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Sample records for beim biogas biogas

  1. biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Functions for working with biogas data. Both low- and high-level functions are included for carrying out common tasks for analysis of biogas and related data. Molar mass and calculated oxygen demand (COD') can be determined from a chemical formula. Measured gas volume can be corrected for water...... vapor and to (possibly user-defined) standard temperature and pressure. Gas composition, cumulative production, or other variables can be interpolated to a specified time. Cumulative biogas and methane production (and rates) can be calculated using volumetric, manometric, or gravimetric methods for any...... be summarized in several different ways (e.g., omitting normalization) using the same function. Lastly, biogas and methane production can be predicted from substrate composition and additional, optional data....

  2. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  3. Progress in biogas. Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1 and 2. Proceedings (oral presentations and poster presentations); Fortschritt beim Biogas. Biogas aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse and organischen Reststoffen. T. 1 und 2. Tagungsband. Vortraege and Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the International Conference ''Progress in Biogas - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues'' at the University Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 18th to 21st September, 2007, the following lectures were held: (1) Global relevance and potential of bioenergy for regional development; (2) Biogas electricity for France feed-in tariff and some other things to know before entering French market; (3) Policy drivers and future prospects for on-farm anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland; (4) Biogas in Belgium, a swot analysis; (5) Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine; (6) Recent developments in Chinese agricultural biogas production; (7) Opportunities for agricultural based biogas systems in the province of Ontario, Canada; (8) Pre-treatment and digestion of separated collected household waste in Sweden; (9) To the problem of monitoring measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; (10) Fermenting residues from biological gas facilities - nutrients and pollutants, possibilities of application in the agriculture; (11) Treatment and utilization of fermentation residues; (12) Potential of residual gas of NaWaRo feeded biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; (13) Operating analytics of biogas plants to improve efficiency and to ensure process stability; (14) The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion; (15) Co-digestion plant in dairy cattle farm in Emilia Romagna region (Italy); (16) Facing operational problems in a biodigeser in Yuvientsa - Amazonian Region of Ecuador; (17) Biogas plant instead of milk cow - payment and occupation with the use of grassilage; (18) Biogas in ecologic agriculture - experiences from 3 years of fermentation of grass-clover ley; (19) Combined solar-biogas basis for the

  4. Biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M.A. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Options for successfully using biogas depend on project scale. Almost all biogas from anaerobic digesters must first go through a gas handling system that pressurizes, meters, and filters the biogas. Additional treatment, including hydrogen sulfide-mercaptan scrubbing, gas drying, and carbon dioxide removal may be necessary for specialized uses, but these are complex and expensive processes. Thus, they can be justified only for large-scale projects that require high-quality biogas. Small-scale projects (less than 65 cfm) generally use biogas (as produced) as a boiler fuel or for fueling internal combustion engine-generators to produce electricity. If engines or boilers are selected properly, there should be no need to remove hydrogen sulfide. Small-scale combustion turbines, steam turbines, and fuel cells are not used because of their technical complexity and high capital cost. Biogas cleanup to pipeline or transportation fuel specifications is very costly, and energy economics preclude this level of treatment.

  5. Local biogas producer; Bodenstaendiges Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-02-15

    MT-Energie is a manufacturer of industrial process plants seated in the German state of Niedersachsen. After a period of steep growth, the company is now entering the biogas business and intends to supply biogas into the public gas grid. (orig.)

  6. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  7. BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. SALUNKHE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to scarcity of petroleum and coal it threatens supply of fuel throughout the world also problem of their combustion leads to research in different corners to get access the new sources of energy, like renewable energy resources. Solar energy, wind energy, different thermal and hydro sources of energy, biogas are all renewable energy resources. But, biogas is distinct from other renewable energies because of its characteristics of using, controlling and collecting organic wastes and at the same time producing fertilizer and water for use in agricultural irrigation. Biogas does not have any geographical limitations nor does it require advanced technology for producing energy, also it is very simple to use and apply. Anaerobic digestion is controlled biological degradation process which allows efficient capturing & utilization of biogas (approximately 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide for energy generation. Anaerobic digestion of food waste is achievable but different types, composition of food waste results in varying degrees of methane yields, and thus the effects of mixing various types of food waste and their proportions should be determined on case by case basis.

  8. MODERN BIOGAS TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Sidorov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern technical level of biogas technologies is considered, in particular in Ukraine. It is shown that in Ukraine the level of introduction of these technologies remains unsatisfactory. The main reason of such state is absence of the government program of development of sufficiently not profitable biogas industry, which again depends on availability of investment facilities including the state one. On the example of the company’s data Zorg Biogas AG, which is dominant in Ukraine among the foreign ones that offer their products using the technique of the net present value — NPV — it is shown insolvency of functioning of profitable biogas power plants. A conclusion is done about the necessity of orientation on own development in area of biogas technologies, State support and intensive technologies. The world level of modern intensive biogas technologies, in particular the use of the cogeneration plants.

  9. Biogas Production from Vinasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza Moraes, Bruna; Triolo, Jin Mi; Pulido Lecona, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries, simple biogas digesters are used to produce energy for domestic purposes from anaerobic digestion of animal manure. We developed a simple, one-dimensional (1-D), thermal model with easily-available input data for unheated, unstirred, uninsulated, fixed-dome digesters...... buried in the soil to study heat transfer between biogas digester and its surroundings. The predicted temperatures in the dome, biogas and slurry inside the digester and the resulting biogas production are presented and validated. The model was well able to estimate digester temperature (linear slope...

  10. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  11. Farm Biogas Handbook; Gaardsbiogashandbok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, Kjell; Bjoernsson, Lovisa; Dahlgren, Stefan; Eriksson, Peter; Lantz, Mikael; Lindstroem, Johanna; Mickelaaker, Maria

    2009-04-15

    A very large share of the total raw material potential for biogas production will be found within the agriculture. The raw material potential of manure in Sweden amounts to 4 - 6 TWh. Within the agriculture there is moreover a big potential in the form of residues from plant cultivation and non-food crops (approximately 7 TWh) that can to be used for biogas production. The potential for biogas production from only residues and manure is around 8-10 TWh. An increased biogas production within the agriculture would give significant environmental effects. Among other things manure, that today is leaking methane gas to the atmosphere, can be fermented, and trough this process the methane losses will be reduced. When the produced biogas replaces fossil fuel, an overall environmental effect will be reached, that is highly significant. This manual deals with biogas plants for agriculture and such plants that do not have extensive transports of different raw materials, as manure, wastes etc. One of the starting points for this manual's set-up is a course plan that Biogas Syd made for the courses they give to farmers, advisors and others. The manual illustrates important aspects in planning and construction of biogas plants, from raw material and technology to dimensioning of plant, use of biogas and planning of local gas grids. We also think it is important to illustrate the legislation that encompasses construction work and operation of a biogas plant. Investment costs are also illustrated, but the book does not give any extensive economic calculations, since we believe that such calculations need their own manual in the form of calculation examples, based on various conditions. The final section is called 'Biogas on farm - from idea to reality' where the entire process from analysis and pre-planning to monitoring and control of plant during operation is briefly described

  12. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS OF BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, researches are made in order to improve the technologies, the operational and process stability and performance of biogas plants, because the world markets for biogas increased considerably in Europe and all over the world. In this paper we studied the most important parameters related to a biogas plant, starting from the ecologic landfill of Cristian, Sibiu, a landfill which storages industrial and household waste. In this respect, we studied operational parameters, such as organic load and hydraulic retention time, and parameters for evaluation of a biogas plant. Also, we made a case study concerning the evaluation of used waters in the landfill described above under the aspect of pollution sources, way of treatment and evacuation mode of used waters. The existing biomass resources everywhere in the world can give us an idea of the global potential of biogas production, which is not exploited to its capacity, especially in our country.

  13. How to best use biogas; Wohin mit dem Biogas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-02-15

    Biogas has many uses, e.g. in power generation, space heating or as motor fuel, but not all of them are efficient. The biogas industry debates the most useful future strategies. The contribution goes into detail about the German legislation on biogas supply to the public gas grids and about the deregulation of the heat market. (orig.)

  14. Terpenes removal from biogas; Terpenenverwijdering uit biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P.; Holstein, J.; De Haan, HR.; Vlap, H. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Biogas may contain unwanted and harmful components, including aromatic hydrocarbons such as terpenes. These terpenes (organic oils) are mainly present in citrus peel and plant residues; that is why especially raw biogas from organic waste digestion plants contains high concentrations of terpenes. If terpenes end up in the gas grid (with the injected biomethane) there is a risk that plastics (PE pipes) lose their mechanical properties by absorbing liquids or extracting ethereal plasticizers. This can lead to embrittlement greatly lowering the reliability of the piping. In addition, soft components are als o affected (gaskets and rubber O-rings). Besides the impact on the integrity of the gas grid, terpenes also mask the odor of natural gas odorants such as THT. This impedes the detection of gas leaks which is a significant security risk. Furthermore, the presence of terpenes in biogas leads to fouling of equipment used for the drying of biomethane, as well as contamination of adsorption liquids and membranes used in the upgrading process. Currently, terpenes are removed by activated carbon filters. The tool life of such a filter can be relatively short if terpene concentrations are high in the biogas; this results in a significant increase of the operational costs, due to the replacement of the carbon. This study looked at alternative techniques for removing much of the terpenes from biogas in a simple, efficient and cheap way. In a workshop with stakeholders two techniques were chosen to be tested on laboratory scale in order to demonstrate the proof of principle. These techniques are photo-oxydation and a gas scrubbing. Of all investigated techniques for the removal of limonene the application of UV radiation seems to be the most promising option because of the simplicity of the process, the high efficiency (up to 94%), the comparable operational costs with activated carbon (6.7 to 9.5 euro/kg limonene removed, compared to 10 euro/kg limonene removed for activated

  15. Performance evaluation of biogas burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, A.; Tiwari, G.N.; Srivastava, V.K.; Yadav, Y.P. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies)

    1991-01-01

    The results of testing some biogas burners of various brands are presented. A wide variation is found in their performance under similar conditions of testing. Parametric investigations have also been carried out on a typical biogas burner. These investigations reveal that the burner efficiency is a strong function of biogas flow pressure, pan-size and its position over the burner head. (author).

  16. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  17. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  18. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  19. Experiences with biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Sirid Sif; Kofoed-Wiuff, Anders

    This report is primarily based on the work of the Danish biogas task force, which was established as a result of the Energy Agreement of 22 March 2012. The purpose of the task force is to examine and support concrete biogas projects in order to facilitate the projected biogas development up to 2020....... The focus of the task force was on the practical integration of the new biogas production in energy system, including the utilization of gas, the necessary infrastructure and contractual relationships. The aim was to ensure effective and appropriate integration of biogas in the Danish energy supply, which...... was consistent with the policy objectives, both in regards to current challenges for specific biogas plants and the role of biogas flexible renewable energy form on longer term. The task force's final report was published in 2014....

  20. Biogas document; Dossier Biogaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verchin, J.C.; Servais, C. [Club BIOGAZ, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2002-06-01

    In this document concerning the biogas, the author presents this renewable energy situation in 2001-2002, the concerned actors, the accounting of the industrial methanization installations in France, the three main chains of process for industrial wastes and two examples of methanization implementation in a paper industry and in a dairy. (A.L.B.)

  1. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  2. Biogas plant instead of milk cattle. Payment and occupation with the use of grass silage; Biogasanlage statt Milchkuh. Entlohnung und Beschaeftigung beim Einsatz von Grassilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.; Raab, K.; Stelzer, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (DE). Inst. fuer Technikfolgen-Abschaetzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS)

    2007-07-01

    The decrease of the stock of cows and the feed of grass silage leads to the fact that a part of the grassland is not needed anymore for the animal feeding. In view of the long-term promotion of the production of energy from regenerating raw materials, the question arises whether grassland could be used as a supplier for raw materials for biogas plants. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the question which effects are connected with the conversion of grass silage in biogas plants on incomes and occupation in the agriculture. The use of grass silage as co-ferment in biogas plants results in a higher work profitability than their employment in the keeping of milk cattle. The effect on the income clearly is smaller in comparison to manpower requirement in the keeping of milk cattle. Therefore, contrary to the keeping of milk cattle only an additional income can be gained over the utilization of grass silage grassland. Positive effects on the occupation in the rural area are possible.

  3. Biogas in the natural gas distribution network; Biogas til nettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist Jensen, T.

    2009-05-15

    With the Danish 'Thorsoe Biogas Plant' as reference case, an assessment of the possibility of using the existing natural gas distribution network for distributing biogas was carried out. Technologies for and cost of upgrading biogas to natural gas quality are presented. Furthermore, a socio-economic analysis has been performed, including the Danish financial conditions, the market models, and the role of the natural gas distribution companies.

  4. Profile and Perceptions of Biogas as Automobile Fuel : A Study of Svensk Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Anneli

    2008-01-01

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a...

  5. Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-01

    In support of the Obama Administration's Climate Action Plan, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Agriculture jointly released the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap Progress Report, updating the federal government's progress to reduce methane emissions through biogas systems since the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap was completed by the three agencies in July 2014. The report highlights actions taken, outlines challenges and opportunities, and identifies next steps to the growth of a robust biogas industry.

  6. Biogas - the calculable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kith, Károly; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Tamás, András

    2015-04-01

    EU actions against climate change are rising energy prices, both have emphasized the use of renewable energy,increase investments and energy efficiency. A number of objectives formulated in the EC decree no. 29/2009 by 2020. This document is based on the share of renewable energies in energy consumption should be increased to 20% (EC, 2009). The EU average is 20% but the share of renewables vary from one member state to another. In Hungary in 2020, 14.65% renewable energy share is planned to be achieved. According to the latest Eurostat data, the share of renewable energy in energy consumption of the EU average was 14.1%, while in Hungary, this share was 9.6% in 2012. (EUROSTAT, 2014). The use of renewable energy plant level is influenced by several factors. The most important of these is the cost savings and efficiency gains. Hungarian investments in renewable energy production usually have high associated costs and the payback period is substantially more than five years, depending on the support rate. For example, the payback period is also influenced by the green electricity generated feed prices, which is one of the lowest in Hungary compared the Member States of the European Union. Consequently, it is important to increase the production of green energy. Nowadays, predictable biogas energy is an outstanding type of decentralized energy production. It follows directly that agricultural by-products can be used to produce energy and they also create jobs by the construction of a biogas plant. It is important to dispose of and destroy hazardous and noxious substances in energy production. It follows from this that the construction of biogas plants have a positive impact, in addition to green energy which is prepared to reduce the load on the environment. The production of biogas and green electricity is one of the most environment friendly forms of energy production. Biogas production also has other important ecological effects, such as the substitution of

  7. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  8. Technological assumptions for biogas purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Biogas can be used in the engines of transport vehicles and blended into natural gas networks, but it also requires the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and moisture. Biogas purification process flow diagrams have been developed for a process enabling the use of a dolomite suspension, as well as for solutions obtained by the filtration of the suspension, to obtain biogas free of hydrogen sulphide and with a carbon dioxide content that does not exceed 2%. The cost of biogas purification was evaluated on the basis of data on biogas production capacity and biogas production cost obtained from local water treatment facilities. It has been found that, with the use of dolomite suspension, the cost of biogas purification is approximately six times lower than that in the case of using a chemical sorbent such as monoethanolamine. The results showed travelling costs using biogas purified by dolomite suspension are nearly 1.5 time lower than travelling costs using gasoline and slightly lower than travelling costs using mineral diesel fuel.

  9. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  10. Treatment of Biogas for Use as Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, J.

    2010-01-01

    The biogas generated in biogas plants offers significant potential for the production of energy from renewable energy sources. The number biogas plants in the Czech Republic is expected to exceed one hundred in the near future. Substrates from agriculture, industry and municipal wastes are used for biogas production. Biogas plants usually use co-generation units to generate electricity and heat. Increased effectiveness can be achieved by using heat as a source of energy for producing renewabl...

  11. Inducting biogas. Future prospects; Einspeisung von Biogas. Zukunftsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W.

    2008-07-01

    Biogas is a very environmentally friendly source of energy as long as it is produced from refuse and sewage. If on the other hand energy plants are added, the ecological balance is unfavourable. Using photovoltaic methods for the same surface area, 100 times more solar energy can be produced than with renewable raw materials. One can therefore assure that in the future, traffic will run on electricity and biogas from natural resources will take on an important role as a supply of raw materials for chemical synthesis. It would appear to be a good idea for this purpose to clean biogas and introduce it into the network, at least for larger plants. (author)

  12. Biotechnological intensification of biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Z.; Acs, N.; Balint, B.; Horvath, L.; Dobo, K.; Perei, K.R.; Rakhely, G.; Kovacs, K.L. [Szeged Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Biotechnology; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary). Inst. of Biophysics

    2007-08-15

    The importance of syntrophic relationships among microorganisms participating in biogas formation has been emphasized, and the regulatory role of in situ hydrogen production has been recognized. It was assumed that the availability of hydrogen may be a limiting factor for hydrogenotrophic methanogens. This hypothesis was tested under laboratory and field conditions by adding a mesophilic (Enterobacter cloacae) or thermophilic hydrogen-producing (Caldicellulosyruptor saccharolyticus) strain to natural biogas-producing consortia. The substrates were waste water sludge, dried plant biomass from Jerusalem artichoke, and pig manure. In all cases, a significant intensification of biogas production was observed. The composition of the generated biogas did not noticeably change. In addition to being a good hydrogen producer, C. saccharolyticus has cellulolytic activity; hence, it is particularly suitable when cellulose-containing biomass is fermented. The process was tested in a 5-m{sup 3} thermophilic biogas digester using pig manure slurry as a substrate. Biogas formation increased at least 160-170% upon addition of the hydrogen-producing bacteria as compared to the biogas production of the spontaneously formed microbial consortium. Using the hydrogenase-minus control strain provided evidence that the observed enhancement was due to interspecies hydrogen transfer. The on-going presence of C. saccharolyticus was demonstrated after several months of semicontinuous operation. (orig.)

  13. Biogas production and biogas as vehicle fuel - Swedish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, A.E. [VBB Viak AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    In Sweden there are totally about 220 biogas plants in operation. The major part of these plants (134) are represented by sewage sludge treatment facilities at waste water treatment plants. At 60 sites the biogas is generated from landfills or cell digesters at landfills. In 1996, the amount produced had a total energy content of about 1,35 TWh (or 4 900 PJ). (EG)

  14. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  15. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co......-substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  16. Monitoring of biogas test plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Esbensen, Kim H.

    2011-01-01

    Most studies reported in the literature have investigated near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in laboratory-scale or minor pilot biogas plants only; practically no other studies have examined the potential for meso-scale/full-scale on-line process monitoring. The focus of this study is on a meso......-scale biogas test plant implementation of process analytical technologies (PAT) to develop multivariate calibration/prediction models for anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. A 150 L bioreactor was fitted with a recurrent loop at which NIR spectroscopy and attendant reference sampling were carried out. In all...... realistic bioreactor scales, it is necessary to obtain a fairly constant level of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, which furthers a stable biogas production. Uncontrolled VFA contents have a significant negative impact on biogas production; VFA concentrations should not exceed 5–6000 mg/L lest...

  17. GAS TURBINE ENGINES CONSUMING BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Ясиніцький

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of implementation of biofuel for power plants of big capacity was considered in thisarticle. Up to date in the world practice a wide implementation of biogas plants of low and medialcapacity are integrated. It is explained by the big amount of enterprises in which relatively smallvolumes of organic sediment excrete in the process of its activity. An emphasis of article is on thatenterprises, which have big volumes of sediments for utilizing of which module system of medialcapacity biogas plants are non-effective. The possibility of using biogas and biomethane as a fuelfor gas turbine engine is described. The basic problems of this technology and ways of its solutionsare indicated. Approximate profitability of biogas due to example of compressor station locatednearby poultry factory was determined also. Such factors as process characteristics of engine withcapacity of 5 MW, approximate commercial price for natural gas and equipment costs due toofficial sources of “Zorg Ukraine” company was taken into consideration. The necessity forproviding researches on influence of biogas on the process characteristics of gas turbine engine andits reliability, constructing modern domestic purification system for biogas was shown.

  18. Efficient Heat Use from Biogas CHP Plants. Case Studies from Biogas Plants in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Dzene, Ilze; Slotiņa, Lāsma

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focusing on efficient heat use from biogas plants. It gives an overview about various biogas heat use options and specifically addresses biogas heat use market in Latvia. In the end three examples from typical agricultural biogas plants in Latvia and their heat use plans are described.

  19. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  20. Bounded Biofuels? Sustainability of Global Biogas Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to liquid biofuels biogas has hardly drawn any attention from social sciences researchers lately. Although the share of biogas and liquid biofuels in the energy portfolio of many countries are comparable, biogas systems are strongly place-based and are non-controversial in terms of sustaina

  1. Biogas Production from Cow Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Artanti Putri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from livestock waste manure in particular is one of the alternative utilization of organic wastes that can be implemented in Indonesia since there is a huge potential of bio-energy in Indonesia. This study utilizes cow manure as the raw material for making biogas and it is coupled with a cow rumen fluid and water. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of manure, rumen, and water composition in biogas production. The research was conducted in anaerobic for 60 days. The composition of manure, water, and the rumen were vary following the variable and ratio; variable A (manure and water; variable B (manure and rumen. The results indicate that the variable A (manure and water with a 1:3 ratio, and the variable B (manure and rumen with a 1:2 ratio produced the highest volume of biogas compared to other ratios. The highest biogas production occurred on average at day 23.

  2. Biogas production from catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Manure-based biogas plants in Denmark are dependent on high yielding biomass feedstock in order to secure economically feasible operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of ten different catch crop species or mixtures as feedstock for biogas production in co......, being in the ranges of 1.4–3.0 t ha−1 and 0.3–1.7 t ha−1 for Holstebro and Aabenraa, respectively. Specific methane yields were in the range of 229–450 m3 t−1 of VS. Methane yields per hectare of up to 800 m3 ha−1 were obtained, making catch crops a promising source of feedstock for manure-based biogas...

  3. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...

  4. Improvement of biogas production by bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K L; Ács, N; Kovács, E; Wirth, R; Rákhely, G; Strang, Orsolya; Herbel, Zsófia; Bagi, Z

    2013-01-01

    Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed.

  5. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC MANURE INTO BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brdarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas with anaerobic degradation from organic waste is one of the pledge alternative energetic solutions, especially from organic manure made from animal farming and other residuals of agricultural production. According to 2005 livestock manufacture data daily quantity of animal excrements in Croatia, based on LSU number, is 784 015.26 m3. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of production of biogas from the most common types of domestic animals in Croatia. Anaerobic fermentation period of 40 days in mesophilic conditions produced from 1 kg of beef, 31 litres of biogas slurry and from pig slurry 14.83 litres of biogas. From our study it follows that the Republic of Croatia (based on the number of UG could produce 426,995,250.00 Nm3 biogas annually. Exploitation of biogas can decrease import of the referred energents, especially electric energy.

  6. Planning for Biogas Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landt, Cristina C.; Gaarsmand, Regin; Palsberg, Aske

    2016-01-01

    This article is about establishing biogas in Denmark in the region of Zealand, the challenges that are related to this establishment and how to overcome this challenges. The article highlights three reasons for these challenges: 1) Regulation, 2) The municipal planning and 3) Involved various...... stakeholders. It investigates how these challenges affected the process and were overcome in the establishment of Solrod Biogas. In terms of ownership and biomass input, this biogas plant is unique compared to other Danish biogas plants. The biogas plant is based on organic by-products from local industries...... and seaweed. The plant solves an essential environmental issue for the municipality and citizens who were affected by the smell of rotten seaweed washed up in Koge Bay. The seaweed is used as input; this solves several problems at the same time. The method used to establish Solrod Biogas was an integrated...

  7. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  8. The economics of biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Laugesen, Frederik Møller; Dubgaard, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the leading European Countries in using Biogas for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), since the 1980’ties. However, in the last two decades, the increase has been limited. A new energy policy aimed at increasing the profitability of Biogas was introduced in the spring of 2012....... The analysis here shows that the new agreement will improve the profitability of biogas plants and increase the biogas production although the political ambition of an increase from 4 PJ to 14 PJ by 2020 seems unlikely. The analysis shows that biogas plants can be profitable even if the input is a mix....... Even without an investment subsidy of 30%, the case 2012, is profitable. Financing the biogas plants is a challenge. The interest used of 4.25% requires bank guaranties which in practice can be hard to get. Using a more likely interest of 7-8% reduces the yearly profit to 400.000 €. The socioeconomic...

  9. [Progress on biogas technology and engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Yuexiang; Yan, Zhiying

    2010-07-01

    Dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources and the demand to increase the share of renewable energy for sustainability have increased the significance of biogas, the product of synergistic fermentation of biodegrable organic wastes from municipal, agricultural and industrial activities by microbial populations under anaerobic conditions. With extensive research and engineering practice, many technologies and modes have been developed for biogas production and application. Currently, the most widely used mode is the complete-mixing mesophilic fermentation. Europe, especially Germany, is leading the world in the combined heat and power production (CHP) from biogas. In this paper, updated progress in biogas technologies is reviewed, with focuses on anaerobic microorganisms, bioreactor configurations and process development, biogas production and applications, in which perspectives of biogas as a clean and renewable energy are projected.

  10. Biogas infrastructures from farm to regional scale, prospects of biogas transport grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, E.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gemert, W.J.T. van; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The volume of biogas produced in agricultural areas is expected to increase in coming years. An increasing number of local and regional initiatives show a growing interest in decentralized energy production, wherein biogas can play a role. Biogas transport from production sites to user, i.e. a CHP,

  11. System for obtaining biogas. System zur Gewinnung von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-01-17

    The invention refers to a system for obtaining biogas from organic substances in at least one drum reactor, which is situated in a container accepting a liquid and which is driven so that it rotates preferably around its horizontal drum axis. It is distinguished by the fact that for at least one drum reactor acting as the main reactor there is at least one further reactor ahead of it for the pre-treatment or pre-fermentation of the substances.

  12. Biogas in Romanian Agriculture, Present and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have made a review of data available concerning the potential and technologies available to be applied in Romania to produce biogas in agricultural sector. Biogas application is especially interesting for medium and large farms, concentrated on specific surfaces, where a proper substrate collection can be organized. Reviewing data presenting the theoretical potential for livestock manure in Romania, we found that over 17 mil. MWh of energy from biogas can be provided in one year. It is estimated that only half of the theoretical energy potential is technically usable by biogas investments. As for the crops residues, has been shown that the theoretical biogas potential is 76,7 mil. MWh/year. However, there is a long way to be done in Romania to reach this potential, as in the present, the entire production of biogas is from industrial and municipal landfill and slurries - there are no operational on-farm biogas plants. Despite the high potential in terms of biogas production from agricultural sources, Romania has among the lowest biogas production in Europe. Although currently there are several biogas plants (not in agricultural sector totaling an installed capacity of only 4 MW, and producing in 2010 only 19 GWh electric power, the target for 2020 in Romania is 195 MWel. installed power, with an output of 950 GW electric power. The main cause of the actual situation is the lack of economic incentives similar to those offered by countries as Germany. Without a review of relevant legislation, the progress of the biogas sector in Romania will be limited. Furthermore, the development of low-cost technologies available to Romanian farmers will contribute to the development of production of renewable energy from biogas and other biofuels.

  13. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  14. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  15. Biogas potential atlas. Potential for the sustainable generation of biogas in Germany; Biogaspotenzialatlas. Potenzial zur nachhaltigen Erzeugung von Biogas in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany); Krause, Hartmut

    2012-10-15

    Biogas can be produced from various agricultural, municipal or industrial accruing substrates. Different biogas potentials result depending on the substrate. As part of a research project, different potentials are recorded in a biogas potential atlas. This atlas can ultimately be helpful in selecting appropriate biogas plant locations.

  16. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  17. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  18. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  19. Establishment of a biogas grid and interaction between a biogas grid and a natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T.

    2011-01-15

    The project has aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of a large biogas net in Ringkoebing Skjern municipality in Denmark, which wants to become self-sufficient in renewable energy by 2020. It is estimated that the biogas potential in the municipality is about. 60 mill. m3 methane gas a year. Half of the methane will be generated by digesting 80 % of the area's slurry, while the other half will be produced from energy crops. It will require an area equivalent to 5 % of the municipality's farmland. The idea is to establish decentralized 60-80 and 1-3 large centralized biogas plants, and that the produced biogas is distributed to natural gas-fired decentralized power plants. Based on this framework, a number of issues for the establishment of a biogas net have been investigated. These are: - the relation between biogas production and demand; - biogas compared to the overall energy system, - purification and measurement of biogas; - conversion of natural gas-fired power plants to biogas; - the value of biogas for cogeneration plants; - design of a biogas distribution net; - ownership and accountability; - potential business models. (LN)

  20. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  1. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  2. Forecasting the potential of Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Gylling, Morten

    , except for those farms which are in the largest state class. Regional differences in development trends were documented. The strategic objective of the model is to provide data for the spatial assessment of the potential of biogas production which can form the basis for a location analysis for future...... biogas plants....

  3. Biogas i økologisk jordbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Klumme: Hvilke faktorer har størst betydning for udbredelse af biogas-teknologien? Offentlige tilskud er svaret fra en rundspørge.......Klumme: Hvilke faktorer har størst betydning for udbredelse af biogas-teknologien? Offentlige tilskud er svaret fra en rundspørge....

  4. GlidArc-assisted processing of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernichowski, A.; Wesolowska, K. (ECP, La Ferte St Aubin (France)), Email: echph@wanadoo.fr

    2009-07-01

    Power generation or chemical applications of biogas can be difficult when CH{sub 4} content is too low and / or in the presence of sulphur compounds. We therefore propose two reformers based on electric discharges (GlidArc) that strike directly either in a poor biogas or in waste CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}S mixture generated during biogas cleaning. Direct application of GlidArc discharges to the poor biogas enhances its flammability through a partial conversion of CH{sub 4} + CO{sub 2} into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (synthesis gas). Any level of sulphur (and other impurities) is accepted. Roughly 40 % of injected electric power is transferred into upgraded biogas as its additional chemical enthalpy. A few percent of resultant H{sub 2} and CO inside the biogas makes it more flammable, and therefore better to fuel an engine or gas turbine. As a result of biogas purification via amines-washing technologies, one gets concentrated pollutants in CO{sub 2} matrix. Instead of classical neutralisation, we propose H{sub 2}Svalorisation through the SulfArc process converting all H{sub 2}S into additional amounts of synthesis gas, while neutral elemental sulphur is removed from the system. Generated syngas can be injected into the main biogas flow to enhance its flammability. (orig.)

  5. The economics of biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Laugesen, Frederik Møller; Dubgaard, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the leading European Countries in using Biogas for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), since the 1980’ties. However, in the last two decades, the increase has been limited. A new energy policy aimed at increasing the profitability of Biogas was introduced in the spring of 2012....

  6. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaer

  7. CO2 balance in production of energy based on biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Biogas is an essential biomass source for achieving a reduction of CO2 emission by 50% in year 2030 in Denmark. The physical potential for biogas production in Denmark is more than 10 times the present biogas production in Denmark. In Denmark the largest part of the biogas production is produced...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...... production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  8. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  9. Comparative life cycle assessment of biogas plant configurations for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Hartmann, Kilian; Bühle, Lutz; Wachendorf, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The environmental performance of biogas plant configurations for a demand - oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation is comparatively assessed in this study. Those configurations indicate an increased energy demand to operate the operational enhancements compared to conventional biogas plants supplying biogas for baseload power generation. However, findings show that in contrast to an alternative supply of power generators with natural gas, biogas supplied on demand by adapted biogas plant configurations saves greenhouse gas emissions by 54-65 g CO(2-eq) MJ(-1) and primary energy by about 1.17 MJ MJ(-1). In this regard, configurations with flexible biogas production profit from reduced biogas storage requirements and achieve higher savings compared to configurations with continuous biogas production. Using thicker biogas storage sheeting material reduces the methane permeability of up to 6m(3) d(-1) which equals a reduction of 8% of the configuration's total methane emissions.

  10. Feeding biogas into the natural gas network; Einspeisung von Biogas ins Erdgasnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunziker, P.

    2005-07-01

    This article discusses how the existing use of biogas from the regional sewage treatment plant in Lucerne, Switzerland, has been extended to feed the biogas into the normal natural gas supply mains. The biogas has previously been used to fuel combined heat and power units that provide electricity and heating energy for dwellings in the region. The article describes how excess biogas from sewage treatment has been conditioned for feeding into the area's natural gas network. The use of an eco-balance tool in the choice of the most ecological means of using the biogas is described. The process steps used to purify the biogas are examined, as are the investment costs and yearly operational expenditure for the operation of the installations.

  11. The economics of biogas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Laugesen, Frederik Møller; Dubgaard, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the leading European Countries in using Biogas for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), since the 1980s. However, in the last two decades, the increase has been limited. A new energy policy aimed at increasing the profitability of biogas was introduced in the spring of 2012....... The analysis here shows that the new agreement will improve the profitability of biogas plants and increase the biogas production although the political ambition of an increase from 4 PJ to 17 PJ by 2020 seems unlikely. The analysis shows that biogas plants can be profitable even if the input is a mix....... The analysis shows that the profit from upgrading biogas is only to be preferred if the sales price of heat or the amount sold are relatively low. The socioeconomic analyses show that the costs of biogas as a measure to reduce CO2 emissions are around €151 per tonne CO2 (€85‐266 per ton) and that using maize...

  12. Improvement of Biogas Production by Bioaugmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Kovács

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production technologies commonly involve the use of natural anaerobic consortia of microbes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of hydrogen in this complex microbial food chain. Novel laboratory biogas reactor prototypes were designed and constructed. The fates of pure hydrogen-producing cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Enterobacter cloacae were followed in time in thermophilic and mesophilic natural biogas-producing communities, respectively. Molecular biological techniques were applied to study the altered ecosystems. A systematic study in 5-litre CSTR digesters revealed that a key fermentation parameter in the maintenance of an altered population balance is the loading rate of total organic solids. Intensification of the biogas production was observed and the results corroborate that the enhanced biogas productivity is associated with the increased abundance of the hydrogen producers. Fermentation parameters did not indicate signs of failure in the biogas production process. Rational construction of more efficient and sustainable biogas-producing microbial consortia is proposed.

  13. Fuels made from agricultural biomass - (biogas) alternative types(Alternativne vrste goriva iz poljoprivredne biomase - biogas)

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovska, Vangelica; Jovanovski, Nikola; Sovreski, Zlatko; Pop-Andonov, Goran; Sinani, Feta

    2013-01-01

    Biogas is a typical "product" of urban discharges, which has a great negative environmental impact. To avoid this negative effect, it can be burnt at very high temperatures, producing smoke emissions composed of CO2. A useful alternative is to use biogas as fuel to feed co-generation plants, producing electricity. At the moment biogas is used as fuel, introducing it directly in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless the heterogeneity of the gas stresses the engine, reducing its life. The new te...

  14. BIOGAS STATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lapčik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the authors’ experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union’s limits as for utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.

  15. An alternative resource for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrabansh, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Research Center for Applied Science and Technology, Kirtipur, Kathmandu (Nepal); Madan, M. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Center for Rural Development and Technology, New Delhi (India)

    2000-09-01

    Three different biomasses, namely, sericulture waste, Populus deltoides, and Eupatorium adenophorum, were studied for biogas production. It was found that these wastes produced biogas in reasonably good quantity of gas (259 l/kg of total solid in sericulture waste to 519 l/kg of total solid in E. adenophorum). The substrates were subjected to anaerobic digestion directly, without any pre-treatment, and a batch with biological treatment in triplicate set. Among the two sets, the biologically pretreated digesters gave higher yield of biogas. Chemical analysis for nitrogen content, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content before and after digestion was carried out. (Author)

  16. Farm scale biogas concepts in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [Nova Energie, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1997-08-01

    The near future of farm scale biogas production looks bright as long as the high electricity prices are maintained by political will and subsidies remain higher than approx. 20%. If in all the number of biogas plants is growing as it is in Germany (Within the last two years about 200 new plants have been built) then biogas will add its share to a nuclear power free electricity production, as does wind energy in Germany, Holland or Denmark. The standard for manure digesters is set. There is still some way to go for solid waste digesters. However, first inputs have been given. (EG) 10 refs.

  17. The biogas: a future energy alternative; Biogas: a alternativa energetica do futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, Carla Marques [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias, Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: paixao_cm@yahoo.com.br; Anjos, Jose Angelo Sebastiao Araujo dos [Universidade de Salvador, BA (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa Ambiental e Geotecnologias (LAGEO)]. E-mail: jangello@unifacs.br; Mascarenhas, Artur Jose Santos [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajsmascarenhas@yahoo.com.br

    2006-01-15

    The biogas is one of the principal factors. During the last years the biogas use are intensifying himself which can make the energy alternative of the future. The methane, present in these gas, can be converted into energy, for his combustion generates a large quantity of thermal energy, which can be concerted into electrical ou mechanical energy. Being so, it is important that we aware that the caloric power of the biogas varies between 5000 to 7000 kcal/m{sup 3}, depending on the methane concentrations. Besides, the biogas purification through the removal of the carbonic gas can rising his calorific to values larger than 8700 kcal/m{sup 3}.

  18. Biogas supply to the natural gas supply grid. Study; Einspeisung von Biogas in das Erdgasnetz. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, S. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Biogas supply to the public gas grid is a new option discussed in the most recent publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. The biogas is purified, upgraded to natural gas quality and fed into an existing gas grid. Once there, it can be transported across long distances and also used for electric power generation at the consumer side. The study investigates inhowfar and in what instances this method is feasible and promising. It discusses the technical background and the regional potential of biogas. Seven model biogas systems are presented as examples. (orig.)

  19. Harvesting biogas from wastewater sludge and food waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K. H.; Cheah, W. L.; Tan, C. F.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Wastewater sludge and food waste are good source of biogas. Anaerobic treatment of slude and food waste able to produce biogas which is a potential renewable energy source. This study looks into the potential biogas generation and the effects of temperature on biogas generation. A lab scale reactor was used to simulate the biogas generation. The results show that wastewater sludge able to produced upto 44.82 ml biogas/kg of sludge. When mixed with food waste at a ratio of 30:70 (food waste), the biogas generated were 219.07 ml/kg of waste. Anaerobic of food waste alone produced biogas amount to 59.75 ml/kg of food waste. Anaerobic treatment also reduces the volume of waste. The effect of temperature shows that higher temperature produces more biogas than lower temperature.

  20. Risk and insurance management for biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerig, M. [Marsh GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The continuing negative experiences of insurers with biogas plants make it difficult for operators to get appropriate insurance cover. There are different reasons for this big number of damages. Especially in the beginning components have been rebuilt for biogas without sufficient experiences. Other damages have emerged due to improper or disregardful plant management. For that reason the insurers' standards for the biogas plant and the plant management have risen up. The following report deals with experiences of insurance for biogas plants and the resulting consequences. For that reason Marsh carried out a research project and analyzed all reported claims in the All Risk Insurance. The necessary technical minimum requirements for installation and operation are geared to the experiences with damages. But they also account for the interests of the insured. (orig.)

  1. Drijfmest verliest snel zijn waarde voor biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisonjé, de F.E.; Verheijen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Drijfmest moet zo snel mogelijk de vergister in. Alleen een snelle vergisting levert een maximale hoeveelheid biogas op. Uit onderzoek blijkt dat het biogaspotentieel van drijfmest maandelijks met zo’n 30 procent afneemt.

  2. Storage of catch crops to produce biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Catch crop biomass is a promising co-substrate for manure-based biogas plants in Denmark since the cultivation of catch crops is mandatory to retain nutrients in the soil, contributing to protect the aquatic environment. In general, the growth period for catch crops is from harvest of the previous...... crop in July-August to the end of the growing season and harvest in late October. Hence, for use of the biomass in biogas production there is a need for storage of the biomass. Storage as silage would guarantee the availability of the feedstock for biogas production during the whole year. A proper...... ensiling process determines the storage loss and the quality of the final silage and, thus, the possible use of it as a substrate for biogas production. Moreover, silage has been considered as a pre-treatment since it partially hydrolyses organic matter improving cellulose convertibility. Since a large...

  3. Effective green manuring via biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Nykänen, Arja; Kymäläinen, Maritta; Lemola, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary results show that the benefit from anaerobic digestion of the green manure leys seem to be based more on biogas energy production than for higher yields after anaerobic digestion. The N leaching risk is under determination.

  4. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, A. H.; Bakker, T. W.; Kramer, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaerobic bacteria, and how much cavitation increases the total biogas yield. An increase in yield is only the case if cavitation can further disrupt otherwise inaccessible cell membrane structures and long chain organic molecules. In this study the influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on sludge that was already digested for 30 days was investigated. The total biogas yield could indeed be increased. The effect of the backpressure behind the venturi tube on the yield could not yet be established.

  5. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P biogas (P biogas before any applications.

  6. Biogas plant Brelingen under self-construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, K.

    Since July 1981, the first biogas plant of the biogas group of Hannover has been in operation. The plant has not only been constructed by means of self-construction method using partly used components (direct recycling), but it shall also make possible a biologically optimal and low cost gas production for heat generation as far as its operating method is concerned. The design of the plant is described and some of the first results are presented.

  7. White Earth Biomass/Biogas Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, Michael

    2015-03-12

    The White Earth Nation examined the feasibility of cost savings and fossil energy reduction through the installation of biogas/biomass boiler at the tribal casino. The study rejected biogas options due to availability and site constraints, but found a favorable environment for technical and financial feasibility of installing a 5 MMBtu hot water boiler system to offset 60-70 percent of current fuel oil and propane usage.

  8. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sednin; О. Kraetskaya; I. Prokoрenia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  9. The development of biogas technology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiranjivi, C.; Raviprasad, A.; Rao, K. V.

    Biogas from organic wastes is a potential renewable energy to meet the domestic energy needs in India. The fundamentals of bio-gasification by anaerobic digestion are presented. The production of biogas from cattle manure in small anaerobic digesters is discussed, illustrated by a popular digester model. The need for the development of community digesters for the needs of a village and its implications are mentioned. The research work on biogasification at Andhra University is summarized.

  10. Floating geomembrane cover improves biogas collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.

    2009-07-15

    Canadian corn products refiner, Casco Inc., recently upgraded a wastewater anaerobic digester at its automated corn wet milling facility on the St. Lawrence River, in Cardinal Ontario. The upgrade includes an improved floating and insulated geomembrane cover, designed and installed by Geomembrane Technologies Inc. The cover effectively streamlines biogas collection, improves biogas odour control and optimizes bioreactor heat retention. Casco's bulk volume fermenter (BVF) was designed and built in 1988 by ADI Systems Inc. It is limited to receiving 641,000 gallons of wastewater per day from several areas of the plant. Wastewater sludge is usually treated by anaerobic digestion. At Casco, raw solids are added directly to the BVF bioreactor, where they are digested, minimizing waste sludge handling. In essence, anaerobic digestion is a renewable energy source which converts wastewater to a methane- and carbon dioxide-rich biogas suitable for energy production, replacing fossil fuels. The insulated geomembrane cover captures and reclaims all the biogas from the treatment process that is going on inside the tank. Without a cover, the biogas would be released to the atmosphere. The new geomembrane cover collects an average of 236,000 cubic feet of biogas per day, at a 65 per cent methane concentration, from the BVF bioreactor. 2 figs.

  11. Biogas composition and engine performance, including database and biogas property model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijstens, A.J.; Beuman, W.P.H.; Molen, M. van der; Rijke, J. de; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Kadijk, G.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Bleuanus, W.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to enable this evaluation of the current biogas quality situation in the EU; results are presented in a biogas database. Furthermore the key gas parameter Sonic Bievo Index (influence on open loop A/F-ratio) is defined and other key gas parameters like the Methane Number (knock resistance)

  12. Replacing Natural Gas by Biogas — Determining the Bacterial Contamination of Biogas by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising way of using biogas is to upgrade it to natural gas, which is referred to as Substitute Natural Gas (SNG or biomethane. Biomethane, or biogas, is produced by biological processes of harnessing the ability of microorganisms to degrade organic material to methane. Some of the microorganisms are aerosolized from the digester into the biogas; afterwards a bio-film is formed that attaches to the surfaces of the distribution pipes, and can find it was to the place where the end use of biogas takes place. This paper deals with the detection of microbial species in biogas, their influenceon corrosion and the potential risk that diseases can be spread via biogas using molecular techniques. Using molecular methods, we found that raw biogas contains about 8 million microorganisms per m3, which is most likely the result of microbial transmission from the anaerobic digestion process. Some bacterial species may contribute to the corrosion of pipelines and equipment; others are opportunistic pathogens that can cause toxic reactions. However, most bacterial species, more than 40 % in biogas, are still unknown, as is their influence on the digestion process and on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand the behavior of microorganisms in anaerobic digestion and to preventmicrobial-influenced corrosion and microbial dissemination.

  13. The production and use of biogas in 2012; Produktion och anvaendning av biogas aar 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents an annual survey on the production and use of biogas. The survey aims to provide policy makers, industry associations, researchers, journalists, municipalities and the general public information on annual production and use of biogas. Statistics are used as the basis for Sweden's overall reporting of renewable energy to the EU and as a basis in various government investigations. In the present study, a total of 242 biogas-production plants have been identified in Sweden. These produced a total of 1,589 GWh of energy. The 242 biogas-producing plants were distributed by 135 wastewater treatment plants, 55 landfills, 26 farm biogas plants, 21 co-digestion plants and five industrial plants. The main substrates for biogas production were different types of waste such as sewage sludge, manure, source separated food waste and waste from butchers and food industries. Energy crops constituted a very small fraction of the total substrate similarly no. The geographic distribution shows that most of the biogas production was centered in a few counties. Skaane, Stockholm and Vaestra Goetaland accounted for over 50 % of the country's biogas production.

  14. Enhanced biogas recovery by applying post-digestion in large-scale centralized biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Hejnfelt, Anette; Ellegaard, L.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the degradation efficiency of centralized biogas plants and provide guidance for the design of more efficient digester and post-digestion systems. These centralized biogas plants in Denmark digest manure together with organic waste from the food...... industry to generate biogas, which is used for electricity and thermal energy. A total of 20 such plants are currently active in Denmark, most of which were included in the investigation. From the plants, samples were obtained from various steps of the process. Samples were analysed and the residual biogas...... potential determined by batch post-digestion at various temperature levels. Results were correlated with plant characteristics and production statistics in order to judge the efficiency of various digestion concepts. A simplified model based on a two-step biogas production process was developed...

  15. Optimized construction of biogas plants; Optimierte Bauweise fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Within the conference of the International Trade Fair for Biogas Plant Technology at 21st February, 2012 in Berlin, the following lectures were held: (1) Optimized dimensions of containers for small systems of liquid manure (Manfred Thalmann); (2) Microferm mini biogas plants (Bart Brouwer); (3) Fermentation of stackable biomass in rural biogas plant - The DeNaBa system (Christian Deterding); (4) The Sauter Biogas System for the fermentation of liquid manure, solid dung, and other residual materials (Stefan Sauter); (5) Bio-electricity: Controllable power generation by means of biogas plants (Matthias Sonnleitner); (6) Reduction of the effort and increase of the yield using UDR fixed bed technology (Alfred van den Berg); (7) Prestressed concrete container for biogas plants: Area of application - quality - options (Harald Feldmann); (8) Corrosion protection of agricultural and communal biogas plants (Michael Normann); (9) Fundamentals of efficient and effective flow generation in biogas plants (Kay Rotalski); (10) Rotary piston screw pistons and eccentric screw pumps (Thorsten Gilles).

  16. Study of biogas storage; Biogas no chozo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I.; Kimura, T.; Umeda, H. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study was made on the storage method of a methane component in biogas mainly composed of CO2 and methane gases. Methane clathrate as molecular complex is one kind of clathrate compounds. Eight methane gas molecules are absorbed into 46 water molecules, or methane gas of 216 l is absorbed into water of 1 l, resulting in considerable compact methane storage. Although methane clathrate is usually stable only under a condition of low temperature and high pressure, its formation equilibrium shifts toward a low pressure/high temperature side by adding additives such as amine, ether and ketone. Acetone can shift formation pressure from 30 to 10atm at 1degC, and formation temperature from 1 to 10degC at 30atm. Although methane liquefaction is also an efficient storage method, it requires liquefaction temperature and pressure of -83degC and 45.6atm, respectively. The distance between methane molecules in clathrate lattice can be more shortened than that in high- pressure charged gas, suggesting higher storage efficiency. The study result showed that the handling of methane clathrate is possible around room temperature and pressure. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarso, S.; B Budiyono; Siswo Sumardiono

    2010-01-01

    IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, ...

  18. Biogas upgrading to biomethane. Proceedings; Biogasaufbereitung zu Biomethan. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-05

    Within the 6th Hanauer Dialogue 'Biogas upgrading to biomethane' at 21st February, 2008, the following lectures were held: (a) Processing of biogas - an introduction (Michael Beil); (b) The climate protecting targets of the Federal Republic of Germany: Which role will play the upgrading of biogas, and which legal boundary conditions are created by the Federal Government? (Uwe Holzhammer); (c) Future strategy: CH{sub 4} grids (Juergen Schmid); (d) Biogas upgrading and biomethane utilization in Sweden (Anneli Petersson); (e) Biogas upgrading and utilization of bio methane in Switzerland (Arthur Wellinger); (f) Biogas upgrading by means of pressure swing adsorption (Alfons Schulte-Schulze Berndt); (g) Biogas upgrading by means of pressurized water washing (Ulf Richter); (h) Biogas upgrading for feeding in public grids. The case of biogas plant Bruck a.d. Leitha (Michael Harasek); (i) Biogas upgrading by means of chemical absorption according to the LP Cooab process (Jerome van Beek); (j) Practical experiences in unpressurized amine washing MT bio methane (Karsten Wuensche); (k) Biogas upgrading by means of organic physical washing with HAASE biogas amplifiers (Roland Kahn); (l) Upgrading using cryogenic technology; the GPP registered -system (Jeroen de Pater); (m) Micro Gas Distribution Systems: Alternatives to biogas upgrading and grid injection (Michael Beil, Bernd Krautkremer); (n) Feeding of exchange gas. The case of project Straelen and Kerpen (Frank Schaefer); (o) Feeding of biogas from the view of grid operators (Norbert Nordmeyer); BIOGASMAX: Biogas as Vehicle Fuel - Market Expansion to 2020 Air Quality (Michael Beil, Uwe Hoffstede); (p) Study: Feeding of biogas into the natural gas distribution system (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe).

  19. State of development of biogas production in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Torrijos, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The share of renewable energies in electricity production is still low in Europe but there is a political will to increase it in the future by the development of solar and wind energies but also by the development of electricity production from biogas. Biogas production from solid waste is developing in Europe but with important differences between countries. Germany is from far the country where biogas industry is the most developed with 62% of the European biogas plants. However, the latest...

  20. Status and prospects of biogas energy use in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geletukha, G.; Kucheruk, P.; Matveev, Yu. [Scientific Engineering Center ' Biomass' , Kiev (Ukraine)

    2007-07-01

    The biogas technology in Ukraine is in the very beginning of the development. There are number of the barriers which hamper the development despite big biogas production potential in the country. The importance of the biogas activities in the country rises in connection with Kyoto protocol, which was ratified by Ukrainian Parliament. (orig.)

  1. Sustainable supply of biogas in Germany; Nachhaltige Biogasbereitstellung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany). Bereich Biogastechnologie; Ball, Thomas; Kiefer, Joachim [Technologiezentrum Wasser (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden; Dresen, Boris [Fraunhofer-Institut UMSICHT (Germany). Themenbereich Ressourcenmanagement; Koeppel, Wolfgang [DVGW-Forschungsstelle Karlsruhe (Germany). Gruppe Systeme und Netze

    2013-04-15

    The supply of certain substrates for biogas production is partly controversial discussed: 'Tank-or-plate' discussions, maize cultivation of the landscape and so forth. The research project 'Potential study for the sustainable production and supply of gaseous, renewable energy in Germany (Biogas Atlas)' examines the potentials of biogas production under consideration of various sustainability factors.

  2. Biogas in agriculture. Status and prospects. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the congress of the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) at 20th-21st September, 2011 in Goettingen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures and posters were presented: (1) Perspectives of using biogas as a part of the German power supply (Stefan Rauh); (2) Development of biogas in Europe (Marc Fleureck); (3) Biology of methanogenic archaea and its significance for the microbial process control in biogas plants (Helmut Koenig); (4) Efficiency and behaviour of enzymes in the biogas process (Monika Heiermann); (5) Trace elements in NaWaRo biogas plants for balancing substrate limited deficiency symptoms and stabilizing the fermentation process (Hans Oechsner); (6) EEG - Actual developments for biogas (Ulrich Keymer); (7) Utilization of thermal energy from cogeneration in the practice - Experiences from the view of an environmental expert (Michael Hub); (8) Innovations in the legal aspects of the production and utilization of biogas (Hartwig von Bredow); (9) Damages and deficiencies at biogas plants (Waldemar Gruber); (10) Learning from accidents, damages and their causes as well as their correctives in the operation of biogas plants - Reports from the practice (Wolfgang Horst Stachowitz); (11) Causes and avoidance of container damages by means of biocorrosion (Jan Kuever); (12) Anaerobic degradation of cellulosic substrates - Bionic implementation of the forestomach sysem of a ruminant (Dirk Weichgrebe); (13) Fermentation of renewable raw materials in the up flow procedure (Jan Mumme); (14) Two-phase pressure fermentation for feeding into natural gas grids (Andreas Lemmer); (15) Requirements and potential of sugar beets for fermentation (Christa Hoffmann); (16) Innovation in the area of power beets (Andreas von Felde); (17) Optimization of manuring with fermentation residues in order to reduce the nitrogen

  3. Household Biogas Digesters—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review is a summary of different aspects of the design and operation of small-scale, household, biogas digesters. It covers different digester designs and materials used for construction, important operating parameters such as pH, temperature, substrate, and loading rate, applications of the biogas, the government policies concerning the use of household digesters, and the social and environmental effects of the digesters. Biogas is a value-added product of anaerobic digestion of organic compounds. Biogas production depends on different factors including: pH, temperature, substrate, loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT, C/N ratio, and mixing. Household digesters are cheap, easy to handle, and reduce the amount of organic household waste. The size of these digesters varies between 1 and 150 m3. The common designs include fixed dome, floating drum, and plug flow type. Biogas and fertilizer obtained at the end of anaerobic digestion could be used for cooking, lighting, and electricity.

  4. Monitoring and controlling the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K.; Angelidaki, I. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Many modern large-scale biogas plants have been constructed recently, increasing the demand for proper monitoring and control of these large reactor systems. For monitoring the biogas process, an easy to measure and reliable indicator is required, which reflects the metabolic state and the activity of the bacterial populations in the reactor. In this paper, we discuss existing indicators as well as indicators under development which can potentially be used to monitor the state of the biogas process in a reactor. Furthermore, data are presented from two large scale thermophilic biogas plants, subjected to temperature changes and where the concentration of volatile fatty acids was monitored. The results clearly demonstrated that significant changes in the concentration of the individual VFA occurred although the biogas production was not significantly changed. Especially the concentrations of butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate showed significant changes. Future improvements of process control could therefore be based on monitoring of the concentration of specific VFA`s together with information about the bacterial populations in the reactor. The last information could be supplied by the use of modern molecular techniques. (au) 51 refs.

  5. Investigation of factors influencing biogas production in a large-scale thermophilic municipal biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Agnes; Jerome, Valerie; Freitag, Ruth [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Chair for Process Biotechnology; Burghardt, Diana; Likke, Likke; Peiffer, Stefan [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydrology; Hofstetter, Eugen M. [RVT Process Equipment GmbH, Steinwiesen (Germany); Gabler, Ralf [BKW Biokraftwerke Fuerstenwalde GmbH, Fuerstenwalde (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    A continuously operated, thermophilic, municipal biogas plant was observed over 26 months (sampling twice per month) in regard to a number of physicochemical parameters and the biogas production. Biogas yields were put in correlation to parameters such as the volatile fatty acid concentration, the pH and the ammonium concentration. When the residing microbiota was classified via analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, most bacterial sequences matched with unidentified or uncultured bacteria from similar habitats. Of the archaeal sequences, 78.4% were identified as belonging to the genus Methanoculleus, which has not previously been reported for biogas plants, but is known to efficiently use H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} produced by the degradation of fatty acids by syntrophic microorganisms. In order to further investigate the influence of varied amounts of ammonia (2-8 g/L) and volatile fatty acids on biogas production and composition (methane/CO{sub 2}), laboratory scale satellite experiments were performed in parallel to the technical plant. Finally, ammonia stripping of the process water of the technical plant was accomplished, a measure through which the ammonia entering the biogas reactor via the mash could be nearly halved, which increased the energy output of the biogas plant by almost 20%. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of operational methane emissions from pressure relief valves from biogas storages of biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinelt, Torsten; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The study presents the development of a method for the long term monitoring of methane emissions from pressure relief valves (PRV(1)) of biogas storages, which has been verified during test series at two PRVs of two agricultural biogas plants located in Germany. The determined methane emission factors are 0.12gCH4kWhel(-1) (0.06% CH4-loss, within 106days, 161 triggering events, winter season) from biogas plant A and 6.80/7.44gCH4kWhel(-1) (3.60/3.88% CH4-loss, within 66days, 452 triggering events, summer season) from biogas plant B. Besides the operational state of the biogas plant (e.g. malfunction of the combined heat and power unit), the mode of operation of the biogas flare, which can be manually or automatically operated as well as the atmospheric conditions (e.g. drop of the atmospheric pressure) can also affect the biogas emission from PRVs.

  7. Biogas. Present situation and future potential; Biogas. Nulaege och framtida potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Ulf [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The report contains a general overview of present technology concerning production of biogas through anaerobic breakdown of easily recycled organic material as well as implementation areas for biogas. The work has been done in three parts: description of present situation, technical limitations and development efforts, synthesis. In Sweden there are more than 220 biogas plants for handling crops, sludge and organic residue material. Production of biogas occurs primarily at sewage treatment plants and landfills. Total capacity in 2004 was approx. 300,000 m{sup 3} anaerobic chamber volume, of which approx. 73% was utilised. Planned increase in capacity was approx. 125,000 m{sup 3} or approx. 42%.The substrate brought to the plants was comprised of approx. 45% manure, 30% offal, 10% biowaste from households and 15% other substrates. Calculations based on the energy content of input substrate indicate that approx. 10% of the gas was from manure, 65% from offal, 25% from household waste and 5% from other substrates. In 2005 a total of 1,5 TWh of biogas was produced in Sweden. Biogas is used primarily for heating purposes followed by use as vehicle fuel and in electricity production. More than 55 GWh is torched away. Sewage treatment plants are not included. Interest in using biogas as fuel has increased. The theoretical biogas potential in Sweden has been calculated to be 14-17 TWh per year, of which approx. 80% is found in agriculturally related biomass. Approximately 3 TWh originates from various types of household and industrial waste. Generally it can be said that there is a large potential for improvement and increased efficiency within the whole chain of substrate collection, preparatory treatment of substrates, operational control of biogas plants, upgrade/treatment and use of gas as well as spreading and use of biofertilizer. The greatest increase in substrate will come from the amount of crops from the agricultural sector. The contacts between farmers and plant

  8. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  9. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  10. Energetic and economic limitations of biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimm, A.; Fleischhauer, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Economic efficiency of biogas conversion plants can only be achieved from approximately 60% gas exploitation on. That presupposes use of gas in the farm itself beyond household needs, for instance to dry grain, or for supply to third parties. To secure the desired high exploitation level, it is important to remember, the animals must stay in their shelters also in summer, because this is the only way of safeguarding an appropriate supply of biomaterial. To use biogas in the household alone means also to be contented with a gas yield of little more than 40%. Biogas conversion plants for a stock of 50 to 100 large cattle must largely be erected by self-construction from, partly, used plant components. This is the only way of securing that the plant pays, for the purchase of a new plant requires some 40,000 marks additional capital.

  11. CONSIDERATIONS OVER A BIOGAS PLANT COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the conviction that one of the main environmental problems of today’s society is the continuously increasing production of organic wastes. In many countries, sustainable waste management have become major political priorities in order to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and to avoid, as much as possible, global climate changes. This problem becomes more and more present in our country too. Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion of animal manure and slurries as well as of a wide range of digestible organic wastes, converts these substrates into renewable energy and offers a natural fertiliser for agriculture. That is why we consider that biogas plants will be more and more used in the future. In this paper we show the different stages which must be operated in a biogas plant and the problems which can be met in each of them.

  12. Renewable Hydrogen Potential from Biogas in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, G.; Milbrandt, A.

    2014-07-01

    This analysis updates and expands upon previous biogas studies to include total potential and net availability of methane in raw biogas with respect to competing demands and includes a resource assessment of four sources of biogas: (1) wastewater treatment plants, including domestic and a new assessment of industrial sources; (2) landfills; (3) animal manure; and (4) a new assessment of industrial, institutional, and commercial sources. The results of the biogas resource assessment are used to estimate the potential production of renewable hydrogen from biogas as well as the fuel cell electric vehicles that the produced hydrogen might support.

  13. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  14. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  15. Systematic Quantification of Biogas Potential in Urban Organic Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos

    of biogas from organic waste rather than incineration and landfilling. The production of biogas from urban organic waste is expected to contribute to reaching the EU target of 20% of overall energy production and 10% of vehicle fuel derived from renewable sources by 2020. The Danish energy strategy...... is for Demark to become a 100% fossil fuel-free nation by 2050. However, existing technical challenges and barriers must be overcome to make the production of biogas more attractive. In this respect, a systematic quantification of the biogas production potential of various urban organic waste sources...... is necessary, in order to analyse and improve processes for biogas production. Conventionally, the potential biogas production of organic waste sources is quantified through biochemical methane potential (BMP) analysis and anaerobic digestion in biogas reactors. However, the determination of BMP in batch...

  16. Biogas production in agricultural distilleries. Gewinnung von Biogas in landwirtschaftlichen Brennereien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-02-01

    The malt residuum obtained during alcoholic fermentation in agricultural distilleries can be used for biogas production. The process of anaerobic fermentation is described, and its application in distilleries and environmental aspects are discussed. (SR)

  17. New purification and upgrading technologies for biogas; Nya renings- och uppgraderingstekniker foer biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johan Benjaminsson [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Biogas is a renewable energy source that is produced by anaerobic digestion of organic material. In Sweden, biogas predominately comes from sewage water sludge and landfills or from organic waste of households and industries. Small scale digestion plants at farms are especially expected to contribute to increased biogas production in the future. Biogas can be obtained directly in its raw form and used as fuel in a combustion chamber. However, gas engines require biogas purification from hydrogen sulphide and drying from water to avoid corrosion. In order to increase the calorific value, carbon dioxide is separated and the Swedish Standard Type A requires the methane content to be 97 % for vehicle gas. In the gas treatment process from biogas to vehicle gas, the upgrading step when carbon dioxide is separated represents the highest cost since conventional upgrading techniques require high investments. This makes the upgrading costs for smaller biogas plants relatively high. In this master thesis, six upgrading methods have been evaluated and four of them are expected to be commercialized within two years. The following upgrading methods are of interest for Sweden: - In situ methane enrichment; air desorbs carbon dioxide from the sludge in a desorption column. The method is intended for digestion of sewage water sludge and the total upgrading cost is approximately 0,13 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow 62,5 Nm{sup 3}/h. - Small scale water scrubber; carbon dioxide is absorbed in water under enhanced pressure. The upgrading process is very similar to the conventional water scrubbing technique and the total upgrading cost is approximately 0,42 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow of 12 Nm{sup 3}/h. - Cryogenic upgrading; the biogas is chilled to under -85 deg C under a pressure of at least 5,2 barg and carbon dioxide can be separated in the liquid phase. The total upgrading cost is approximately 0,12 kr/kWh by a raw biogas flow of 150 Nm{sup 3}/h. The total upgrading cost can be

  18. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in

  19. Biogas. Plants, raw materials, products. 7. rev. ed.; Biogas. Pflanzen, Rohstoffe, Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    In order to save fossil fuels and to stopp the climate change, a gradual shift to renewable energies is necessary. The federal government has aimed to a modern, environmental friendly, sustainable and secure energy supply by means of the expansion of renewable energies. Bioenergy plays a central role in the future. Biogas for renewable energies will play a special role. Biogas can be used for simultaneous production of electricity and heat, as a fuel and as a substitute for natural gas.

  20. Biogas - a new energy source saves fossil resources; Biogas - mit neuer Energie Ressourcen schonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoss, C. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) of 2000 made conditions for biogas more favourable - small wonder, as the German Biogas Association (Fachverband Biogas e.V.) co-operated with written expert opinions and many discussions with decision-makers. The subjects discussed at the 10th Biogas Conference reflect the current situation and will provide a basis for committee work in 2001. [German] Im Jahr 2000 haben sich die gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Biogasbereich mit dem Inkrafttreten des erneuerbaren Energiegesetz (EEG) sehr positiv entwickelt. Der Fachverband Biogas e.V. hat mit schriftlichen Stellungnahmen und in vielen Gespraechen mit Entscheidungstraegern diese Bedingungen mitgestaltet. In Zukunft gibt es noch viele Aufgaben fuer eine effektive Interessenvertretung der Biogasbranche auf Laender- und Bundesebene. Die Themen, die auf der 10. Biogastagung diskutiert werden, spiegeln die Fragen wieder, die unter Experten derzeit intensiv diskutiert werden. Die Ergebnisse des Erfahrungsaustausches auf dieser Tagung werden die Grundlage fuer die Arbeit der Gremien im Fachverband Biogas im Jahr 2001 sein. Mit dem vorliegenden Tagungsband ist es gelungen, die Basis fuer die fachlichen Gespraeche waehrend und nach der Tagung schaffen. (orig.)

  1. Opinions on biogas in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Østergård, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The application of biogas technologies in organic farming involves many considerations: Benefits like improved fertilizer supply and fossil fuel savings are opposed to concerns about economical risks and incompliance with organic principles. A questionnaire developed by Risø DTU gives an idea about...

  2. Biogas Purification up to Final Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Losiuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers main technological methods for biogas purification from impurities that permit to increase energy value of the product and decrease its corrosion activity.  While evaluating economic efficiency due to introduction of the corresponding purification technology, in addition, it is necessary to take into account an ecological factor.

  3. Biogas for Javanese villages - a simple unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, J.; Richmond, B.

    1980-09-01

    Java is on the verge of suffering severe ecological damage due to deforestation as villagers attempt to meet a desperate need for food and firewood. In an attempt to alleviate this situation a biogas unit has been developed suited to local conditions with the potential for distribution to Javanese village farmers. The design, construction and operation of one such unit is described.

  4. Recent updates on biogas production - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Sárvári Horváth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges facing the societies now and in the future is the reduction of green house gas emissions and thus preventing the climate change. It is therefore important to replace fossil fuels with renewable sources, such as biogas. Biogas can be produced from various organic waste streams or as a byproduct from industrial processes. Beside energy production, the degradation of organic waste through anaerobic digestion offers other advantages, such as the prevention of odor release and the decrease of pathogens. Moreover, the nutrient rich digested residues can be utilized as fertilizer for recycling the nutrients back to the fields. However, the amount of organic materials currently available for biogas production is limited and new substrates as well as new effective technologies are therefore needed to facilitate the growth of the biogas industry all over the world. Hence, major developments have been made during the last decades regarding the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass, the development of high rate systems, and the application of membrane technologies within the anaerobic digestion process in order to overcome the shortcomings encountered. The degradation of organic material requires a synchronized action of different groups of microorganisms with different metabolic capacities. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have provided the research community with a valuable tool for improved understanding of this complex microbiological system, which in turn could help optimize and control the process in an effective way in the future.

  5. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  6. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman's test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (pbiogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p<0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency ultrasound pretreatment can be potentially used for wastewater management especially with integration of anaerobic processes.

  7. The Improvement of Carburater Efficiency Using Biogas-based Venturi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasmi Ni Ketut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of the fossil fuel subsidy by the Indonesian government has caused an increase in fuel prices, and a solution to find a relatively cheap and environmentally friendly alternative energy is needed. Biogas is one of the sources of renewable energy that has a potential to be developed, especially in farming area where the abundant animal excrement is not yet optimally used and causes environmental problems. Addressing this issue, we have developed an innovation by making a biogas and air mixer instrument through venturi pipe, using the basic theory of fluid mechanism in order to increase the use of biogas as an electricity source. Usually, biogas-based electric generators use dual fuel system such as fossil fuel and biogas to perform combustion due to the low octane contained in the biogas. By replacing the readily available manufactured venturi with the modified venturi, optimal combustion can be reached with using only single fuel of biogas. The results of the experiments show that the biogas debit on carburetor increases from 13 to 439 watts consuming biogas fuel from 0.22 to 4.96 liter/minute, respectively. The amount of combusted biogas depends on the value of the load power. Within the scope of our results, the maximum voltage reached is about 211.13 – 211.76 volts which is feasible to use for 220 volts electrical appliances

  8. Trace compounds affecting biogas energy utilisation - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasi, S., E-mail: saija.rasi@gmail.com [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Laentelae, J.; Rintala, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} In regards to trace compounds, landfill gases are the most studied biogases. {yields} More strict requirements are set for biogas purity with new biogas applications. {yields} With traditional applications, small variations in biogas quality are acceptable. {yields} New requirements set challenges on raw material control and biogas quality. {yields} In this study, variations in analysing methods and biogas quality are discussed. - Abstract: This paper investigates the trace compounds affecting energy utilisation in biogas that come from different production sites. With biogas being more widely used in different energy applications more interest has arisen for the specific composition of biogas. In traditional energy applications, methane and hydrogen sulphide contents have had the most influence when energy utilisation application has been considered. With more advanced processes also the quantity and quality of trace compounds is more important. In regards to trace compounds, it was found that the concentrations and the variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be high in different landfills, especially, with compounds originating from the biological degradation process (like aromatics and terpenes) as seasonal variations affect the biological degradation. Trace compounds produced by direct volatilisation (halogenated and silicon compounds) show a smaller seasonal variation. Halogenated compounds are rarely present in high concentrations in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) biogas, but the concentrations of organic silicon compounds and their variation is high. Organic silicon compounds are usually detected only in low concentrations in co-digestion plant biogas, when no WWTP sludge is used as a raw material.

  9. Energy systems analysis of biogas systems; Energianalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Paal

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the net energy output and energy efficiency, from a life-cycle perspective and for Swedish conditions, in anaerobic digestion of various raw materials. Our calculations are based on literature reviews concerning the total primary energy input required for the production of biogas (i.e. direct and indirect energy inputs, e.g. when producing and distributing diesel fuels, electricity, fertilisers) as well as the biogas yield from various raw materials. Our analyses include handling and transportation of raw materials, operation of the biogas plants, and transportation and spreading of digested residues, as well as the biogas yield from manure, ley crops, tops and leaves of sugar beets, straw, municipal organic waste, slaughter waste, and grease separator sludge. All calculations concern individual raw materials. The net energy input required to run a biogas system (i.e. centralised biogas plant) typically corresponds to approximately 20-40% of the energy content in the produced biogas. Theoretically, the raw materials could be transported for some 200 km (manure) up to 700 km (slaughter waste) before the net energy output becomes negative. The variations in energy efficiency between studied biogas systems depend mainly on the type of raw material studied and the calculation methods used. Raw materials with high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) require rather large energy inputs compared to the amount of biogas produced. Energy demanding handling of the raw materials, such as ley crops, could correspond to as much as approximately 40% of the net energy input. Varying energy efficiency in different parts of the biogas system, but most of all, changes in the biogas yield, could considerably affect the total net energy output. In general, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy demanding process in the biogas systems, corresponding to some 40-80% of the net energy input in the biogas systems. This implies

  10. Changed market conditions for biogas production; Foeraendrade marknadsvillkor foer biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colnerud Granstroem, Sigrid; Gaaverud, Henrik; Glimhall, Alexandra

    2010-10-15

    The Swedish gas market consists mainly of the natural gas network that extends through the southwestern Sweden, and the local biogas markets. Biogas share of the Swedish gas market is growing steadily. The fact that the Swedish gas net is limited and fragmented forms an obstacle for biogas use to expand. That the gas market as a whole, natural gas included, must develop and expand is therefore a prerequisite for the large potential for Swedish Biogas to be realized. This in contrast with the ultimate objective to completely replace natural gas in the Swedish gas market. When policy changes are made in order to support biogas it is crucial for long-term competitiveness of biogas that these changes should not impact the natural gas market and hinder its development. Such a scenario would ultimately mean that also biogas development opportunities deteriorate. Biogas operations encounter three main problems that prevent or impede its expansion in the gas market. First, the potential for profitability in biogas production must be enhanced. Second, natural gas and biogas markets should be more integrated with each other. Thirdly, the biogas must be distributed in a cost-effective manner. The present investigation aims to supplement the Natural Gas Act with special provisions which takes into account the input and transmission of biogas. In addition to the production of biogas, it is now the producer's responsibility to clean the gas from water vapor, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide and to augment the calorific value of the gas to the standard of Danish natural gas quality by propane addition and to ensure that the physical connection to network is available. There are thus a number of options available for shifting demarcation between biogas production and network operations. Short-term competitiveness of biogas would be strengthened most if purification and spiking the gas with propane and the connection to the network was imposed on network owners. In the

  11. Maramba Miracle: Biogas and waste recycling - the Philippines experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maramba, F.D. Sr.

    1982-12-01

    This book is a comprehensive vademecum of biogas, tracing its history and origin, the phases of development, the country experiences and various models evolved universally. Besides the biochemistry and microbiology of biogas, it touches upon the economics of various models - a small 1.2 hectare family unit, a 3.5 ha clan farm (and energy) plans budgeted to the dot. It shows the many uses for biogas. The term Biogas Works includes biogas and sludge conditioning plants offered as an integral system, which substantially improves the feed and fertilizer value of the sludge, controls water pollution and promotes sanitation. Biogas production can help solve the energy problems of the Third World Development. (DP)

  12. Use of biogas in PEM fuel cells; Einsatz von Biogas in PEM-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Volkhard; Schmersahl, Ralf; Ellner, Janine (comps.)

    2009-06-15

    This research project was dedicated to two problems: 1. What demands must biogas meet in order to conform to the specifications of PEM fuel cell systems and permit safe operation? 2. How must a fuel cell system be designed and operated in order to be well-adapted to the special features of biogas as opposed to natural gas? For this purpose biogas samples were taken from laboratory-scale and commercial plants and analysed by gas chromatography using various substrates and methods. By combining this with the use of a mass spectroscopy detector (GC-MS system) it was possible to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulphurious trace gases in the biogas which might cause damage to the fuel cell system. Investigations were performed on an experimental reformer using either modelled or native biogas of different compositions, the intent being to obtain information for the design of the individual process stages. The two operating parameters steam-methane ratio (or S/C ratio) and reforming temperature were varied to optimise parameter settings in terms of energy efficiency. By linking the reformer to a 500 W fuel cell it was possible confirm the suitability of the reformed biogas for use in fuel cells. [German] In diesm Forschungsvorhaben werden zwei Fragestellungen bearbeitet: 1. Welche Anforderungen ergeben sich an das Biogas, um den Spezifikationen von PEM-Brennstoffzellensystemen zu genuegen und eine sicheren Betrieb zu ermoeglichen? 2. Wie muss das Brennstoffzellensystem ausgelegt und gefuehrt werden, um den Besonderheiten von Biogas im Vergleich zu Erdgas Rechnung zu tragen? Dazu wurden Biogasproben aus Labor- und Praxisanlagen unter Beruecksichtigung unterschiedlicher Substrate und Verfahren gaschromatisch analysiert. Die Kopplung mit einem massenspektroskopischen Detektor (GC-MS System) ermoeglicht dabei die Qualifizierung und Quantifizierung der vorhandenen schwefelhaltigen Spurengase, die eine Schaedigung von Brennstoffzellenanlagen verursachen. Die

  13. Improvement of the Biogas Production Process : Explorative project (EP1)

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna; Björn, Annika; Sepehr, Shakeri Yekta; Svensson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    There are several ways to improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes and a number of strategies may be chosen. Increased organic loading in existing plants will in most cases demand the introduction of new substrate types. However, to substantially increase the Swedish biogas production new, large-scale biogas plants digesting new substrate types need to be established. Better utilization of existing digester volumes can be linked to:  Increase of organic loading rates and/or ...

  14. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v, 0.08% (w/v, 0.04% (w/v, 50% (v/v of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value

  15. Underdog or bulldog: introducing biogas technologies in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roose, Antti; Reinsoo, Kadri [University of Tartu, Department of Geography, Tartu (Estonia); Oja, Ahto [Monus Minek Ltd, Aeaesmaee (Estonia); Varzinskas, Visvaldas [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-12-15

    The production and use of biogas, along with corresponding sector-specific activities and technologies, is a relatively new subject in Estonia. This paper gives an instructive overview of main barriers behind the development incentives, policy support and technological innovation in terms of emerging market for biogas. The article examines the complexity of market-related, political, technological and social obstacles for introduction biogas technologies. There is a major gap between resource potential, technological capacity and practice in Estonia. About 2 % of the theoretical potential of biogas is being used, totalling around 11 million Nm{sup 3}, based primarily on landfill biogas. First, political setting for biogas innovation is still vague, however, consolidated and enhanced since 2010 to compete with other renewables and mainstream energy technologies. The article underlines the statement that the reason why Estonian biogas production has not followed the path of growth and technology transfer is the low renewable electricity feed-in tariff. However, there are many other legal and engineering factors that have held back biogas applications and sector development in general. Stakeholders have established the Estonian Biogas Association, increasing sector's visibility, targeted lobby to support policy-making, technological and social innovation and professional networking. Though getting the biogas sector to succeed demands a comprehensive approach and involvement of more actors in demand side including local leaders and consumers, both enthusiasm and scepticism should be informed by a sound understanding of framework conditions and complexities for path-breaking transformations in energy systems. To promote biogas production, profitable and technologically feasible showcases should demonstrate benefits and issues to the target group and stakeholders. Instead agricultural and CHP development mode, the priority of using biogas in Estonia could be seen as

  16. Development of large and medium size biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kejun Yang; Datong Zhang [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst. (China)

    2000-07-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment has expanded from a few (scraped sludge, animal manure, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses) to more than 200 kinds of wastewaters from several industries such as pharmacy, food, and chemicals. According to incomplete statistics, up to now more than 2,000 large and medium-scale biogas plants have been constructed. They provide biogas to 54,000 households as daily fuel. About 300 biogas power stations have been installed. (orig.)

  17. Biogas Production Potential from Waste in Timis County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Vintila

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is a study of biogas production potential using as substrate the residues generated in the agricultural activities and the organic fraction from municipal wastes collected in Timis County. Data available in regional and national statistics have been reported to Timis County and used to calculate the potential quantity of biogas to be produced by anaerobic fermentation using as fermentable substrate residues generated in various human activities. To estimate the electric and thermal energy potential of the biogas, we considered the productivity of an average biogas plant couplet with a CHP unit with an efficiency of 40% net electric and 40% net thermal output and functioning 7500 hours per year. Processing data for the biogas production potential from livestock manure in Romania, we found that over 500 GWh of energy from biogas can be provided in one year. It is estimated that only half of the theoretical energy potential is technically usable by biogas investments. As for the crops residues, has been shown that the theoretical biogas potential is over 2900 GWh/year. Wastewater sludge can be converted in around 1700MWh/year, and the organic wastes available from municipal wastes can provide over 137 GWh/year. Another potential for renewable energy production in Timis County is the arable land uncultivated yearly, which can be used to cultivate energy crops, as raw material for biogas providing over 2800 GWh/year. All this quantity of biogas can be converted in numerous CHP biogas plants totaling an installed power of over 340 MWel. This potential can contribute to reach the target for 2020 in Romania to build biogas plants totaling at least 195 MWel. installed power, with an output of 950 GW electric power. 

  18. Biogas Potential in the United States (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-01

    Biogas has received increased attention as an alternative energy source in the United States. The factsheet provides information about the biogas (methane) potential from various sources in the country (by county and state) and estimates the power generation and transportation fuels production (renewable natural gas) potential from these biogas sources. It provides valuable information to the industry, academia and policy makers in support of their future decisions.

  19. The conversion of renewable biogas source into energy; A conversao da fonte renovavel biogas em energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]|[Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: suani@iee.usp.br; sgvelaz@iee.sup.br; omartins@iee.usp.br; fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention No: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG-BIOG Project - Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant.This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  20. Sewage biogas conversion into electricity; Conversao do biogas de tratamento de esgoto em eletricidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Abreu, Fernando Castro de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, omartins@iee.usp.br, fcabreu@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article intend to present some considerations directed to electricity generation with small systems (micro turbine and conventional engines ), using biogas generated by sewage treatment process in SABESP (Basic Sanitation Company of Sao Paulo State), located at Barueri, Brazil. This project, pioneer in Latin America, is being accomplished together with BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil (proponent), in association with CENBIO - Biomass Reference National Center (executer), with patronage of FINEP / CT-ENERG (financial backer), by means of Convention no: 23.01.0653.00, regarding to ENERG BIOG Project - 'Installation and Tests of an Electric Energy Generation Demonstration Unit from Biogas Sewage Treatment'. The study is being done at Barueri Sewage Treatment Plant. This plant operate with anaerobic digestion process, which has as mainly products biogas (composed mainly by methane) and sludge. Part of the methane produced at the anaerobic process is burnt in a boiler being used to increase digesters temperature. The rest of the methane is burnt in flare to reduce the impacts caused by gases emissions. This article presents some technical, financial and environmental project results, related to the exploitation of sewer biogas for power generation, as well as bigger details about generation systems (biogas micro turbine), used in the facility. (author)

  1. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  2. Microbiologic handbook for biogas plants; Mikrobiologisk handbok foer biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aasa; Schnuerer, Anna

    2009-05-15

    There is today great interest in the biogas process. The reason for interest is that this process offers an opportunity to stabilize and reduce various types of organic waste, while also generating clean renewable energy in the form of biogas. Purified biogas is a good alternative to gasoline and diesel as motor fuel and can also be used for heating and electricity production. Behind efficient biogas production lies a complex microbiological process. For biogas to be formed many different species of microorganisms have to be active. A disturbance of this teamwork leads to a reduction in biogas production or in the worst case that the process stops. In order to operate a biogas process in an efficient manner, it is necessary to have knowledge of the underlying microbiology and how microorganisms function. Today Swedish biogas plants have personnel with great technical knowledge, while the biological knowledge often is more limited. It has been difficult to find appropriate Swedish language literature in the field. This handbook aims to increase the microbiological expertise of staff at the biogas plants and thus to facilitate the stable operation and optimization of gas production

  3. Biomass storage for further energy use through biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atem, A.D. [Instituto CEDIAC, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas - CONICET, Mendoza (Argentina); Indiveri, M.E. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Llamas, S. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The present work approaches the residual biomass conservation for later digestion in an anaerobic batch reactor. Twenty 4 L capacity PET reactors were used. A measuring device was constructed to quantify the biogas production. As substrate were used tomato wastes from local industry and rumen fluid as inoculum. Digestion start up was able to be controlled by varying the temperature, during a period of 118 days was not verified biogas production. After re-inoculated with rumen fluid stabilized for 34 days, biogas production was verified. They were obtained 0.10 m{sup 3} of biogas per kilogram of volatile solids, with 50% of methane content. (author)

  4. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM TOFU LIQUID WASTE ON TREATED AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Budy Rahmat; Tedi Hartoyo; Yaya Sunarya

    2014-01-01

    The Tofu Liquid Waste (TLW) as a pollution might be processed into biogas which was environmentally friendly and had potential to replace burning wood or oil. However, the waste could not directly be employed as the biogas substrate due to the high nitrogen content which was not suitable to the methanogen microorganism on the biogas digester and did not produce biogas. It was therefore necessary to adapt the carbon-nitrogen ratio in TLW with the addition of other organic materials that had a ...

  5. Efficiency of biogas plants; Effizienz von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupt, T.; Kraft, E. [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar (Germany). Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen

    2007-02-15

    A stable biological process is a requisite for an efficient operation of biogas plants. Due to increasing flexible conditions, especially in agriculture, higher demands concerning the process performance arising. A sophisticated approach to different procedures seems to be useful. Regarding wet fermentation plants efficient control algorithms on basis of a simple model are of special interest. Analyses to figure the dynamic process behaviour via online measurements represent one possibility. For batch-operated dry fermentation processes, as most suitable application in agriculture, it is more to establish optimal start conditions. The inquiry of master data dealing with the influence of physical parameters of packed beds on the biogas yield has a valueable contingent on that. (orig.)

  6. Realtime control of biogas reactors. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Allan K.

    2010-12-15

    In this project several online methods were connected to a biogas pilot plant designed and built by Xergi A/S (Foulum, Denmark). The pilot plant was composed of two stainless steel tanks used as substrate storage and as digester, respectively. The total volume of the reactor tank was 300 L, the working volume 200 L and the headspace volume 100 L. The process temperature in the biogas reactor was maintained at 52 {+-} 0.5 deg. C during normal operating conditions. The biogas production was measured with a flow meter and a controller was used for automatic control of temperature, effluent removal, feeding and for data logging. A NIRS (near infrared spectrometer) was connected to a recurrent loop measuring on the slurry while a {mu}-GC (micro gas chromatograph) and a MIMS (membrane inlet mass spectrometer) enabled online measurements of the gas phase composition. During the project period three monitoring campaigns were accomplished. The loading rate of the biogas reactor was increased stepwise during the periods while the process was monitored. In the first two campaigns the load was increased by increasing the mass of organic material added to the reactor each day. However, this increasing amount changed the retention time in the reactor and in order to keep the retention time constant an increasing amount of inhibitor of the microbial process was instead added in the third campaign and as such maintaining a constant organic load mass added to the reactor. The effect is similar to an increase in process load, while keeping the load of organic material and hence retention time constant. Methods have been developed for the following online technologies and each technology has been evaluated with regard to future use as a tool for biogas process monitoring: 1) {mu}-GC was able to quantitative monitor important gas phase parameters in a reliable, fast and low-maintenance way. 2) MIMS was able to quantitative monitor gas phase composition in a reliable and fast manner

  7. Optimization of biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Boe, Kanokwan; Buendia, Inmaculada M.

    The main objective of the project was to improve biogas production from manures. This objective was addressed by investigating 1) the effect of different reactor configurations, 2) operational procedures, aiming to selectively retain/return degradable material in the reactor and 3) different...... process. In the second experiment, the effect of temperature (10 & 55°C) and microbial activity on passive separation of digested cow manure was investigated in vertical columns (100 cm) with an aim to improve solids retention time within the reactor and improve biogas production. Results showed...... improved from 2.5 to 14.6% when the reactor was operated under intermittent mixing compared to continuous mixing. The effect of mixing intensities (minimal, gentle or vigorous) in batch assays at 55°C showed that when the process was overloaded by high substrate to inoculum ratio (40/60), gentle (35 times...

  8. The Usage of Biogas in Fuel Cell Systems; Utilizacion de Biogas en Pilas de Combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martinez, M.; Cuesta Santianes, M. J.; Nunez Crespi, S.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.

    2008-08-06

    The usage of biogas in fuel cell systems is nowadays considered as a promising alternative for energy production worldwide as it involves the use of a valuable residual biomass resource that could enable the obtention of combined heat, cold and power generation very efficiently, while additionally avoiding greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Both development lines (biogas and fuel cells) and their associated technologies are receiving a great support from the different states, pioneer countries being Japan and U.S.A. The objective of this study is to make a detail analysis of the state of the art of biogas-powered fuel cell systems worldwide. Most representative players in the field are identified through the search of the scientific publications, projects and patent documents in which they are involved. (Author) 18 refs.

  9. Life cycle assessment of flexibly fed biogas processes for an improved demand-oriented biogas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Funda Cansu; Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Finkbeiner, Matthias; Neubauer, Peter; Junne, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses concepts to facilitate a demand oriented biogas supply at an agricultural biogas plant of a capacity of 500kWhel, operated with the co-digestion of maize, grass, rye silage and chicken manure. In contrast to previous studies, environmental impacts of flexible and the traditional baseload operation are compared. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to detect the environmental impacts of: (i) variety of feedstock co-digestion scenarios by substitution of maize and (ii) loading rate scenarios with a focus on flexible feedstock utilization. Demand-driven biogas production is critical for an overall balanced power supply to the electrical grid. It results in lower amounts of emissions; feedstock loading rate scenarios resulted in 48%, 20%, 11% lower global warming (GWP), acidification (AP) and eutrophication potentials, and a 16% higher cumulative energy demand. Substitution of maize with biogenic-waste regarding to feedstock substitution scenarios could create 10% lower GWP and AP.

  10. System to the quantification of biogas; Sistema para quantificacao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caetano, L. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Goldonio, J.S. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas

    1987-12-31

    The search of an adequate methodology to determination of the volumetric ratios of biogas production is necessary, in consequence of the diversification of the equipments is discussed. The objective of this work is to purpose a system to determine the quantity of biogas produced at low quantity. Nine laboratory biodigesters were constructed with 10 liters of capacity operated in batch system. They are feed with 7 liters of waste cattle and water mixture, PH 6,2 and 8% of total solids and 37 deg C as average temperature. The biogas produced were stored in plastic gasometer until prefixed pressure and launching in air through a valve operated by an electronic circuit, coming back the pressure to the initial value and registering the pulse in a counter.The number of pulses in a determinate period give an idea of the Biodigester gas production and guarantee the success of measure system 18 refs, 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  12. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  13. The future of biogas in Europe 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B. [ed.

    1997-08-01

    The European Waste to Energy network is part of the ALTENER Programme 1997. The prime objectives of the network are the development and dissemination of strategies for promotion, implementation and commercial exploration of opportunities in energy from waste and biomass resources. During 1997 special attention is paid to energy conversion from municipal solid waste, biogas production from animal manure and organic waste, and wood residuals for energy production. (au)

  14. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  15. Potential for energy production and use from biogas in Brazil; Potencial de aproveitamento energetico do biogas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Andre Luiz

    2009-12-15

    Biogas, produced from anaerobic digestion of organic matter in domestic, industrial and rural wastewaters and residuals, represent an alternative and renewable source of energy, with growing use worldwide. In Brazil, high population and its spatial concentration and expressive agricultural and agricultural-industrial production indicate a substantial potential of biogas production. The results presented in this work show a potential of biogas production of almost 2 billion cubic feet a day of CH{sub 4}. Viability of biogas production and use depends substantially on project scale. Generally, biogas projects are viable from landfills and domestic wastewater treatment for populations higher than 50,000 inhabitants and swine and dairy farms with at least 5,000 and 1,000 animals, respectively. Biogas is also competitive when compared to fossil fuels used in industry and transport. Despite incentive mechanisms for biogas production and use, like Clean Development Mechanism and renewable and alternative sources of energy incentives in Brazil, several regulatory, institutional, economical and technological barriers difficult the effective employment of biogas in Brazil. Thus, this work indicates the need of better coordination among different governmental levels, private sector and research and development institutions and effective policy formulation to promote a better employment of biogas in Brazil. (author)

  16. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  17. Biogas history and recovery - time to retaking; Historico e recuperacao de biogas - momento da retomada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradella, Dione Z.A.; Alves, Joao Wagner S. [CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports the the history of the biogas recovering and energetic using in Brazil, and presents a timely retrospective of the oil price and the search for an alternative energy solution, during the petroleum international crisis. Brazilian examples are pointed out of the biogas recovering practice and using during that period. The paper also discusses the present panorama and the perspectives of that practice retaking, considering the the new electric power shortage scenery in the country, and the increasing on the greenhouse gases concentration.

  18. Study of Biogas Production with Organic Rubbish as Producing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Santosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research had done at Production and Agricultural Machines and Equipments Management Laboratory at Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Andalas University, Padang City from November 2011 to March 2012. It intent to study about biogas physics parameters (to know about when the first time it producing biogas, biogas volume and pressure, relative humidity (RH, enviroment temperature, biogas energy and chemical parameter such as producing material acidity degree (pH in the beginning and last obsevation. It obsevation method has two different ways. First, using combination of 35 kgs radish and 35 cabbages rubbish as producing material. Second ways is using 70 kgs radish rubbish. Each way mixed by 4 liters EM4 as decomposer, 70 liters water, and observed for 30 days. The result showed in first way that biogas had produced first time at 9th day with 554,4 kJ biogas energy,  productivity is 0.47 liter biogas / kg producing material, 28.6 oC enviroment temperature, 80.1 % RH, 456.1 Pa biogas pressure, 6.1 starting pH, and 6.6 last pH. In second way had obtained that in 9th day is first time biogas had produced with 537.6 kJ energy, productivity is 0.42 liter biogas / kg producing material, 28.2 oC environment temperature, 82.1 % RH, 436.2 Pa biogas pressure, 6.3 starting pH, and 6.8 last pH.     

  19. Microbial analysis in biogas reactors suffering by foaming incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; De Francisci, Davide; Treu, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Foam formation can lead to total failure of digestion process in biogas plants. In the present study, possible correlation between foaming and the presence of specific microorganisms in biogas reactors was elucidated. The microbial ecology of continuous fed digesters overloaded with proteins...

  20. A tool for analyzing the sustainability of biogas production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; Broekhuijsen, J.; Gemert, W.J.T.; Moll, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written for an poster presentation at the EBA conference in Alkmaar. The flexibility of biogas makes it a very capable load balancer within decentralized smart energy systems. However, within this context the sustainability of biogas production is not fully understood. What is needed is a t

  1. Biogas for Javanese villages: the products of digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, J.; Richmond, B.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and experiences with various biogas-generation and utilization devices in a Javanese village are given. Information on generation includes mostly data on mixing, temperature and time factors. Various simple and inexpensive cooking burners and lamps are also discussed. The article concludes with suggestions for the use of the biogas digester effluent as fertilizer, soil conditioner, and water hyacinth and algae substrates.

  2. Methods and apparatus for hydrogen based biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic process for biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization comprising the use of acidic waste as co-substrate.In this process,H2 and CO2 will be converted to CH4, which will result in lower CO2 content in the biogas. The invention relates to both in situ...

  3. Transportbrandstof uit biogas geeft hoger rendement en verduurzaamt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasper, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Bij vergisting van mest ontstaat biogas dat met een WKK kan worden omgezet in elektriciteit en warmte. Probleem is vaak dat de warmte onvoldoende benut wordt. Het opwerken van biogas tot transportbrandstof kan een oplossing hiervoor zijn, waarbij gelet moet worden op schaalgrootte van vergisting, ty

  4. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy fram

  5. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability

  6. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involvi...

  7. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM TOFU LIQUID WASTE ON TREATED AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tofu Liquid Waste (TLW as a pollution might be processed into biogas which was environmentally friendly and had potential to replace burning wood or oil. However, the waste could not directly be employed as the biogas substrate due to the high nitrogen content which was not suitable to the methanogen microorganism on the biogas digester and did not produce biogas. It was therefore necessary to adapt the carbon-nitrogen ratio in TLW with the addition of other organic materials that had a lower nitrogen content so it would be a suitable substrate for generating biogas. The research was aimed to evaluate the addition of the other organic material on the TLW to increase the biogas production. The results showed that TLW combined with sheep dung, cabbage waste, bamboo leaves and paddy straw respectively produced biogas as much as 14,183, 7,250, 2,400, 895 cm3 in 20 days. The 4 treatments gave the same quality of biogas, which was determined using the water boiling test. The pH fluctuation during the process was in the right pH for anaerobic digestion, thus it was not the limiting factor.

  8. An Introduction to Biogas Production on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    This three-section report provides introductory information about biogas production and its application to farm environments. The first section discusses the various components of a biogas production system (a system that converts organic wastes into a usable form of energy), explains the system's benefits and liabilities, and provides a brief…

  9. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  10. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengaduk...

  11. Development, Operation, and Future Prospects for Implementing Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    , as is the case of biomass from nature conservation, straw, deep litter, etc. Further, the chapter discusses whether or not biogas technology can create new job opportunities in rural areas that lack development. Economic results from operating centralized biogas plants in Denmark now also stress the importance...

  12. GlidArc-assisted production of synthesis gas from biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernichowski, A.; Czernichowski, M.; Wesolowska, K. [Etudes Chimiques et Physiques, La Ferte Saint Aubin (France)

    2003-07-01

    This paper elaborates on the use of a biogas reformer process based on the direct use of high-voltage discharges (also called GlidArc) which strike in the flow of renewable feedstock without requiring prior gas separation or purification. The paper describes the partial conversion of a poor biogas into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas). The biogas contained only 35 to 50 volume per cent of methane. The reformer accepts any level of impurities. All the energy and catalytic assistance for endothermic process of dry reforming of methane plus carbon dioxide into hydrogen and carbon monoxide is provided by the discharges. A 1.4-litre reactor operating at atmospheric pressure was used to conduct the tests with simulated biogas, at up to 0.6 kilowatt. This input proved sufficient to process a flow of a poor biogas carrying up to 7 kilowatts of thermal power. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Density of biogas digestate depending on temperature and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Mandy; Schneider, Nico

    2015-09-01

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of biogas digestate to ensure an optimal dimensioning and a precise design of biogas plant components like stirring devices, pumps and heat exchangers. In this study the density of biogas digestates with different compositions was measured using pycnometers at ambient pressure in a temperature range from 293.15 to 313.15K. The biogas digestates were taken from semi-continuous experiments, in which the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina, corn silage and a mixture of both were used as feedstocks. The results show an increase of density with increasing total solid content and a decrease with increasing temperature. Three equations to calculate the density of biogas digestate were set up depending on temperature as well as on the total solid content, organic composition and elemental composition, respectively. All correlations show a relative deviation below 1% compared to experimental data.

  14. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW LEACHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAN AZLINA WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale digesters were operated to study the effect of leachate chemical oxygen demand strength on biogas (methane production. Three sets of experiment were performed using municipal solid waste leachate slurry with two different chemical oxygen demand strength strengths namely 3000 and 21000 mg/L (referred as low and high strength, respectively. The experiments were conducted at a controlled temperature of 35°C and pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.3 over 20 days period. The process performance was evaluated based on the biogas production and pollutants removal efficiencies. Results showed that the high and low strength samples performed quite similarly but with different biogas production rate observed. The biochemical oxygen demand in the effluent removed up to 80%, but the performance of other parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid and volatile suspended solid was slightly decreased which contributes 33 to 46%, 21 to 37% and 20 to 35%, respectively. From this study, it can be concluded that this method not only contributed to renewable biogas production but also improved the effluent quality.

  15. Energy utilization from landfill biogas; Aproveitamento energetico do biogas de aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candiani, Giovano [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia; Hoffmann, Gustavo; Silva, Elissandro Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Tomioka, Jorge

    2008-07-01

    Landfills for solid waste disposal are used in Brazil and in most of countries in the world. The organic part of the solid wastes produces gas out of the decomposition of its organic content. This gas, named biogas and mostly made of carbon dioxide and methane, may be collected and used as an energy source due the methane presence. In this work we analyze the possible energy utilization of landfill biogas in Brazil in which the organic content of the solid waste is about 60%. The use of biogas as energy source can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and improve the sanitation conditions of landfills. Moreover, it allows financial gains through selling of energy and carbon credits. In order to make possible the biogas utilization it is necessary to recognize the differences among the many landfills which exist in the country. There are the large and small landfills. The large ones usually have good instrumentation and gas exhaustion systems while the small ones have passive exhaustion systems and very few field instrumentation. The small landfills need to improve their instrumentation system and to incorporate exhaustion systems. (author)

  16. Comparative evaluation of different types of biogas suitable for tropical country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, S.N.; Gbagbo, J.K.N.; Aneke, F.U.

    1997-04-01

    The biogas technology - anaerobic digestion - is described together with different types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Cost-benefit analysis of establishing biogas plants, financial support options, and the benefits of using biogas as an energy source in rural areas are presented. (LN)

  17. 15. Annual Meeting on biogas and bioenergy in agriculture. Proceedings; 15. Jahrestagung Biogas und Bioenergie in der Landwirtschaft. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The volume contains besides the general statements on environmental protection and energy savings in the future and biogas as great potential for the rural development the following contributions in four parts: 1. political enveloping conditions: biogas usage within the frame of the the new EEG; state of biogas usage in Baden-Wuerttemberg; practical experiences end perspectives for the biogas development; renewable raw materials from the view of environmenmental protection; 2. gas utilization: the bioenergy village Mauenheim - model for the rural area; compression ignition gas engines with biogenic ignition oils; realization and economic performance of gas engines with biogas; microgasturbines - engineering and chances, gas processing and feeding into the gas network; 3. substrate: influence of the energy plant agriculture on the regional structures; biogas plants: substrate control by TS sensing; fermentation of fusaria contaminated corn; substrate contracts in the view of revenue and contract legacy; energy plants agriculture in Baden-Wuerttemberg; 4. process biology: comparison of dry and wet fermentation; fundamentals, process stability analytical possibilities; start-up of a biogas plant; biogas process with external hydrolysis; problems in the fermenter - inhibitors and auxiliaries.

  18. Influence of biogas flow rate on biomass composition during the optimization of biogas upgrading in microalgal-bacterial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serejo, Mayara L; Posadas, Esther; Boncz, Marc A; Blanco, Saúl; García-Encina, Pedro; Muñoz, Raúl

    2015-03-03

    The influence of biogas flow rate (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 m(3) m(-2) h(-1)) on the elemental and macromolecular composition of the algal-bacterial biomass produced from biogas upgrading in a 180 L photobioreactor interconnected to a 2.5 L external bubbled absorption column was investigated using diluted anaerobically digested vinasse as cultivation medium. The influence of the external liquid recirculation/biogas ratio (0.5 biogas, was also evaluated. A L/G ratio of 10 was considered optimum to support CO2 and H2S removals of 80% and 100%, respectively, at all biogas flow rates tested. Biomass productivity increased at increasing biogas flow rate, with a maximum of 12 ± 1 g m(-2) d(-1) at 1.2 m(3) m(-2) h(-1), while the C, N, and P biomass content remained constant at 49 ± 2%, 9 ± 0%, and 1 ± 0%, respectively, over the 175 days of experimentation. The high carbohydrate contents (60-76%), inversely correlated to biogas flow rates, would allow the production of ≈100 L of ethanol per 1000 m(3) of biogas upgraded under a biorefinery process approach.

  19. Performance of photoperiod and light intensity on biogas upgrade and biogas effluent nutrient reduction by the microalgae Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng

    2013-07-01

    Biogas is an environment-friendly fuel but that must be upgraded before being utilized. The method about removing CO2 from biogas by microalgal culturing using biogas effluent as nutrient medium in this study could effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the biogas effluent nutrient. Results showed that the optimum parameters for microalgal growth and biogas effluent nutrient reduction was moderate light intensity with middle photoperiod. While low light intensity with long photoperiod and moderate light intensity with middle photoperiod obtained the best biogas CO2 removal and biogas upgrade effects. Therefore, the optimal parameters were moderate light intensity 350 μmol m(-2)s(-1) with middle photoperiod 14 h light:10h dark. Under this condition, the microalgal dry weight, CH4 concentration, reduction efficiency of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus was 615.84 ± 33.07 mg L(-1), 92.16 ± 2.83% (v/v), 88.74 ± 3.45%, 83.94 ± 3.51%, and 80.43 ± 4.17%, respectively.

  20. Problems in the Biogas Construction in Weihui City and Development Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yilun; WANG; Chao; YUAN; Qian; ZHANG; Jinfang; TAN; Peng; ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    Taking the demonstration biogas construction city in Henan Province-Weihui City as the survey and research city, we give an overview of the industrial and agricultural base and current situation of biogas development in Weihui City, and analyze the main problems in biogas construction, such as simple development mode of biogas adopted by rural households, laggard construction of large and medium-sized biogas projects, unsound service system for biogas development and failure to comprehensively use biogas resources. According to the practical work experience, we sum up the following.

  1. A review of chemical absorption of carbon dioxide for biogas upgrading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad RH Abdeen; Maizirwan Mel; Mohammed Saedi Jami; Sany Izan Ihsan; Ahmad Faris Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Significant attention has been given to biogas production, purification and upgrading as a renewable and clean fuel supplement. Biogas is a product of an anaerobic digestion process comprising methane, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases. Biogas purification removes trace gases in biogas for safe utilisation. Biogas upgrading produces methane-rich biogas by removing bulk carbon dioxide from the gas mixture. Several carbon dioxide removal techniques can be applied for biogas upgrading. However, chemical absorption of carbon dioxide for biogas upgrading is of special significance due to its operation at ambient or near ambient temperature and pressure, thus reducing energy consumption. This paper reviews the chemical absorption of carbon dioxide using amine scrubbing, caustic solvent scrubbing, and amino acid salt solution scrubbing. Each of these tech-niques for biogas upgrading is discussed. The paper concludes that an optimised implementation of the chemical absorption techniques for biogas upgrading requires further research.

  2. Cost analysis of concepts for a demand oriented biogas supply for flexible power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henning; Ganagin, Waldemar; Hartmann, Kilian; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-10-01

    With the share of intermittent renewable energies within the electricity system rising, balancing services from dispatchable power plants are of increasing importance. Highlighting the importance of the need to keeping fuel costs for flexible power generation to a minimum, the study aims to identify favourable biogas plant configurations, supplying biogas on demand. A cost analysis of five configurations based on biogas storing and flexible biogas production concepts has been carried out. Results show that additional flexibility costs for a biogas supply of 8h per day range between 2€ and 11€MWh(-1) and for a 72h period without biogas demand from 9€ to 19€MWh(-1). While biogas storage concepts were identified as favourable short term supply configurations, flexible biogas production concepts profit from reduced storage requirements at plants with large biogas production capacities or for periods of several hours without biogas demand.

  3. Production of liquid biogas at the biowaste treatment plant Amtzell; Gewinnung von fluessigem Biogas an der Bioabfallbehandlungsanlage Amtzell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojahr, Armin [Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttechnik Bojahr mbH und Co. KG, Berg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The fermentation plant in Amtzell will be extended to increase the throughput of bio waste. In this context an extension of the gas utilization plant is also required. The produced biogas will be partly transferred to the existing combined heat and power plant. The remaining part of biogas will be used in an proposed GPP-Plus {sup registered} --plant to produce liquid bio methane (LBG). In the LBG gaining process the raw biogas will have to be dried in several steps, de-sulphured, compressed and cooled. Following this process and due to different physical characteristics of the ingredients, the contaminants will be removed from the biogas and the main ingredients, carbon dioxide and methane, separated from each other. Carbon dioxide as well as the methane are then available in liquid form and can be put onto the market. This method of using biogas can utilize almost 100% of its energy potential. (orig.)

  4. Biogas in the agriculture. State of the art. Proceedings; Biogas in der Landwirtschaft. Stand und Perspektiven. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the meeting of the Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th September, 2009, in Weimar the following lectures were held: (1) Results of the actual biogas measurement II (Peter Weiland); (2) Agitators in biogas plants - Technology with central significance (Kay Rostalski); (3) How much energy is needed by a biogas fermenter? (Ludwig Heinloth); (4) The fermentation concept of Rueckert NatUrgas GmbH (Claus Rueckert, Dominique Pfeufer); (5) Experiences from the construction for the practice of the company MT-Energie GmbH (Bodo Drescher); (6) Fermenter/technology concept of Schmack Biogas AG (Thomas Moeeslinger); (7) Transport of biomass - How much does the logistics of Guelle and Co. cost? (Thore Toews); (8) Which factors determine the efficiency of biogas plants? (Gerd Reinhold); (9) Microbial diversity in biogas reactors in the fermentation of renewable raw materials (Michael Klocke et al.); (10) What do additives and ingredients contribute to the optimisation of the production of biogas? (Udo Hoelker); (11) Process optimisation - An interaction between technology and microbiology (Andreas Gronauer et al.); (12) Emissions at the production of biogas - an analysis if the environmental relevance (Joachim Clemens et al.); (13) Support systems for energy plants - Consequences to soil and environment (Matthias Willms et al.); (14) How ecological is biogas? (Sven Gaertner); (15) Biogas plant - Analysis of construction and operation from licensing view (Hans-Walter Schneichel); (16) Biogas plants - Analysis of construction and operation from contractual legal view (Florian Valentin); (17) Biogasplants - Analysis of construction and operation from remuneration legal view (Helmut Loibl); (18) Process and costs of treatment of residues of fermentation (Sebastian Wulf, Helmut Doehler); (19) How do residues of

  5. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems; Miljoeanalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal; Berglund, Maria

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse various biogas systems from an environmental point of view. The analyses are based on a systems analysis approach and an energy perspective. Biogas systems included are based on various combinations of substrates and final use of the biogas (heat, power and transportation fuel). The overall aims are to calculate fuel cycle emissions, quantify indirect environmental effects when various reference systems are replaced (e.g. current systems for waste treatment, agricultural production and energy generation), and to present data, calculations and results in a clear and transparent way, making the study useful for other environmental systems analyses. A general conclusion is that the environmental impact from biogas systems can vary significantly due to such factors as which substrate, energy service and reference system are chosen, and if indirect environmental effects and the need of systems enlargement are considered. The introduction of biogas systems normally leads to a reduced contribution of greenhouse gases, with some exceptions such as when biogas is used for heat and the alternative is combustion of the biomass. Biogas from manure seems to result in particularly large reductions due to indirect benefits in the form of reduced leakage of methane compared with conventional methods for handling and storing manure. A prerequisite is, however, that the losses of methane are small or that methane is combusted and thus converted into carbon dioxide. This study shows that the losses of methane can be up to 8-26%, due to what kind of biogas system is studied, before the contribution of greenhouse gases exceeds the contribution from reference systems based on fossil fuels. The contribution of emissions that leads to eutrophication and acidification is almost always reduced when biogas systems are introduced. The indirect environmental benefits could be significant for biogas based on sugar beet tops when leaving the beet tops at

  6. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    OpenAIRE

    Kh S Karimov; Muhammad Abid

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C) inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tan...

  7. Biogas production from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH and urea addition to biogas production rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyono Budiyono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment is a good choice to treat bioethanol waste due to the high concentration of COD content for producing biogas as renewable energy. The purposes of this study were to study the effect of addition nitrogen source and pH control to biogas production. The laboratory scale-anaerobic digestions used in this experiment were operated in batch system and at room temperature. In determination of optimum pH, bioethanol waste and rumen fluid fed into digesters with initial pH 6.0; 7.0 and 8.0. Influent COD : N ratio (in form of urea used in this study was 700:7 in compare to control.  The results showed that initial pH 7.0 produced the most biogas with total biogas 3.81 mL/g COD. While initial pH 6 and pH 8 had total biogas 3.25 mL/g COD and 3.49 mL/g COD respectively. At urea addition, biogas formed had 52.47% greater than that of at without urea addition (control variable. Controlled pH caused biogas was produced until 90-day investigation and might continue to be produced. Total biogas of control variable (without urea addition and variable with ratio COD:N=700:7 influent were 11.07 mL/g COD and 11.41 mL/g COD respectively.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.1-5Citation:  Budiyono, Syaichurrozi, I.  and Sumardiono, S. 2013. Biogas production from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH andurea addition to biogas production rate. Waste Technology 1(1:1-5. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.1-5

  8. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4 has been utilized as a fuel in a lab-scale furnace. A computational approach by standard k-ε combustion and turbulence model is applied. Hydrogen is added to the biogas components and the impacts of hydrogen enrichment on the temperature distribution, flame stability, and pollutant formation are studied. The results confirm that adding hydrogen to the POME biogas content could improve low calorific value (LCV of biogas and increases the stability of the POME biogas flame. Indeed, the biogas flame length rises and distribution of the temperature within the chamber is uniform when hydrogen is added to the POME biogas composition. Compared to the pure biogas combustion, thermal NOx formation increases in hydrogen-enriched POME biogas combustion due to the enhancement of the furnace temperature.

  9. Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhawat Ali1

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogas technology is useful technology to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel i.e. biogas. In Rural areas people use biomass fuels (firewood and dried dung for meeting their energy utilization demands. This demand is fulfilled by deforestation and land degradation which results in different health and societal problems and also cause excessive emission of greenhouse gases. The rural population of developing countries is in dire need of biogas for cooking, lighting, heating and feedstock etc. The biogas production derives from various agricultural resources, such as manure and harvest remains enormously available. Biogas technology represents a sustainable way to produce energy for household, particularly in developing countries. It can be cost-effective and environment friendly technology for the people in rural areas. So, Biogas can be a best substitute of biomass fuels for use in rural areas. This review evaluates the use of biogas in developing rural areas and glances at problems and challenges as well as benefits and success factors.

  10. A Critical Assessment of Microbiological Biogas to Biomethane Upgrading Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmann, Simon K-M R

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological biogas upgrading could become a promising technology for production of methane (CH(4)). This is, storage of irregular generated electricity results in a need to store electricity generated at peak times for use at non-peak times, which could be achieved in an intermediate step by electrolysis of water to molecular hydrogen (H(2)). Microbiological biogas upgrading can be performed by contacting carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2) and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea either in situ in an anaerobic digester, or ex situ in a separate bioreactor. In situ microbiological biogas upgrading is indicated to require thorough bioprocess development, because only low volumetric CH(4) production rates and low CH(4) fermentation offgas content have been achieved. Higher volumetric production rates are shown for the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading compared to in situ microbiological biogas upgrading. However, the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading currently suffers from H(2) gas liquid mass transfer limitation, which results in low volumetric CH(4) productivity compared to pure H(2)/CO(2) conversion to CH(4). If waste gas utilization from biological and industrial sources can be shown without reduction in volumetric CH(4) productivity, as well as if the aim of a single stage conversion to a CH(4) fermentation offgas content exceeding 95 vol% can be demonstrated, ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading with pure or enrichment cultures of methanogens could become a promising future technology for almost CO(2)-neutral biomethane production.

  11. Design and testing of mini-size biogas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjawali, Erwin; Waris, Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Biogas is a renewable source of energy which is developed to fulfill the energy needs of the society. Two important aspects of the biogas itself is biogas plant and starter. This research aims to design a mini-sized biogas plant which can be use effectively to produce the alternative energy, and also to examine the difference quality of biogas which is produced from slurry which was given starter and slurry which was not given starter. In this study, a mini-sized biogas plant has been designed, and tested for two different types of slurry. Ratio of cow dung : water : starter of the first slurry is 3 : 2 : 0.003 (The starter which was used in this study is Green Phoskko), and for the second type of slurry, ratio of cow dung : water is 3 : 2, but in this second type, the slurry was not given a starter. Cattle dung used in this study is stored in advance for one week, two weeks, and three weeks, before use. Result of this study showed that the first type of slurry produce biogas in a faster time than the second type of slurry. Also, the amount of gas obtained from the first slurry is more than the second type of slurry. It can be seen from the length of time which is takes to burn the gas produced from the first slurry much longer than the second type of slurry.

  12. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  14. Microbial Community Dynamics During Biogas Slurry and Cow Manure Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-yan; LI Jie; LIU Jing-jing; L Yu-cai; WANG Xiao-fen; CUI Zong-jun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial community dynamics and maturation time of two compost systems: biogas slurry compost and cow manure compost, with the aim of evaluating the potential utility of a biogas slurry compost system. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene clone library, temperature, C/N ratio, and the germination index were employed for the investigation, cow manure compost was used as the control. Results showed that the basic strip and dominant strips of the DGGE bands for biogas slurry compost were similar to those of cow manure compost, but the brightness of the respective strips for each system were different. Shannon-Weaver indices of the two compost systems differed, possessing only 22%similarity in the primary and maturity stages of the compost process. Using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, 88 bacterial clones were detected. Further, 18 and 13 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were present in biogas slurry and cow manure compost, respectively. The 18 OTUs of the biogas slurry compost belonged to nine bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Bacillus sp. and Carnobacterium sp.;the 13 OTUs of the cow manure compost belonged to eight bacterial genera, of which the dominant strains were Psychrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Clostridium sp. Results demonstrated that the duration of the thermophilic phase (more than 50°C) for biogas slurry compost was 8 d less than the according duration for cow manure compost, and the maturation times for biogas slurry and cow manure compost were 45 and 60 d, respectively. It is an effective biogas slurry assimilate technology by application of biogas slurry as nitrogen additives in the manufacture of organic fertilizer.

  15. Environmental perspectives on using cast seaweed for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    Solrød Municipality, Denmark is working towards building a biogas plant utilizing locally available organic wastes including cast seaweed, which is collected each year, since the local inhabitants see this material as a nuisance. A preliminary study suggested favorable conditions for contstructing...... a mixed substrate biogas plant. Continuously fed reactor experiments showed that the intended mix of substrate including cast seaweed could be used as raw material for a biogas plant in thermophilic operation. The environmental analysis suggests existence of several positive benefits of utilizing cast...

  16. Rancang Bangun Alat Penghasil Biogas dari Plastik Polietilen

    OpenAIRE

    Latif

    2011-01-01

    Biogas is a gas the can be produced from anaerobic fermentation of organic matters such as animal or human’s feces, agricultural wastes, or their combination in a digester. In this research the biogas was produced from mixture of cow dung and paddy hay. The aim of this research was to design of a drift biogas producer which was easy to be assembled, cheap, and had a best performance. The result of this experiment showed that the polyethylene digester had a: capacity of 0,25 m3, wet volume 0,2...

  17. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate.

  18. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  19. Implementation of Biogas Stations into Smart Heating and Cooling Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milčák, P.; Konvička, J.; Jasenská, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of implementation of a biogas station into software environment for the "Smart Heating and Cooling Networks". The aim of this project is creation of a software tool for preparation of operation and optimization of treatment of heat/cool in small regions. In this case, the biogas station represents a kind of renewable energy source, which, however, has its own operational specifics which need to be taken into account at the creation of an implementation project. For a specific biogas station, a detailed computational model was elaborated, which is parameterized in particular for an optimization of the total computational time.

  20. Biogas from renewable resources through dry anaerobic digestion; Biogas aus NaWaRos durch Trockenfermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiermann, M. [ATB, Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Technikbewertung und Stoffkreislaeufe; Linke, B. [ATB, Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Bioverfahrenstechnik; Kessler, U. [Agrargenossenschaft Pirow e.G. (Germany). Biogasanlage; Loock, R. [Ingenieurbuero Loock Consultants, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The functionality, performance and operational safety of anaerobic digestion using the dry-wet simultaneous technique of Loock Consultants were investigated at the biogas pilot plant in Pirow (State Brandenburg). In addition to determining process parameters and the input and output balance of the digester, chemical characterisation of the substrates and their biogas production potential were determined in the laboratory. The results reveal that a substrate mixture of 60% maize silage, 13% poultry manure and 27% digested material on a mass basis deliver a methane yield of 90 m{sup 3}t{sup -1} fresh matter, if conducted as a three-week batch process. A specific methane yield performance of 0.34 m{sup 3}kg{sup -1} VS is attained, as with dry anaerobic digestion of maize silage, with the standard wet process. (orig.)

  1. High-temperature pretreatment of biogas substrate by using district heating to increase the biogas production; Hoegtemperaturfoerbehandling av biogassubstrat med fjaerrvaerme foer oekad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Ascue, Johnny [JTI, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Marcus; Henriksson, Gunilla; Nordman, Roger [SP, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    In this study, we have shown that pre-heating sludge from a waste water treatment plant can give a higher biogas production rate. However, pretreatment showed no effect on substrate from a biogas plant at the conditions tested in this study. The study has also shown that there is potential of using district heating in the biogas industry for thermal pretreatment of sludge.

  2. Sustainable sunlight to biogas is via marginal organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Andy; Guieysse, Benoit

    2010-06-01

    Although biogas production from algae offers higher sunlight to biomass energy conversion efficiencies its production costs simply cannot compete with terrestrial plants. Unfortunately terrestrial plant cropping for biogas production is, in its own right, neither particularly sustainable nor profitable and its ongoing application is only driven by energy security concerns resulting in taxpayer subsidies. By comparison, scavenging the organic energy residual/wastes from food production offers a far more profitable and sustainable proposition and has an energy potential that dwarfs anything biogas production from dedicated energy crops can realistically offer. Thus researchers wanting to assist the development of sustainable biogas systems with viable process economics should forget about terrestrial and algal energy cropping and focus on the realm of scavengers.

  3. Perspectives on Spatial Decision Support Concerning Location of Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel

    biomass resource availability is expected to decline by 10% until 2020 but with regional variation. We find that large scale biogas producers enjoy 16% lower transportation costs than small biogas producers. It is argued that biogas producers need to see themselves as agro-based retailers and accordingly...... whilst safeguarding a transparent and informative decision making process. Through the PhD thesis spatial temporal issues regarding slurry biomass resource availability is analysed together with the aspects of spatial competition in order to achieve national biogas policy ambitions. We find that slurry...... are developed through this PhD project, may be combined into integrated spatial planning and decision support systems with a human expert based user interface....

  4. Recovery of Nutrients from Biogas Digestate with Biochar and Clinoptilolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocatürk, Nazli Pelin

    necessitates the subsequent distribution of nutrients. The liquid fraction of digestate can be used as fertiliser in agricultural crop production systems and the most common practice of utilising the liquid fraction of digestate is direct field application in the vicinity of the biogas plant. However, direct...... of nutrients on sorbent) but decreasing efficiencies of clinoptilolite to remove nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate. In Chapter 3, I studied the chemical activation of biochar by treating the biochar with deionised water, hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions......The increasing number of biogas plants over the last decades has brought the need to improve techniques to handle digestate, the by-product of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. Separation of digestate into liquid and solid fractions is often applied in centralised biogas plants, which...

  5. MODIFIKASI KARBON AKTIF SEBAGAI ADSORBEN UNTUK PEMURNIAN BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Susanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of biogas as an environmentally friendly fuel is limited by the presence of CO2 and water vapor asimpurities. Therefore, biogas purification for CO2 and water vapor removal is very important step during biogasapplication. This paper presents a process for biogas purification by means of adsorption using either modifiedor unmodified activated carbon as an adsorbent. The modification was performed by passing a pure ammoniagas into activated carbon in a quartz reactor. The results showed that the adsorption process using modifiedactivated carbon decreases CO2 content in biogas up to 67.5% whereas for unmodified activated carbon was of43%. Further, the modification increased CO2 adsorption capacity from ~28 to ~38 mg CO2/g adsorbent. Theincrease in feed temperature decreases CO2 adsorption capacity.

  6. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward.

  7. Biogas Production Modelling: A Control System Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, D.; Rieke, C.; Dahmen, M.; Pieper, M.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the Renewable Energy Act, in Germany it is planned to increase the amount of renewable energy carriers up to 60%. One of the main problems is the fluctuating supply of wind and solar energy. Here biogas plants provide a solution, because a demand-driven supply is possible. Before running such a plant, it is necessary to simulate and optimize the process feeding strategy. Current simulation models are either very detailed like the ADM 1, which leads to very long optimization runtimes or not accurate enough to handle the biogas production kinetics. Therefore this paper provides a new model of a biogas plant, which is easy to parametrize but also has the needed accuracy for the output prediction. It is based on the control system approach of system identification and validated with laboratory results of a real biogas production testing facility.

  8. Environmental implications of biomethanation in conventional biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoiyangbam, R.S. [D.M. College of Science, Imphal-795 001, Manipur (India). Dept. of Environmental Science

    2011-07-01

    In India biomethanation in conventional biogas plants have been proposed as one of the appropriate alternative sources of energy which can counter the escalating demand of fossil fuels. The number of installation of biogas plants is increasing rapidly and the trend is expected to continue at least for the foreseeable future. Biogas plants like many other energy generating technologies are not absolutely free from environmental problems. Environmental impacts related to biomethanation may range from localized health effects due to air, water, soil and pathogenic contamination to global warming at the global scale. The probable health and environmental impacts of energy production in conventional biogas plants have not been fully understood or well documented. A comprehensive assessment seems essential to make this energy source more viable and sustainable. The current article discusses the various positive and negative environmental implications associated with biomethanation and also tries to highlight some mitigation options.

  9. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume...... distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield...... in the 90/10 and 80/20 configuration, respectively. VFA concentration in the serial CSTR was high in the first reactor but very low in the second reactor. The results from organic pulse load test showed that the second reactor in serial CSTR helped utilizing VFA produced from overloading in the first...

  10. Isolation of lactic acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Jelena; Yüksel-Dadak, Aytül; Dröge, Stefan; König, Helmut

    2017-02-20

    Direct molecular approaches provide hints that lactic acid bacteria play an important role in the degradation process of organic material to methanogenetic substrates in biogas plants. However, their diversity in biogas fermenter samples has not been analyzed in detail yet. For that reason, five different biogas fermenters, which were fed mainly with maize silage and manure from cattle or pigs, were examined for the occurrence of lactic acid-forming bacteria. A total of 197 lactic acid-forming bacterial strains were isolated, which we assigned to 21 species, belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Pseudoramibacter-related. A qualitative multiplex system and a real-time quantitative PCR could be developed for most isolates, realized by the selection of specific primers. Their role in biogas plants was discussed on the basis of the quantitative results and on physiological data of the isolates.

  11. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Influence on Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Zaleckas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals play a very significant role in the performance and stability of biogas digesters, which are operated with organic fraction of municipal solid wastes or any other type of organic waste. For this reason this paper tries to evaluate the impact of heavy metals on biogas yield and quality. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and rapeseed cake mixture has been carried out for 14 days. The obtained data show that the greatest negative impact on biogas production was made by zinc additive. Meanwhile, methane content in biogas varied from 64.5 to 70%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2040

  12. Socio-economic evaluation of selected biogas technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, F.; Martinsen, L.

    2013-05-15

    Financial and welfare economic analyses are conducted of 15 different biogas production scenarios that vary in terms of plant size and type of input. All considered scenarios lead to welfare economic losses. Overall welfare economic GHG reduction costs seem to increase with increasing crop/crop material share of input, and although the costs vary significantly across scenarios they are quite high for all scenarios. The financial analyses suggest that biogas production generally will be financially profitable for the agricultural sector and local CHP facilities but unprofitable for the biogas plants and the State. Seen from a policy perspective the results highlights the importance of designing regulatory instruments in a way that create incentives for private actors to engage in welfare economically desirable biogas production activities while discouraging the expansion of welfare economically undesirable activities. (Author)

  13. Global warming mitigation potential of biogas plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, H; Jain, N; Bhatia, A; Mohanty, S; Gupta, Navindu

    2009-10-01

    Biogas technology, besides supplying energy and manure, provides an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and reducing global warming through substituting firewood for cooking, kerosene for lighting and cooking and chemical fertilizers. A study was undertaken to calculate (1) global warming mitigation potential (GMP) and thereby earning carbon credit of a family size biogas plant in India, (2) GMP of the existing and target biogas plants in the country and (3) atmospheric pollution reduction by a family size biogas plant. The GMP of a family size biogas plant was 9.7 t CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and with the current price of US $10 t( - 1) CO(2) equiv., carbon credit of US $97 year( - 1) could be earned from such reduction in greenhouse gas emission under the clean development mechanism (CDM). A family size biogas plant substitutes 316 L of kerosene, 5,535 kg firewood and 4,400 kg cattle dung cake as fuels which will reduce emissions of NOx, SO(2), CO and volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere by 16.4, 11.3, 987.0 and 69.7 kg year( - 1), respectively. Presently 3.83 million biogas plants are operating in the country, which can mitigate global warming by 37 Mt CO(2) equiv. year( - 1). Government of India has a target of installing 12.34 million biogas plants by 2010. This target has a GMP of 120 Mt CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and US $1,197 million as carbon credit under the CDM. However, if all the collectible cattle dung (225 Mt) produced in the country is used, 51.2 million family size biogas plants can be supported which will have a GMP of 496 Mt of CO(2) equiv. year( - 1) and can earn US $4,968 million as carbon credit. The reduction in global warming should encourage policy makers to promote biogas technology to combat climate change and integration of carbon revenues will help the farmers to develop biogas as a profitable activity.

  14. Pretreaments of Chinese Agricultural residues to increase biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Development of biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas is one approach to utilize straw comprehensively. However, high lignin contents of lignocellulosic materials results in low degradation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate pre-treatment to increase biogas production from Chinese agricultural residues. In this study, Chinese corn stalk, rice plant and wheat straw were evaluated as substrates by applying three different pre-treatments. The inves...

  15. Energy crops for biogas plants. Thuringia; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Thueringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Bischof, R.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Thuringia. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  16. Ultrasound-Enhanced Biogas Production from Different Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Fernández, Cristina; Timmers, Rudolphus Antonius; Ruiz, Begona

    2015-01-01

    Among the biofuel production processes using different substrates, the biogas generation process is one of the simplest. Compared with bioethanol or biodiesel production processes, anaerobic digestion is a process where all the organic matter (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) can be biologically...... production. The present chapter is dedicated to providing a review of ultrasound pretreatment applied to different substrates (lignocelullosic materials, manures, sludge and microalgae). The advantages and constraints, that ultrasound pretreatment exhibit towards biogas production, are discussed and compared...

  17. Polyphasic Analyses of Methanogenic Archaeal Communities in Agricultural Biogas Plants▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nettmann, E.; Bergmann, I.; Pramschüfer, S.; Mundt, K; Plogsties, V.; Herrmann, C.; Klocke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the microbial consortia participating in the generation of biogas, especially in methane formation, is still limited. To overcome this limitation, the methanogenic archaeal communities in six full-scale biogas plants supplied with different liquid manures and renewable raw materials as substrates were analyzed by a polyphasic approach. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out to quantify the methanogenic Archaea in the reactor samples. In addition, quantitative r...

  18. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Buttlar, C. von; Conrad, M. [and others

    2012-08-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Saxony. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  19. A PILOT PLANT FOR THE BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omrani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Manure and Putreseible garbage are some of the main sources of pathogenic germs in countryside’s. On the other hand, demand for fertilizer and energy increases in rural areas every day. To study Potential of cow manure for these requirements a 16,5m3 pilot plant was designed and constructed as fermentation tank near animal husbandry of karaj Agriculture Faculty. Some 260kg cow manure and water with the ratio of 4 and 7 was fed to fermentation tank every day. Average daily biogas production was 3.4m3, which was burned successfully in a gas range. Gas production was reduced by 86% during coldest winter days. Design for control of gas pressure and reservation of excessive gas was successful. Concentration of nitrate in sludge increased by 1.6 folds compared to row material. Some bacteria and Parasites were reduced drastically.

  20. Prospects in straw disintegration for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroušek, Josef

    2013-10-01

    The pretreatment methods for enhancing biogas production from oat straw under study include hot maceration, steam explosion, and pressure shockwaves. The micropore area (9, 55, and 64 m(2) g(-1)) inhibitor formations (0, 15, and 0 mL L(-1)) as well as the overall methane yields (67, 179, and 255 CH4 VS t(-1)) were robustly analyzed. It was confirmed that the operating conditions of the steam explosion must be precisely tailored to the substrate. Furthermore, it was beneficial to prepend the hot maceration before the steam explosion and the pressure shockwaves. The second alternative may give increased methane yields (246 in comparison to 273 CH4 VS t(-1)); however, the application of pressure shockwaves still faces limitations for deployment on a commercial scale.

  1. Biogas and bioethanol production in organic farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, P.

    2010-08-15

    The consumer demand for environmentally friendly, chemical free and healthy products, as well as concern regarding industrial agriculture's effect on the environment has led to a significant growth of organic farming. On the other hand, organic farmers are becoming interested in direct on-farm energy production which would lead them to independency from fossil fuels and decrease the greenhouse gas emissions from the farm. In the presented work, the idea of biogas and bioenergy production at the organic farm is investigated. This thesis is devoted to evaluate such a possibility, starting from the characterization of raw materials, through optimizing new processes and solutions and finally evaluating the whole on-farm biorefinery concept with the help of a simulation software. (LN)

  2. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  3. Enhancing biogas production from recalcitrant lignocellulosic residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    and lignocellulosic silage was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Addition of mechanically pretreated silage in the feedstock positively affected the methane yield (+16%) and in parallel, reduced the risk of ammonia inhibition compared to mono-digestion of pig manure. Furthermore, metagenomic...... analysis was performed to determine differences among the microbial communities in CSTRs operating under mono- and co-digestion. Species similar to Clostridium thermocellum, with increased cellulolytic activity, were detected to be adherent to the solid fraction of digested feedstock and concluded...... be periodically applied in biogas reactors in order to extract the residual methane from the amassing materials and avoid potential accumulation. Additionally, the facultative anaerobic Melioribacter roseus was inoculated in a replicate CSTR following different bioaugmentation strategies, either strictly...

  4. Biogas production from solid pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanticharoen, M.; Bhumiratana, S.; Tientanacom, S.; Pengsobha, L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid pineapple waste composed of shell and core was used as substrate in anaerobic fermentation producing CH4. The experiments were carried out using four 30-L vessels and no mixing, a 200-L plug-flow reactor, and a 5-cubic m stirred tank. Because of high acidity of the substrate, the loading rate is as low as 2.5 g dry solid added/L-day. The average gas yield is 0.3-0.5 L/g dry substrate. A pretreatment of wet solid with sludge effluent prior loading to the digester resulted in better stability of the biodigester than without pretreatment. These studies showed that loading rate can be much higher than those previously used. The 2-stage process was tested to determine a conversion efficiency of high loading and at much shorter reactor retention times. The results of the entire program indicated that biogas production from cannery pineapple waste is technically feasible.

  5. Development of mixed inoculum for methane enriched biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjeet; Mandal, S K; Jain, V K

    2010-10-01

    Inocula were collected from four different sources such as Jajmau tannery waste treatment plant (ITW), Jajmau municipal waste treatment (IMW), Unnao distillery (IDW) and a batch reactor, in which the sludge of a field scale biogas reactor was added to cow dung slurry to develop inoculum (IBS). A combination of these mixed inocula were used for biogas production at 35°C in laboratory scale reactor (10 L capacity) and the average yield of biogas (0.547 Lg(-1) volatile solid (VS)) and methane (0.323 Lg(-1)VS) in 41 d was higher in case of mixed inoculum IMW (1) (IMW+IBS), with maximum methane content in biogas (68% during 27-30 d), as compared to other mixed inocula as well as control i.e. ITW (1) (ITW+IBS), IDW(1) (IDW+IBS) and IBS. The corresponding yields of gas were biogas (0.505, 0.536 and 0.456 Lg(-1)VS), methane (0.288, 0.305, and 0.245 Lg(-1)VS) where as, the corresponding maximum methane content in biogas was 62% during 29-33d, 64% during 29-33 d and 62% during 27-29 d in ITW(1), IDW(1) and IBS.

  6. Solar Biogas Digester with Built-In Reverse Absorber Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the design, fabrication and investigation of a solar biogas digester with built-in RAH (Reverse Absorber Heater is presented. The maximum temperature (50 o C inside of the methane tank was taken as a main parameter at the design of the digester. Using energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated; the parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were counted. The biogas digester is consisting of methane tank with built-in solar RAH to utilize solar energy for the heating of the slurry prepared from the different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc. The methane tank was filled up to 70% of volume by organic wastes of the GIK Institute sewage, firstly, and secondly, by sewage and cow dung as well. During three months (October-December, 2009 and two months (February-March, 2010 the digester was investigated. The solar irradiance incident to the absorber, slurry's temperature and ambient temperature were measured. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung the retention times was 4 weeks and two weeks respectively and biogas quantity produced was 0.4 and 8.0 m 3 respectively. In addition, biogas upgradation scheme for removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapor from biogas and conversion of biogas energy conversion into electric power is also discussed.

  7. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  8. Emergy analysis of biogas systems based on different raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  9. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants’ materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system, and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system. As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  10. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact.

  11. Combustion of Biogas Released from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and the Effects of Hydrogen Enrichment on the Characteristics of the Biogas Flame

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ehsan Hosseini; Ghobad Bagheri; Mostafa Khaleghi; Mazlan Abdul Wahid

    2015-01-01

    Biogas released from palm oil mill effluent (POME) could be a source of air pollution, which has illustrated negative effects on the global warming. To protect the environment from toxic emissions and use the energy of POME biogas, POME is conducted to the closed digestion systems and released biogas is captured. Since POME biogas upgrading is a complicated process, it is not economical and thus new combustion techniques should be examined. In this paper, POME biogas (40% CO2 and 60% CH4) has...

  12. Performance of a cycle Otto engine using biogas; Desempenho de um motor ciclo Otto utilizando biogas como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Juliano de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: jsouza@unioeste.br; Souza, Samuel N. Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: ssouza@unioeste.br; Machado, Paulo Romeu M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    The rising of the oil prices is increasing the search for alternative fuels. Brazil has a great availability of biogas from anaerobic digestion in the rural area, urban waste in the landfills and treatment of the municipal sewer. In this work were evaluated in dynamometer a cycle Otto engine using biogas, and were obtained the characteristics curves of torque and power. First was done the evidence test with gasoline, biogas and natural gas, using commercial systems for this fuels, using as comparison for other tests. After has been done tests for some combinations of ignition point, mixer of gas and compression tax. By the analysis of the results has been concluded that the better results for power and torque using biogas as fuel were with a tax compression of 12,5:1, gas mixer long and ignition point advanced in 45 deg. (author)

  13. Guide biogas. From production to utilization. 5. compl. rev. ed.; Leitfaden Biogas. Von der Gewinnung zur Nutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book under consideration is a guide for biogas and consists of the following contributions: (a) Targets of the guide (M. Kaltschmitt); (b) Fundamentals of anaerobic fermentation (J. Friehe); (c) Systems engineering for supplying biogas (J. Postel); (d) Description of selected substrates (J. Friehe); (e) Operation of biogas plants (J. Liebetrau); (f) Gas processing and possibilities of utilization (M. Wetthaeuser); (g) Legal and administrative framework conditions (H. von Bredow); (g) Economy (S. Hartmann); (h) Company organisation (G. Reinhold); (i) Quality and utilization of fermentation residues (H. Doehler); (j) Implementation of a project (E. Fischer); (k) Position and significance of biogas as a renewable energy resource in Germany (M. Kaltschmitt); (l) Project examples (J. Friehe).

  14. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    Within the International Congress at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th March to 1st April, 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Biogas in Europe (F. Scholwin); (2) Biogas development in China: International Cooperation to up-scale the technology (Z. Li); (3) The methane to markets initiative and opportunities for livestock manure digesters in the United states (C. Voell); (4) Biogas for sanitation in Africa - experiences from creating a sustainable market 2003 to 2010 (M. Lebofa); (5) Are biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg efficient? (M. Stanull); (6) The Estonian theoretical and practical biogas production potential and economically feasible feed-in-tariff for renewable electricity for micro CHP using biogas (A. Oja); (7) Biomass potentials for biogas utilization and the effects on sustainability in Kalugo (P. Fiedler); (8) An Integrated Energy System applied to Milking Dairy Cows (I. Bywater); (9) WINUBIO-Alternative technology to improve Austria's biogas capacity (V. Steinmueller); (10) Interdisciplinary approaches to advances in sustainable biogas production in Europe (S. Kusch); (11) Problems encountered in disseminating biogas technology in Uganda (G. Mabudo); (12) reasons to the success to biogas program in Nepal (K. Dawadi); (13) Effects of increasing biomass production for energetic utilization on soil fertility in the German Federal State on Brandenburg (J. Zimmer); (14) Biogas plants as part of sustainable development within peasant family farms in Germany - Interim results of an empirical field study (A. Bischoff); (15) Life cycle assessment of heat and power generation in biogas fed combined heat and power plants under German conditions (J. Lansche); (16) Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass: interest of pretreatments (H. Carrere); (17) Effect of physical and thermal pre-treatments on biogas yield of some agricultural by-products (P. Balsari); (18) Extrusion pre-treatment of green waste for

  15. Beets for biogas. News from the laboratory and practice; Rueben fuer Biogas. Neues aus Labor und Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeche, Ulrike [KWS Saat AG, Einbeck (Germany). Vertrieb Zuckerruebe Deutschland und Oesterreich; Schaffner, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    Being a multi-talented crop, sugar beets are increasingly convincing biogas plant owners with their positive properties. In a mixture of substrates, they are a perfect partner for biogas production as they can push gas yield. In breeding, the experts mainly focus on increasing dry matter yield. There is a close correlation with sugar yield. The market already offers a multitude of highly performing sugar beet varieties for most diverse cropping conditions. The beets are harvested and transported from the field to the biogas plant with harvesting and transport technology which has proved its efficiency for many years. Other than harvested for other purposes, sugar beet for biogas production are stripped of their leaves instead of being topped. Stocking sugar beet at the biogas plant is a quite demanding issue. Sugar beets may be stocked as ensiled, whole beet, as pulp, or as crushed beet in mixed silage. There is a whole range of most diverse storage and crushing concepts. When used as a substrate for biogas production, sugar beet mostly need to be cleaned and stones need to be discarded before feeding the beets into the digester. In the meanwhile, the market offers a large choice of cleaning technique to pave the ways for sugar beets as a substrate. (orig.)

  16. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites...

  17. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T. K V; Vu, D. Q.; Jensen, L. S.;

    2015-01-01

    there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas...... to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure...... in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where...

  18. The Success of Biogas Plants in Nepal: A Note on Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, J. Hans M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a successful programme to disseminate biogas plants in Nepal, and summarises the findings of various studies on the impact of the biogas technology on the quality of life of women.

  19. Performance of the biogas project in Ziyang sugar factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezhao He [Chengdu Biogas Research Inst., Chengdu (China)

    2000-07-01

    Located in Houjiaping town, Ziyang county, Ziyang Sugar Factory was installed in 1958 as a state enterprise, which mainly processes sugar cane to produce sugar. Sideline products include alcohol and paper. Nowadays, its daily capacity of sugar cane extraction is 1,000 tons and potable alcohol production is 15 - 20 tons. Its annual output value is 25 million Yuan. This plant is one of the backbones in Sichuan sugar cane processing enterprises. The biogas project of the Ziyang Sugar Factory was one of the large biogas installations in China, completed during the Seventh Five-year Plan. The distillery wastewater (slops) from the alcoholic fermentation process of starch (fresh potato, dry potato, kernel and Chinese sorghum) and sugar molasses as substrates is disposed of. The slop has a low pH, a high organic concentration, a high content of suspended solids, a dark colour and a high temperature. Its daily discharge quantity is 200 tons corresponding to 2/3 of total wastewater in that plant. It is a serious source of water pollution when it is directly discharged into Tuojiang River. Therefore, due to its high concentration of polluting substances, anaerobic treatment of distillery wastewater has been decided. This is the first case of wastewater treatment in Nudging city. The construction of this biogas installation started in July 1987. On November 25, 1988, the digester began to produce biogas. Up to now, the digesters have properly operated for more than one year. Besides its use as daily household fuel for the 810 employees, biogas is also supplied to the plant cafeteria as cooking fuel and to some production purposes within the plant, which has achieved obvious economic benefits. The designed capacity of daily biogas production for this biogas plant is 3,000 - 4,000 m{sup 3}. (orig.)

  20. Polyphasic analyses of methanogenic archaeal communities in agricultural biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettmann, E; Bergmann, I; Pramschüfer, S; Mundt, K; Plogsties, V; Herrmann, C; Klocke, M

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the microbial consortia participating in the generation of biogas, especially in methane formation, is still limited. To overcome this limitation, the methanogenic archaeal communities in six full-scale biogas plants supplied with different liquid manures and renewable raw materials as substrates were analyzed by a polyphasic approach. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out to quantify the methanogenic Archaea in the reactor samples. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) was used to support and complete the FISH analysis. Five of the six biogas reactors were dominated by hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales. The average values were between 60 to 63% of archaeal cell counts (FISH) and 61 to 99% of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copies (Q-PCR). Within this order, Methanoculleus was found to be the predominant genus as determined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis. The aceticlastic family Methanosaetaceae was determined to be the dominant methanogenic group in only one biogas reactor, with average values for Q-PCR and FISH between 64% and 72%. Additionally, in three biogas reactors hitherto uncharacterized but potentially methanogenic species were detected. They showed closest accordance with nucleotide sequences of the hitherto unclassified CA-11 (85%) and ARC-I (98%) clusters. These results point to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as a predominant pathway for methane synthesis in five of the six analyzed biogas plants. In addition, a correlation between the absence of Methanosaetaceae in the biogas reactors and high concentrations of total ammonia (sum of NH(3) and NH(4)(+)) was observed.

  1. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  2. Bioenergy and biofertilizer : improvement of biogas production from filter cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, A.H. [Environmental Bioremediation Group, Research and Development Agency, GeoCuba, Camaguey (Cuba); Alvarez, R.C. [Provincial Direction of Soils, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2000-07-01

    The anaerobic digestion of sugar mill filter cake (SMFC) was studied using a natural zeolite to intensify the biogas production. The anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural waste mixtures in certain proportions is the underlying basis of biogas generation. Earlier studies have shown that certain inert materials can act as stimulators in biogas production when used in conjunction with AD. This study involved three experiments using filter cake from different sugar mills using three doses of zeolite to determine how they stimulate biogas production. Another objective of the study was to determine if the mud of the digester containing the added zeolite has an impact on plants and soil. The study was conducted under glass house conditions using a brown soil with carbonates with neutral pH and high contents of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter. It was concluded that it is possible to increase the biogas yield and to improve AD behaviour of the filter cake by using a zeolite adapted to unique operating conditions. The amount of yield depends on the origin of the filter cake, the stimulator dose and age. Results were in the order of 20-40 per cent biogas production. Fresh filter cake was found to produce more biogas. The mud of the anaerobic digestion of the filter cake containing zeolite positively impacted on the agronomic behaviour of the sorghum in relation to P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O and organic matter content. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Progress in biogas II - Biogas production from agricultural biomass and organic residues. Pt. 1. Proceedings; Progress in Biogas II - Biogasproduktion aus landwirtschaftlicher Biomasse und organischen Reststoffen. T. 1. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    Within the International Congress at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th March to 1st April, 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Biogas in Europe (F. Scholwin); (2) Biogas development in China: International Cooperation to up-scale the technology (Z. Li); (3) The methane to markets initiative and opportunities for livestock manure digesters in the United states (C. Voell); (4) Biogas for sanitation in Africa - experiences from creating a sustainable market 2003 to 2010 (M. Lebofa); (5) Are biogas plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg efficient? (M. Stanull); (6) The Estonian theoretical and practical biogas production potential and economically feasible feed-in-tariff for renewable electricity for micro CHP using biogas (A. Oja); (7) Biomass potentials for biogas utilization and the effects on sustainability in Kalugo (P. Fiedler); (8) An Integrated Energy System applied to Milking Dairy Cows (I. Bywater); (9) WINUBIO-Alternative technology to improve Austria's biogas capacity (V. Steinmueller); (10) Interdisciplinary approaches to advances in sustainable biogas production in Europe (S. Kusch); (11) Problems encountered in disseminating biogas technology in Uganda (G. Mabudo); (12) reasons to the success to biogas program in Nepal (K. Dawadi); (13) Effects of increasing biomass production for energetic utilization on soil fertility in the German Federal State on Brandenburg (J. Zimmer); (14) Biogas plants as part of sustainable development within peasant family farms in Germany - Interim results of an empirical field study (A. Bischoff); (15) Life cycle assessment of heat and power generation in biogas fed combined heat and power plants under German conditions (J. Lansche); (16) Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass: interest of pretreatments (H. Carrere); (17) Effect of physical and thermal pre-treatments on biogas yield of some agricultural by-products (P. Balsari); (18) Extrusion pre-treatment of green waste for

  4. Significant utilization of heat from biogas; Waerme aus Biogas sinnvoll nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W. [Bremer Energie-Institut, Bremen (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Agricultural biogas facilities often are developed at remote locations. The sales potentials for the heat produced thereby are insufficient. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on options for the improvement of the utilization of the available heat. The author describes the requirement profile for these options of utilization. Subsequently, ten options for utilization of heat as well as the appropriate details of application are described. In particular the following options of utilization are specified: drying plants, heating of hothouses, aquacultures, transport of latent heat, refrigeration, thermal processing of remainders of fermentation, supply of heat for laundries, production of fruit juice and vegetable juice, refinement of milk.

  5. ENHANCEMENT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER USING DECANTER CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2013-01-01

    The wastewater from agro-industry treated with the biological treatment cannot produce the biogas because of its low COD level and its low organic content. In this research, the co-digestion with decanter cake will improve the biogas yield and biogas production of wastewater. The effect of three parameters (i.e., type of wastewater, mixing and mesophilic temperature) will be evaluated in batch digesters under anaerobic condition. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential ...

  6. ENHANCEMENT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER USING DECANTER CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol; Narumol Sohgrathok

    2012-01-01

    The wastewater from agro-industry treated with the biological treatment cannot produce the biogas because of its low COD level and its low organic content. In this research, the co-digestion with decanter cake will improve the biogas yield and biogas production of wastewater. The effect of three parameters (i.e., type of wastewater, mixing and mesophilic temperature) will be evaluated in batch digesters under anaerobic condition. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential ...

  7. International scientific conference biogas science 2009. Vol. 3. Poster; Internationale Wissenschaftstagung Biogas Science 2009. Bd. 3. Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Within the international conference of the Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) at 2nd to 4th December, 2009, in Erding (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Experiments with weed seeds in the silage and fermentation process for biogas (P.R. Westermann et al.); (2) Documentation and production of quality silage from the harvest to the storage (K. Kellner); (3) Energy losses during the storage of co-substrates and possibilities of avoidance (H. Lindorfer et al.); (4) Two harvests a year for the biomass production? (J. Moeser et al.); (5) Effects of limonene on anaerobic co-digestion of citrus waste (M.B. Ruiz Fuertes et al.); (6) Biogas from genetically modified Bt-maize - potentials and limitations (U. Schoebinger et al.); (7) Green rye as a winter intercrop for the generation of biogas (E. Sticksel et al.); (8) Potential of energy yield and climate effects by means of biogas generation from vegetable coupled products (W. Stinner et al.); (9) The evaluation of the potential of gas generation from renewable raw materials (F. Weissbach); (10) Production of biogas from grass silage: Investigations of process stability (D. Andrade et al.); (11) Optimising biological desulphurisation with the addition of humic substances (U. Gayh et al.); (12) Thermophilic digestion of cellulose - investigation of the inhibitory state (K. Galkowska et al.); (13) In-situ methane enhancement system using differential solubility of biogas (J.J. Ho Kang); (14) Development of a new biogas process for the efficient utilization of renewable raw materials on thermophilic basis (C. Martin-Perez et al.); (15) Determination of a maximal space pollution of a mono fermentation of maize in a one-step or two-step system at 40 C and at 50 C in laboratory scale (M. Reuter et al.); (16) Anaerobic digestion of rye silage by a two-phase biogas process (S. Zielonka et al.); (17) Improvement of the efficiency of agricultural

  8. The Biogas/Biofertilizer Business Handbook. Third Edition. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Michael

    This book describes one approach to building and operating biogas systems. The biogas systems include raw material preparation, digesters, separate gas storage tanks, use of the gas to run engines, and the use of the sludge as fertilizer. Chapters included are: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Biogas Systems are Small Factories"; (3)…

  9. Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to biomethan

  10. Biogas Upgrading Using SOEC with a Ni-ScYSZ Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Bøgild Hansen, John; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Biogas consists mainly of CH4, CO2 and small amounts of H2S. The value of biogas will increase significantly if it is upgraded to pipeline quality by converting CO2 and H2O in the biogas to CO and H2 using a Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell (SOEC) followed by methanation. The Ni-ScYSZ-cermet electrode...

  11. Chongqing focus on the development of general situation and proposal of biogas engineering of new technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建

    2014-01-01

    Chongqing attaches great importance to the development of clean, renewable energy, the development of centralized biogas industry as to promote energy structure transformation, improve resource utilization strategy level, promote sustainable economic and social development. This paper introduces the definition, construction of centralized biogas new technology engineering, focus on development status and mode, biogas new technology engineering problems, and puts forward suggestions of sustainable development.

  12. The Increasing of Air and Biogas Mixer Instrument for Generating Friendly Environmental Electricity Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketut Lasmi, Ni; Singarimbun, Alamta; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2016-08-01

    The abolition of BBM Subsidize by the government causes increasing of its price, so a solution is necessary to find an alternative energy that is relatively cheap, environmentally friendly and affordable by all layers of society. Biogas is one of the renewable energy resources that are potential to be developed, especially in a farming area, because up until now, animal's excrement is not yet optimally used and it causes problem to environment. In response to this, one innovation to do is to make an instrument which is able to mix biogas and air by venture pipe using the basic theory of fluid mechanic, in order to raise the use of biogas as electricity source. Biogas conversion is done by changing fuel in benzene 5 kilowatt genset to biogas so it becomes a biogas genset. The biogas pressure is controlled when it enters the mixer instrument so that the velocity of biogas when it enters and it comes out the mixer is the same, and it will gain different pressure between biogas and air. By the pressure difference between biogas in the mixer instrument, biogas goes to the burning room so that the conversion of mechanical energy biogas to electricity will happen, and it will be applied as light and society's needs.

  13. Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Fermoso, F.G.; Weijma, J.; Zagt, K.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH4 content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called ‘green gas’, with natural gas quality, generally proceeds

  14. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: A survey on causes and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; O-Thong, Sompong;

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times...

  15. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  16. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  17. Enzyme research and applications in biotechnological intensification of biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parawira, Wilson

    2012-06-01

    Biogas technology provides an alternative source of energy to fossil fuels in many parts of the world. Using local resources such as agricultural crop remains, municipal solid wastes, market wastes and animal waste, energy (biogas), and manure are derived by anaerobic digestion. The hydrolysis process, where the complex insoluble organic materials are hydrolysed by extracellular enzymes, is a rate-limiting step for anaerobic digestion of high-solid organic solid wastes. Biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis are areas in need of drastic improvement for economic production of biogas from complex organic matter such as lignocellulosic material and sewage sludge. Despite development of pretreatment techniques, sugar release from complex biomass still remains an expensive and slow step, perhaps the most critical in the overall process. This paper gives an updated review of the biotechnological advances to improve biogas production by microbial enzymatic hydrolysis of different complex organic matter for converting them into fermentable structures. A number of authors have reported significant improvement in biogas production when crude and commercial enzymes are used in the pretreatment of complex organic matter. There have been studies on the improvement of biogas production from lignocellulolytic materials, one of the largest and renewable sources of energy on earth, after pretreatment with cellulases and cellulase-producing microorganisms. Lipids (characterised as oil, grease, fat, and free long chain fatty acids, LCFA) are a major organic compound in wastewater generated from the food processing industries and have been considered very difficult to convert into biogas. Improved methane yield has been reported in the literature when these lipid-rich wastewaters are pretreated with lipases and lipase-producing microorganisms. The enzymatic treatment of mixed sludge by added enzymes prior to anaerobic digestion has been shown to result in improved degradation of the

  18. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  19. Energy Production from Biogas: Competitiveness and Support Instruments in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klāvs, G.; Kundziņa, A.; Kudrenickis, I.

    2016-10-01

    Use of renewable energy sources (RES) might be one of the key factors for the triple win-win: improving energy supply security, promoting local economic development, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The authors ex-post evaluate the impact of two main support instruments applied in 2010-2014 - the investment support (IS) and the feed-in tariff (FIT) - on the economic viability of small scale (up to 2MWel) biogas unit. The results indicate that the electricity production cost in biogas utility roughly corresponds to the historical FIT regarding electricity production using RES. However, if in addition to the FIT the IS is provided, the analysis shows that the practice of combining both the above-mentioned instruments is not optimal because too high total support (overcompensation) is provided for a biogas utility developer. In a long-term perspective, the latter gives wrong signals for investments in new technologies and also creates unequal competition in the RES electricity market. To provide optimal biogas utilisation, it is necessary to consider several options. Both on-site production of electricity and upgrading to biomethane for use in a low pressure gas distribution network are simulated by the cost estimation model. The authors' estimates show that upgrading for use in a gas distribution network should be particularly considered taking into account the already existing infrastructure and technologies. This option requires lower support compared to support for electricity production in small-scale biogas utilities.

  20. Glidarc assisted production of synthesis gas from biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernichowski, A. [Orleans Univ., Department of Physics, 45 - Orleans (France); Czernichowski, M.; Wesolowska, K. [Etudes Chimiques et Physiques (ECP), 45 - La Ferte Saint Aubin (France)

    2003-09-01

    We present an emerging biogas reformer based on a direct use of high-voltage discharges (called GlidArc) that strike in the flow of such widely available and renewable feedstock without any gas separation or purification. A poor biogas (containing only 35-50 vol.% of methane) is partially converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide (SynGas). Such upgraded biogas can, for example, be used as fuel in Internal Combustion Engines, be considered as source of Hydrogen for PEM fuel cells or be consumed in other specific fuel cells. Any level of impurities is accepted for our reformer where the discharges provide all necessary energy and catalytic assistance for endothermic process of so-called 'dry' reforming of CH{sub 4}+CO{sub 2} into H{sub 2}+CO. Our tests with biogas are performed in a 1.4-L reactor working at atmospheric pressure at up to 0.6 kW electric power. Such input is fully sufficient to process a flow of a poor biogas presenting up to 7 kW of thermal power. (authors)

  1. Electricity production from biogas in Serbia: Assessment of emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Slobodan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas represents a promising source for the production of clean energy. The objective of this paper was to quantify the potential for the reduction of emissions to the environment during the production of electricity from biogas in comparison with environmental effects of the production of the same amount of electricity from fossil resources (coal from Kolubara basin and natural gas. Basis for comparison of environmental impacts in this work was the annual production of electricity in biogas plants of the total capacity of 80 MW. This study has shown that the annual production of electricity from biogas power plants of 80 MW results in: substitution of up to 840 kt of coal from Kolubara basin and 123.2 million m3 of natural gas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in the range of 491.16 kt - 604.97 kt CO2-eq, depending on the energy efficiency of the process of electricity production from biogas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases up to 92.37 kt CO2-eq compared to the use of natural gas for electricity generation.

  2. Energy balance model of a SOFC cogenerator operated with biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van herle, Jan; Maréchal, F.; Leuenberger, S.; Favrat, D.

    A small cogeneration system based on a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) fed on the renewable energy source biogas is presented. An existing farm biogas production site (35 m 3 per day), currently equipped with a SOFC demonstration stack, is taken for reference. A process flow diagram was defined in a software package allowing to vary system operating parameters like the fuel inlet composition, reforming technology, stack temperature and stack current (or fuel conversion). For system reforming simplicity, a base case parameter set was defined as the fuel inlet of 60% CH 4:40% CO 2 mixed with air in a 1:1 ratio, together with 800 °C operating temperature and 80% fuel conversion. A model stack, consisting of 100 series elements of anode supported electrolyte cells of 100 cm 2 each, was calculated to deliver 3.1 kW el and 5.16 kW th from an input of 1.5 N m 3/h of biogas (8.95 kW LHV), corresponding to 33.8 and 57.6% electrical and thermal efficiencies (Lower Heating Values (LHVs)), respectively. The incidence on the efficiencies of the model system was examined by the variation of a number of parameters such as the CO 2 content in the biogas, the amount of air addition to the biogas stream, the addition of steam to the fuel inlet, the air excess ratio λ and the stack operating temperature, and the results discussed.

  3. Implementing Biogas Technology Project in Malvar, Batangas, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvy G. Mojares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the environmental and social impacts of the biogas technology project of the municipal government of Malvar, Batangas, Philippines, through the Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office. Document analysis and interview were employed in this study. Results showed that heat and electricity generation from biogas decreased dependency on electricity and fuel oil.In terms of social impacts, the biogas technology contributed to socio-economic improvement of the barangay in the form of job creation, technological and skills transfer through training in biogas production, contribution to continuous pursuing of energy neutrality and encouraged sustainability development at the community level. Aside from these, the technology was a source of organic fertilizer for the farming community of Malvar. It is recommended that commercial farms be strictly monitored and ordinances be imposed on them specifically on the use of biogas technology. The municipal government could partner with GOs and NGOs providing grant or equipment for such technology. For the monitoring of backyard farms, develop close coordination with barangay officials, if it does not work, plan a consultative meeting with agencies concerned to explain the hazards of improper disposal of hog wastes.

  4. GIS-based analysis of the biogas potential for the accurate determination of the optimal path of the utilization of biogas; GIS-gestuetzte Biogas-Potenzialanalysen zur standortgenauen Ermittlung des optimalen Biogasnutzungspfades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    One of the task formulations of the DVGW innovation campaigns was the strengthening of the biogas production in connection with the expansion of the production option as well as the diversification of the gases with regard to their provenience. On this basis, the issue of the implementation of the sustainably producible and dispatchable biogas into the existing gas infrastructure is attached. The contribution under consideration investigates this issue by means of a GIS-based analysis of the biogas potential.

  5. Increased biogas production using microbial stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Kumar, S; Jain, M C; Kumar, D

    2001-07-01

    Laboratory studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of microbial stimulants Aquasan and Teresan, on biogas yields from cattle dung and combined residues of cattle dung and kitchen waste, respectively. The addition of single dose of Aquasan at the rate of 10, 15 and 20 ppm to cattle dung on the first day of incubation resulted in increased gas yields ranging between 45.1 and 62.1 l/kg dry matter. Subsequent addition of Aquasan at 15 and 20 ppm dosage after a period of 15 days increased the gas yields by 15-16%. The gas production was found to be optimum at a dosage level of 15 ppm and was 39% and 55% higher with single and dual additions, respectively, than untreated cattle dung. In another bench scale study (1:1 dry matter) the addition of Teresan at 10 ppm concentration to the mixed residues of cattle dung and kitchen wastes at different solids concentration, produced 34.8% more gas (272.4 l/kg d.m.) than the uninoculated mixture at 15% TS concentration (202.4 l/kg d.m.).

  6. Biogas and carbon credit market; Biogas e o mercado de creditos de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecora, Vanessa; Figueiredo, Natalie J.V.; Coelho, Suani T.; Velazquez, Silvia M.S.G. [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO/IEE/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Biogas is formed from degradation of the organic matter and it is typically composed by carbon dioxide and methane gas, this last one being a greenhouse effect gas (GHG) with global warming potential approximately 20 times bigger when compared to carbon dioxide. Brazil has a great potential of energetic use of biogas, in sewer treatment, rural residues such as pig breeding and, mainly, in the treatment of urban solid residues. Its energetic conversion can be presented as a viable and efficient solution to the great volume of produced residues, since it reduces the methane emissions, at the same time that it produces electric energy. In this context, the good use of solid residues explores a resource of renewable energy and, therefore, it is susceptible of receiving the Certified Emissions Reduction (RCE) regarding the CDM, since it contributes to the environment preservation. The perspective of sale of RCE's improves the attractiveness of the business, due to the opportunities of diversification of the Brazilian energetic matrix, besides representing a decentralized way of energy generation, diminishing the dependence of local concessionaires. (author)

  7. Biogas recirculation for simultaneous calcium removal and biogas purification within an expanded granular sludge bed system treating leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghuan; Lu, Xueqin; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren; Lu, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Biogas, generated from an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor treating municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate, was recirculated for calcium removal from the leachate via a carbonation process with simultaneous biogas purification. Batch trials were performed to optimize the solution pH and imported biogas (CO2) for CaCO3 precipitation. With applicable pH of 10-11 obtained, continuous trials achieved final calcium concentrations of 181-375 mg/L (removal efficiencies≈92.8-96.5%) in the leachate and methane contents of 87.1-91.4% (purification efficiencies≈65.4-82.2%) in the biogas. Calcium-balance study indicates that 23-986 mg Ca/d was released from the bio-system under the carbonized condition where CaCO3 precipitating was moved outside the bioreactor, whereas 7918-9517 mg Ca/d was trapped into the system for the controlled one. These findings demonstrate that carbonation removal of calcium by biogas recirculation could be a promising alternative to pretreat calcium-rich MSW leachate and synergistically to improve methane content.

  8. Biogas production from Eichhornia crassipes aquatic plant; Producao de biogas a partir da planta aquatica Eichhornia crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Silva, Jose Goncalves da; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Virtually all plants and waste plants and animals may in some way be used as an energy source. The anaerobic digestion of these materials is an option, resulting in the biogas. Besides the gas obtained in the process, is produced, inside the biodigester, an excellent fertilizer. The aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes is found in large quantities in various water bodies, such as reservoirs, lakes and ponds, becoming mostly often a big problem and it is necessary its systematic removal of water. The bench biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced, and a reservoir to monitor the production of biogas. The reactor is located within a receptacle containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the purpose of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor made in a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity, show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. The process of biodigestion of aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes shows potential to obtain biogas, with considerable levels of methane in order to make its exploitation. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humid, total organic matter, mineral and organic carbon residue.

  9. Biodigestion of the aquatics plants mixtures and biogas production; Biodigestao de misturas de plantas aquaticas e producao de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes; Abreu, Fernando Luiz Barbuda de; Fernandes Filho, Jorge; Pereira, Maria Cristina Duarte Eiras [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: temrobe@vm.uff.br; Melo, Ricardo Bichara de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Estudos e Gestao de Geracao]. E-mail: rbmelo@light.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Several systems of generating electricity using water storage reservoirs. One problem that occurs constantly in these reservoirs is the accumulation of aquatic plants, such as Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia that may cause serious problems for the system. Periodically, the biomass must be removed and disposed of appropriate form, so that does not cause contamination of soil, groundwater or allowing the proliferation of vectors. One possible destination is the use of biomass in a process of biodigestion, resulting in biogas. The bench of biodigester used in the experiment of biodigestion of aquatic plants is composed of a reactor containing the biomass, where the biogas is produced and a reservoir for the monitoring the production of biogas. The reactor is located inside a container containing water that can be heated by an electrical resistance, with the aim of maintaining the temperature inside the reactor around 35 deg C. The results of analysis of gas of the reactor was obtained using a gas chromatograph to CG MASTER of double ionization detector with a flame and thermal conductivity. These results show a percentage of 50% of methane in the biogas. Also, were analyzed the biomass in the biodigester for determination of humidity, total organic matter, waste mineral and organic carbon. The process of biodigestion of the mixture of aquatic plants: Eichhornia crassipes, Eichhornia azurea and Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia shows potential for obtaining biogas, with considerable levels of methane, in order to facilitate its recovery.

  10. Pretreatment of paper tube residuals for improved biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teghammar, Anna; Yngvesson, Johan; Lundin, Magnus; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2010-02-01

    Paper tube residuals, which are lignocellulosic wastes, have been studied as substrate for biogas (methane) production. Steam explosion and nonexplosive hydrothermal pretreatment, in combination with sodium hydroxide and/or hydrogen peroxide, have been used to improve the biogas production. The treatment conditions of temperature, time and addition of NaOH and H(2)O(2) were statistically evaluated for methane production. Explosive pretreatment was more successful than the nonexplosive method, and gave the best results at 220 degrees C, 10 min, with addition of both 2% NaOH and 2% H(2)O(2). Digestion of the pretreated materials at these conditions yielded 493 N ml/g VS methane which was 107% more than the untreated materials. In addition, the initial digestion rate was improved by 132% compared to the untreated samples. The addition of NaOH was, besides the explosion effect, the most important factor to improve the biogas production.

  11. LED-Absorption-QEPAS Sensor for Biogas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Köhring

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new sensor for methane and carbon dioxide concentration measurements in biogas plants is presented. LEDs in the mid infrared spectral region are implemented as low cost light source. The combination of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with an absorption path leads to a sensor setup suitable for the harsh application environment. The sensor system contains an electronics unit and the two gas sensors; it was designed to work as standalone device and was tested in a biogas plant for several weeks. Gas concentration dependent measurements show a precision better than 1% in a range between 40% and 60% target gas concentration for both sensors. Concentration dependent measurements with different background gases show a considerable decrease in cross sensitivity against the major components of biogas in direct comparison to common absorption based sensors.

  12. Integration of biogas in municipal energy planning and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedergaard, N.; Oertenblad, H. [Herning Municipal Utilities, Herning (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The first biogas plants in Denmark were based on local initiatives and a great deal of idealism. The break through with technically well functioning plants came at the end of the 80`ies. The plants were based on animal manure, and the development came together with the growing environmental demands and the legislation concerning storage capacity and distribution of the manure. This contributed to an increasing interest in joint biogas plants, mainly from the agricultural sector, but also from the industry. Today Denmark has 19 biogas plants in operation, all based on manure co-digested with wastes from the food industry, and 15 farm-scale plants. Only three of the joint plants are owned by a municipality, one plant in Aarhus and two in Herning. (au)

  13. Methane losses in biogas processing; Methanverluste bei der Biogasaufbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, S.; Baier, U. [ZHAW, Zuercher Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften, IBT Institut fuer Biotechnologie, Fachgruppe Umweltbiotechnologie, Waedenswil (Switzerland); Judex, J.; Biollaz, S.; Schneebeli, J. [PSI, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI and the Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland, presents the results of a study made on methane losses that occur during the processing of biogas to provide natural gas quality. Such losses are considered as possibly compromising the environmental advantages offered by the feeding-in of processed biogas into the national gas mains. This processing involves the removal of carbon dioxide from the biogas. The state-of-the-art in this area is discussed, relevant factors and analysis methods are looked at. An overview of methods used to prevent methane losses is presented. The results of investigations made at an installation in Lucerne, Switzerland, are presented and discussed.

  14. LED-Absorption-QEPAS Sensor for Biogas Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhring, Michael; Böttger, Stefan; Willer, Ulrike; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-05-22

    A new sensor for methane and carbon dioxide concentration measurements in biogas plants is presented. LEDs in the mid infrared spectral region are implemented as low cost light source. The combination of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with an absorption path leads to a sensor setup suitable for the harsh application environment. The sensor system contains an electronics unit and the two gas sensors; it was designed to work as standalone device and was tested in a biogas plant for several weeks. Gas concentration dependent measurements show a precision better than 1% in a range between 40% and 60% target gas concentration for both sensors. Concentration dependent measurements with different background gases show a considerable decrease in cross sensitivity against the major components of biogas in direct comparison to common absorption based sensors.

  15. Impact of CAD-deficiency in flax on biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Szperlik, Jakub; Dymińska, Lucyna; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and the reduction in our fossil fuel reservoir have forced humanity to look for new means of energy production. Agricultural waste remains a large source for biofuel and bioenergy production. Flax shives are a waste product obtained during the processing of flax fibers. We investigated the possibility of using low-lignin flax shives for biogas production, specifically by assessing the impact of CAD deficiency on the biochemical and structural properties of shives. The study used genetically modified flax plants with a silenced CAD gene, which encodes the key enzyme for lignin synthesis. Reducing the lignin content modified cellulose crystallinity, improved flax shive fermentation and optimized biogas production. Chemical pretreatment of the shive biomass further increased biogas production efficiency.

  16. [Biogas production from cellulose-containing substrates: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsavkelova, E A; Netrusov, A I

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial conversion of organic substrates to various biofuels is one of the alternative energy sources attracting the greatest attention of scientists. The advantages of biogas production over other technologies are the ability of methanogenic communities to degrade a broad range of substrates and concomitant benefits: neutralization of organic waste, reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and fertilizer production. Cellulose-containing materials are a good substrate, but their full-scale utilization encounters a number of problems, including improvement of the quality and amount ofbiogas produced and maintenance of the stability and high efficiency of microbial communities. We review data on microorganisms that form methanogenic cellulolytic communities, enzyme complexes of anaerobes essential for cellulose fiber degradation, and feedstock pretreatment, as biodegradation is hindered in the presence of lignin. Methods for improving biogas production by optimization of microbial growth conditions are considered on the examples of biogas formation from various types of plant and paper materials: writing paper and cardboard.

  17. Biogas and Renewable Fuel Consumption : 2008 Figures for Linköping and Östergötland

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, biogas consumption in Linköping has been increasing. With the expansion of infrastructure and vehicles capable of using biogas, Linköping is a leading model for biogas vehicles and fleet worldwide. Over the past few years biogas production has grown at a nearly constant rate of 20%. Since the start when only a limited amount of biogas was delivered primarily to the bus fleet, over 8.5 million m3 were delivered in 2009 (Svensk Biogas, 2009). Currently biogas is used in t...

  18. Monitoring of biogas plants - experiences in laboratory and full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Habermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To control and regulate the biogas process there are online process parameters and offline process parameters, which basically don’t differ between pilot biogas plants and industrial biogas plants. Generally, temperature, pH-value, volume flow rate and sometimes redox potential are measured online. An online-measurement of the dissolved volatile fatty acids and an online-detection of dissolved hydrogen both directly in the liquid phase as well as near-infrared spectroscopy are under development. FOS/TAC-analysis is the most common offline-analysis of the biogas process and normally it is carried out by the plant operator directly at the biogas plant. For example dry matter, organic dry matter, nitrogen and fatty acids are other analyses, which are carried out but by a laboratory. Microbiological analyses of biogas plants are very expensive and time-consuming and are therefore in Germany very rare. Microbiological analyses are mainly for research purposes. For example the Fluorescence in situ Hybridiation (FISH is used for characterization of the populations. Electric-optical measurement should be established as a new method to investigate the vitality of the methane producing microorganisms. In a cooperation project, which is promoted by the German ministry for technology, between IASP and Chair of Bioprocess Engineering at TU Berlin, this method is proper investigated using a device from the firm EloSystems. The microorganisms are brought in an electrical field of different frequencies. In this field the microorganisms direct themselves differently according to their physiological state. At the end of this project an early detection of process disturbance will be possible with the help of this method. In this presentation the result of the first tests are presented.

  19. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Monitoring Produksi Biogas pada Biodigester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocky Alfanz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one of the flammable natural gas. The most observed content of biogas in this study is methane (CH4, hydrogen (H2 and carbon dioxide (CO2. Therefore, biogas can be developed and used as an alternative energy. Nowadays, the used of plant biodigester, as the biogas producer, is still in very simple design. So, the system design should be developed to assist the monitoring process of biogas production. In this study, a system is design which can do the data acquisition using MQ4 sensor of methane, MQ8 sensor of hydrogen and MG811 sensor of carbon dioxide also the parameter which influencing to the process of biogas production such as temperature, humidity and pressure. Based on the measurement of methane, it is spotted that the highest point of methane production occured at 10:00 a.m. The details were the temperature 34 °C, humidity 67% RH, and pressure 100,6 kPa which can produce 95.672 ppm of methane. In the measurement of hydrogen, it is figured out that the highet point of hydrogen production occured at 02:00 p.m. The details were the temperature 34 °C, humidity 74% RH, and a pressure of 100,4 kPa to produce 4,738 ppm of hydrogen. Then, the highest point of the measurement of carbon dioxide production occurred at 11:00 a.m. The details were temperature 33 °C, humidity 68% RH, and a pressure of 100,5 kPa to 16,89 ppm of carbon dioxide.

  20. Thermal Simulation of Biogas Plants Using Mat Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen.M.Sain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The major prerequisite for the optimum production of methane from a biogas plant is the sustenance of digester temperature within the narrow limits (300C-350C. It is experimentally investigated that, the MIT biogas plant is not maintaining optimum temperature, this decreases the efficiency and increases the detention time for charge. To maintain the plant in optimum temperature, it is necessary to find out the heat losses from the biogas plant and the external energy inputs need to operate the plant. Rate of gas yield, and the detention time (time necessary to anaerobically digest organic wastes in a biogas reactor, are favorable functions of the temperature in the digester. A thermal simulation for MIT biogas plant has developed using matlab in order to understand the heat transfer from the slurry and the gas holder to the surrounding earth and air respectively. The computation has been performed when the slurry is maintained at 200C and 300C, optimum temperature of anaerobic fermentation. If the slurry is considered to be at 350C, the optimum temperature of anaerobic fermentation, the total heat loss from the plant is higher than the heat loss when the slurry is maintained at 200C. The heat calculations provide an appraisal for the heat which has to be supplied by external means to compensate for the net heat losses which occur if the slurry is to be maintained at 350C. A solar system with auxiliary electric heater is designed for maintaining the slurry at 350C.In conclusion; the results of thermal analysis are used to define a strategy for operating biogas plant at optimum temperatures. .

  1. Biogas recovery from microwave heated sludge by anaerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Biogas generated from sewage sludge,livestock waste,and food waste by anaerobic digestion is a valuable renewable energy resource.However,conventional anaerobic digestion is not an efficient process.A long hydraulic retention time and low biogas recovery rate hinder the applications of those resources.An effective pretreatment method to destroy sludge microbial cells has been one of the major concerns regarding improvement of the biogas production.This article focuses on the effects of microwave heating on sludge anaerobic digestion.Volatile suspended solid(VSS) and chemical organic demand solubilization of heated sludge were investigated.Microwave heating was found to be a rapid and efficient process for releasing organic substrates from sludge.The increase of organic dissolution ratio was not obvious when holding time was over 5 min with microwave heating.The effect of the VSS solubilization was primarily dependent on heating temperature.The highest value of VSS dissolving ratio,36.4%,was obtained at 170°C for 30 min.The COD dissolving ratio was about 25% at 170°C.Total organic carbon of treated sludge liquor was 1.98 and 2.73 g/L at 150°C and 170°C for 5 min,respectively.A biochemical methane potential(BMP) test of excess sludge and a mixture of primary and excess sludge demonstrated an increase in biogas production.The total biogas from microwave treated mixture sludge increased by 12.9% to 20.2% over control after 30 days of digestion.Biogas production was 11.1% to 25.9% higher for excess sludge than for untreated sludge.The VS removal ratios of mixture sludge and excess sludge were 12% and 11% higher,respectively,compared to the untreated sludge.

  2. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according...... to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling...

  3. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    Energy produced by wind power and biogas is today more expensive than energy produced by fossil fuels. However, by including external costs related to the technologies, the renewable technologies are expected to result in social benefits compared to the conventional power technologies. The paper...... will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health...

  4. The benefits of biogas as a livestock waste management technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya; Liu, Zhen; Lund, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    farmers utilized the residue for crops’ fertilizer as a substitute for chemical fertilizers in order to reduce crop expenses. Another result indicated that there was a reallocation of labor from crop to cattle production. Together the results confirmed that biogas may be an important technology to obtain...... synergies between crop farming, livestock, and household in terms of mixed crop and livestock farming, as an Integrated Farming System (IFS) practice, at the farm household level. Although the biogas technology provided the alternative energy source for the household, the specific benefits as an energy...

  5. Biogas potential in Grasses from Wetlands; Biogaspotential hos vaatmarksgraes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Marvin

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study has been to survey wetlands that are suitable for mowing and to analyze the biogas potential in the harvested grasses. A preformed investigation showed that there are suitable wetlands, which can be harvestable, namely those mowed formerly in traditional haymaking. The practice of traditional haymaking is dying out in Sweden today but there are several good reasons why it should to be reconsidered. Nature- and cultural values are obvious, also the unutilized energy in the grass. The suitable types of wetland that were specifically studied were the productive wetlands; meadow marshes and wet meadows. These wetlands are represented in the Swedish meadow- and pasture inventory database; (TUVA) and the Swedish national wetland inventory (VMI). Going through the databases showed that they largely complement each other. A geographical mapping was also carried out of wetlands in relation to areas of interest for the future establishment of biogas plants, so called 'hotspots'. The geographical survey shows that there is ample amount of grass from wetlands within a 30-kilometer radius that can supplement the plants main substrate, manure. The map layer Swedish Ground Cover Data (SMD) together with GIS software was used to analyze the extent of overgrowth for the older VMI objects in Uppsala County, with the result that half of the VMI objects are no longer of interest. They have become either woodland and bogs, or reed beds. There is very little information on wetland-grasses and methane production. Instead, a theory was evaluated regarding the possibility of transforming nutritional values for grass and sedges into biogas potentials. It was shown that this method does not capture the total biogas potential, but offers a minimum value that can be considered rather reliable. The energy transformation showed that late harvested grasses from wetlands has a biogas potential about 0,21 Nm3 methane/ (kg, DM) which is about 60 % of the biogas

  6. The contribution of Slovenian biogas plants to the reduction of agricultural sector green house emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana MARINŠEK LOGAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a source of emissions of the greenhouse gas methane into the environment. These emissions can be reduced by appropriate storage of animal slurry and manure, with proper fertilization and processing of organic agricultural waste into biogas, where methane is captured and used as an energy source. Biogas is a renewable source of energy that is produced by microbial anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. As a substrate in biogas plants using different types of organic biomass such as animal manure and slurry, crop residues, spoilt silage, waste from food processing industry and biodegradable industrial and municipal waste. Biogas can be used to produce heat and electricity or purified to biomethane as a fuel for vehicles. Digestate can be used as a high-quality fertilizer. Biogas as a renewable energy source represents a replacement for fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil sources. The system of financial supports for electricity produced from biogas is applied in Slovenia. There were 24 operating biogas plants in Slovenia in year 2014. Slovenian biogas plants currently produce the majority of biogas from energy crops. As only the minority of biogas is produced from animal excrements we will primarily support the development of agricultural microbiogas plants that will use animal excrements and organic waste biomass from agri-food sector as substrates.

  7. Effect of Inhibitors on Biogas Laminar Burning Velocity and Flammability Limits in Spark Ignited Premix Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyanto Anggono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is the natural byproduct of the decomposition of vegetation or animal manure, of which there are almost in exhaustable supplies in the world, and which does not contribute CO2 or other greenhouse gases to global warming or climate change. Biogas contains 66.4% flammable gas (CH4 and 33.6% inhibitors (CO2 and N2. This study focuses on the effects of inhibitors on biogas laminar burning velocity and flammability limits in spark ignited premix combustion. Spherically expanding laminar premixed flames, freely propagating from spark ignition sources in initially quiescent biogas–air mixtures, are continuously recorded by a high-speed digital camera. Initially, all the experiments in this paper were performed using inhibitorless biogas (biogas without inhibitors at room temperature, at reduced pressure (0.5 atm and at various equivalence ratios (ϕ from the lower flammable limit to the upper flammable limit. The results are compared with those from biogas (containing inhibitors flames at reduced pressure, inhibitorless biogas flames at atmospheric pressure (1 atm, and biogas flames at atmospheric pressure to emphasize the effect of inhibitors on biogas laminar burning velocity and flammability limits. Compared to an inhibitorless biogas-air mixtures, in the biogas-air mixtures, the presence of inhibitors cause a reduction in the laminar burning velocity and the flammable limits become narrower.

  8. The Role of Municipalities, Energy Companies and the Agricultural Sector in Denmark as Drivers for Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the barriers to implementing biogas plants in Denmark and highlights advantages and barriers of the technology with a focus on the environment, energy and the agriculture. The article is based on a detailed study of development trends within the Danish biogas sector and identi......This paper examines the barriers to implementing biogas plants in Denmark and highlights advantages and barriers of the technology with a focus on the environment, energy and the agriculture. The article is based on a detailed study of development trends within the Danish biogas sector...... municipalities more actively in the biogas development. Based on the analysis of the current situation and of the challenges and opportunities for the Danish Biogas sector, we propose that municipalities, energy companies and the agricultural sector take renewed actions and become drivers for the biogas sector...... from the new market opportunities that biogas poses e.g. supply biogas for transportation purposes. Farmers must look for alternative ways of implementing biogas plants using new corporate design concepts rather than traditional centralized and farm biogas plants.....

  9. A review on optimization production and upgrading biogas through CO2 removal using various techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Dian; Wresta, Arini; Atmaja, Tinton Dwi; Saepudin, Aep

    2014-02-01

    Biogas from anaerobic digestion of organic materials is a renewable energy resource that consists mainly of CH4 and CO2. Trace components that are often present in biogas are water vapor, hydrogen sulfide, siloxanes, hydrocarbons, ammonia, oxygen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. Considering the biogas is a clean and renewable form of energy that could well substitute the conventional source of energy (fossil fuels), the optimization of this type of energy becomes substantial. Various optimization techniques in biogas production process had been developed, including pretreatment, biotechnological approaches, co-digestion as well as the use of serial digester. For some application, the certain purity degree of biogas is needed. The presence of CO2 and other trace components in biogas could affect engine performance adversely. Reducing CO2 content will significantly upgrade the quality of biogas and enhancing the calorific value. Upgrading is generally performed in order to meet the standards for use as vehicle fuel or for injection in the natural gas grid. Different methods for biogas upgrading are used. They differ in functioning, the necessary quality conditions of the incoming gas, and the efficiency. Biogas can be purified from CO2 using pressure swing adsorption, membrane separation, physical or chemical CO2 absorption. This paper reviews the various techniques, which could be used to optimize the biogas production as well as to upgrade the biogas quality.

  10. Production of biogas with grass silage - when is it worthwhile?; Biogas erzeugen mit Grassilage - wann lohnt sich das?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, S.; Hilberth, A.; Doehler, H. [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration determine the costs of the supply of grass silage by the example of three grassland regions with dairy cattle farming. Furthermore, the authors discuss the economic thresholds for the use of grass silage in biogas plants. Clearly increased methane yields and clearly smaller costs for the supply of substrate for maize silages speak for the renouncement of grass silage as a substrate for biogas plants. In grassland regions, biogas plants are economical if liquid manure as basic substrate and small quantities of grass silage are used for gas production. The use of grass silage only is meaningful in grassland regions with very small costs of supply. In milk cattle regions with high costs of supply, the use of higher amounts of grass silage is meaningful only if the cultivation of grassland is optimized and the associated costs clearly are lowered. Saving potentials are available in the cultivation of grassland.

  11. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    for biogas technology dissemination in developing countries. This research aims to develop a relevant model of biogas technology transfer to support MCL farming in Indonesia based on the slow diffusion rate of biogas technology at farm level. Two farm household surveys were carried out to study the following...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions......: 1) To assess the role of biogas technology adoption and its impact at farm level, 2) To examine the factors that influence biogas adoption among farmers, 3) To determine a relevant model of biogas technology transfer in regard to the slow rate of technology diffusion, 4) To describe the process...

  12. Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of the utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus of the implementa......The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus...... biogas for energy. Two different Danish joint biogas plants are evaluated with the aim of determining the role of transportation and co-fermentation on the energy and the balance of greenhouse gases from the biogas fuel cycle....

  13. Integrated biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization in an anaerobic reactor containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogenic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    the existing natural gas grid. The current study presents a new biological method for biogas upgrading in a separate biogas reactor, containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens and fed with biogas and hydrogen. Both mesophilic- and thermophilic anaerobic cultures were enriched to convert CO2 to CH4...... by PCR–DGGE. Nonetheless, they all belonged to the order Methanobacteriales, which can mediate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Biogas upgrading was then tested in a thermophilic anaerobic reactor under various operation conditions. By continuous addition of hydrogen in the biogas reactor, high degree......Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion, is mainly used in a gas motor for heat and electricity production. However, after removal of CO2, biogas can be upgraded to natural gas quality, giving more utilization possibilities, such as utilization as autogas, or distant utilization by using...

  14. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  15. Electricity power generation with sewage biogas: a reality; Geracao de eletricidade com biogas de esgoto: uma realidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avellar, Luis Henrique Nobre; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [CENBIO - Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lavellar@amhanet.com.br; suani@iee.usp.br; Alves, Joao Wagner [CETESB- Companhia de Tecnologia e Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: joaoa@cetesb.sp.gov.br

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents some characteristics and data of technical survey on the sewage material assessment and treatment in Brazil, and also environmental considerations on the anaerobic bio digestion process and energetic aspects related to the electric power generation from the biogas produced in the SABESP sewage treatment stations. This article also reports the goals of the university infra-structure project which is part of the PEREFA - Program for the Energy Rational Using of the university of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. One of the project goals is the elaboration of a demonstrative system allowing electric power generation from the biogas resulting from the municipal wastes treatment produced in university campus.

  16. The clean biogas like an renewable energy source; El biogas limpio como fuente de energia renovable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Ortega, J.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the project is to find an optimal solution to clearing the biogas and remove the H2 S from it. The solution has to be efficient, rentable and easy to use. There are many solutions, but there is not one standard solution indeed the efficiency depends on many different influences e.g. the type of manure or kind of waste. Common solutions; aeration, ferrum- chloride, blood and absorption have been studied and advanced in Scandinavian region. This kind of energy result easy to implement it in system with a big amount of manure, such as, cows and pigs farms, and it needs a little invest to do it possible. (Author)

  17. Vitreous membranes used in the biogas purification; Membranas vitreas empleadas en la purificacion de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Viera, L.; Rodriguez Munoz, S.; Fernandez Santana, E.; Martines Ramirez, Y.; Crespo Artigas, A.; Viera Gallardo, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work 10 vitreous membranes with different masses of zinc oxide (ZnO(s)) and particle diameters charcoal (DPC) are used in the purification of biogas. The porosity and tortuosity of the membranes is obtained, showing the variation with respect to the composition thereof. From these structural features specific flow of H{sub 2}S(g) is obtained which is transferred using the Fick's diffusion equation in the membranes and its value increases with increasing mass of ZnO(s). By X-ray diffraction membrane made with 3.16 g of ZnO(s) forming zinc sulfide it is shown, so we can say that the removal of H{sub 2}S(g) occurs by a process of absorption with chemical reaction in the membranes. (Author)

  18. Biogas upgrading technologies:Energetic analysis and environmental impact assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajing Xu; Ying Huang; Bin Wu; Xiangping Zhang; Suojiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas upgrading for removing CO2 and other trace components from raw biogas is a necessary step before the biogas to be used as a vehicle fuel or supplied to the natural gas grid. In this work, three technologies for biogas upgrading, i.e., pressured water scrubbing (PWS), monoethanolamine aqueous scrubbing (MAS) and ionic liquid scrubbing (ILS), are studied and assessed in terms of their energy consumption and environmental impacts with the process simulation and green degree method. A non-random-two-liquid and Henry's law property method for a CO2 separation system with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf2N]) is established and verified with experimental data. The assessment results indicate that the specific energy consumption of ILS and PWS is almost the same and much less than that of MAS. High purity CO2 product can be obtained by MAS and ILS methods, whereas no pure CO2 is recovered with the PWS. For the environmental aspect, ILS has the highest green degree production value, while MAS and PWS produce serious environmental impacts.

  19. Air Quality, Climate and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobically digested organic waste (e.g. manure, sewage, and municipal solid waste) produces biogas, a source of renewable energy. A recent analysis indicates that the technical resource in California could produce nearly 93 billion cubic feet per year of biomethane from availa...

  20. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-06-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97–67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach.

  1. Biogas yield from Sicilian kitchen waste and cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the chemical composition of kitchen waste and cheese whey, as well as the biogas yield obtained from the Anaerobic Digestion (AD tests of these two raw materials. Since the separated waste collection is performed in the town of Marineo (Palermo, a sample of kitchen waste, different from food industry one and included in the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, was collected from the mass stored at the households of this town. Moreover, a sample of cheese whey was collected in a Sicilian mini dairy plant, where sheep milk is processed. This investigation was carried out inside laboratory digesters of Aleksandras Stulginskis University (Lithuania. Total Solids (TS resulted 15.6% in kitchen waste and 6% in cheese whey, while both the raw materials showed a high content of organic matter, 91.1% and 79.1%, respectively. The biogas yield resulted 104.6 l kg–1 from kitchen waste and 30.6 l kg–1 from cheese whey. The biogas yield from TS resulted 672.6 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 384.7 l kg–1 using cheese whey. The biogas yield from Volatile Solids (VS resulted 738.9 l kg–1 using kitchen waste and 410.3 l kg–1 using cheese whey.

  2. BIOCHAR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Malińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view to numerous physical and chemical properties biochars can be used in many applications in the area of environmental protection and engineering. Recent findings show that biochar can be also applied in biogas production. Relatively high chemical stability and low susceptibility to degradation, high specific surface area, microporosity and the presence of functional groups indicate that biochar can have a potential for production of biogas. The available results from laboratory studies show that biochar can facilitate mineralization of organic matter and increase the yield of methane. Due to relatively high cost of biochar, the most favourable solution would include the following applications of biochar: (1 production of biomass for biogas production (as an additive to animal feed and bedding, a soil conditioner, (2 preparation of mixture (as an amendment, (3 inoculation of microorganisms (as an inoculum carrier, (4 treatment of biogas (as an absorbent, (5 treatment of liquid fraction of digestate (as a sorbent, (6 management of solid fraction of digestate (as a substrate for biochar production. However, the conducted studies need further work and confirmation in larger scale. Also, the effects of biochar on anaerobic fermentation dynamics should be investigated and explained.

  3. Optimization of biogas production from coffee production waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Federico; Fino, Debora; Mancini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical pretreatments on biogas production from coffee waste. After the preparation of a mixture of coffee waste with a TS concentration of 10%w/w, basic and acid pretreatments were conducted in batch mode and their performances were compared with the biogas produced from a mixture without any pretreatment stage. The basic pretreatment demonstrated a very good action on the hydrolysis of the lignin and cellulose, and permitted a biogas production of about 18NL/L with a methane content of almost 80%v/v. Thus, the basic pretreatment has been used to scale-up the process. The coffee refuse was has been carried out in a 45L anaerobic reactor working in continuous mode and in a mesophilic condition (35°C) with a Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of about 40days. A high biogas production of 1.14NL/Ld, with a methane percentage of 65%v/v was obtained, thus permitting a process yield of about 83% to be obtained.

  4. Biogas Application Options within Milk Dairy Cooperatives in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Sommart, Kritapon

    2016-01-01

    By means of a case study conducted within a milk dairy cooperative in Tambon Ban Kor, a district in Khon Kaen Province, this paper analyze opportunities for implementing a biogas development ‘hub’ in Thailand for achieving bio-economic and environmental benefits within a local rural community...

  5. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds semiannual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides). Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  6. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and fa

  7. Biogas: Energy is not a waste of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polit, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. The use of biogas has gained importance in recent years, since it is compatible to the environment, and cheap or free raw materials are available. It can also be a good substitute energy source for the more e

  8. Serial CSTR digester configuration for improving biogas production from manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    A new configuration of manure digesters for improving biogas production has been investigated in laboratory scale. A single thermophilic continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days was compared to a serial CSTR configuration with volume distribution ratio of 80/20 and 90/10, and total HRT of 15 days. The results showed that the serial CSTR could obtain 11% higher biogas yield compared to the single CSTR. The increased biogas yield in the serial CSTR was mainly from the second reactor, which accounted for 16% and 12% of total biogas yield in the 90/10 and 80/20 configuration, respectively. VFA concentration in the serial CSTR was high in the first reactor but very low in the second reactor. The results from organic pulse load test showed that the second reactor in serial CSTR helped utilizing VFA produced from overloading in the first reactor, which improved the effluent quality and conversion efficiency of the serial CSTR.

  9. Enzymatic pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes to improve biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiński, K; Romanowska, I; Kowalska, M

    2012-06-01

    The effect of enzymatic pretreatment of sugar beet pulp and spent hops prior to methane fermentation was determined in this study. These industrial residues were subjected to enzymatic digestion before anaerobic fermentation because of high fiber content (of 85.1% dry matter (DM) and 57.7% DM in sugar beet pulp and spent hops, respectively). Their 24h hydrolysis with a mix of enzymatic preparations Celustar XL and Agropect pomace (3:1, v/v), with endoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase activities, was most effective. Reducing sugars concentrations in hydrolysates of sugar beet pulp and spent hops were by 88.9% and 59.4% higher compared to undigested materials. The highest yield of biogas was obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysate of sugar beet pulp (183.39 mL/d from 1g COD at fermenter loading with organic matter of 5.43 g COD/L × d). Fermentation of sugar beet pulp gave 19% less biogas. Methane fermentation of spent hops hydrolysate yielded 121.47 mL/d biogas from 1g COD (at 6.02 g COD/L × d, 13% more than from spent hops). These results provide evidence that suitable enzymatic pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes improve biogas yield from anaerobic fermentation.

  10. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  11. Development of a biogas planning tool for project owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Kjær, Tyge

    A spreadsheet model was developed, which can be used as a tool in the initial phases of planning a centralized biogas plant in Denmark. The model assesses energy production, total plant costs, operational costs and revenues and effect on greenhouse gas emissions. Two energy utilization alternatives...... to provide data for other documents needed such as economic and environmental assessments....

  12. BIOGAS PROCTION FROM ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF COW DUNG AND ORGANIC WASTES (NAPIER PAK CHONG I AND FOOD WASTE IN THAILAND: TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON BIOGAS PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lertluck Saitawee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production has been attracting increasing attention as a biofuel of the future because biogas technology not only constitutes a biofuel source, but also can be applied in the various environmental pollutants. Anaerobic digestion of high solid slurries (such as food waste and cow dung is typically performed in continuously reactor (by force substrate flow to avoid problems with a thick floating layer or large amounts of sediments. Temperature also seems to have profound influence on the biogas production. The objective of the study was to identify the optimum biogas production for anaerobic co-digestion of cow dung and organic wastes (napierpakchong I and food waste. Influence of temperature (psyhrophilic temperature 25°C and thermoplilic temperature 45°C and active biogas process on single substrate (food waste feed and co-digestion of cow dung and organic wastes (napierpakchong I and food waste was used, within the reactor was studies in 1.80 cm high over a 45 day. Results showed that best digestion was achieved when digested of cow dung, napierpakchong I and food waste on 1:1:1 and thermoplilic temperature. Maximum biogas production (R4, biogas yield, methane content and %VS reduction was found that 70 L/day, 70 L/VS feed, 65 and 80%, respectively. The result showed that the biogas production increased progressively withhigher temperature.The increased in biogas production in thermophilic temperature and psyhrophilic temperature could be up 28.01 and 26%, respectively. The biogas yield increased 12.5% of co-digestion system, which compared to thermophilic temperature and psyhrophilic temperature (R4 and R2. This behavior might be due to the higher degradability. Therefore, temperature of digester can be used effectively as an operating strategy to optimize biogas production.

  13. Production of bio-gas from maize cobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luter Leke, Anne Ada Ogbanje, Dekaa Henry Terfa, Tyoalumun Ikyaagba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of energy crop residues and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation as vehicle fuel. Biogas fuel production from blends of biological wastes such as Cow rumen liquor (CL, Poultry droppings (PD, and Goat Faeces (GF with Maize cobs (M were studied. 20 g of each inoculum was mixed with 100g of degraded maize cobs in the first three digesters while the fourth contained CL 10g, PD 10 g, and M 100 g. 100 g of M alone in the fifth digester served as the control. The blends were subjected to anaerobic digestion for 10 days on the prevailing atmospheric ambient temperature and pressure conditions. Physiochemical properties of the blends such as moisture content, crude protein, ash, fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, and pH were also determined. Results of the daily performances of each system showed that maize cobs (M alone had cumulative biogas yield of 1.50 cm3 while those of the blends (MCL, MPD, MGF and MCLPD were 6.11 cm3, 3.05 cm3, 2.50 cm3, and 63.00 cm3 respectively, pH and C/N ratio affected the biogas yield of the systems significantly. These results indicate that the low biogas production from maize cobs can be enhanced significantly by blending with cow rumen liquor and poultry droppings.

  14. Production of bio-gas from maize cobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leke, Luter [College of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Ogbanje, Anne Ada [Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Department of Renewable Energy, Energy Commission of Nigeria, Garki-Abuja (Nigeria); Terfa, Dekaa Henry [Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Ikyaagba, Tyoalumun [College of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of energy crop residues and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation as vehicle fuel. Biogas fuel production from blends of biological wastes such as Cow rumen liquor (CL), Poultry droppings (PD), and Goat Faeces (GF) with Maize cobs (M) were studied. 20 g of each inoculum was mixed with 100g of degraded maize cobs in the first three digesters while the fourth contained CL 10g, PD 10 g, and M 100 g. 100 g of M alone in the fifth digester served as the control. The blends were subjected to anaerobic digestion for 10 days on the prevailing atmospheric ambient temperature and pressure conditions. Physiochemical properties of the blends such as moisture content, crude protein, ash, fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, and pH were also determined. Results of the daily performances of each system showed that maize cobs (M) alone had cumulative biogas yield of 1.50 cm3 while those of the blends (MCL, MPD, MGF and MCLPD) were 6.11 cm3, 3.05 cm3, 2.50 cm3, and 63.00 cm3 respectively, pH and C/N ratio affected the biogas yield of the systems significantly. These results indicate that the low biogas production from maize cobs can be enhanced significantly by blending with cow rumen liquor and poultry droppings.

  15. COMPARISON BETWEEN BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MANURE OF LAYING HENERS AND BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Kukić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogas plants that process raw materials from agriculture, such as poultry manure, are one of the most significant applications of anaerobic fermentation. In Asian countries, particularly in China, India, Nepal and Vietnam, there are several million very simple, small biogas plants that produce gas for household cooking and lighting. In Europe and North America a number of agricultural biogas plants now, are increasing daily, a few thousand biogas plants exist, most of which use modern technologies, anaerobic fermentation. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of biogas production from poultry manure with 10% of total solids and through the segments of the quality and quantity, determine the content of total solids (DM, volatile solids (OM, and the amount and composition of biogas. The aim was also to justify the use of poultry manure in biogas production and its application for specific purposes Laboratory research showed that 1 kg of poultry 10% of poultry manure produced 47.01 l of biogas during the 40 days of anaerobic fermentation under mezofilic conditions. Production of biogas has a good potential for development in Croatia, especially in the continental part. Usages of this technology are multiple because of the fact that the Republic of Croatia imports most of the energy. Usage of biogas would reduce the import of certain energy and thus reduce energy dependence; it would increase the number of employers and ease the obligation of Croatia toward EU in replacing some fossil fuels with renewable ones.

  16. Status and prospects for household biogas plants in Ghana – lessons, barriers, potential, and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edem Cudjoe Bensah, Moses Mensah, Edward Antwi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghana is a country faced with pressing developmental challenges on energy, sanitation, environment and agriculture. The development of a large scale, enterprise-based biogas programme in Ghana will improve sanitation, produce clean energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, promote nutrient recovery, and create jobs. While aforementioned benefits of biogas are known, the biogas industry is still not growing at rates that would enable its impact on sanitation, agriculture and energy usage to be felt, owing to challenges such as low awareness creation and poor biogas supply chain, lack of well-trained personnel, poor follow-up services, and high cost of biogas digesters – USD 235- 446 per cubic meter. This paper looks at the chronology of biogas developmental in Ghana, technical and market potential of household biogas plants, strengths and weaknesses of main biogas service providers, human resource development, quality issues, and risks involved in developing a large scale household biogas programme. From the paper, the technical and market potential of dung-based, household biogas digesters in Ghana are estimated at 162,066 and 16,207 units respectively. In order to take full advantage of biogas technology, the paper recommends the development of standardized digesters, increase in awareness programmes on the life-long benefits of biogas systems, introduction of flexible payment schemes, and stepping-up of follow-up services. Finally, there is an urgent need for a "promoter" who will engage all stakeholders to ensure that a national action plan on biogas technology is initiated and implemented.

  17. Status and prospects for household biogas plants in Ghana: lessons, barriers, potential, and way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytecnic, Kumasi (Ghana); Mensah, Moses [Chemical Engineering Department, KNUST, PMB, Kumasi (Ghana); Antwi, Edward [Mechanical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2011-07-01

    Ghana is a country faced with pressing developmental challenges on energy, sanitation, environment and agriculture. The development of a large scale, enterprise-based biogas programme in Ghana will improve sanitation, produce clean energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, promote nutrient recovery, and create jobs. While aforementioned benefits of biogas are known, the biogas industry is still not growing at rates that would enable its impact on sanitation, agriculture and energy usage to be felt, owing to challenges such as low awareness creation and poor biogas supply chain, lack of well-trained personnel, poor follow-up services, and high cost of biogas digesters -- USD 235- 446 per cubic meter. This paper looks at the chronology of biogas developmental in Ghana, technical and market potential of household biogas plants, strengths and weaknesses of main biogas service providers, human resource development, quality issues, and risks involved in developing a large scale household biogas programme. From the paper, the technical and market potential of dung-based, household biogas digesters in Ghana are estimated at 162,066 and 16,207 units respectively. In order to take full advantage of biogas technology, the paper recommends the development of standardized digesters, increase in awareness programmes on the life-long benefits of biogas systems, introduction of flexible payment schemes, and stepping-up of follow-up services. Finally, there is an urgent need for a 'promoter' who will engage all stakeholders to ensure that a national action plan on biogas technology is initiated and implemented.

  18. High-calorific biogas production by selective CO₂ retention at autogenerated biogas pressures up to 20 bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E F; Weijma, Jan; van Lier, Jules B

    2012-02-07

    Autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHPD) is a novel configuration of anaerobic digestion, in which micro-organisms produce autogenerated biogas pressures up to 90 bar with >90% CH(4)-content in a single step reactor. (1) The less than 10% CO(2)-content was postulated to be resulting from proportionally more CO(2) dissolution relative to CH(4) at increasing pressure. However, at 90 bar of total pressure Henry's law also predicts dissolution of 81% of produced CH(4). Therefore, in the present research we studied whether CO(2) can be selectively retained in solution at moderately high pressures up to 20 bar, aiming to produce high-calorific biogas with >90% methane. Experiments were performed in an 8 L closed fed-batch pressure digester fed with acetate as the substrate. Experimental results confirmed CH(4) distribution over gas and liquid phase according to Henry's law, but the CO(2)-content of the biogas was only 1-2%, at pH 7, that is, much lower than expected. By varying the ratio between acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC(produced)) of the substrate between 0 and 1, the biogas CO(2)-content could be controlled independently of pressure. However, by decreasing the ANC relative to the TIC(produced) CO(2) accumulation in the aqueous medium caused acidification to pH 5, but remarkably, acetic acid was still converted into CH(4) at a rate comparable to neutral conditions.

  19. Possibility of using biogas in the Brazilian energy system; Possibilidades de utilizacao do biogas no setor energetico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacani Neto, Victor; Guirelli, Cleber Roberto; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mails: victor@neuronioconsultoria.com.br; cguirelli@yahoo.com.br; pazzini@mackenzie.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This work concepts the biogas and studies the possible forms for his attainment on sanity embankments, water and sewage treat stations and bio digesters for electric power generation. Some gas purification techniques are presented for his using as fuel for internal combustion engines, conventional gas turbines and micro turbines.

  20. CO{sub 2} separation from biogas with ceramic membranes; CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung aus Biogas mit keramischen Membranen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassauer, Burkhardt; Richter, Hannes; Schwarz, Bjoern; Reger-Wagner, Norman; Kaemnitz, Susanne [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Dresden (Germany); Lubenau, Udo; Mothes, Raimund [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Biogas contains after the production of up to 55% CO{sub 2}. In order to use biogas as a fuel or to feed it into the natural gas network, it must be purified before. Adsorption and scrubbing processes are primarily used technically. Membrane processes offer the advantage of continuous operation and a simple modular and flexible system design, which imply relatively low investment costs and low energy needs. Moreover, membrane systems can be started up and shut down quickly without any problems. Ceramic membranes are characterised by high stability (thermal, chemical, mechanical) and very high flows in comparison to polymeric membranes. [German] Biogas enthaelt nach der Erzeugung bis zu 55 % CO{sub 2}. Um Biogas als Kraftstoff zu nutzen oder in das Erdgasnetz einspeisen zu koennen, muss es zuvor gereinigt werden. Technisch genutzt werden vor allem Adsorptions- und Waschverfahren. Membranverfahren bieten den Vorteil eines kontinuierlichen Betriebes sowie einer einfachen, modularen und flexiblen Anlagenkonzeption, die vergleichsweise niedrige Investitionskosten und einen geringen Energiebedarf bedeuten. Darueber hinaus koennen Membrananlagen schnell an- und abgefahren werden und voellig ohne Probleme abgeschaltet werden. Keramische Membranen zeichnen sich gegenueber Polymermembranen durch hohe Stabilitaet (thermisch, chemisch, mechanisch) und sehr hohe Fluesse aus.

  1. The role of transportation and co-fermentation in the CO2 balance for utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    at 19 decentralised joint biogas plants involving a varying number of farms (5-100). All of these plants use to some extent co-fermentation with industrial organic waste to increase biogas yield.A fuel chain approach for utilisation of biogas for energy purposes is carried out for determining the role...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...... production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  2. Biogas in Lusaka ? Feasibility study: Possibilities to extract and utilise biogas from municipal solid waste in Lusaka, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Emma; Nelson, Sara

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate possibilities to extract and utilise biogas from municipal solid waste in Lusaka, considering environmental, financial, technological and social aspects. The outcome provided three recommendations: 1 - a new landfill with biocells. The only legal tipping site in Lusaka has been condemned and there are plans for the construction of a new landfill. We recommend that the new site should be a sanitary landfill with full gas and leachate management. Thus, the costs for extracting biogas would be included in the investments for the landfill. It would be advisable to start with a simple end-use application during a running-in period when the technique and organisation is tested. Utilising the gas for internal heating or in a nearby industry will probably be the easiest and cheapest choice. 2 - a pilot project in a high-density area for co-dispersal of latrine and putrescibles. The sanitary conditions in high-density areas, where pit-latrines are the principal sanitary method, are insufficient. It is of great importance to master the situation in order to avoid further epidemics and water pollution. Compared to other solutions we consider a fermentation digester to be the best alternative. The main purpose for this pilot plant would, at least in the initial stage, be to investigate whether this method is a feasible solution for the problems with pit latrines. The aim of the end-use application could then merely be to demonstrate and inform the public about biogas. 3 - further investigations regarding the possibilities to extract and utilise biogas in industries and from manure, The estimated biogas potential from industries and manure and droppings from livestock and chickens is much bigger than from municipal solid waste and should be exploited. The end-use applications would probably be for internal use (heat and/or electricity). This was not investigated any further in our study.

  3. Comparison on biogas production of different biogas digesters%不同工艺沼气池产气效果比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐庆贤; 官雪芳; 林碧芬; 钱蕾; 林斌

    2014-01-01

    以福建省新星种猪育种有限公司和福建省永盛农牧科技发展有限公司的钢筋混凝土沼气池、太阳能加热玻璃钢沼气池和智能化上流式玻璃钢沼气池为研究对象,在进料污水相近,水力滞留期(HRT)同为10 d的条件下,比较分析了不同工艺沼气池一年中的发酵温度随气温变化情况、沼气池进出料COD变化情况以及产气效果。结果表明:①相同条件下,未加温玻璃钢沼气池比混凝土沼气池年平均温度高0.85℃以上,上流式玻璃钢沼气池、折流式玻璃钢沼气池和混凝土沼气池年平均容积产气率分别为0.74,0.44和0.35 m3· m-3·d-1;②太阳能加温玻璃钢沼气池年平均容积产气率为0.77 m3·m-3·d-1,高于未加温玻璃钢沼气池(0.44 m3· m-3· d-1);③智能化玻璃钢沼气池年平均容积产气率为0.93 m3· m-3· d-1,高于太阳能加温玻璃钢沼气池。%The traditional biogas digester , biogas digester of glass fiber reinforced plastic ( GFRP) using solar energy heating system and intelligent biogas digester in Xin-xing pig farm and Yong-sheng pig farm in Fujian Province were compared for biogas production .The index of feed of the three different technology biogas digesters was close and HRT was 10 d.The fermentation temperature changed with climate temperature , COD levels at the entrance and exit of biogas digesters and biogas production rate of biogas digesters were compared and analyzed in one year .The result showed that , firstly in the same conditions , the fermentation temperature of GFRP biogas digester was 0.85℃higher than that of traditional biogas digester , the biogas production rate of up-flow GFRP biogas digester , baffling GFRP biogas digester and traditional biogas digester was 0.74 , 0.44 and 0.35 m3· m-3· d-1 respectively .Secondly , the biogas production rate of GFRP biogas digester using solar energy heating system was 0.74 m3· m-3· d-1 , which was

  4. Online monitoring and control of the biogas process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.

    2006-07-01

    The demand for online monitoring and control of biogas process is increasing, since better monitoring and control system can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. A number of parameters in both the liquid and the gas phase have been suggested as process indicators. These include gas production, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and hydrogen. Of these, VFA is the most widely recognised as a direct, relevant measure of stability. The individual, rather than collective VFA concentrations are recognised as providing significantly more information for diagnosis. However, classic on-line measurement is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling, especially in particulate or slurry wastes. In this project, a new online VFA monitoring system has been developed using gas-phase VFA extraction to avoid sample filtration. The liquid sample is pumped into a sampling chamber, acidified, added with salt and heated to extract VFA into the gas phase before analysis by GC-FID. This allows easy application to manure. Sample and analysis time of the system varies from 25-40 min. depending on the washing duration. The sampling frequency is fast enough for the dynamic of a manure digester, which is in the range of several hours. This system has been validated over more than 6 months and had shown good agreement with offline VFA measurement. Response from this sensor was compared with other process parameters such as biogas production, pH and dissolved hydrogen during overload situations in a laboratory-scale digester, to investigate the suitability of each measure as a process indicator. VFA was most reliable for indicating process imbalance, and propionate was most persistent. However, when coupling the online VFA monitoring with a simple control for automatic controlling propionate level in a digester, it was found that propionate decreased so slow that the biogas production fluctuated. Therefore, it is more

  5. Micro-aeration for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangmanee, Thanapong

    The presence of sulfur compounds (e.g. protein, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, etc.) in the feed stream generates highly corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide during anaerobic digestion. The high sulfide level in the biogas stream is not only poisonous to many novel metal catalysts employed in thermo-catalytic processes but also reduces the quality of methane to produce renewable energy. This study used an innovative, low-maintenance, low-cost biological sulfide removal technology to remove sulfides simultaneously from both gas and liquid phase. ORP (Oxidation-Reduction-Potential) was used as the controlling parameter to precisely regulate air injection to the sulfide oxidizing unit (SOU). The microaeration technique provided just enough oxygen to partially oxidize sulfides to elemental sulfur without inhibiting methanogenesis. The SOU was equipped with a diffuser at the bottom for the dispersion of sulfide-laden biogas and injected air throughout the column. The SOU can be operated as a standalone unit or coupled with an anaerobic digester to simultaneously remove sulfide from the biogas and effluent. The integrated system was capable of reducing hydrogen sulfide in biogas from 2,450 to less than 2 ppmV with minimal sulfate production at the highest available sulfide loading rate of 0.24 kg/m3-day. More than 98% of sulfide removed was recovered as elemental sulfur. However, the standalone SOU was able to operate at high hydrogen sulfide loading of 1.46 kg/m 3-day at inlet sulfide concentration of 3000 ppmV and reduce the off-gas hydrogen sulfide concentrations to less than 10 ppmV. The experiment also revealed that the ORP controlled aeration was sensitive enough to prevent oxygen overdosing (dampening effect) during unexpected surges of aeration. Using generalized linear regression, a model predicting output H2S concentration based on input H2S concentrations, SOU medium heights, and biogas flow rates, was derived. With 95% confidence, output H2S concentration

  6. Spatial competition for biogas production using insights from retail location models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Birkin, M.; Clarke, G.

    2014-01-01

    small biogas plants. Consequently, this minimizes the single most important production cost factor, transportation. The developed framework can be used and further developed in an analysis of how the spatial availability of, and competition for, different types of biomass can supplement each other......Biogas production is an important contemporary topic within agriculture as well as bioenergy production, both from an industrial and an academic point of view. The Danish biogas sector, which has been around for many years, is still struggling to establish itself as an economically viable energy...... analysis framework developed in this paper, facilitate the analysis and discussion of how national policies can be fulfilled. The capacity expansion of the Danish biogas sector should be centred on large-scale biogas production since large biogas plants are found to have 16% lower transportation costs than...

  7. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications.

  8. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease.

  9. An integrated prediction and optimization model of biogas production system at a wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaş, Halil; Bilgen, Bilge; Turhan, Aykut Melih

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes an integrated prediction and optimization model by using multi-layer perceptron neural network and particle swarm optimization techniques. Three different objective functions are formulated. The first one is the maximization of methane percentage with single output. The second one is the maximization of biogas production with single output. The last one is the maximization of biogas quality and biogas production with two outputs. Methane percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and other contents' percentage are used as the biogas quality criteria. Based on the formulated models and data from a wastewater treatment facility, optimal values of input variables and their corresponding maximum output values are found out for each model. It is expected that the application of the integrated prediction and optimization models increases the biogas production and biogas quality, and contributes to the quantity of electricity production at the wastewater treatment facility.

  10. Bioelectrochemical removal of carbon dioxide (CO2): an innovative method for biogas upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Kaijun; Holmes, Dawn E

    2014-12-01

    Innovative methods for biogas upgrading based on biological/in-situ concepts have started to arouse considerable interest. Bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 for biogas upgrading was proposed here and demonstrated in both batch and continuous experiments. The in-situ biogas upgrading system seemed to perform better than the ex-situ one, but CO2 content was kept below 10% in both systems. The in-situ system's performance was further enhanced under continuous operation. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and alkali production with CO2 absorption could be major contributors to biogas upgrading. Molecular studies showed that all the biocathodes associated with biogas upgrading were dominated by sequences most similar to the same hydrogenotrophic methanogen species, Methanobacterium petrolearium (97-99% sequence identity). Conclusively, bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 showed great potential for biogas upgrading.

  11. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate.

  12. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (preactor fed with ultrasound pretreated diluted OMW produced approximately 20

  13. Biogas and mineral fertiliser production from plant residues of phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2011-07-01

    The former uranium mining site in Ronneburg, Thuringia, Germany was known as a big source of uranium with more than 113,000 tons of uranium mined from 1946 to 1990. This area has been remediated since the nineties of the last century. However, nowadays the site in Ronneburg is still specially considered because of the heterogeneous contamination by many heavy metals and the vegetation can be affected. Three plant species including Indian mustard - Brassica juncea L., triticale - x. Triticosecale Wittmaek and sunflower - Helianthus annuus L. were seeded as accumulators of heavy metals and radionuclides in the phytoremediation process in 2009 and 2010 in Ronneburg. The subsequent utilization of the plant residues after phytoremediation is of special consideration. Batch fermentation of harvested plant materials under the mesophilic condition showed that all of the investigated plant materials had much higher biogas production than liquid cow manure except triticale root, of which biogas yield per volatile solid was not significantly higher than the one of sludge. The highest biogas yields (311 L{sub N}/kg FM and 807 L{sub N}/kg VS) were achieved from the spica of triticale after 42 days of retention of anaerobic digestion. Triticale shoot residues generated higher biogas and methane yields than the previously reported triticale materials that were harvested from the uncontaminated soil Triticale was considered as the highest potential species in biogas production, beside the best growth ability on the acidic soil at the test field site with highest biomass production. Biogas yield of Indian mustard shoot was also high but dramatically varied from 2009 to 2010. Digestates after anaerobic digestion of plant residues contained various macronutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur, and various micronutrients such as iron, manganes, zinc, etc. The accumulation levels of heavy metals in the investigated plant materials were not the hindrance factors

  14. Analysis of the Value Chain for Biogas in Tanzania Northern Zone (Tanga, Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Manyara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagabona, N.T.

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed at exploring weaknesses in the biogas value chain that hinder wider dissemination of the technology in Tanzania. The research included assessment of processes and activities carried out by the players, the influencers and business supporters of the biogas value chain. The methodology used is holistic, combining literature review with focus group discussions and interviews with actors and observations of processes across the value chain in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions, where biogas has the longest history in Tanzania.

  15. Characterization of biogas bibliography measures on sites; Caracterisation des Biogaz bibliographie mesures sur sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulleau, J.

    2002-10-15

    The aim of this study is to define the pollutants emissions related to the combustion of biogas of different sources: motors, furnaces, flares...The project is presented in three parts: a bibliographic study on the chemical characterization of the biogas, a first series of measures on production sites and a second series of measures on a site of valorization and destruction of biogas. (A.L.B.)

  16. Life-cycle assessment for power generation from agricultural biogas; Oekobilanz der Stromgewinnung aus landwirtschaftlichem Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W.; Schleiss, K.; Engeli, H.; Baier, U.

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of life-cycle assessments (LCA) made of two types of digester construction - concrete and steel - with the goal of analysing the possibilities of labelling such plants with the Swiss 'Naturemade Star' eco-label. In the study, different combinations of parameters were calculated for different substrates and combinations of them. The calculation of sensitivities allows, according to the authors, an accurate discussion of those parameters important in the context of this LCA. They conclude that the production of electricity from biogas is environmentally safer than electricity generated by conventional means. The report describes the plants and discusses the various input materials, infrastructure elements, transport and disposal questions as well as the emissions produced from the eco-balance point of view. The results of the LCA and the consequences for certification and labelling of the electricity produced in such plant are discussed. An appendix provides details on energy measurements, examples of energy balances and the damage that can be caused by ammonia emissions.

  17. CONTEXT MATTERS: THE IMPORTANCE OF MARKET CHARACTERISTICS IN THE VOLATILITY OF FEEDSTOCK COSTS FOR BIOGAS PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, A; Van Meensel, J; Mondelaers, K; Buysse, J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, biogas plant managers in Flanders face increased financial uncertainty. Between 2011 and 2012, 20% of the Flemish biogas plants went bankrupt. Difficulties in obtaining feedstock at stable and affordable prices is one reason why the biogas sector struggles. In literature, contracting is often proposed as a way to decrease the volatility of the feedstock costs. However, these studies generally do not consider the context in which the biogas plant manager needs to buy the feedstock. Yet, this context could be of specific importance when biogas plant managers are in competition with other users of the same biomass type. Silage maize is an example of such a feedstock, as it is both used by dairy farmers and biogas plant managers. Using a combination of qualitative research and agent-based modelling, we investigated the effect of specific characteristics of the silage maize market on the acquisition of local silage maize by biogas plant managers. This paper details the institutional arrangements of the silage maize market in Flanders and the results of a scenario analysis, simulating three different scenarios. As shown by the results, the time of entry into the market, as well as the different institutional arrangements used by the biogas plant managers as opposed to dairy farmers could explain the difficulties in obtaining a stable supply of local silage maize by biogas plants. Our findings can help to develop mitigation strategies addressing these difficulties.

  18. Microbiological community in biogas systems and evaluation of microbial risks from gas usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinneraas, B.; Nordin, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Biometry and Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Schoenning, C. [Swedish Inst. for Infectious Disease Control, Dept. of Parasitology, Mycology, Environmental Mirobiology and Water, Solna (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The plans for introducing biogas produced from organic waste to the pipe system for natural gas have raised concerns about the risk of transmitting disease via the gas. To assess this risk, condensate water from gas pipes and gas from different parts of biogas upgrading systems were sampled and cultured for microbial content. The number of microorganisms found in the biogas correspond to the densities in sampled natural gas. Since no pathogens were identified and since the exposure to gas from e. g. cookers and refueling of cars may only result in the inhalation of small volumes of gas, the risk of spreading disease via biogas was judged to be very low. (orig.)

  19. Comparative review of foam formation in biogas plants and ruminant bloat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie; Goersch, Kati; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Mueller, Roland Arno [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Environmental and Biotechnology Centre; Neuhaus, Juergen [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Bacteriology and Mycology

    2012-12-15

    This review gives an overview of the current knowledge concerning the problem of foam formation in the process of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants that utilize renewable resources or biogenic waste material for biogas production. Process upsets in biogas production induced by foam formation can have a negative impact on the efficiency of biogas plants. The foam can block gas pipes and cause severe damage to the bioreactor equipment, ranging from a failure of the feeders to a damage of the roof of the biogas plant. The most common foam removal methods - stirring in the foam, adding anti-foaming agents, diminishing substrate feeding, and altering the biogas reactor management - are not always successful. However, the reasons for the excessive foam formation during the biogas production process have not yet been elucidated in detail. In contrast, foam building in the rumen of ruminants as a cause for bloat has been studied thoroughly. In general, the interaction between proteins, polysaccharides (mucilage), and small plant particles is assumed to be the crucial factor. As the fermentation process in the rumen has many similarities with the biogas production process, the current research results on bloat in ruminants are summarized and compared with the process of foaming in biogas plants. (orig.)

  20. Effect of temperature and active biogas process on passive separation of digested manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    separation was achieved when digested manure was allowed to settle at 55 degrees C with active biogas process (pre-incubated at 55 degrees C) compared to separation at 55 degrees C without active biogas process (autoclaved at 120 degrees C, for 20 min) or at 10 degrees C with active biogas process. Maximum...... solids separation was noticed 24 h after settling in column incubated at 55 degrees C, with active biogas process. Microbiological analyses revealed that proportion of Archaea and Bacteria, absent in the autoclaved material, varied with incubation temperature, time and sampling depth. Short rod shaped...

  1. Economies of scale in biogas production and the significance of flexible regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , and demonstrate that transport cost can be critical in relation to co-substrates. Further we compare the new Danish support for upgraded biogas with the traditional support for biogas being used in Combined Heat and Power production in relation to scale economies. We argue that economies of scale is facilitated...... by the new regulation providing similar support to upgraded biogas fed into the natural gas grid, however in order to keep transport costs low, we suggest that the biogas plants should be allowed to use and combine as many co-substrates as possible, respecting the sustainability criteria regarding energy...

  2. Potential of Biogas Power Plant Produced by Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shuhada Ghazali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas typically refers to a gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It is a renewable energy source, like solar and wind energy. Furthermore, biogas can be produced from regionally available raw materials and recycled waste and is environmentally friendly and CO2 neutral. Biogas is produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material, and crops. Biogas comprises primarily methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S, moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel. Biogas can be compressed, much like natural gas, and used to power motor vehicles. Biogas is a renewable fuel so it qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world. Biogas can also be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards when it becomes bio methane. This paper will discuss the potential of biogas in order to provide a clean, easily controlled source of renewable energy from organic waste materials for a small labour input, replacing firewood or fossil fuels which are becoming more expensive as supply falls behind demand.

  3. Analysis of biogas production through anaerobics digestion using cow dung and various co-substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanapal Thamilselvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable waste is a sustainable energy resource. In coming years biogas technology can be very useful worldwide, since biogas can be obtained from biodegradable waste material. This technology is based on waste reduction and also is helpful in the clean-up process of India. In this experiment, we have made single-phase biogas set-ups by using two-liter bottles. The fermentation time of the anaerobic digestion for the efficient use of gas as a fuel is about sixteen days. In our biogas digester set-ups for waste decomposion anaerobic co-digestion process is utilized. The primary feed stock is cow dung, whereas the grass, fruit, and vegetable waste are used as co-subtracts. The pH value was maintained at the range level of 6.5 to 6.9. The output biogas yield was 1.59 ml, 1.28 ml, 1.03 ml, and 0.95 ml, within an approximate period of sixteen days. Biogas obtained from cow dung and grass waste is almost identical as biogas obtained from the experimental set-up 1 (pure cow dung. Main performance characteristics of biogas formation were presented in this paper. In order to analyze a daily biogas formation, the pH value, temperature, and hydraulic retention time were changed in this experiment.

  4. Bioaugmentation of biogas production by a hydrogen-producing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Norbert; Bagi, Zoltán; Rákhely, Gábor; Minárovics, János; Nagy, Katalin; Kovács, Kornél L

    2015-06-01

    The rate-limiting nature of the hydrogen concentration prevailing in the anaerobic digester has been recognized, but the associated alterations in the microbial community are unknown. In response to the addition of Enterobacter cloacae cells in laboratory anaerobic digesters, the level of biogas production was augmented. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR) were used to study the survival of mesophilic hydrogen-producing bacteria and the effects of their presence on the composition of the other members of the bacterial community. E. cloacae proved to maintain a stable cell number and to influence the microbial composition of the system. Bioaugmentation by a single strain added to the natural biogas-producing microbial community was demonstrated. The community underwent pronounced changes as a result of the relatively slight initial shift in the microbiological system, responding sensitively to the alterations in local hydrogen concentration.

  5. Eksplosion i rådnetank med biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    En rådnetank på Vejle Centralrenseanlæg eksploderede i 1990, mens håndværkere arbejdede på taget. Nu, 24 år senere, hvor biogas er populært som aldrig før, er hændelsen fuldstændig forsvundet fra tilgængelige åbne kilder.......En rådnetank på Vejle Centralrenseanlæg eksploderede i 1990, mens håndværkere arbejdede på taget. Nu, 24 år senere, hvor biogas er populært som aldrig før, er hændelsen fuldstændig forsvundet fra tilgængelige åbne kilder....

  6. Eksplosion i rådnetank med biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2014-01-01

    En rådnetank på Vejle Centralrenseanlæg eksploderede i 1990, mens håndværkere arbejdede på taget. Nu, 24 år senere, hvor biogas er populært som aldrig før, er hændelsen fuldstændig forsvundet fra tilgængelige åbne kilder.......En rådnetank på Vejle Centralrenseanlæg eksploderede i 1990, mens håndværkere arbejdede på taget. Nu, 24 år senere, hvor biogas er populært som aldrig før, er hændelsen fuldstændig forsvundet fra tilgængelige åbne kilder....

  7. Towards a sustainable capacity expansion of the Danish biogas sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Boerboom, Luc; Skov-Petersen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Promotion of bioenergy production is an important contemporary topic around the world. Vast amounts of research are allocated towards analysing and understanding bioenergy systems, which are by nature multi-faceted. Despite a focus on the deployment of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods...... for planning of bioenergy systems, only little research has addressed the location component of bioenergy facility planning. In this paper the authors develop a model for sustainable capacity expansion of the Danish biogas sector allowing for an identification and prioritization of suitable locations...... for biogas production. The model builds on a framework for spatial planning and decision making through the application of spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE). The paper is structured around a case study including four Danish municipalities in order to demonstrate the power of the spatial multi-criteria...

  8. Towards a sustainable capacity expansion of the Danish biogas sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Mikkel; Boerboom, Luc; Skov-Petersen, Hans

    Promotion of bioenergy production is an important contemporary topic around the world. Vast amounts of research are allocated towards analysing and understanding bioenergy systems, which are by nature multi-faceted. Despite a focus on the deployment of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods...... for planning of bioenergy systems, only little research has addressed the location component of bioenergy facility planning. In this paper the authors develop a model for sustainable capacity expansion of the Danish biogas sector allowing for an identification and prioritization of suitable locations...... for biogas production. The model builds on a framework for spatial planning and decision making through the application of spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE). The paper is structured around a case study including four Danish municipalities in order to demonstrate the power of the spatial multi-criteria...

  9. Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan (Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Inst. of Environmental Technology, Zhejiang Forestry University, Linan (China))

    2010-05-15

    Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition of microflora in both nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils. The results showed that application of concentrated slurry could bring significant changes to tomato cultivation, including increases in organic matter, available N, P, and K, total N and P, electrical conductivity, and fruit contents of amino acids, protein, soluble sugar, beta-carotene, tannins, and vitamin C, together with the R/S ratios and the culturable counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in soils. It was concluded that the application is a practicable means in tomato production and will better service the area of sustainable agriculture

  10. Microbial analysis in biogas reactors suffering by foaming incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Panagiotis G; De Francisci, Davide; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-09-01

    Foam formation can lead to total failure of digestion process in biogas plants. In the present study, possible correlation between foaming and the presence of specific microorganisms in biogas reactors was elucidated. The microbial ecology of continuous fed digesters overloaded with proteins, lipids and carbohydrates before and after foaming incidents was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Moreover, the microbial diversity between the liquid and foaming layer was assessed. A number of genera that are known to produce biosurfactants, contain mycolic acid in their cell wall, or decrease the surface tension of the media, increased their relative abundance after foam formation. Finally, a microorganism similar to widely known foaming bacteria (Nocardia and Desulfotomaculum) was found to increase its relative abundance in all reactors once foam was observed, regardless of the used substrate. These findings suggest that foaming and specific microorganisms might have direct association which requires to be further investigated.

  11. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2014-02-10

    The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia.

  12. Lab-scale Technology for Biogas Production from Lignocellulose Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Krátký

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently-operating biogas plants are based on the treatment of lignocellulose biomass, which is included in materials such as agriculture and forestry wastes, municipal solid wastes, waste paper, wood and herbaceous energy crops. Lab-scale biogas technology was specially developed for evaluating the anaerobic biodegrability and the specific methane yields of solid organic substrates. This technology falls into two main categories – pretreatment equipments, and fermentation equipments. Pretreatment units use physical principles based on mechanical comminution (ball mills, macerator orhydrothermal treatment (liquid hot water pretreatment technology. The biochemical methane potential test is used to evaluate the specific methane yields of treated or non-treated organic substrates. This test can be performed both by lab testing units and by lab fermenter.

  13. Dynamic biogas upgrading based on the Sabatier process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of substitute natural gas (SNG) generation using biogas from anaerobic digestion and hydrogen from renewable energy systems. Using thermodynamic equilibrium analysis, kinetic reactor modeling and transient simulation, an integrated approach...... for the operation of a biogas-based Sabatier process was put forward, which was then verified using a lab scale heterogenous methanation reactor. The process simulation using a kinetic reactor model demonstrated the feasibility of the production of SNG at gas grid standards using a single reactor setup. The Wobbe...... index, CO2 content and calorific value were found to be controllable by the H2/CO2 ratio fed the methanation reactor. An optimal H2/CO2 ratio of 3.45–3.7 was seen to result in a product gas with high calorific value and Wobbe index. The dynamic reactor simulation verified that the process start...

  14. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  15. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomie A. Gebrezgabher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability we estimated the expected technical and financial performance of 4 types of business models, i.e. “CHP-farm”, “CHP-large”, “green gas” and “central upgrading of green gas”. Data stem from among others 23 biogas plants in the Netherlands. Anticipating that CHP-models and green gas models occur with a likelihood of 40% and 60% respectively, the total number of biogas plants would amount to 232 (1% of dairy farms, including a total of 5 million tons of manure per year (14% of all cattle manure in the Netherlands and annual government subsidies of Euro 295 million. Aggregated annual profits are expected to be positive, but over the project’s total life time there is an expected deficit of Euro 262. For this to change costs of feedstocks or digestate disposal costs would for instance have to go down. Also fully switching to green gas models dampens the deficit. Results are used in current stakeholders debates on the organization of an “energy neutral dairy chain” in the Netherlands. Further analyses incorporating uncertainty around key technical and economic parameters including financial impacts of CO2-reductions are underway.

  16. Forecast of biogas generation in Lithuanian regional land fills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Šalčiūnaitė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of generated waste in Lithuania ranges from 35,000 tons to 261,865 tons per year. 35% of this quantity is biodegradable waste – i.e. about 27,830 tons/year. 75% of municipal waste in Lithuania is disposed in landfills. Such management of municipal waste is dangerous because of environmental pollution with the biogas and leachate, increased global greenhouse effect, and so on. From 1 ton of landfill waste it is possible to get about 10 m3 of landfill gas, after using it 13 kWh and 50 kWh of thermal energy could be made. There was presented in this article the estimated amount of biogas produced by Lithuanian regional landfills each separately and all co-production of biogas from landfills potential Lithuania, using the software LandGEM. Total volume of gas liberated in landfills ranges from 7.8 × 106 to 5.8 × 107 m3/year of methane and carbon dioxide in an amount ranging from 3.9 × 106 to 2.9 × 107 m3/year. Minimum quantities of biogas generated in Tauragės regional landfill – 7.8 × 106 m3/year, and the highest – Kaunas regional landfill – 5.8 × 107 m3/year. From the generated biogass it would be possible to yield 2,145 × 108 kWh of electricity and 8.25 × 108 kWh of thermal energy.

  17. Biogas production: This is how the Swedes do it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    In Sweden, biogas is produced according to the Abetong-Sabema process. Thermophilic microorganisms are employed for anaerobic digestion. At 55/sup 0/C, residence time is 3 to 5 days. In contrast to other facilities in application, this means a reduction of the digestion space by a factor of six or seven and, thus, reduced investments. Desinfection of the manure takes place under these high temperatures. With a facility operating since 1978, liquid manure is pumped directly from the stable into a 20 cbm prechamber located in the interior of the gas reactor. The liquid manure is heated to 55/sup 0/C and then discharged into the 240 cbm main chamber where the liquid manure is constantly stirred in order to avoid float layers and deposits. The biogas is compressed, stored and combusted in a Fiat ''Totem'' engine producing electricity and hot water. The facility produces 210,000 cbm of biogas. 310,000 kWh of electricity and 590 kWh of heat are available as useful energy. App. 60% of the total energy can be utilized under Swedish conditions. A 40 cbm facility employs a horizontal cylindric main chamber and a separate prechamber. This facility will work without stirring.

  18. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

  19. Intensification of biogas production using pretreatment based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pankaj N; Gogate, Parag R; Csoka, Levente; Dregelyi-Kiss, Agota; Horvath, Miklos

    2016-05-01

    The present work investigates the application of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) for the pretreatment of wheat straw with an objective of enhancing the biogas production. The hydrodynamic cavitation reactor is based on a stator and rotor assembly. The effect of three different speeds of rotor (2300, 2500, 2700 rpm), wheat straw to water ratios (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) and also treatment times as 2, 4 and 6 min have been investigated in the work using the design of experiments (DOE) approach. It was observed that the methane yield of 31.8 ml was obtained with untreated wheat straw whereas 77.9 ml was obtained with HC pre-treated wheat straw confirming the favourable changes during the pre-treatment. The combined pre-treatment using KOH and HC gave maximum yield of biogas as 172.3 ml. Overall, it has been established that significant enhancement in the biogas production can be obtained due to the pretreatment using HC which can also be further intensified by combination with chemical treatment.

  20. Metaproteomics of complex microbial communities in biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Robert; Kohrs, Fabian; Reichl, Udo; Benndorf, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Production of biogas from agricultural biomass or organic wastes is an important source of renewable energy. Although thousands of biogas plants (BGPs) are operating in Germany, there is still a significant potential to improve yields, e.g. from fibrous substrates. In addition, process stability should be optimized. Besides evaluating technical measures, improving our understanding of microbial communities involved into the biogas process is considered as key issue to achieve both goals. Microscopic and genetic approaches to analyse community composition provide valuable experimental data, but fail to detect presence of enzymes and overall metabolic activity of microbial communities. Therefore, metaproteomics can significantly contribute to elucidate critical steps in the conversion of biomass to methane as it delivers combined functional and phylogenetic data. Although metaproteomics analyses are challenged by sample impurities, sample complexity and redundant protein identification, and are still limited by the availability of genome sequences, recent studies have shown promising results. In the following, the workflow and potential pitfalls for metaproteomics of samples from full-scale BGP are discussed. In addition, the value of metaproteomics to contribute to the further advancement of microbial ecology is evaluated. Finally, synergistic effects expected when metaproteomics is combined with advanced imaging techniques, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metabolomics are addressed.

  1. The Use of Gas Chromatography for Biogas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Amanda; Seeley, John; Aurandt, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    Energy from natural gas accounts for 24 percent of energy consumed in the US. Natural gas is a robust form of energy which is rich in methane content and is low in impurities. This quality suggests that it is a very clean and safe gas; it can be used in providing heat, a source for cooking, and in powering vehicles. The downside is that it is a non-renewable resource. On the contrary, methane rich gas that is produced by the breakdown of organic material in an anaerobic environment, called biogas, is a renewable energy source. This research focuses on the gas analysis portion of the creation of the anaerobic digestion and verification laboratory where content and forensic analysis of biogas is performed. Gas Chromatography is implemented as the optimal analytical tool for quantifying the components of the biogas including methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes. In addition, the problems associated with the undesirable components are discussed. Anaerobic digestion of primary sludge has consistently produced about 55 percent methane; future goals of this research include studying different substrates to increase the methane yield and decrease levels of impurities in the gas.

  2. Hygiene and sanitation requirements in Danish biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixen, H.J.

    1997-08-01

    According to Danish regulations, systematic pathogen reducing treatment is required, when industrial by-products and waste products, and urban waste, ie garbage from households and sewage sludge, are processed, before being used - without restrictions - as fertilizers on agricultural land. An adequate pathogen reducing effect (PRE) can be achieved in the digestion tanks and sanitation tanks of the biogas plants, provided they are operated correctly and respect the criteria of the official requirements. The FS-method is a microbiological indicator method based on faecal streptococci (enterococci) (FS). It may be used to check the sanitation effect achieved by the treatment in a tank. The effect is expressed numerically by the log{sub 10}-reduction of the numbers of FS measured in the biomass before and after treatment. The PRE was examined in 10 large-scale biogas plants during a period of 2-3 years. It was demonstrated that properly directed and well-functioning thermophilic digestion tanks ensure the removal of most pathogenic microorganisms from organic waste and slurry. The removal of pathogens by the treatment in mesophilic digestion tanks is incomplete. Systematic studies of the processes of inactivation of bacteria and virus in slurry and in animal tissues gave evidence that the PRE is enhanced in the microbiological environment of thermophilic digestion tanks. The sanitation criteria, ie combinations of temperature/time, for the processing of biomass in digestion tanks and sanitation tanks in biogas plants are specified. (au) 19 refs.

  3. The possibility of palm oil mill effluent for biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Indonesia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil (Elaeis guiinensis Jacq.. The aims of the research were to (i characterize palm oil mill effluent which will be used as source of biogas production, (ii know the biotic and abiotic factors which effect POME substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in bulk system. The results show that POME sludge generated from PT Pinago Utama mill is viscous, brown or grey and has an average total solid (TS content of, 26.5-45.4, BOD is 23.5-29.3, COD is 49.0-63.6 and SS is 17.1-35.9 g/L, respectively. This substrate is a potential source of environmental pollutants. The biotic factors were kind and concentration of the inoculums, i.e. seed sludge of anaerobic lagoon II and 20% (w/v respectively. Both physical and chemical factors such as pre-treated POME pH, pH neutralizer matter Ca (OH2, temperature ≥40oC, agitation effect to increase biogas production, but in both coagulant concentration, FeCl2 were not.

  4. Influences of different substrates on simulated lignite biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Aikuan; Qin Yong; Shao Pei

    2015-01-01

    Using lignite samples, selected from Zhaotong basin, Yunnan province, China, as the parent source, sim-ulating experiments of lignite biogas were conducted with 0.1% methanol, 5 mg/L yeast extract and 0.2 mol/L sodium acetate solutions as the exogenous substance respectively. Variation characteristics of gas production, gas composition, VFA content and activity of coenzyme F420 in the simulated process were analyzed to discuss the influence of different substrates on lignite biogas generation. The results show that 0.1%methanol and 5 mg/L yeast extract solutions increase VFA contents in the biogas gener-ation system (p <0.05) and inhibit coenzyme F420 and methanogen activities significantly, so they decrease both gas amounts (p<0.05) and CH4 contents (p<0.05). 0.2 mol/L sodium acetate solution acti-vates coenzyme F420 and methanogen activities and improves the efficiency of enzymatic reaction, so the gas quantity (p<0.05) and the CH4 content (p<0.01) increase significantly. Therefore, sodium acetate can be one kind of good exogenous substance for the generation of lignite biogenic gas.

  5. Optimization cogeneration and use of biogas; Optimalisatie WKK en Biogasbenutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clevering-Loeffen, P.; Klaassens, N.; Schelleman, F.; Geraats, B.

    2011-12-15

    The Dutch local water authorities are producing biogas via sludge digestion installations, which is usually deployed in a CHP installation that produces energy for the sewage water treatment plant. However, new energy techniques are entering the market (ORC, fuel cell) while energy policy supports the production of green gas. Various studies have examined the sustainability and feasibility of these routes. This report examines the different options. It answers questions such as: (1) How can the operational management of CHP installations in sewage water treatment plants be improved; and (2) What is the most favorable route for biogas utilization in sewage water treatment plants [Dutch] De waterschappen in Nederland produceren biogas via slibvergistingsinstallaties, meestal benut in een WKK die elektriciteit voor de RWZI (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallatie) produceert. Er komen echter nieuwe energietechnieken op de markt (ORC, brandstofcel) terwijl er vanuit het energiebeleid de productie van groen gas wordt gestimuleerd. In diverse studies zijn de duurzaamheid en de haalbaarheid van deze routes onderzocht. In dit rapport worden de verschillende mogelijkheden onderzocht. De vraagstelling voor deze studie is: (1)Hoe kan de bedrijfsvoering van WKK's bij RWZI's worden verbeterd; en (2) Wat is de meest gunstige route voor biogasbenutting bij RWZI's.

  6. Gas exchanges in soybean as affected by landfill biogas atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Zerbi, G. (Univ. di Udine (Italy). Dipt. di Produzione Vegetale e Tecnologie Agrarie); Mori, A.; Leita, L. (Ist. Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante-Sezione di Gorizia (Italy))

    A problem in the ecological restoration of closed landfills is the production of potentially toxic gases by decomposition of refuse that affects the root system and physiology of plants growing on these sites. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects induced by landfill biogas contamination on gas-exchanges of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Simulated landfill and control gases were supplied to soybean plants under laboratory conditions for 10 d. The composition of the simulated landfill gas used was: 16% O[sub 2], 8% CO[sub 2], 3% CH[sub 4], and 73% N[sub 2]; a control gas was also tested. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were significantly affected by the gas treatment after 3 d; in the course of the experiment, biogas treatment progressively reduced A[sub max] in light-saturation curves. The fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content were not affected by the treatment. A metabolic adaptation to the biogas in the roots of treated plants was related to the disappearance of a fraction of the protein pool.

  7. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wikandari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR, the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor.

  8. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengadukan merupakan salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh pada kehidupan mikroba. Dan pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan perancangan sistem pengaduk yang digerakkan oleh sebuah motor dimana menggunakan timer dan pengatur kecepatan. Desain disesuaikan dengan substrat yang digunakan yaitu limbah cair tahu dan eceng gondok, yang mengalami pengendapan sehingga pada pengaduk memiliki blade yang diletakkan di dasar dalam bioreaktor. Sistem pengadukan dilakukan pada saat nilai pH yang diamati tiap harinya mengalami penurunan, yaitu pada hari ke–24 pH bernilai 6,49. Dan pada pengukuran berikutnya ditunjukkan dengan pH bernilai 6,89. Pengadukan dilakukan secara pelan dengan putaran 170 rpm selama 2 x 1 menit. Hasil daripada jumlah produksi biogas yang dihasilkan bisa dibandingkan antara bioreaktor batch tidak berpengaduk dengan bioreaktor batch berpengaduk, dimana berturut-turut memiliki jumlah volume 467 mL (25 hari dan 873 mL (31 hari.

  9. Colloidal processing of porous membranes for biogas lighting; Processamento coloidal de membranas porosas para iIluminacao por biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, S.C.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H., E-mail: silascs@ipen.br, E-mail: srmello@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays the urban garbage is a great economic and environmental challenge in the whole world. Solid wastes stored in continuous form in landfills are subject of natural variables, transforming them (by bioconversion) in biogas which can be used as energy font in many applications as urban lighting. However, technology to produce it has not been stabilized in Brazil yet. So, in this work porous membranes of rare earth -yttria concentrate (Ctr-Y) with potential to be used as biogas mantles were produced by replica method. The effect of solids and binder concentration on rheological behavior of Ctr-Y suspensions were evaluated by flux curves. According to the results, suspensions with 25vol% and 0,2wt% of CMC showed adequated viscosity and rheological behavior (thixotropy) for replica method. Sintered samples presented the same morphology of template and good handle strength. (author)

  10. Solar assisted biogas plants: Pt. 4. Optimum area for blackening and double glazing over a fixed-dome biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayashankar, B.C.; Kishor, J.; Goyal, I.C.; Sawhney, R.L.; Sodha, M.S.

    The economic analysis of a fixed-dome biogas plant of rated capacity 8 m/sup 3/, above which a part of the ground is blackened and doubly glazed in the cold climate of Srinagar is presented. Blackening and glazing of the ground cannot alone maintain the slurry temperature at 35/sup 0/C, which is the optimum temperature in the mesophilic range for the anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, and so a part of the biogas must be burnt. The electrical simulation experiments have been performed to determine the loss or gain of heat from the underground biodigestor to the ambient atmosphere through the ground if a part of the ground above is blackened and double glazed. Economic analysis of the system shows that the optimum area to be blackened and glazed would have a radius 1.5 times that of the biodigestor.

  11. The future of biogas in Europe: visions and targets until 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Nielsen, J.B. [Aalborg Univ., Esbjerg (Denmark). ACABS Research Group]|[Southern Denmark Univ., Esbjerg (Denmark). Bioenergy Dept.; Oleskowicz-Popiel, P. [Southern Denmark Univ., Esbjerg (Denmark). Bioenergy Dept.

    2007-07-01

    Biogas can be produced of nearly all kinds of organic materials. It is closely linked to agricultural activities and human consumption. Wherever there is a large population, and thereby a comprehensive quality food production of a broad mixture of vegetable and animal foods, the right conditions exist for biogas production. In the future the large volume of biogas will be integrated into the European farming systems. There are quite a few biogas process volumes at the current wastewater treatment plants, landfill gas installations, and industrial biowaste processing facilities. However, the largest volume of produced biogas will, by 2020, originate from farm biogas and from large co-digestion biogas plants, integrated into the farming- and food-processing structures. The EU policy concerning renewable energy (RES) has set forward a fixed goal of supplying 20% of the European energy demands from RES. It is without doubt, that a major part of the renewable energy will originate from European farming and forestry: as biomass conversion to gaseous, liquid and solid biofuels. The gaseous part - the biogas production - has its own, more and more consolidated platform. The forecasts look promising. At least 25% of all bioenergy in the future can originate from biogas, produces from wet organic materials, like animal manure, whole crop silages, wet organic food/feed wastes etc. The forecasts for a very flexible utilisation of biogas are prosperous, but it implicates that the biogas is to be cooled, dried, cleaned and upgraded to natural gas quality, in order for the application and utilisation routes to be plentiful. (orig.)

  12. [Effect of pretreatment on storage and biogas production of baling wheat straw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-Juan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Du, Jing; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Ye, Xiao-Mei

    2013-08-01

    Long-term storage of crop straw is very important for biogas plant while pretreatment is always used to improve biogas production of crop straw. Feasibility of integrating the storage with pretreatment of baling wheat straw was studied. Changes of physicochemical properties and the biogas productivity of wheat straw obtained before and after 120 days storage were analyzed. The results showed that it was feasible to directly bale wheat straw for storage (control) and storage treatment had little effect on the physicochemical properties, structure and biogas productivity of wheat straw. After 120 day's storage, biogas production potential of the surface wheat straw of pile was decreased by 7.40%. Integrating NaOH pretreatment with straw storage was good for biogas production of wheat straw and the total solid (TS) biogas yield was increased by 7.02%-8.31% (compared to that of wheat straw without storage) and 5.68% -16.96% (compared to that of storage without alkaline pretreatment), respectively. Storage with urea treatment was adverse to biogas production of wheat straw and the contents of cellulose and hemicellulose of wheat straw were decreased by 18.25%-27.22% and 5.31%-16.15% and the TS biogas yield was decreased by 2.80%-7.71% after 120 day's storage. Exposing wheat straw to the air during the storage process was adverse to the conserving of organic matter and biogas utilization of wheat straw, but the influence was very slight and the TS biogas yield of wheat straw obtained from pile surface of control and urea treatment was decreased by 7.40% and 4.25%, respectively.

  13. Reactor performances and microbial communities of biogas reactors: effects of inoculum sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sheng; Liu, Yafeng; Zhang, Shicheng; Luo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a very complex process that is mediated by various microorganisms, and the understanding of the microbial community assembly and its corresponding function is critical in order to better control the anaerobic process. The present study investigated the effect of different inocula on the microbial community assembly in biogas reactors treating cellulose with various inocula, and three parallel biogas reactors with the same inoculum were also operated in order to reveal the reproducibility of both microbial communities and functions of the biogas reactors. The results showed that the biogas production, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and pH were different for the biogas reactors with different inocula, and different steady-state microbial community patterns were also obtained in different biogas reactors as reflected by Bray-Curtis similarity matrices and taxonomic classification. It indicated that inoculum played an important role in shaping the microbial communities of biogas reactor in the present study, and the microbial community assembly in biogas reactor did not follow the niche-based ecology theory. Furthermore, it was found that the microbial communities and reactor performances of parallel biogas reactors with the same inoculum were different, which could be explained by the neutral-based ecology theory and stochastic factors should played important roles in the microbial community assembly in the biogas reactors. The Bray-Curtis similarity matrices analysis suggested that inoculum affected more on the microbial community assembly compared to stochastic factors, since the samples with different inocula had lower similarity (10-20 %) compared to the samples from the parallel biogas reactors (30 %).

  14. Short-term effect of acetate and ethanol on methane formation in biogas sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Sarah; Wassmann, Kati; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Biochemical processes in biogas plants are still not fully understood. Especially, the identification of possible bottlenecks in the complex fermentation processes during biogas production might provide potential to increase the performance of biogas plants. To shed light on the question which group of organism constitutes the limiting factor in the anaerobic breakdown of organic material, biogas sludge from different mesophilic biogas plants was examined under various conditions. Therefore, biogas sludge was incubated and analyzed in anaerobic serum flasks under an atmosphere of N2/CO2. The batch reactors mirrored the conditions and the performance of the full-scale biogas plants and were suitable test systems for a period of 24 h. Methane production rates were compared after supplementation with substrates for syntrophic bacteria, such as butyrate, propionate, or ethanol, as well as with acetate and H2+CO2 as substrates for methanogenic archaea. Methane formation rates increased significantly by 35 to 126 % when sludge from different biogas plants was supplemented with acetate or ethanol. The stability of important process parameters such as concentration of volatile fatty acids and pH indicate that ethanol and acetate increase biogas formation without affecting normally occurring fermentation processes. In contrast to ethanol or acetate, other fermentation products such as propionate, butyrate, or H2 did not result in increased methane formation rates. These results provide evidence that aceticlastic methanogenesis and ethanol-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria are not the limiting factor during biogas formation, respectively, and that biogas plant optimization is possible with special focus on methanogenesis from acetate.

  15. Impurities in biogas - validation of analytical methods for siloxanes; Foeroreningar i biogas - validering av analysmetodik foer siloxaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Magnusson, Bertil; Sahlin, Eskil [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Biogas produced from digester or landfill contains impurities which can be harmful for component that will be in contact with the biogas during its utilization. Among these, the siloxanes are often mentioned. During combustion, siloxanes are converted to silicon dioxide which accumulates on the heated surfaces in combustion equipment. Silicon dioxide is a solid compound and will remain in the engine and cause damages. Consequently, it is necessary to develop methods for the accurate determination of these compounds in biogases. In the first part of this report, a method for analysis of siloxanes in biogases was validated. The sampling was performed directly at the plant by drawing a small volume of biogas onto an adsorbent tube under a short period of time. These tubes were subsequently sent to the laboratory for analysis. The purpose of method validation is to demonstrate that the established method is fit for the purpose. This means that the method, as used by the laboratory generating the data, will provide data that meets a set of criteria concerning precision and accuracy. At the end, the uncertainty of the method was calculated. In the second part of this report, the validated method was applied to real samples collected in waste water treatment plants, co-digestion plants and plants digesting other wastes (agriculture waste). Results are presented at the end of this report. As expected, the biogases from waste water treatment plants contained largely higher concentrations of siloxanes than biogases from co-digestion plants and plants digesting agriculture wastes. The concentration of siloxanes in upgraded biogas regardless of which feedstock was digested and which upgrading technique was used was low.

  16. The influence of leachates on the extraction of biogas in solid refuse tips; Lixiviados en los vertederos de residuos solidos, su incidencia en la extraccion de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The presence of leachates not far below the surface in solid refuse tips interferes with biogas generation irrespective of the recovery system employed (vertical or horizontal collectors). Biogas management can be optimised by monitoring the level of leachates, which tem have to be eliminated. The results are given of analytical tests on leachates in urban, urban/industrial and industrial waste dumps. Finally, the system used at the Can Mata dump, in which the leachate is pumped out, is described, Controlling the amount extracted has made it possible to optimise the biogas recovery facility and obtain the best energy performance. (Author)

  17. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. The overall objective was to identify opportunities for coupling renewable biomethane with highly efficient fuel cells to produce electricity; heat; combined heat and power (CHP); or combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) for stationary or motive applications. The workshop focused on biogas sourced from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), landfills, and industrial facilities that generate or process large amounts of organic waste, including large biofuel production facilities (biorefineries).

  18. Biogas and methane production in an aerobic reactor; Produccion de biogas y metano en un reactor anaerobio UASB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Borges, E.; Mendez Novelo, R.; Magana Pietra, A.

    1998-06-01

    On the basis of the results obtained during the evaluation of an anaerobic digester in treating pig farm sewage, mathematical models were constructed predicting the system`s efficiency in producing biogas from such waste, and the methane content of this gas, as a function of the influent`s hydraulic retention time(HRT) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The experimental device consisted of a UASB reactor at the bottom and a high-rate sedimentator at the top with a total operational volume of 534 litres. The results obtained to establish the critical operating parameters are reported. The production of biogas was 259 1/m``3 and methane 217 1/m``3 with an HRT of 1.3 days when a load of 3.1 kg-COD/m``3 day was applied. The mathematical models presented analyses biogas production as a variable response and the influents` HRT and COD as independent variables to assess the efficiency of the system. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Moving bed filter for absorbing hydrogen sulphide from biogas. Filtro de lecho movil para absorber el sulphidrico del biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou, J.

    1994-01-01

    The main aim of this demonstration project is the absorption of hydrogen sulphide from the biogas-produced in a sewage plant-through a practical system which does not require constant attention, nor significant labour for the loading and unloading of the iron oxides; and the use of the biogas, when it has been purified, in thermal and cogeneration engine applications. The demonstration installation comprises a filter with a movable bed, of pyramid/trunk shape, with a square base, having a capacity of 1,000 litres, plus the two items needed for working with it: a lower and an upper hopper, for the loading and unloading of iron-oxide agglomerates. The purified biogas is used in a cogeneration unit comprising four TOTEM-FIAT sets generating 12.5 kWh of electrical power and 36.78 thermal kW each. Completing the project is a system which receives and stores the data from the range of variables monitored. The results obtained-the H[sub 2] content at the outlet from the lower filter at 300 ppm, sulphur absorption of 30% by wight in the iron oxide agglomerates, agglomerates replacement cost of 0.77 pesetas; m''3 , and 2.47-year-pay-back- confirm the viability of the process, and resure the application of this system in other sewage treatment plants. (Author)

  20. Use of biogas for cooling and drying of vegetables; Utilizacao de biogas para resfriamento e secagem de hortalicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacco, Honorato Ccalli; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Alimentos. Lab. de Refrigeracao; Neves Filho, Lincoln de Camargo; Jordan, Rodrigo Aparecido [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Lab. de Termodinamica e Energia; Baldassin Junior, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    The European Union established a global goal of 8% reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases up to 2012. In 2010, 12.5% of the energy in the Europe should come from renewable sources, being that biogas will be able to come to represent about 10% of these sources. Up to 2020 it is foreseen substitution of 20% of the conventional sources for alternative fuels. Biogas is pointed as an environmentally competitive alternative, Neves Filho et al., (2001). With the biodigesters, the agricultural producer can transform animal and vegetal debris into an excellent energy alternative, besides getting a powerful organic fertilizer. The project consist of the installation of a biogas collection system that would serve as fuel to move an Otto cycle engine power and thus trigger the heat pump. This integrated use will allow to use the potentiality that has the heat pump to generate energy for cooling and heating, and to reduce use of electric power in rapid cooling of tomatoes after harvesting and in drying of mature tomatoes. (author)

  1. Biogas production from ensiled meadow grass; effect of mechanical pretreatments and rapid determination of substrate biodegradability via physicochemical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    As the biogas sector is rapidly expanding, there is an increasing need in finding new alternative feedstock to biogas plants. Meadow grass can be a suitable co-substrate and if ensiled it can be supplied to biogas plants continuously throughout the year. Nevertheless, this substrate is quite reca...

  2. Dutch gas distribution grid goes green: decision support tool for local biogas utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidenaar, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    A Decision Support Tool (DST) has been developed that will aid Distribution Service Operators (DSOs) in their decision making process on which investments to make in the gas distribution grid in order to facilitate the use of biogas. The DST considers both the conversion of biogas to electricity as

  3. Use of the Sabatier Process for Dynamic Biogas Upgrading in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Born, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 8000 farm scale biogas plants are present in Germany which produce electricity (mainly using energy crops as substrates) . The potential role of biogas plants in energy systems penetrated by high amounts of fluctuating renewable energy production is discussed in this paper. Today th...

  4. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate Change, and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentation that describes a project to evaluate economic and environmental performance of several biogas management technologies. It will analyze various criteria air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions, and costs associated with the use of biogas. Th...

  5. Economic analysis of anaerobic digestion - A case of Green power biogas plant in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Prins, B.A.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the key concerns of biogas plants is the disposal of comparatively large amounts of digestates in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. This paper analyses the economic performance of anaerobic digestion of a given biogas plant based on net present value (NPV) and internal r

  6. Improving biogas yields using an innovative pretreatment concept for conversion of the fiber fraction of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    A new concept to enable economically feasible operation of manure based biogas plants was tested in lab-scale. Wet explosion (WEx) was implemented as treatment of the residual manure fibers separated after the anaerobic digestion process for enhancing the biogas production before reintroducing...

  7. Integration of energy, GHG and economic accounting to optimize biogas production based on co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen; Boldrin, Alessio; Raj Baral, Khagendra

    Several countries have set a number of targets to boost energy production from renewable sources. Biogas production is expected to increase significantly over the next few decades and to play an important role in future energy systems. To achieve these ambitious targets, the biogas production has...

  8. Integration of energy, GHG and economic accounting to optimize biogas production based on co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Baral, Khagendra Raj

    2015-01-01

    Several countries have set a number of targets to boost energy production from renewable sources. Biogas production is expected to increase significantly over the next few decades and to play an important role in future energy systems. To achieve these ambitious targets, the biogas production has...

  9. Municipalities as facilitators, regulators and energy consumers for enhancing the dissemination of biogas technology in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Lybæk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogas provides many potential benefits as far as renewable energy production, environmental protection and job creation etc. Insufficient initiatives from government/municipalities however hamper more biogas plants to be established, and hence that the large manure potential, and other types of digestible organic waste materials, are being utilized for energy purposes. By looking at municipalities as energy consumer’s, that constitutes a local market for biogas, as regulator’s, enforcing new requirements and regulations on the biogas sector, and finally as facilitator’s, assisting and helping involved stakeholders, the development of the biogas sector could be enhanced. We suggest to: Slim the documentation needed; Require that a part of the municipal heat are provided by biogas; Identify alternative heat markets for sale of non-upgraded biogas; Map new types of gas boosters, etc. We conclude that the role of municipalities as facilitator’s is the most important support that local governments can provide to support biogas.

  10. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Richard P.; Fink, Jiří; Wit, de Jan B.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and h

  11. MATHEMATIC MODELING IN ANALYSIS OF BIO-GAS PURIFICATION FROM CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Losiouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to involve bio-gas generated at testing grounds of hard domestic garbage in power supply system in the Republic of Belarus. An example of optimization using mathematical modeling of plant operation which is used for bio-gas enrichment is given in the paper. 

  12. Is Wim slim?: Samen een biogas netwerk gebruiken? : 8 december 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, E.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gemert, W.J.T. van; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    berekening van kosten voor biogas transport in een biogas verzamel netwerk; twee layouts worden vergeleken: de ster-layout en de visgraat-layout. Investeringen en operationele kosten, inclusief compressiekosten worden in een contante waarde berekening meegenomen. Flexigas symposium 8 december 2014

  13. Key factors for achieving profitable biogas production from agricultural waste and sustainable biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Biswas, Rajib;

    2013-01-01

    Based on numerous investigations on increasing the biogas yield of manure, a new concept was developed to increase the economical operation of manure based biogas plants by combining up concentration of manure with a more specific treatment of the recalcitrant lignocellulosic fiber fraction by im...... methane yields are important parameters to be taken into account....

  14. Horse dung waste utilization as a household energy resource and estimation of biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbara, Rian F.; Sumaryatie, Erni D.; Kirom, M. R.; Iskandar, Reza F.

    2013-09-01

    Horses are still used as traditional transportation in Soreang, West Java. About 6-7 horses can produce 25-30 kg of dung every day. Horse dung can produce biogas that can be used as an energy resource. A biogas reactor with capacity of 4 m3 has been built in Soreang. The reactor is filled with a mixture of 50 kg of horse dung and 100 liters of water every two days. This research was conducted to observe the quality of biogas produced from the reactor and to estimate the volume of biogas produced per day. The observation of daily biogas production conducted in 22 days. Laboratory tests showed that the composition of gases contained in the produced biogas consists of 56.53% of CH4, 26.98% of CO2, 12.35% of N2, 4.13% of O2, and 0.007% of H2. Daily biogas production data indicate a stationary trend. A moving average time series model is used to model the data. Using the model, it is estimated that the reactor can produce 0.240112 m3 of biogas per day, which is sufficient to meet the energy needs of a household.

  15. Biogas production from rice straw by solid-state anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitophyta, Lukhi Mulia; Budiyono, Fuadi, Ahmad M.

    2015-12-01

    Biogas production from lignocellulosic biomass can be used as an alternative fuel to replace fossil fuels. Lignocellulose can be obtained from agricultural crop residues, such as rice straw. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of F/I ratio, total solid content, and physical pretreatment on biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion. The kinetics of biogas production were also examined in this study. The results showed that the biogas yield decreased by the increasing of F/I ratio. Meanwhile, the increase TS content of 22% to 24% also decreased the biogas yield. Physical pretreatment had no a significant effect on biogas yield (p > 0.05). The highest biogas yield of 248.4 L/kg VS was obtained at an F/I ratio of 2, TS content of 22%, and particle size of 2 mm. The kinetics of biogas production from rice straw followed the first-order kinetic model with the highest rate constant (k) of 0.0861 day-1.

  16. ENHANCEMENT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER USING DECANTER CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater from agro-industry treated with the biological treatment cannot produce the biogas because of its low COD level and its low organic content. In this research, the co-digestion with decanter cake will improve the biogas yield and biogas production of wastewater. The effect of three parameters (i.e., type of wastewater, mixing and mesophilic temperature will be evaluated in batch digesters under anaerobic condition. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential of several mixtures and that of wastewater alone. The co-digestion of decanter cake with rubber block wastewater of the R4 (wastewater 200 mL with decanter cake 8 g produces the highest biogas yield 3,809 mL CH4/g COD removal and the percentage maximum methane gas is 66.7%. The experimental result shows that the mixing and mesophilic temperature have no significant effect on the biogas potential production. The co-digestion of decanter cake with rubber block wastewater provides the highest biogas yield potential production in the ambient temperature. The experimental results reveal that the decanter cake can be potential sources for biogas production.

  17. Anaerobic Digestion of Saline Creeping Wild Ryegrass for Biogas Production and Pretreatment of Particleboard Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop an integrated process to produce biogas and high-quality particleboard using saline creeping wild ryegrass (CWR), Leymus triticoides through anaerobic digestion (AD). Besides producing biogas, AD also serves as a pretreatment method to remove the wax la...

  18. ENHANCEMENT OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION POTENTIAL FOR ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER USING DECANTER CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater from agro-industry treated with the biological treatment cannot produce the biogas because of its low COD level and its low organic content. In this research, the co-digestion with decanter cake will improve the biogas yield and biogas production of wastewater. The effect of three parameters (i.e., type of wastewater, mixing and mesophilic temperature will be evaluated in batch digesters under anaerobic condition. Moreover, the study determines the biogas production potential of several mixtures and that of wastewater alone. The co-digestion of decanter cake with rubber block wastewater of the R4 (wastewater 200 ml with decanter cake 8 g produces the highest biogas yield 3,809 mL CH4/g COD removal and the percentage maximum methane gas is 66.7%. The experimental result shows that the mixing and mesophilic temperature have no significant effect on the biogas potential production. The co-digestion of decanter cake with rubber block wastewater provides the highest biogas yield potential production in the ambient temperature. The experimental results reveal that the decanter cake can be potential sources for biogas production.

  19. Biogas production and saccharification of Salix pretreated at different steam explosion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Svein J; Estevez, Maria M; Nielsen, Henrik K; Linjordet, Roar; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2011-09-01

    Different steam explosion conditions were applied to Salix chips and the effect of this pretreatment was evaluated by running both enzymatic hydrolysis and biogas tests. Total enzymatic release of glucose and xylose increased with pretreatment harshness, with maximum values being obtained after pretreatment for 10 min at 210°C. Harsher pretreatment conditions did not increase glucose release, led to degradation of xylose and to formation of furfurals. Samples pretreated at 220 and 230°C initially showed low production of biogas, probably because of inhibitors produced during the pretreatment, but the microbial community was able to adapt and showed high final biogas production. Interestingly, final biogas yields correlated well with sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis, suggesting that at least in some cases a 24h enzymatic assay may be developed as a quick method to predict the effects of pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass on biogas yields.

  20. A concise biogas plant construction suitable for Ghana and other tropical countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbagbo, J.K.N.

    1997-04-01

    This report is intended to be used by people in the field of biogas for workshops, technicians, teachers to educate as well as to carry out hands on constructions in Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 1, discusses the biogas technology, what a biogas plant is, and how it functions. Chapter 2, describes the entire process. Chapter 3, discusses the necessary conditions for fermentation. Chapter 4, the measuring parameters for monitoring the system. Chapter 5, describes the various types of biogas plants suitable for tropical countries. Chapter 6, describes a planning guide for Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 7, discusses digester sizing and finally, Chapter 8, describes a concise biogas plant construction suitable for the rural areas of Ghana and other tropical countries. (au)

  1. Enhancement and Optimization Mechanisms of Biogas Production for Rural Household Energy in Developing Countries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is common but vital process used for biogas and fertilizer production as well as one method for waste treatment. The process is currently used in developing countries primarily for biogas production in the household level of rural people. The aim of this review is to indicate possible ways of including rural households who own less than four heads of cattle for the biogas programs in developing countries. The review provides different research out puts on using biogas substrates other than cow dung or its mix through different enhancement and optimization mechanisms. Many biodegradable materials have been studied for alternative methane production. Therefore, these substrates could be used for production by addressing the optimum conditions for each factor and each processes for enhanced and optimized biogas production.

  2. Enhancing identified circular economic benefits related to the deployment off Solrød biogas plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke

    This paper investigates how experiences from the deployment of Solrød biogas plant in Denmark - a large scale centralized biogas plant - can assist future biogas technologies in achieving Circular Economic benefits. Departing from a theoretical understanding of Circular Economy provided by Ellen...... MacArthur Foundation, the paper analysis three areas being; 1) Biogas production, 2) Nitrogen, Phosphor & GHG, 3) Re-cycle/cascade materials, and consequently elaborate on the environmental benefits obtained, as far as CO2 emission reductions from biogas production substituting fossil fuels, improved...... water quality and hence reduced Green House Gas (GHG) emissions due to lower nitrogen spills, and re-cycling of nutrient on farmland recovering finite resources and improving crop yield. Economic spin-off effects are presented, as far as new jobs created in the local community. Learning from Solrød...

  3. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: a survey on causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; O-Thong, S; Kristensen, L A; Angelidaki, I

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times per year. Foaming incidents often lasted from one day to three weeks, causing 20-50% biogas production loss. One foaming case at Lemvig biogas plant has been investigated and the results indicated that the combination of feedstock composition and mixing pattern of the reactor was the main cause of foaming in this case. Moreover, no difference in bacterial communities between the foaming and non-foaming reactors was observed, showing that filamentous bacteria were not the main reason for foaming in this case.

  4. Nonrenewable energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions of a "pig-biogas-fish" system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Wu, Xiaofang; Yang, Haiping; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the energy savings and emission reductions of the present rural biogas system in China. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method is used to analyze a "pig-biogas-fish" system in Jingzhou, Hubei Province, China. The nonrenewable energy cost and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the system, including the pigsty, the biogas digester, and the fishpond, are taken into account. The border definition is standardized because of the utilization of the database in this paper. The results indicate that the nonrenewable energy consumption intensity of the "pig-biogas-fish" system is 0.60 MJ/MJ and the equivalent CO₂ emission intensity is 0.05 kg CO₂-eq/MJ. Compared with the conventional animal husbandry system, the "pig-biogas-fish" system shows high renewability and GHG reduction benefit, which indicates that the system is a scientific and environmentally friendly chain combining energy and ecology.

  5. Dynamic Biogas Upgrading for Integration of Renewable Energy from Wind, Biomass and Solar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars

    The Sabatier process is investigated as a storage scheme for renewable energy. Hydrogen derived from fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind and solar is converted to methane by the hydrogenation/methanation of carbon oxides. Biogas from anaerobic digestion is considered in this study...... as a high concentrated source of carbon dioxide. By using the Sabatier process, the CO2 content of the biogas is converted to CH4, which is a new upgrading process for biogas. By switching between (i) this upgrading process during periods of extensive electricity production from wind and solar, and (ii......) combined heat and power production from biogas during periods of electricity demand, bioenergy utilization becomes a dynamic process. In such a process scheme, biomass, wind, and solar could be integrated in a local context. This thesis aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the dynamic biogas upgrading...

  6. PREDICTION OF COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A TYPICAL BIOGAS BURNER USING CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. MADHUSOODAN PILLAI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is obtained from anaerobic digestion of biodegradable materials such as agricultural waste, animal waste, and othertype of household solid waste and its main constituents are CH4 and CO2. Effects of the concentration of each species are very important in the biogas combustion. The present study focuses on the effect of inlet velocities of methane and air on the flame temperature in a biogas burner lamp. The model of biogas burner lamp is constructed by using the CFD software GAMBIT and the simulation process was performed by using Fluent Software. The flame temperature obtained is 2172 k when the inlet velocities of methane and air are 0.2m/s and 0.8 m/s respectively. Results of this study will provide valuable data for biogas burner lamp manufacturers.

  7. Potential bioetanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 degrees C, 15 min, 2 g l(-1) Na2CO3 and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape......) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found...... be concluded that all three materials are possible raw materials for either biogas or ethanol production; however, improvement of biogas productivity or ethanol yield is necessary before an economical process can be achieved....

  8. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Lucie; Eismann, Frank; Wißmann, Daniel; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Zielonka, Simon; Müller, Roland A; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes.

  9. Anaerobic fermentation of biogas liquid pretreated maize straw by rumen microorganisms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenyao; Xu, Xiaochen; Gao, Yang; Yang, Fenglin; Wang, Gang

    2014-02-01

    This study intended to investigate the effect of pretreatment of maize straw with biogas liquid on followed fermentation by rumen microorganisms in vitro. The multiple effects including treated time, temperature and dosage of biogas liquid in pretreatment on the followed fermentation performance were analyzed by orthogonal array. The optimum conditions of pretreatment were 9days, 25°C and 50% (v/w) dosage of biogas liquid, which were indicated by the corresponding crystallinity index, dry matter digestibility (DMD) and acetate limiting-step concentration were 57.5%, 73.76% and 1756mg/L, respectively. The ordering sequence of the influential factors for pretreatment was treated time > temperature > dosage of biogas liquid. The results of fermentation showed that the maize straw pretreated by biogas liquid was an efficient and economic pretreatment method of maize straw.

  10. Does the addition of proteases affect the biogas yield from organic material in anaerobic digestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Liane; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Pröter, Jürgen; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael; Scholwin, Frank

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biochemical disintegration effect of hydrolytic enzymes in lab scale experiments. Influences of enzyme addition on the biogas yield as well as effects on the process stability were examined. The addition of proteases occurred with low and high dosages in batch and semi-continuous biogas tests. The feed mixture consisted of maize silage, chicken dung and cow manure. Only very high concentrated enzymes caused an increase in biogas production in batch experiments. In semi-continuous biogas tests no positive long-term effects (100 days) were observed. Higher enzyme-dosage led to a reduced biogas-yield (13% and 36% lower than the reference). Phenylacetate and -propionate increased (up to 372 mgl(-1)) before the other volatile fatty acids did. Volatile organic acids rose up to 6.8 gl(-1). The anaerobic digestion process was inhibited.

  11. Composition and uses of anaerobic digestion derived biogas from wastewater treatment facilities in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jillian C; Peppley, B; Champagne, P; Maier, A

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the current knowledge of biogas production and its use at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across North America. Information was provided by municipal WWTPs across Canada and the US. It was determined that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and silicon (Si) compounds had sufficient variability to be of concern. The only biogas production trend that could be identified was a possible seasonal relationship with sludge input and biogas production. Secondary analysis was performed to observe trends in biogas usage in urban areas larger than 150,000 in the US and 50,000 in Canada; 66% of facilities had anaerobic digestion systems and, of those, only 35% had an energy recovery system. Climatic, population, and socio-political influences on the trends were considered. The primary conclusion was that more data is required to perform significant analyses on biogas production and composition variation.

  12. Biogas conference - biogas plants in a deregulated electricity market. Technology and perspectives. Documentation; Biogastagung - Biogasanlagen im liberalisierten Strommarkt. Technik und Perspektiven. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The biogas meeting deals with engineering and perspectives of biomass fermentation to methane. Main topics were: financial opportunities for agriculture, engineering, hygienization, use of dung and liquid manures, power generation and market.

  13. Chinese Biogas Digester. A Potential Model for Small-Scale, Rural Applications. (A Manual for Construction and Operation). Reprint No. R-51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Charles H.; Honquilada, Q. L.

    This book provides the basic knowledge and guides for the construction and operation of a small-scale, family-size biogas unit. The first chapter discusses the benefits of biogas production and the Chinese biogas model. The second chapter shows the components, design formulas, and sizing units of the biogas model. Chapter 3 describes actual…

  14. Comparative Analysis Between Intelligent Biogas Engineering and Traditional Biogas Engineering%智能化沼气工程技术及其优势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林斌; 徐庆贤; 官雪芳; 林碧芬

    2012-01-01

    以福建省建瓯市新星养猪场为例,阐述智能化沼气工程系统的工艺流程及技术要点,包括酸化池和沼气池的pH值监测系统、智能化进料系统、玻璃钢沼气池加热系统,沼气自动搅拌系统、沼气流量监测系统和互联网远程控制系统;比较智能化沼气工程与传统沼气工程的成本和产气率情况,认为从沼气工程可持续运行的角度出发,智能化沼气工程更符合成本效益原则;智能化沼气工程技术系统能为沼气发酵创造最佳发酵环境,获得高效的产气率.%Firstly, this paper introduces the key technological points of the intelligent biogas engineering system by taking Xin-xing seed—pig pig farms as an example, including pH monitoring system of acidification tank and biogas digester, intelligent feeding system, heating system for FRP digester, bio—gas automatic mixing system, gas flowing metering system and internet remote control system. Then, it takes a comparison of the cost and gas production rate between intelligent biogas engineering and traditional biogas engineering, the result showing that: for the long—term sustainable operation of biogas engineering, intelligent biogas engineering is more according with the cost—benefit principle; technology system of intelligent biogas engineering can create the best environment for biogas fermentation, thus it can get the highest efficiency of gas production.

  15. Evaluation of energy efficiency of various biogas production and utilization pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Martina; Ward, Shane [Charles Parsons Energy Research Programme, Bioresources Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Owende, Philip [Charles Parsons Energy Research Programme, Bioresources Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); School of Informatics and Engineering, Institute of Technology Blanchardstown, Blanchardstown Road North, Dublin 15 (Ireland)

    2010-11-15

    The energy efficiency of different biogas systems, including single and co-digestion of multiple feedstock, different biogas utilization pathways, and waste-stream management strategies was evaluated. The input data were derived from assessment of existing biogas systems, present knowledge on anaerobic digestion process management and technologies for biogas system operating conditions in Germany. The energy balance was evaluated as Primary Energy Input to Output (PEIO) ratio, to assess the process energy efficiency, hence, the potential sustainability. Results indicate that the PEIO correspond to 10.5-64.0% and 34.1-55.0% for single feedstock digestion and feedstock co-digestion, respectively. Energy balance was assessed to be negative for feedstock transportation distances in excess of 22 km and 425 km for cattle manure and for Municipal Solid Waste, respectively, which defines the operational limits for respective feedstock transportation. Energy input was highly influenced by the characteristics of feedstock used. For example, agricultural waste, in most part, did not require pre-treatment. Energy crop feedstock required the respect cultivation energy inputs, and processing of industrial waste streams included energy-demanding pre-treatment processes to meet stipulated hygiene standards. Energy balance depended on biogas yield, the utilization efficiency, and energy value of intended fossil fuel substitution. For example, obtained results suggests that, whereas the upgrading of biogas to biomethane for injection into natural gas network potentially increased the primary energy input for biogas utilization by up to 100%; the energy efficiency of the biogas system improved by up to 65% when natural gas was substituted instead of electricity. It was also found that, system energy efficiency could be further enhanced by 5.1-6.1% through recovery of residual biogas from enclosed digestate storage units. Overall, this study provides bases for more detailed assessment

  16. Anaerobic digestion of different feedstocks: impact on energetic and environmental balances of biogas process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; González-García, Sara

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of limiting the global warming is strictly linked to the reduction of GHG emissions. Renewable energy both allows reducing emissions and permits to delay fossil fuel depletion. The anaerobic digestion of animal manure and energy crops is a promising way of reducing GHG emissions. In Italy agricultural biogas production was considerably increased; nowadays there are about 520 agricultural biogas plants. The increasing number of biogas plants, especially of those larger than 500 kW(e) (electrical power), involves a high consumption of energy crops, large transport distances of biomass and digestate and difficulties on thermal energy valorization. In this study the energetic (CED) and environmental (GHG emissions) profiles associated with the production of electricity derived from biogas have been identified. Three biogas plants located in Northern Italy have been analyzed. The study has been carried out considering a cradle-to-grave perspective and thus, special attention has been paid on the feedstock production and biogas production process. The influences on the results taking into account different plant sizes and feeding rate has been assessed in detail. Energy analysis was performed using the Cumulative Energy Demand method (CED). The climate change was calculated for a 100-year time frame based on GHG emissions indicated as CO2 equivalents (eq) and defined by the IPCC (2006). In comparison to the fossil reference system, the electricity production using biogas saves GHG emissions from 0.188 to 1.193 kg CO2eq per kWh(e). Electricity supply from biogas can also contribute to a considerable reduction of the use of fossil energy carriers (from -3.97 to 10.08 MJ(fossil) per kWh(e)). The electricity production from biogas has a big potential for energy savings and reduction of GHG emissions. Efficient utilization of the cogenerated heat can substantially improve the GHG balance of electricity production from biogas.

  17. Pilot-scale field study for ammonia removal from lagoon biogas using an acid wet scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun; Hadlocon, Lara Jane; Manuzon, Roderick; Zhao, Lingying

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic activities in swine slurry storage and treatment generate biogas containing gaseous ammonia component which is a chemical agent that can cause adverse environmental impacts when released to the atmosphere. The aim of this pilot plant study was to remove ammonia from biogas generated in a covered lagoon, using a sulfuric acid wet scrubber. The data showed that, on average, the biogas contained 43.7 ppm of ammonia and its concentration was found to be exponentially related to the air temperature inside the lagoon. When the air temperature rose to 35°C and the biogas ammonia concentration reached 90 ppm, the mass transfer of ammonia/ammonium from the deeper liquid body to the interface between the air and liquid became a limiting factor. The biogas velocity was critical in affecting ammonia removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. A biogas flow velocity of 8 to 12 mm s(-1) was recommended to achieve a removal efficiency of greater than 60%. Stepwise regression revealed that the biogas velocity and air temperature, not the inlet ammonia concentration in biogas, affected the ammonia removal efficiency. Overall, when 73 g L(-1) (or 0.75 M) sulfuric acid solution was used as the scrubber solution, removal efficiencies varied from 0% to 100% with an average of 55% over a 40-d measurement period. Mass balance calculation based on ammonium-nitrogen concentration in final scrubber liquid showed that about 21.3 g of ammonia was collected from a total volume of 1169 m(3) of biogas, while the scrubber solution should still maintain its ammonia absorbing ability until its concentration reaches up to 1 M. These results showed promising use of sulfuric acid wet scrubber for ammonia removal in the digester biogas.

  18. Integrated biogas upgrading and hydrogen utilization in an anaerobic reactor containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogenic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-11-01

    Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion, is mainly used in a gas motor for heat and electricity production. However, after removal of CO(2) , biogas can be upgraded to natural gas quality, giving more utilization possibilities, such as utilization as autogas, or distant utilization by using the existing natural gas grid. The current study presents a new biological method for biogas upgrading in a separate biogas reactor, containing enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens and fed with biogas and hydrogen. Both mesophilic- and thermophilic anaerobic cultures were enriched to convert CO(2) to CH(4) by addition of H(2) . Enrichment at thermophilic temperature (55°C) resulted in CO(2) and H(2) bioconversion rate of 320 mL CH(4) /(gVSS h), which was more than 60% higher than that under mesophilic temperature (37°C). Different dominant species were found at mesophilic- and thermophilic-enriched cultures, as revealed by PCR-DGGE. Nonetheless, they all belonged to the order Methanobacteriales, which can mediate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Biogas upgrading was then tested in a thermophilic anaerobic reactor under various operation conditions. By continuous addition of hydrogen in the biogas reactor, high degree of biogas upgrading was achieved. The produced biogas had a CH(4) content, around 95% at steady-state, at gas (mixture of biogas and hydrogen) injection rate of 6 L/(L day). The increase of gas injection rate to 12 L/(L day) resulted in the decrease of CH(4) content to around 90%. Further study showed that by decreasing the gas-liquid mass transfer by increasing the stirring speed of the mixture the CH(4) content was increased to around 95%. Finally, the CH(4) content around 90% was achieved in this study with the gas injection rate as high as 24 L/(L day).

  19. Quali-quantitative study of biogas produced by substrates in batch biodigestors; Estudo qualiquantitativo do biogas produzido por substratos em biodigestores tipo batelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbiatti, Joao A.; Caramelo, Anaira D.; Silva, Flavia G.; Gerardi, Eliana A.B. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DER/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], emails: galbi@fcav.unesp.br, adcaramelo@hotmail.com, flacgs@yahoo.com.br, borgesgerardi@uol.com.br; Chiconato, Denise A. [Uniao das Instituicoes Educacionais do Estado de Sao Paulo (DCB/UNIESP), Taquaritinga, SP (Brazil)], email: denise.ac@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    Aiming to study the biogas produced by 5 substrates from both quality and quantity point of view, this research was conducted at the Rural Engineering Department of FCAV/UNESP - Brazil, State of Sao Paulo. The substrates that were used in the anaerobic digestion were characterized as: slaughter fowls' manure with napier grass bed (MFNG); slaughter fowls' manure with triturate napier grass bed (MFNGT); swine manure (SM); bovine manure (BM) and bovine manure mixed with 50% of sugarcane bagasse (BM50S). From the data collected it was concluded that: the substract (MFNG) and the substract containing SM produced higher and lower volumes of biogas respectively, when compared to the others; the mixture of sugarcane bagasse in the substract containing Bovine manure damages the accumulated biogas production and its quality; 57 days after filling the biodigestors, all substrates produced biogas with a methane level higher than 48% except for the substrates containing swine manure; the triturate substrates (MFNGT) did not present such distinct characteristics from the non triturate substrates (MFNG); the quality of biogas at the maximum production stage was similar, for all the studied substrates; the biogas which presented higher quantity of methane in its composition was the one produced with BM, overcoming the value up to 17.7% over the MFNGT production. (author)

  20. Sustainable protein from biogas. The perspective of susteine; Duurzaam eiwit uit biogas. Verkenning van het perspectief van susteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, N. [Easthouse Business Solutions, Rolde (Netherlands); Hooijer, H. [We-Do Interim Management and Consultancy, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Production of single-cell protein (Susteine) on the basis of biogas (methane) from manure digestion might be an interesting option to reduce the amounts of manure from cattle, pigs and poultry and also might be an option for a sustainable production of high-value protein. An earlier made investigation leaded to the conclusion that many questions had to be answered to make a better picture of this opportunity for the Dutch agricultural society. In this study we investigated the feasibility of such a process and product. It is concluded that the product will be accepted in the market as long as the HACCP-requirements which are applicable in the feed production are fulfilled. The product as such, assuming that the quality is comparable to the product as was produced by Norferm, could get an attractive position especially in the application for piglets. A quantity of 10.000 t/y could easily be sold in this market segment. Of course the product first has to be registered, which needs additional studies. Technically we foresee no major hurdles in the production of Susteine on basis of methane from biogas. The biogas has to be purified to such a quality that SCP-production is feasible, however, technologies are available. It needs a further investigation to establish the quality requirements for such a process. The scale of operation of the biogas installation creates a financial-economic problem. In order to produce 10.000 t protein / year, a quantity of 30-35 million m{sup 3} of biogas is needed, for which 2 million ton of manure has to be digested. In case a centralized production of gas and protein is foreseen, the number of transport movements will be unacceptable. Besides the quantity of manure to be transported also approximately the same amount of digested material has to be transported. A unique opportunity in The Netherlands is the presence of a pipe network for natural gas. Such a network could serve as a transport system of locally produced, purified, biogas

  1. H2S removal from biogas using bioreactors: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dumont

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide an overview of the bioprocesses used for the removal of H2S from biogas. The ability of aerobic and anoxic bioreactors (biotrickling filters, bioscrubbers, and a combination of chemical scrubbers and bioreactors to perform the degradation of H2S is considered. For each operating mode (aerobic and anoxic, the bioprocesses are presented, the operating conditions affecting performance are summarized, the state of the art of research studies is described and commercial applications are given. At laboratory-scale, whatever their operating mode, biological processes are effective for biogas cleaning and provide the same performance. The clogging of the packed bed due to the deposit of elemental sulfur S0 and biomass accumulation clearly represents the main drawback of bioprocesses. Although elimination capacities (EC determined at laboratory-scale can be very high, EC should not be higher than 90 g m-3 h-1 at industrial-scale in order to limit clogging effects. For aerobic processes, the need to control the oxygen mass transfer accurately remains a key issue for their development at full-scale. As a result, the aerobic processes alone are probably not the most suitable bioprocesses for the treatment of biogas highly loaded with H2S. For anaerobic bioprocesses using nitrate as an electron acceptor, the scale-up of the laboratory process to a full-size plant remains a challenge. However, the use of wastewater from treatment plants, which constitutes a cheap source of nitrates, represents an interesting opportunity for the development of innovative bioprocesses enabling the simultaneous removal of H2S and nitrates.

  2. Biogas generation in landfills. Equilibria, rates and yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, M.

    1997-05-01

    Landfilling in `cells` has become more common in recent years. Different waste streams are guided to different cells, among which the biocell is a landfill designed for biogas production. In this thesis, the dependence of biogas generation on waste composition was investigated. Six 8,000 m{sup 3} test cells, with contents ranging from mainly commercial waste to pure domestic waste and equipped with gas extraction systems and bottom plastic liners, were monitored for seven years. Great emphasis was given to the characterization of conversion processes and governing mechanism in the topics of bio-energetics, kinetics and capacities. A thermodynamic model, in which the oxidations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) (2biogas rates corresponded with low VFA levels. To explain the discrepancies between theoretical methane potentials and quantified yields (in this study found to be 150-200 and 40-70 Nm{sup 3}/dry tonne, respectively), the possible nutritional limitation was investigated. Pools and emissions of chemical oxygen demand, N, P and K were quantified. Biomass pools were estimated from methane yields, growth yield coefficients, and bacterial mineral contents. However, results from commercial waste test cells showed that the assimilation of P exceeded the refuse content, which suggests the turnover of microbial biomass and questions the notion of nutritional limitation. In sum, the results showed that the advantages of a reduced content of readily biodegradable material, achieved by guidance or pretreatment, encompass several aspects of the performance. 84 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  3. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  4. Energy crops for biogas plants. Bavaria; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, A.; Biertuempel, A.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-08-15

    For agriculturists in Bavaria (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  5. Biogas cleaning and upgrading with natural zeolites from tuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Valerio; Petracchini, Francesco; Guerriero, Ettore; Bencini, Alessandro; Drigo, Serena

    2016-01-01

    CO2 adsorption on synthetic zeolites has become a consolidated approach for biogas upgrading to biomethane. As an alternative to synthetic zeolites, tuff waste from building industry was investigated in this study: indeed, this material is available at a low price and contains a high fraction of natural zeolites. A selective adsorption of CO2 and H2S towards CH4 was confirmed, allowing to obtain a high-purity biomethane (CO2 zeolites from tuffs may successfully be used in a pressure/vacuum swing adsorption process.

  6. Bio-Propane from glycerol for biogas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, Jan; Hulteberg, Christian; Liljegren Nilsson, Andreas (Biofuel-Solution AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    In this report, the technical and economical feasibility to produce higher alkanes from bioglycerol has been investigated. The main purpose of producing this kind of chemicals would be to replace the fossil LPG used in upgraded biogas production. When producing biogas and exporting it to the natural gas grid, the Wobbe index and heating value does not match the existing natural gas. Therefore, the upgraded biogas that is put into the natural gas grid in Sweden today contains 8-10 vol-% of LPG. The experimental work performed in association to this report has shown that it is possible to produce propane from glycerol. However, the production of ethane from glycerol may be even more advantageous. The experimental work has included developing and testing catalysts for several intermediate reactions. The work was performed using different micro-scale reactors with a liquid feed rate of 18 g/h. The first reaction, independent on if propane or ethane is to be produced, is dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. This was showed during 60 h on an acidic catalyst with a yield of 90%. The production of propanol, the second intermediate to producing propane, was shown as well. Propanol was produced both using acrolein as the starting material as well as glycerol (combining the first and second step) with yields of 70-80% in the first case and 65-70% in the second case. The propanol produced was investigated for its dehydration to propene, with a yield of 70-75%. By using a proprietary, purposely developed catalyst the propene was hydrogenated to propane, with a yield of 85% from propanol. The formation of propane from glycerol was finally investigated, with an overall yield of 55%. The second part of the experimental work performed investigated the possibilities of decarbonylating acrolein to form ethane. This was made possible by the development of a proprietary catalyst which combines decarbonylation and water-gas shift functionality. By combining these two functionalities, no

  7. The Fuzzy WOD Model with application to biogas plant location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2014-01-01

    The decision of choosing a facility location among possible alternatives can be understood as a multi-criteria problem where the solution depends on the available knowledge and the means of exploiting it. In this sense, knowledge can take various forms, where the imprecise nature of information can...... be expressed by degrees of intensity in which the alternatives satisfy the given criteria. Hence, such degrees can be gradually expressed either by unique values or by intervals, in order to fully represent the characteristics of each alternative. This paper examines the selection of biogas plant location...

  8. The future of anaerobic digestion and biogas utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Al Seadi, Teodorita; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    , representing a considerable pollution threat for the environment in these areas. Avoiding over-fertilization is not only important for environmental protection reasons but also for economical reasons. Intensive animal production areas need therefore suitable manure management, aiming to export...... and to redistribute the excess of nutrients from manure and to optimize their recycling. Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and slurries offers several benefits by improving their fertilizer qualities, reducing odors and pathogens and producing a renewable fuel - the biogas. The EU policies concerning renewable...

  9. Peuplements profonds du Golfe de Gascogne. Campagnes BIOGAS

    OpenAIRE

    Laubier, Lucien; Monniot, Claude

    1985-01-01

    Ce volume contient les résultats recueillis sur les peuplements benthiques profonds du golfe de Gascogne pendant les campagnes du programme BIOGAS effectuées au cours de deux périodes successives: 1972-1974 et 1977-1981. Les caractéristiques hydrologiques, courantologiques, morphologiques et sédimentologiques, indispensables à l'étude écologique des peuplements, sont présentées dans la première partie consacrée à l'étude du milieu, avec des informations sur la production pélagique et le flux ...

  10. More value from food waste: Lactic acid and biogas recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Ryu, Hoyoung; Chang, Yong-Keun; Triolo, Jin M; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the traditional technologies for treating organic solid wastes, but its economic benefit is sometimes questioned. To increase the economic feasibility of the treatment process, the aim of this study was to recover not only biogas from food waste but lactic acid (LA) as well. At first, LA fermentation of food waste (FW) was conducted using an indigenous mixed culture. During the operation, temperature was gradually increased from 35 °C to 55 °C, with the highest performance attained at 50 °C. At 50 °C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.0 d, LA concentration in the broth was 40 kg LA/m(3), corresponding to a yield of 1.6 mol LA/mol hexoseadded. Pyrosequencing results showed that Lactobacillus (97.6% of the total number of sequences) was the predominant species performing LA fermentation of FW. The fermented broth was then centrifuged and LA was extracted from the supernatant by the combined process of nanofiltration and water-splitting electrodialysis. The process could recover highly purified LA by removing 85% of mineral ions such as Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) and 90% of residual carbohydrates. Meanwhile, the solid residue remained after centrifugation was further fermented to biogas by AD. At HRT 40 d (organic loading rate of 7 kg COD/m(3)/d), the highest volumetric biogas production rate of 3.5 m(3)/m(3)/d was achieved with a CH4 yield of 0.25 m(3) CH4/kg COD. The mass flow showed that 47 kg of LA and 54 m(3) of biogas could be recovered by the developed process from 1 ton of FW with COD removal efficiency of 70%. These products have a higher economic value 60 USD/ton FW compared to that of conventional AD (27 USD/ton FW).

  11. GIANT MISCANTHUS AS A SUBSTRATE FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One unconventional source of energy, which may be applied in numerous production and municipal processes, is energy accumulated in plants. As a result of photosynthesis, solar energy is transformed into chemical energy accumulated in a form of carbohydrates in the plant biomass, which becomes the material that is more and more sought by power distribution companies and individual users. Currently, a lot of research on obtaining biogas from energy crops is conducted. Corn silage is used most often, however, there is a demand for alternative plants. The experiment described in this article was conducted with the use of giant Miscanthus (Miscanthus Giganteus.

  12. Formation and suppression of foam in biogas plants. Practical experiences; Bildung von Schaum in Biogasanlagen und seine Bekaempfung. Erfahrungen aus der Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie; Goersch, Kati; Mueller, Roland A.; Zehnsdorf, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Umwelt- und Biotechnologisches Zentrum

    2012-07-01

    Foam formation during the anaerobic digestion may have negative impact on the economics of a biogas plant. This problem concerns especially those biogas plants, which utilize biogenic waste for biogas production. Eighteen operators of waste treating biogas plants from Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia have been surveyed. The aim of the enquiry was collecting experience about the foam formation in biogas reactors and about the foam fighting tasks in practice. (orig.)

  13. Instrumentation, control and automation for biogas plants - a full-scale example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, J. [EnerCess GmbH, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Biogas plants win more and more importance, because of numerous ecological advantages. That means, the biogas production cycle is an integrated system of resources utilization, organic waste treatment, nutrient recycling and redistribution, and renewable energy production, which creates numerous energetic, environmental and agricultural benefits. In these plants biogas can be produced by using numerous different input substrates: Farm products: cattle and pork liquid manure, wheat, poultry excrements, maize etc.; Organic waste (primarily from food industries): canteen kitchens, food markets, viniculture, brewery, distillery etc.; Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants. The processes in biogas plants are similar to processes, which are well known for many decades in anaerobic wastewater/sludge treatment. But up to now, the level of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) of full-scale biogas systems is still low. I.e. most plants are black box systems which can be analyzed and/or optimized only difficultly. Consequently, the practice shows that many biogas plants are operated suboptimal. Furthermore, for economic reasons more and more plants are operated in a critical (load) range. I.e. there is a high danger of a plant breakdown, which can cause high financial deficits. This situation is mainly caused by the fact, that most of biogas plants are still rather small plants. E.g., the average electricity production capacity of approx. 2,000 biogas plants in Germany is only approx. 125 kWel. But, as a result of technical progress and permanently rising prices for non-renewable energy, biogas plants become more and more economic reasonable. Furthermore, because of the economies of scale law more and more larger plants are built (250 - 2,000 kWel). In case of larger plants, the costs for ICA are only a small part of the total investment costs (5 - 10 %). On larger plants the operators are also usually full-time workers, which can fully concentrate upon the

  14. Pemurnian Biogas untuk meningkatkan Nilai Kalor melalui Adsorpsi Dua Tahap Susunan Seri dengan Media Karbon Aktif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANTI SUPRIANTI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pemerintah menargetkan peningkatan peran energi terbarukanhingga mencapai 24% pada tahun 2050. Biogas sebagai salah satu dari sumber energi terbarukan harus memiliki nilai kalor yang memadaiagar dapat bersaing dengan sumber energi fosil. Zat yang memiliki kontribusi terbesar dalam menentukan nilai kalor biogas adalah Metana (CH4. Namun, biogas juga memiliki kandungan Karbon dioksida (CO2 yang bersifat tidak terbakar. Upaya untuk meningkatkan nilai kalor biogas dapat ditempuh dengan menurunkan kandungan CO2, salah satunya melalui proses adsorpsi. Penelitian ini menggunakan kolom adsorpsi seri berukuran 2,43 L untuk meningkatkan waktu kontak antara adsorben karbon aktif dengan gas-gas kontaminan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan CO2 dapat ditekan hingga di bawah 14% pada waktu adsorpsi 10 menit,dan diperoleh kandungan CH4 hingga minimal 78,73%. Hasil optimum kinerja kolom adsorpsi seri yaitu pada laju alir 2,4 L/menit dan waktu adsorpsi 10 menit, mampu memurnikan biogas hingga mengandung CH4 91,60%. Pada kondisi optimum tersebut, efektifitas kolom adsorpsi adalah sebesar 98,31%. Kata kunci: biogas, pemurnian, karbon aktif, waktu adsorpsi, efektifitas kolom adsorpsi. Abstract Indonesian government had targettedthe role of renewable energy, up to 24% in 2050. Biogas, as one of renewable energy, should have sufficient calorific valuein order to be efficiently used and competitive compared to fossil fuels. Methane (CH4 in biogas is the most important substance that determine biogas calorific value. On the other hand, another component of biogas, Carbon dioxide (CO2, the one that inhibit combustion process must be reduced. One of the methods to reduce CO2 content can be conducted through adsorption process. This research utilized serial adsorption column to increase contact between activated carbon as adsorbent and contaminant gases. The result showed that CO2 content can be suppressed below 14% in 10 minutes adsorption time, so

  15. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Huong Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers......) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70±0.84 Escherichia coli (log) cfu/ml on average...... in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess...

  16. Energy-optimisation of biogas-fuelled CHP units; Energetische Optimierung von Biogas-BHKW's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltic, P.; Edenhauser, D.; Winkler, A.

    2008-07-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the energy-related optimisation of combined heat and power (CHP) units that are fuelled with non-processed biogas. Ways of increasing the efficiency of these units as far as the production of electricity is concerned are examined and commented on. Also, ways of using the heat generated by the CHP units to produce electricity using other, exergetic means are also described. Systems such as Stirling engines and existing and new thermo-electrical elements are discussed. The economic viability of the systems is also discussed.

  17. Improvement in methanol production by regulating the composition of synthetic gas mixture and raw biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2016-10-01

    Raw biogas can be an alternative feedstock to pure methane (CH4) for methanol production. In this investigation, we evaluated the methanol production potential of Methylosinus sporium from raw biogas originated from an anaerobic digester. Furthermore, the roles of different gases in methanol production were investigated using synthetic gas mixtures of CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen (H2). Maximum methanol production was 5.13, 4.35, 6.28, 7.16, 0.38, and 0.36mM from raw biogas, CH4:CO2, CH4:H2, CH4:CO2:H2, CO2, and CO2:H2, respectively. Supplementation of H2 into raw biogas increased methanol production up to 3.5-fold. Additionally, covalent immobilization of M. sporium on chitosan resulted in higher methanol production from raw biogas. This study provides a suitable approach to improve methanol production using low cost raw biogas as a feed containing high concentrations of H2S (0.13%). To our knowledge, this is the first report on methanol production from raw biogas, using immobilized cells of methanotrophs.

  18. COMPARISON OF TWO CHEMICAL PRETREATMENTS OF RICE STRAW FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Song,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is considered the most abundant renewable resource that has the potential to contribute remarkably in the supply of biofuel. Previous studies have shown that chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion (AD can increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and methane yield. In the present study, the effect of rice straw pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide (NH3•H2O and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the biogasification performance through AD was investigated. A self-designed, laboratory-scale, and continuous anaerobic biogas digester was used for the evaluation. Results showed that the contents of the rice straw, i.e. the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were degraded significantly after the NH3•H2O and H2O2 treatments, and that biogas production from all pretreated rice straw increased. In addition, the optimal treatments for biogas production were the 4% and 3% H2O2 treatments (w/w, which yielded 327.5 and 319.7 mL/gVS, biogas, respectively, higher than the untreated sample. Biogas production from H2O2 pretreated rice straw was more favorable than rice straw pretreated with same concentration of ammonia, ranking in the order of 4% ≈ 3% > 2% > 1%. The optimal amount of H2O2 treatment for rice straw biogas digestion is 3% when economics and biogas yields are considered.

  19. Innovative test method for the estimation of the foaming tendency of substrates for biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie, E-mail: lucie.moeller@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Eismann, Frank, E-mail: info@antoc.de [Eismann & Stöbe GbR, GeoPark, Geb. A12, Bautzner Strasse 67, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Wißmann, Daniel, E-mail: d.s.wissmann@gmx.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Nägele, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: hajo.naegele@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Zielonka, Simon, E-mail: simon.zielonka@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy (LA740), Garbenstrasse 9, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, Roland A., E-mail: roland.mueller@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Zehnsdorf, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.zehnsdorf@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Foaming in biogas plants depends on the interactions between substrate and digestate. • Foaming tests enable the evaluation of substrate foaming tendency in biogas plants. • Leipzig foam tester enables foaming tests of substrates prior to use. - Abstract: Excessive foaming in anaerobic digestion occurs at many biogas plants and can cause problems including plugged gas pipes. Unfortunately, the majority of biogas plant operators are unable to identify the causes of foaming in their biogas reactor. The occurrence of foaming is often related to the chemical composition of substrates fed to the reactor. The consistency of the digestate itself is also a crucial part of the foam formation process. Thus, no specific recommendations concerning substrates can be given in order to prevent foam formation in biogas plants. The safest way to avoid foaming is to test the foaming tendency of substrates on-site. A possible solution is offered by an innovative foaming test. With the help of this tool, biogas plant operators can evaluate the foaming disposition of new substrates prior to use in order to adjust the composition of substrate mixes.

  20. Comparative Studies on Methane Upgradation of Biogas by Removing of Contaminant Gases Using Combined Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rashed Al Mamun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogas, which generated from renewable sources can be used as a sustainable energy to achieve resourceful targets of biofuel for internal combustion engines. This process can be achieved in combined absorption and adsorption chemical way. This method can be employed by aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide, activated carbon, iron(II chloride, silica gel and sodium sulfate respectively. The presence of CO2, H2S and H2O in the biogas has lowering the calorific value and detrimental corrosion effects on the metal components. Removal of these contaminants from the biogas can therefore significantly improve the gas quality. A comparison study was investigated using combined chemical methods of improving the calorific value of biogas. Experiment results revealed that the aqueous solution used effectively in reacting with CO2 in biogas (over 85-90% removal efficiency, creating CH4 enriched biogas. The removal efficiency was the highest in method 1, where efficiency results were 91.5%, 97.1% and 91.8%, for CO2, H2S, and H2O, respectively. The corresponding CH4 enrichment was 97.5%. These results indicate that the method 1 is more suitable compare to method 2. However, both methane enrichment processes might be useful for cleaning and upgrading methane quality in biogas.

  1. Enhancement of Biogas Yield of Poplar Leaf by High-Solid Codigestion with Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangliang, Li; Zhikai, Zhang; Guangwen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the improvement of anaerobic biodegradability of organic fractions of poplar leaf from codigestion with swine manure (SM), thus biogas yield and energy recovery. When poplar leaf was used as a sole substrate, the cumulative biogas yield was low, about 163 mL (g volatile solid (VS))(-1) after 45 days of digestion with a substrate/inoculum ratio of 2.5 and a total solid (TS) of 22 %. Under the same condition, the cumulative biogas yield of poplar leaf reached 321 mL (g VS)(-1) when SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5 (based on VS). The SM/poplar leaf ratio can determine C/N ratio of the cosubstrate and thus has significant influence on biogas yield. When the SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5, C/N ratio was calculated to be 27.02, and the biogas yield in 45 days of digestion was the highest. The semi-continuous digestion of poplar leaf was carried out with the organic loading rate of 1.25 and 1.88 g VS day(-1). The average daily biogas yield was 230.2 mL (g VS)(-1) and 208.4 mL (g VS)(-1). The composition analysis revealed that cellulose and hemicellulose contributed to the biogas production.

  2. Biogas and methane yield in response to co- and separate digestion of biomass wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelard, Laetitia; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Rakotoniaina, Volana

    2015-01-01

    The impact of co-digestion as opposed to separate digestion, on biogas and methane yield (apparent synergetic effects) was investigated for three biomass materials (pig manure, cow manure and food waste) under mesophilic conditions over a 36 day period. In addition to the three biomass materials (digested separately), 13 biomass mixtures (co-digested) were used. Two approaches for modelling biogas and methane yield during co-digestion, based on volatile solids concentration and ultimate gas and methane potentials, were evaluated. The dependency of apparent synergetic effects on digestion time and biomass mixture composition was further assessed using measured cumulative biogas and methane yields and specific biogas and methane generation rates. Results indicated that it is possible, based on known volatile solids concentration and ultimate biogas or methane yields for a set of biomass materials digested separately, to accurately estimate gas yields for biomass mixtures made from these materials using calibrated models. For the biomass materials considered here, modelling indicated that the addition of pig manure is the main cause of synergetic effects. Co-digestion generally resulted in improved ultimate biogas and methane yields compared to separate digestion. Biogas and methane production was furthermore significantly higher early (0-7 days) and to some degree also late (above 20 days) in the digestion process during co-digestion.

  3. The effect of nitrogen on biogas flame propagation characteristic in premix combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggono, Willyanto; Suprianto, Fandi D.; Hartanto, Tan Ivan; Purnomo, Kenny; Wijaya, Tubagus P.

    2016-03-01

    Biogas is one of alternative energy and categorized as renewable energy. The main sources of biogas come from animal waste, garbage, and household waste that are organic waste. Primarily, over 50% of this energy contains methane (CH4). The other substances or inhibitors are nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Previously, carbon dioxide effect on biogas combustion is already experimented. The result shows that carbon dioxide reduces the flame propagation speed of biogas combustion. Then, nitrogen as an inhibitor obviously also brings some effects to the biogas combustion, flame propagation speed, and flame characteristics. Spark ignited cylinder is used for the premixed biogas combustion research. An acrylic glass is used as the material of this transparent cylinder chamber. The cylinder is filled with methane (CH4), oxygen (O2), and nitrogen (N2) with particular percentage. In this experiment, the nitrogen composition are set to 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. The result shows that the flame propagation speed is reduced in regard to the increased level of nitrogen. It can also be implied that nitrogen can decrease the biogas combustion rate.

  4. Impact of biogas digesters on cookhouse volatile organic compound exposure for rural Kenyan farmwomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, Carolyn; Read Guernsey, Judith; Gibson, Mark D; VanLeeuwen, John

    2015-01-01

    Women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms burn wood as biofuel in family cookhouses. Unventilated biofuel combustion produces harmful levels of respirable particles and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in indoor environments. Biogas digesters, which can generate high methane-content biogas from livestock manure composting were recently installed on 31 farms. The study objectives were to compare VOC exposure profiles for women cooking on farms with and without biogas digesters, and to compare seasonal variations in VOC exposures for those women cooking with biogas. Participants (n=31 biogas farms, n=31 referent farms) wore passive thermal desorption VOC sampling tubes and recorded cookhouse fuel use on time activity sheets for 7 days. Women using biogas spent significantly less time (mean=509 min/week) exposed to cookhouse wood smoke compared with the referent group (mean=1122 min/week) (Pbiogas cookhouses were significantly lower than in referent cookhouses, even after Bonferroni correction. The composition of VOC species was also significantly different, reflecting the different fuel sources. Biogas digester technologies have great potential for reducing exposure to wood smoke VOCs in low-income countries.

  5. An integrated metagenome and -proteome analysis of the microbial community residing in a biogas production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortseifen, Vera; Stolze, Yvonne; Maus, Irena; Sczyrba, Alexander; Bremges, Andreas; Albaum, Stefan P; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Fracowiak, Jochen; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-08-10

    To study the metaproteome of a biogas-producing microbial community, fermentation samples were taken from an agricultural biogas plant for microbial cell and protein extraction and corresponding metagenome analyses. Based on metagenome sequence data, taxonomic community profiling was performed to elucidate the composition of bacterial and archaeal sub-communities. The community's cytosolic metaproteome was represented in a 2D-PAGE approach. Metaproteome databases for protein identification were compiled based on the assembled metagenome sequence dataset for the biogas plant analyzed and non-corresponding biogas metagenomes. Protein identification results revealed that the corresponding biogas protein database facilitated the highest identification rate followed by other biogas-specific databases, whereas common public databases yielded insufficient identification rates. Proteins of the biogas microbiome identified as highly abundant were assigned to the pathways involved in methanogenesis, transport and carbon metabolism. Moreover, the integrated metagenome/-proteome approach enabled the examination of genetic-context information for genes encoding identified proteins by studying neighboring genes on the corresponding contig. Exemplarily, this approach led to the identification of a Methanoculleus sp. contig encoding 16 methanogenesis-related gene products, three of which were also detected as abundant proteins within the community's metaproteome. Thus, metagenome contigs provide additional information on the genetic environment of identified abundant proteins.

  6. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters.

  7. Pengaruh macam limbah organik dan pengenceran terhadap produksi biogas dari bahan biomassa limbah peternakan ayam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNARTO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pamungkas GS, Sutarno, Mahajoeno E. 2012. Pengaruh macam limbah organik dan pengenceran terhadap produksi biogas dari bahan biomassa limbah peternakan ayam. Bioteknologi 9: 18-25. Kelangkaan bahan bakar merupakan masalah penting saat ini, sehingga diperlukan berbagai alternative sumbernya. Dengan sistem biodigester anaerob, limbah peternakan ayam dengan penambahan limbah organik lain dapat menghasilkan biogas, sebagai sumber energi terbarukan (renewable energy. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (i menguji produksi biogas dari pencerna anaerob limbah peternakan ayam dengan perlakuan pengenceran, dan penambahan berbagai substrat sampah organik skala laboratorium, (ii mengetahui produksi biogas dari pencerna anaerob sistem curah limbah peternakan ayam dengan frekuensi agitasi berbeda pada skala semi pilot. Penelitian dilakukan dua tahap yaitu penelitian skala laboratorium dan skala semi pilot. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan pola Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri dari 2 faktor yaitu, rasio pengenceran, dan penambahan substrat. Hasil dari produksi biogas terbaik direkomendasikan pada penelitian skala semi pilot sistem curah. Perlakuan dalam tahapan semi pilot dengan interval waktu pengadukan, yaitu 4 jam/hari dan 8 jam/hari. Produksi biogas tertinggi diperoleh dari penyampuran kotoran ayam dengan eceng gondok pengenceran 1:1 sebesar 0,60 L dalam 6 minggu dan efisiensi perombakan COD, TSS, VS adalah 63,80%; 14,79%; 75,14%. Pada sekala semi pilot sistem curah dengan frekuensi pengadukan 8 jam/hari, diperoleh hasil biogas tertinggi sebesar 624,99 L dalam 6 minggu.

  8. Problems with Biogas Implementation in Developing Countries from the Perspective of Labor Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudina Terefe Tucho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most households in rural developing countries depend on firewood from public forests or agricultural bio-wastes for cooking. Public forests, though, are declining due to an increasing population and inefficient use of wood. Use of agricultural wastes on the other hand involves loss of soil nutrients since these resources are used as a substitute for inorganic fertilizers. Biogas energy can be an alternative in providing clean energy for cooking as well as improving soil fertility with the slurry. However, the labor spent on producing biogas can limit its use as a source of energy and fertilizers. Therefore, this study aims to determine the labor requirement of different mono and co-digestion biogas energy systems. The assessment is made by using simple models involving different schemes of resources collection and transportation based on reported relevant literature. The analysis shows that biogas production can be labor intensive when transportation of feedstock, water, and slurry is involved. Transporting these resources over a one kilometer (km distance requires about ten times the amount of time spent on firewood collection and transportation. The largest part of the time for biogas production activities is spent on water collection and transportation. Low labor biogas production is possible only if all the resources are available nearby (not transported. One of the advantages of the biogas energy system is to use the slurry for soil enrichment. However, this can only be realized when the slurry is converted to compost or directly applied on nearby lands. In general, biogas production involving resources (feedstock, water and slurry transportation is not a viable alternative to save the time spent on the traditional use of firewood. However, a community biogas system involving resource system integration is an option to provide clean energy with acceptable labor requirements of production.

  9. Energy Economics of Farm Biogas in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, Pragasen; Grimberg, Stefan; Powers, Susan E

    2012-10-24

    Anaerobic digestion of farm and dairy waste has been shown to be capital intensive. One way to improve digester economics is to co-digest high-energy substrates together with the dairy manure. Cheese whey for example represents a high-energy substrate that is generated during cheese manufacture. There are currently no quantitative tools available that predict performance of co-digestion farm systems. The goal of this project was to develop a mathematical tool that would (1) predict the impact of co-digestion and (2) determine the best use of the generated biogas for a cheese manufacturing plant. Two models were developed that separately could be used to meet both goals of the project. Given current pricing structures of the most economical use of the generated biogas at the cheese manufacturing plant was as a replacement of fuel oil to generate heat. The developed digester model accurately predicted the performance of 26 farm digesters operating in the North Eastern U.S.

  10. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gergely Forgács; Saeid Alinezhad; Amir Mirabdollah; Elisabeth Feuk-Lagerstedt; Ilona Sárvári Horwáth

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas.Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production.Chopped,autoclaved chicken feathers (4%,W/V) were completely degraded,resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain.During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments,methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e.,0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers),corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins,was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates,independently of the prehydrolysis time period of 1,2 or 8 days.Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain,Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate,which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers.Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B.megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  11. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology.

  12. STUDIES CONCERNING THE UTILISATION OF DIGESTATE IN BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to expose the many possibilities of using digestate in biogas plants and the advantages of its using. In agricultural animal farms is produced a big quantity of animal manure, which must be adequate managed, mainly as fertiliser. The most advantageous solution of using animal manure and slurry is using it in biogas plants, where, due to degradation of organic matter, digestate is easier to pump and easier to apply as fertiliser, with reduced need of stirring, compared to untreated slurry. The researches made showes that digestate has lower C/N ratio, compared to raw manure. This property means that digestate has a better effect in fertilisation with Nitrogen on short term. The paper also shows the effects of digestate application on soil, compared to compost application of digestate as fertiliser, must be done on the basis of a fertiliser plan. The fertiliser plan with digestate is elaborated for each agricultural farm, according to the type of crop.

  13. Viability of various weed seeds in anaerobic conditions (biogas plant)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.; Hansen, J.

    1983-04-01

    Seeds from different weeds, Urtica urens L. (nettle), Solanum nigrum L. (nightshade), Avena fatua L. (wild oat-grass), Brassica napus L. (rape), Chenopodium album L. (goose-foot), were put into small polyester net bags, which were placed in biogas reactors containing cattle manure. These ''biogas reactors'' were placed at different temperatures . Net bags were taken out after 4.5, 10.5, 21.5, 38 and 53 days, and the seeds were tested for their viability by germination tests and the tetrazolium method. Concerning all seeds it was manifested that the viability decreased very steeply at 35degC. Most of the seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 2-5 days; Chenopodium album L seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 16 days. After 4.5 days it was not possible to find living Avena fatua L seeds. The decrease in viability was less steep at 20degC and even less steep at 2degC.

  14. The future of anaerobic digestion and biogas utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Nielsen, J B; Al Seadi, T; Oleskowicz-Popiel, P

    2009-11-01

    One of the common tendencies of animal production activities in Europe and in developed countries in general is to intensify the animal production and to increase the size of the animal production units. High livestock density is always accompanied by production of a surplus of animal manure, representing a considerable pollution threat for the environment in these areas. Avoiding over-fertilization is not only important for environmental protection reasons but also for economical reasons. Intensive animal production areas need therefore suitable manure management, aiming to export and to redistribute the excess of nutrients from manure and to optimize their recycling. Anaerobic digestion of animal manure and slurries offers several benefits by improving their fertilizer qualities, reducing odors and pathogens and producing a renewable fuel - the biogas. The EU policies concerning renewable energy systems (RES) have set forward a fixed goal of supplying 20% of the European energy demands from RES by year 2020. A major part of the renewable energy will originate from European farming and forestry. At least 25% of all bioenergy in the future can originate from biogas, produced from wet organic materials such as: animal manure, whole crop silages, wet food and feed wastes, etc.

  15. Biogas production from energy crops and agriculture residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.

    2010-12-15

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential in term of ml CH4 produced per g of VS-added and (b) the amount of methane produced per m3 of reactor volume. (Author)

  16. BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ENCAPSULATED METHANE-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation of methane-producing bacteria was carried out with the objective of enhancing the rate of biogas production. Encapsulation with a one-step liquid-droplet-forming technique was employed for the natural membrane, resulting in spherical capsules with an average diameter and a membrane thickness of 4.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The capsules were made from alginate, using chitosan or Ca2+ as counter-ions, together with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC. A Durapore® membrane (hydrophilic PVDF with a pore size of 0.1 µm was used for synthetic encapsulating sachets having width and length dimensions 3×3 and 3×6 cm2 for holding the bacteria. During the digesting process, the dissolved substrates penetrated through the capsule membrane, and biogas inside the capsules was able to escape by diffusion. The results indicate encapsulation to be a promising method of digestion, with a high density of anaerobic bacteria. The method holds considerable potential for further development of membranes and their applications.

  17. Efficiency and biotechnological aspects of biogas production from microalgal substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Viktor; Blifernez-Klassen, Olga; Wobbe, Lutz; Schlüter, Andreas; Kruse, Olaf; Mussgnug, Jan H

    2016-09-20

    Photosynthetic organisms like plants and algae can harvest, convert, and store solar energy and thus represent readily available sources for renewable biofuels production on a domestic or industrial scale. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic biomass yields biogas, containing methane and carbon dioxide as major constituents. Combustion of the biogas or purification of the energy-rich methane fraction can be applied to provide electricity or fuel. AD procedures have been applied for several decades with organic waste, animal products, or higher plants and more recently, utilization of photosynthetic algae as substrates have gained considerable research interest. To provide an overview of recent research efforts made to characterize the AD process of microalgal biomass, we present extended summaries of experimentally determined biochemical methane potentials (BMP), biomass pretreatment options and digestion strategies in this article. We conclude that cultivation options, biomass composition and time of harvesting, application of biomass pretreatment strategies, and parameters of the digestion process are all important factors, which can significantly affect the AD process efficiency. The transition from batch to continuous microalgal biomass digestion trials, accompanied by state-of-the-art analytical techniques, is now in demand to refine the assessments of the overall process feasibility.

  18. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kolesárová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered.

  19. Membrane-based removal of volatile methylsiloxanes from biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajhar, Marc

    2011-12-16

    This work investigates the removal of volatile methylsiloxanes (VMS) from biogas using dense, rubbery membranes. It consists of the following: a) thorough overview of already established and still developing siloxane removal technologies, b) detailed investigation of a viable sampling and analytical method, c) screening of different elastomers to identify siloxane-selective membrane materials, d) design of a suitable membrane structure, i.e. theoretical considerations about the thicknesses of the active separation layer and the porous support layer, e) assessment of the siloxane separation performance of a silicone membrane module using both synthetic gas under laboratory conditions and real landfill gas, f) comparison between the state-of-the-art technology (adsorption on activated carbon) and membrane-based processes. Suitable polymers for siloxane removal from biogas exist, however, they are not commercially available as membranes. Among the elastomers studied, Pebax registered 2533 is particularly promising. The use of a membrane made of this material could potentially become new state-of-the-art technology.

  20. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominate in biogas reactors fed with defined substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, K; Ratering, S; Baumann, R; Schmidt, M; Zerr, W; Schnell, S

    2012-09-01

    Methanogenic communities in 200L biogas reactors containing liquid manure were investigated for 33 d. The reactors were consecutively fed with casein, starch and cream. Real-time PCR with primers targeting the gene for methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) resulted in copy numbers of up to 2.1×10(9) g dry mass(-1). Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis revealed a stable community consisting of few hydrogenotrophic methanogens. One of the two most abundant species was closely related to Methanospirillum hungatei, whereas the other one was only distantly related to other methanogens, with Methanopyrus kandleri being the closest cultivated relative. Most probable number (MPN) cultivations were accomplished with a sample from a 600 m(3) reactor from which all manures used in the experiments originated, and equal cell counts of ca. 10(9) g dry mass(-1) were found for cultivations with acetate, H(2) and methanol. SSCP analysis of these samples and sequencing of the DNA bands identified different hydrogenotrophic methanogens in all samples, and acetoclastic methanogens closely related to Methanosarcina mazei in the samples cultivated with acetate and methanol. As the acetoclastic species were not found in any other SSCP sample, it was supposed that the ammonia values in the manure of the laboratory biogas reactor, which ranged from 2.48 to 3.61 g NH(4)-NL(-1), inhibited the growth of the acetoclastic methanogens.

  1. Recommendations for a metrological equipment of agricultural biogas plants; Empfehlungen fuer die messtechnische Ausstattung landwirtschaftlicher Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, Mathias; Aschmann, Volker [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LfL), Freising (Germany). Inst. fuer Landtechnik und Tierhaltung; Herb, Cornelius [Agraferm Technologies AG, Pfaffenhofen (Germany); Helm, Markus [Gutachtergemeinschaft Biogas GmbH, Freising (Germany); Mueller, Josef Sebastian [ABB Automation Products GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Any modern biogas plant cannot exist with measurement technology entirely. Operators of smaller biogas plants often are afraid of additional costs of measuring equipment, and have doubts about the necessity and reliability of measurement components. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the appropriate selection and evaluation of the measurement technology for biogas plants. The most important metrological components are described and evaluated in the light of expert knowledge and practical experiences as well as in the light of selected bibliographical references.

  2. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...... of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy...

  3. Solutions for Foaming Problems in Biogas Reactors Using Natural Oils or Fatty Acids as Defoamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    results from our previous extensive research along with some unpublished data on defoaming by rapeseed oil and oleic acid in manure-based biogas reactors. It was found that both compounds exhibited remarkable defoaming efficiency ranging from 30 to 57% in biogas reactors suffering from foaming problems...... promoted by the addition of protein, lipid, or carbohydrate co-substrates. However, in most cases, the defoaming efficiency of rapeseed oil was greater than that of oleic acid, and therefore, rapeseed oil is recommended to be used in biogas reactors to solve foaming problems....

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy for process and substrate supervision of a full-scale biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, Hans Fabian

    2012-07-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of near-infrared spectroscopy in the supervision of the biogas production process or parts thereof. It was examined, whether the surveillance of (a) the process and (b) substrate was feasible. The following tasks were accomplished to this end: 1. Development, construction and assembly of suitable NIRS-metrology, development of proper control-software as well as of strategies for data acquisition and data handling, 2. calculation and validation of regression models on the basis of acquired spectra and reference data for (a) suitable parameters of the biogas process, (b) composition and biogas potential of the substrate, 3. calculation of continuous time series of all parameters in order to prove the possibility of continuous surveillance, 4. integrated processing of continuously calculated biogas potentials together with plant data for the prediction of the biogas production behavior of the biogas plant. A near-infrared spectrometer was installed and equipped with NIR-measuring heads of own design and construction on a full-scale agricultural biogas plant. For 500 days spectra were continuously logged at (a) a pipe flowed through by fermenter slurry and (b) the feeding station, where silage passed. Based on regularly withdrawn reference samples and the corresponding spectra regression models were calibrated for the several constituents. Continuously logged spectra were used to calculate time series with the aid of the regression models for each constituent. Models and time series were established for the following parameters: (a) process parameters: volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, dry matter, volatile solids; (b) substrate parameters: dry matter, volatile solids, crude fiber, crude fat, crude protein, nitrogen-free extracts, experimentally assessed biogas potential, theoretically assessed biogas potential. Despite the partially low quality of the models it was possible to follow the course of

  5. Biogas upgrading - Review of commercial technologies; Biogasuppgradering - Granskning av kommersiella tekniker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Fredric; Hulteberg, Christian; Persson, Tobias; Tamm, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Biogas production is growing and there is an increasing demand for upgraded biogas, to be used as vehicle fuel or injected to the natural gas grid. To enable the efficient use of biogas in these applications the gas must be upgraded, i.e. the carbon dioxide, which constitutes a large part of the raw biogas from the digester, must be separated from the methane. This report aims to evaluate the biogas upgrading technologies that are commercially available and in operation today: amine scrubbers, water scrubbers, PSA units, organic scrubbers and membrane units. The technologies are described in detail by presenting the theory behind the separation mechanism, the upgrading process as a complete system, operational issues and how these are solved, and finally the most important financial data. Furthermore, the best developed cryogenic technologies, which today are being used to purify landfill gas and biogas from some specific components and to liquefy biogas, are presented. Cryogenic upgrading is an interesting possibility, but as this report shows, the technology still has some important operational issues to resolve. Technologies which are especially focused on small-scale applications are finally presented, however not in as much detail as the other, more common technologies. The report shows that for mid-scale applications, the most common options are all viable. The scrubbing technologies all perform well and have similar costs of investment and operation. The simplicity and reliability of the water scrubber has made this the preferred choice in many applications, but the high purity and very low methane slip from amine scrubbers are important characteristics. Regarding PSA and membrane units, the investment cost for these are about the same as for scrubbers. Furthermore, recent developments of the membrane units have also made it possible to reach low methane slips with this technology. Biogas production is increasing, in Sweden and globally, and the interest for

  6. Biogas production by anaerobic co-digestion of cattle slurry and cheese whey

    OpenAIRE

    Comino, Elena; Riggio, Vincenzo Andrea; Rosso, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Biogas yield of mixtures of cattle slurry and cheese whey, rates of production of methane, removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were investigated at 35 C. Stable biogas production of 621 l/kg volatile solids at a hydraulic retention time of 42 days in a mixture containing 50% slurry and whey was obtained. The concentration of methane in the biogas was around 55%. Maximum removal efficiencies for COD and BOD5 were 82% and 90%, respectively. A ...

  7. Biochar as Additive in Biogas-Production from Bio-Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Meyer-Kohlstock; Thomas Haupt; Erik Heldt; Nils Heldt; Eckhard Kraft

    2016-01-01

    Previous publications about biochar in anaerobic digestion show encouraging results with regard to increased biogas yields. This work investigates such effects in a solid-state fermentation of bio-waste. Unlike in previous trials, the influence of biochar is tested with a setup that simulates an industrial-scale biogas plant. Both the biogas and the methane yield increased around 5% with a biochar addition of 5%—based on organic dry matter biochar to bio-waste. An addition of 10% increa...

  8. Comparison of VFA titration procedures used for monitoring the biogas process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Boe, Kanokwan; Fang, Cheng;

    2014-01-01

    Titrimetric determination of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) contents is a common way to monitor a biogas process. However, digested manure from co-digestion biogas plants has a complex matrix with high concentrations of interfering components, resulting in varying results when using different...... (GC) analysis. Two of the procedures are commonly used in biogas plants and two are discussed in literature. The results showed that the optimal titration results were obtained when 40mL of four times diluted digested manure was gently stirred (200rpm). Results from samples with different VFA...

  9. Environmental and economic analysis of application of water hyacinth for eutrophic water treatment coupled with biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zanxin; Calderon, Margaret M

    2012-11-15

    The proliferation of water hyacinth is currently controlled by removing it from a water body and disposing it by landfill in China. Using water hyacinth to remove nutrients from water bodies and to produce biogas is another technically feasible option for the control of water hyacinth, but its environmental and economic performances are not well understood. This study collected data from an experimental biogas plant to develop a lifecycle analysis and a cost benefit analysis for the control of water hyacinth proliferation in a eutrophic lake in China. Comparison was made between the alternative option of using water hyacinth for biogas production and the current practice of disposing it in landfills. The results reveal that the biogas option is economically feasible with a positive energy balance. The removal of water hyacinth to produce biogas can contribute to water quality improvement and GHG emission reduction whose values, however, depend on the processing scale of the biogas plant. Since both the current approach and the biogas option can remove nutrients from water bodies, the additional value of water quality improvement resulting from the biogas option is only possible when the processing scale of the biogas plant is greater than the amount of water hyacinth disposed by landfill. The emission of methane deserves attention when water hyacinth is disposed by landfill. The biogas option can respond to China's policies on water pollution control, renewable energy development, and energy saving and emission reduction.

  10. NIRS-aided monitoring and prediction of biogas yields from maize silage at a full-scale biogas plant applying lumped kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, H Fabian; Ohl, Susanne; Thiessen, Eiko; Hartung, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), available biogas plant data and lumped degradation kinetics to predict biogas production (BPr) of maize silage. A full-scale agricultural biogas plant was equipped with NIRS-metrology at the feeding station. Continuously NIR-spectra were collected for 520 d. Substrate samples were analyzed by means of feedstuff analysis. Biogas potential of the samples was calculated from the laboratory analysis results and for a sample-subset practically assessed by "Hohenheim biogas tests". NIRS-regression-models for all mentioned parameters were calibrated. Continuously gathered spectra, NIRS-models, actual plant-feeding data and degradation kinetics were used to calculate time-series of theoretically expectable BPr. Results were validated against measured gas quantity. Determination coefficients between calculated and measured BPr were up to 58.2%. This outcome was mainly due to the positive correlation between BPr and input amount since the substrate was very homogeneous. The use of NIRS seems more promising for plants with stronger substrate heterogeneity.

  11. Design and manufacture of an atmospheric burner of biogas with rural application; Diseno y construccion de un quemador atmosferico de biogas con aplicaciones rurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez Nunez, Jorge; Suarez Pacheco, Jose; Novelo Navarrete, Jose H; Soto Apolinar, Efrain [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this text it's resumed the methodology that was carried out to make an atmospheric burner of biogas, as the criteria that were taken in account in order to determine the main parameters of it. It introduces a synthesis of the stages of design and manufacture of the device. The utility of this type of burner increase the efficiency of the oxidation of the biogas compared with the use of conventional burners that aren't designed for this purpose. [Spanish] En este trabajo se resume la metodologia que se llevo a cabo para la construccion de un quemador de biogas tipo atmosferico, asi como los criterios que se tomaron para la determinacion de los parametros principales del mismo. Se presenta una sintesis de las etapas de diseno y manufactura del dispositivo. El uso de este tipo de quemadores aumenta la eficiencia de la oxidacion del biogas en comparacion con el uso de quemadores convencionales que no estan disenados para quemar biogas.

  12. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively.

  13. Final report on household and institutional biogas : technical performance & economic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the technical performance for the ARTI compact biogas system in Nairobi and of the potential economic savings therein, and provides a preliminary analysis of the “gas for cash” business concept in Kenya.

  14. Proposal for an all-sector biogas strategy; Foerslag till en sektoroevergripande biogasstrategi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Julia; Kaerrmarck, Urban; Levander, Thomas; Enghag, Olof; Gustavsson, Christel; Wikholm, Nanna

    2010-02-15

    The study, developed in cooperation with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Board of Agriculture, offers a proposal for a strategy to increase use of biogas as far as is economically justifiable. The proposal means that producers of biogas produced from manure is granted full compensation for the climate and environmental benefits that such production results. The proposal, if implemented, could lead to a doubling of biogas production and biogas use. No general support for upgrading to vehicle fuel and distribution of vehicle fuel is proposed because the use of vehicle fuel by itself does not involve any additional social benefits. Increased independence of fossil fuels in the transport sector is achieved with essentially the same climatic and environmental benefits but at significantly lower costs through greater use of other existing renewable fuels

  15. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  16. Augmented biogas production from protein-rich substrates and associated metagenomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Etelka; Wirth, Roland; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Nagy, Katalin; Minárovits, János; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2015-02-01

    This study demonstrates that appropriate adaptation of the microbial community to protein-rich biomass can lead to sustainable biogas production. The process of acclimation to these unusual mono-substrates was controlled by the protease activity of the microbial community. Meat extract (C/N=3.32) and kitchen waste (C/N=12.43) were used as biogas substrates. Metagenome analysis highlighted several mesophilic strains that displayed a preference for protein degradation. Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens were chosen for detailed investigation. Pure cultures were added to biogas reactors fed solely with protein-rich substrates. The bioaugmentation resulted in a 50% increase in CH4 production even without any acclimation. The survival and biological activity of the added bacteria were followed in fed-batch fermenters by qPCR. Stable biogas production was observed for an extended period of time in laboratory CSTR reactors fed with biomass of low C/N.

  17. Hybrid cogeneration system fueled with biogas obtained from urban sewage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Călin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available When treating urban waste water, a large quantity of sludge is produced. This sludge may by used in fermentation tanks to obtain biogas with medium to high levels of methane, which is ideal for electric energy and heat production. The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical study regarding the use of biogas in power and heat generation modules. Biogas can be used for fueling internal combustion engines or fuel cells, which in turn generate electricity. Waste heat contained in the exhaust gas can be recovered in order to maximize efficiency. The theoretical study presented in this paper evaluates electrical and overall efficiency of a biogas production installation inside an urban waste water treatment.

  18. Application of ADM1 for modeling of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Hydrilla verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Xun; Huo, Chan; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Hu, Mian

    2016-07-01

    The present study focused on the application of anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) to simulate biogas production from Hydrilla verticillata. Model simulation was carried out by implementing ADM1 in AQUASIM 2.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to select the most sensitive parameters for estimation using the absolute-relative sensitivity function. Among all the kinetic parameters, disintegration constant (kdis), hydrolysis constant of protein (khyd_pr), Monod maximum specific substrate uptake rate (km_aa, km_ac, km_h2) and half-saturation constants (Ks_aa, Ks_ac) affect biogas production significantly, which were optimized by fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to well predict the experimental results of daily biogas production and biogas composition. The simulation results of evolution of organic acids, bacteria concentrations and inhibition effects also helped to get insight into the reaction mechanisms.

  19. Determination of methane emission rates on a biogas plant using data from laser absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Angela; Maurer, Claudia; Reiser, Martin; Kranert, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the work was to establish a method for emission control of biogas plants especially the observation of fugitive methane emissions. The used method is in a developmental stage but the topic is crucial to environmental and economic issues. A remote sensing measurement method was adopted to determine methane emission rates of a biogas plant in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. An inverse dispersion model was used to deduce emission rates. This technique required one concentration measurement with an open path tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) downwind and upwind the source and basic wind information, like wind speed and direction. Different operating conditions of the biogas plant occurring on the measuring day (December 2013) could be represented roughly in the results. During undisturbed operational modes the methane emission rate averaged 2.8 g/s, which corresponds to 4% of the methane gas production rate of the biogas plant.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Low Income Economy Through Biogas and Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miezah, Kodwo; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Kádár, Zsófia;

    2016-01-01

    The biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes generated from households in Ghana has favourable characteristics worth considering for bioenergy production. The suitability of this biodegradable portion for biogas and bioethanol production was assessed in this study. The assessment was perf...

  1. Effect of biological pretreatment of Agropyron elongatum 'BAMAR' on biogas production by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalak, Justyna; Kasprzycka, Agnieszka; Martyniak, Danuta; Tys, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of three different moisture contents (MC), at 45% MC, 65% MC, 75% MC, on the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin during fungi treatment by Flammulina velutipes of Agropyron elongatum 'BAMAR' and on biogas production. The analysis of chemical composition shown that F. velutipes had greater selectivity for lignin biodegradation with the highest hemicellulose and lignin removal at 29.1% and 35.4%, respectively, and lowest cellulose removal (20.48%) at 65% MC. F. velutipes cultivated at 65% MC increased biogas production of 398.07Ndm(3)kg(-1)VS(-1), which was 120% higher than the untreated sample. These treatment conditions resulted in 134% more methane yield compared with untreated sample. The results of this study suggested that A. elongatum is a potential biomass for biogas production in agriculture biogas plant and white-rot fungus F. velutipes provides an effective methods for improve biodegradation of A. elongatum.

  2. Biological conversion of biogas to methanol using methanotrophs isolated from solid-state anaerobic digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yueh-Fen; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate methanotrophs (methane oxidizing bacteria) that can directly convert biogas produced at a commercial anaerobic digestion (AD) facility to methanol. A methanotrophic bacterium was isolated from solid-state anaerobic digestate. The isolate had characteristics comparable to obligate methanotrophs from the genus Methylocaldum. This newly isolated methanotroph grew on biogas or purified CH4 and successfully converted biogas from AD to methanol. Methanol production was achieved using several methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) inhibitors and formate as an electron donor. The isolate also produced methanol using phosphate with no electron donor or using formate with no MDH inhibitor. The maximum methanol concentration (0.43±0.00gL(-1)) and 48-h CH4 to methanol conversion (25.5±1.1%) were achieved using biogas as substrate and a growth medium containing 50mM phosphate and 80mM formate.

  3. Comparison of biogas production from wild and cultivated varieties of reed canary grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszek, Marta; Król, Aleksandra; Tys, Jerzy; Matyka, Mariusz; Kulik, Mariusz

    2014-03-01

    The chemical composition and efficiency of biogas production in the methane fermentation process of silages of wild and cultivated varieties of reed canary grass were compared. An attempt was made to answer the question on how the habitat and the way of utilization of plants affect chemical composition and biogas yield. Physicochemical properties such as dry matter, organic dry matter, protein, fat, crude fiber fraction, macro- and microelements content were considered. The anaerobic digestion process and FTIR analysis were also carried out. The results showed that the two varieties differ essentially in their physical and chemical properties. The cultivated variety was characterized by higher biogas yield (406Ndm(3)kg(-1) VS) than the wild one (120Ndm(3)kg(-1) VS). This was probably related to the chemical composition of plants, especially the high content of indigestible crude fiber fractions and ash. These components could reduce biogas quantity and quality.

  4. [Biodegradation of Cellulose-Containing Substrates by Micromycetes Followed by Bioconversion into Biogas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokudina, L I; Osmolovskii, A A; Egorova, M A; Malakhova, D V; Netrusov, A I; Tsavkelova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of micromycetes Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus terreus to decompose the cellulose-containing substrates was studied. Office paper and cardboard, as well as a paper mixture, were found to be the most hydrolyzable. The cellulolytic activity of T. viride was 2-3 times higher than that of A. terreus; the highest values of 0.80 and 0.73 U/mLwere obtained from office paper and the paper mixture, respectively. The micromycete cultivation conditions (composition of culture medium, sucrose cosubstrate addition, seeding method) and the conditions of the fungus biomass treatment for its subsequent bioconversion into biogas by anaerobic microbial communities were optimized. It was shown that pretreatment improves the efficiency of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials under seeding with microbial community of bovine animal manure. After pretreatment of the Jerusalem artichoke phytomass (stems and leaves) and its subsequent bioconversion into biogas by methanogenic community, the biogas yield was increased by 1.5 times.

  5. Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic codigestion of solid waste by sonolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Alessandra; Naddeo, Vincenzo; Amodio, Valeria; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of sonolysis in improving the anaerobic biodegradability of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste coming from mechanical selection, thus enhancing biogas production and energy recovery as well. Methane yield of solid organic material anaerobic digestion is significantly affected by substrate availability that was evaluated, in this investigation, through organic matter solubilisation tests carried out at different conditions of ultrasound treatment. Results show that sonolysis can significantly improve the solubilisation of organic solid waste, thus allowing higher biogas production from anaerobic treatment of sonicated substrates. After 45 days, the biogas produced during anaerobic codigestion tests for the sonicated mixture was 24% higher than untreated one. Therefore, these results can lay the basis for the development of technologies useful to produce high biogas quantities, in order to improve clean energy generation from biowaste.

  6. Increasing the biogas yield of manure by wet explosion of the digested fiber fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    Increasing the biodegradability of the lignocellulosic fiber fraction of manure can ensure higher methane productivity in biogas plants, leading to process profitability and thus larger production of renewable energy. A new pretreatment method, wet explosion (WEx), was investigated to treat...

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung for biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    OROKA FRANK OKE; AKHIHIERO THELMA

    2015-01-01

    Co-digestion of water hyacinth and cow dung under anaerobic condition was studied. Results indicate a progressive increase in biogas yield with increased cow dung in the co-ferment mixture of water hyacinth: cow dung

  8. Biogas production by anaerobic co-digestion of cattle slurry and cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Elena; Riggio, Vincenzo A; Rosso, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    Biogas yield of mixtures of cattle slurry and cheese whey, rates of production of methane, removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were investigated at 35 °C. Stable biogas production of 621 l/kg volatile solids at a hydraulic retention time of 42 days in a mixture containing 50% slurry and whey was obtained. The concentration of methane in the biogas was around 55%. Maximum removal efficiencies for COD and BOD5 were 82% and 90%, respectively. A maximum biogas production increase of 79% with respect to the start-up phase was achieved. The result of this study show that co-digestion of a high volume of whey (up to 65% in volume) is possible without the use of chemicals for pH correction, but also that this kind of mix has a similar energetic potential for anaerobic digestion as energy crops such as maize.

  9. Biodigester economic viability for electrical power production using biogas from swine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: ricardogc@fca.unesp.br; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2008-07-01

    The increase of energy use in agriculture and the raising prices of electricity demand studies on alternate sources of energy and improvement on biogas use efficiency so that agricultural activities become more competitive. Biogas production through anaerobic biodigestion represents an important breakthrough for the problem of swine waste and energy availability for rural areas. This work aimed to analyze the economy on biodigester investment for electrical power production using biogas from anaerobic biodigestion of swine waste. Two factors were used for this evaluation: the cost of electrical power production through biogas and time for equipment investment return. Results show that investment return time can be only 2.45 years for electrical power at peak time. (author)

  10. Benefits of Rural Biogas Implementation to Economy and Environment: Boyolali Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Tazi Hnyine

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selo, a small agricultural-based village in Boyolali, Central-Java, Indonesia has initiated small-scale rural biogas adoption as it presumably reduces the consumption of LPG, firewood, chemical fertilizer and (women’s overall workload, which especially suitable due to the relatively high use of cattle in that area As environmental problems such as global warming from fossil fuel consumption and land degradation from deforestation and overuse of chemical fertilizers, and socio-economic problems as gender empowerment and self-sufficiency are becoming more pressing, it is useful to analyse the benefits of biogas as an alternative renewable energy technology (RET provision in rural areas. This paper aims to assess the benefits of rural biogas adoption from an economic perspective, through calculating the direct and indirect benefits obtained from biogas adoption in Selo. For this, a field survey was carried out in Selo to ask questions to biogas users (N=21 and non-users (N=5 on their energy and fertilizer consumption, as well as emissions reductions resulting from biogas adoption. Based on the analysis, oon average, a household with biogas saves 490 kWh month–1, 20,000 IDR month–1,185 kg CO2e month–1.Chemical fertilizer consumption remains remarkably high, which may due to a lack of awareness on the potential of digester slurry by the farmers, for indeed, reduction of chemical fertilizer use would help address some environmental problems. Biogas quality of one household has also been determined by comparing its heating value to that of methane; the methane percentage (MP was approximately 31%. The quality is considerably lower than expected from the literature (i.e. around 60%, which may be due to the farmers neither mixing nor supplying water to the dung. Trainings providing methods for improving digester overall effectiveness to particularly the women-folk may enhance digester management and thus biogas production, as they form the main

  11. Decentralized power generation from biogas; Production d'energie decentralisee a partir de biogaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Areva Bioenergies proposes ready-to-use biogas production and valorization units that use industrial effluents (liquid effluents, spent water, solid wastes). Biogas valorization is performed through cogeneration plants with an output power of 500 kW to 10 MW. This brochure presents Areva's global offer in methanation projects (support, engineering, optimization). Areva Bioenergies counts 20 dual-purpose power plants in operation or under construction in the world which represent an installed power of 220 MW.

  12. Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity (MCHCA for enhanced biogas production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof ePoszytek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate in agricultural biogas plants is very popular and yields good results. However, the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, and thus biogas production, is not always satisfactory due to the slow or incomplete degradation (hydrolysis of plant matter. To enhance the solubilization of the lignocellulosic biomass various physical, chemical and biological pretreatment methods are used.The aim of this study was to select and characterize cellulose-degrading bacteria, and to construct a microbial consortium, dedicated for degradation of maize silage and enhancing biogas production from this substrate.Over one hundred strains of cellulose-degrading bacteria were isolated from: sewage sludge, hydrolyzer from an agricultural biogas plant, cattle slurry and manure. After physiological characterization of the isolates, sixteen strains (representatives of Bacillus, Providencia and Ochrobactrum genera were chosen for the construction of a Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity, called MCHCA. The selected strains had a high endoglucanase activity (exceeding 0.21 IU/mL CMCase activity and a wide range of tolerance to various physical and chemical conditions. Lab-scale simulation of biogas production using the selected strains for degradation of maize silage was carried out in a two-bioreactor system, similar to those used in agricultural biogas plants.The obtained results showed that the constructed MCHCA consortium is capable of efficient hydrolysis of maize silage, and increases biogas production by even 38%, depending on the inoculum used for methane fermentation. The results in this work indicate that the mesophilic Microbial Consortium with High Cellulolytic Activity has a great potential for application on industrial scale in agricultural biogas plants.

  13. Recycling of cattle dung, biogas plant-effluent and water hyacinth in vermiculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, P.R.; Bai, R.K. [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of recycling cattle dung, anaerobically digested cattle dung (biogas plant-effluent) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) by culture of the earthworm Megascolex sp. was studied. The growth of the earthworms was increased by 156, 148 and 119% in soil supplemented with water hyacinth, cattle dung and biogas plant-effluent, respectively. The growth rate of the earthworms was increased significantly by raw cattle dung and water hyacinth over that by biodigested slurry. (author)

  14. Simultaneous Hydrogen Sulphide and Carbon Dioxide Removal from Biogas by Water-Swollen Reverse Osmosis Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Dolejš, P. (Petr); Poštulka, V. (Václav); Sedláková, Z. (Zuzana); Jandová, V. (Věra); Vejražka, J. (Jiří); Esposito, E.; Jansen, J.C.; Izák, P. (Pavel)

    2014-01-01

    Biogas is a suitable alternative fuel if unwanted impurities are removed to avoid corrosion of the inner parts of an engine. A recent breakthrough in biogas purification showed that a thin hydrophilic composite membrane can create the selective water swollen barrier able to remove unwanted sour gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide owing to significantly higher water solubility of the latter in comparison to methane. This work presents the use of water–swollen membranes for the...

  15. Energy crops for biogas plants. Lower Saxony; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Niedersachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurbacher, J.; Benke, M.; Formowitz, B. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Lower Saxony. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  16. Causes for inhibitions of biogas process; Aarsager til haemning af biogasprocessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    It is the aim of the project to map reasons to inhibition of the biogas process. Inhibition of Danish common biogas plants in the last 5 years will be investigated in order to try to find the exact reason to the interruption of the process. Scientific literature will be investigated to describe the different reason for inhibition. The results of the project will be published in a report, an article and a popularized paper. (EHS)

  17. Observation of temperature and pH during biogas production from water hyacinth and cow manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfitri Astuti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is generated from biological process of organic material by bacterial engaged. Biogas can be derived from manure, municipal waste, agricultural waste and other biomass resources. In addition to the use of cow manure as raw material for biogas production, it can also be derived from biomass containing cellulose which one is water hyacinth as an organic material that contains quite large cellulose. The abundance of water hyacinth found in Rawapening causing several negative impacts. The purpose of this study is to observe  temperature and pH on the biogas production generated from water hyacinth of Rawapening and cow manure. Biogas production process begins by chopping the leaves and stems of water hyacinth, and then mixed with cow manure and water. The results of substrate variation of water hyacinth, cow manure and water reaches optimally at 40:80:480 respectively, which produce the highest point of  biogas amounted 176.33 ml on the day 20 in 1L sized digester, the temperature of the biogas production is at 32°C.  At the initial fermentation, digester temperature of 30°C has increased over the course of the fermentation process, a peak at day 20 and then decreased to 27°C at the end of fermentation. There is a decrease in pH starting from initial fermentation at pH 6-7 and then the pH began to decline until the end of fermentation as amount of pH 5.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.22-25Citation:  Nurfitri Astuti, N., Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, T.R., and  Budiyono. 2013. Observation of temperature and pH during biogas production from water hyacinth and cow manure. Waste Technology 1(1:1-5. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.22-25

  18. Killing of salmonella in the biogas process; Abtoetung von Salmonellen im Biogasprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeschle, Bianca; Lebuhn, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Pathogenic Salmonella are used in ordinances as an indicator for assessing microbial reduction in biogas plants and for the epidemic-hygienic condition of digestate. This brochure presents results of a study that examined the hygienic effect of the biogas process on Salmonella. [German] Krankheitserregende Salmonellen werden in relevanten Rechtsverordnungen als Indikator zur Beurteilung der Keimreduzierung in Biogasanlagen und des seuchenhygienischen Zustands von Gaerresten herangezogen. Die vorliegende Broschuere stellt Ergebnisse einer Studie dar, die die hygienisierende Wirkung des Biogasprozesses auf Salmonellen untersuchte.

  19. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  20. Biogas container - mobile plant concept for the decentralized power generation; Biogascontainer. Mobiles Anlagenkonzept zur dezentralen Energiegewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warncke, Jessica; Orth, Maik [Innovations- und Bildungszentrum Hohen Luckow e.V., Hohen Luckow (Germany); Schlegel, Mathias [Rostock Univ. (Germany); Steinhagen, Katrin [ROSOMA GmbH, Rostock-Marienehe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the framework of a cooperation project of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology was developed a small biogas system, that is concepted in the order of a 40-foot standard container, that is modular structured, works energy-independent and optional can be used mobile. First rank the system was designed for biogas production in developing and emerging countries. Now there are inter alia also concrete inquiries of german partners. (orig.)