and solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation on a numerical lattice. These results indicate that the observed behavior should be characteristic of a wide range of reactions in ion-atom collisions

  8. Cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to alcohols: unexpected reactivity trend indicates ester enolate intermediacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Arup; Goldberg, Alexander F G; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Shimon, Linda J W; Ben David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    The atom-efficient and environmentally benign catalytic hydrogenation of carboxylic acid esters to alcohols has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts, with few exceptions. Presented here is the first cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to the corresponding alcohols. Unexpectedly, the evidence indicates the unprecedented involvement of ester enolate intermediates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Simultaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and resection of unexpected, associated abdominal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Lorusso, Riccardo; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2004-12-15

    The management of unexpected intra-abdominal malignancy, discovered at laparotomy for elective treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is controversial. It is still unclear whether both conditions should be treated simultaneously or a staged approach is to be preferred. To contribute in improving treatment guidelines, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing laparotomy for elective AAA repair. From January 1994 to March 2003, 253 patients underwent elective, trans-peritoneal repair of an AAA. In four patients (1.6%), an associated, unexpected neoplasm was detected at abdominal exploration, consisting of one renal, one gastric, one ileal carcinoid, and one ascending colon tumor. All of them were treated at the same operation, after aortic repair and careful isolation of the prosthetic graft. The whole series' operative mortality was 3.6%. None of the patients simultaneously treated for AAA and tumor resection died in the postoperative period. No graft-related infections were observed. Simultaneous treatment of AAA and tumor did not prolong significantly the mean length of stay in the hospital, compared to standard treatment of AAA alone. Except for malignancies of organs requiring major surgical resections, simultaneous AAA repair and resection of an associated, unexpected abdominal neoplasm can be safely performed, in most of the patients, sparing the need for a second procedure. Endovascular grafting of the AAA can be a valuable tool in simplifying simultaneous treatment, or in staging the procedures with a very short delay.

  10. Audit of radiology communication systems for critical, urgent, and unexpected significant findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, K A; Drinkwater, K J; Dugar, N; Howlett, D C

    2016-03-01

    To determine the compliance of UK radiology departments and trusts/healthcare organisations with National Patient Safety Agency and Royal College of Radiologist's published guidance on the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. A questionnaire was sent to all UK radiology department audit leads asking for details of their current departmental policy regarding the issuing of alerts; use of automated electronic alert systems; methods of notification of clinicians of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings; monitoring of results receipt; and examples of the more common types of serious pathologies for which alerts were issued. One hundred and fifty-four of 229 departments (67%) responded. Eighty-eight percent indicated that they had a policy in place for the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. Only 34% had an automated electronic alert system in place and only 17% had a facility for service-wide electronic tracking of radiology reports. In only 11 departments with an electronic acknowledgement system was someone regularly monitoring the read rate. There is wide variation in practice across the UK with regard to the communication and monitoring of reports with many departments/trusts not fully compliant with published UK guidance. Despite the widespread use of electronic systems, only a minority of departments/trusts have and use electronic tracking to ensure reports have been read and acted upon. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hunting for unexpected post-translational modifications by spectral library searching with tier-wise scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun Wai Manson; Lam, Henry

    2014-05-02

    Discovering novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) to proteins and detecting specific modification sites on proteins is one of the last frontiers of proteomics. At present, hunting for post-translational modifications remains challenging in widely practiced shotgun proteomics workflows due to the typically low abundance of modified peptides and the greatly inflated search space as more potential mass shifts are considered by the search engines. Moreover, most popular search methods require that the user specifies the modification(s) for which to search; therefore, unexpected and novel PTMs will not be detected. Here a new algorithm is proposed to apply spectral library searching to the problem of open modification searches, namely, hunting for PTMs without prior knowledge of what PTMs are in the sample. The proposed tier-wise scoring method intelligently looks for unexpected PTMs by allowing mass-shifted peak matches but only when the number of matches found is deemed statistically significant. This allows the search engine to search for unexpected modifications while maintaining its ability to identify unmodified peptides effectively at the same time. The utility of the method is demonstrated using three different data sets, in which the numbers of spectrum identifications to both unmodified and modified peptides were substantially increased relative to a regular spectral library search as well as to another open modification spectral search method, pMatch.

  12. Four unexpected lanthanide coordination polymers involving in situ reaction of solvent N, N-Dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jun-Cheng; Tong, Wen-Quan; Fu, Ai-Yun; Xie, Cheng-Gen; Chang, Wen-Gui; Wu, Ju; Xu, Guang-Nian; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Li, Jun; Li, Yong; Yang, Peng-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Four unexpected 2D lanthanide coordination polymers have been synthesized through in situ reactions of DMF solvent under solvothermal conditions. The isostructural complexes 1–3 contain four types of 2 1 helical chains. While the Nd(III) ions are bridged through μ 2 -HIDC 2− and oxalate to form a 2D sheet along the bc plane without helical character in 4. Therefore, complex 1 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Four unexpected 2D lanthanide coordination polymers have been synthesized through in situ reactions of solvent DMF to formate acid or oxalic acid under solvothermal conditions. The isostructural complexes 1–3 contain four types of different 2 1 helical chains in the 2D layer and 1 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon UV radiation. - Highlights: • Four unexpected 2D lanthanide coordination compounds have been synthesized through in situ reactions under solvothermal conditions. • The complexes 1–3 contain four types of 2 1 helical chains in the layer. • Complex 1 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature

  13. The processing of unexpected positive response outcomes in the mediofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Nicola K; Mecklinger, Axel; Kray, Jutta; Gehring, William J

    2012-08-29

    The human mediofrontal cortex, especially the anterior cingulate cortex, is commonly assumed to contribute to higher cognitive functions like performance monitoring. How exactly this is achieved is currently the subject of lively debate but there is evidence that an event's valence and its expectancy play important roles. One prominent theory, the reinforcement learning theory by Holroyd and colleagues (2002, 2008), assigns a special role to feedback valence, while the prediction of response-outcome (PRO) model by Alexander and Brown (2010, 2011) claims that the mediofrontal cortex is sensitive to unexpected events regardless of their valence. However, paradigms examining this issue have included confounds that fail to separate valence and expectancy. In the present study, we tested the two competing theories of performance monitoring by using an experimental task that separates valence and unexpectedness of performance feedback. The feedback-related negativity of the event-related potential, which is commonly assumed to be a reflection of mediofrontal cortex activity, was elicited not only by unexpected negative feedback, but also by unexpected positive feedback. This implies that the mediofrontal cortex is sensitive to the unexpectedness of events in general rather than their valence and by this supports the PRO model.

  14. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in community-based cohort in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Ding, Ding; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Bin; Wang, Taiping; Li, Beixu; Wang, Jie; Luo, Jianfeng; Kwan, Patrick; Wang, Wenzhi; Hong, Zhen; Sander, Josemir W

    2017-11-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is associated with the high premature mortality observed among people with epilepsy. It is, however, considered a rare event in China, probably because of lack of awareness and limitation of studies in the country. We aimed to provide some initial estimation of the burden of SUDEP in China. We established a large Chinese community-based cohort of people with epilepsy between January 2010 and December 2011. For any participant who died during follow-up, detailed information on cause of death was obtained using a specifically designed Verbal Autopsy Questionnaire. All cases were reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert panel and reinvestigated if necessary. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence rates were estimated and case details provided. The cohort consisted of 1562 people and during a median 5years follow-up, 72 deaths were reported. The all-causes death incidence was 11.23 (95% CI 8.86-14.07) per 1000 person-years. Fifteen died suddenly and unexpectedly in a reasonable state of health in the week preceding death. We recorded detailed information of these 15 deaths. Thirteen were considered to be probable SUDEP and two possible SUDEP. The incidence of probable SUDEP was 2.03 (95% CI 1.13-3.38) per 1000 person-years, and the incidence of all suspected (probable and possible) SUDEP was 2.34 (95% CI 1.36-3.77) per 1000 person-years. The incidence of SUDEP was relatively high among Chinese people with epilepsy when compared with that in previous community-based studies from high-income countries. The burden of SUDEP in China requires further assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Precision grip responses to unexpected rotational perturbations scale with axis of rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Michael; Santos, Veronica J

    2013-04-05

    It has been established that rapid, pulse-like increases in precision grip forces ("catch-up responses") are elicited by unexpected translational perturbations and that response latency and strength scale according to the direction of linear slip relative to the hand as well as gravity. To determine if catch-up responses are elicited by unexpected rotational perturbations and are strength-, axis-, and/or direction-dependent, we imposed step torque loads about each of two axes which were defined relative to the subject's hand: the distal-proximal axis away from and towards the subject's palm, and the grip axis which connects the two fingertips. Precision grip responses were dominated initially by passive mechanics and then by active, unimodal catch-up responses. First dorsal interosseous activity, marking the start of the catch-up response, began 71-89 ms after the onset of perturbation. The onset latency, shape, and duration (217-231 ms) of the catch-up response were not affected by the axis, direction, or magnitude of the rotational perturbation, while strength was scaled by axis of rotation and slip conditions. Rotations about the grip axis that tilted the object away from the palm and induced rotational slip elicited stronger catch-up responses than rotations about the distal-proximal axis that twisted the object between the digits. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate grip responses to unexpected torque loads and to show characteristic, yet axis-dependent, catch-up responses for conditions other than pure linear slip. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Audit of radiology communication systems for critical, urgent, and unexpected significant findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.A.; Drinkwater, K.J.; Dugar, N.; Howlett, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the compliance of UK radiology departments and trusts/healthcare organisations with National Patient Safety Agency and Royal College of Radiologist's published guidance on the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was sent to all UK radiology department audit leads asking for details of their current departmental policy regarding the issuing of alerts; use of automated electronic alert systems; methods of notification of clinicians of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings; monitoring of results receipt; and examples of the more common types of serious pathologies for which alerts were issued. Results: One hundred and fifty-four of 229 departments (67%) responded. Eighty-eight percent indicated that they had a policy in place for the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. Only 34% had an automated electronic alert system in place and only 17% had a facility for service-wide electronic tracking of radiology reports. In only 11 departments with an electronic acknowledgement system was someone regularly monitoring the read rate. Conclusion: There is wide variation in practice across the UK with regard to the communication and monitoring of reports with many departments/trusts not fully compliant with published UK guidance. Despite the widespread use of electronic systems, only a minority of departments/trusts have and use electronic tracking to ensure reports have been read and acted upon. - Highlights: • UK wide audit of communication of significant radiology results. • 88% of departments have a communication policy in place. • 34% of departments have an automated electronic alert system. • 17% of Trusts have facility for service wide electronic tracking of radiology reports.

  17. Interlimb communication following unexpected changes in treadmill velocity during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Interlimb reflexes play an important role in human walking, particularly when dynamic stability is threatened by external perturbations or changes in the walking surface. Interlimb reflexes have recently been demonstrated in the contralateral biceps femoris (cBF) following knee joint rotations...... applied to the ipsilateral leg (iKnee) during the late stance phase of human gait (Stevenson et al. 2013). This interlimb reflex likely acts to slow the forward progression of the body in order to maintain dynamic stability following the perturbations. We examined this hypothesis by unexpectedly...... to slow the forward progression of the body and maintaining dynamic stability during walking, thus signifying a functional role for interlimb reflexes....

  18. Unexpected structure in the E2 quasicontinuum spectrum of 154Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzmann, R.; Khoo, T.L.; Ma, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of the γ quasicontinuum spectrum with neutron number has been investigated in the sequence of dysprosium isotopes /sup 152,154,156/Dy. The three nuclei display a pronounced collective E2 component. In 154 Dy this component shows an unexpected splitting into two distinct parts, signifying a structural change along the γ cascade. The E2 and statistical components can be reproduced in simple γ cascade calculations; in 152 Dy and 156 Dy only rotational bands were included, whereas in 154 Dy additional vibration-like transitions were required to reproduce the two E2 peaks. 11 refs., 2 figs

  19. The unexpected stability of multiwall nanotubes under high pressure and shear deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkin, E. Y.; Pankov, A. M.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Mordkovich, V. Z.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Karaeva, A. R.; Popov, M. Y.; Sorokin, P. B.; Blank, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of multiwall carbon nanotubes under a high pressure (up to 55 GPa) combined with shear deformation was studied by experimental and theoretical methods. The unexpectedly high stability of the nanotubes' structure under high stresses was observed. After the pressure was released, we observed that the nanotubes had restored their shapes. Atomistic simulations show that the hydrostatic and shear stresses affect the nanotubes' structure in a different way. It was found that the shear stress load in the multiwall nanotubes' outer walls can induce their connection and formation of an amorphized sp"3-hybridized region but internal core keeps the tubular structure.

  20. A new unexpected feature of superdeformed nuclei: strange degeneracies and their origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected similarities between the superdeformed bands found recently in many nuclei of the mass A ∼ 150 and A ∼ 190 regions and the physical sense of this discovery are discussed. These similarities manifest themselves through the existence of nearly identical sequences of transitions belonging to two neighboring nuclei, and by now numerous nuclear pairs manifesting this feature have been found. The underlying microscopic mechanism is traced back to two independent effects: a readjustment of nuclear deformation diminishing the role of alignment of the least bound nucleus, and, the pseudospin symmetry, responsible for an approximate decoupling of the orbital and the intrinsic (pseudo) spin-degrees of freedom. 9 figs

  1. Costello Syndrome with Severe Nodulocystic Acne: Unexpected Significant Improvement of Acanthosis Nigricans after Oral Isotretinoin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelawadee Sriboonnark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of 17-year-old female diagnosed with Costello syndrome. Genetic testing provided a proof with G12S mutation in the HRAS gene since 3 years of age with a presentation of severe nodulocystic acne on her face. After 2 months of oral isotretinoin treatment, improvement in her acne was observed. Interestingly, an unexpected significant improvement of acanthosis nigricans on her neck and dorsum of her hands was found as well. We present this case as a successful treatment option by using oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acanthosis nigricans in Costello syndrome patients.

  2. The unexpected stability of multiwall nanotubes under high pressure and shear deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkin, E. Y.; Pankov, A. M.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Mordkovich, V. Z. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, 7a Centralnaya Street, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutsky Lane, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Perezhogin, I. A. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, 7a Centralnaya Street, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Karaeva, A. R. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, 7a Centralnaya Street, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Popov, M. Y.; Sorokin, P. B.; Blank, V. D. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, 7a Centralnaya Street, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutsky Lane, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, 4 Leninskiy Prospekt, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-22

    The behavior of multiwall carbon nanotubes under a high pressure (up to 55 GPa) combined with shear deformation was studied by experimental and theoretical methods. The unexpectedly high stability of the nanotubes' structure under high stresses was observed. After the pressure was released, we observed that the nanotubes had restored their shapes. Atomistic simulations show that the hydrostatic and shear stresses affect the nanotubes' structure in a different way. It was found that the shear stress load in the multiwall nanotubes' outer walls can induce their connection and formation of an amorphized sp{sup 3}-hybridized region but internal core keeps the tubular structure.

  3. Sudden Unexpected Death During Sleep in Familial Dysautonomia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Perez, Miguel A; Spalink, Christy L; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2017-08-01

    Sudden unexpected death during sleep (SUDS) is the most common cause of death in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by sensory and autonomic dysfunction. It remains unknown what causes SUDS in these patients and who is at highest risk. We tested the hypothesis that SUDS in FD is linked to sleep-disordered breathing. We retrospectively identified patients with FD who died suddenly and unexpectedly during sleep and had undergone polysomnography within the 18-month period before death. For each case, we sampled one age-matched surviving subject with FD that had also undergone polysomnography within the 18-month period before study. Data on polysomnography, EKG, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, arterial blood gases, blood count, and metabolic panel were analyzed. Thirty-two deceased cases and 31 surviving controls were included. Autopsy was available in six cases. Compared with controls, participants with SUDS were more likely to be receiving treatment with fludrocortisone (odds ratio [OR]; 95% confidence interval) (OR 29.7; 4.1-213.4), have untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OR 17.4; 1.5-193), and plasma potassium levels Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Unexpected Maternal Convulsion: An Idiopathic Case of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Agah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is associated with various clinical manifestations such as headache, blurred vision, confusion and tonic-clonic convulsion. Some of the predisposing factors for PRES include hypertensive encephalopathy, preeclampsia and eclampsia, lupus erythematosus, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. This condition rarely occurs after normotensive and uneventful pregnancies. Several theories have been proposed on the etiology of PRES. For instance, endothelial injury and brain edema have been reported as possible causes of PRES. Although PRES is a temporary condition, proper and timely management of the disorder in the acute phase is critical for the prevention of permanent neurological complications. During pregnancy, PRES is normally accompanied with hypertension. In this paper, we present a rare case of PRES in a normotensive pregnancy in a 25-year-old parturient woman (Gravida 2, Ab 1. The patient unexpectedly manifested symptoms of tonic-clonic convulsion one hour after an uneventful vaginal delivery, which were successfully managed. According to our observations, PRES has various clinical manifestations with unexpected occurrence in some cases. Therefore, it is recommended that maternity centers be well-equipped with resuscitation tools, emergency drugs and expert staff so as to manage unforeseen PRES efficiently and prevent permanent maternal neurological complications and mortality.

  5. Rural families' interpretations of experiencing unexpected transition in the wake of a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gisele Cristina Manfrini; Boehs, Astrid Eggert; Denham, Sharon A; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves; Martini, Jussara Gue

    2017-02-13

    Natural disasters affect populations in various parts of the world. The impacts of disasters can cause many problems to the health of people and disruption to family life, potentially leading to an unexpected transition. The objective of this paper is to present the unexpected transitional experiences of rural families following a natural disaster. A multiple case study of six families was conducted with children and adolescents in a rural area affected by a 2008 disaster in southern Brazil. For data collection, we used participant observation, narrative interviews, genograms, ecomaps and an instrument called calendar routine. The analysis of the data resulted in different family interpretations about the changes resulting from the storm and compared life before and after the disaster. The loss of homes and loved ones, migration, unemployment, and losses from the farm were the main changes associated with new development tasks. The experiences of family transition after the disaster revealed that losses influenced social lives, daily routines and the preservation of cultural values.

  6. Unexpected findings at imaging: Predicting frequency in various types of studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbreras, Blanca; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Lorente, Ma Fernanda; Calbo, Jorge; Aranaz, Jesus; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and associated variables of unsuspected findings from imaging tests in clinical practice. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of patients referred for an imaging test in 2006. Two independent radiologists classified the imaging tests according to the presence or absence of an unexpected finding in relation with the causes that prompted the test (kappa = 0.95). A thorough chart review of these patients was carried out as a quality control. Results: Out of 3259 patients in the study, 488 revealed unsuspected findings (15.0%). The prevalence of abnormal findings varied according to age: from 20.4% (150/734) in the over 74-group to 9.0% (76/847) in the under 43-group. The largest prevalence was in the category of infectious diseases (14/49, 28.6%) and in CT (260/901, 28.9%) and ultrasound (138/668, 20.7%). Studies showing moderate clinical information on the referral form were less likely to show unexpected findings than those with null or minor information (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36-0.73). Conclusion: Clinicians should expect the frequency of diseases detectable by imaging to increase in the future. Further research with follow-up of these findings is needed to estimate the effect of imaging technologies on final health outcomes.

  7. Risk, unexpected uncertainty, and estimation uncertainty: Bayesian learning in unstable settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Payzan-LeNestour

    Full Text Available Recently, evidence has emerged that humans approach learning using Bayesian updating rather than (model-free reinforcement algorithms in a six-arm restless bandit problem. Here, we investigate what this implies for human appreciation of uncertainty. In our task, a Bayesian learner distinguishes three equally salient levels of uncertainty. First, the Bayesian perceives irreducible uncertainty or risk: even knowing the payoff probabilities of a given arm, the outcome remains uncertain. Second, there is (parameter estimation uncertainty or ambiguity: payoff probabilities are unknown and need to be estimated. Third, the outcome probabilities of the arms change: the sudden jumps are referred to as unexpected uncertainty. We document how the three levels of uncertainty evolved during the course of our experiment and how it affected the learning rate. We then zoom in on estimation uncertainty, which has been suggested to be a driving force in exploration, in spite of evidence of widespread aversion to ambiguity. Our data corroborate the latter. We discuss neural evidence that foreshadowed the ability of humans to distinguish between the three levels of uncertainty. Finally, we investigate the boundaries of human capacity to implement Bayesian learning. We repeat the experiment with different instructions, reflecting varying levels of structural uncertainty. Under this fourth notion of uncertainty, choices were no better explained by Bayesian updating than by (model-free reinforcement learning. Exit questionnaires revealed that participants remained unaware of the presence of unexpected uncertainty and failed to acquire the right model with which to implement Bayesian updating.

  8. Unexpected findings at imaging: Predicting frequency in various types of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumbreras, Blanca [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (Spain)], E-mail: blumbreras@umh.es; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: gonzalez_isa@gva.es; Lorente, Ma Fernanda [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: MARFERLORENTE@telefonica.net; Calbo, Jorge [Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: jocalma@hotmail.com; Aranaz, Jesus [Preventive Medicine Department, San Juan Hospital, 03550 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: aranaz_jes@gva.es; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (Spain)], E-mail: ihernandez@umh.es

    2010-04-15

    Objective: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and associated variables of unsuspected findings from imaging tests in clinical practice. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of patients referred for an imaging test in 2006. Two independent radiologists classified the imaging tests according to the presence or absence of an unexpected finding in relation with the causes that prompted the test (kappa = 0.95). A thorough chart review of these patients was carried out as a quality control. Results: Out of 3259 patients in the study, 488 revealed unsuspected findings (15.0%). The prevalence of abnormal findings varied according to age: from 20.4% (150/734) in the over 74-group to 9.0% (76/847) in the under 43-group. The largest prevalence was in the category of infectious diseases (14/49, 28.6%) and in CT (260/901, 28.9%) and ultrasound (138/668, 20.7%). Studies showing moderate clinical information on the referral form were less likely to show unexpected findings than those with null or minor information (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.36-0.73). Conclusion: Clinicians should expect the frequency of diseases detectable by imaging to increase in the future. Further research with follow-up of these findings is needed to estimate the effect of imaging technologies on final health outcomes.

  9. Age-related changes in posture response under a continuous and unexpected perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Yang, Saiwei

    2014-01-22

    Aging is a critical factor to influence the functional performance during daily life. Without an appropriate posture control response when experiencing an unexpected external perturbation, fall may occur. A novel six-degree-of freedom platform with motion control protocol was designed to provide a real-life simulation of unexpected disturbance in order to discriminate the age-related changes of the balance control and the recovery ability. Twenty older adults and 20 healthy young adults participated in the study. The subjects stood barefoot on the novel movable platform, data of the center of mass (COM) excursion, joint rotation angle and electromyography (EMG) were recorded and compared. The results showed that the older adults had similar patterns of joint movement and COM excursion as the young adults during the balance reactive-recovery. However, larger proximal joint rotation in elderly group induced larger COM sway envelop and therefore loss of the compensatory strategy of posture recovery. The old adults also presented a lower muscle power. In order to keep an adequate joint stability preventing from falling, the EMG activity was increased, but the asymmetric pattern might be the key reason of unstable postural response. This novel design of moveable platform and test protocol comprised the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) demonstrate its value to assess the possible sensory, motor, and central adaptive impairments to balance control and could be the training tool for posture inability person. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ERP correlates of unexpected word forms in a picture–word study of infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duta, M.D.; Styles, S.J.; Plunkett, K.

    2012-01-01

    We tested 14-month-olds and adults in an event-related potentials (ERPs) study in which pictures of familiar objects generated expectations about upcoming word forms. Expected word forms labelled the picture (word condition), while unexpected word forms mismatched by either a small deviation in word medial vowel height (mispronunciation condition) or a large deviation from the onset of the first speech segment (pseudoword condition). Both infants and adults showed sensitivity to both types of unexpected word form. Adults showed a chain of discrete effects: positivity over the N1 wave, negativity over the P2 wave (PMN effect) and negativity over the N2 wave (N400 effect). Infants showed a similar pattern, including a robust effect similar to the adult P2 effect. These observations were underpinned by a novel visualisation method which shows the dynamics of the ERP within bands of the scalp over time. The results demonstrate shared processing mechanisms across development, as even subtle deviations from expected word forms were indexed in both age groups by a reduction in the amplitude of characteristic waves in the early auditory evoked potential. PMID:22483072

  11. Rural families' interpretations of experiencing unexpected transition in the wake of a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract: Natural disasters affect populations in various parts of the world. The impacts of disasters can cause many problems to the health of people and disruption to family life, potentially leading to an unexpected transition. The objective of this paper is to present the unexpected transitional experiences of rural families following a natural disaster. A multiple case study of six families was conducted with children and adolescents in a rural area affected by a 2008 disaster in southern Brazil. For data collection, we used participant observation, narrative interviews, genograms, ecomaps and an instrument called calendar routine. The analysis of the data resulted in different family interpretations about the changes resulting from the storm and compared life before and after the disaster. The loss of homes and loved ones, migration, unemployment, and losses from the farm were the main changes associated with new development tasks. The experiences of family transition after the disaster revealed that losses influenced social lives, daily routines and the preservation of cultural values.

  12. Unexpected storm-time nightside plasmaspheric density enhancement at low L shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.; Bortnik, J.; Denton, R. E.; Yue, C.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional dynamic electron density (DEN3D) model in the inner magnetosphere using a neural network approach. The DEN3D model can provide spatiotemporal distribution of the electron density at any location and time that spacecraft observations are not available. Given DEN3D's good performance in predicting the structure and dynamic evolution of the plasma density, the salient features of the DEN3D model can be used to gain further insight into the physics. For instance, the DEN3D models can be used to find unusual phenomena that are difficult to detect in observations or simulations. We report, for the first time, an unexpected plasmaspheric density increase at low L shell regions on the nightside during the main phase of a moderate storm during 12-16 October 2004, as opposed to the expected density decrease due to storm-time plasmaspheric erosion. The unexpected density increase is first discovered in the modeled electron density distribution using the DEN3D model, and then validated using in-situ density measurements obtained from the IMAGE satellite. The density increase was likely caused by increased earthward transverse field plasma transport due to enhanced nightside ExB drift, which coincided with enhanced solar wind electric field and substorm activity. This is consistent with the results of physics-based simulation SAMI3 model which show earthward enhanced plasma transport and electron density increase at low L shells during storm main phase.

  13. A propensity score analysis of the impact of surgical intervention on unexpected 30-day readmission following admission for subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Lynze R; Sheehan, Kyle M; Roark, Christopher D; Joseph, Jacob R; Burke, James F; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Williamson, Craig A

    2017-12-22

    OBJECTIVE Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common disease that is increasingly being managed nonoperatively. The all-cause readmission rate for SDH has not previously been described. This study seeks to describe the incidence of unexpected 30-day readmission in a cohort of patients admitted to an academic neurosurgical center. Additionally, the relationship between operative management, clinical outcome, and unexpected readmission is explored. METHODS This is an observational study of 200 consecutive adult patients with SDH admitted to the neurosurgical ICU of an academic medical center. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, and treatment strategies were compared between readmitted and nonreadmitted patients. Multivariable logistic regression, weighted by the inverse probability of receiving surgery using propensity scores, was used to evaluate the association between operative management and unexpected readmission. RESULTS Of 200 total patients, 18 (9%) died during hospitalization and were not included in the analysis. Overall, 48 patients (26%) were unexpectedly readmitted within 30 days. Sixteen patients (33.3%) underwent SDH evacuation during their readmission. Factors significantly associated with unexpected readmission were nonoperative management (72.9% vs 54.5%, p = 0.03) and female sex (50.0% vs 32.1%, p = 0.03). In logistic regression analysis weighted by the inverse probability of treatment and including likely confounders, surgical management was not associated with likelihood of a good outcome at hospital discharge, but was associated with significantly reduced odds of unexpected readmission (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.08-0.49). CONCLUSIONS Over 25% of SDH patients admitted to an academic neurosurgical ICU were unexpectedly readmitted within 30 days. Nonoperative management does not affect outcome at hospital discharge but is significantly associated with readmission, even when accounting for the probability of treatment by propensity score weighted

  14. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy: A Retrospective Autopsy Study of 112 Epileptic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen Melez, İpek; Arslan, Murat Nihat; Melez, Deniz Oğuzhan; Şanli, Ahmet Necati; Koç, Sermet

    2017-09-01

    Sudden unexpected deaths comprise the most important and worthy investigation case profiles in both neurology and forensic medicine. Epilepsy, which is one of the neuropathological causes of sudden unexpected deaths, is an important disorder having mysterious aspects. The aim of this study is to make common the points of view between neurology and forensic medicine experts and to discuss the features of the findings together with the related clinical hypotheses, leading to the differential diagnosis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) by presenting autopsy findings and available medical data of patients who had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. In Istanbul, the cases of 20334 autopsied patients who were referred to The Ministry of Justice Council of Forensic Medicine between 2007 and 2011 were identified from the complete forensic autopsy data of the city and were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy were included. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed through the parameters of demographical data, physical properties, incident features, macroscopic-microscopic autopsy findings, and cause of death initially for all cases and then separately for SUDEP cases. Among the 20334 patients, 112 were determined to have a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. A possible macroscopic and/or microscopic epileptic focus was present in 23 (20.5%) of these 112 cases. The cause of death was determined to be SUDEP in 40 (35.7%) cases, while it could not be determined in 28 (25%) cases. Among patients whose death cause was considered as SUDEP, the male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1, while the mean age was 31.5±13.9 years in males and 29.6±12.9 years in females. The presence of hypertrophy and myocardial scar tissue findings in the microscopic examination were significantly more frequent among patients determined to have died from cardiovascular diseases compared to patients in the SUDEP group (p=0.001 for each finding

  15. Patterns of unexpected in-hospital deaths: a root cause analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry J Paul

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory alarm monitoring and rapid response team alerts on hospital general floors are based on detection of simple numeric threshold breaches. Although some uncontrolled observation trials in select patient populations have been encouraging, randomized controlled trials suggest that this simplistic approach may not reduce the unexpected death rate in this complex environment. The purpose of this review is to examine the history and scientific basis for threshold alarms and to compare thresholds with the actual pathophysiologic patterns of evolving death which must be timely detected. Methods The Pubmed database was searched for articles relating to methods for triggering rapid response teams and respiratory alarms and these were contrasted with the fundamental timed pathophysiologic patterns of death which evolve due to sepsis, congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, hypoventilation, narcotic overdose, and sleep apnea. Results In contrast to the simplicity of the numeric threshold breach method of generating alerts, the actual patterns of evolving death are complex and do not share common features until near death. On hospital general floors, unexpected clinical instability leading to death often progresses along three distinct patterns which can be designated as Types I, II and III. Type I is a pattern comprised of hyperventilation compensated respiratory failure typical of congestive heart failure and sepsis. Here, early hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis can conceal the onset of instability. Type II is the pattern of classic CO2 narcosis. Type III occurs only during sleep and is a pattern of ventilation and SPO2 cycling caused by instability of ventilation and/or upper airway control followed by precipitous and fatal oxygen desaturation if arousal failure is induced by narcotics and/or sedation. Conclusion The traditional threshold breach method of detecting instability on hospital wards was not

  16. Willingness and ability to pay for unexpected dental expenses by Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widström Eeva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002, adults have been able to choose oral health care services in the public sector or in the private sector in Finland. Though various subsidies for care exist in both sectors, the Public Dental Service (PDS is a cheaper option for the patient but, on the other hand, there are no waiting lists for private care. The aim of this study was to assess middle-aged adults' use of dental services, willingness to pay (WTP and ability to pay (ATP for unexpected, urgent dental treatment. Methods Postal questionnaires on use of dental services were sent to a random sample of 1500 47-59 year old adults living in three large municipalities in the Helsinki region. The initial response rate was 65.8%. Two hypothetical scenarios were presented: "What would be the highest price you would be prepared to pay to have a lost filling replaced immediately, or, at the latest, the day after losing the filling?" and " How much could you pay for unexpected dental expenses at two weeks notice, if you suddenly needed more comprehensive treatment?" Logistic regression analysis was used to analyse factors related to WTP and ATP. Results Most respondents (89.6% had visited a dentist recently and a majority (76.1% had used private services. For immediate replacement of a lost filling, almost all respondents (93.2% were willing to pay the lower price charged in the PDS and 46.2% were willing to pay the private fee. High income and no subjective need for dental treatment were positively associated with the probability of paying a higher price. Most respondents (93.0% were able to pay a low fee, EUR 50 and almost half (41.6% at least EUR 300 for unexpected treatment at short notice. High income and male sex were associated with high ATP. Conclusion There was a strong and statistically significant relationship between income and WTP and ATP for urgent dental care, indicating that access to publicly provided services improved equity for persons with low

  17. Unexpected Type of Failure of Thermal Battery Resulting in a Near Miss to a Serious Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Daena Kei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    On 6/26/2015 at 1445 in 894/136, a thermal battery (approximately the size of a commercial size C cell) experienced an unexpected failure following a routine test where the battery is activated. The failure occurred while a test operator was transferring the battery from the testing primary containment box to another containment box within the same room; initial indications are that the battery package ruptured after it went into thermal runaway which led to the operator receiving bruising to the palm of the hand from the pressure of the expulsion. The operator was wearing the prescribed PPE, which was safety glasses and a high temperature glove on the hand that was holding the battery.

  18. Pseudotumoral ganglion cyst of a finger with unexpected remote origin: multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilleau, Loic; Malghem, Jacques; Omoumi, Patrick; Simoni, Paolo; Vande Berg, Bruno C.; Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Barbier, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The case of a ganglion cyst in the pulp of a fifth finger in an elderly woman initially mimicking a soft tissue tumor is described. Most typical sites of ganglion cysts are well documented at the wrist and in the vicinity of inter-phalangeal and metacarpo-phalangeal joints. In this case, ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a cystic lesion within the pulp of the fifth finger and indicated carpal osteoarthritis as the distant - and unexpected - origin of the lesion. The suggested diagnosis of ganglion cyst was confirmed by computed tomography arthrography (CT arthrography) of the wrist, which showed opacification of the cyst on delayed acquisitions after intra-articular injection into the mid-carpal joint, through the fifth flexor digitorum tendon sheath. The communications between the degenerative carpal joint, the radio-ulnar bursa, the fifth flexor digitorum tendon sheath and the pedicle of the cyst were well demonstrated. (orig.)

  19. Critical properties of unlimited gliding: Unexpected flocking behavior driven by the exchange of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigus-Kwiatkowska, Marta; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    Inspired by albatrosses that use thermal lifts to fly across oceans we develop a simple model of gliders that serves us to study theoretical limitations of unlimited exploration of the Earth. Our studies, grounded in physical theory of continuous percolation and biased random walks, allow us to identify a variety of percolation transitions, which are understood as providing potentially unlimited movement through a space in a specified direction. We discover an unexpected phenomenon of self-organization of gliders in clusters, which resembles the flock organization of birds. This self-organization is intriguing, as it occurs thanks to exchange of information only and without any particular rules that could favor the clustering of the gliders (in contrast to the causes well known in literature, like, for example, attractive forces used in the Vicsek-type models or fitness functions used in evolutionary computation).

  20. Fatigue life analysis of unexpected failure in a lamellar TiAl alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.

    1999-07-01

    Unexpected catastrophic failure occurred in specimens of a lamellar TiAl alloy tested by axial fatigue. The failure initiated at locations away from artificial defects introduced to the specimens as crack starters. Fractographic examination of the fracture surface revealed the presence of featureless, low-energy facets that suggested the catastrophic crack may have initiated in one or more large grains that cleaved on a cleavage plane or an interface. A crack growth analysis of fatigue life of the test specimens suggested that the catastrophic crack propagated at stress intensity levels below the large crack threshold. Furthermore, the catastrophic crack propagated at rates that were higher than the average rates exhibited by small cracks, as well as by the large crack under equivalent stress intensity ranges. Because of this, the conventional life prediction approach based on the large crack growth data grossly overpredicted the fatigue life.

  1. Unexpected Reading Dissociation in a Brazilian “nisei” with Crossed Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Caramelli

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased interest in reading impairments in the Japanese language, due to its particular writing system which includes two different scripts, Kanji (logograms and Kana (phonograms. Reading dissociations between Kanji and Kana have been described, showing that each system is processed differently by the cerebral hemispheres. We describe the case of a 68 year old Brazilian “nisei” (i.e. born from Japanese parents who had knowledge of both Japanese and Portuguese. He presented an ischemic stroke affecting the right hemisphere and subsequently developed a Broca's aphasia and an unexpected reading dissociation, with an impairment in Kana reading comprehension and a good performance in Kanji and in Portuguese. These findings suggest that the patient's right and left hemispheres have assumed opposite roles not only for oral but also for written language decodification.

  2. Benefits and unexpected artifacts of biplanar digital slot-scanning imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Steven L. [Nemours/A.I duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Medical Imaging, Wilmington, DE (United States); Dinan, David [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Orlando, FL (United States); Grissom, Leslie E. [Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Biplanar digital slot-scanning allows for relatively low-dose orthopedic imaging, an advantage in imaging children given the growing concerns regarding radiosensitivity. We have used this system for approximately 1 year for orthopedic imaging of the spine and lower extremities. We have noted advantages of using the digital slot-scanning system when compared with computed radiographic and standard digital radiographic imaging systems, but we also found unexpected but common imaging artifacts that are the direct result of the imaging method and that have not been reported. This pictorial essay serves to familiarize radiologists with the advantages of the digital slot-scanning system as well as imaging artifacts common with this new technology. (orig.)

  3. Detection of gunshot primer residue on bone in an experimental setting-an unexpected finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Hugh E; Kutyla, Alicja K; Russell Davis, J

    2010-03-01

    Pork ribs with intact muscle tissue were used in an experimental attempt to identify bullet wipe on bone at distances from 1 to 6 feet with 0.45 caliber, full metal jacket ammunition. This resulted in the unexpected finding of primer-derived gunshot residue (GSR) deep within the wound tract. Of significance is the fact that the GSR was deposited on the bone, under the periosteum, after the bullet passed through a Ziploc bag and c. 1 inch of muscle tissue. It is also important to note that the GSR persisted on the bone after the periosteum was forcibly removed. The presence of primer-derived GSR on bone provides the potential to differentiate gunshot trauma from blunt trauma when the bone presents an atypical gunshot wound. In this study, the presence of gunshot primer residue at a distance of 6 feet demonstrates the potential for establishing maximum gun-to-target distance for remote shootings.

  4. The Galeta Oil Spill. II. Unexpected Persistence of Oil Trapped in Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. A.; Garrity, S. D.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahía las Minas (Panamá) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills.

  5. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2; Unexpected persistence of oil trapped in mangrove sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L. (Bermuda Biological Station, Ferry Reach (Bermuda)); Garrity, S.D. (Coastal Zone Analysis, Sopchoppy, FL (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  6. Maintenance of equilibrium point control during an unexpectedly loaded rapid limb movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R W; Richardson, C

    1984-06-08

    Two experiments investigated whether the equilibrium point hypothesis or the mass-spring model of motor control subserves positioning accuracy during spring loaded, rapid, bi-articulated movement. For intact preparations, the equilibrium point hypothesis predicts response accuracy to be determined by a mixture of afferent and efferent information, whereas the mass-spring model predicts positioning to be under a direct control system. Subjects completed a series of load-resisted training trials to a spatial target. The magnitude of a sustained spring load was unexpectedly increased on selected trials. Results indicated positioning accuracy and applied force varied with increases in load, which suggests that the original efferent commands are modified by afferent information during the movement as predicted by the equilibrium point hypothesis.

  7. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification: a rare cause of sudden unexpected death in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Susana; Lopes, José Manuel; Oliveira, José Bessa; Santos, Agostinho

    2010-07-27

    Unexpected child death investigation is a difficult area of forensic practice in view of the wide range of possible genetic, congenital, and acquired natural and nonnatural causes. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC) is a rare autosomic recessive disease usually diagnosed postmortem. Inactivating mutations of the ENPP1 gene were described in 80% of the cases with IIAC. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl submitted to a forensic autopsy due to sudden death and possible medical negligence/parents child abuse. Major alterations found (intimal proliferation and deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite around the internal elastic lamina and media of arteries; acute myocardial infarct, stenotic and calcified coronary artery; perivascular and interstitial myocardial fibrosis; and subendocardial fibroelastosis) were diagnostic of IIAC. We reviewed IIAC cases published in the English literature and highlight the importance of adequate autopsy evaluation in cases of sudden child death.

  8. Impact of unexpected events, shocking news, and rumors on foreign exchange market dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark; Suleman, Omer; Williams, Stacy; Howison, Sam; Johnson, Neil F.

    2008-04-01

    The dynamical response of a population of interconnected objects, when exposed to external perturbations, is of great interest to physicists working on complex systems. Here we focus on human systems, by analyzing the dynamical response of the world’s financial community to various types of unexpected events—including the 9/11 terrorist attacks as they unfolded on a minute-by-minute basis. For the unfolding events of 9/11, our results show that there was a gradual collective understanding of what was happening, rather than an immediate realization. More generally, we find that for news items which are not simple economic statements—and hence whose implications for the market are not immediately obvious—there are periods of collective discovery during which opinions seem to vary in a remarkably synchronized way.

  9. Comprehensive study of unexpected microscope condensers formed in sample arrangements commonly used in optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Darshan B; Aldawsari, Mabkhoot Mudith S; Alharbi, Bandar Mohammed H; Sen, Sanchari; Grave de Peralta, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We show that various setups for optical microscopy which are commonly used in biomedical laboratories behave like efficient microscope condensers that are responsible for observed subwavelength resolution. We present a series of experiments and simulations that reveal how inclined illumination from such unexpected condensers occurs when the sample is perpendicularly illuminated by a microscope's built-in white-light source. In addition, we demonstrate an inexpensive add-on optical module that serves as an efficient and lightweight microscope condenser. Using such add-on optical module in combination with a low-numerical-aperture objective lens and Fourier plane imaging microscopy technique, we demonstrate detection of photonic crystals with a period nearly eight times smaller than the Rayleigh resolution limit.

  10. Heavy Metals, Cardiovascular Disease, and the Unexpected Benefits of Edetate Disodium Chelation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gervasio A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence from 2 lines of research previously thought unrelated: the unexpectedly positive results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT), and a body of epidemiological data showing that accumulation of biologically active metals, such as lead and cadmium, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Considering these 2 areas of work together may lead to the identification of new, modifiable risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We examine the history of chelation up through the report of TACT. We then describe work connecting higher metal levels in the body with the future risk of cardiovascular disease. We conclude by presenting a brief overview of a newly planned National Institutes of Health trial, TACT2, in which we will attempt to replicate the findings of TACT and to establish that removal of toxic metal stores from the body is a plausible mechanistic explanation for the benefits of edetate disodium treatment. PMID:27199065

  11. Left Ventricular Aneurysm: Sudden Unexpected Deaths in a 29-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srettabunjong, Supawon

    2018-05-01

    Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) is an abnormal dilated heart structure, either congenital or acquired. LVA is a rare cardiac condition with no symptoms in most cases, thus occasionally diagnosed during investigations of other diseases. Its association with certain cardiac complications and sudden cardiac deaths has been reported. However, its role as a cause of sudden unexpected death is rare. The author reported a sudden cardiac death in a 29-year-old man with LVA. Without a significant coronary artery disease and known etiologies of LVA, such an abnormal heart structure in the present case was considered congenital LVA. As no other possible mechanisms of death could be identified other than LVA with its associated pathologic lesions, mural thrombi, and dilated cardiomegaly, his death was attributable to fatal cardiac arrhythmia (most commonly ventricular tachycardia) secondary to LVA. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Amygdala activity can be modulated by unexpected chord functions during music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2008-12-03

    Numerous earlier studies have investigated the cognitive processing of musical syntax with regular and irregular chord sequences. However, irregular sequences may also be perceived as unexpected, and therefore have a different emotional valence than regular sequences. We provide behavioral data showing that irregular chord functions presented in chord sequence paradigms are perceived as less pleasant than regular sequences. A reanalysis of functional MRI data showed increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes bilaterally in the amygdala in response to music-syntactically irregular (compared with regular) chord functions. The combined data indicate that music-syntactically irregular events elicit brain activity related to emotional processes, and that, in addition to intensely pleasurable music or highly unpleasant music, single chord functions can also modulate amygdala activity.

  13. Stability of vertical posture explored with unexpected mechanical perturbations: synergy indices and motor equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Momoko; Falaki, Ali; Latash, Mark L

    2018-03-21

    We explored the relations between indices of mechanical stability of vertical posture and synergy indices under unexpected perturbations. The main hypotheses predicted higher posture-stabilizing synergy indices and higher mechanical indices of center of pressure stability during perturbations perceived by subjects as less challenging. Healthy subjects stood on a force platform and held in fully extended arms a bar attached to two loads acting downward and upward. One of the loads was unexpectedly released by the experimenter causing a postural perturbations. In different series, subjects either knew or did not know which of the two loads would be released. Forward perturbations were perceived as more challenging and accompanied by co-activation patterns among the main agonist-antagonist pairs. Backward perturbation led to reciprocal muscle activation patterns and was accompanied by indices of mechanical stability and of posture-stabilizing synergy which indicated higher stability. Changes in synergy indices were observed as early as 50-100 ms following the perturbation reflecting involuntary mechanisms. In contrast, predictability of perturbation direction had weak or no effect on mechanical and synergy indices of stability. These observations are interpreted within a hierarchical scheme of synergic control of motor tasks and a hypothesis on the control of movements with shifts of referent coordinates. The findings show direct correspondence between stability indices based on mechanics and on the analysis of multi-muscle synergies. They suggest that involuntary posture-stabilizing mechanisms show synergic organization. They also show that predictability of perturbation direction has strong effects on anticipatory postural adjustment but not corrective adjustments. We offer an interpretation of co-activation patterns that questions their contribution to postural stability.

  14. Unexpected improvement in core autism spectrum disorder symptoms after long-term treatment with probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Grossi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition that typically displays socio-communicative impairment as well as restricted stereotyped interests and activities, in which gastrointestinal disturbances are commonly reported. We report the case of a boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD diagnosis, severe cognitive disability and celiac disease in which an unexpected improvement of autistic core symptoms was observed after four months of probiotic treatment. Method: The case study refers to a 12 years old boy with ASD and severe cognitive disability attending the Villa Santa Maria Institute in resident care since 2009. Diagnosis of ASDs according to DSM-V criteria was confirmed by ADOS-2 assessment (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. The medication used was VSL#3, a multi-strain mixture of ten probiotics. The treatment lasted 4 weeks followed by a four month follow-up. The rehabilitation program and the diet was maintained stable in the treatment period and in the follow up. ADOS-2 was assessed six times: two times before starting treatment; two times during the treatment and two times after interruption of the treatment. Results: The probiotic treatment reduced the severity of abdominal symptoms as expected but an improvement in Autistic core symptoms was unexpectedly clinically evident already after few weeks from probiotic treatment start. The score of Social Affect domain of ADOS improved changing from 20 to 18 after two months treatment with a further reduction of 1 point in the following two months. The level 17 of severity remained stable in the follow up period. It is well known that ADOS score does not fluctuate spontaneously along time in ASD and is absolutely stable. Conclusions: The appropriate use of probiotics deserves further research, which hopefully will open new avenues in the fight against ASD.

  15. Unexpected improvement in core autism spectrum disorder symptoms after long-term treatment with probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Enzo; Melli, Sara; Dunca, Delia; Terruzzi, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition that typically displays socio-communicative impairment as well as restricted stereotyped interests and activities, in which gastrointestinal disturbances are commonly reported. We report the case of a boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis, severe cognitive disability and celiac disease in which an unexpected improvement of autistic core symptoms was observed after four months of probiotic treatment. The case study refers to a 12 years old boy with ASD and severe cognitive disability attending the Villa Santa Maria Institute in resident care since 2009. Diagnosis of ASDs according to DSM-V criteria was confirmed by ADOS-2 assessment (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule). The medication used was VSL#3, a multi-strain mixture of ten probiotics. The treatment lasted 4 weeks followed by a four month follow-up. The rehabilitation program and the diet was maintained stable in the treatment period and in the follow up. ADOS-2 was assessed six times: two times before starting treatment; two times during the treatment and two times after interruption of the treatment. The probiotic treatment reduced the severity of abdominal symptoms as expected but an improvement in Autistic core symptoms was unexpectedly clinically evident already after few weeks from probiotic treatment start. The score of Social Affect domain of ADOS improved changing from 20 to 18 after two months treatment with a further reduction of 1 point in the following two months. The level 17 of severity remained stable in the follow up period. It is well known that ADOS score does not fluctuate spontaneously along time in ASD and is absolutely stable. The appropriate use of probiotics deserves further research, which hopefully will open new avenues in the fight against ASD.

  16. Spontaneous abortion and unexpected death: a critical discussion of Marquis on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Clayton

    2013-02-01

    In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category.

  17. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  18. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  19. The neural coding of expected and unexpected monetary performance outcomes: dissociations between active and observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebaum, C; Jokisch, D; Gizewski, E R; Forsting, M; Daum, I

    2012-02-01

    Successful adaptation to the environment requires the learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations. Such associations can be learned actively by trial and error or by observing the behaviour and accompanying outcomes in other persons. The present study investigated similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from monetary feedback using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two groups of 15 subjects each - active and observational learners - participated in the experiment. On every trial, active learners chose between two stimuli and received monetary feedback. Each observational learner observed the choices and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance as assessed via active test trials without feedback was comparable between groups. Different activation patterns were observed for the processing of unexpected vs. expected monetary feedback in active and observational learners, particularly for positive outcomes. Activity for unexpected vs. expected reward was stronger in the right striatum in active learning, while activity in the hippocampus was bilaterally enhanced in observational and reduced in active learning. Modulation of activity by prediction error (PE) magnitude was observed in the right putamen in both types of learning, whereas PE related activations in the right anterior caudate nucleus and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex were stronger for active learning. The striatum and orbitofrontal cortex thus appear to link reward stimuli to own behavioural reactions and are less strongly involved when the behavioural outcome refers to another person's action. Alternative explanations such as differences in reward value between active and observational learning are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  1. Unexpected Relationships and Inbreeding in HapMap Phase III Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Eric L.; Baugher, Joseph D.; Shirley, Matthew D.; Frelin, Laurence P.; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Correct annotation of the genetic relationships between samples is essential for population genomic studies, which could be biased by errors or omissions. To this end, we used identity-by-state (IBS) and identity-by-descent (IBD) methods to assess genetic relatedness of individuals within HapMap phase III data. We analyzed data from 1,397 individuals across 11 ethnic populations. Our results support previous studies (Pemberton et al., 2010; Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou et al., 2011) assessing unknown relatedness present within this population. Additionally, we present evidence for 1,657 novel pairwise relationships across 9 populations. Surprisingly, significant Cotterman's coefficients of relatedness K1 (IBD1) values were detected between pairs of known parents. Furthermore, significant K2 (IBD2) values were detected in 32 previously annotated parent-child relationships. Consistent with a hypothesis of inbreeding, regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in the offspring of related parents, of which a subset overlapped those reported in previous studies (Gibson et al. 2010; Johnson et al. 2011). In total, we inferred 28 inbred individuals with ROH that overlapped areas of relatedness between the parents and/or IBD2 sharing at a different genomic locus between a child and a parent. Finally, 8 previously annotated parent-child relationships had unexpected K0 (IBD0) values (resulting from a chromosomal abnormality or genotype error), and 10 previously annotated second-degree relationships along with 38 other novel pairwise relationships had unexpected IBD2 (indicating two separate paths of recent ancestry). These newly described types of relatedness may impact the outcome of previous studies and should inform the design of future studies relying on the HapMap Phase III resource. PMID:23185369

  2. Preserved scleral patch graft for unexpected extreme scleral thinning found at the scleral buckling procedure: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spela Stunf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-existing scleral pathology is an important risk factor for globe rupture during scleral buckling procedures. We report here, the surgical management of an unexpected scleral pathology found at the scleral buckling procedure in a retinal detachment patient. A 77-year-old white female with retinal detachment underwent a scleral buckling procedure. The surgery was converted into a scleral graft procedure, as extreme scleral thinning was found intraoperatively. An alcohol-preserved donor sclera graft was used. The second surgery for definitive retinal alignment was performed two weeks later. The presented case of an unexpected scleral pathology in a retinal detachment patient was managed with a combination of scleral grafting and pars plana vitrectomy, without any major complications. The anatomical outcome was excellent and the scleral rupture was prevented; the visual outcome was satisfactory. A conversion of the scleral buckling procedure into a scleral graft procedure has proved to be safe and effective for unexpected scleral pathology.

  3. Unexpected decline in tuberculosis cases coincident with economic recession -- United States, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Carla A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1953, through the cooperation of state and local health departments, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has collected information on incident cases of tuberculosis (TB disease in the United States. In 2009, TB case rates declined -11.4%, compared to an average annual -3.8% decline since 2000. The unexpectedly large decline raised concerns that TB cases may have gone unreported. To address the unexpected decline, we examined trends from multiple sources on TB treatment initiation, medication sales, and laboratory and genotyping data on culture-positive TB. Methods We analyzed 142,174 incident TB cases reported to the U. S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System (NTSS during January 1, 2000-December 31, 2009; TB control program data from 59 public health reporting areas; self-reported data from 50 CDC-funded public health laboratories; monthly electronic prescription claims for new TB therapy prescriptions; and complete genotyping results available for NTSS cases. Accounting for prior trends using regression and time-series analyses, we calculated the deviation between observed and expected TB cases in 2009 according to patient and clinical characteristics, and assessed at what point in time the deviation occurred. Results The overall deviation in TB cases in 2009 was -7.9%, with -994 fewer cases reported than expected (P Conclusions Our assessments show that the decline in reported TB was not an artifact of changes in surveillance methods; rather, similar declines were found through multiple data sources. While the steady decline of TB cases before 2009 suggests ongoing improvement in TB control, we were not able to identify any substantial change in TB control activities or TB transmission that would account for the abrupt decline in 2009. It is possible that other multiple causes coincident with economic recession in the United States, including decreased immigration and delayed access to

  4. An unexpected evolution of symptomatic mild middle cerebral artery (MCA stenosis: asymptomatic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malferrari Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracranial localization of large artery disease is recognized as the main cause of ischemic stroke in the world, considering all countries, although its global burden is widely underestimated. Indeed it has been reported more frequently in Asians and African-American people, but the finding of intracranial stenosis as a cause of ischemic stroke is relatively common also in Caucasians. The prognosis of patients with stroke due to intracranial steno-occlusion is strictly dependent on the time of recanalization. Moreover, the course of the vessel involvement is highly dynamic in both directions, improvement or worsening, although several data are derived from the atherosclerotic subtype, compared to other causes. Case description We report the clinical, neurosonological and neuroradiological findings of a young woman, who came to our Stroke Unit because of the abrupt onset of aphasia during her work. An urgent neurosonological examination showed a left M1 MCA stenosis, congruent with the presenting symptoms; magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding and identified an acute ischemic lesion on the left MCA territory. The past history of the patient was significant only for a hyperinsulinemic condition, treated with metformine, and a mild overweight. At this time a selective cerebral angiography was not performed because of the patient refusal and she was discharged on antiplatelet and lipid-lowering therapy, having failed to identify autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. Within 1 month, she went back to our attention because of the recurrence of aphasia, lasting about ten minutes. Neuroimaging findings were unchanged, but the patient accepted to undergo a selective cerebral angiography, which showed a mild left distal M1 MCA stenosis. During the follow-up the patient did not experienced any recurrence, but a routine neurosonological examination found an unexpected evolution of the known MCA stenosis, i.e. left M1 MCA

  5. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Francke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inherited BRCA gene mutations convey a high risk for breast and ovarian cancer, but current guidelines limit BRCA mutation testing to women with early-onset cancer and relatives of mutation-positive cases. Benefits and risks of providing this information directly to consumers are unknown.Methods. To assess and quantify emotional and behavioral reactions of consumers to their 23andMe Personal Genome Service® report of three BRCA mutations that are common in Ashkenazi Jews, we invited all 136 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive individuals in the 23andMe customer database who had chosen to view their BRCA reports to participate in this IRB-approved study. We also invited 160 mutation-negative customers who were matched for age, sex and ancestry. Semi-structured phone interviews were completed for 32 mutation carriers, 16 women and 16 men, and 31 non-carriers. Questions addressed personal and family history of cancer, decision and timing of viewing the BRCA report, recollection of the result, emotional responses, perception of personal cancer risk, information sharing, and actions taken or planned.Results. Eleven women and 14 men had received the unexpected result that they are carriers of a BRCA1 185delAG or 5382insC, or BRCA2 6174delT mutation. None of them reported extreme anxiety and four experienced moderate anxiety that was transitory. Remarkably, five women and six men described their response as neutral. Most carrier women sought medical advice and four underwent risk-reducing procedures after confirmatory mutation testing. Male carriers realized that their test results implied genetic risk for female relatives, and several of them felt considerably burdened by this fact. Sharing mutation information with family members led to screening of at least 30 relatives and identification of 13 additional carriers. Non-carriers did not report inappropriate actions, such as foregoing cancer screening. All but one of the 32 mutation

  6. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Uta; Dijamco, Cheri; Kiefer, Amy K; Eriksson, Nicholas; Moiseff, Bianca; Tung, Joyce Y; Mountain, Joanna L

    2013-01-01

    Background. Inherited BRCA gene mutations convey a high risk for breast and ovarian cancer, but current guidelines limit BRCA mutation testing to women with early-onset cancer and relatives of mutation-positive cases. Benefits and risks of providing this information directly to consumers are unknown. Methods. To assess and quantify emotional and behavioral reactions of consumers to their 23andMe Personal Genome Service(®) report of three BRCA mutations that are common in Ashkenazi Jews, we invited all 136 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive individuals in the 23andMe customer database who had chosen to view their BRCA reports to participate in this IRB-approved study. We also invited 160 mutation-negative customers who were matched for age, sex and ancestry. Semi-structured phone interviews were completed for 32 mutation carriers, 16 women and 16 men, and 31 non-carriers. Questions addressed personal and family history of cancer, decision and timing of viewing the BRCA report, recollection of the result, emotional responses, perception of personal cancer risk, information sharing, and actions taken or planned. Results. Eleven women and 14 men had received the unexpected result that they are carriers of a BRCA1 185delAG or 5382insC, or BRCA2 6174delT mutation. None of them reported extreme anxiety and four experienced moderate anxiety that was transitory. Remarkably, five women and six men described their response as neutral. Most carrier women sought medical advice and four underwent risk-reducing procedures after confirmatory mutation testing. Male carriers realized that their test results implied genetic risk for female relatives, and several of them felt considerably burdened by this fact. Sharing mutation information with family members led to screening of at least 30 relatives and identification of 13 additional carriers. Non-carriers did not report inappropriate actions, such as foregoing cancer screening. All but one of the 32 mutation-positive participants

  7. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy Among Patients With Benign Childhood Epilepsy With Centrotemporal Spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumlele, Kyra; Friedman, Daniel; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Donner, Elizabeth J; Louik, Jay; Devinsky, Orrin

    2017-06-01

    Children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) have traditionally been considered to have a uniformly good prognosis. However, benign may be a misnomer because BECTS is linked to cognitive deficits, a more severe phenotype with intractable seizures, and the potential for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). To determine if cases of BECTS are present in the North American SUDEP Registry (NASR). The NASR is a clinical and biospecimen repository established in 2011 to promote SUDEP research. The NASR database, which includes medical records, results of electroencephalographic tests, and interviews with family members of patients with epilepsy who died suddenly without other identifiable causes of death, was queried from June 3, 2011, to June 3, 2016, for cases of BECTS. The patients with epilepsy had died suddenly without other identifiable causes of death (eg, drowning, trauma, exposure to toxic substances, or suicide); SUDEP classification was determined by the consensus of 2 epileptologists. Cases of SUDEP among children who received a diagnosis of BECTS among patients reported in the NASR. Three boys (median age at death, 12 years; range, 9-13 years) who received a diagnosis of BECTS by their pediatric epileptologist or neurologists were identified among 189 cases reported in the NASR. The median age of epilepsy onset was 5 years (range, 3-11 years), and the median duration of epilepsy was 4 years (range, 1-10 years). Two deaths were definite SUDEP, and 1 was probable SUDEP. Independent review of clinical and electroencephalographic data supported the diagnosis of BECTS in all 3 patients. None of the patients was prescribed antiseizure drugs, either owing to physician recommendation or mutual decision by the physician and parents. All 3 patients were found dead in circumstances typical of SUDEP. The 3 patients spanned the spectrum of BECTS severity: 1 had only a few seizures, 1 had more than 30 focal motor seizures, and 1 had 4 witnessed

  8. Transfusion rate and prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoestesen, Lisbeth M; Rasmussen, Kjeld L; Lauszus, Finn F

    2011-01-01

    To determine transfusion rates, risk factors for transfusion and the prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the necessity of the pretransfusion testing for red blood cell alloantibodies....

  9. 76 FR 35719 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... June 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire... laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of... amount not to exceed $15 million from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund...

  10. Embedded Prompting May Function as Embedded Punishment: Detection of Unexpected Behavioral Processes within a Typical Preschool Teaching Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Nicole A.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes an unexpected behavioral process that influenced behavior during the teaching of concepts to a 4-year-old girl. The efficacy of and preference for three strategies that varied in teacher directedness were assessed in a multielement design and concurrent-chains arrangement, respectively. The strategy that involved the most…

  11. A case-crossover analyses of fine particulate matter and out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out-of-hospital sudden unexpected deaths (OHSUD) are natural deaths that occur without obvious underlying causes and account for nearly 1 in 6 deaths in the United States. Ambient air pollution is known to be causally related to overall mortality, therefore, we hypothesized that ...

  12. Unexpectedly high catch-and-release rates in European marine recreational fisheries: implications for science and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferter, Keno; Weltersbach, Marc Simon; Strehlow, Harry Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Unexpectedly high catch-and-release rates in European marine recreational fisheries: implications for science and management. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70: .While catch-and-release (C&R) is a well-known practice in several European freshwater recreational fisheries, studies on the magnitu...

  13. Unexpected Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis by 16S and D2 Large-Subunit Ribosomal DNA PCR and Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin Collin; Kvich, Lasse Andersson; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen Robert

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes severe opportunistic infections. Here, we report an unexpected diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was diagnosed by 16S and D2 large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing of a cerebral biopsy specimen and confirmed by T. gondii...

  14. Evidence against barium in the mushroom Trogia venenata as a cause of sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanchun; Wu, Gang; Feng, Bang; Yoell, Shanze; Yu, Zefen; Zhang, Keqin; Xu, Jianping

    2012-12-01

    This study examined barium concentrations in the mushroom Trogia venenata, the leading culprit for sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, southwest China. We found that barium concentrations in T. venenata from Yunnan were low and comparable to other foods, inconsistent with barium concentrations in this mushroom as a significant contributor to these deaths.

  15. Should I Stay or Should I Go? Attentional Disengagement from Visually Unique and Unexpected Items at Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmole, James R.; Boot, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Distinctive aspects of a scene can capture attention even when they are irrelevant to one's goals. The authors address whether visually unique, unexpected, but task-irrelevant features also tend to hold attention. Observers searched through displays in which the color of each item was irrelevant. At the start of search, all objects changed color.…

  16. Unexpected findings after surgery for suspected appendicitis rarely change treatment in pediatric patients; Results from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Ramon R; van Amstel, Paul; van der Lee, Johanna H; van der Voorn, Patick; Bakx, Roel; Heij, Hugo A

    2017-08-01

    To determine if non-operative treatment is safe in children with acute appendicitis, we evaluated the incidence of unexpected findings after an appendectomy in children, and the influence they have on subsequent treatment. A historical cohort study (January 2004-December 2014) was performed including children, aged 0-17 years, who underwent an appendectomy for the suspicion of acute appendicitis. Patients were divided based upon histopathological examination. Unexpected findings were reviewed, as well as the subsequent treatment plan. In total 484 patients were included in this study. In the overall group, unexpected findings were noted in 10 (2.1%) patients of which two patients intra-operatively with a non-inflamed appendix (Ileitis terminalis N=1 and ovarian torsion N=1) and in 8 patients on histopathological examination. The latter group consisted of 4 patients with concomitant simple appendicitis (parasitic infection N=3 and Walthard cell rest N=1), two with concomitant complex appendicitis (carcinoid N=1 and parasitic infection N=1) and two patients with a non-inflamed appendix (endometriosis N=1 and parasitic infection N=1). Treatment was changed in 4 patients (appendicitis, as the occurrence of unexpected findings was low, with extremely few necessary changes of the treatment plan because of serious findings. Prognosis study. Level 2 (retrospective cohort study). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Unexpected temporal evolution of atomic spectral lines of aluminum in a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, Rawad; L'Hermite, Daniel; Bousquet, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the laser induced breakdown (LIBS) signal of a pure aluminum sample was studied under nitrogen and air atmospheres. In addition to the usual decrease of signal due to plasma cooling, unexpected temporal evolutions were observed for a spectral lines of aluminum, which revealed the existence of collisional energy transfer effects. Furthermore, molecular bands of AlN and AlO were observed in the LIBS spectra, indicating recombination of aluminum with the ambient gas. Within the experimental conditions reported in this study, both collisional energy transfer and recombination processes occurred around 1.5 μs after the laser shot. This highlights the possible influence of collisional and chemical effects inside the plasma that can play a role on LIBS signals. - Highlights: • Persistence of two Al I lines related to the 61,844 cm −1 energy level only under nitrogen atmosphere. • Collisional energy transfer effect exists between aluminum and nitrogen. • Observation of molecular band of AlN (under nitrogen) and AlO (under air) after a delay time of 1.5 µs. • 20% of oxygen in air is sufficient to annihilate both the collisional energy transfer effect and the AlN molecular formation

  18. Unexpected High Sensory Blockade during Continuous Spinal Anesthesiology (CSA in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ketelaars

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 98-year-old woman presented for a hemiarthroplasty of the left hip. Because of her age and cardiac and pulmonary co-existing diseases we decided to provide adequate regional anesthesia by continuous spinal anesthesia. Fragmented doses of isobaric bupivacaine 0.5% were administered through a system consisting of a spinal catheter connected to an antimicrobial filter. After an uneventful surgical procedure, prior to removal of the catheter, this system was flushed with 10 mL of normal saline in order to try to prevent post-dural-puncture headache. After arrival at the postanesthesia care unit and fifteen minutes after removal of the catheter the patient suffered an unexpected high thoracic sensory blockade and hypotension requiring treatment. The continuous spinal anesthesia technique can be used in selected cases to be able to administer local anesthetic agents in a slow and controlled manner to reach the desired effect. The risk of post-dural-puncture headache using this technique in elderly patients is very low and therefore precludes the need to try to prevent it. We have described a potentially dangerous complication of flushing a bupivacaine-filled system into the spinal canal of an elderly patient resulting in an undesirable high sensory blockade.

  19. From unwitnessed fatality to witnessed rescue: Nonpharmacologic interventions in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, Fergus; Duncan, John; Hjalgrim, Helle; Seyal, Masud; Bateman, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) risk reduction remains a critical aim in epilepsy care. To date, only aggressive medical and surgical efforts to control seizures have been demonstrated to be of benefit. Incomplete understanding of SUDEP mechanisms limits the development of more specific interventions. Periictal cardiorespiratory dysfunction is implicated in SUDEP; postictal electroencephalography (EEG) suppression, coma, and immobility may also play a role. Nocturnal supervision is protective against SUDEP, presumably by permitting intervention in the case of a life-threatening event. Resuscitative efforts were implemented promptly in near-SUDEP cases but delayed in SUDEP deaths in the Mortality in Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Study (MORTEMUS) study. Nursing interventions--including repositioning, oral suctioning, and oxygen administration--reduce seizure duration, respiratory dysfunction, and EEG suppression in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU), but have not been studied in outpatients. Cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter-defibrillator devices may be of benefit in a few select individuals. A role for implantable neurostimulators has not yet been established. Seizure detection devices, including those that monitor generalized tonic-clonic seizure-associated movements or cardiorespiratory parameters, may provide a means to permit timely periictal intervention. However, these and other devices, such as antisuffocation pillows, have not been adequately investigated with respect to SUDEP prevention. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Test-potentiated learning: three independent replications, a disconfirmed hypothesis, and an unexpected boundary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2018-04-01

    Arnold and McDermott [(2013). Test-potentiated learning: Distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of testing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 940-945] isolated the indirect effects of testing and concluded that encoding is enhanced to a greater extent following more versus fewer practice tests, referred to as test-potentiated learning. The current research provided further evidence for test-potentiated learning and evaluated the covert retrieval hypothesis as an alternative explanation for the observed effect. Learners initially studied foreign language word pairs and then completed either one or five practice tests before restudy occurred. Results of greatest interest concern performance on test trials following restudy for items that were not correctly recalled on the test trials that preceded restudy. Results replicate Arnold and McDermott (2013) by demonstrating that more versus fewer tests potentiate learning when trial time is limited. Results also provide strong evidence against the covert retrieval hypothesis concerning why the effect occurs (i.e., it does not reflect differential covert retrieval during pre-restudy trials). In addition, outcomes indicate that the magnitude of the test-potentiated learning effect decreases as trial length increases, revealing an unexpected boundary condition to test-potentiated learning.

  1. Nonseizure SUDEP: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy without preceding epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhatoo, Samden D; Nei, Maromi; Raghavan, Manoj; Sperling, Michael; Zonjy, Bilal; Lacuey, Nuria; Devinsky, Orrin

    2016-07-01

    To describe the phenomenology of monitored sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) occurring in the interictal period where death occurs without a seizure preceding it. We report a case series of monitored definite and probable SUDEP where no electroclinical evidence of underlying seizures was found preceding death. Three patients (two definite and one probable) had SUDEP. They had a typical high SUDEP risk profile with longstanding intractable epilepsy and frequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). All patients had varying patterns of respiratory and bradyarrhythmic cardiac dysfunction with profound electroencephalography (EEG) suppression. In two patients, patterns of cardiorespiratory failure were similar to those seen in some patients in the Mortality in Epilepsy Monitoring Units Study (MORTEMUS). SUDEP almost always occur postictally, after GTCS and less commonly after a partial seizure. Monitored SUDEP or near-SUDEP cases without a seizure have not yet been reported in literature. When nonmonitored SUDEP occurs in an ambulatory setting without an overt seizure, the absence of EEG information prevents the exclusion of a subtle seizure. These cases confirm the existence of nonseizure SUDEP; such deaths may not be prevented by seizure detection-based devices. SUDEP risk in patients with epilepsy may constitute a spectrum of susceptibility wherein some are relatively immune, death occurs in others with frequent GTCS with one episode of seizure ultimately proving fatal, while in others still, death may occur even in the absence of a seizure. We emphasize the heterogeneity of SUDEP phenomena. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Unexpected heterogeneity derived from Cas9 ribonucleoprotein-introduced clonal cells at the HPRT1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Tetsushi; Mochida, Keiji; Nakade, Shota; Ezure, Toru; Minagawa, Sachi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Single-cell cloning is an essential technique for establishing genome-edited cell clones mediated by programmable nucleases such as CRISPR-Cas9. However, residual genome-editing activity after single-cell cloning may cause heterogeneity in the clonal cells. Previous studies showed efficient mutagenesis and rapid degradation of CRISPR-Cas9 components in cultured cells by introducing Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). In this study, we investigated how the timing for single-cell cloning of Cas9 RNP-transfected cells affected the heterogeneity of the resultant clones. We carried out transfection of Cas9 RNPs targeting several loci in the HPRT1 gene in HCT116 cells, followed by single-cell cloning at 24, 48, 72 hr and 1 week post-transfection. After approximately 3 weeks of incubation, the clonal cells were collected and genotyped by high-resolution microchip electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing. Unexpectedly, long-term incubation before single-cell cloning resulted in highly heterogeneous clones. We used a lipofection method for transfection, and the media containing transfectable RNPs were not removed before single-cell cloning. Therefore, the active Cas9 RNPs were considered to be continuously incorporated into cells during the precloning incubation. Our findings provide a warning that lipofection of Cas9 RNPs may cause continuous introduction of gene mutations depending on the experimental procedures. © 2018 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Children and Trauma: Unexpected Resistance and Justice in Film and Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheri M. Robinson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This transnational study examines representations of and by children—whether literal wounds, psychological ones, or wounds transmitted through drawings—that manifest their capacity for unexpected resistance and justice. It considers the Mexican-American director Guillermo del Toro’s use of hauntings and wounds to explore violence during the 1936–1939 Spanish Civil War in the film El espinazo del diablo [The Devil’s Backbone] (2001 and its intersections on strategic and theoretical levels with the traumatic in archival children’s drawings produced during the 1976–1983 Argentine military dictatorship. The drawings illustrate the violence perpetrated against the child artists’ families and were produced in exile for the human rights organization COSOFAM. Utilizing diverse theories from film and trauma studies, among others, this article analyzes key scenes in El espinazo exhibiting commonalities with representations of traumatic violence in the children’s drawings, revealing that, in fiction and in fact, a strategic “showing” of the traumatic wound is designed to remind others of the imperative to intervene in situations of extreme violence, to appeal to/for justice, and to effectively testify from the inside.

  4. Unexpected Southern Hemisphere ionospheric response to geomagnetic storm of 15 August 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edemskiy, Ilya; Lastovicka, Jan; Buresova, Dalia; Bosco Habarulema, John; Nepomnyashchikh, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are the most pronounced phenomenon of space weather. When studying ionospheric response to a storm of 15 August 2015, an unexpected phenomenon was observed at higher middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. This phenomenon was a localized total electron content (TEC) enhancement (LTE) in the form of two separated plumes, which peaked southward of South Africa. The plumes were first observed at 05:00 UT near the southwestern coast of Australia. The southern plume was associated with local time slightly after noontime (1-2 h after local noon). The plumes moved with the Sun. They peaked near 13:00 UT southward of South Africa. The southern plume kept constant geomagnetic latitude (63-64° S); it persisted for about 10 h, whereas the northern plume persisted for about 2 h more. Both plumes disappeared over the South Atlantic Ocean. No similar LTE event was observed during the prolonged solar activity minimum period of 2006-2009. In 2012-2016 we detected altogether 26 LTEs and all of them were associated with the southward excursion of Bz. The negative Bz excursion is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the LTE occurrence as during some geomagnetic storms associated with negative Bz excursions the LTE events did not appear.

  5. Unexpected Southern Hemisphere ionospheric response to geomagnetic storm of 15 August 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Edemskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic storms are the most pronounced phenomenon of space weather. When studying ionospheric response to a storm of 15 August 2015, an unexpected phenomenon was observed at higher middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. This phenomenon was a localized total electron content (TEC enhancement (LTE in the form of two separated plumes, which peaked southward of South Africa. The plumes were first observed at 05:00 UT near the southwestern coast of Australia. The southern plume was associated with local time slightly after noontime (1–2 h after local noon. The plumes moved with the Sun. They peaked near 13:00 UT southward of South Africa. The southern plume kept constant geomagnetic latitude (63–64° S; it persisted for about 10 h, whereas the northern plume persisted for about 2 h more. Both plumes disappeared over the South Atlantic Ocean. No similar LTE event was observed during the prolonged solar activity minimum period of 2006–2009. In 2012–2016 we detected altogether 26 LTEs and all of them were associated with the southward excursion of Bz. The negative Bz excursion is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the LTE occurrence as during some geomagnetic storms associated with negative Bz excursions the LTE events did not appear.

  6. Fish consumption, contaminants and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: many more benefits than risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Scorza

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy have an increased risk of dying prematurely and the most common epilepsy-related category of death is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP. SUDEP is mainly a problem for patients with chronic uncontrolled epilepsy. The ultimate goal of research in SUDEP is to develop new methods to prevent it and actions other than medical and surgical therapies that could be very useful. Nutritional aspects, i.e., omega-3 fatty acids deficiency, could have an interesting role in this scenario. Some animal and clinical studies have suggested that omega-3 fatty acids could be useful in the prevention and treatment of epilepsy and hence SUDEP. It has been ascertained that the only foods that provide large amounts of omega-3 are seafood (fish and shellfish; however, some fish are contaminated with methylmercury, which may counteract the positive effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Our update review summarises the knowledge of the role of fish consumption on epilepsy research.

  7. Audit of practice in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) post mortems and neuropathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Maria; Michalak, Zuzanna; Wright, Gabriella; Dawson, Timothy; Hilton, David; Joshi, Abhijit; Diehl, Beate; Koepp, Matthias; Lhatoo, Samden; Sander, Josemir W; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2016-08-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. For classification of definite SUDEP, a post mortem (PM), including anatomical and toxicological examination, is mandatory to exclude other causes of death. We audited PM practice as well as the value of brain examination in SUDEP. We reviewed 145 PM reports in SUDEP cases from four UK neuropathology centres. Data were extracted for clinical epilepsy details, circumstances of death and neuropathological findings. Macroscopic brain abnormalities were identified in 52% of cases. Mild brain swelling was present in 28%, and microscopic pathologies relevant to cause or effect of seizures were seen in 89%. Examination based on whole fixed brains (76.6% of all PMs), and systematic regional sampling was associated with higher detection rates of underlying pathology (P detection of relevant pathology. Availability of full clinical epilepsy-related information at the time of PM could potentially further improve detection through targeted tissue sampling. Apart from confirmation of SUDEP, complete neuropathological examination contributes to evaluation of risk factors as well as helping to direct future research into underlying causes. © 2015 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  8. Unexpected low thermal conductivity and large power factor in Dirac semimetal Cd3As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Tong, Zhou; Sihang, Liang; Junzhi, Cao; Xiang, Yuan; Yanwen, Liu; Yao, Shen; Qisi, Wang; Jun, Zhao; Zhongqin, Yang; Faxian, Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectrics has long been considered as a promising way of power generation for the next decades. So far, extensive efforts have been devoted to the search of ideal thermoelectric materials, which require both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity. Recently, the emerging Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, a three-dimensional analogue of graphene, has been reported to host ultra-high mobility and good electrical conductivity as metals. Here, we report the observation of unexpected low thermal conductivity in Cd3As2, one order of magnitude lower than the conventional metals or semimetals with a similar electrical conductivity, despite the semimetal band structure and high electron mobility. The power factor also reaches a large value of 1.58 mW·m-1·K-2 at room temperature and remains non-saturated up to 400 K. Corroborating with the first-principles calculations, we find that the thermoelectric performance can be well-modulated by the carrier concentration in a wide range. This work demonstrates the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 as a potential candidate of thermoelectric materials. Project supported by the National Young 1000 Talent Plan China, the Pujiang Talent Plan in Shanghai, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61322407 and 11474058), the Fund for Fostering Talents in Basic Science of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. J1103204), and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921803).

  9. Unexpected Cartilage Phenotype in CD4-Cre-Conditional SOS-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittard, Geoffrey; Gallardo, Devorah L; Li, Wenmei; Melis, Nicolas; Lui, Julian C; Kortum, Robert L; Shakarishvili, Nicholas G; Huh, Sunmee; Baron, Jeffrey; Weigert, Roberto; Kramer, Joshua A; Samelson, Lawrence E; Sommers, Connie L

    2017-01-01

    RAS signaling is central to many cellular processes and SOS proteins promote RAS activation. To investigate the role of SOS proteins in T cell biology, we crossed Sos1 f/f Sos2 -/- mice to CD4-Cre transgenic mice. We previously reported an effect of these mutations on T cell signaling and T cell migration. Unexpectedly, we observed nodules on the joints of greater than 90% of these mutant mice at 5 months of age, especially on the carpal joints. As the mice aged further, some also displayed joint stiffness, hind limb paralysis, and lameness. Histological analysis indicated that the abnormal growth in joints originated from dysplastic chondrocytes. Second harmonic generation imaging of the carpal nodules revealed that nodules were encased by rich collagen fibrous networks. Nodules formed in mice also deficient in RAG2, indicating that conventional T cells, which undergo rearrangement of the T cell antigen receptor, are not required for this phenotype. CD4-Cre expression in a subset of cells, either immune lineage cells (e.g., non-conventional T cells) or non-immune lineage cells (e.g., chondrocytes) likely mediates the dramatic phenotype observed in this study. Disruptions of genes in the RAS signaling pathway are especially likely to cause this phenotype. These results also serve as a cautionary tale to those intending to use CD4-Cre transgenic mice to specifically delete genes in conventional T cells.

  10. Unexpected large room-temperature ferromagnetism in porous Cu{sub 2}O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Sun, Huiyuan, E-mail: huiyuansun@126.com [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Liu, Lihu; Jia, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Huiyuan [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Porous Cu{sub 2}O films have been fabricated on porous anodic alumina substrates using DC-reactive magnetron sputtering with pure Cu targets, and unexpectedly large room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in the films. The maximum saturation magnetic moment along the out-of-plane direction was as high as 94 emu/cm{sup 3}. Photoluminescence spectra show that the ferromagnetism originates with oxygen vacancies. The ferromagnetism could be adjusted by changing the concentration of oxygen vacancies through annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. These observations suggest that the origin of the ferromagnetism is due to coupling between oxygen vacancies with local magnetic moments in the porous Cu{sub 2}O films, which can occur either directly through exchange interactions between oxygen vacancies, or through the mediation of conduction electrons. Such a ferromagnet without the presence of any ferromagnetic dopant may find applications in spintronic devices. - Highlights: • Porous Cu{sub 2}O films were deposited on porous anodic alumina (PAA) substrates. • Significant room-temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in porous Cu{sub 2}O films. • Ferromagnetism of Cu{sub 2}O films exhibited different magnetic signals with the field. • The saturation magnetization is 94 emu/cm{sup 3} with an out-of-plane.

  11. The vital few meet the trivial many: unexpected use patterns in a monographs collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J D

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test three related hypotheses about monographs circulation at academic health sciences libraries: (1) Juran's "Vital Few" Principle, sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "Pareto Principle"; (2) most (> 30%) new monographs will not circulate within four years; and, (3) Trueswell's 20/80 rule concerning intensity of monographs circulation. METHODS: Retrospective circulation study conducted at a major academic health sciences library in November 1997 on monographs acquired during 1993, utilizing an online review file. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, most monographs (84%) had circulated at least once in the four years following acquisition. Combining circulation and in-house data revealed that 90.7% of the monographs acquired in 1993 had been used at least once. Small percentages of these monographs produced disproportionately high circulation levels. CONCLUSION: Monographs circulation rates confirm Juran's Vital Few principle. Most monographs circulated at least once in contrast to results reported by the Pittsburgh Study or other studies reported by Hardesty and Fenske. The results do not comply with Trueswell's 20/80 ratio rule. Further research needs to investigate the effects of low students to books ratios and problem-based learning (PBL) curricula upon monographs utilization. PMID:9803291

  12. Field Measurements Indicate Unexpected, Serious Underestimation of Mussel Heart Rates and Thermal Tolerance by Laboratory Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Tagliarolo

    Full Text Available Attempts to predict the response of species to long-term environmental change are generally based on extrapolations from laboratory experiments that inevitably simplify the complex interacting effects that occur in the field. We recorded heart rates of two genetic lineages of the brown mussel Perna perna over a full tidal cycle in-situ at two different sites in order to evaluate the cardiac responses of the two genetic lineages present on the South African coast to temperature and the immersion/emersion cycle. "Robomussel" temperature loggers were used to monitor thermal conditions at the two sites over one year. Comparison with live animals showed that robomussels provided a good estimate of mussel body temperatures. A significant difference in estimated body temperatures was observed between the sites and the results showed that, under natural conditions, temperatures regularly approach or exceed the thermal limits of P. perna identified in the laboratory. The two P. perna lineages showed similar tidal and diel patterns of heart rate, with higher cardiac activity during daytime immersion and minimal values during daytime emersion. Comparison of the heart rates measured in the field with data previously measured in the laboratory indicates that laboratory results seriously underestimate heart rate activity, by as much as 75%, especially during immersion. Unexpectedly, field estimates of body temperatures indicated an ability to tolerate temperatures considered lethal on the basis of laboratory measurements. This suggests that the interaction of abiotic conditions in the field does not necessarily raise vulnerability to high temperatures.

  13. An unexpected antibody response to an engineered influenza virus modifies CD8+ T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul G; Brown, Scott A; Yue, Wen; So, Jenny; Webby, Richard J; Doherty, Peter C

    2006-02-21

    The ovalbumin(323-339) peptide that binds H2I-A(b) was engineered into the globular heads of hemagglutinin (H) molecules from serologically non-cross-reactive H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses, the aim being to analyze recall CD4+ T cell responses in a virus-induced respiratory disease. Prime/challenge experiments with these H1ova and H3ova viruses in H2(b) mice gave the predicted, ovalbumin-specific CD4+ T cell response but showed an unexpectedly enhanced, early expansion of viral epitope-specific CD8+ T cells in spleen and a greatly diminished inflammatory process in the virus-infected respiratory tract. At the same time, the primary antibody response to the H3N2 challenge virus was significantly reduced, an effect that has been associated with preexisting neutralizing antibody in other experimental systems. Analysis of serum from the H1ova-primed mice showed low-level binding to H3ova but not to the wild-type H3N2 virus. Experiments with CD4+ T cell-depleted and Ig-/- mice indicated that this cross-reactive Ig is indeed responsible for the modified pathogenesis after respiratory challenge. Furthermore, the effect does not seem to be virus-dose related, although it does require infection. These findings suggest intriguing possibilities for vaccination and, at the same time, emphasize that engineered modifications in viruses may have unintended immunological consequences.

  14. Unexpected ICD pulse generator failure due to electronic circuit damage caused by electrical overstress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R G; Hayes, D L; Almquist, A K; Epstein, A E; Parsonnet, V; Tyers, G F; Vlay, S C; Schoenfeld, M H

    2001-07-01

    Because it is a lifesaving device, the unexpected failure of an ICD can be catastrophic. We report ICD electronic circuit failure due to electrical overstress damage (EOS) to the high voltage hybird circuit and other electronic components in a series of ICD pulse generator models. Data were obtained from the Multicenter Registry of Pacemaker and ICD Pacemaker and Lead Failures, and from the manufactures' adverse event reports, that were in the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database. Of 16 nonbattery Guidant/CPI ICD pulse generator failures reported to the registry, 6 (38%) have been confirmed by the manufacturer to be EOS related, and Guidant/CPI has reported 273 such failures to the FDA as of 12/29/00. The signs of failure included loss of telemetry and inability to deliver therapy, and some patients have experienced serious adverse events. Hybrid circuit damage may have occurred during capacitor charging or reform, and the majority appears to have happened during normal ICD function. While the incidence of this problem is unknown, a management strategy should be adopted that includes routine follow-up every 3 months and device evaluation after a shock or exposure to external defibrillation or electrosurgical devices. This study suggests that additional data are needed to determine the incidence of this problem, and that our present methods for monitoring the performance of ICD's following market release are inadequate.

  15. An Approach to Human Error Hazard Detection of Unexpected Situations in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sangjun; Oh, Yeonju; Shin, Youmin; Lee, Yong-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Fukushima accident is a typical complex event including the extreme situations induced by the succeeding earthquake, tsunami, explosion, and human errors. And it is judged with incomplete cause of system build-up same manner, procedure as a deficiency of response manual, education and training, team capability and the discharge of operator from human engineering point of view. Especially, the guidelines of current operating NPPs are not enough including countermeasures to the human errors at the extreme situations. Therefore, this paper describes a trial to detect the hazards of human errors at extreme situation, and to define the countermeasures that can properly response to the human error hazards when an individual, team, organization, and working entities that encounter the extreme situation in NPPs. In this paper we try to propose an approach to analyzing and extracting human error hazards for suggesting additional countermeasures to the human errors in unexpected situations. They might be utilized to develop contingency guidelines, especially for reducing the human error accident in NPPs. But the trial application in this study is currently limited since it is not easy to find accidents cases in detail enough to enumerate the proposed steps. Therefore, we will try to analyze as more cases as possible, and consider other environmental factors and human error conditions.

  16. Novel hydrated graphene ribbon unexpectedly promotes aged seed germination and root differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that graphene (G) induces nanotoxicity towards living organisms. Here, a novel and biocompatible hydrated graphene ribbon (HGR) unexpectedly promoted aged (two years) seed germination. HGR formed at the normal temperature and pressure (120 days hydration), presented 17.1% oxygen, 0.9% nitrogen groups, disorder-layer structure, with 0.38 nm thickness ribbon morphology. Interestingly, there were bulges around the edges of HGR. Compared to G and graphene oxide (GO), HGR increased seed germination by 15% root differentiation between 52 and 59% and enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. The metabonomics analysis discovered that HGR upregulated carbohydrate, amino acid, and fatty acids metabolism that determined secondary metabolism, nitrogen sequestration, cell membrane integrity, permeability, and oxidation resistance. Hexadecanoic acid as a biomarker promoted root differentiation and increased the germination rate. Our discovery is a novel HGR that promotes aged seed germination, illustrates metabolic specificity among graphene-based materials, and inspires innovative concepts in the regulation of seed development.

  17. Costly hide and seek pays: unexpected consequences of deceit in a social dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Deliberate deceptiveness intended to gain an advantage is commonplace in human and animal societies. In a social dilemma, an individual may only pretend to be a cooperator to elicit cooperation from others, while in reality he is a defector. With this as motivation, we study a simple variant of the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game entailing deceitful defectors and conditional cooperators that lifts the veil on the impact of such two-faced behavior. Defectors are able to hide their true intentions at a personal cost, while conditional cooperators are probabilistically successful at identifying defectors and act accordingly. By focusing on the evolutionary outcomes in structured populations, we observe a number of unexpected and counterintuitive phenomena. We show that deceitful behavior may fare better if it is costly, and that a higher success rate of identifying defectors does not necessarily favor cooperative behavior. These results are rooted in the spontaneous emergence of cycling dominance and spatial patterns that give rise to fascinating phase transitions, which in turn reveal the hidden complexity behind the evolution of deception. (paper)

  18. Characteristics of unexpected protein bands in multiple myeloma patients after autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Kyung; Jeong, Tae-Dong; Kim, So Young; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail; Suh, Cheol Won; Min, Won-Ki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of unexpected protein bands (UPBs) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Individuals diagnosed with MM (n=193) were enrolled. Their medical records and IFE patterns were reviewed. Of the patients that underwent ASCT, 54% developed UPBs. The median time for UPB appearance and duration was 1.8 and 5.7months, respectively. IFE revealed 74.1% of UPBs to be of the immunoglobulin G type and 72.2% to be of the κ-type. At UPB appearance, 42.6% of patients were defined as sCR or CR, and 50.0% of the patients satisfying the CR criteria had an abnormal FLC ratio. Of the patients who developed UPBs, five relapsed. Among these, four patients showed disappearance of the previous IFE oligoclonality and reappearance of the original paraprotein at relapse. Close follow-up of UPBs is critical for evaluating MM therapeutic response and disease progression. The presence of monoclonal bands may indicate relapse of disease, but in the vast majority of cases with UPBs, it does not; instead, it most likely represents a transient phenomenon caused by the immune response. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy following resective epilepsy surgery in two patients withdrawn from anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Alireza; Alhadid, Kenda; Valiante, Taufik A

    2015-09-01

    We report sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) following resective epilepsy surgery in two patients who had been documented as seizure free. One patient had been weaned off of anticonvulsants and was leading a normal life. The other patient had discontinued only one anticonvulsant but had recently started working night shifts. Following resective epilepsy surgery, one of the major objectives among patients, caregivers, and the healthcare team is to safely wean patients off anticonvulsant medications. The main concern regarding anticonvulsant withdrawal is seizure recurrence. While SUDEP following surgical resection has been reported, to our knowledge, there have been no confirmed cases in patients who have been seizure free. Considering the patients reported here, and given that there are no concrete guidelines for the safe withdrawal of anticonvulsants following epilepsy surgery, the discontinuation of anticonvulsants should be considered carefully and must be accompanied by close monitoring and counseling of patients regarding activities that lower seizure threshold, even after successful epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Out of Mind, Out of Sight: Unexpected Scene Elements Frequently Go Unnoticed Until Primed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M; Zimbardo, Philip G

    2013-12-01

    The human visual system employs a sophisticated set of strategies for scanning the environment and directing attention to stimuli that can be expected given the context and a person's past experience. Although these strategies enable us to navigate a very complex physical and social environment, they can also cause highly salient, but unexpected stimuli to go completely unnoticed. To examine the generality of this phenomenon, we conducted eight studies that included 15 different experimental conditions and 1,577 participants in all. These studies revealed that a large majority of participants do not report having seen a woman in the center of an urban scene who was photographed in midair as she was committing suicide. Despite seeing the scene repeatedly, 46 % of all participants failed to report seeing a central figure and only 4.8 % reported seeing a falling person. Frequency of noticing the suicidal woman was highest for participants who read a narrative priming story that increased the extent to which she was schematically congruent with the scene. In contrast to this robust effect of inattentional blindness , a majority of participants reported seeing other peripheral objects in the visual scene that were equally difficult to detect, yet more consistent with the scene. Follow-up qualitative analyses revealed that participants reported seeing many elements that were not actually present, but which could have been expected given the overall context of the scene. Together, these findings demonstrate the robustness of inattentional blindness and highlight the specificity with which different visual primes may increase noticing behavior.

  1. An Unexpected Diversity of Photoreceptor Classes in the Longfin Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Alexandra C N; Wardill, Trevor J; Hanlon, Roger T; Cronin, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods are famous for their ability to change color and pattern rapidly for signaling and camouflage. They have keen eyes and remarkable vision, made possible by photoreceptors in their retinas. External to the eyes, photoreceptors also exist in parolfactory vesicles and some light organs, where they function using a rhodopsin protein that is identical to that expressed in the retina. Furthermore, dermal chromatophore organs contain rhodopsin and other components of phototransduction (including retinochrome, a photoisomerase first found in the retina), suggesting that they are photoreceptive. In this study, we used a modified whole-mount immunohistochemical technique to explore rhodopsin and retinochrome expression in a number of tissues and organs in the longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We found that fin central muscles, hair cells (epithelial primary sensory neurons), arm axial ganglia, and sucker peduncle nerves all express rhodopsin and retinochrome proteins. Our findings indicate that these animals possess an unexpected diversity of extraocular photoreceptors and suggest that extraocular photoreception using visual opsins and visual phototransduction machinery is far more widespread throughout cephalopod tissues than previously recognized.

  2. An Unexpected Diversity of Photoreceptor Classes in the Longfin Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C N Kingston

    Full Text Available Cephalopods are famous for their ability to change color and pattern rapidly for signaling and camouflage. They have keen eyes and remarkable vision, made possible by photoreceptors in their retinas. External to the eyes, photoreceptors also exist in parolfactory vesicles and some light organs, where they function using a rhodopsin protein that is identical to that expressed in the retina. Furthermore, dermal chromatophore organs contain rhodopsin and other components of phototransduction (including retinochrome, a photoisomerase first found in the retina, suggesting that they are photoreceptive. In this study, we used a modified whole-mount immunohistochemical technique to explore rhodopsin and retinochrome expression in a number of tissues and organs in the longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We found that fin central muscles, hair cells (epithelial primary sensory neurons, arm axial ganglia, and sucker peduncle nerves all express rhodopsin and retinochrome proteins. Our findings indicate that these animals possess an unexpected diversity of extraocular photoreceptors and suggest that extraocular photoreception using visual opsins and visual phototransduction machinery is far more widespread throughout cephalopod tissues than previously recognized.

  3. An unexpected oxidation: NaK5Cl2(S2O62 revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. A. Harrison

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, NaK5Cl2(S2O62 [systematic name: sodium pentapotassium dichloride bis(dithionate], arose as an unexpected product from an organic synthesis that used dithionite (S2O42− ions as a reducing agent to destroy excess permanganate ions. Compared to the previous study [Stanley (1953. Acta Cryst. 6, 187–196], the present tetragonal structure exhibits a root 2a × root 2a × c super-cell due to subtle changes in the orientations of the dithionate anions. The structure can be visualized as a three-dimensional framework of [001] columns of alternating trans-NaO4Cl2 and KO4Cl2 octahedra cross-linked by the dithionate ions with the interstices occupied by KO6Cl2 polyhedra to generate a densely packed three-dimensional framework. The asymmetric unit comprises two sodium ions (site symmetries 4 and -4, four potassium ions (site symmetries = -4, 4, 1 and 1, three chloride ions (site symmetries = 4, 4 and 2 and two half-dithionate ions (all atoms on general positions. Both dithionate ions are completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The crystal chosen for data collection was found to be rotationally twinned by 180° about the [100] axis in reciprocal space with a 0.6298 (13:0.3702 (13 domain ratio.

  4. Radiography after unexpected death in infants and children compared to autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Charlotte de; Stake, Gunnar; Vege, Aashild

    2007-01-01

    Postmortem radiography may reveal skeletal and soft-tissue abnormalities of importance for the diagnosis of cause of death. To review the radiographs of children under 3 years of age who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. To compare the radiological and autopsy findings evaluating possible differences in children dying of SIDS and of an explainable cause. A total of 110 consecutive skeletal surveys performed between 1998 and 2002 were reviewed. All but one were performed before autopsy and comprised AP views of the appendicular and axial skeleton and thorax/abdomen, lateral views of the axial skeleton and thorax, and two oblique views of the ribs. Radiography and autopsy findings were compared. Causes of death were classified as SIDS/borderline SIDS (n = 52) and non-SIDS (n = 58), with one case of abuse. In 102 infants there were 150 pathological findings, 88 involving the chest, 24 skeletal, and 38 miscellaneous findings. The radiological-pathological agreement was poor concerning pulmonary findings. Skeletal findings were sometimes important for the final diagnosis. Radiography revealed many skeletal and soft-tissue findings. Pulmonary pathology was most frequently found, but showed poor agreement with autopsy findings. Recognizing skeletal findings related to abuse is important, as these may escape recognition at autopsy. (orig.)

  5. [Unexpected atrial fibrillation when monitoring in operating room. Case of the trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A real case reported to the SENSAR database of incidents is presented. In a patient scheduled for nose fracture repair surgery an unexpected atrial fibrillation was found when monitored in the operating room. The operation was not delayed. After induction of general anaesthesia heart rate suddenly increased and hemodinamic situation was impaired. Cardioversion was required. Two electric countershocks were given but sinus rhythm was not restored. Heart rate was controlled with amiodarone infusion. Optimal defibrillation characteristics are described in these cases. Increased risk of thromboembolism (1-2%) following cardioversion is present even if atrial thrombi are ruled out. The mainstay therapies of are rhythm and rate control and prevention of thromboembolic complications. We describe recommendations on the management of these critical situations with emphasis in learning through the creation of protocols and training practice in simulation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. The unexpected decarbonylation of ionized 2,3-pentanedione and related diketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian; Holmes, John L.

    2006-03-01

    The fragmentation of the 2,3-pentanedione radical cation gives rise to an unexpected composite metastable ion peak, m/z 72, resulting from the isobaric losses of CO and C2H4. These two fragmentation channels are energetically competitive (i.e., the transition states have similar energies). The two processes yield [CH3C(O)CH2CH3]+ and [CH3C(OH)CO]+, respectively. The latter new ion, which is produced by a McLafferty rearrangement, has [Delta]fH° = 604 kJ/mol, obtained from G3 calculations. The four competing processes for metastable [CH3COCOCH2CH3]+, the (intense) losses of CH3CO, CH3CH2CO and the weak losses of C2H4 and CO and their transition states were placed on a potential energy surface computed at the G3 level of theory. The homologous ionized diketone 2,3-butanedione also displays the decarbonylation channel and 3,4-hexanedione loses CO and C2H4.

  7. When Field Experiments Yield Unexpected Results: Lessons Learned from Measuring Selection in White Sands Lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Kayla M.; Harmon, Luke J.; Hardwick, Scott D.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2015-01-01

    Determining the adaptive significance of phenotypic traits is key for understanding evolution and diversification in natural populations. However, evolutionary biologists have an incomplete understanding of how specific traits affect fitness in most populations. The White Sands system provides an opportunity to study the adaptive significance of traits in an experimental context. Blanched color evolved recently in three species of lizards inhabiting the gypsum dunes of White Sands and is likely an adaptation to avoid predation. To determine whether there is a relationship between color and susceptibility to predation in White Sands lizards, we conducted enclosure experiments, quantifying survivorship of Holbrookia maculate exhibiting substrate-matched and substrate-mismatched phenotypes. Lizards in our study experienced strong predation. Color did not have a significant effect on survival, but we found several unexpected relationships including variation in predation over small spatial and temporal scales. In addition, we detected a marginally significant interaction between sex and color, suggesting selection for substrate matching may be stronger for males than females. We use our results as a case study to examine six major challenges frequently encountered in field-based studies of natural selection, and suggest that insight into the complexities of selection often results when experiments turn out differently than expected. PMID:25714838

  8. Unexpectedly high piezoelectricity of Sm-doped lead zirconate titanate in the Curie point region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Shruti B; Nolan, Michelle M; Tutuncu, Goknur; Forrester, Jennifer S; Sapper, Eva; Esteves, Giovanni; Granzow, Torsten; Thomas, Pam A; Nino, Juan C; Rojac, Tadej; Jones, Jacob L

    2018-03-07

    Large piezoelectric coefficients in polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are traditionally achieved through compositional design using a combination of chemical substitution with a donor dopant and adjustment of the zirconium to titanium compositional ratio to meet the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). In this work, a different route to large piezoelectricity is demonstrated. Results reveal unexpectedly high piezoelectric coefficients at elevated temperatures and compositions far from the MPB. At temperatures near the Curie point, doping with 2 at% Sm results in exceptionally large piezoelectric coefficients of up to 915 pm/V. This value is approximately twice those of other donor dopants (e.g., 477 pm/V for Nb and 435 pm/V for La). Structural changes during the phase transitions of Sm-doped PZT show a pseudo-cubic phase forming ≈50 °C below the Curie temperature. Possible origins of these effects are discussed and the high piezoelectricity is posited to be due to extrinsic effects. The enhancement of the mechanism at elevated temperatures is attributed to the coexistence of tetragonal and pseudo-cubic phases, which enables strain accommodation during electromechanical deformation and interphase boundary motion. This work provides insight into possible routes for designing high performance piezoelectrics which are alternatives to traditional methods relying on MPB compositions.

  9. Unexpected Convergent Evolution of Nasal Domes between Pleistocene Bovids and Cretaceous Hadrosaur Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Haley D; Faith, J Tyler; Jenkins, Kirsten E; Peppe, Daniel J; Plummer, Thomas W; Jacobs, Zenobia L; Li, Bo; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Price, Gilbert; Feng, Yue-Xing; Tryon, Christian A

    2016-02-22

    The fossil record provides tangible, historical evidence for the mode and operation of evolution across deep time. Striking patterns of convergence are some of the strongest examples of these operations, whereby, over time, similar environmental and/or behavioral pressures precipitate similarity in form and function between disparately related taxa. Here we present fossil evidence for an unexpected convergence between gregarious plant-eating mammals and dinosaurs. Recent excavations of Late Pleistocene deposits on Rusinga Island, Kenya, have uncovered a catastrophic assemblage of the wildebeest-like bovid Rusingoryx atopocranion. Previously known from fragmentary material, these new specimens reveal large, hollow, osseous nasal crests: a craniofacial novelty for mammals that is remarkably comparable to the nasal crests of lambeosaurine hadrosaur dinosaurs. Using adult and juvenile material from this assemblage, as well as computed tomographic imaging, we investigate this convergence from morphological, developmental, functional, and paleoenvironmental perspectives. Our detailed analyses reveal broad parallels between R. atopocranion and basal Lambeosaurinae, suggesting that osseous nasal crests may require a highly specific combination of ontogeny, evolution, and environmental pressures in order to develop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unexpected Effects of a System-Distributed Mobile Application in Maternity Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J W; Womack, Jasmyne J; Rider, Heather A; Seehusen, Angela B; Conner, Stephen J; Lauters, Rebecca A; Hodge, Joshua A

    2018-06-01

    As pregnant mothers increasingly engage in shared decision making regarding prenatal decisions, such as induction of labor, the patient's level of activation may influence pregnancy outcomes. One potential tool to increase patient activation in the clinical setting is mobile applications. However, research is limited in comparing mobile apps with other modalities of patient education and engagement tools. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of a mobile app as a replacement for a spiral notebook guide as a patient education and engagement tool in the prenatal clinical setting. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Women's Health Clinic and Family Health Clinic of three hospitals. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to test intervention effects in the study sample of 205 patients. Mothers used a mobile app interface to more frequently record information about their pregnancy; however, across time, mothers using a mobile app reported a significant decrease in patient activation. The unexpected negative effects in the group of patients randomized to the mobile app prompt these authors to recommend that health systems pause before distributing their own version of mobile apps that may decrease patient activation. Mobile apps can be inherently empowering and engaging, but how a system encourages their use may ultimately determine their adoption and success.

  11. An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, David R

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

  12. An unexpected clade of South American ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maddison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding. Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here, these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex.

  13. Audit of practice in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) post mortems and neuropathological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Zuzanna; Wright, Gabriella; Dawson, Timothy; Hilton, David; Joshi, Abhijit; Diehl, Beate; Koepp, Matthias; Lhatoo, Samden; Sander, Josemir W.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. For classification of definite SUDEP, a post mortem (PM), including anatomical and toxicological examination, is mandatory to exclude other causes of death. We audited PM practice as well as the value of brain examination in SUDEP. Methods We reviewed 145 PM reports in SUDEP cases from four UK neuropathology centres. Data were extracted for clinical epilepsy details, circumstances of death and neuropathological findings. Results Macroscopic brain abnormalities were identified in 52% of cases. Mild brain swelling was present in 28%, and microscopic pathologies relevant to cause or effect of seizures were seen in 89%. Examination based on whole fixed brains (76.6% of all PMs), and systematic regional sampling was associated with higher detection rates of underlying pathology (P epilepsy history and investigations. Conclusion Our findings support the contribution of examination of the whole fixed brain in SUDEP, with high rates of detection of relevant pathology. Availability of full clinical epilepsy‐related information at the time of PM could potentially further improve detection through targeted tissue sampling. Apart from confirmation of SUDEP, complete neuropathological examination contributes to evaluation of risk factors as well as helping to direct future research into underlying causes. PMID:26300477

  14. Unexpected East-West effect in mesopause region SABER temperatures over El Leoncito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisin, Esteban R.; Scheer, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    We find that mesopause region temperatures determined by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite during nocturnal overpasses at El Leoncito (31.8°S, 69.3°W) are several kelvins higher when SABER observes from the East than when it observes from the West. We distinguish between altitudes corresponding to the nominal emission heights of the OH and O2 airglow layers. The East-West temperature differences of 4.5 K obtained for OH-equivalent height, and of 3.5 K for O2-equivalent height are surprising, because an effect of the South Atlantic Anomaly on SABER temperature is unexpected. However, the ground-based data obtained with our airglow spectrometer at El Leoncito show that such a SABER artifact can be ruled out. Rather, the phenomenon is explained as a consequence of the temporal sampling of the nocturnal variation, which is mostly due to the semidiurnal tide. The monthly mean tide is strongest from April to September with a mean amplitude of 6.9 K for OH, and of 10.5 K for O2 rotational temperature, but the contribution to the East-West effect varies strongly from month to month because of differences in the temporal sampling. This mechanism should be active at other sites, as well.

  15. Heavy Metals, Cardiovascular Disease, and the Unexpected Benefits of Chelation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gervasio A; Navas-Acien, Ana; Mark, Daniel B; Lee, Kerry L

    2016-05-24

    This review summarizes evidence from 2 lines of research previously thought to be unrelated: the unexpectedly positive results of TACT (Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy), and a body of epidemiological data showing that accumulation of biologically active metals, such as lead and cadmium, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Considering these 2 areas of work together may lead to the identification of new, modifiable risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We examine the history of chelation up through the report of TACT. We then describe work connecting higher metal levels in the body with the future risk of cardiovascular disease. We conclude by presenting a brief overview of a newly planned National Institutes of Health trial, TACT2, in which we will attempt to replicate the findings of TACT and to establish that removal of toxic metal stores from the body is a plausible mechanistic explanation for the benefits of edetate disodium treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A dual contribution to the involuntary semantic processing of unexpected spoken words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Turner, Jacqueline; Perez, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Sounds are a major cause of distraction. Unexpected to-be-ignored auditory stimuli presented in the context of an otherwise repetitive acoustic background ineluctably break through selective attention and distract people from an unrelated visual task (deviance distraction). This involuntary capture of attention by deviant sounds has been hypothesized to trigger their semantic appraisal and, in some circumstances, interfere with ongoing performance, but it remains unclear how such processing compares with the automatic processing of distractors in classic interference tasks (e.g., Stroop, flanker, Simon tasks). Using a cross-modal oddball task, we assessed the involuntary semantic processing of deviant sounds in the presence and absence of deviance distraction. The results revealed that some involuntary semantic analysis of spoken distractors occurs in the absence of deviance distraction but that this processing is significantly greater in its presence. We conclude that the automatic processing of spoken distractors reflects 2 contributions, one that is contingent upon deviance distraction and one that is independent from it.

  17. Unexpected Leiomyosarcoma 4 Years after Laparoscopic Removal of the Uterus Using Morcellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Prins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic hysterectomies are increasingly popular; a morcellation device is often used. Although there are some clear benefits, morcellation of tissue does have potential risks. Case Presentation. In this case report we present a 55-year-old woman with an abdominal tumour 4 years after a laparoscopic hysterectomy using a morcellation device. Postoperative histological analysis, compromised by morcellated tissue, showed benign myoma. Because of the benign tumour no follow-up was performed. The patient presented now with an abdominal tumour, and she was scheduled for surgical removal of the tumour. During abdominal surgery the tumour appeared malignant and biopsies were taken. Histological analysis showed leiomyosarcoma, and the patient was referred to a third care centre for further treatment. The patient recovered quickly after abdominal removal of the tumour; however, after 7 months the patient had complaints and a CT scan showed a large intra-abdominal tumour with possible lung metastasis. The patient received palliative chemotherapy and died after 10 months. Conclusion. This case shows that although unexpected after a hysterectomy, a leiomyosarcoma has to be considered in case of a suspect tumour in the lower abdomen.

  18. Unexpected strong magnetism of Cu doped single-layer MoS₂ and its origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Won Seok; Lee, J D

    2014-05-21

    The magnetism of the 3d transition-metal (TM) doped single-layer (1L) MoS2, where the Mo atom is partially replaced by the 3d TM atom, is investigated using the first-principles density functional calculations. In a series of 3d TM doped 1L-MoS2's, the induced spin polarizations are negligible for Sc, Ti, and Cr dopings, while the induced spin polarizations are confirmed for V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn dopings and the systems become magnetic. Especially, the Cu doped system shows unexpectedly strong magnetism although Cu is nonmagnetic in its bulk state. The driving force is found to be a strong hybridization between Cu 3d states and 3p states of neighboring S, which results in an extreme unbalanced spin-population in the spin-split impurity bands near the Fermi level. Finally, we also discuss further issues of the Cu induced magnetism of 1L-MoS2 such as investigation of additional charge states, the Cu doping at the S site instead of the Mo site, and the Cu adatom on the layer (i.e., 1L-MoS2).

  19. The crystal structures of EAP domains from Staphylococcus aureus reveal an unexpected homology to bacterial superantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Brian V; Hamaoka, Brent Y; Perman, Benjamin; Zemla, Adam; Leahy, Daniel J

    2005-04-29

    The Eap (extracellular adherence protein) of Staphylococcus aureus functions as a secreted virulence factor by mediating interactions between the bacterial cell surface and several extracellular host proteins. Eap proteins from different Staphylococcal strains consist of four to six tandem repeats of a structurally uncharacterized domain (EAP domain). We have determined the three-dimensional structures of three different EAP domains to 1.8, 2.2, and 1.35 A resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a core fold that is comprised of an alpha-helix lying diagonally across a five-stranded, mixed beta-sheet. Comparison of EAP domains with known structures reveals an unexpected homology with the C-terminal domain of bacterial superantigens. Examination of the structure of the superantigen SEC2 bound to the beta-chain of a T-cell receptor suggests a possible ligand-binding site within the EAP domain (Fields, B. A., Malchiodi, E. L., Li, H., Ysern, X., Stauffacher, C. V., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K., and Mariuzza, R. (1996) Nature 384, 188-192). These results provide the first structural characterization of EAP domains, relate EAP domains to a large class of bacterial toxins, and will guide the design of future experiments to analyze EAP domain structure/function relationships.

  20. The unexpected teratogenicity of RXR antagonist UVI3003 via activation of PPARγ in Xenopus tropicalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jingmin; Janesick, Amanda; Wu, Lijiao; Hu, Lingling; Tang, Weiyi; Blumberg, Bruce; Shi, Huahong

    2017-01-01

    The RXR agonist (triphenyltin, TPT) and the RXR antagonist (UVI3003) both show teratogenicity and, unexpectedly, induce similar malformations in Xenopus tropicalis embryos. In the present study, we exposed X. tropicalis embryos to UVI3003 in seven specific developmental windows and identified changes in gene expression. We further measured the ability of UVI3003 to activate Xenopus RXRα (xRXRα) and PPARγ (xPPARγ) in vitro and in vivo. We found that UVI3003 activated xPPARγ either in Cos7 cells (in vitro) or Xenopus embryos (in vivo). UVI3003 did not significantly activate human or mouse PPARγ in vitro; therefore, the activation of Xenopus PPARγ by UVI3003 is novel. The ability of UVI3003 to activate xPPARγ explains why UVI3003 and TPT yield similar phenotypes in Xenopus embryos. Our results indicate that activating PPARγ leads to teratogenic effects in Xenopus embryos. More generally, we infer that chemicals known to specifically modulate mammalian nuclear hormone receptors cannot be assumed to have the same activity in non-mammalian species, such as Xenopus. Rather they must be tested for activity and specificity on receptors of the species in question to avoid making inappropriate conclusions. - Highlights: • UVI3003 is a RXRs antagonist and shows teratogenicity to Xenopus embryos. • UVI3003 activated xPPARγ either in Cos7 cells or Xenopus embryos. • UVI3003 did not activate human or mouse PPARγ in Cos7 cells. • Activating PPARγ leads to teratogenic effects in Xenopus embryos.

  1. An Approach to Human Error Hazard Detection of Unexpected Situations in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangjun; Oh, Yeonju; Shin, Youmin; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Fukushima accident is a typical complex event including the extreme situations induced by the succeeding earthquake, tsunami, explosion, and human errors. And it is judged with incomplete cause of system build-up same manner, procedure as a deficiency of response manual, education and training, team capability and the discharge of operator from human engineering point of view. Especially, the guidelines of current operating NPPs are not enough including countermeasures to the human errors at the extreme situations. Therefore, this paper describes a trial to detect the hazards of human errors at extreme situation, and to define the countermeasures that can properly response to the human error hazards when an individual, team, organization, and working entities that encounter the extreme situation in NPPs. In this paper we try to propose an approach to analyzing and extracting human error hazards for suggesting additional countermeasures to the human errors in unexpected situations. They might be utilized to develop contingency guidelines, especially for reducing the human error accident in NPPs. But the trial application in this study is currently limited since it is not easy to find accidents cases in detail enough to enumerate the proposed steps. Therefore, we will try to analyze as more cases as possible, and consider other environmental factors and human error conditions

  2. Unexpected structural complexity of supernumerary marker chromosomes characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Anne V

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs are structurally abnormal extra chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by conventional banding techniques. In the past, SMCs have been characterized using a variety of different molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although these techniques can sometimes identify the chromosome of origin of SMCs, they are cumbersome to perform and are not available in many clinical cytogenetic laboratories. Furthermore, they cannot precisely determine the region or breakpoints of the chromosome(s involved. In this study, we describe four patients who possess one or more SMCs (a total of eight SMCs in all four patients that were characterized by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH. Results In at least one SMC from all four patients, array CGH uncovered unexpected complexity, in the form of complex rearrangements, that could have gone undetected using other molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although array CGH accurately defined the chromosome content of all but two minute SMCs, fluorescence in situ hybridization was necessary to determine the structure of the markers. Conclusion The increasing use of array CGH in clinical cytogenetic laboratories will provide an efficient method for more comprehensive characterization of SMCs. Improved SMC characterization, facilitated by array CGH, will allow for more accurate SMC/phenotype correlation.

  3. EU emissions trading. The need for cap adjustment in response to external shocks and unexpected developments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper the advantages and disadvantages of the various adaptation options will be discussed from an economic perspective. Firstly, the criteria for identifying a need for potentially legitimate adaptation should be investigated. Furthermore, the issue of appropriate timely intervention points prior to or within the trading period will be discussed. In what periods and scenarios are adjustments to the cap worthwhile from an economic perspective? To what extent could minimum prices or price ranges make sense? What role could a strategic reserve play? By addressing these issues, it will be fundamentally discussed as to how the emissions trading scheme could be further developed and strengthened by greater flexibility. After a brief characterisation of emissions trading in theory and practice in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 will identify potential external shocks and unexpected developments which may impair the functioning of an emissions trading scheme. The current problems of cap setting for the third trading period of the EU ETS will be described in Chapter 4. Against this background, cap adjustments will be discussed in Chapter 5, minimum and maximum prices in Chapter 6 and strategic reserves in emissions trading in Chapter 7. The conclusions are summarised in Chapter 8.

  4. A Stealth CME Bracketed between Slow and Fast Wind Producing Unexpected Geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen; Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2018-06-01

    We investigate how a weak coronal mass ejection (CME) launched on 2016 October 8 without obvious signatures in the low corona produced a relatively intense geomagnetic storm. Remote sensing observations from SDO, STEREO, and SOHO and in situ measurements from Wind are employed to track the CME from the Sun to the Earth. Using a graduated cylindrical shell model, we estimate the propagation direction and the morphology of the CME near the Sun. CME kinematics are determined from the wide-angle imaging observations of STEREO A and are used to predict the CME arrival time and speed at the Earth. We compare ENLIL MHD simulation results with in situ measurements to illustrate the background solar wind where the CME was propagating. We also apply a Grad–Shafranov technique to reconstruct the flux-rope structure from in situ measurements in order to understand the geoeffectiveness associated with the CME magnetic field structure. Key results are obtained concerning how a weak CME can generate a relatively intense geomagnetic storm: (1) there were coronal holes at low latitudes, which could produce high speed streams (HSSs) to interact with the CME in interplanetary space; (2) the CME was bracketed between a slow wind ahead and an HSS behind, which enhanced the southward magnetic field inside the CME and gave rise to the unexpected geomagnetic storm.

  5. Next of kin’s experiences of sudden and unexpected death from stroke - a study of narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Death always evokes feelings in those close to the afflicted person. When death comes suddenly the time for preparation is minimal and the next of kin have to cope with the situation despite their own sorrow. The suddenness is found to be stressful for the next of kin and communication both with healthcare professionals and information about what has happened has been found helpful. The aim of this study was to illuminate the experiences of next of kin from the sudden and unexpected death of a relative from acute stroke. Methods Data was collected over a 12-month period in 2009–2010. Twelve next of kin of patients cared for in stroke units who died suddenly and unexpectedly from stroke were interviewed using a narrative method. The narratives were analyzed using narrative thematic analysis. Results Three themes emerged showing facets of next of kin’s experiences of a relative’s sudden and unexpected death from stroke: Divided feelings about the sudden and unexpected death; Perception of time and directed attention when keeping vigil; Contradictions and arbitrary memories when searching for understanding. Conclusions To have to live in the aftermath of severe stroke is absolute horror in people’s imagination and death is seen as the lesser of two evils. The sudden and unexpected death totally pervades the next of kin’s life, directs their attention to the dying person and even causes them to forget themselves and their own needs, and leads to difficulties in information intake. It is a challenge for the healthcare professionals to be able to identify the individual needs of the next of kin in this situation. PMID:23590246

  6. [Algorithm for securing an unexpected difficult airway : User analysis on a simulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, T; Truschinski, K; Kriege, M; Naß, M; Herrmann, S; Ott, V; Sellin, S

    2018-01-01

    Critical incidents in difficult airway management are still a main contributory factor for perioperative morbidity and mortality. Many national associations have developed algorithms for management of these time critical events. For implementation of these algorithms the provision of technical requirements and procedure-related training are essential. Severe airway incidents are rare events and clinical experience of the individual operators is limited; therefore, simulation is an adequate instrument for training and evaluating difficult airway algorithms. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the application of the institutional difficult airway algorithm among anesthetists. After ethics committee approval, anesthetists were observed while treating a "cannot intubate" (CI) and a "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate" (CICV) situation in the institutional simulation center. As leader of a supportive team the participants had to deal with an unexpected difficult airway after induction of anesthesia in a patient simulator. The following data were recorded: sequence of the applied airway instruments, time to ventilation after establishing a secured airway using any instrument in the CI situation and time to ventilation via cricothyrotomy in the CICV situation. Conformity to the algorithm was defined by the sequence of the applied instruments. Analysis comprised conformity to the algorithm, non-parametric tests for time to ventilation and differences between junior and senior anesthetists. Out of 50 participants 45 were analyzed in the CI situation. In this situation 93% of the participants acted in conformity with the algorithm. In 62% the airway was secured by flexible intubation endoscopy, in 38% with another device. Data from 46 participants were analyzed in the CICV situation. In this situation 91% acted in conformity with the algorithm. The last device used prior to the decision for cricothyrotomy was flexible intubation endoscopy in 39%, a

  7. Polytypism and unexpected strong interlayer coupling in two-dimensional layered ReS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiao-Fen; Wu, Jiang-Bin; Zhou, Linwei; Qiao, Jingsi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Wei; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2016-04-01

    Anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) layered materials, with both scientific interest and application potential, offer one more dimension than isotropic 2D materials to tune their physical properties. Various physical properties of 2D multi-layer materials are modulated by varying their stacking orders owing to significant interlayer vdW coupling. Multilayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2), a representative anisotropic 2D material, was expected to be randomly stacked and lack interlayer coupling. Here, we demonstrate two stable stacking orders, namely isotropic-like (IS) and anisotropic-like (AI) N layer (NL, N > 1) ReS2 are revealed by ultralow- and high-frequency Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence and first-principles density functional theory calculation. Two interlayer shear modes are observed in AI-NL-ReS2 while only one shear mode appears in IS-NL-ReS2, suggesting anisotropic- and isotropic-like stacking orders in IS- and AI-NL-ReS2, respectively. This explicit difference in the observed frequencies identifies an unexpected strong interlayer coupling in IS- and AI-NL-ReS2. Quantitatively, the force constants of them are found to be around 55-90% of those of multilayer MoS2. The revealed strong interlayer coupling and polytypism in multi-layer ReS2 may stimulate future studies on engineering physical properties of other anisotropic 2D materials by stacking orders.Anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) layered materials, with both scientific interest and application potential, offer one more dimension than isotropic 2D materials to tune their physical properties. Various physical properties of 2D multi-layer materials are modulated by varying their stacking orders owing to significant interlayer vdW coupling. Multilayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2), a representative anisotropic 2D material, was expected to be randomly stacked and lack interlayer coupling. Here, we demonstrate two stable stacking orders, namely isotropic-like (IS) and

  8. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  9. Sigmoid Colon is an Unexpected Organ at Risk in Brachytherapy for Cervix Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ffrrcsi, H.F.; Mrcpfrcr, I.B.; Appleby, H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify organs at risk (OAR) and analyze the dose volume histograms (DVHs) for intracavitary brachytherapy in cancer of the cervix. Late toxicities are our concern in treatment of cancer cervix especially as it is presenting in younger age population. Material and Methods: Patients with cancer of the cervix were treated using CT and MRI compatible, high dose rate, (HDR) applicators. CT images were acquired with the intra-uterine tube and colpostats in place and subsequently imported into Varian Brachyvision planning software. We identified the gross tumour volume (GTV) and organs at risk (OARs) and analyzed the dose distribution using dose volume histograms (DVHs). Doses were calculated according to ICRU 38. Critical tissue DVHs were analysed following the American Brachytherapy Society rules. Dose points are recorded as the dose encompassed by the greatest contiguous I cm3, 2 cm3, and 5 cm3 volumes in the plan. Results: We found the sigmoid colon to be a relatively immobile structure that repeatedly received doses in excess of 70% of the intended point A dose. The only solution in order to bring sigmoid DVHs within 5% toxicity limits was to reduce the dose to point A. Planning images and DVHs for the OARs are shown as an example of our work. Conclusion: The recto-sigmoid colon is identified as an unexpected OAR in a majority of cervix brachytherapy plans. A new consensus on the DVH limit of this structure will be needed in the era of CT planned brachytherapy, if arbitrary dose reductions to point A are to be the solution to the problem of sigmoid DVHs that exceed conventional tolerance limits

  10. Interoceptive fear learning to mild breathlessness as a laboratory model for unexpected panic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike ePappens

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear learning is thought to play an important role in panic disorder. Benign interoceptive sensations can become predictors (conditioned stimuli - CSs of massive fear when experienced in the context of an initial panic attack (unconditioned stimulus – US. The mere encounter of these CSs on a later moment can induce anxiety and fear, and precipitate a new panic attack. It has been suggested that fear learning to interoceptive cues would result in unpredictable panic. The present study aimed to investigate whether fear learning to an interoceptive CS is possible without declarative knowledge of the CS-US contingency. The CS consisted of mild breathlessness (or: dyspnea, the US was a suffocation experience. During acquisition, the experimental group received 6 presentations of mild breathlessness immediately followed by suffocation; for the control group both experiences were always separated by an intertrial interval. In the subsequent extinction phase, participants received 6 unreinforced presentations of the CS. Expectancy of the US was rated continuously and startle eyeblink EMG, skin conductance and respiration were measured. Declarative knowledge of the CS-US relationship was also assessed with a post-experimental questionnaire. At the end of acquisition, both groups displayed the same levels of US expectancy and skin conductance in response to the CS, but the experimental group showed a fear potentiated startle eyeblink and a different respiratory response to the CS compared to the control group. Further analyses on a subgroup of CS-US unaware participants confirmed the presence of startle eyeblink conditioning in the experimental group but not in the control group. Our findings suggest that interoceptive fear learning is not dependent on declarative knowledge of the CS-US relationship. The present interoceptive fear conditioning paradigm may serve as an ecologically valid laboratory model for unexpected panic attacks.

  11. Citizen science reveals unexpected continental-scale evolutionary change in a model organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Silvertown

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms provide some of the most sensitive indicators of climate change and evolutionary responses are becoming apparent in species with short generation times. Large datasets on genetic polymorphism that can provide an historical benchmark against which to test for recent evolutionary responses are very rare, but an exception is found in the brown-lipped banded snail (Cepaea nemoralis. This species is sensitive to its thermal environment and exhibits several polymorphisms of shell colour and banding pattern affecting shell albedo in the majority of populations within its native range in Europe. We tested for evolutionary changes in shell albedo that might have been driven by the warming of the climate in Europe over the last half century by compiling an historical dataset for 6,515 native populations of C. nemoralis and comparing this with new data on nearly 3,000 populations. The new data were sampled mainly in 2009 through the Evolution MegaLab, a citizen science project that engaged thousands of volunteers in 15 countries throughout Europe in the biggest such exercise ever undertaken. A known geographic cline in the frequency of the colour phenotype with the highest albedo (yellow was shown to have persisted and a difference in colour frequency between woodland and more open habitats was confirmed, but there was no general increase in the frequency of yellow shells. This may have been because snails adapted to a warming climate through behavioural thermoregulation. By contrast, we detected an unexpected decrease in the frequency of Unbanded shells and an increase in the Mid-banded morph. Neither of these evolutionary changes appears to be a direct response to climate change, indicating that the influence of other selective agents, possibly related to changing predation pressure and habitat change with effects on micro-climate.

  12. Initial Treatment for Nonsyndromic Early-Life Epilepsy: An Unexpected Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Berg, Anne T; Grinspan, Zachary M; Wusthoff, Courtney J; Millichap, John J; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Coryell, Jason; Saneto, Russell P; Chu, Catherine J; Joshi, Sucheta M; Sullivan, Joseph E; Knupp, Kelly G; Kossoff, Eric H; Keator, Cynthia; Wirrell, Elaine C; Mytinger, John R; Valencia, Ignacio; Massey, Shavonne; Gaillard, William D

    2017-10-01

    There are no evidence-based guidelines on the preferred approach to treating early-life epilepsy. We examined initial therapy selection in a contemporary US cohort of children with newly diagnosed, nonsyndromic, early-life epilepsy (onset before age three years). Seventeen pediatric epilepsy centers participated in a prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy with onset under 36 months of age. Details regarding demographics, seizure types, and initial medication selections were obtained from medical records. About half of the 495 enrolled children with new-onset, nonsyndromic epilepsy were less than 12 months old at the time of diagnosis (n = 263, 53%) and about half (n = 260, 52%) had epilepsy with focal features. Of 464 who were treated with monotherapy, 95% received one of five drugs: levetiracetam (n = 291, 63%), oxcarbazepine (n = 67, 14%), phenobarbital (n = 57, 12%), topiramate (n = 16, 3.4%), and zonisamide (n = 13, 2.8%). Phenobarbital was prescribed first for 50 of 163 (31%) infants less than six months old versus seven of 300 (2.3%) of children six months or older (P epilepsy presentation (focal, generalized, mixed/uncertain). Between the first and second treatment choices, 367 (74%) of children received levetiracetam within the first year after diagnosis. Without any specific effort, the pediatric epilepsy community has developed an unexpectedly consistent approach to initial treatment selection for early-life epilepsy. This suggests that a standard practice is emerging and could be utilized as a widely acceptable basis of comparison in future drug studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mixed metaphors: Electrophysiological brain responses to (un)expected concrete and abstract prepositional phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Emily; Shafer, Valerie

    2018-02-01

    Languages around the world use spatial terminology, like prepositions, to describe non-spatial, abstract concepts, including time (e.g., in the moment). The Metaphoric Mapping Theory explains this pattern by positing that a universal human cognitive process underlies it, whereby abstract concepts are conceptualized via the application of concrete, three-dimensional space onto abstract domains. The alternative view is that the use of spatial propositions in abstract phrases is idiomatic, and thus does not trigger metaphoric mapping. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the time-course of neural processing of concrete and abstract phrases consisting of the prepositions in or on followed by congruent and incongruent nouns (e.g., in the bowl/plate and in the moment/mend). ERPs were recorded from the onset of reference nouns in 28 adult participants using a 128-channel electrode net. Results show that congruency has differential effects on neural measures, depending on whether the noun is concrete or abstract. Incongruent reference nouns in concrete phrases (e.g., on the bowl) elicited a significant central negativity (an N400 effect), while incongruent reference nouns in abstract phrases (e.g., on the moment) did not. These results suggest that spatially incongruent concrete nouns are semantically unexpected (N400 effect). A P600 effect, which might indicate rechecking, reanalysis and/or reconstruction, was predicted for incongruent abstract nouns, but was not observed, possibly due to the variability in abstract stimuli. Findings cast doubt on accounts claiming that abstract uses of prepositions are cognitively and metaphorically linked to their spatial sense during natural, on-line processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unexpected Arrest-Related Deaths in America: 12 Months of Open Source Surveillance

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    Ho, Jeffrey D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden, unexpected arrest-related death (ARD has been associated with drug abuse, extreme delirium or certain police practices. There is insufficient surveillance and causation data available. We report 12 months of surveillance data using a novel data collection methodology.Methods: We used an open-source, prospective method to collect 12 consecutive months of data, including demographics, behavior, illicit substance use, control methods used, and time of collapse after law enforcement contact. Descriptive analysis and chi-square testing were applied.Results: There were 162 ARD events reported that met inclusion criteria. The majority were male with mean age 36 years, and involved bizarre, agitated behavior and reports of drug abuse just prior to death. Law enforcement control techniques included none (14%; empty-hand techniques (69%; intermediate weapons such as TASER device, impact weapon or chemical irritant spray (52%; and deadly force (12%. Time from contact to subject collapse included instantaneous (13%, within the first hour (53% and 1-48 hours (35%. Significant collapse time associations occurred with the use of certain intermediate weapons.Conclusion: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD. These data support the premise that ARDs primarily occur in persons with a certain demographic and behavior profile that includes middle-aged males exhibiting agitated, bizarre behavior generally following illicit drug abuse. Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons. We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings. [WestJEM. 2009;10:68-73.

  15. Genome-wide Polygenic Burden of Rare Deleterious Variants in Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Leu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP represents the most severe degree of the spectrum of epilepsy severity and is the commonest cause of epilepsy-related premature mortality. The precise pathophysiology and the genetic architecture of SUDEP remain elusive. Aiming to elucidate the genetic basis of SUDEP, we analysed rare, protein-changing variants from whole-exome sequences of 18 people who died of SUDEP, 87 living people with epilepsy and 1479 non-epilepsy disease controls. Association analysis revealed a significantly increased genome-wide polygenic burden per individual in the SUDEP cohort when compared to epilepsy (P = 5.7 × 10−3 and non-epilepsy disease controls (P = 1.2 × 10−3. The polygenic burden was driven both by the number of variants per individual, and over-representation of variants likely to be deleterious in the SUDEP cohort. As determined by this study, more than a thousand genes contribute to the observed polygenic burden within the framework of this study. Subsequent gene-based association analysis revealed five possible candidate genes significantly associated with SUDEP or epilepsy, but no one single gene emerges as common to the SUDEP cases. Our findings provide further evidence for a genetic susceptibility to SUDEP, and suggest an extensive polygenic contribution to SUDEP causation. Thus, an overall increased burden of deleterious variants in a highly polygenic background might be important in rendering a given individual more susceptible to SUDEP. Our findings suggest that exome sequencing in people with epilepsy might eventually contribute to generating SUDEP risk estimates, promoting stratified medicine in epilepsy, with the eventual aim of reducing an individual patient's risk of SUDEP.

  16. Genome-wide Polygenic Burden of Rare Deleterious Variants in Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Costin; Balestrini, Simona; Maher, Bridget; Hernández-Hernández, Laura; Gormley, Padhraig; Hämäläinen, Eija; Heggeli, Kristin; Schoeler, Natasha; Novy, Jan; Willis, Joseph; Plagnol, Vincent; Ellis, Rachael; Reavey, Eleanor; O'Regan, Mary; Pickrell, William O; Thomas, Rhys H; Chung, Seo-Kyung; Delanty, Norman; McMahon, Jacinta M; Malone, Stephen; Sadleir, Lynette G; Berkovic, Samuel F; Nashef, Lina; Zuberi, Sameer M; Rees, Mark I; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Sander, Josemir W; Hughes, Elaine; Helen Cross, J; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Palotie, Aarno; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2015-09-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents the most severe degree of the spectrum of epilepsy severity and is the commonest cause of epilepsy-related premature mortality. The precise pathophysiology and the genetic architecture of SUDEP remain elusive. Aiming to elucidate the genetic basis of SUDEP, we analysed rare, protein-changing variants from whole-exome sequences of 18 people who died of SUDEP, 87 living people with epilepsy and 1479 non-epilepsy disease controls. Association analysis revealed a significantly increased genome-wide polygenic burden per individual in the SUDEP cohort when compared to epilepsy (P = 5.7 × 10(- 3)) and non-epilepsy disease controls (P = 1.2 × 10(- 3)). The polygenic burden was driven both by the number of variants per individual, and over-representation of variants likely to be deleterious in the SUDEP cohort. As determined by this study, more than a thousand genes contribute to the observed polygenic burden within the framework of this study. Subsequent gene-based association analysis revealed five possible candidate genes significantly associated with SUDEP or epilepsy, but no one single gene emerges as common to the SUDEP cases. Our findings provide further evidence for a genetic susceptibility to SUDEP, and suggest an extensive polygenic contribution to SUDEP causation. Thus, an overall increased burden of deleterious variants in a highly polygenic background might be important in rendering a given individual more susceptible to SUDEP. Our findings suggest that exome sequencing in people with epilepsy might eventually contribute to generating SUDEP risk estimates, promoting stratified medicine in epilepsy, with the eventual aim of reducing an individual patient's risk of SUDEP.

  17. Misbheaving Faults: The Expanding Role of Geodetic Imaging in Unraveling Unexpected Fault Slip Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Briggs, R.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic imaging techniques enable researchers to "see" details of fault rupture that cannot be captured by complementary tools such as seismology and field studies, thus providing increasingly detailed information about surface strain, slip kinematics, and how an earthquake may be transcribed into the geological record. For example, the recent Haiti, Sierra El Mayor, and Nepal earthquakes illustrate the fundamental role of geodetic observations in recording blind ruptures where purely geological and seismological studies provided incomplete views of rupture kinematics. Traditional earthquake hazard analyses typically rely on sparse paleoseismic observations and incomplete mapping, simple assumptions of slip kinematics from Andersonian faulting, and earthquake analogs to characterize the probabilities of forthcoming ruptures and the severity of ground accelerations. Spatially dense geodetic observations in turn help to identify where these prevailing assumptions regarding fault behavior break down and highlight new and unexpected kinematic slip behavior. Here, we focus on three key contributions of space geodetic observations to the analysis of co-seismic deformation: identifying near-surface co-seismic slip where no easily recognized fault rupture exists; discerning non-Andersonian faulting styles; and quantifying distributed, off-fault deformation. The 2013 Balochistan strike slip earthquake in Pakistan illuminates how space geodesy precisely images non-Andersonian behavior and off-fault deformation. Through analysis of high-resolution optical imagery and DEMs, evidence emerges that a single fault map slip as both a strike slip and dip slip fault across multiple seismic cycles. These observations likewise enable us to quantify on-fault deformation, which account for ~72% of the displacements in this earthquake. Nonetheless, the spatial distribution of on- and off-fault deformation in this event is highly spatially variable- a complicating factor for comparisons

  18. The expected and unexpected benefits of dispensing the exact number of pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treibich, Carole; Lescher, Sabine; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Ventelou, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    From November 2014 to November 2015, an experiment in French community pharmacies replaced traditional pre-packed boxes by per-unit dispensing of pills in the exact numbers prescribed, for 14 antibiotics. A cluster randomised control trial was carried out in 100 pharmacies. 75 pharmacies counted out the medication by units (experimental group), the other 25 providing the treatment in the existing pharmaceutical company boxes (control group). Data on patients under the two arms were compared to assess the environmental, economic and health effects of this change in drug dispensing. In particular, adherence was measured indirectly by comparing the number of pills left at the end of the prescribed treatment. Out of the 1185 patients included during 3 sessions of 4 consecutive weeks each, 907 patients experimented the personalized delivery and 278 were assigned to the control group, consistent with a 1/3 randomization-rate at the pharmacy level. 80% of eligible patients approved of the per-unit dispensing of their treatment. The initial packaging of the drugs did not match with the prescription in 60% of cases and per-unit dispensing reduced by 10% the number of pills supplied. 13.1% of patients declared that they threw away pills residuals instead of recycling-no differences between groups. Finally, per-unit dispensing appeared to improve adherence to antibiotic treatment (marginal effect 0.21, IC 95, 0.14-0.28). Supplying antibiotics per unit is not only beneficial in terms of a reduced number of pills to reimburse or for the environment (less pills wasted and non-recycled), but also has a positive and unexpected impact on adherence to treatment, and thus on both individual and public health.

  19. An analysis of contextual information relevant to medical care unexpectedly volunteered to researchers by asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Heather L; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J

    2012-09-01

    To describe and categorize contextual information relevant to patients' medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate (PA) intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease such as asthma. We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our PAs facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or for data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical information relevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe (1) researchers' journals of these unique communications; (2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management; (3) PAs' formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment making; and (4) observations of patients' interactions with the clinical practices. In 83 journals, patients' social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. PA assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevant information from all patients and, especially, those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to access to health care, and confirming understanding of medical information.

  20. Non-targeted analysis of unexpected food contaminants using LC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzelmann, Marco; Winter, Martin; Åberg, Magnus; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik; Rosén, Johan

    2018-03-29

    A non-target analysis method for unexpected contaminants in food is described. Many current methods referred to as "non-target" are capable of detecting hundreds or even thousands of contaminants. However, they will typically still miss all other possible contaminants. Instead, a metabolomics approach might be used to obtain "true non-target" analysis. In the present work, such a method was optimized for improved detection capability at low concentrations. The method was evaluated using 19 chemically diverse model compounds spiked into milk samples to mimic unknown contamination. Other milk samples were used as reference samples. All samples were analyzed with UHPLC-TOF-MS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry), using reversed-phase chromatography and electrospray ionization in positive mode. Data evaluation was performed by the software TracMass 2. No target lists of specific compounds were used to search for the contaminants. Instead, the software was used to sort out all features only occurring in the spiked sample data, i.e., the workflow resembled a metabolomics approach. Procedures for chemical identification of peaks were outside the scope of the study. Method, study design, and settings in the software were optimized to minimize manual evaluation and faulty or irrelevant hits and to maximize hit rate of the spiked compounds. A practical detection limit was established at 25 μg/kg. At this concentration, most compounds (17 out of 19) were detected as intact precursor ions, as fragments or as adducts. Only 2 irrelevant hits, probably natural compounds, were obtained. Limitations and possible practical use of the approach are discussed.

  1. Essential and Unexpected Role of YY1 to Promote Mesodermal Cardiac Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Serge; Karra, Ravi; Passer, Derek; Deutsch, Marcus-Andre; Krane, Markus; Feistritzer, Rebecca; Sturzu, Anthony; Domian, Ibrahim; Saga, Yumiko; Wu, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Rational Cardiogenesis is regulated by a complex interplay between transcription factors. However, little is known about how these interactions regulate the transition from mesodermal precursors to cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Objective To identify novel regulators of mesodermal cardiac lineage commitment. Methods and Results We performed a bioinformatic-based transcription factor binding site analysis on upstream promoter regions of genes that are enriched in embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived CPCs. From 32 candidate transcription factors screened, we found that YY1, a repressor of sarcomeric gene expression, is present in CPCs in vivo. Interestingly, we uncovered the ability of YY1 to transcriptionally activate Nkx2.5, a key marker of early cardiogenic commitment. YY1 regulates Nkx2.5 expression via a 2.1 kb cardiac-specific enhancer as demonstrated by in vitro luciferase-based assays and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and genome-wide sequencing analysis. Furthermore, the ability of YY1 to activate Nkx2.5 expression depends on its cooperative interaction with Gata4 at a nearby chromatin. Cardiac mesoderm-specific loss-of-function of YY1 resulted in early embryonic lethality. This was corroborated in vitro by ESC-based assays where we show that the overexpression of YY1 enhanced the cardiogenic differentiation of ESCs into CPCs. Conclusion These results demonstrate an essential and unexpected role for YY1 to promote cardiogenesis as a transcriptional activator of Nkx2.5 and other CPC-enriched genes. PMID:23307821

  2. Unexpected nonlinear effects and critical coupling in NbN superconducting microwave resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, B.; Buks, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:In this work, we have designed and fabricated several NbN superconducting stripline microwave resonators sputtered on sapphire substrates. The low temperature response exhibits strong and unexpected nonlinear effects, including sharp jumps as the frequency or poser are varied, frequency hysteresis loops changing direction as the input power is varied, and others. Contrary to some other superconducting resonators, a simple model of a one-dimensional Duffing resonator cannot account for the experimental results. Whereas the physical origin of the unusual nonlinear response of our samples remains an open question, our intensive experimental study of these effects under varying conditions provides some important insight. We consider a hypothesis according to which Josephson junctions forming weak links between the grains of the NbN are responsible for the observed behavior. We show that most of the experimental results are qualitatively consistent with such hypothesis. While revealing the underlying physics remains an outstanding challenge for future research, the utilization of the unusual nonlinear response for some novel applications is already demonstrated in the present work. In particular an operate the resonator as an inter modulation amplifier and find that the gain can be as high as 15 dB. To the best of our knowledge, inter modulation gain greater than unity has not been reported before in the scientific literature. In another application we demonstrate for the first time that the coupling between the resonator and its feed line can be made amplitude dependent. This novel mechanism allows us to tune the resonator into critical coupling conditions

  3. Unexpected differences in butterfly diversity between two peat bogs in the same area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimczuk Przemysław

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Peat bogs are listed among the most threatened habitats in central Europe, a situation that is reflected by, for example, the conservational status of stenotopic butterflies. Even so, this group remains relatively little studied and most of the available data are limited to qualitative records. The present study enabled us to gain insight into the butterfly fauna of the two largest peat bogs in the Knyszyn Forest (NE Poland, i.e. Bagno Moskal and the one in the Jesionowe Góry nature reserve. The sites, only ca 10 km apart, are characterized by similar vegetation (mainly the Ledo-Sphagnetum association. The study was carried out in 2013-2015 using the transect method, i.e. regular counts along fixed routes. A total of 37 species, including three tyrphobionts (Colias palaeno, Plebejus optilete and Boloria eunomia and two tyrphophiles (Callophrys rubi and Boloria euphrosyne, were recorded. The greatest and unexpected differences between the sites were related to the complete absence of P. optilete at Bagno Moskal, the significantly higher abundance of B. eunomia at Jesionowe Góry and the greater abundance of B. euphrosyne at Bagno Moskal. In addition, C. palaeno was observed sporadically and only at Bagno Moskal. There was some heterogeneity in the distribution and density of particular species, however. Ledum palustre was found to be the most important nectar plant, its flowers also being frequently visited by tyrphoneutrals. The present study shows that isolated island-like habitats (e.g. peat bogs may possess specific features and be subject to specific independent changes. The results provide a good basis for further research into the habitat preferences of tyrphophilous and tyrphobiontic butterflies, which is important in the context of their conservation.

  4. Structures of foot and mouth disease virus pentamers: Insight into capsid dissociation and unexpected pentamer reassociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayab Malik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV belongs to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae, a family of small, icosahedral, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. It is a highly infectious pathogen and is one of the biggest hindrances to the international trade of animals and animal products. FMDV capsids (which are unstable below pH6.5 release their genome into the host cell from an acidic compartment, such as that of an endosome, and in the process dissociate into pentamers. Whilst other members of the family (enteroviruses have been visualized to form an expanded intermediate capsid with holes from which inner capsid proteins (VP4, N-termini (VP1 and RNA can be released, there has been no visualization of any such state for an aphthovirus, instead the capsid appears to simply dissociate into pentamers. Here we present the 8-Å resolution structure of isolated dissociated pentamers of FMDV, lacking VP4. We also found these pentamers to re-associate into a rigid, icosahedrally symmetric assembly, which enabled their structure to be solved at higher resolution (5.2 Å. In this assembly, the pentamers unexpectedly associate 'inside out', but still with their exposed hydrophobic edges buried. Stabilizing interactions occur between the HI loop of VP2 and its symmetry related partners at the icosahedral 3-fold axes, and between the BC and EF loops of VP3 with the VP2 βB-strand and the CD loop at the 2-fold axes. A relatively extensive but subtle structural rearrangement towards the periphery of the dissociated pentamer compared to that in the mature virus provides insight into the mechanism of dissociation of FMDV and the marked difference in antigenicity.

  5. The Occurrence of the Recent Deadly Mexico Earthquakes was not that Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Marquez, L.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Varotsos, P.; Ramírez-Rojas, A.

    2017-12-01

    Most big Mexican earthquakes occur right along the interface between the colliding Cocos and North American plates, but the two recent deadly Mexico earthquakes, i.e., the magnitude 8.2 earthquake that struck the Mexico's Chiapas state on 7 September 2017 and the magnitude 7.1 earthquake that struck central Mexico, almost 12 days later, killing more than 400 people and reducing buildings to rubble in several States happened at two different spots in the flat-slab in the middle of the Cocos tectonic plate which is considered a geologically surprising area [1]. Here, upon considering a new type of analysis termed natural time, we show that their occurrence should not in principle puzzle scientists. Earthquakes may be considered as critical phenomena, see Ref. [2] and references therein and natural time analysis [3] uncovers an order parameter for seismicity. It has been shown [2] that the fluctuations of this order parameter exhibit a universal behavior with a probability density function (pdf), which is non-Gaussian having a left exponential tail [3]. Natural time analysis of seismicity in various tectonic regions of the Mexican Pacific Coast has been made in Ref.[4]. The study of the order parameter pdf for the Chiapas area as well as for the Guerrero area shows that the occurrence of large earthquakes in these two areas was not unexpected. References A. Witze, Deadly Mexico quakes not linked, Nature 549, 442 (2017). Varotsos PA, Sarlis NV, Skordas ES, Natural Time Analysis: The new view of time. Precursory Seismic Electric Signals, Earthquakes and other Complex Time-Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 2011) P. Varotsos et al., Similarity of fluctuations in correlated systems: the case of seismicity. Phys. Rev. E 72, 041103 (2005) A. Ramírez-Rojas and E.L. Flores-Márquez, Order parameter analysis of seismicity of the Mexican Pacific coast. Physica A, 392 2507 (2013)

  6. Unexpectedly long hospital stays as an indicator of risk of unsafe care: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Ine; Hekkert, Karin D; den Ouden, Lya; Cihangir, Sezgin; Vesseur, Jan; Kool, Rudolf B; Westert, Gert P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We developed an outcome indicator based on the finding that complications often prolong the patient's hospital stay. A higher percentage of patients with an unexpectedly long length of stay (UL-LOS) compared to the national average may indicate shortcomings in patient safety. We explored the utility of the UL-LOS indicator. Setting We used data of 61 Dutch hospitals. In total these hospitals had 1 400 000 clinical discharges in 2011. Participants The indicator is based on the percentage of patients with a prolonged length of stay of more than 50% of the expected length of stay and calculated among survivors. Interventions No interventions were made. Outcome measures The outcome measures were the variability of the indicator across hospitals, the stability over time, the correlation between the UL-LOS and standardised mortality and the influence on the indicator of hospitals that did have problems discharging their patients to other health services such as nursing homes. Results In order to compare hospitals properly the expected length of stay was computed based on comparison with benchmark populations. The standardisation was based on patients’ age, primary diagnosis and main procedure. The UL-LOS indicator showed considerable variability between the Dutch hospitals: from 8.6% to 20.1% in 2011. The outcomes had relatively small CIs since they were based on large numbers of patients. The stability of the indicator over time was quite high. The indicator had a significant positive correlation with the standardised mortality (r=0.44 (p0.05)). Conclusions The UL-LOS indicator is a useful addition to other patient safety indicators by revealing variation between hospitals and areas of possible patient safety improvement. PMID:24902727

  7. Unexpected metastasis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct into thoracic cavity with direct extension: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eung Tae; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Hanyang Univ. Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Hanyang Univ. Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is known to arise from intraductal proliferation of mucinous cells with findings of marked dilatation of the biliary or pancreatic duct. There are reports of the metastasis and extension of pancreatic IPMN. However, cases of biliary IPMN with direct metastasis, or metastasis to distant locations, are rare. We present a case of metastasis of biliary IPMN with unexpected direct extension into the thoracic cavity, and we attempt to account for the mechanism of this extension.

  8. Unexpected metastasis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct into thoracic cavity with direct extension: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Tae; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol

    2012-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is known to arise from intraductal proliferation of mucinous cells with findings of marked dilatation of the biliary or pancreatic duct. There are reports of the metastasis and extension of pancreatic IPMN. However, cases of biliary IPMN with direct metastasis, or metastasis to distant locations, are rare. We present a case of metastasis of biliary IPMN with unexpected direct extension into the thoracic cavity, and we attempt to account for the mechanism of this extension

  9. Unexpected perturbations training improves balance control and voluntary stepping times in older adults - a double blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Ilan; Gimmon, Yoav; Shapiro, Amir; Debi, Ronen; Snir, Yoram; Melzer, Itshak

    2016-03-04

    Falls are common among elderly, most of them occur while slipping or tripping during walking. We aimed to explore whether a training program that incorporates unexpected loss of balance during walking able to improve risk factors for falls. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial 53 community dwelling older adults (age 80.1±5.6 years), were recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 27) or a control group (n = 26). The intervention group received 24 training sessions over 3 months that included unexpected perturbation of balance exercises during treadmill walking. The control group performed treadmill walking with no perturbations. The primary outcome measures were the voluntary step execution times, traditional postural sway parameters and Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis. The secondary outcome measures were the fall efficacy Scale (FES), self-reported late life function (LLFDI), and Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). Compared to control, participation in intervention program that includes unexpected loss of balance during walking led to faster Voluntary Step Execution Times under single (p = 0.002; effect size [ES] =0.75) and dual task (p = 0.003; [ES] = 0.89) conditions; intervention group subjects showed improvement in Short-term Effective diffusion coefficients in the mediolateral direction of the Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis under eyes closed conditions (p = 0.012, [ES] = 0.92). Compared to control there were no significant changes in FES, LLFDI, and POMA. An intervention program that includes unexpected loss of balance during walking can improve voluntary stepping times and balance control, both previously reported as risk factors for falls. This however, did not transferred to a change self-reported function and FES. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01439451 .

  10. Prevalence of incidental or unexpected findings on low-dose CT performed during routine SPECT/CT nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Kelvin Kwok-Ho; Sutherland, Tom; Shafik-Eid, Raymond; Taubman, Kim; Schlicht, Stephen; Ramaseshan, Ganeshan

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) is often combined with ‘simultaneous’ low-dose CT (LDCT) to provide complementary anatomical and functional correlation. As a consequence, numerous incidental and unexpected findings may be detected on LDCT. Recognition of these findings and appropriate determination of their relevance can add to the utility of SPECT/CT. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and categorise the relevance of incidental and unexpected findings on LDCT scans performed as part of routine SPECT/CT studies. All available LDCT scans performed as part of SPECT/CT studies at St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne in the year 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Two qualified radiologists independently reviewed the studies and any previous available imaging and categorised any detected incidental findings. A total of 2447 LDCT studies were reviewed. The relevance of the findings was classified according to a modified version of a scale used in the Colonography Reporting and Data System: E1 = normal or normal variant (28.0%); E2 = clinically unimportant (63.5%); E3 = likely unimportant or incompletely characterised (6.2%); E4 = potentially important (2.5%). Imaging specialists need to be cognisant of incidental and unexpected findings present on LDCT studies performed as part of SPECT/CT. Appropriate categorisation of findings and communication of potentially important findings to referring clinicians should form part of routine practice. The overall prevalence of potentially significant incidental and unexpected findings in our series was 8.7% (E3, 6.2%; E4, 2.5%) and was comparable to rates in other published imaging series.

  11. Sudden and unexpected childhood deaths investigated at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, South Africa, 2007 - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deventer, B S; Rossouw, S H; Du Toit-Prinsloo, L

    2016-09-06

     Sudden and unexpected death is well known to occur in infants, and although sudden deaths are less frequent after the first birthday, they still account for a significant proportion of childhood deaths. In 2009, 1.9% of the total deaths in the USA were childhood deaths. In South Africa (SA) this proportion was much higher at 11.85%. According to the law, sudden and unexpected deaths are generally investigated as unnatural deaths. Establishing an exact underlying anatomical cause of death will depend on available resources and can be difficult in a substantial proportion of cases.  A retrospective descriptive case audit was conducted at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL), SA, from 1 January 2007 through to 31 December 2011. All children aged 1 - 18 years who died suddenly and unexpectedly were included.  Ninety-eight cases were identified, which constituted nearly 1% of total admissions to the PMLL. The majority of the deaths were of children aged 1 - 5 years, and the male/female ratio was 1.04:1. In the largest proportion of cases (n=28, 28.6%), the medicolegal investigation, including autopsy and ancillary investigations, did not establish an underlying anatomical cause of death. In the cases where a cause of death was established, pneumonia was the most common diagnosis (n=22, 22.4%).  The fact that the cause of the largest proportion of deaths could not be ascertained emphasises the need for consideration of additional investigative techniques, such as molecular/genetic screening, which have provided an underlying cause of death in a significant number of cases in other countries. There is a lack of published research on the causes and incidence of sudden unexpected deaths in children in SA, and further research in this area is needed.

  12. Fatty acid oxidation disorders as primary cause of sudden and unexpected death in infants and young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N

    1997-01-01

    Disorders of fatty acid metabolism are known to be responsible for cases of sudden and unexpected death in infancy. At least 14 disorders are known at present. 120 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) had been examined for a prevalent mutation (G985) causing medium chain acyl Co......A dehydrogenase deficiency, which is inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. No over-representation of either homozygous or heterozygous cases was found....

  13. Peculiar time dependence of unexpected lines in delayed beam-foil X-ray spectra of V, Fe and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Nissar; Karn, Ranjeet K.; Marketos, Pan; Nandi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Delayed beam-foil X-ray spectra of highly charged ions of V, Fe and Ni show a few lines at energies higher than the H-like Lyman α-line of the respective projectile ions. These can only be attributed to heavier ions. Further the time dependence of such unexpected lines display a peculiar behavior. This work presents the experimental observations systematically

  14. Unexpected and just missed: the separate influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, Evelien; Moors, Agnes; De Houwer, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that a goal-incongruent outcome leads to more intense negative emotions when it is unexpected and close to a goal-congruent outcome. Until now, however, no studies have disentangled the influence of the appraisals of expectancy and proximity on emotions. We experimentally manipulated each of these variables in 3 slot machine experiments and measured emotions via differences in motivation (i.e., the tendency to repair the goal incongruence) and feelings (i.e., disappointment, frustration, and anger). The experiments consisted of a series of trials that each started with the sequential presentation of 3 symbols. In case of a win trial, all symbols were equal (e.g., AAA) and the participant gained 10 cents; in case of a loss trial, one or more of the symbols differed and the participant gained 0 cents. Three different loss trials were compared: unexpected proximal ones (e.g., AAB), expected proximal ones (e.g., ABA), and expected distal ones (e.g., ABC). The tendency to repair was measured online via behavior as well as retrospectively via self-reports; feelings were measured retrospectively (Experiments 1 and 2) or online (Experiment 3). Unexpected losses seemed to increase the tendency to repair as well as feelings of disappointment (in all experiments) and feelings of frustration and anger (in Experiments 1 and 3). Proximal losses increased only the tendency to repair (in all experiments). This suggests that the appraisals of expectancy and proximity have a distinct influence on emotions.

  15. Understanding unexpected courses of multiple sclerosis among patients using complementary and alternative medicine: A travel from recipient to explorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Salamonsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is frequently used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Some MS patients experience unexpected improvements of symptoms, which they relate to their use of CAM. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge and develop understandings of such self-defined unexpected improvement of MS symptoms. Two cases were constructed based on documents and 12 qualitative interviews. Our aim was not to make generalisations from the cases, but to transfer knowledge as working hypotheses. We identified four health-related change processes: the process of losing bodily competence; the process of developing responsibility; the process of taking control; and the process of choosing CAM. The patients explained unexpected improvements in their MS symptoms as results of their own efforts including their choice and use of CAM. In our theoretical interpretations, we found the patients’ redefinition of history, the concept of treatment and the importance of conventional health care to be essential, and leading to a change of patients’ position towards conventional health care from recipients to explorers. The explorers can be perceived as boundary walkers reflecting limitations within the conventional health care system and as initiators regarding what MS patients find useful in CAM.

  16. New application of intelligent agents in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis identifies unexpected specific genetic background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marocchi Alessandro

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few genetic factors predisposing to the sporadic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS have been identified, but the pathology itself seems to be a true multifactorial disease in which complex interactions between environmental and genetic susceptibility factors take place. The purpose of this study was to approach genetic data with an innovative statistical method such as artificial neural networks to identify a possible genetic background predisposing to the disease. A DNA multiarray panel was applied to genotype more than 60 polymorphisms within 35 genes selected from pathways of lipid and homocysteine metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, coagulation, inflammation, cellular adhesion and matrix integrity, in 54 sporadic ALS patients and 208 controls. Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis Results Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis. An unexpected discovery of a strong genetic background in sporadic ALS using a DNA multiarray panel and analytical processing of the data with advanced artificial neural networks was found. The predictive accuracy obtained with Linear Discriminant Analysis and Standard Artificial Neural Networks ranged from 70% to 79% (average 75.31% and from 69.1 to 86.2% (average 76.6% respectively. The corresponding value obtained with Advanced Intelligent Systems reached an average of 96.0% (range 94.4 to 97.6%. This latter approach allowed the identification of seven genetic variants essential to differentiate cases from controls: apolipoprotein E arg

  17. New application of intelligent agents in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis identifies unexpected specific genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penco, Silvana; Buscema, Massimo; Patrosso, Maria Cristina; Marocchi, Alessandro; Grossi, Enzo

    2008-05-30

    Few genetic factors predisposing to the sporadic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been identified, but the pathology itself seems to be a true multifactorial disease in which complex interactions between environmental and genetic susceptibility factors take place. The purpose of this study was to approach genetic data with an innovative statistical method such as artificial neural networks to identify a possible genetic background predisposing to the disease. A DNA multiarray panel was applied to genotype more than 60 polymorphisms within 35 genes selected from pathways of lipid and homocysteine metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, coagulation, inflammation, cellular adhesion and matrix integrity, in 54 sporadic ALS patients and 208 controls. Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis. An unexpected discovery of a strong genetic background in sporadic ALS using a DNA multiarray panel and analytical processing of the data with advanced artificial neural networks was found. The predictive accuracy obtained with Linear Discriminant Analysis and Standard Artificial Neural Networks ranged from 70% to 79% (average 75.31%) and from 69.1 to 86.2% (average 76.6%) respectively. The corresponding value obtained with Advanced Intelligent Systems reached an average of 96.0% (range 94.4 to 97.6%). This latter approach allowed the identification of seven genetic variants essential to differentiate cases from controls: apolipoprotein E arg158cys; hepatic lipase -480 C/T; endothelial

  18. Provision of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) information among Malaysian parents of children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Choong Yi; Lim, Wei Kang; Kong, Ann Nie; Lua, Pei Lin; Ong, Lai Choo

    2017-10-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is an important cause of mortality in epilepsy. To date, there is only one published UK study evaluating information provision of SUDEP among parents of children with epilepsy (CWE), and there are no studies published from Asia. Although SUDEP information provision is recommended among parents of CWE, it is uncertain if these recommendations are applicable to Asian countries due to the different cultural attitude towards epilepsy. Our prospective cohort study consisted of multiethnic parents of children with epilepsy (CWE) seen in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Information on SUDEP was delivered to parents using an epilepsy educational software program. Participants completed a set of standardized questionnaire and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-Short Form (DASS-21) immediately after and retested 3-6months after the SUDEP information provision. A total of 127 parents (84 mothers) participated in the study. The CWE consisted of 3 ethnic groups (38% Malay, 30% Chinese, 32% Indian) with a mean age of 9.6years. Majority (70.9%) felt positive after SUDEP information provision, 90.6% wanted SUDEP discussion for themselves with 70.1% wanted SUDEP discussion with their child, and a lower proportion (58.3%) would discuss SUDEP with their child. None of the participants reported increased symptoms of depression, stress or anxiety attributed to SUDEP information provision. Most parents took steps to reduce SUDEP risk, and most parents did not report an impact on their own functioning. However, there was an increase in parental report over time of impact on their child's functioning following SUDEP information (P<0.05). In conclusion, most Malaysian parents of CWE wanted SUDEP information. Following SUDEP information disclosure, majority did not report negative emotions; however, an increase in parents over time reported an impact on their child. Our findings reiterate that provision of SUDEP information should form part of care

  19. Expected and unexpected achievements and trends in radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The last four decades produced exponential development in the polymer processing. Radiation processing yielded a similar pathway of development in the beginning, mostly in the radiation crosslinking of polymers and in the radiation sterilization of polymer products. Some expectations on several related fields such as radiation grafting, surface coating of polymer films, etc., have not really been fulfilled. There are some unexpected results in the developments of the radiation chemistry of polymers utilized well in the polymer processing today. The most dynamical developments of the microelectronics in our days is based on the efficient utilization of radiation-crosslinkable negative photoresist polymers and the radiation degradable positive photoresist polymers. Rapid prototyping and rapid tooling are indispensable methods in the continuously renewing manufacturing technologies of metal and plastic parts for almost all the industrial branches. Rapid prototyping allows to make a real polymeric part of an automobile or of a mobile phone directly from the computer assisted design draft on the monitor, without any human interference. The selective laser lithography is using radiation-reactive oligomers for this purpose. Polymer composite manufacturing is also profited in many ways from the experiences of radiation technology. High-tech composites of advanced fibers such as graphite, Kevlar, HOPE and other ones require well-engineered interface between reinforcing fiber and matrix. This interface is the key factor, especially in the case of injection-moldable composites of short fibers and thermoplastics, and this interface can greatly be improved through ionizing radiation. Our recent results in this field confirmed substantial benefits in the case of carbon fiber reinforced structures and in the case of natural fiber reinforced composites as well. Compatibilization through radiation-reactive monomers and oligomers is attacking

  20. In the Aftermath: Attitudes of Anesthesiologists to Supportive Strategies After an Unexpected Intraoperative Patient Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Gaylene C; Thomas, Rowan D; Sanderson, Penelope M

    2016-05-01

    Although most anesthesiologists will have 1 catastrophic perioperative event or more during their careers, there has been little research on their attitudes to assistive strategies after the event. There are wide-ranging emotional consequences for anesthesiologists involved in an unexpected intraoperative patient death, particularly if the anesthesiologist made an error. We used a between-groups survey study design to ask whether there are different attitudes to assistive strategies when a hypothetical patient death is caused by a drug error versus not caused by an error. First, we explored attitudes to generalized supportive strategies. Second, we examined our hypothesis that the presence of an error causing the hypothetical patient death would increase the perceived social stigma and self-stigma of help-seeking. Finally, we examined the strategies to assist help-seeking. An anonymous, mailed, self-administered survey was conducted with 1600 consultant anesthesiologists in Australia on the mailing list of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. The participants were randomized into "error" versus "no-error" groups for the hypothetical scenario of patient death due to anaphylaxis. Nonparametric, descriptive, parametric, and inferential tests were used for data analysis. P' is used where P values were corrected for multiple comparisons. There was a usable response rate of 48.9%. When an error had caused the hypothetical patient death, participants were more likely to agree with 4 of the 5 statements about support, including need for time off (P' = 0.003), counseling (P' self-stigma (P = 0.98) or social stigma (P = 0.15) of seeking counseling, whether or not an error had caused the hypothetical patient death. Finally, when an error had caused the patient death, participants were more likely to agree with 2 of the 5 statements about help-seeking, including the need for a formal, hospital-based process that provides information on where to obtain

  1. Unexpected observations after mapping LongSAGE tags to the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Laurent

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SAGE has been used widely to study the expression of known transcripts, but much less to annotate new transcribed regions. LongSAGE produces tags that are sufficiently long to be reliably mapped to a whole-genome sequence. Here we used this property to study the position of human LongSAGE tags obtained from all public libraries. We focused mainly on tags that do not map to known transcripts. Results Using a published error rate in SAGE libraries, we first removed the tags likely to result from sequencing errors. We then observed that an unexpectedly large number of the remaining tags still did not match the genome sequence. Some of these correspond to parts of human mRNAs, such as polyA tails, junctions between two exons and polymorphic regions of transcripts. Another non-negligible proportion can be attributed to contamination by murine transcripts and to residual sequencing errors. After filtering out our data with these screens to ensure that our dataset is highly reliable, we studied the tags that map once to the genome. 31% of these tags correspond to unannotated transcripts. The others map to known transcribed regions, but many of them (nearly half are located either in antisense or in new variants of these known transcripts. Conclusion We performed a comprehensive study of all publicly available human LongSAGE tags, and carefully verified the reliability of these data. We found the potential origin of many tags that did not match the human genome sequence. The properties of the remaining tags imply that the level of sequencing error may have been under-estimated. The frequency of tags matching once the genome sequence but not in an annotated exon suggests that the human transcriptome is much more complex than shown by the current human genome annotations, with many new splicing variants and antisense transcripts. SAGE data is appropriate to map new transcripts to the genome, as demonstrated by the high rate of cross

  2. Destructive Interactions Between Mitigation Strategies and the Causes of Unexpected Failures in Natural Hazard Mitigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S. J.; Fearnley, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    population centers with poor enforcement of building codes, unrealistic expectations of warning systems or failures to understand local seismic damage mechanisms; and the interaction of land use restriction strategies and responsive warning strategies around lahar-prone volcanoes. A more complete understanding of the interactions between these different types of mitigation strategy, especially the consequences for the expectations and behaviors of the populations at risk, requires models of decision-making under high levels of both uncertainty and danger. The Observation-Orientation-Decision-Action (OODA) loop model (Boyd, 1987) may be a particularly useful model. It emphasizes the importance of 'orientation' (the interpretation of observations and assessment of their significance for the observer and decision-maker), the feedback between decisions and subsequent observations and orientations, and the importance of developing mitigation strategies that are flexible and so able to respond to the occurrence of the unexpected. REFERENCE: Boyd, J.R. A Discourse on Winning and Losing [http://dnipogo.org/john-r-boyd/

  3. Inefficient postural responses to unexpected slips during walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, P F; Woollacott, M H

    1998-11-01

    Slips account for a high percentage of falls and subsequent injuries in community-dwelling older adults but not in young adults. This phenomenon suggests that although active and healthy older adults preserve a mobility level comparable to that of young adults, these older adults may have difficulty generating efficient reactive postural responses when they slip. This study tested the hypothesis that active and healthy older adults use a less effective reactive balance strategy than young adults when experiencing an unexpected forward slip occurring at heel strike during walking. This less effective balance strategy would be manifested by slower and smaller postural responses, altered temporal and spatial organization of the postural responses, and greater upper trunk instability after the slip. Thirty-three young adults (age range=19-34 yrs, mean=25+/-4 yrs) and 32 community-dwelling older adults (age range=70-87 yrs, mean=74+/-14 yrs) participated. Subjects walked across a movable forceplate which simulated a forward slip at heel strike. Surface electromyography was recorded from bilateral leg, thigh, hip, and trunk muscles. Kinematic data were collected from the right (perturbed) side of the body. Although the predominant postural muscles and the activation sequence of these muscles were similar between the two age groups, the postural responses of older adults were of longer onset latencies, smaller magnitudes, and longer burst durations compared to young adults. Older adults also showed a longer coactivation duration for the ankle, knee, and trunk agonist/antagonist pairs on the perturbed side and for the knee agonist/antagonist pair on the nonperturbed side. Behaviorally, older adults became less stable after the slips. This was manifested by a higher incidence of being tripped (21 trials in older vs 5 trials in young adults) and a greater trunk hyperextension with respect to young adults. Large arm elevation was frequently used by older adults to assist in

  4. Treatments for the prevention of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Melissa J; Jackson, Cerian F; Marson, Anthony G; Nolan, Sarah J

    2016-07-19

    Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is defined as sudden, unexpected, witnessed or unwitnessed, non-traumatic or non-drowning death of people with epilepsy, with or without evidence of a seizure, excluding documented status epilepticus and in whom postmortem examination does not reveal a structural or toxicological cause for death. SUDEP has a reported incidence of 1 to 2 per 1000 patient years and represents the most common epilepsy-related cause of death. The presence and frequency of generalised tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), male sex, early age of seizure onset, duration of epilepsy, and polytherapy are all predictors of risk of SUDEP. The exact pathophysiology of SUDEP is currently unknown, although GTCS-induced cardiac, respiratory, and brainstem dysfunction appears likely. Appropriately chosen antiepileptic drug treatment can render around 70% of patients free of all seizures. However, around one-third will remain drug refractory despite polytherapy. Continuing seizures place patients at risk of SUDEP, depression, and reduced quality of life. Preventative strategies for SUDEP include reducing the occurrence of GTCS by timely referral for presurgical evaluation in people with lesional epilepsy and advice on lifestyle measures; detecting cardiorespiratory distress through clinical observation and seizure, respiratory, and heart rate monitoring devices; preventing airway obstruction through nocturnal supervision and safety pillows; reducing central hypoventilation through physical stimulation and enhancing serotonergic mechanisms of respiratory regulation using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); reducing adenosine and endogenous opioid-induced brain and brainstem depression. To assess the effectiveness of interventions in preventing SUDEP in people with epilepsy by synthesising evidence from randomised controlled trials of interventions and cohort and case-control non-randomised studies. We searched the following databases: Cochrane

  5. Unexpected mechanical properties of very dry Berea sandstone near 45°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. A.; Darling, T. W.; TenCate, J. A.; Johnson, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    An understanding of the nonlinear and hysteretic behavior of porous rocks is important for seismic studies and geologic carbon sequestration applications. However, the fundamental processes responsible for such behavior are poorly understood, including interactions involving adsorbed water and bulk carbon dioxide. Water has been shown to affect the nonlinear mechanical properties of porous rocks, both in high humidity conditions and in low pressure conditions where only a monolayer of water is present on rock grain surfaces [1, 2]. To study the impact of small quantities of adsorbed water on the nonlinear behavior of sandstone, we compare nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) and time-of-flight modulation (TOFM) measurements [3] on a Berea sandstone core before and after removing bulk water from the sample. Water is removed through extended exposure to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. At the sample's driest state, we achieve a partial pressure of water below 10-8 Torr at room temperature. Periodic measurements record acoustic data as the rock is slowly heated from room temperature to 55°C in UHV. Measurements made after several months of exposure to UHV conditions show behavior we have not previously observed. We report an unexpected sharp increase in Q-1 above 45°C, suggesting we have reduced the concentration of water to a low enough level to affect the sample's mechanical properties. Nonlinear effects are still present when the sample is at its driest state below 45°C, in agreement with previous work [4], which indicates water is not the sole contributor to nonlinearity in porous rock. We are also studying the effect of adding carbon dioxide or argon gas to the dry specimen. We present our acoustic data and propose a model for the impact of adsorbed water on the attenuation of porous rock. [We gratefully acknowledge support from the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno, and from the Geosciences Research Program of the DOE

  6. Pathogenesis of sudden unexpected death in a clinical trial of patients with myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, or both

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Barkoudah, Ebrahim; Uno, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of sudden unexpected death is highest in the early post-myocardial infarction (MI) period; nevertheless, 2 recent trials showed no improvement in mortality with early placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator after MI....

  7. Language and music: differential hemispheric dominance in detecting unexpected errors in the lyrics and melody of memorized songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takuya; Kaga, Kimitaka; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2009-02-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we report here the hemispheric dominance of the auditory cortex that is selectively modulated by unexpected errors in the lyrics and melody of songs (lyrics and melody deviants), thereby elucidating under which conditions the lateralization of auditory processing changes. In experiment 1 using familiar songs, we found that the dipole strength of responses to the lyrics deviants was left-dominant at 140 ms (M140), whereas that of responses to the melody deviants was right-dominant at 130 ms (M130). In experiment 2 using familiar songs with a constant syllable or pitch, the dipole strength of frequency mismatch negativity elicited by oddballs was left-dominant. There were significant main effects of experiment (1 and 2) for the peak latencies and for the coordinates of the dipoles, indicating that the M140 and M130 were not the frequency mismatch negativity. In experiment 3 using newly memorized songs, the right-dominant M130 was observed only when the presented note was unexpected one, independent of perceiving unnatural pitch transitions (i.e., perceptual saliency) and of selective attention to the melody of songs. The consistent right-dominance of the M130 between experiments 1 and 3 suggests that the M130 in experiment 1 is due to unexpected notes deviating from well-memorized songs. On the other hand, the left-dominant M140 was elicited by lyrics deviants, suggesting the influence of top-down linguistic information and the memory of the familiar songs. We thus conclude that the left- lateralized M140 and right-lateralized M130 reflect the expectation based on top-down information of language and music, respectively.

  8. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in the FBN1 gene: unexpected findings in molecular diagnosis of Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Pauline; Hanna, Nadine; Aubart, Mélodie; Leheup, Bruno; Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Naudion, Sophie; Lacombe, Didier; Milleron, Olivier; Odent, Sylvie; Faivre, Laurence; Bal, Laurence; Edouard, Thomas; Collod-Beroud, Gwenaëlle; Langeois, Maud; Spentchian, Myrtille; Gouya, Laurent; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder usually associated with heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1). Homozygous and compound heterozygous cases are rare events and have been associated with a clinical severe presentation. Report unexpected findings of homozygosity and compound heterozygosity in the course of molecular diagnosis of heterozygous MFS and compare the findings with published cases. In the context of molecular diagnosis of heterozygous MFS, systematic sequencing of the FBN1 gene was performed in 2500 probands referred nationwide. 1400 probands carried a heterozygous mutation in this gene. Unexpectedly, among them four homozygous cases (0.29%) and five compound heterozygous cases (0.36%) were identified (total: 0.64%). Interestingly, none of these cases carried two premature termination codon mutations in the FBN1 gene. Clinical features for these carriers and their families were gathered and compared. There was a large spectrum of severity of the disease in probands carrying two mutated FBN1 alleles, but none of them presented extremely severe manifestations of MFS in any system compared with carriers of only one mutated FBN1 allele. This observation is not in line with the severe clinical features reported in the literature for four homozygous and three compound heterozygous probands. Homozygotes and compound heterozygotes were unexpectedly identified in the course of molecular diagnosis of MFS. Contrary to previous reports, the presence of two mutated alleles was not associated with severe forms of MFS. Although homozygosity and compound heterozygosity are rarely found in molecular diagnosis, they should not be overlooked, especially among consanguineous families. However, no predictive evaluation of severity should be provided. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Why don't you like me? Midfrontal theta power in response to unexpected peer rejection feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, M J W; Dekkers, L M S; Westenberg, P M; van der Veen, F M; van der Molen, M W

    2017-02-01

    Social connectedness theory posits that the brain processes social rejection as a threat to survival. Recent electrophysiological evidence suggests that midfrontal theta (4-8Hz) oscillations in the EEG provide a window on the processing of social rejection. Here we examined midfrontal theta dynamics (power and inter-trial phase synchrony) during the processing of social evaluative feedback. We employed the Social Judgment paradigm in which 56 undergraduate women (mean age=19.67 years) were asked to communicate their expectancies about being liked vs. disliked by unknown peers. Expectancies were followed by feedback indicating social acceptance vs. rejection. Results revealed a significant increase in EEG theta power to unexpected social rejection feedback. This EEG theta response could be source-localized to brain regions typically reported during activation of the saliency network (i.e., dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, inferior frontal gyrus, frontal pole, and the supplementary motor area). Theta phase dynamics mimicked the behavior of the time-domain averaged feedback-related negativity (FRN) by showing stronger phase synchrony for feedback that was unexpected vs. expected. Theta phase, however, differed from the FRN by also displaying stronger phase synchrony in response to rejection vs. acceptance feedback. Together, this study highlights distinct roles for midfrontal theta power and phase synchrony in response to social evaluative feedback. Our findings contribute to the literature by showing that midfrontal theta oscillatory power is sensitive to social rejection but only when peer rejection is unexpected, and this theta response is governed by a widely distributed neural network implicated in saliency detection and conflict monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Falls-risk post-stroke: Examining contributions from paretic versus non paretic limbs to unexpected forward gait slips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajrolkar, Tejal; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2016-09-06

    Community-dwelling stroke survivors show a high incidence of falls with unexpected external perturbations during dynamic activities like walking. Previous evidence has demonstrated the importance of compensatory stepping to restore dynamic stability in response to perturbations in hemiparetic stroke survivors. However, these studies were limited to either stance perturbations or perturbation induced under the unaffected limb. This study aimed to compare the differences, if any, between the non-paretic and paretic sides in dynamic stability and protective stepping strategies when exposed to unexpected external perturbation during walking. Twenty hemiparetic subjects experienced an unexpected forward slip during walking on the laboratory walkway either on the paretic (n=10) or the nonparetic limb (n=10). Both groups demonstrated a backward loss of balance with a compensatory stepping response, with the nonparetic-side slip group resorting mainly to an aborted step response (60%) and the paretic-side slip group mainly exhibiting a recovery step response (90%). Although both groups showed an equal incidence of falls, the nonparetic-side slip group demonstrated a higher stability at recovery step touchdown, resulting from lower perturbation magnitudes (slip displacement and velocity) compared to the paretic-side slip group. The results indicate that the paretic side had difficulty initiating and executing a successful stepping response (nonparetic-side slip) and also in reactive limb control while in stance (paretic-side slip). Based on these results it is suggested that intervention strategies for fall-prevention in chronic stroke survivors should focus on paretic limb training for both reactive stepping and weight bearing for improving balance control for recovery from unpredictable perturbations during dynamic activities such as walking. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [Effectiveness of the GlideScope video laryngoscope in a case of unexpected difficult airway due to lingual tonsil hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, P; Alarcón, L; Del Castillo, T; Cabrerizo, P; Díaz, S

    2015-05-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy can cause varying degrees of airway obstruction and is considered a risk factor for difficult mask ventilation and tracheal intubation. We report a case of unexpected difficult airway in a patient with unknown lingual tonsil hypertrophy that was solved with the use of the GlideScope video laryngoscope. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Unexpected results in Chernozem soil respiration while measuring the effect of a bio-fertilizer on soil microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Gabriela; Mátyás, Bence; Carpio, Isabel; Vilches, Richard; Pazmino, Karina

    2017-01-01

    The number of studies investigating the effect of bio-fertilizers is increasing because of their importance in sustainable agriculture and environmental quality. In our experiments, we measured the effect of different fertilizers on soil respiration. In the present study, we were looking for the cause of unexpected changes in CO2 values while examining Chernozem soil samples. We concluded that CO2 oxidizing microbes or methanotrophs may be present in the soil that periodically consume CO2 . This is unusual for a sample taken from the upper layer of well-ventilated Chernozem soil with optimal moisture content.

  13. Below Regulatory Conern Owners Group: Radiologic impact of accidents and unexpected events from disposal of BRC waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Dolan, M.M.; Rish, W.R.; Rossi, A.J.; McCourt, J.E.

    1989-07-01

    This report determines the radiological impact of accidents and unexpected events in the disposal of Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) waste. The accident analysis considers the transportation, incineration, and disposal of BRC waste as municipal solid waste. The potential greatest radiological impact for each type of accident is identified through the use of event trees. These accident events are described in terms of the generic waste property(ies) (e.g., flammability, dispersibility, leachability, and solubility) that cause the greatest radiological impact. 7 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs

  14. Identification of metabolites of the tryptase inhibitor CRA-9249: observation of a metabolite derived from an unexpected hydroxylation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Walter; Dener, Jeffrey M; Dickman, Daniel A; Grothaus, Paul; Ling, Yun; Liu, Liang; Havel, Chris; Malesky, Kimberly; Mahajan, Tania; O'Brian, Colin; Shelton, Emma J; Sperandio, David; Tong, Zhiwei; Yee, Robert; Mordenti, Joyce J

    2006-08-01

    The metabolites of the tryptase inhibitor CRA-9249 were identified after exposure to liver microsomes. CRA-9249 was found to be degraded rapidly in liver microsomes from rabbit, dog, cynomolgus monkey, and human, and less rapidly in microsomes from rat. The key metabolites included cleavage of an aryl ether, in addition to an unexpected hydroxylation of the amide side chain adjacent to the amide nitrogen. The chemical structures of both metabolites were confirmed by synthesis and comparison to material isolated from the liver microsomes. Several suspected hydroxylated metabolites were also synthesized and analyzed as part of the structure identification process.

  15. Analysis on an illusion unexpected occurred on a moving statue leaving in fact but approaching by environmental judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Youwu; Li, Zhifang; Qiu, Yishen; Li, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Earlier this year we visited Sanya, Hainan Province, China. There is a huge statue, the South Sea Avalokitesvara (南海观世音菩萨), at Sanya Nanshan Buddhism Cultural Tourism Resort. When we were gazing at the statue on a leaving car on gradually rising road, an unexpected visual illusion took place in which the statue seemed running after us. In this presentation, an optical model is developed to explain the illusion occurred on a moving object leaving in fact but approaching by environmental judgement. Such an interesting illusion analysis will play a significant role in having students understood the main principles in geometrical optics.

  16. Effects of Muscle Fatigue, Creep, and Musculoskeletal Pain on Neuromuscular Responses to Unexpected Perturbation of the Trunk: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Lardon, Arnaud; Boivin, Frédéric; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Trunk neuromuscular responses have been shown to adapt under the influence of muscle fatigue, as well as spinal tissue creep or even with the presence of low back pain (LBP). Despite a large number of studies exploring how these external perturbations affect the spinal stability, characteristics of such adaptations remains unclear. Aim: The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the quality of evidence of studies investigating trunk neuromuscular responses to unexpected trunk perturbation. More specifically, the targeted neuromuscular responses were trunk muscle activity reflex and trunk kinematics under the influence of muscle fatigue, spinal creep, and musculoskeletal pain. Methods: A research of the literature was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, and Sport-Discus databases using terms related to trunk neuromuscular reflex responses, measured by electromyography (baseline activity, reflex latency, and reflex amplitude) and/or trunk kinematic, in context of unexpected external perturbation. Moreover, independent variables must be either trunk muscle fatigue or spinal tissue creep or LBP. All included articles were scored for their electromyography methodology based on the "Surface Electromyography for the Non-Invasive Assessment of Muscles (SENIAM)" and the "International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK)" recommendations whereas overall quality of articles was scored using a specific quality checklist modified from the Quality Index. Meta-analysis was performed on reflex latency variable. Results: A final set of 29 articles underwent quality assessments. The mean quality score was 79%. No effect of muscle fatigue on erector spinae reflex latency following an unexpected perturbation, nor any other distinctive effects was found for back muscle fatigue and reflex parameters. As for spinal tissue creep effects, no alteration was found for any of the trunk reflex variables. Finally, the meta-analysis revealed an increased erector

  17. Exploratory field trial of motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB): Considerations on the acceptability of unexpected automatic decelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Giovanni; Pierini, Marco; Thompson, Jason; Fitzharris, Michael; Lenné, Michael G

    2016-11-16

    Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) acts to slow down a vehicle when an unavoidable impending collision is detected. In addition to documented benefits when applied to passenger cars, AEB has also shown potential when applied to motorcycles (MAEB). However, the feasibility of MAEB as practically applied to motorcycles in the real world is not well understood. In this study we performed a field trial involving 16 riders on a test motorcycle subjected to automatic decelerations, thus simulating MAEB activation. The tests were conducted along a rectilinear path at nominal speed of 40 km/h and with mean deceleration of 0.15 g (15% of full braking) deployed at random times. Riders were also exposed to one final undeclared brake activation with the aim of providing genuinely unexpected automatic braking events. Participants were consistently able to manage automatic decelerations of the vehicle with minor to moderate effort. Results of undeclared activations were consistent with those of standard runs. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a moderate automatic deceleration in a scenario of motorcycle travelling in a straight path, supporting the notion that the application of AEB on motorcycles is practicable. Furthermore, the proposed field trial can be used as a reference for future regulation or consumer tests in order to address safety and acceptability of unexpected automatic decelerations on a motorcycle.

  18. The simple beauty of the unexpected a natural philosopher's quest for trout and the meaning of everything

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Marcelo Gleiser has had a passion for science and fishing since he was a boy growing up on the beaches of Rio de Janeiro. Now a world-famous theoretical physicist with hundreds of scientific articles and several books of popular science to his credit, he felt it was time to connect with nature in less theoretical ways. After seeing a fly-fishing class on the Dartmouth College green, he decided to learn to fly-fish, a hobby, he says, that teaches humility. In The Simple Beauty of the Unexpected, Gleiser travels the world to scientific conferences, fishing wherever he goes. At each stop, he ponders how in the myriad ways physics informs the act of fishing; how, in its turn, fishing serves as a lens into nature s inner workings; and how science engages with questions of meaning and spirituality, inspiring a sense of mystery and awe of the not yet known. Personal and engaging, The Simple Beauty of the Unexpected is a scientist s tribute to nature, an affirmation of humanity s deep connection with and debt to Eart...

  19. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis of unexpected extracardiac septic embolisms in patients with suspected cardiac endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Nanni, Cristina; Morigi, Joshua James; Ambrosini, Valentina; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Graziosi, Maddalena; Rapezzi, Claudio [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Cardiology, Bologna (Italy); Trapani, Filippo; Bartoletti, Michele; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pier Luigi [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Infective Diseases, Bologna (Italy); Ferretti, Alice; Rubello, Domenico [Azienda Ospedaliera S. Maria della Misericordia, Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, Neuroradiology, Medical Physics, Rovigo (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Acute infective endocarditis is a potentially life-threatening disease. Its outcome strongly depends on systemic embolization and extracardiac infections. When present, these conditions usually lead to a more aggressive therapeutic approach. However, the diagnosis of peripheral septic embolism is very challenging. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has proven to be accurate for the detection of inflammatory diseases and occult infections. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of extracardiac embolisms in the evaluation of patients with suspected valvular endocarditis (VE). Seventy-one patients with suspected infective endocarditis, enrolled between June 2010 and December 2012, underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT with the standard procedure on a dedicated PET/CT scanner. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures. Of the 71 patients with suspicion of infective endocarditis, we found unexpected extracardiac findings in 17 patients (24 %) without any clinical suspicion. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures. PET/CT detected unexpected extra sites of infection in 24 % of cases, leading to changes in therapeutic management in a very relevant percentage of patients. These findings may have important therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  20. 18F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis of unexpected extracardiac septic embolisms in patients with suspected cardiac endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Nanni, Cristina; Morigi, Joshua James; Ambrosini, Valentina; Fanti, Stefano; Graziosi, Maddalena; Rapezzi, Claudio; Trapani, Filippo; Bartoletti, Michele; Tumietto, Fabio; Viale, Pier Luigi; Ferretti, Alice; Rubello, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Acute infective endocarditis is a potentially life-threatening disease. Its outcome strongly depends on systemic embolization and extracardiac infections. When present, these conditions usually lead to a more aggressive therapeutic approach. However, the diagnosis of peripheral septic embolism is very challenging. 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has proven to be accurate for the detection of inflammatory diseases and occult infections. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of extracardiac embolisms in the evaluation of patients with suspected valvular endocarditis (VE). Seventy-one patients with suspected infective endocarditis, enrolled between June 2010 and December 2012, underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT with the standard procedure on a dedicated PET/CT scanner. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures. Of the 71 patients with suspicion of infective endocarditis, we found unexpected extracardiac findings in 17 patients (24 %) without any clinical suspicion. Extracardiac findings were subsequently evaluated with other imaging procedures. PET/CT detected unexpected extra sites of infection in 24 % of cases, leading to changes in therapeutic management in a very relevant percentage of patients. These findings may have important therapeutic implications. (orig.)

  1. Unexpected consequences of control: competitive vs. predator release in a four-species assemblage of invasive mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscoe, Wendy A; Ramsey, David S L; Pech, Roger P; Sweetapple, Peter J; Yockney, Ivor; Barron, Mandy C; Perry, Mike; Nugent, Graham; Carran, Roger; Warne, Rodney; Brausch, Chris; Duncan, Richard P

    2011-10-01

    Invasive species are frequently the target of eradication or control programmes to mitigate their impacts. However, manipulating single species in isolation can lead to unexpected consequences for other species, with outcomes such as mesopredator release demonstrated both theoretically and empirically in vertebrate assemblages with at least two trophic levels. Less is known about the consequences of species removal in more complex assemblages where a greater number of interacting invaders increases the potential for selective species removal to result in unexpected changes in community structure. Using a replicated Before-After Control-Impact field experiment with a four-species assemblage of invasive mammals we show that species interactions in the community are dominated by competition rather than predation. There was no measurable response of two mesopredators (rats and mice) following control of the top predator (stoats), but there was competitive release of rats following removal of a herbivore (possums), and competitive release of mice following removal of rats. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Isolation and characterisation of an unexpected byproduct in the regioselective butane diacetal protection of α-methyl galactopyranoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Clément Q; Kuppala, Ramakrishna; Light, Mark; Linclau, Bruno

    2018-01-02

    The regioselective protection of both methyl galactopyranoside anomers at the 2 and 3-positions as the butane diacetal (BDA) is well known. Here we describe the formation of an unexpected byproduct, which mainly occurs when α-methyl galactopyranoside is reacted with 2,3-butanedione under BF 3 •OEt 2 catalysis. The structure of the byproduct, which did not arise from anomerisation to the β-anomer or from BDA formation at the galactopyranoside 3,4-positions, was elucidated by NMR and X-ray crystallographic analysis, and proved to be the expected BDA protected galactopyranoside, but in which the stereochemistry of both its BDA acetal centres are inverted. Interestingly, the conformation of the resulting six-membered BDA ring was distorted to a skew boat conformation in order to maintain anomeric stabilisation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Unexpected Regularity in Swimming Behavior of Clausocalanus furcatus Revealed by a Telecentric 3D Computer Vision System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bianco

    Full Text Available Planktonic copepods display a large repertoire of motion behaviors in a three-dimensional environment. Two-dimensional video observations demonstrated that the small copepod Clausocalanus furcatus, one the most widely distributed calanoids at low to medium latitudes, presented a unique swimming behavior that was continuous and fast and followed notably convoluted trajectories. Furthermore, previous observations indicated that the motion of C. furcatus resembled a random process. We characterized the swimming behavior of this species in three-dimensional space using a video system equipped with telecentric lenses, which allow tracking of zooplankton without the distortion errors inherent in common lenses. Our observations revealed unexpected regularities in the behavior of C. furcatus that appear primarily in the horizontal plane and could not have been identified in previous observations based on lateral views. Our results indicate that the swimming behavior of C. furcatus is based on a limited repertoire of basic kinematic modules but exhibits greater plasticity than previously thought.

  4. Unexpected formation and crystal structure of tetrakis(1H-pyrazole-κN2palladium(II dichloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wagner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, [Pd(C3H4N24]Cl2, was obtained unexpectedly by the reaction of palladium(II dichloride with equimolar amounts of 1-chloro-1-nitro-2,2,2-tris(pyrazolylethane in methanol solution. The Pd2+ cation is located on an inversion centre and has a square-planar coordination sphere defined by four N atoms of four neutral pyrazole ligands. The average Pd—N distance is 2.000 (2 Å. The two chloride anions are not coordinating to Pd2+. They are connected to the complex cations through N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. In addition, C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds are observed, leading to a three-dimensional linkage of cations and anions.

  5. Explaining the unexpected success of the smoking ban in Italy: political strategy and transition to practice, 2000–2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Valentina; Compagni, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    The approval (2003) and enforcement (2005) of a smoking ban in Italy have been viewed by many as an unexpectedly successful example of policy change. The present paper, by applying a processualist approach, concentrates on two policy cycles between 2000 and 2005. These had opposing outcomes: an incomplete decisional stage and an authoritative decision, enforced two years later. Through the analysis of the different phases of agenda setting, alternative specification and decision making, we have compared the quality of participation of policy entrepreneurs in the two cycles, their political strategies and, in these, the relevance of issue image. The case allows us to direct the attention of scholars and practitioners to an early phase of the policy implementation process – which we have named "transition to practice". This, managed with political strategy, might have strongly contributed to the final successful policy outcome.

  6. Unexpected High Digestion Rate of Cooked Starch by the Ct-Maltase-Glucoamylase Small Intestine Mucosal α-Glucosidase Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Nichols, Buford L.; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Avery, Stephen E.; Sim, Lyann; Rose, David R.; Naim, Hassan Y.; Hamaker, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    For starch digestion to glucose, two luminal α-amylases and four gut mucosal α-glucosidase subunits are employed. The aim of this research was to investigate, for the first time, direct digestion capability of individual mucosal α-glucosidases on cooked (gelatinized) starch. Gelatinized normal maize starch was digested with N- and C-terminal subunits of recombinant mammalian maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) of varying amounts and digestion periods. Without the aid of α-amylase, Ct-MGAM demonstrated an unexpected rapid and high digestion degree near 80%, while other subunits showed 20 to 30% digestion. These findings suggest that Ct-MGAM assists α-amylase in digesting starch molecules and potentially may compensate for developmental or pathological amylase deficiencies. PMID:22563462

  7. A new fossil from the mid-Paleocene of New Zealand reveals an unexpected diversity of world's oldest penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Paul Scofield, R

    2017-04-01

    We describe leg bones of a giant penguin from the mid-Paleocene Waipara Greensand of New Zealand. The specimens were found at the type locality of Waimanu manneringi and together with this species they constitute the oldest penguin fossils known to date. Tarsometatarsus dimensions indicate a species that reached the size of Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, one of the largest known penguin species. Stem group penguins therefore attained a giant size very early in their evolution, with this gigantism existing for more than 30 million years. The new fossils are from a species that is phylogenetically more derived than Waimanu, and the unexpected coexistence of Waimanu with more derived stem group Sphenisciformes documents a previously unknown diversity amongst the world's oldest penguins. The characteristic tarsometatarsus shape of penguins evolved early on, and the significant morphological disparity between Waimanu and the new fossil conflicts with recent Paleocene divergence estimates for penguins, suggesting an older, Late Cretaceous, origin.

  8. A new fossil from the mid-Paleocene of New Zealand reveals an unexpected diversity of world's oldest penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Paul Scofield, R.

    2017-04-01

    We describe leg bones of a giant penguin from the mid-Paleocene Waipara Greensand of New Zealand. The specimens were found at the type locality of Waimanu manneringi and together with this species they constitute the oldest penguin fossils known to date. Tarsometatarsus dimensions indicate a species that reached the size of Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, one of the largest known penguin species. Stem group penguins therefore attained a giant size very early in their evolution, with this gigantism existing for more than 30 million years. The new fossils are from a species that is phylogenetically more derived than Waimanu, and the unexpected coexistence of Waimanu with more derived stem group Sphenisciformes documents a previously unknown diversity amongst the world's oldest penguins. The characteristic tarsometatarsus shape of penguins evolved early on, and the significant morphological disparity between Waimanu and the new fossil conflicts with recent Paleocene divergence estimates for penguins, suggesting an older, Late Cretaceous, origin.

  9. Interpretation of laser desorption mass spectra of unexpected inorganic species found in a cosmetic sample of forensic interest: fingernail polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Emily; Harrington, Danielle; Allison, John

    2009-08-01

    When analytes containing color are irradiated with a pulsed UV laser in the ion source of a mass spectrometer, molecules such as dyes or pigments absorb energy, resulting in their desorption and ionization. This method, laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS), has been used successfully to analyze colorants of forensic interest in a wide variety of materials. Here, we present and interpret the most complex of such spectra obtained to date from a sample of fingernail polish. Interpretation of the spectrum provides a unique opportunity to characterize the laser desorption mass spectra of some unexpected inorganic materials found in cosmetics, such as "broken glass", cyanide compounds, and heavy metals. Also, the possibility of a useful forensic database of LDMS spectra of fingernail polishes is considered.

  10. Adaptive designs for dose-finding in non-cancer phase II trials: influence of early unexpected outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Zohar, Sarah; Chevret, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    In non-cancer phase II trials, dose-finding trials are usually carried out using fixed designs, in which several doses including a placebo are randomly distributed to patients. However, in certain vulnerable populations, such as neonates or infants, there is an heightened requirement for safety, precluding randomization. To estimate the minimum effective dose of a new drug from a non-cancer phase II trial, we propose the use of adaptive designs like the Continual Reassessment Method (CRM). This approach estimates the dose closest to some target response, and has been shown to be unbiased and efficient in cancer phase I trials. Based on a motivating example, we point out the individual influence of first outliers in this setting. A weighted version of the CRM is proposed as a theoretical benchmark to control for these outliers. Using simulations, we illustrate how this approach provides further insight into the behavior of the CRM. When dealing with low targets like a 10% failure rate, the CRM appears unable to rapidly overcome an early unexpected outcome. This behavior persisted despite changing the inference (Bayesian or likelihood), underlying dose-response model (though slightly improved using the power model), and the number of patients enrolled at each dose level. The choices for initial guesses of failure rates, the vague prior for the model parameter, and the log-log shape of weights can appear somewhat arbitrary. In phase II dose-finding studies in which failure targets are below 20%, the CRM appears quite sensitive to first unexpected outcomes. Using a power model for dose-response improves some behavior if the trial is started at the first dose level and includes at least three to five patients at the starting dose before applying the CRM allocation rule.

  11. A novel reducing graphene/polyaniline/cuprous oxide composite hydrogel with unexpected photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Congo red

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Jie; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Cao, Juan; Shen, Yuhua, E-mail: yhshen@ahu.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excellent photocatalytic activity of the RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel for CR degradation under UV–vis light irradiation. - Highlights: • The RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel was first synthesized via a facile method. • Photocatalytic performance was studied under UV–vis light. • The ternary composite hydrogel shows unexpected photocatalytic activity. • A possible photocatalysis mechanism was illustrated. - Abstract: In this work, a novel reducing graphene/polyaniline/cuprous oxide (RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O) composite hydrogel with a 3D porous network has been successfully prepared via a one-pot method in the presence of cubic Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles. The as-synthesized ternary composites hydrogel shows unexpected photocatalytic activity such that Congo red (CR) degradation efficiency can reaches 97.91% in 20 min under UV–vis light irradiation, which is much higher than that of either the single component (Cu{sub 2}O nanoparticles), or two component systems (RGO/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel and PANI/Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposites). Furthermore, the ternary composite hydrogel exhibits high stability and do not show any significant loss after five recycles. Such outstanding photocatalytic activity of the RGO/PANI/Cu{sub 2}O composite hydrogel was ascribed to the high absorption ability of the product for CR and the synergic effect among RGO, PANI and Cu{sub 2}O in photocatalytic process. The product of this work would provide a new sight for the construction of UV–vis light responsive photocatalyst with high performance.

  12. A novel reducing graphene/polyaniline/cuprous oxide composite hydrogel with unexpected photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Congo red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Jie; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Cao, Juan; Shen, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Excellent photocatalytic activity of the RGO/PANI/Cu_2O composite hydrogel for CR degradation under UV–vis light irradiation. - Highlights: • The RGO/PANI/Cu_2O composite hydrogel was first synthesized via a facile method. • Photocatalytic performance was studied under UV–vis light. • The ternary composite hydrogel shows unexpected photocatalytic activity. • A possible photocatalysis mechanism was illustrated. - Abstract: In this work, a novel reducing graphene/polyaniline/cuprous oxide (RGO/PANI/Cu_2O) composite hydrogel with a 3D porous network has been successfully prepared via a one-pot method in the presence of cubic Cu_2O nanoparticles. The as-synthesized ternary composites hydrogel shows unexpected photocatalytic activity such that Congo red (CR) degradation efficiency can reaches 97.91% in 20 min under UV–vis light irradiation, which is much higher than that of either the single component (Cu_2O nanoparticles), or two component systems (RGO/Cu_2O composite hydrogel and PANI/Cu_2O nanocomposites). Furthermore, the ternary composite hydrogel exhibits high stability and do not show any significant loss after five recycles. Such outstanding photocatalytic activity of the RGO/PANI/Cu_2O composite hydrogel was ascribed to the high absorption ability of the product for CR and the synergic effect among RGO, PANI and Cu_2O in photocatalytic process. The product of this work would provide a new sight for the construction of UV–vis light responsive photocatalyst with high performance.

  13. Integrated Solid Earth Science: the right place and time to discover the unexpected? (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloetingh, Sierd

    2013-04-01

    The fascination of learning more about the way system Earth operates has driven generations of Earth scientists. This has been the case for early pioneers such as Arthur Holmes, focusing on the geological record in continental settings, as well as for the founding fathers of plate tectonics, who built upon the results of exploring the ocean floor. Two years ago we celebrated the centenary of the discovery by Mohorovicic of the seismic discontinuity that separates the crust from the mantle, which now carries his name. Reading the rocks and mapping the (sub)surface of the Earth has provided the foundation for a great deal of what we conceptually pursue today in developing and validating coupled deep Earth and surface processes. The unexpected is probably characterizing most of my scientific career. It started in 1968 when, as a student, entering the geology program of Groningen University headed by Professor Philip Kuenen, a pioneer in marine geology and sedimentology, the textbook of Arthur Holmes just happened to be my first purchase. It was during those years that plate tectonics drastically changed everything we were learning. I was also privileged to enter a few years later as an MSc student the Utrecht geophysics school at a time where Nico Vlaar as a young professor was developing a vigorous research program with a focus on seismology, attracting and stimulating many talented students. When he and Rinus Wortel started research on Tectonophysics in Utrecht, I decided to go for a PhD research project tackling the problem of the initiation of subduction, a first order problem in geodynamics, with still many aspects to be resolved. This research and the joint work with Rinus Wortel on modeling intraplate stresses in the Faralon, Nazca and Indo-Australian plates led quite unexpectedly to exploring, together with Kurt Lambeck, intraplate stress fluctuations in the lithosphere as possible tectonic causes for the origin of third-order cycles in relative sea

  14. Structures of Rotavirus Reassortants Demonstrate Correlation of Altered Conformation of the VP4 Spike and Expression of Unexpected VP4-Associated Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Joseph B.; Billingsley, Angela M.; Roberts, Ed J.; Ramig, Robert F.; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram

    2003-01-01

    Numerous prior studies have indicated that viable rotavirus reassortants containing structural proteins of heterologous parental origin may express unexpected phenotypes, such as changes in infectivity and immunogenicity. To provide a structural basis for alterations in phenotypic expression, a three-dimensional structural analysis of these reassortants was conducted. The structures of the reassortants show that while VP4 generally maintains the parental structure when moved to a heterologous protein background, in certain reassortants, there are subtle alterations in the conformation of VP4. The alterations in VP4 conformation correlated with expression of unexpected VP4-associated phenotypes. Interactions between heterologous VP4 and VP7 in reassortants expressing unexpected phenotypes appeared to induce the conformational alterations seen in VP4. PMID:12584352

  15. The 16th P and GJ 500 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, J.

    1996-01-01

    Pipeline and Gas Journal is pleased to present its 16th annual 500 Report--a comprehensive listing of the nation's energy pipelines. The list comprises the leading 300 natural gas distribution utilities; top 100 gas transmission pipelines and top 100 liquids pipelines. The wealth of statistics includes pipeline mileage; total throughput of gas and barrels of crude oil and refined products; operating revenue; employees; and in the case of the gas distributors their number of customers. Just as important as the numbers are the trends they reveal of an energy industry continuing to undergo dramatic change. The gas industry in particular has faced a massive reorganization caused in large part by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order 636

  16. Development of C-lignin with G/S-lignin and lipids in orchid seed coats – an unexpected diversity exposed by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Lee, Y.-I.; Rasmussen, Hanne Nina

    2018-01-01

    Cite this article: Barsberg ST, Lee Y-I, Rasmussen HN. Development of C-lignin with G/S-lignin and lipids in orchid seed coats – an unexpected diversity exposed by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. Seed Science Research https:// doi.org/10.1017/S0960258517000344......Cite this article: Barsberg ST, Lee Y-I, Rasmussen HN. Development of C-lignin with G/S-lignin and lipids in orchid seed coats – an unexpected diversity exposed by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. Seed Science Research https:// doi.org/10.1017/S0960258517000344...

  17. Unexpected dramatic increase in CD4+ cell count in a patient with AIDS after enfuvirtide treatment despite persistent viremia and resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Alessandro; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Sala, Stefania; Alessandrini, Anna Ida; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella

    2008-06-01

    An unexpected dramatic immune recovery was observed in a patient with full-blown AIDS receiving enfuvirtide-based antiretroviral therapy after multiple treatment failures. A complex interplay of viral and host factors, including the control of X4 viruses and proviral burden, may favor immune restoration with HIV neutralizing activity, despite persistent viremia.

  18. Outbreak of NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dutch Hospital, with Interspecies Transfer of the Resistance Plasmid and Unexpected Occurrence in Unrelated Health Care Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Thijs; Lutgens, Suzanne P M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; Schneeberger, Peter M.; Renders, Nicole H M; Leenders, Alexander C. A. P.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Schoffelen, Annelot F; Notermans, Daan; Witteveen, Sandra; Bathoorn, Erik; Schouls, Leo M.

    In the Netherlands, the number of cases of infection with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae is low. Here, we report an outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a Dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected

  19. Outbreak of NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dutch Hospital, with Interspecies Transfer of the Resistance Plasmid and Unexpected Occurrence in Unrelated Health Care Centers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Thijs; Lutgens, Suzanne P M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; Schneeberger, Peter M; Renders, Nicole H M; Leenders, Alexander C A P; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Schoffelen, Annelot; Notermans, Daan; Witteveen, Sandra; Bathoorn, Erik; Schouls, Leo M

    In the Netherlands, the number of cases of infection with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae is low. Here, we report an outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a Dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected

  20. Gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health among Black South African men who have sex with men: A further exploration of unexpected findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.; Bos, H.; Knox, J.; Reddy, V.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated,

  1. Evaluation of the Factors Concerning the Unexpected Pregnancy of Women who Applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the experiences of unexpected pregnancy and the related factors of the women who have applied to our center. Material and Method: The study was planned as a descriptive study which enrolled women in the age range of 15-49 on the basis of volunteerism who have applied to the Mother and Child Care and Family Planning Center of Van Province. The participants were administered a survey in which certain situations were questioned, such as age, educational background, age at first labor, income status, number of living children, miscarriage status, unexpected pregnancy status, the presence of trying to undergo an abortion with alternative methods, and the state of receiving consultancy service on pre- and post-pregnancy family planning. Results: The more increased the educational level of 399 women enrolled in the study, the more significant reduction in unexpected pregnancies was detected (P=0.001. When the educational background and the use of alternative methods to have an abortion were compared, the illiterate women were found to use alternative methods (37.6% at a significantly high ratio (p=0.0001. The average of children number of women with at least one unexpected pregnancy was significantly high (p=0.0001. While the ratio of receiving consultancy on post-pregnancy family planning from health care personnel of the women with unexpected pregnancy was 79.5%, a ratio of 97.9% was detected for the women with planned pregnancy which was significantly different (p=0.0001. Conclusion: The health care personnel may reduce the unexpected pregnancies by training women on family planning in a simple, understandable way and by trying to increase health literacy by taking the dominant social rules in our region into consideration. We consider that the primary healthcare will be more effective and result oriented through newly applied Family Practice in our region. Key Words: Unexpected pregnancy

  2. Whole Lyophilized Olives as Sources of Unexpectedly High Amounts of Secoiridoids: The Case of Three Tuscan Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Lorenzo; Migliorini, Marzia; Cherubini, Chiara; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2015-02-04

    The phenolic profiles of three typical Tuscan olive cultivars, Frantoio, Moraiolo, and Leccino, stored in different conditions (fresh, frozen, and whole lyophilized fruits), have been compared during the ripening period. Our main goals were to evaluate the phenolic content of whole freeze-dried fruits and to test the stability of the corresponding cake in oxidative-stress conditions. The comparison of fresh and whole freeze-dried fruits from the 2012 season gave unexpected results; e.g., oleuropein in lyophilized fruits was up to 20 times higher than in fresh olives with values up to 80.3 g/kg. Over time we noted that the olive pastes obtained from lyophilized olives contained highly stable phenolic compounds, even under strong oxidative stress conditions. Finally, it was also observed that the cake/powder obtained from unripe freeze-dried olives was very poor in oil content and therefore quite suitable for use in nutritional supplements rich in phenolic compounds, such as secoiridoids, which are not widely present in the human diet.

  3. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk for Sudden Unexpected Infant Death in Children of Adolescent Mothers: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Michelle; Shimasaki, Suzuho; Johnston, Katherine; Tung, Gregory; Albright, Karen; Halbower, Ann C

    2016-07-01

    To investigate practices, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding infant sleep among adolescent mothers, a demographic at high risk for sudden unexpected infant death, and to identify novel public health interventions targeting the particular reasons of this population. Seven targeted focus groups including 43 adolescent mothers were conducted at high school daycare centers throughout Colorado. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, validated, and then analyzed in NVivo 10. Validation included coding consistency statistics and expert review. Most mothers knew many of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for infant sleep. However, almost all teens reported bedsharing regularly and used loose blankets or soft bedding despite being informed of risks. Reasons for nonadherence to recommendations included beliefs that babies are safest and sleep more/better in bed with them, that bedsharing is a bonding opportunity, and that bedsharing is easier than using a separate sleep space. The most common justifications for blankets were infant comfort and concern that babies were cold. Participants' decision making was often influenced by their own mothers, with whom they often resided. Participants felt that their instincts trumped professional advice, even when in direct contradiction to safe sleep recommendations. Among focus group participants, adherence with safe sleep practices was poor despite awareness of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations. Many mothers expressed beliefs and instincts that infants were safe in various unsafe sleep environments. Future study should investigate the efficacy of alternative educational strategies, including education of grandmothers, who have significant influence over adolescent mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatal invasive aspergillosis: a rare co-infection with an unexpected image presentation in a patient with dengue shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Ching; Chang, Ko; Lu, Po-Liang; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Chen, Huang-Chi

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary infiltration and pleural effusion caused by permeability syndrome are the hallmark of pulmonary manifestation of dengue cases. We report a 95-year-old chronic obstructive pulmonary disease case having dengue shock syndrome. Chest X-ray examination revealed diffuse lung infiltration. However, bilateral pneumotoceles were unexpectedly found in computed tomography (CT) images. Dengue virus type 2 infection was confirmed by virus culture, serology and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Profound shock with bilateral lung infiltration developed rapidly in 2 days with supportive care and empirical ampicillin/ sulbactam. Bronchoscopy revealed a whitish plaque over bilateral upper bronchi. Biopsy via bronchoscopy revealed moulds with vascular invasion. Culture of bronchial alveolar lavage yielded Aspergillus flavus. The patient died despite amphotericin B treatment, which was started since finding the whitish plaque with bronchoscopy examination. Besides to considering capillary leakage syndrome, our case report and literature review alert clinicians that CT and bronchoscopy may help to identify the true pathogen though all cases with concurrent dengue and Aspergillus infections had fatal outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Radiological findings at a South African forensic pathology laboratory in cases of sudden unexpected death in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Fenton-Muir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The work serves as a preliminary evaluation of the utility of the full-body radiography in examining cases of SUDI. Setting This paper reviews findings from full-body digital radiography in cases of sudden unexpected death in infants (SUDI in 2008 at the Salt River Forensic Pathology Laboratory in Cape Town. Subjects Cases of SUDI referred to the mortuary and undergoing full-body digital radiography were reviewed (192 cases. Design Imaging reports were cross-referenced with death registry data. Manner of death, cause of death, whether an autopsy had taken place, and radiological findings, were recorded and analysed. Results The absence of bony fractures was recorded as an imaging finding in 40% of cases. The most common type of imaging pathology was lung disease. In cases where autopsies were performed and pathology was found on imaging, the findings of the two methods of examination were consistent. Conclusions Imaging may have served to assist CoD determination based on case history, and therefore full-body radiography may improve the workflow in busy forensic pathology laboratories. More detailed and consistent recording of imaging findings is required before stronger conclusions may be drawn regarding the utility of full body digital imaging of paediatric cases in forensic pathology laboratories.

  6. Long-Term Adaptations to Unexpected Surface Perturbations: Postural Control During Stance and Gait in Train Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Hoppe, Matthias Wilhelm; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the differences in postural control during stance and gait between train conductors and controls. Twenty-one train conductors and 21 office workers performed 6 unilateral and bilateral balance tests on stable and unstable surfaces as well as a gait analysis. In the balance tests, the mean velocity of the center of pressure and unstable surface was measured. In the bilateral balance tests the selected stance width was measured. During gait the length, width, frequency, and velocity of the steps were calculated from the ground reaction forces. Train conductors showed a significantly greater step width during gait (15.4 ± 4.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.4 cm; p = .035) and stance width during the bilateral stance on the unstable surface (21.0 ± 5.1 vs. 17.8 ± 3.7 cm; p = .026) than the office workers, while no differences were revealed in balance variables. The revealed differences between train conductors and office workers may represent task-specific feedforward control strategies, which increase the base of support and may be helpful to resist unexpected perturbations in trains.

  7. Increasing the Stimulation Dose of rFSH in Unexpected Poor Responders Is Not Associated with Better IVF Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Tutuncu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this retrospective study is to determine whether increasing the stimulation dose of rFSH in unexpected poor responders is associated with better in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome or not. A total of forty eligible women who fulfilled our definition of poor responders and who did not achieve an ongoing pregnancy in the first cycle and returned for a second higher rFSH dose IVF cycle with a long-agonist protocol were included to the study. The first low-dose cycles and the second high-dose cycles were compared to each other. Main outcome measures of the study were duration of stimulation, number of follicles, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos, and E2 level on day of hCG injection. There were no significant differences in duration of stimulation, number of follicles, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos, and E2 level on day of hCG injection between the first low- and second high-dose cycles. Daily dose and total dose of rFSH were significantly higher in the second high-dose cycles. Increasing the dose of rFSH in a second stimulation cycle after first unsuccessful treatment cycle will add only to the cost and discomfort of the treatment and might adversely affect pregnancy rates.

  8. Post-genomic analyses of fungal lignocellulosic biomass degradation reveal the unexpected potential of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couturier Marie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are potent biomass degraders due to their ability to thrive in ligno(hemicellulose-rich environments. During the last decade, fungal genome sequencing initiatives have yielded abundant information on the genes that are putatively involved in lignocellulose degradation. At present, additional experimental studies are essential to provide insights into the fungal secreted enzymatic pools involved in lignocellulose degradation. Results In this study, we performed a wide analysis of 20 filamentous fungi for which genomic data are available to investigate their biomass-hydrolysis potential. A comparison of fungal genomes and secretomes using enzyme activity profiling revealed discrepancies in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes sets dedicated to plant cell wall. Investigation of the contribution made by each secretome to the saccharification of wheat straw demonstrated that most of them individually supplemented the industrial Trichoderma reesei CL847 enzymatic cocktail. Unexpectedly, the most striking effect was obtained with the phytopathogen Ustilago maydis that improved the release of total sugars by 57% and of glucose by 22%. Proteomic analyses of the best-performing secretomes indicated a specific enzymatic mechanism of U. maydis that is likely to involve oxido-reductases and hemicellulases. Conclusion This study provides insight into the lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms by filamentous fungi and allows for the identification of a number of enzymes that are potentially useful to further improve the industrial lignocellulose bioconversion process.

  9. Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  10. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther K Rabhi

    Full Text Available In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress.

  11. Unexpected infection outcomes of China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Marek J; Seekings, Amanda H; Mahmood, Sahar; Thomas, Saumya; Puranik, Anita; Watson, Samantha; Byrne, Alexander M P; Hicks, Daniel; Nunez, Alejandro; Brown, Ian H; Brookes, Sharon M

    2018-05-09

    The China-origin H7N9 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) emerged as a zoonotic threat in 2013 where it continues to circulate in live poultry markets. Absence of overt clinical signs in poultry is a typical LPAIV infection outcome, and has contributed to its insidious maintenance in China. This study is the first description of H7N9 LPAIV (A/Anhui/1/13) infection in turkeys, with efficient transmission to two additional rounds of introduced contact turkeys which all became infected during cohousing. Surprisingly, mortality was observed in six of eight (75%) second-round contact turkeys which is unusual for LPAIV infection, with unexpected systemic dissemination to many organs beyond the respiratory and enteric tracts, but interestingly no accompanying mutation to highly pathogenic AIV. The intravenous pathogenicity index score for a turkey-derived isolate (0.39) affirmed the LPAIV phenotype. However, the amino acid change L235Q in the haemagglutinin gene occurred in directly-infected turkeys and transmitted to the contacts, including those that died and the two which resolved infection to survive to the end of the study. This polymorphism was indicative of a reversion from mammalian to avian adaptation for the H7N9 virus. This study underlined a new risk to poultry in the event of H7N9 spread beyond China.

  12. Platinum-nanoparticle-supported core-shell polymer nanospheres with unexpected water stability and facile further modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Conghui; Xu, Yiting; Luo, Weiang; Zeng, Birong; Qiu, Wuhui; Liu, Jie; Huang, Huiling; Dai, Lizong

    2012-05-01

    Core-shell nanospheres (CSNSs) with hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic shells were fabricated via a simple mini-emulsion polymerization for the stabilization of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). The CSNSs showed extremely high loading capacity of Pt-NPs (the largest loading amount of the Pt-NPs was about 49.2 wt%). Importantly, the Pt-NPs/CSNSs nanocomposites had unexpected stability in aqueous solution. DLS results revealed that the CSNSs loaded with Pt-NPs exhibited almost no aggregation after standing for a long time . However, the Pt-NPs immobilized on the CSNSs were not straitlaced: they could transport and redistribute between CSNSs freely when the environmental temperature was higher than the melting point of the CSNS shell. Owing to their excellent stability in aqueous solution, the surface of the Pt-NPs/CSNSs nanocomposites could be further decorated easily. For example, polyaniline (PANI)-coated Pt-NPs/CSNSs, nickel (Ni)-coated Pt-NPs/CSNSs and PANI/Pt-NPs dual-layer hollow nanospheres were facilely fabricated from the Pt-NPs/CSNS nanocomposites.

  13. Gastric inhibitory peptide, serotonin, and glucagon are unexpected chloride secretagogues in the rectal gland of the skate (Leucoraja erinacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Catherine A; Decker, Sarah E; Silva, Patricio; Forrest, John N

    2014-05-01

    Since the discovery of the rectal gland of the dogfish shark 50 years ago, experiments with this tissue have greatly aided our understanding of secondary active chloride secretion and the secretagogues responsible for this function. In contrast, very little is known about the rectal gland of skates. In the present experiments, we performed the first studies in the perfused rectal gland of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), an organ weighing less than one-tenth of the shark rectal gland. Our results indicate that the skate gland can be studied by modified perfusion techniques and in primary culture monolayers, and that secretion is blocked by the inhibitors of membrane proteins required for secondary active chloride secretion. Our major finding is that three G protein-coupled receptor agonists, the incretin gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, as well as glucagon and serotonin, are unexpected potent chloride secretagogues in the skate but not the shark. Glucagon stimulated chloride secretion to a mean value of 1,661 ± 587 μeq·h(-1)·g(-1) and serotonin stimulated to 2,893 ± 699 μeq·h(-1)·g(-1). GIP stimulated chloride secretion to 3,733 ± 679 μeq·h(-1)·g(-1) and significantly increased tissue cAMP content compared with basal conditions. This is the first report of GIP functioning as a chloride secretagogue in any species or tissue.

  14. Unexpectedly High Levels of Cryptic Diversity Uncovered by a Complete DNA Barcoding of Reptiles of the Socotra Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Raquel; Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Sindaco, Roberto; Santos, Xavier; Fasola, Mauro; Llorente, Gustavo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Few DNA barcoding studies of squamate reptiles have been conducted. Due to the significance of the Socotra Archipelago (a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site and a biodiversity hotspot) and the conservation interest of its reptile fauna (94% endemics), we performed the most comprehensive DNA barcoding study on an island group to date to test its applicability to specimen identification and species discovery. Reptiles constitute Socotra's most important vertebrate fauna, yet their taxonomy remains under-studied. We successfully DNA-barcoded 380 individuals of all 31 presently recognized species. The specimen identification success rate is moderate to high, and almost all species presented local barcoding gaps. The unexpected high levels of intra-specific variability found within some species suggest cryptic diversity. Species richness may be under-estimated by 13.8-54.4%. This has implications in the species' ranges and conservation status that should be considered for conservation planning. Other phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers are congruent with our results. We conclude that, despite its reduced length (663 base pairs), cytochrome c oxidase 1, COI, is very useful for specimen identification and for detecting intra-specific diversity, and has a good phylogenetic signal. We recommend DNA barcoding to be applied to other biodiversity hotspots for quickly and cost-efficiently flagging species discovery, preferentially incorporated into an integrative taxonomic framework.

  15. Unexpected O and O3 production in the effluent of He/O2 microplasma jets emanating into ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerweg, D; Von Keudell, A; Benedikt, J

    2012-01-01

    Microplasma jets are commonly used to treat samples in ambient air. The effect of admixing air into the effluent may severely affect the composition of the emerging species. Here, the effluent of a He/O 2 microplasma jet has been analyzed in a helium and in an air atmosphere by molecular beam mass spectrometry. First, the composition of the effluent in air was recorded as a function of the distance to determine how fast air admixes into the effluent. Then, the spatial distribution of atomic oxygen and ozone in the effluent was recorded in ambient air and compared with measurements in a helium atmosphere. Additionally, a fluid model of the gas flow with reaction kinetics of reactive oxygen species in the effluent was constructed. In ambient air, the O density declines only slightly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. In contrast, the O 3 density in ambient air increases significantly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. This unexpected behavior cannot be explained by simple recombination reactions of O atoms with O 2 molecules. A reaction scheme involving the reaction of plasma-produced excited O 2 * species of unknown identity with ground state O 2 molecules is proposed as a possible explanation for these observations. (paper)

  16. The unexpected discovery of Brucella abortus Buck 19 vaccine in goats from Ecuador underlines the importance of biosecurity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Berkvens, Dirk; Barzallo-Rivadeneira, Daniela; Angulo-Cruz, Alexandra; González-Andrade, Pablo; Minda-Aluisa, Elizabeth; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Saegerman, Claude

    2017-03-01

    Very few, mostly old, and only preliminary serological studies of brucellosis in goats exist in Ecuador. In order to assess the current epidemiological situation, we performed a cross-sectional serological study in the goat populations of Carchi (n = 160 animals), Pichincha (n = 224 animals), and Loja provinces (n = 2024 animals). Only two positive serological results (RB negative and SAT-EDTA ≥400 IU/ml) were obtained in lactating goats from the same farm in Quito (Pichincha province). Additionally, milk was sampled from 220 animals in Pichincha province. The present study indicates a low apparent prevalence in Pichincha province and absence in Carchi and Loja provinces. A total of 25 positive milk ring tests (MRT) were obtained in Pichincha province yielding a prevalence of MRT of 11.16%. Subsequent culture was performed on the positive MRT samples. All results were negative, apart from a single sample, obtained from a serologically positive goat in Quito, that was positive for Brucella abortus strain 19 (B19). Several hypotheses are forwarded concerning this unexpected result. The most likely hypothesis is the possible accidental use of a needle, previously used for vaccination of cattle with the said vaccine, for the administration of drug treatment to the goat. This hypothesis underlines the necessity of biosecurity measures to prevent this type of accidents.

  17. Unexpectedly High Levels of Cryptic Diversity Uncovered by a Complete DNA Barcoding of Reptiles of the Socotra Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Few DNA barcoding studies of squamate reptiles have been conducted. Due to the significance of the Socotra Archipelago (a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site and a biodiversity hotspot and the conservation interest of its reptile fauna (94% endemics, we performed the most comprehensive DNA barcoding study on an island group to date to test its applicability to specimen identification and species discovery. Reptiles constitute Socotra's most important vertebrate fauna, yet their taxonomy remains under-studied. We successfully DNA-barcoded 380 individuals of all 31 presently recognized species. The specimen identification success rate is moderate to high, and almost all species presented local barcoding gaps. The unexpected high levels of intra-specific variability found within some species suggest cryptic diversity. Species richness may be under-estimated by 13.8-54.4%. This has implications in the species' ranges and conservation status that should be considered for conservation planning. Other phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers are congruent with our results. We conclude that, despite its reduced length (663 base pairs, cytochrome c oxidase 1, COI, is very useful for specimen identification and for detecting intra-specific diversity, and has a good phylogenetic signal. We recommend DNA barcoding to be applied to other biodiversity hotspots for quickly and cost-efficiently flagging species discovery, preferentially incorporated into an integrative taxonomic framework.

  18. Endocranial Casts of Pre-Mammalian Therapsids Reveal an Unexpected Neurological Diversity at the Deep Evolutionary Root of Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Julien; Fernandez, Vincent; Manger, Paul R; Rubidge, Bruce S

    2017-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the mammalian brain has long been the focus of scientific enquiry. Conversely, little research has focused on the palaeoneurology of the stem group of Mammaliaformes, the Permian and Triassic non-mammaliaform Therapsida (NMT). This is because the majority of the NMT have a non-ossified braincase, making the study of their endocranial cast (sometimes called the "fossil brain") problematic. Thus, descriptions of the morphology and size of NMT endocranial casts have been based largely on approximations rather than reliable determination. Accordingly, here we use micro-CT scans of the skulls of 1 Dinocephalia and 3 Biarmosuchia, which are NMT with a fully ossified braincase and thus a complete endocast. For the first time, our work enables the accurate determination of endocranial shape and size in NMT. This study suggests that NMT brain size falls in the upper range of the reptilian and amphibian variation. Brain size in the dicynodont Kawingasaurus is equivalent to that of early Mammaliaformes, whereas the Dinocephalia show evidence of a secondary reduction of brain size. In addition, unlike other NMT in which the endocast has a tubular shape and its parts are arranged in a linear manner, the biarmosuchian endocast is strongly flexed at the level of the midbrain, creating a near right angle between the fore- and hindbrain. These data highlight an unexpected diversity of endocranial size and morphology in NMT, features that are usually considered conservative in this group. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. New Limonoids from Hortia oreadica and Unexpected Coumarin from H. superba Using Chromatography over Cleaning Sephadex with Sodium Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G.P. Severino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations of H. oreadica reported the presence of a wide spectrum of complex limonoids and dihydrocinnamic acids. Our interest in the Rutaceae motivated a reinvestigation of H. oreadica, H. brasiliana and H. superba searching for other secondary metabolites present in substantial amounts for taxonomic analysis. In a continuation of the investigation of the H. oreadica, three new limonoids have now been isolated 9α-hydroxyhortiolide A, 11β-hydroxyhortiolide C and 1(S*-acetoxy-7(R*-hydroxy-7-deoxoinchangin. All the isolated compounds from the Hortia species reinforce its position in the Rutaceae. With regard to limonoids the genus produces highly specialized compounds, whose structural variations do not occur in any other member of the Rutaceae, thus, it is evident from limonoid data that Hortia takes an isolated position within the family. In addition, H. superba afforded the unexpected coumarin 5-chloro-8-methoxy-psoralen, which may not be a genuine natural product. Solid-state cross-polarisation/magic-angle-spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, X-Ray fluorescence and Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy experiments show that the Sephadex LH-20 was modified after treatment with NaOCl, suggesting that when xanthotoxin (8-methoxy-psoralen was extracted from cleaning of the gel column, chlorination of the aromatic system occurred.

  20. Platinum-nanoparticle-supported core–shell polymer nanospheres with unexpected water stability and facile further modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Conghui; Xu Yiting; Luo Weiang; Zeng Birong; Qiu Wuhui; Liu Jie; Dai Lizong; Huang Huiling

    2012-01-01

    Core–shell nanospheres (CSNSs) with hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic shells were fabricated via a simple mini-emulsion polymerization for the stabilization of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). The CSNSs showed extremely high loading capacity of Pt-NPs (the largest loading amount of the Pt-NPs was about 49.2 wt%). Importantly, the Pt-NPs/CSNSs nanocomposites had unexpected stability in aqueous solution. DLS results revealed that the CSNSs loaded with Pt-NPs exhibited almost no aggregation after standing for a long time . However, the Pt-NPs immobilized on the CSNSs were not straitlaced: they could transport and redistribute between CSNSs freely when the environmental temperature was higher than the melting point of the CSNS shell. Owing to their excellent stability in aqueous solution, the surface of the Pt-NPs/CSNSs nanocomposites could be further decorated easily. For example, polyaniline (PANI)-coated Pt-NPs/CSNSs, nickel (Ni)-coated Pt-NPs/CSNSs and PANI/Pt-NPs dual-layer hollow nanospheres were facilely fabricated from the Pt-NPs/CSNS nanocomposites. (paper)

  1. The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and biological rhythms: The discovery of TSH's unexpected role using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for development, growth, and metabolism. It is also clear that the synthesis and secretion of TH are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Animal models have helped advance our understanding of the roles and regulatory mechanisms of TH. The animals' bodies develop through coordinated timing of cell division and differentiation. Studies of frog metamorphosis led to the discovery of TH and their role in development. However, to adapt to rhythmic environmental changes, animals also developed various endocrine rhythms. Studies of rodents clarified the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian regulation of the HPT axis. Moreover, birds have a sophisticated seasonal adaptation mechanism, and recent studies of quail revealed unexpected roles for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TH in the seasonal regulation of reproduction. Interestingly, this mechanism is conserved in mammals. Thus, we review how animal studies have shaped our general understanding of the HPT axis in relation to biological rhythms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expecting the unexpected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    At the biennial 'Rochester' international conference on high energy physics, held last year in Glasgow, Don Perkins of Oxford was in fine form when he gave the address at the conference dinner. For those who did not attend the conference, or for those (like the Editor of the CERN Courier) who attended the Conference but did not attend the dinner, the proceedings (including the full text of Perkins' speech, of which extracts are included here) are published as two volumes by the UK Institute of Physics Publishing (ISBN 0-7503-0125-2). These proceedings are dedicated to the memory of Robert Marshak, who founded the Rochester meeting tradition in 1950 and who died in 1992. A highlight of the Glasgow meeting had been the evidence from the CDF experiment at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider for the long-awaited sixth ('top') quark. At Glasgow, CDF did not claim that the top had been discovered. More modestly, they claimed that 'evidence compatible with the existence of the top quark' had been found. The definitive news of the top discovery had to await more data and was announced by CDF and the companion DO Tevatron experiment earlier this year (April/May issue, page 1). Taking a more positive approach towards the 1994 top quark evidence, Perkins said 'Let me take the opportunity of congratulating our American colleagues on maintaining their unbroken record of discovering all the fundamental fermions (apart from the electron in 1897). The list is impressive: the positron in 1933, the mesotron (now the muon) in 1937, the electron neutrino in 1956, the muon neutrino in 1962, the tau lepton in 1975, the u, d, and s quark substructure in the mid- and late 60s, the c-quark in 1974, the b-quark in 1977 and finally the t-quark. A truly magnificent record.' With the long-awaited top quark presumably in the bag, Perkins then turned to another long-awaited particle, the higgs, allegedly the origin of symmetry breaking in the combined electroweak picture of electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force. 'Even physicists have taken the higgs so seriously as to liken the hunt for it to the search for the Holy Grail. This could be an unfortunate analogy, since the Holy Grail was supposed to be something one could search for, but was destined never to find. In the past, such searches have sometimes led into wrong paths. When I started research some 47 years ago, the Holy Grail was the Yukawa quantum allegedly responsible for the short-range nuclear force. The story was that, if one could only find this particle, the secrets of nuclear forces would be revealed (simplistic perhaps, but people are equally naive today, claiming that we need to find the higgs to discover 'the secrets of mass' - whatever that means)

  3. an unexpected souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David

    Most people are genuinely sympathetic to the difficulties encountered by handicapped persons, but probably too often the compassion evaporates when the wheelchair disappears from view or the tapping of crutches fades down the hall. The accessibility of buildings and facilities has certainly improved in recent years; we now take it for granted that curb cuts and wide doors make the going smoother, at least in public places like university campuses, but consciences still are not eased simply by holding the elevator.

  4. Expecting the unexpected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Heath, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    People who live in wildfire-prone communities tend to form their own hazard-related expectations, which may influence their willingness to prepare for a fire. Past research has already identified two important expectancy-based factors associated with people's intentions to prepare for a natural......) and measured actual rather than intended preparedness. In addition, we tested the relation between preparedness and two additional threat-related expectations: the expectation that one can rely on an official warning and the expectation of encountering obstacles (e.g., the loss of utilities) during a fire...

  5. Capitalizing on the Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    More than forty years ago, Jerome Bruner developed a theory about the use of physical models or manipulatives when teaching math. He argued that students would learn mathematics better if they fist encountered concepts and procedures by actively modeling them with manipulatives. In this article, the author describes: (1) some of the unexpected…

  6. Polymorphism in R-tamsulosin (an alpha blocker): The unexpected manifestation of a sulfonamide⋯o-diethoxybenzene heterosynthon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Ravikumar, Krishnan

    2014-12-01

    A two point Nsbnd H⋯O dimer or an infinite catemer are the most preferred motifs/synthons for sulfonamide structures. Such synthons are known to be so robust that they are only disrupted in the presence of highly activated O acceptors such as pyridine-N-oxide and sulfoxide. We demonstrate in this article that a multi-point synthon offered by much weaker ethoxy O and amine N acceptors can however strongly compete and disrupt the robust sulfonamide homosynthons. This has been illustrated with the synthon analysis in three polymorphic crystal structures of R-tamsulosin, an active drug used in the treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and its hydrochloride salt. These crystalline solids are characterized by Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. Forms I, II of the free base and hydrochloride salt crystallize in the monoclinic P21, C2, and P21 space groups respectively with two molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z‧ = 2), whereas, form III of freebase crystallize in the orthorhombic P212121 space group with Z‧ = 1. Remarkably, all four crystal structures contain a totally unexpected sulfonamide⋯o-diethoxybenzene heterosynthon. The multi-point motifs observed in polymorphs are relatively stronger than those in the hydrochloride salt because of the gauche conformation of the tamsulosin linker chain which renders an additional hydrogen bond interaction with amine N acceptor, and resemble the crown ether sulfonamide recognition pattern. Observation of this new heterosynthon offers potential scope in the design of pharmaceutical cocrystals for sulfonamide bearing drug molecules. The present study also presents a detailed hydrogen bond motif analysis in 310 primary sulfonamide structures culled from the latest version of Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). The role of various competing groups is discussed in the context of understanding the most recurring

  7. Unexpected ferromagnetic interaction in a new tetranuclear copper(II) complex: synthesis, crystal structure, magnetic properties, and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondo, Matilde; García-Deibe, Ana M; Corbella, Monstserrat; Ruiz, Eliseo; Tercero, Javier; Sanmartín, Jesús; Bermejo, Manuel R

    2005-07-11

    The new tetranuclear carbonate complex [Cu2L)2(CO3)] x 8H2O (1 x 8H2O) (H3L = (2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-bis[4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-azabut-3-enyl]-1,3-imidazolidine) has been obtained by two different synthetic routes and fully characterized. Recrystallization of 1 x 8H2O in methanol yields single crystals of {[(Cu2L)2(CO3)]}2 x 12H2O (1 x 6H2O), suitable for X-ray diffraction studies. The crystal structure of 1 x 6H2O shows two crystallographically different tetranuclear molecules in the asymmetric unit, 1a and 1b. Both molecules can be understood as self-assembled from two dinuclear [Cu2L]+ cations, joined by a mu4-eta(2):eta(1):eta(1) carbonate ligand. The copper atoms of each crystallographically different [(Cu2L)2(CO3)] molecule present miscellaneous coordination polyhedra: in both 1a and 1b, two metal centers are in square pyramidal environments, one displays a square planar chromophore and the other one has a geometry that can be considered as an intermediate between square pyramid and trigonal bipyramid. Magnetic studies reveal net intramolecular ferromagnetic coupling between the metal atoms. Density functional calculations allow the assignment of the different magnetic coupling constants and explain the unexpected ferromagnetic behavior, because of the presence of an unusual NCN bridging moiety and countercomplementarity of the phenoxo (or carbonate) and NCN bridges.

  8. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae underscore the importance of human intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee E Zielke

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes. Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany.

  9. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  10. Long bone histology of sauropterygia from the lower Muschelkalk of the Germanic basin provides unexpected implications for phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Klein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sauropterygia is an abundant and successful group of Triassic marine reptiles. Phylogenetic relationships of Triassic Sauropterygia have always been unstable and recently questioned. Although specimens occur in high numbers, the main problems are rareness of diagnostic material from the Germanic Basin and uniformity of postcranial morphology of eosauropterygians. In the current paper, morphotypes of humeri along with their corresponding bone histologies for Lower to Middle Muschelkalk sauropterygians are described and interpreted for the first time in a phylogenetic context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nothosaurus shows a typical plesiomorphic lamellar-zonal bone type, but varying growth patterns and the occurrence of a new humerus morphotype point to a higher taxonomic diversity than was known. In contrast to the enormous morphological variability of eosauropterygian humeri not assigned to Nothosaurus, their long bone histology is relatively uniform and can be divided into two histotypes. Unexpectedly, both of these histotypes reveal abundant fibrolamellar bone throughout the cortex. This pushes the origin of fibrolamellar bone in Sauropterygia back from the Cretaceous to the early Middle Triassic (early Anisian. Histotype A is assigned to Cymatosaurus, a basal member of the Pistosauroidea, which includes the plesiosaurs as derived members. Histotype B is related to the pachypleurosaur Anarosaurus. Contrary to these new finds, the stratigraphically younger pachypleurosaur Neusticosaurus shows the plesiomorphic lamellar-zonal bone type and an incomplete endochondral ossification, like Nothosaurus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Histological results hypothetically discussed in a phylogenetical context have a large impact on the current phylogenetic hypothesis of Sauropterygia, leaving the pachypleurosaurs polyphyletic. On the basis of histological data, Neusticosaurus would be related to Nothosaurus, whereas Anarosaurus would follow

  11. Retrospective evaluation of unexpected events during collection of blood donations performed with and without sedation in cats (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolin, Kerry S; Chan, Daniel L; Adamantos, Sophie; Humm, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Describe unexpected events (UEs) that occurred during blood donation in cats with and without sedation. Retrospective observational study (2010-2013). University teaching hospital. Client-owned healthy cats enrolled in a blood donation program. None. Blood collection for transfusion was performed 115 times from 32 cats. Seventy donation events were in unsedated cats and 45 in sedated cats. For each collection, the anticipated blood volume to be collected, actual blood volume collected, sedation protocol, and any UE in the peridonation period were recorded. There were 6 categories of UEs: movement during donation, donor anxiety, inadequate collected blood volume, jugular vessel related UEs, additional sedation requirement, and cardiorespiratory distress. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the frequency of UEs between sedated and unsedated cats. UEs were recorded in 54 of 115 collections. In the donor population, movement was reported as an UE in 0 cats that donated under sedation and 24/70 (34.3%) cats that donated without sedation (P donated under sedation and 14/70 (20.0%) cats that donated unsedated (P = 0.014). Unsedated donation did not increase the likelihood of inadequate donation volume, jugular vessel related UEs, or cardiorespiratory distress. Eight of 45 (17.8%) sedated donations required additional sedation. Movement during donation and signs of donor anxiety were more frequent in unsedated cats. These were considered minor issues, expected in unsedated cats being gently restrained. Blood collection from unsedated feline donors is a viable alternative to sedated donation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  12. Frustration stress (unexpected loss of alternative reinforcement) increases opioid self-administration in a model of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Lamb, R J

    2018-01-01

    Engaging in alternative activities in the context where opioid use had occurred can constrain opioid use and helps to maintain recovery. However, "frustration stress" that occurs when contingencies on these alternative activities unexpectedly change (e.g., job loss or divorce) is thought to threaten recovery by prompting a return to drug use. Yet it remains unclear whether frustration stress can result in a return to drug use, and if so, whether it returns to prior levels or to even greater levels. We examine the impact of unsignaled extinction of alternative reinforcement on opioid use. Rats were trained to respond for an etonitazene solution (5μg/ml, p.o.), then for food in alternating daily sessions. Subsequently, food and etonitazene were made concurrently available. Under concurrent availability conditions, rats were exposed to 1, 2, or 4 sessions of unsignaled food extinction, and effects on responding for etonitazene and food measured. When etonitazene was the only reinforcer available, rats earned 58.3±20.3μg/kg/session (mean±S.E.M.). When food was available in alternating sessions, etonitazene earned was unchanged (65.3±19.2μg/kg/session). Concurrent food availability decreased etonitazene earned (13.5±4.5μg/kg/session). Unsignaled food extinction returned etonitazene earnedto levels similar to (60.5±18.4μg/kg/session), but not greater than, those observed previously when etonitazene alone was available. Unsignaled extinction of alternative behavior controlling opioid use can result in increased opioid use, but this use does not rise beyond previous levels observed when opioid use is unconstrained by alternative reinforced behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Unexpected pattern of pearl millet genetic diversity among ethno-linguistic groups in the Lake Chad Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naino Jika, A K; Dussert, Y; Raimond, C; Garine, E; Luxereau, A; Takvorian, N; Djermakoye, R S; Adam, T; Robert, T

    2017-05-01

    Despite of a growing interest in considering the role of sociological factors in seed exchanges and their consequences on the evolutionary dynamics of agro-biodiversity, very few studies assessed the link between ethno-linguistic diversity and genetic diversity patterns in small-holder farming systems. This is key for optimal improvement and conservation of crop genetic resources. Here, we investigated genetic diversity at 17 SSR markers of pearl millet landraces (varieties named by farmers) in the Lake Chad Basin. 69 pearl millet populations, representing 27 landraces collected in eight ethno-linguistic farmer groups, were analyzed. We found that the farmers' local taxonomy was not a good proxy for population's genetic differentiation as previously shown at smaller scales. Our results show the existence of a genetic structure of pearl millet mainly associated with ethno-linguistic diversity in the western side of the lake Chad. It suggests there is a limit to gene flow between landraces grown by different ethno-linguistic groups. This result was rather unexpected, because of the highly outcrossing mating system of pearl millet, the high density of pearl millet fields all along the green belt of this Sahelian area and the fact that seed exchanges among ethno-linguistic groups are known to occur. In the eastern side of the Lake, the pattern of genetic diversity suggests a larger efficient circulation of pearl millet genes between ethno-linguistic groups that are less numerous, spatially intermixed and, for some of them, more prone to exogamy. Finally, other historical and environmental factors which may contribute to the observed diversity patterns are discussed.

  14. When an object appears unexpectedly: anticipatory movement and object circumvention in individuals with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmut, K; Barnett, A L

    2017-05-01

    Obstacles often appear unexpectedly in our pathway and these require us to make adjustments to avoid collision. Previous research has demonstrated that healthy adults will make anticipatory adjustments to gait where they have been told there is the possibility of an obstacle appearing. One population that may find this type of anticipatory movement difficult is individuals with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The current study considered how individuals with and without DCD adjust to the possibility of an obstacle appearing which would require circumvention. Fortyfour individuals with DCD and 44 age-matched controls (aged from 7 to 34 years of age) walked down an 11 m walkway under three conditions. Initially they were told this was a clear pathway and nothing in the environment would change (1, no possibility of an obstacle, no obstacle). They then performed a series of trials in which a gate may (2, possibility of an obstacle, obstacle) or may not (3, possibility of an obstacle, no obstacle) partially obstruct their pathway. We found that all participants increased medio-lateral trunk acceleration when there was the possibility of an obstacle but before the obstacle appeared, in addition the typical adults and older children also increased step width. When describing circumvention we found that the younger children showed an increase in trunk velocity and acceleration in all three directions compared to older children and adults. We also found that the individuals with DCD adjusted their path sooner and deviated more than their peers. The degree of adjustment to step width in anticipation of an obstacle was related to later medio-lateral velocity and timing of the deviation. Therefore, the lack of 'readying' the system where there is the possibility of an obstacle appearing seen in the individuals with DCD and the younger typical children may explain the increased medio-lateral velocity seen during circumvention.

  15. Directed Evolution Reveals Unexpected Epistatic Interactions That Alter Metabolic Regulation and Enable Anaerobic Xylose Use by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trey K Sato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The inability of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert xylose from plant biomass into biofuels remains a major challenge for the production of renewable bioenergy. Despite extensive knowledge of the regulatory networks controlling carbon metabolism in yeast, little is known about how to reprogram S. cerevisiae to ferment xylose at rates comparable to glucose. Here we combined genome sequencing, proteomic profiling, and metabolomic analyses to identify and characterize the responsible mutations in a series of evolved strains capable of metabolizing xylose aerobically or anaerobically. We report that rapid xylose conversion by engineered and evolved S. cerevisiae strains depends upon epistatic interactions among genes encoding a xylose reductase (GRE3, a component of MAP Kinase (MAPK signaling (HOG1, a regulator of Protein Kinase A (PKA signaling (IRA2, and a scaffolding protein for mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S cluster biogenesis (ISU1. Interestingly, the mutation in IRA2 only impacted anaerobic xylose consumption and required the loss of ISU1 function, indicating a previously unknown connection between PKA signaling, Fe-S cluster biogenesis, and anaerobiosis. Proteomic and metabolomic comparisons revealed that the xylose-metabolizing mutant strains exhibit altered metabolic pathways relative to the parental strain when grown in xylose. Further analyses revealed that interacting mutations in HOG1 and ISU1 unexpectedly elevated mitochondrial respiratory proteins and enabled rapid aerobic respiration of xylose and other non-fermentable carbon substrates. Our findings suggest a surprising connection between Fe-S cluster biogenesis and signaling that facilitates aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation of xylose, underscoring how much remains unknown about the eukaryotic signaling systems that regulate carbon metabolism.

  16. Directed Evolution Reveals Unexpected Epistatic Interactions That Alter Metabolic Regulation and Enable Anaerobic Xylose Use by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Trey K; Tremaine, Mary; Parreiras, Lucas S; Hebert, Alexander S; Myers, Kevin S; Higbee, Alan J; Sardi, Maria; McIlwain, Sean J; Ong, Irene M; Breuer, Rebecca J; Avanasi Narasimhan, Ragothaman; McGee, Mick A; Dickinson, Quinn; La Reau, Alex; Xie, Dan; Tian, Mingyuan; Reed, Jennifer L; Zhang, Yaoping; Coon, Joshua J; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Gasch, Audrey P; Landick, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The inability of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert xylose from plant biomass into biofuels remains a major challenge for the production of renewable bioenergy. Despite extensive knowledge of the regulatory networks controlling carbon metabolism in yeast, little is known about how to reprogram S. cerevisiae to ferment xylose at rates comparable to glucose. Here we combined genome sequencing, proteomic profiling, and metabolomic analyses to identify and characterize the responsible mutations in a series of evolved strains capable of metabolizing xylose aerobically or anaerobically. We report that rapid xylose conversion by engineered and evolved S. cerevisiae strains depends upon epistatic interactions among genes encoding a xylose reductase (GRE3), a component of MAP Kinase (MAPK) signaling (HOG1), a regulator of Protein Kinase A (PKA) signaling (IRA2), and a scaffolding protein for mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis (ISU1). Interestingly, the mutation in IRA2 only impacted anaerobic xylose consumption and required the loss of ISU1 function, indicating a previously unknown connection between PKA signaling, Fe-S cluster biogenesis, and anaerobiosis. Proteomic and metabolomic comparisons revealed that the xylose-metabolizing mutant strains exhibit altered metabolic pathways relative to the parental strain when grown in xylose. Further analyses revealed that interacting mutations in HOG1 and ISU1 unexpectedly elevated mitochondrial respiratory proteins and enabled rapid aerobic respiration of xylose and other non-fermentable carbon substrates. Our findings suggest a surprising connection between Fe-S cluster biogenesis and signaling that facilitates aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation of xylose, underscoring how much remains unknown about the eukaryotic signaling systems that regulate carbon metabolism.

  17. Unexpected dependence of RyR1 splice variant expression in human lower limb muscles on fiber-type composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Hermia; Theodoratos, Angelo; Smith, Paul N; Dulhunty, Angela F

    2016-02-01

    The skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel (RyR1), essential for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, demonstrates a known developmentally regulated alternative splicing in the ASI region. We now find unexpectedly that the expression of the splice variants is closely related to fiber type in adult human lower limb muscles. We examined the distribution of myosin heavy chain isoforms and ASI splice variants in gluteus minimus, gluteus medius and vastus medialis from patients aged 45 to 85 years. There was a strong positive correlation between ASI(+)RyR1 and the percentage of type 2 fibers in the muscles (r = 0.725), and a correspondingly strong negative correlation between the percentages of ASI(+)RyR1 and percentage of type 1 fibers. When the type 2 fiber data were separated into type 2X and type 2A, the correlation with ASI(+)RyR1 was stronger in type 2X fibers (r = 0.781) than in type 2A fibers (r = 0.461). There was no significant correlation between age and either fiber-type composition or ASI(+)RyR1/ASI(-)RyR1 ratio. The results suggest that the reduced expression of ASI(-)RyR1 during development may reflect a reduction in type 1 fibers during development. Preferential expression of ASI(-) RyR1, having a higher gain of in Ca(2+) release during EC coupling than ASI(+)RyR1, may compensate for the reduced terminal cisternae volume, fewer junctional contacts and reduced charge movement in type 1 fibers.

  18. Dithizone staining of intracellular zinc: an unexpected and versatile counterscreen for auxotrophic marker genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Yuan

    Full Text Available Auxotrophic marker genes such as URA3, LEU2, and HIS3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have long been used to select cells that have been successfully transformed with recombinant DNA. A longstanding challenge in working with these genes is that counterselection procedures are often lacking. This paper describes the unexpected discovery of a simple plate assay that imparts a bright red stain to cells experiencing nutritional stress from the lack of a marker gene. The procedure specifically stains a zinc-rich vesicular compartment analogous to the zinc-rich secretory vesicles found in insulin-secreting pancreatic islet cells and glutamate-secreting neurons. Staining was greatly diminished in zap1 mutants, which lack a homeostatic activator of zinc uptake, and in cot1 zrc1 double mutants, which lack the two yeast homologs of mammalian vesicle-specific zinc export proteins. Only one of 93 strains with temperature-sensitive alleles of essential genes exhibited an increase in dithizone staining at its non-permissive temperature, indicating that staining is not simply a sign of growth-arrested or dying cells. Remarkably, the procedure works with most commonly used marker genes, highlights subtle defects, uses no reporter constructs or expensive reagents, requires only a few hours of incubation, yields visually striking results without any instrumentation, and is not toxic to the cells. Many potential applications exist for dithizone staining, both as a versatile counterscreen for auxotrophic marker genes and as a powerful new tool for the genetic analysis of a biomedically important vesicular organelle.

  19. Unexpected Interactions between Agricultural and Forest Sectors through International Trade: Wood Pallets and Agricultural Exports in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Jadin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry sectors associated with the use of wood pallets for commodity exports over 1985–2013. Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. The annual land demand for tree plantations to produce these wood pallets increased by 669%, reaching 17,606 ha in 2013 and representing 28% of the increase in demand for cropland for agricultural exports over 1994–2013. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations. We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.

  20. Metatranscriptomic analysis of a high-sulfide aquatic spring reveals insights into sulfur cycling and unexpected aerobic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Spain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zodletone spring is a sulfide-rich spring in southwestern Oklahoma characterized by shallow, microoxic, light-exposed spring water overlaying anoxic sediments. Previously, culture-independent 16S rRNA gene based diversity surveys have revealed that Zodletone spring source sediments harbor a highly diverse microbial community, with multiple lineages putatively involved in various sulfur-cycling processes. Here, we conducted a metatranscriptomic survey of microbial populations in Zodletone spring source sediments to characterize the relative prevalence and importance of putative phototrophic, chemolithotrophic, and heterotrophic microorganisms in the sulfur cycle, the identity of lineages actively involved in various sulfur cycling processes, and the interaction between sulfur cycling and other geochemical processes at the spring source. Sediment samples at the spring’s source were taken at three different times within a 24-h period for geochemical analyses and RNA sequencing. In depth mining of datasets for sulfur cycling transcripts revealed major sulfur cycling pathways and taxa involved, including an unexpected potential role of Actinobacteria in sulfide oxidation and thiosulfate transformation. Surprisingly, transcripts coding for the cyanobacterial Photosystem II D1 protein, methane monooxygenase, and terminal cytochrome oxidases were encountered, indicating that genes for oxygen production and aerobic modes of metabolism are actively being transcribed, despite below-detectable levels (<1 µM of oxygen in source sediment. Results highlight transcripts involved in sulfur, methane, and oxygen cycles, propose that oxygenic photosynthesis could support aerobic methane and sulfide oxidation in anoxic sediments exposed to sunlight, and provide a viewpoint of microbial metabolic lifestyles under conditions similar to those seen during late Archaean and Proterozoic eons.

  1. Vine vigor, yield and grape quality assessment by airborne remote sensing over three years: Analysis of unexpected relationships in cv. Tempranillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla, I.; Martinez de Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J.A.

    2015-07-01

    The prediction of grape composition is becoming more important due to the need of reducing the current levels of alcohol and pH of the wines, a problem that is exacerbated by climate change. This work presents a 3-year study of the spatial variability of grape composition in a rainfed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). It is based on the acquisition of multispectral imagery at véraison (start of the ripening process); and zoning based on NDVI, to assess its performance for zonal management. The results reveal a high spatial variability within the plot, with a stable pattern over the years, even with very different climate conditions. NDVI was a good predictor of vegetative growth variables. However, the prediction of grape composition was more complex. Unexpectedly, anthocyanins were found to be higher in the highest vigor zone, which is probably related to the effects of climate change. This unexpected relationship is particularly discussed in the article. (Author)

  2. Safe sleep practices in a New Zealand community and development of a Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) risk assessment instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Galland, Barbara C; Gray, Andrew; Sayers, Rachel M; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Lawrence, Julie; Taylor, Rachael; Taylor, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions to prevent sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) have generally been population wide interventions instituted after case?control studies identified specific childcare practices associated with sudden death. While successful overall, in New Zealand (NZ), the rates are still relatively high by international comparison. This study aims to describe childcare practices related to SUDI prevention messages in a New Zealand community, and to develop and explore the utilit...

  3. Experimental and Computational Study of an Unexpected Iron-Catalyzed Carboetherification by Cooperative Metal and Ligand Substrate Interaction and Proton Shuttling

    KAUST Repository

    El-Sepelgy, Osama; Brzozowska, Aleksandra; Azofra, Luis Miguel; Jang, Yoon Kyung; Cavallo, Luigi; Rueping, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    An iron-catalyzed cycloisomerization of allenols to deoxygenated pyranose glycals has been developed. Combined experimental and computational studies show that the iron complex exhibits a dual catalytic role in that the non-innocent cyclopentadienone ligand acts as proton shuttle by initial hydrogen abstraction from the alcohol and by facilitating protonation and deprotonation events in the isomerization and demetalation steps. Molecular orbital analysis provides insight into the unexpected and selective formation of the 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran.

  4. The unexpected influence of aryl substituents in N-aryl-3-oxobutanamides on the behavior of their multicomponent reactions with 5-amino-3-methylisoxazole and salicylaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Tkachenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The switchable three-component reactions of 5-amino-3-methylisoxazole, salicylaldehyde and N-aryl-3-oxobutanamides under different conditions were studied and discussed. The unexpected influence of the aryl substituent in N-aryl-3-oxobutanamides on the behavior of the reaction was discovered. The key influence of ultrasonication and Lewis acid catalysts led to an established protocol to selectively obtain two or three types of heterocyclic scaffolds depending on the substituent in the N-aryl moiety.

  5. Preparation of nucleoside-pyridine hybrids and pyridine attached acylureas from an unexpected uracil ring-opening and pyridine ring-forming sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Sen Fan; Xia Wang; Xin Ying Zhang; Dong Feng; Ying Ying Qu

    2009-01-01

    Novel pyrimidine nucleoside-3,5-dicyanopyridine hybrids (4) or pyridine attached acylureas (5) were selectively and efficiently prepared from the reaction of 2'-deoxyuridin-5-yl-methylene malonortitrile (1), malononitrile (2) and thiophenol (3) or from an unexpected uracil ring-opening and pyridine ring-forming sequence via the reaction of 1 and 3. It is the first time such a sequence has ever been reported.

  6. Experimental and Computational Study of an Unexpected Iron-Catalyzed Carboetherification by Cooperative Metal and Ligand Substrate Interaction and Proton Shuttling

    KAUST Repository

    El-Sepelgy, Osama

    2017-09-26

    An iron-catalyzed cycloisomerization of allenols to deoxygenated pyranose glycals has been developed. Combined experimental and computational studies show that the iron complex exhibits a dual catalytic role in that the non-innocent cyclopentadienone ligand acts as proton shuttle by initial hydrogen abstraction from the alcohol and by facilitating protonation and deprotonation events in the isomerization and demetalation steps. Molecular orbital analysis provides insight into the unexpected and selective formation of the 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran.

  7. Gender Nonconformity, Discrimination, and Mental Health among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Further Exploration of Unexpected Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely...

  8. The management of small area burns and unexpected illness after burn in children under five years of age - A costing study in the English healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiyali, R; Sarginson, J H; Hollén, L I; Spickett-Jones, F; Young, A E R

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this economic study was to evaluate the resource use and cost associated with the management of small area burns, including the additional costs associated with unexpected illness after burn in children of less than five years of age. This study was conducted as a secondary analysis of a multi-centre prospective observational cohort study investigating the physiological response to burns in children. 452 children were included in the economic analysis (median age=1.60years, 61.3% boys, median total burn surface area [TBSA]=1.00%) with a mean length of stay of 0.69 days. Of these children, 21.5% re-presented to medical care with an unexpected illness within fourteen days of injury. The cost of managing a burn of less than 10% TBSA in a child less than five years of age was £785. The additional cost associated with the management of illness after burn was £1381. A generalised linear regression model was used to determine the association between an unexpected illness after burn, presenting child characteristics and NHS cost. Our findings may be of value to those planning economic evaluations of novel technologies in burn care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Unexpected consequences: women's experiences of a self-hypnosis intervention to help with pain relief during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Kenneth; Downe, Soo; Hinder, Susan; Carr, Helen; Spiby, Helen; Whorwell, Peter

    2015-09-25

    Self-hypnosis is becoming increasingly popular as a means of labour pain management. Previous studies have produced mixed results. There are very few data on women's views and experiences of using hypnosis in this context. As part of a randomized controlled trial of self-hypnosis for intra-partum pain relief (the SHIP Trial) we conducted qualitative interviews with women randomized to the intervention arm to explore their views and experiences of using self-hypnosis during labour and birth. Participants were randomly selected from the intervention arm of the study, which consisted of two antenatal self-hypnosis training sessions and a supporting CD that women were encouraged to listen to daily from 32 weeks gestation until the birth of their baby. Those who consented were interviewed in their own homes 8-12 weeks after birth. Following transcription, the interviews were analysed iteratively and emerging concepts were discussed amongst the authors to generate organizing themes. These were then used to develop a principal organizing metaphor or global theme, in a process known as thematic networks analysis. Of the 343 women in the intervention group, 48 were invited to interview, and 16 were interviewed over a 12 month period from February 2012 to January 2013. Coding of the data and subsequent analysis revealed a global theme of 'unexpected consequences', supported by 5 organising themes, 'calmness in a climate of fear', 'from sceptic to believer', 'finding my space', 'delays and disappointments' and 'personal preferences'. Most respondents reported positive experiences of self-hypnosis and highlighted feelings of calmness, confidence and empowerment. They found the intervention to be beneficial and used a range of novel strategies to personalize their self-hypnosis practice. Occasionally women reported feeling frustrated or disappointed when their relaxed state was misinterpreted by midwives on admission or when their labour and birth experiences did not match

  10. Unexpected weak seasonal climate in the western Mediterranean region during MIS 31, a high-insolation forced interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dulce; Sánchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Naughton, Filipa; Polanco-Martínez, J. M.; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Martrat, Belen; Voelker, Antje H. L.; Trigo, Ricardo; Hodell, David; Abrantes, Fátima; Desprat, Stéphanie

    2017-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 31 (MIS 31) is an important analogue for ongoing and projected global warming, yet key questions remain about the regional signature of its extreme orbital forcing and intra-interglacial variability. Based on a new direct land-sea comparison in SW Iberian margin IODP Site U1385 we examine the climatic variability between 1100 and 1050 ka including the ;super interglacial; MIS 31, a period dominated by the 41-ky obliquity periodicity. Pollen and biomarker analyses at centennial-scale-resolution provide new insights into the regional vegetation, precipitation regime and atmospheric and oceanic temperature variability on orbital and suborbital timescales. Our study reveals that atmospheric and SST warmth during MIS 31 was not exceptional in this region highly sensitive to precession. Unexpectedly, this warm stage stands out as a prolonged interval of a temperate and humid climate regime with reduced seasonality, despite the high insolation (precession minima values) forcing. We find that the dominant forcing on the long-term temperate forest development was obliquity, which may have induced a decrease in summer dryness and associated reduction in seasonal precipitation contrast. Moreover, this study provides the first evidence for persistent atmospheric millennial-scale variability during this interval with multiple forest decline events reflecting repeated cooling and drying episodes in SW Iberia. Our direct land-sea comparison shows that the expression of the suborbital cooling events on SW Iberian ecosystems is modulated by the predominance of high or low-latitude forcing depending on the glacial/interglacial baseline climate states. Severe dryness and air-sea cooling is detected under the larger ice volume during glacial MIS 32 and MIS 30. The extreme episodes, which in their climatic imprint are similar to the Heinrich events, are likely related to northern latitude ice-sheet instability and a disruption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning

  11. The Web works in strange ways - unexpected results from MBARI's expanding use of online media and social networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton-bennett, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    As a relatively small organization, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has gradually expanded its use of on-line and social media over the past few years. Our web site and expedition blogs have been available for over a decade. In 2009 we established a YouTube channel and RSS feeds. In early 2011 we set up Facebook and Twitter sites that are maintained through automated feeds (e.g. Twitterfeed) as well as by two employees who each spend about two hours a week adding items of interest. Although we do respond to comments, we have not actively encouraged interaction and discussion on our social networking sites, due to limited staff time. Prior to setting up our sites, I studied existing the Facebook pages for a number of marine research institutions and found that the frequency at which a research institution updated its social media site was directly correlated with the number of dedicated followers of that site. For this reason, MBARI set goals for keeping our sites updated on a regular basis-at least monthly for YouTube, and three to five times a week for Facebook and Twitter. While expanding our social media activities, we have also expanded our monitoring of all our on-line media. This monitoring has revealed some surprising findings. For example, although we have a steadily growing list of followers (over 1,000 "likes" on Facebook and almost 2,500 "subscribers" YouTube), the use of social media has not significantly increased traffic to our main institutional web site. For the last three years, this site has maintained fairly consistent traffic at 1,000 to 2,000 visits/day. We do see a few extreme spikes in traffic, which can be up to an order of magnitude above normal, when a major web site links to one of our news releases. Since initiating our social networking sites, we have seen an increase in these types of spikes, but it is too early to establish cause and effect in this case. Another unexpected finding is that we are reaching very different

  12. Secondary radiation damage as the main cause for unexpected volume effects: A histopathologic study of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, Antonius W.T.; Faber, Hette; Cotteleer, Femmy; Vissink, Arjan; Coppes, Rob P.

    2006-01-01

    . The unexpected volume effect in the rat might have consequences for treatment strategies in radiotherapy, implicating not only salivary glands but also other organs with a seemingly homogeneous distribution of radiosensitive elements, a situation wherein volume effects have not been anticipated up to now

  13. Expected and unexpected features in soil chronosequences in SE-Norway: Podzolization in Albeluvisols and Lessivage in Podzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, D.; Schülli-Maurer, I.; Sperstad, R.; Sørensen, R.; Stahr, K.

    2009-04-01

    boundary stayed around 40 cm for more than 10,000 years. Albeluvic tongues developed between 4,600 and 6,200 years. Initially, they formed along intersections of cracks. As preferential flow and leaching along the cracks continued, the tongues increased in length and width, progressively consuming the prisms between the cracks in the upper Bt horizon. The two oldest soils of each sequence (VF7.3 and VF9 in Vestfold, and ØF8 and ØF11 in Østfold) were typical Albeluvisols with clay coatings in the Bt horizons and well expressed albeluvic tonguing. Iron-manganese nodules in the E horizons and gray ped surfaces and mottled ped interior in the Bt horizons indicated temporary water stagnation in these soils. Six pedons in sandy beach deposits with ages ranging from 2,300 to 9,650 years were studied in Vestfold. The youngest soil showed no evidence of podzolization, while slight lightening of the A horizon of the second soil (3,800 years) indicated initial leaching of organic matter. In the 4,300 years old soil also iron and humus accumulation in the B horizon were perceptible, but only the 6,600 years and older soils exhibited spodic horizons and were thus classified as Podzols. Expected and unexpected features During Albeluvisol development, the upper part of the E horizon turned brown, as soon as it became too acid for further clay mobilization, while weathering and brunification continued. Further acidification led to initial podzolization, provided enough time and presence of vegetation producing hard-to-decompose litter. The oldest soil of each Albeluvisol sequence, i. e. the 9,000 year-old soil in Vestfold and the 11,050 year-old soil in Østfold, showed initial podzolization in the A horizon and upper part of the former E horizon. However, the 6,550 year-old soil in Østfold also exhibited already initial podzolization. All three soils showing podzolization were under coniferous forest, in contrast to the other soils of the sequence that were under mixed forest. The

  14. Cluster-level statistical inference in fMRI datasets: The unexpected behavior of random fields in high dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ravi; Peterson, Bradley S

    2018-06-01

    Identifying regional effects of interest in MRI datasets usually entails testing a priori hypotheses across many thousands of brain voxels, requiring control for false positive findings in these multiple hypotheses testing. Recent studies have suggested that parametric statistical methods may have incorrectly modeled functional MRI data, thereby leading to higher false positive rates than their nominal rates. Nonparametric methods for statistical inference when conducting multiple statistical tests, in contrast, are thought to produce false positives at the nominal rate, which has thus led to the suggestion that previously reported studies should reanalyze their fMRI data using nonparametric tools. To understand better why parametric methods may yield excessive false positives, we assessed their performance when applied both to simulated datasets of 1D, 2D, and 3D Gaussian Random Fields (GRFs) and to 710 real-world, resting-state fMRI datasets. We showed that both the simulated 2D and 3D GRFs and the real-world data contain a small percentage (<6%) of very large clusters (on average 60 times larger than the average cluster size), which were not present in 1D GRFs. These unexpectedly large clusters were deemed statistically significant using parametric methods, leading to empirical familywise error rates (FWERs) as high as 65%: the high empirical FWERs were not a consequence of parametric methods failing to model spatial smoothness accurately, but rather of these very large clusters that are inherently present in smooth, high-dimensional random fields. In fact, when discounting these very large clusters, the empirical FWER for parametric methods was 3.24%. Furthermore, even an empirical FWER of 65% would yield on average less than one of those very large clusters in each brain-wide analysis. Nonparametric methods, in contrast, estimated distributions from those large clusters, and therefore, by construct rejected the large clusters as false positives at the nominal

  15. Psychological impact of unexpected explicit recall of events occurring during surgery performed under sedation, regional anaesthesia, and general anaesthesia: data from the Anesthesia Awareness Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, C D; Mashour, G A; Metzger, N A; Posner, K L; Domino, K B

    2013-03-01

    Anaesthetic awareness is a recognized complication of general anaesthesia (GA) and is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although complete amnesia for intraprocedural events during sedation and regional anaesthesia (RA) may occur, explicit recall is expected by anaesthesia providers. Consequently, the possibility that there could be psychological consequences associated with unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation and RA has not been investigated. This study investigated the psychological sequelae of unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation/RA that was reported to the Anesthesia Awareness Registry. The Registry recruited subjects who self-identified as having had anaesthetic awareness. Inclusion criteria were a patient-reported awareness experience in 1990 or later and availability of medical records. The sensations experienced by the subjects during their procedure and the acute and persistent psychological sequelae attributed to this explicit recall were assessed for patients receiving sedation/RA and those receiving GA. Among the patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, medical record review identified 27 sedation/RA and 50 GA cases. Most patients experienced distress (78% of sedation/RA vs 94% of GA). Approximately 40% of patients with sedation/RA had persistent psychological sequelae, similar to GA patients. Some sedation/RA patients reported an adverse impact on their job performance (15%), family relationships (11%), and friendships (11%), and 15% reported being diagnosed with PTSD. Patients who self-reported to the Registry unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation/RA experienced distress and persistent psychological sequelae comparable with those who had reported anaesthetic awareness during GA. Further study is warranted to determine if patients reporting distress with explicit recall after sedation/RA require psychiatric follow-up.

  16. Unexpected second primary malignancies detected by f-18 FDG PET/CT during follow-up for primary malignancy: Two case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Ji In; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki [Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    As the survival rate of cancer patients has increased over the last few decades, the risk of cancer survivors developing second primary malignancies has gained attention. We report two rare cases of second primary hematologic malignancy detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) during follow-up for primary solid malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed in a breast cancer patient and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an anal cancer patient. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings led to the diagnosis of unexpected second primary hematologic malignancy in cancer survivors in these two cases.

  17. Unexpected dehydrogenation behaviors of the 2LiBH4-MgH2 composite confined in a mesoporous carbon scaffold

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wang, K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry C Vol. 118(46) Unexpected Dehydrogenation Behaviors of the 2LiBH4−MgH2 Composite Confined in a Mesoporous Carbon Scaffold Kuikui Wang,†,‡ Xiangdong Kang,*,‡ Yujie Zhong,‡ Chaohao Hu,§ Jianwei Ren,⊥ and Ping Wang*,‡ †University... of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, P. R. China ‡Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, P. R. China §Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials...

  18. Unexpected second primary malignancies detected by f-18 FDG PET/CT during follow-up for primary malignancy: Two case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Ji In; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki

    2015-01-01

    As the survival rate of cancer patients has increased over the last few decades, the risk of cancer survivors developing second primary malignancies has gained attention. We report two rare cases of second primary hematologic malignancy detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) during follow-up for primary solid malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed in a breast cancer patient and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an anal cancer patient. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings led to the diagnosis of unexpected second primary hematologic malignancy in cancer survivors in these two cases

  19. tri-n-butyltin hydride-mediated radical reaction of a 2-iodobenzamide: formation of an unexpected carbon-tin bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcelo T.; Alves, Rosemeire B.; Cesar, Amary; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Alves, Ricardo J.; Queiroga, Carla G.; Santos, Leonardo S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.

    2007-01-01

    The tri-n-butyltin hydride-mediated reaction of methyl 2,3-di-O-benzyl-4-O-trans-cinnamyl- 6-deoxy-6-(2-iodobenzoylamino)-α-D-galactopyranoside afforded an unexpected aryltributyltin compound. The structure of this new tetraorganotin(IV) product has been elucidated by 1 H, 13 C NMR spectroscopy, COSY and HMQC experiments and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The formation of this new compound via a radical coupling reaction and a radical addition-elimination process is discussed. (author)

  20. Unexpected results in Chernozem soil respiration while measuring the effect of a bio-fertilizer on soil microbial activity [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bautista

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies investigating the effect of bio-fertilizers is increasing because of their importance in sustainable agriculture and environmental quality. In our experiments, we measured the effect of different fertilizers on soil respiration. In the present study, we were looking for the cause of unexpected changes in CO2 values while examining Chernozem soil samples. We concluded that CO2 oxidizing microbes or methanotrophs may be present in the soil that periodically consume CO2 . This is unusual for a sample taken from the upper layer of well-ventilated Chernozem soil with optimal moisture content.

  1. Health-care management of an unexpected case of Ebola virus disease at the Alcorcón Foundation University Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil; Timermans, Rafael; Parra-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Domínguez-Hernández, Francisco Javier; Algora-Weber, Alejandro; Delgado-Iribarren, Alberto; Hermida-Gutiérrez, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    The first Ebola virus infected patient outside Africa was diagnosed and treated at Alcorcón Foundation University Teaching Hospital (AFUTH). We describe the integrated management strategy (medical, occupational health, preventive and public health) applied to the case. Descriptive study of health-care management of an unexpected case of Ebola virus disease (EVD) at AFUTH treated on 6 October 2014. We describe the clinical evolution of the patient while he was attended at the Emergency Department, the drawing-up process of the action protocol, the process of training of hospital staff, the administrative management for transferring the patient to the referral centre, and the measures implemented for cleaning, disinfection and management of waste. Qualitative variables are expressed as percentages. Our centre designed and updated, from May to October, five versions of the acting and care protocol for patients with EVD. The protocol was in force at the AFUTH when a nursing assistant was attended on 6 October 2014. All preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic measures outlined in the protocol were applied and 206 professionals had received training and information about care procedures with a suspect case. Health-care management of an unexpected case of EVD was adequate and there was no secondary cases in our staff as a result. All resources available should be used to fight EVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Unexpected inhibition of CO2 gas hydrate formation in dilute TBAB solutions and the critical role of interfacial water structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc N.; Nguyen, Anh V.; Nguyen, Khoi T.; Rintoul, Llew; Dang, Liem X.

    2016-12-01

    Gas hydrates formed under moderated conditions open up novel approaches to tackling issues related to energy supply, gas separation, and CO2 sequestration. Several additives like tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) have been empirically developed and used to promote gas hydrate formation. Here we report unexpected experimental results which show that TBAB inhibits CO2 gas hydrate formation when used at minuscule concentration. We also used spectroscopic techniques and molecular dynamics simulation to gain further insights and explain the experimental results. They have revealed the critical role of water alignment at the gas-water interface induced by surface adsorption of tetra-n-butylammonium cation (TBA+) which gives rise to the unexpected inhibition of dilute TBAB solution. The water perturbation by TBA+ in the bulk is attributed to the promotion effect of high TBAB concentration on gas hydrate formation. We explain our finding using the concept of activation energy of gas hydrate formation. Our results provide a step toward to mastering the control of gas hydrate formation.

  3. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUDI in a newborn due to medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiency with an unusual severe genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovera Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation. This condition may lead to cellular energy shortage and cause severe clinical events such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome and sudden death. MCAD deficiency usually presents around three to six months of life, following catabolic stress as intercurrent infections or prolonged fasting, whilst neonatal-onset of the disease is quite rare. We report the case of an apparently healthy newborn who suddenly died at the third day of life, in which the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was possible through peri-mortem blood-spot acylcarnitine analysis that showed very high concentrations of octanoylcarnitine. Genetic analysis at the ACADM locus confirmed the biochemical findings by demonstrating the presence in homozygosity of the frame-shift c.244dup1 (p.Trp82LeufsX23 mutation, a severe genotype that may explain the unusual and very early fatal outcome in this newborn. This report confirms that inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation represent one of the genetic causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI and underlines the importance to include systematically specific metabolic screening in any neonatal unexpected death.

  4. Definition of Sudden Infant Death and Sudden Intrauterine Unexpected Death Syndromes (SIDS and SIUDS with Regard to the Anatomo-Pathological Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Ottaviani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700–2,000. Yet despite advances in maternal-infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS, has a six-eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS-SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures. On the basis of these considerations, the new common definition of the SIDS-SIUDS complex is The sudden death of a fetus after the 25th gestational week or infant under one year of age which is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including examination of the death scene, performance of a general autopsy and examination of the fetal adnexa. Therefore, given that the general autopsy does not disclose any cause of death, a more in-depth histopathological analysis of the cardiac conduction system and autonomic nervous system by specialized pathologists will become necessary.

  5. Sodium antimony sulfide (NaSbS2: Turning an unexpected impurity into a promising, environmentally friendly novel solar absorber material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Utari Rahayu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel absorber material—NaSbS2—for solar cells. NaSbS2 is formed as an unexpected byproduct in the chemical synthesis of Sb2S3. However, NaSbS2 has many attractive features for a solar material. Here single phase NaSbS2 nanoparticles were synthesized through solution processing. NaSbS2 semiconductor-sensitized solar cells were demonstrated for the first time. The best cell yielded Jsc = 10.76 mA/cm2, Voc = 0.44 V, FF = 48.6%, and efficiency η = 2.30% under 1 sun. At the reduced 0.1 sun, the η increased to 3.18%—a respectable η for a new solar material.

  6. Crystallographic identification of an unexpected by-product in an Ullman's reaction toward biphenyls: 1-(4-hexyloxy-3-hydroxyphenyl)ethanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Veronica E; Baggio, Ricardo; Cukiernik, Fabio D

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of 3,3'-diacetoxy-4,4'-bis(hexyloxy)biphenyl following the nickel-modified Ullmann reaction yielded a by-product which was identified successfully by crystallographic analysis as 1-(4-hexyloxy-3-hydroxyphenyl)ethanone, C14H20O3. This unexpected nonbiphenyl by-product exhibited IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and COSY (correlation spectroscopy) spectra fully consistent with the proposed structure. The compound crystallized in the orthorombic Pbca space group, with two independent formula units in the asymmetric unit (one of which was slightly disordered), and showed a supramolecular architecture in which molecules linked by hydroxy-ethanone O-H···O interactions are organized in columns separated by the aliphatic tails.

  7. Unexpectedly large cross sections of high-energy electrons ejected from water vapor by 6.0-10.0 MeV/u He2+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, D.; Sato, Y.; Okada, Y.; Shevelko, V.P.; Soga, F.

    2005-01-01

    We present absolute doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) of electron emission (= 2+ ions with water vapor, in which unexpectedly large DDCS values were observed at the backward angles, particularly in the high-energy region, as well as singly differential cross sections larger than the Rudd model by a factor of 2-3 at ∼10 keV. The experimental results imply that these high-energy electrons are accelerated through the Fermi-shuttle acceleration. We evaluated the partial cross sections, which contribute to this acceleration, to be 7.1 and 4.5x10 -19 cm 2 , respectively, leading to ∼0.7% of the total ionization cross sections

  8. Unexpected ferromagnetic ordering enhancement with crystallite size growth observed in La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO₃ nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iniama, G.; Ita, B. I. [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar (Nigeria); Presa, P. de la, E-mail: pmpresa@ucm.es; Hernando, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Fac. CC Físicas, Dpto. Física de Materiales, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alonso, J. M. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Multigner, M. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Cortés-Gil, R.; Ruiz-González, M. L. [Fac. CC Químicas, Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Calbet, J. M. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Fac. CC Químicas, Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-21

    In this paper, the physical properties of half-doped manganite La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}MnO₃ with crystallite sizes ranging from 15 to 40 nm are investigated. As expected, ferromagnetic order strengthens at expense of antiferromagnetic one as crystallite size is reduced to 15 nm. However, contrary to previously reported works, an enhancement of saturation magnetization is observed as crystallite size increases from 15 to 22 nm. This unexpected behavior is accompanied by an unusual cell volume variation that seems to induce ferromagnetic-like behavior at expense of antiferromagnetic one. Besides, field cooled hysteresis loops show exchange bias field and coercivity enhancement for increasing cooling fields, which suggest a kind of core-shell structure with AFM-FM coupling for crystallite sizes as small as 15 nm. It is expected that inner core orders antiferromagnetically, whereas uncompensated surface spins behave as spin glass with ferromagnetic-like ordering.

  9. A pharmacy student's role as a teaching assistant in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course - Implementation, evaluation, and unexpected opportunities for educational outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaVecchia, Matthew J; Claudio, Alyssa M; Fairclough, Jamie L

    2017-11-01

    To describe 1) a pharmacy student's teaching assistant (TA) role in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course, 2) an active learning module co-developed by the TA and instructor, and 3) the unexpected opportunities for pharmacy educational outreach that resulted from this collaboration. Medicinal Chemistry (CHM3413) is an undergraduate course offered each fall at Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBA). As a TA for CHM3413, a pharmacy student from the Gregory School of Pharmacy (GSOP) at PBA co-developed and implemented an active learning module emphasizing foundational medicinal chemistry concepts as they pertain to performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). Surveys assessed undergraduate students' perceived knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts, PEDs, and TA involvement. Students' (total n = 60, three fall semesters) perceived confidence in knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts and PEDs increased significantly (p medicinal chemistry course. An advanced pharmacy practice experience elective in sports pharmacy (based on Ambrose's model) begins Fall 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unexpected persistence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the faecal microbiota of hospitalised patients treated with imipenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, N; Lazarevic, V; Gaïa, N; Couffignal, C; Laouénan, C; Ilic-Habensus, E; Wieder, I; Plesiat, P; Angebault, C; Bougnoux, M E; Armand-Lefevre, L; Andremont, A; Duval, X; Schrenzel, J

    2017-07-01

    Imipenem is active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) but favours the intestinal emergence of resistance. The effects of imipenem on intestinal microbiota have been studied using culture-based techniques. In this study, the effects were investigated in patients using culture and metagenomic techniques. Seventeen hospitalised adults receiving imipenem were included in a multicentre study (NCT01703299, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Most patients had a history of antibiotic use and/or hospitalisation. Stools were collected before, during and after imipenem treatment. Bacterial and fungal colonisation was assessed by culture, and microbiota changes were assessed using metagenomics. Unexpectedly, high colonisation rates by imipenem-susceptible ESBL-E before treatment (70.6%) remained stable over time, suggesting that imipenem intestinal concentrations were very low. Carriage rates of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (0-25.0%) were also stable over time, whereas those of yeasts (64.7% before treatment) peaked at 76.5% during treatment and decreased thereafter. However, these trends were not statistically significant. Yeasts included highly diverse colonising Candida spp. Metagenomics showed no global effect of imipenem on the bacterial taxonomic profiles at the sequencing depth used but demonstrated specific changes in the microbiota not detected with culture, attributed to factors other than imipenem, including sampling site or treatment with other antibiotics. In conclusion, culture and metagenomics were highly complementary in characterising the faecal microbiota of patients. The changes observed during imipenem treatment were unexpectedly limited, possibly because the microbiota was already disturbed by previous antibiotic exposure or hospitalisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Unexpected neuronal protection of SU5416 against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced toxicity via inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    Full Text Available SU5416 was originally designed as a potent and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 for cancer therapy. In this study, we have found for the first time that SU5416 unexpectedly prevented 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+-induced neuronal apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons, and decreased 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons and impairment of swimming behavior in zebrafish in a concentration-dependent manner. However, VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor II, another specific VEGFR-2 inhibitor, failed to reverse neurotoxicity at the concentration exhibiting anti-angiogenic activity, strongly suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of SU5416 is independent from its anti-angiogenic action. SU5416 potently reversed MPP(+-increased intracellular nitric oxide level with an efficacy similar to 7-nitroindazole, a specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS inhibitor. Western blotting analysis showed that SU5416 reduced the elevation of nNOS protein expression induced by MPP(+. Furthermore, SU5416 directly inhibited the enzyme activity of rat cerebellum nNOS with an IC(50 value of 22.7 µM. In addition, knock-down of nNOS expression using short hairpin RNA (shRNA abolished the neuroprotective effects of SU5416 against MPP(+-induced neuronal loss. Our results strongly demonstrate that SU5416 might exert its unexpected neuroprotective effects by concurrently reducing nNOS protein expression and directly inhibiting nNOS enzyme activity. In view of the capability of SU5416 to cross the blood-brain barrier and the safety for human use, our findings further indicate that SU5416 might be a novel drug candidate for neurodegenerative disorders, particularly those associated with NO-mediated neurotoxicity.

  12. Virtual autopsy with multiphase postmortem computed tomographic angiography versus traditional medical autopsy to investigate unexpected deaths of hospitalized patients: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Dominic; Heinemann, Axel; Weinberg, Clemens; Vogel, Hermann; Hoepker, Wilhelm Wolfgang; Grabherr, Silke; Pueschel, Klaus; Kluge, Stefan

    2014-04-15

    "Virtual" autopsy by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) can replace medical autopsy to a certain extent but has limitations for cardiovascular diseases. These limitations might be overcome by adding multiphase PMCT angiography. To compare virtual autopsy by multiphase PMCT angiography with medical autopsy. Prospective cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01541995) SETTING: Single-center study at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany, between 1 April 2012 and 31 March 2013. Hospitalized patients who died unexpectedly or within 48 hours of an event necessitating cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Diagnoses from clinical records were compared with findings from both types of autopsy. New diagnoses identified by autopsy were classified as major or minor, depending on whether they would have altered clinical management. Of 143 eligible patients, 50 (35%) had virtual and medical autopsy. Virtual autopsy confirmed 93% of all 336 diagnoses identified from antemortem medical records, and medical autopsy confirmed 80%. In addition, virtual and medical autopsy identified 16 new major and 238 new minor diagnoses. Seventy-three of the virtual autopsy diagnoses, including 32 cases of coronary artery stenosis, were identified solely by multiphase PMCT angiography. Of the 114 clinical diagnoses classified as cardiovascular, 110 were confirmed by virtual autopsy and 107 by medical autopsy. In 11 cases, multiphase PMCT angiography showed "unspecific filling defects," which were not reported by medical autopsy. These results come from a single center with concerted interest and expertise in postmortem imaging; further studies are thus needed for generalization. In cases of unexpected death, the addition of multiphase PMCT angiography increases the value of virtual autopsy, making it a feasible alternative for quality control and identification of diagnoses traditionally made by medical autopsy. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf.

  13. 'Emotional rights', moral reasoning, and Jewish-Arab alliances in the regulation of in-vitro-fertilization in israel: theorizing the unexpected consequences of assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooldin, Sigal

    2013-04-01

    Consumption rates of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in Israel is internationally unprecedented, a phenomenon that has been the subject of growing anthropological and sociological attention. Explanations for the singular extent of ARTs use in Israel tend to pre-assume and conceptually prioritize the symbolic and political power of pro-natalist discourses, Jewish religious values, and the demographic interests of the Jewish state. This article attempts to understand the exceptional usage of IVF in Israel in terms of its emergent meanings and unexpected effects in a particular local setup. The question that this article tries to answer is: How is the 'Israeli character' of IVF emerges within and through the interactive practice of moral justifications, and how might this medical technology affect the networks within which it is enmeshed? The article is based on a case-study analysis of a public dispute that took place in 2003-2004 over the extent of public funding for fertility treatments. Ethnographic analysis of parliament discussions, media coverage, and an online forum of IVF consumers recorded three frames of justification for the uniquely generous public funding scheme of IVF in Israel: 'rational-economic', 'nationalist', and 'liberal'. The latter assumes shared 'emotional vulnerability' of all 'childless' Israelis, Jews and Arabs alike and advocates a universal language of 'emotional rights' and 'human rights'. This liberal framing of IVF, which is the most persuasive justification in the dispute, blurs dichotomous rivalries between Jews and Arabs and generates a potential for alliances between traditionally rival sectors. These are some of the unexpected and non-intuitive consequences of ARTs in Israel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A review on earthquake and tsunami hazards of the Sumatran plate boundary: Observing expected and unexpected events after the Aceh-Andaman Mw 9.15 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natawidjaja, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 600-km Mentawai megathrust had produced two giant historical earthquakes generating big tsunamies in 1797 and 1833. The SuGAr (Sumatran GPS continuous Array) network, first deployed in 2002, shows that the subduction interface underlying Mentawai Islands and the neighboring Nias section in the north are fully locked, thus confirming their potential hazards. Outreach activities to warn people about earthquake and tsunamies had been started since 4 months prior to the 26 December 2004 in Aceh-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.15). Later in March 2005, the expected megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.7) hit Nias-Simelue area and killed about 2000 people, releasing the accumulated strain since the previous 1861 event (~Mw 8.5). After then many Mw 7s and smaller events occured in Sumatra, filling areas between and around two giant ruptures and heighten seismicities in neighboring areas. In March 2007, the twin earthquake disaster (Mw 6.3 and Mw 6.4) broke two consecutive segments of the transcurrent Sumatran fault in the Singkarak lake area. Only six month later, in September 2007, the rapid-fire-failures of three consecutive megathrust patches (Mw 8.5, Mw 7.9 and Mw 7.0) ruptured a 250-km-section of the southern part of the Mentawai. It was a big surprise since this particular section is predicted as a very-low coupled section from modelling the SuGAr data, and hence, bypassing the more potential fully coupled section of the Mentawai in between the 2005 and 2007 ruptures. In September 2009, a rare unexpected event (Mw 7.6) suddenly ruptured an intracrustal fault in the subducted slab down under Padang City and killed about 500 people. Padang had been in preparation for the next tsunami but not for strong shakes from near by major earthquake. This event seems to have remotely triggered another Mw 6.7 on the Sumatran fault near kerinci Lake, a few hundred kilometers south of Padang, in less than a day. Just a year later, in November 2010, again an unexpected large slow-slip event of

  15. Toward a standardized investigation protocol in sudden unexpected deaths in infancy in South Africa: a multicenter study of medico-legal investigation procedures and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Dempers, Johan; Verster, Janette; Hattingh, Christa; Nel, Hestelle; Brandt, V D; Jordaan, Joyce; Saayman, Gert

    2013-09-01

    South Africa manifests a socio-economic dichotomy that shows features of both a developed and developing country. As a result of this, areas exist where a lack of resources and expertise prevents the implementation of a highly standardized protocol for the investigation of sudden and unexpected deaths in infants (SUDI). Although the medico-legal mortuaries attached to academic centers have the capacity to implement standardized protocols, a previous study conducted at two large medico-legal mortuaries indicated otherwise. This study also revealed that the exact number and incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases was unknown. These findings prompted a multicenter study of the medico-legal investigation procedures and outcomes in five academic centers in South Africa. A retrospective case audit was conducted for a 5-year period (2005-2009) at medico-legal laboratories attached to universities in Bloemfontein, Cape Town-Tygerberg, Durban, Johannesburg, and Pretoria. The total case load as well as the total number of infants younger than 1 year of age admitted to these mortuaries was documented. The case files on all infants younger than 1 year of age who were admitted as sudden and unexpected or unexplained deaths were included in the study population. Data collected on the target population included demographic details, the nature and scope of the post-mortem examinations, as well as the final outcome (cause of death). A total case load of 80,399 cases were admitted to the mortuaries over the 5 year period with a total of 3,295 (6.5 %) infants. In the infant group, 591 (0.7 %) died from non-natural causes and 2,704 (3.3 %) cases of sudden, unexpected and/or unexplained deaths in infants were admitted and included in the detailed case analysis study. One hundred and ninety-nine babies were between 0 and 7 days of age and 210 babies between 8 and 30 days. The remaining 2,295 infants were between 1 month and 12 months of age. Death scene investigation was

  16. Unexpected Modulation of Recall B and T Cell Responses after Immunization with Rotavirus-like Particles in the Presence of LT-R192G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Basset

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available LT-R192G, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of E. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. Immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. To investigate this point, we compared B and T cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP and LT-R192G. After a boost, we found, an unexpected lower B cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a secondary antibody response. We then analyzed CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and CD4+CD25+Foxp3− helper T cells after in vitro (restimulation of mesenteric lymph node cells with the antigen (2/6-VLP, the adjuvant (LT-R192G or both. 2/6-VLP did not activate CD4+CD25+Foxp3− nor Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice, whereas they did activate both subsets from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP in the presence of adjuvant. LT-R192G dramatically decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice but not from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP and adjuvant. Moreover, in this case, LT-R192G increased Foxp3 expression on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, suggesting specific Treg activation during the recall. Finally, when both 2/6-VLP and LT-R192G were used for restimulation, LT-R192G clearly suppressed both 2/6-VLP-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3− and Foxp3+ T cells. All together, these results suggest that LT-R192G exerts different effects on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, depending on a first or a second contact. The unexpected immunomodulation observed during the recall should be considered in designing vaccination protocols.

  17. NMR Insights into the Unexpected Interaction of SnCl4 with D-Glucosamine and Its Effect on 5-HMF Preparation in ZnCl2 Molten Salt Hydrate Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chunyan; Ge, Wenzhi; Jia, Lingyu

    2016-01-01

    SnCl4, a versatile Lewis acid catalyst in the biomass conversion, plays a positive role for the cellulose biomass conversion but negative for chitin biomass conversion as realized in our previous research. In this report, the unexpected effects of SnCl4 on the conversion of d-glucosamine (GlcNH2)...

  18. A unique case of Turner syndrome accompanying prolactinoma and unexpected elongated styloid process: Clinical and cone-beam computed tomographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evlice, Burcu; Tatli, Ufuk; Yazicioglu, Iffet; Oztunc, Haluk [Faculty of Dentistry, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey); Evlice, Ahmet [Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey)

    2013-06-15

    Turner syndrome (TS) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, with an estimated frequency among female live births of 1/2,000-3,000. The syndrome is characterized by the partial or complete absence of one X chromosome (45,X karyotype). We reported a unique case of a 40-year-old woman with TS accompanying unexpected elongated styloid process specific to Eagle syndrome (ES) and followed up-prolactinoma. The present article is the first report to define the cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) features of TS accompanying ES. Patients with TS carry various risks that make treatment more complicated; thus advanced imaging techniques for proper treatment and follow-up are extremely important. In the light of CBCT examination, craniofacial abnormalities specific to TS and accompanying syndromes such as the crowding of teeth especially in the maxillary anterior region caused by maxillary narrowness, micrognatic maxilla and mandible, relative mandibular retrusion, malocclusion, open-bite, and an elongated styloid process (length of 32.7 mm) on the right side were illustrated in detail.

  19. The association between pro-arrhythmic agents and aortic stenosis in young adults: is it sufficient to clarify the sudden unexpected deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnic, Bojana; Radojevic, Nemanja; Vucinic, Jelena; Duborija-Kovacevic, Natasa

    2017-07-01

    Most young patients with mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis show no symptoms, and sudden death appears only occasionally. We hypothesised that malignant ventricular arrhythmias could be responsible for the high incidence of sudden death in such patients. If multiple factors such as asymptomatic aortic stenosis in association with arrhythmia-provoking agents are involved, could it be sufficient to account for sudden unexpected death? In this study, eight cases of sudden death in young adults, with ages ranging from 22 to 36 years, who had never reported any symptoms that could be related to aortic stenosis, were investigated. Full autopsies were performed, and congenital aortic stenosis in all eight cases was confirmed. DNA testing for channelopathies was negative. Comprehensive toxicological analyses found an electrolyte imbalance, or non-toxic concentrations of amitriptyline, terfenadine, caffeine, and ethanol. Collectively, these results suggest that congenital asymptomatic aortic stenosis without cardiac hypertrophy in young adults is not sufficient to cause sudden death merely on its own; rather, an additional provoking factor is necessary. According to our findings, the provoking factor may be a state of physical or emotional stress, a state of electrolyte imbalance, or even taking a therapeutic dose of a particular drug.

  20. Attitudes toward clinical autopsy in unexpected patient deaths in Japan: a nation-wide survey of the general public and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamishiraki, Etsuko; Maeda, Shoichi; Starkey, Jay; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2012-12-01

    Autopsy is a useful tool for understanding the cause and manner of unexpected patient death. However, the attitudes of the general public and physicians in Japan about clinical autopsy are limited. To describe the beliefs of the general public about whether autopsy should be performed and ascertain if they would actually request one given specific clinical situations where patient death occurred with the additional variable of medical error. To compare these attitudes with previously obtained attitudes of physicians practising at Japanese teaching hospitals. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the general public. We sent standardised questionnaires in 2010 to a randomly selected non-physician adult population using a survey company for participant selection. Respondents gave their opinions about the necessity of autopsy and how they might act given various clinical scenarios of patient death. We compared these results with those of a previous survey of Japanese physicians conducted in 2009. Of the 2300 eligible general adult population, 1575 (68.5%) responded. The majority of the general public indicated they believed an autopsy was necessary. However, in cases of unclear medical error or unclear cause and effect relationship of medical care and patient death, the general public were much less likely to indicate they would actually request an autopsy than were physicians (pcase of error related to death is underway. The results from this study will be important in informing related decisions.