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Sample records for beijing olympic games

  1. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  2. CNPC Becomes a Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Organizing Committee for the 2008 Olympic Games (BOCOG) signed an agreement with China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) at Diaoyutai State Guesthouse in the afternoon of May 30,making CNPC an official partner of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.

  3. Chinese Satellites Serve Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shufang

    2008-01-01

    @@ METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES PROVIDING WEATHER SERVICES As the opening and closing ceremonies and many competition events such as athletics, football, cycling and sailing etc., were held in open air stadiums, field or on water, it was of great importance to provide exact weather forecasts and on-time climate information to prepare for disastrous weather so as to ensure the Olympic Games proceeded smoothly. For this purpose, China launched the meteorological satellite service project in 2002 to safeguard the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

  4. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.

  5. CPAFFC Holds Activities to Greet Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Olympic Games are com-ing and really coming! We have been looking forward to this day for 100 years. At last, the Beijing Olympic Games will begin tomorrow with the attention of the whole world. To celebrate the one-day countdown to the Beijing Olympic Games, on the morning

  6. Environmental impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Huijuan, Cao; Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Beijing organized the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, and the main goal of the Chinese government regarding this event was to hold a Green Olympics. A difference-in-differences approach was used to estimate the environmental impact the Olympic Games on air quality improvement in Beijing, compared to improvements in other areas in China. The results indicate that compared to other regions, air quality in Beijing improved for a short period of time. These improvements were largely due to the impleme...

  7. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.……

  8. Whose games? The costs of being 'Olympic citizens' in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hyun Bang; Li, Bingqin

    2013-01-01

    Mega-events such as the Olympic Games tend to be accompanied by copious media coverage of the negative social impacts of these events, and people in the affected areas are often thought to share similar experiences. The research in this paper, which focused on the Beijing Summer Olympic Games of 2008, unpacks the heterogeneous groups in a particular sector of the housing market to gain a better understanding of how the Games affected different resident groups. The paper critically examines th...

  9. Status of Beijing Olympic Games Brands in Establishment of a Sports Power

    OpenAIRE

    Houzhong Jin; Hongquan Li; Guoying Yuan

    2011-01-01

    From the dimensionality of the Beijing Olympic Games national brand, city brand, enterprise brand and national citizen brand, this article expounded the status of Beijing Olympic Games brands in establishment of a sports power. According to the authors, in the process of further pushing forward China from a major sports country to a sports power, we have to provide further development and protection to Beijing Olympic Games brands.

  10. RISK EVALUATION ON RAILWAY PUBLIC EMERGENCIES DURING 2008 BEIJING OLYMPIC GAMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Risk evaluation is fundamental to eliminate and prenent any kind of public emergencies ,while that for railway public emergencies is the foundation to guarantee railway sicurity.With the researches on the flow and methods of risk evaluation and the evaltation on railway public evtergencies during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games,the article puts forward measures and suggestions for risk control,providing reference for decision making by government departments,the Organizing Committee of Beijing Olympic Games,and the Security Coorduating Tean of Beijing Olympics as well as jproviding basis for solutions by the Security Control Center of Beijing Olympics and the relevant dipartments of railway sector.

  11. Residents' Perceived Social-Economic Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mark; Chen, Li; Lei, Ouyang; Malone, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether the Olympic Games was a catalyst for changes to Beijing residents' quality of life based on social-economic perspectives and how these changes affected their continuous support for the Games. Residents who lived in Beijing 18 months or longer were invited to participate in this survey research (N =…

  12. Evaluating the environmental quality impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: magnetic monitoring of street dust in Beijing Olympic Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingqing; Zhang, Chunxia; Huang, Baochun; Piper, John D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aggressive traffic intervention and emission control measures implemented during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing created a valuable case study for evaluating the effectiveness of measures for mitigating environmental pollution and protecting public health. Results are reported here for a suite of magnetic and non-magnetic (microscopic, chemical and statistical) methods conducted on street dust deposits and parkland soils around the Olympic Park in Beijing. In both areas magnetic grains with multidomain properties predominate; grain sizes are coarser in the heavy traffic regions and finer in the park areas with evidence for particulate steel dust input in the former case. Traffic is the major source of anthropogenic magnetic particle-induced enhancement of magnetic susceptibility in street dust; however, domestic combustion processes (mainly coal burning) are found to contribute a significant magnetic signature in the urban environment during the winter. Due to the traffic intervention, magnetic compositions in street dust decreases significantly during the Olympic Games. Correlations between magnetic parameters and heavy metal contents prove that magnetic parameters can be used as proxies for heavy metal pollution.

  13. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jisong; Zhang, Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy. (author)

  14. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jisong [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: js_wub@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy.

  15. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO2 emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO2 using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy

  16. The eco-origins, actions and demonstration roles of Beijing Green Olympic Game1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 29th Olympic Game will be held in Beijing in 2008. It will be a green game to promote sustainable development of men,cities and regions through ecological development advocating "man and nature be in one". "Eco" here means a process, a driving force, an action, a culture and a kind of vitality leading to sustainable development. It is a mechanism embodying the Olympic spirit ofcompetition, cooperation and self-reliance. The paper explained the ecological significance, connotation and objectives of Beijing Green Olympic Game. Ten major ecological heritages of Beijing have been investigated including ecologically sound landscape, culture, trnsportation, physical exercise, health care, sanitation, food, family relationship, agriculture, and human ecological totality. To preserve or restore the above mentioned old tradition, a green Olympic action plan has been made out in Beijing initiated by NGOs, supported by entrepreneurs and coordinated by government agencies. Four kinds of eco-engineering have been planned for blue sky, cleanwater, green land and eco-city development. The demonstration role of Beijing Green Olympic Game to developing regions and countries is also discussed.

  17. Emission controls versus meteorological conditions in determining aerosol concentrations in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, M.

    2011-01-01

    A series of emission control measures were undertaken in Beijing and the adjacent provinces in China during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on 8–24 August 2008. This provides a unique opportunity for investigating the effectiveness of emission controls on air pollution in Beijing. We conducted a series of numerical experiments over East Asia for the period of July to September 2008 using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem). Model can generally reproduce the obser...

  18. Emission controls versus meteorological conditions in determining aerosol concentrations in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Gao; Liu, X.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, M.; Wang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A series of emission control measures were undertaken in Beijing and the adjacent provinces in China during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on 8–24 August 2008. This provides a unique opportunity for investigating the effectiveness of emission controls on air pollution in Beijing. We conducted a series of numerical experiments over East Asia for the period of July to September 2008 using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem). Model can generally reproduce the observed variation of ...

  19. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008. PMID:20222727

  20. Safe Olympics Beijing's top police officers offer security assurances to 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With a formidable antiterrorism team, Beijing's top cops are ready to deal with any security incidents that might take place during the 2008 Olympics. This assurance was given by Lu Shimin, Deputy Director General of the Beijing Public Security Bureau, at a press

  1. Migrants, Landlords and their Uneven Experiences of the Beijing Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hyun Bang; Li, Bingqin

    2012-01-01

    Hosting of mega-events such as the Olympic Games tends to be accompanied by voluminous media coverage on the negative social impact of the Games, and the people in the affected areas are often considered to be one victim group sharing similar experiences. The research in this paper tries to unpack the heterogeneous groups in a particular sector of the housing market, and gain a better understanding of how the Olympic Games affects different resident groups. We take the example of the Beijing ...

  2. The State, Citizenship Education, and International Events in a Global Age: The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2010-01-01

    With reference to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, this article shows how the Chinese state continues to be a key actor in defining citizenship and citizenship education by promoting nationalism and nation-specific elements of citizenship education while linking its people to an increasingly interconnected world. In particular, this study examines…

  3. A Typical Production and Elimination Process of Particles in Beijing during Early 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to discuss he produce and elimination rules of particles in Beijing during early 2008 Olympic Games. [Method] Based on the analysis of particulate matter online observation data and meteorological data during the corresponding period in Chinese environmental science college, Hysplit Back trace model and Numerical weather prediction graphs, and combined with the different analytical methods on meteorological flow fields, a typical process of particles in Beijing during early 2008 Olym...

  4. Travelling to china for the beijing 2008 olympic and paralympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marc T M; Leggat, Peter A; Borwein, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    The 29th modern Olympic Summer Games, conducted once every 4 years since 1896, will be held in Beijing, China, from 8 to 24 August 2008. There will be approximately 28 major and 302 minor events in 37 venues in the prominent cities of Beijing, Hong Kong and Shanghai, and also in Qingdao (a coastal town in Shandong Province), Qinhuangdao (northeast of Beijing), Shanghai, Shenyang (an industrial city in Liaoning Province) and in Tianjin (on the coast near Beijing). Following the Olympic Games, the Paralympic Games will be conducted from 6 to 17 September 2008 in Beijing and 20 Paralympic Sports will be represented. This paper focuses on health and safety issues for travellers to China in general, although it makes specific references to advice for visiting Olympic and Paralympic athletes and team staff, who will be travelling to the games. It must be remembered that travel health advice can change, and that travellers should be advised to seek up-to-date travel health advice for China closer to their departure. PMID:17983975

  5. Emission controls versus meteorological conditions in determining aerosol concentrations in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, M.

    2011-12-01

    A series of emission control measures were undertaken in Beijing and the adjacent provinces in China during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on 8-24 August 2008. This provides a unique opportunity for investigating the effectiveness of emission controls on air pollution in Beijing. We conducted a series of numerical experiments over East Asia for the period of July to September 2008 using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem). Model can generally reproduce the observed variation of aerosol concentrations. Consistent with observations, modeled concentrations of aerosol species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, total particulate matter) in Beijing were decreased by 30-50% during the Olympic period compared to the other periods in July and August in 2008 and the same period in 2007. Model results indicate that emission controls were effective in reducing the aerosol concentrations by comparing simulations with and without emission controls. In addition to emission controls, our analysis suggests that meteorological conditions (e.g. wind direction and precipitation) were also important in producing the low aerosol concentrations appearing during the Olympic period. Transport from the regions surrounding Beijing determined the daily variation of aerosol concentrations in Beijing. Based on the budget analysis, we suggest that to improve the air quality over Beijing, emission control strategy should focus on the regional scale instead of the local scale.

  6. Emission Controls Versus Meteorological Conditions in Determining Aerosol Concentrations in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yi; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Meigen

    2011-12-12

    A series of emission control measures were undertaken in Beijing and the adjacent provinces in China during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on August 8th-24th, 2008. This provides a unique opportunity for investigating the effectiveness of emission controls on air pollution in Beijing. We conducted a series of numerical experiments over East Asia for the period of July to September 2008 using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem). Model can generally reproduce the observed variation of aerosol concentrations. Consistent with observations, modeled concentrations of aerosol species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, total particulate matter) in Beijing were decreased by 30-50% during the Olympic period compared to the other periods in July and August in 2008 and the same period in 2007. Model results indicate that emission controls were effective in reducing the aerosol concentrations by comparing simulations with and without emission controls. However, our analysis suggests that meteorological conditions (e.g., wind direction and precipitation) are at least as important as emission controls in producing the low aerosol concentrations appearing during the Olympic period. Transport from the regions surrounding Beijing determines the temporal variation of aerosol concentrations in Beijing. Based on the budget analysis, we suggest that emission control strategy should focus on the regional scale instead of the local scale to improve the air quality over Beijing.

  7. Technical Skills Leading in Winning or Losing Volleyball Matches During Beijing Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASTERIOS PATSIAOURAS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Volleyball is included in sports where individual success of final efforts such as a successful attack or aneffective block, is achieved by the harmonious collaboration of the preceded players’ efforts. The purpose of thispresent study was to evaluate the importance of technical skills that led to the success of the national teams thattook part in the Olympic Games of Beijing 2008. The sample was constituted by all the matches of the volleyballmen teams that participated in the Beijing Olympic Games. Overall, 29 games were videotaped and evaluated.Collection of data included the use of the statistical recording program Data Volley 2. The parameters that wereevaluated were: a service, b service reception, c attack, and d attack blocked. The statistical treatment of datawas realised through non parametric statistical analysis. The results showed that, service points, reception errors,and attacks blocked emerged as important factors that were decisive for wining or losing a match

  8. The Olympic Games of Beijing: Mobility, Environment and New Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental condition of Beijing is characterized by high level of entropy mainly referable to the air pollution that considerably affects the conditions of urban life. The basic idea of this text is to succeed in finding a thread among some building realizations and infrastructures in course of completion and in verifying, also thanks to the use of advanced technologies, the entropic or neghentropic contribution to the actual quality of life in the Chinese capital. The buildings considered useful for an investigation are the following: The Olympic Stadium, destined to entertain about 90 thousand spectators and covered with more than one thousand solar panels to satisfy the whole energetic requirement of the structure and of the surrounding area; the National Aquatic Centre (known as “water cube” inside which competitions of aquatic sports will take place and thanks to the new technologies it will be possible to recycle tons of water a year; the new terminal n.3 of the Beijing Capital Airport, designed by Sir Norman Foster, which will become, with its 66 million passengers, the biggest terminal all over the world. The paper describes the sudden transformations that the Chinese capital is undergoing in the last years, which are contributing to conform its new pattern of world city reshaped to the western model.

  9. The Effect of Air Pollution on Mortality in China: Evidence from the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Guojun He; Maoyong Fan; Maigeng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    By exploiting exogenous variation in air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, we estimate the effect of air pollution on mortality in China. We find that a 10-μg/m^3 (roughly 10%) decrease in PM_10 concentrations reduces monthly standardized all-cause mortality by 6.63%. The mortality reduction during the Olympics is mainly driven by fewer cardiocerebrovascular and respiratory deaths. Extrapolating our results to all urban areas in China, we estimate that the economic benefits from...

  10. The Promise of Beijing: Evaluating the Impact of the 2008 Olympic Games on Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Yuyu Chen; Ginger Zhe Jin; Naresh Kumar; Guang Shi

    2011-01-01

    To prepare for the 2008 Olympic Games, China adopted a number of radical measures to improve air quality. Using officially reported air pollution index (API) from 2000 to 2009, we show that these measures improved the API of Beijing during and after the Games, but 60% of the effect faded away by the end of October 2009. Since the credibility of API data has been questioned, an objective and indirect measure of air quality at a high spatial resolution - aerosol optimal depth (AOD), derived usi...

  11. Lucky baby appeared, and the whole China reveled The Beijing Olympic Games mascot figure was expected hopefully to bring 2.5 billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The naissance of lucky baby Beijing 2008 Olympic Games started 1,000 days countdowns at 8 pm,on November 11 the Beijing Olympic Games mascot figure also appeared in the public expection, which was composed by 5 personifications baby images, general designated "lucky baby", five mascot figures received the whole country’s appreciation.

  12. Atmospheric concentrations, sources and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs in Beijing after the 29th Olympic Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive sampling campaign was carried out to study atmospheric concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Beijing and to evaluate the effectiveness of source control strategies in reducing PAHs pollution after the 29th Olympic Games. The sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logPLo)-based model and octanol-air partition coefficient (Koa)-based model were applied based on each seasonal dateset. Regression analysis among log KP, logPLo and log Koa exhibited high significant correlations for four seasons. Source factors were identified by principle component analysis and contributions were further estimated by multiple linear regression. Pyrogenic sources and coke oven emission were identified as major sources for both the non-heating and heating seasons. As compared with literatures, the mean PAH concentrations before and after the 29th Olympic Games were reduced by more than 60%, indicating that the source control measures were effective for reducing PAHs pollution in Beijing. - Highlights: → This is the first comprehensive study of PAHs in atmosphere after the 29th Olympics in Beijing, China. → The air quality before and after 29th Olympics has attracted much attention worldwide. → The study was helpful for other countries to understand how the Olympics affected PAHs emissions. → The study would act as a case study to know the effects that big events can impose on the host cities. - The source control measures implemented before and during the 29th Olympic Games were effective for reducing the emissions of air pollutants in Beijing.

  13. National Identity in China – Contribution from the Beijing Olympic Games? A Survey among Residents of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoping Ying; Arnulf Kolstad; Yiyin Yang

    2013-01-01

    This article is dealing with the consequences of Beijing 2000 Olympic Games for the host city population and focuses primarily on three areas of expectations and impact: (1) On China’s international reputation; (2) On enhancing national pride, social and national identity, and (3) On the impact on the “individual self” and how BOG may give personal benefits. To separate the consequences in this way, between the impact on “international”, “national,” and “personal” matters, is particularly int...

  14. Disease distribution and medical resoureces during the Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xue-ya; LAN Ling; CHEN Wei-na; ZHANG Ai-ping; L(U) Chao-ying; L(U) Yan-wei; DAI Jian-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate planning and staffing for medical services at large-scale athletic events is essential to provide for a safe and successful competition. There are few well-documented accounts describing the demand for such services.The present study provided the data from the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics,with a view to provide the guidance for planning future events.Methods A total of 22 029 and 8046 patients,who received medical care from a physician at an Olympic or Paralympic medical station,were included. The patient proportion among different personnel,various disease proportions at different kinds of venues,and the disease spectrum at specified venues at the Olympics and Paralympics were analyzed.Results At both games,the patient proportion varied by accreditation status. The staff accounted for the largest number of visits at the Olympics (44.83%) and Paralympics (36.95%),with respiratory diseases the most common. Various disease spectrums were discovered at the different kinds of venues. Surgical diseases were the most frequently listed reason for visits,both at competition and non-competition venues,especially during the Paralympics. The sport-related injuries accounted for a majority of the surgical cases during both games. At training venues,ear nose and throat diseases accounted for the greatest number of visits during both games.Conclusions During both games,people contracted different diseases at different venues. Adequate surgeons should be designated to offer assistance mostly in trauma situations. Appropriate numbers of physicians in respiratory diseases and otorhinolaryngology is of great importance.

  15. IMS based on Personal Communication Empowers Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Liu

    2008-01-01

    IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) has now developed into a range of commercially proven products that deliver end users experience and efficiently reduce the cost of building convergent multi media and multi service networks. This paper briefly presents you the successful project with China Netcom to support the company with the advanced Olympic Command Supporting System (CSS) developed by Ericsson based on IMS architecture which provides a fast and efficient personal communication and dispatching platform through a multimedia way by seamlessly integrating a host of communication applications and technologies.

  16. The impact of transportation control measures on emission reductions during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Ye; Yang, Liu; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Chen, Jinchuan; Li, Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    Traffic congestion and air pollution were two major challenges for the planners of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The Beijing municipal government implemented a package of temporary transportation control measures during the event. In this paper, we report the results of a recent research project that investigated the effects of these measures on urban motor vehicle emissions in Beijing. Bottom-up methodology has been used to develop grid-based emission inventories with micro-scale vehicle activities and speed-dependent emission factors. The urban traffic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) during the 2008 Olympics were reduced by 55.5%, 56.8%, 45.7% and 51.6%, respectively, as compared to the grid-based emission inventory before the Olympics. Emission intensity was derived from curbside air quality monitoring at the North 4th Ring Road site, located about 7 km from the National Stadium. Comparison between the emission intensity before and during the 2008 Olympics shows a reduction of 44.5% and 49.0% in daily CO and NO x emission from motor vehicles. The results suggest that reasonable traffic system improvement strategies along with vehicle technology improvements can contribute to controlling total motor vehicle emissions in Beijing after the Olympic Games.

  17. Reductions of PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomerations during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Wang, Lili; Tang, Guiqian; Sun, Yang; Pan, Yuepeng; Ji, Dongsheng

    2012-11-01

    The Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Network successfully undertook the task of monitoring the atmospheric quality of Beijing and its surrounding area during the 2008 Olympics. The results of this monitoring show that high concentrations of PM2.5 pollution exhibited a regional pattern during the monitoring period (1 June-30 October 2008). The PM2.5 mass concentrations were 53 μg m-3, 66 μg m-3, and 82 μg m-3 at the background site, in Beijing, and in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomerations, respectively. The PM2.5 levels were lowest during the 2008 Olympic Games (8-24 August): 35 μg m-3 at the background site, 42 μg m-3 in Beijing and 57 μg m-3 in the region. These levels represent decreases of 49%, 48%, and 56%, respectively, compared to the prophase mean concentration before the Olympic Games. Emission control measures contributed 62%-82% of the declines observed in Beijing, and meteorological conditions represented 18%-38%. The concentration of fine particles met the goals set for a "Green Olympics."

  18. Reductions of PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomerations during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Jinyuan; WANG Yuesi; WANG Lili; TANG Guiqian; SUN Yang; PAN Yuepeng; JI Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Network successfully undertook the task of monitoring the atmospheric quality of Beijing and its surrounding area during the 2008 Olympics.The results of this monitoring show that high concentrations of PM2.5 pollution exhibited a regional pattern during the monitoring period (1 June-30 October 2008).The PM2.5 mass concentrations were 53 μg m-3,66 μg m-3,and 82 μg m-3 at the background site,in Beijing,and in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomerations,respectively.The PM2.5 levels were lowest during the 2008 Olympic Games (8-24 August):35 μg m-a at the background site,42 μg m-3 in Beijing and 57 μg m-3 in the region.These levels represent decreases of 49%,48%,and 56%,respectively,compared to the prophase mean concentration before the Olympic Games.Emission control measures contributed 62%-82% of the declines observed in Beijing,and meteorological conditions represented 18%-38%.The concentration of fine particles met the goals set for a "Green Olympics."

  19. One-Year Countdown to Beijing Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ August 8, 2007, a special day for Chinese people, marks the beginning of one-year countdown to the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. A grand ceremony opened in China's Olympic City at 8:08pm on August 8, 2008.On this significant day, many celebrations referring to Olympic Games were held all around China. All together, there were 63 events taking place across the country.

  20. Beijing Olympic Tickets Go on Sale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More than 7 million very affordable tickets are now on sale for the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG) announced April 15. About 75 percent of the tickets will be sold domestically a

  1. Atmospheric concentrations, sources and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs in Beijing after the 29th Olympic Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wanli [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Sun Dezhi [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen Weiguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang Meng [IJRC-PTS, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian (China); Qi Hong; Liu Liyan; Shen Jimin [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Li Yifan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario M3H5T4 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    A comprehensive sampling campaign was carried out to study atmospheric concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Beijing and to evaluate the effectiveness of source control strategies in reducing PAHs pollution after the 29th Olympic Games. The sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logP{sub L}{sup o})-based model and octanol-air partition coefficient (K{sub oa})-based model were applied based on each seasonal dateset. Regression analysis among log K{sub P}, logP{sub L}{sup o} and log K{sub oa} exhibited high significant correlations for four seasons. Source factors were identified by principle component analysis and contributions were further estimated by multiple linear regression. Pyrogenic sources and coke oven emission were identified as major sources for both the non-heating and heating seasons. As compared with literatures, the mean PAH concentrations before and after the 29th Olympic Games were reduced by more than 60%, indicating that the source control measures were effective for reducing PAHs pollution in Beijing. - Highlights: > This is the first comprehensive study of PAHs in atmosphere after the 29th Olympics in Beijing, China. > The air quality before and after 29th Olympics has attracted much attention worldwide. > The study was helpful for other countries to understand how the Olympics affected PAHs emissions. > The study would act as a case study to know the effects that big events can impose on the host cities. - The source control measures implemented before and during the 29th Olympic Games were effective for reducing the emissions of air pollutants in Beijing.

  2. Evaluation of the NMC regional ensemble prediction system during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Tian, Hua; Deng, Guo

    2011-10-01

    Based on the B08RDP (Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Mesoscale Ensemble Prediction Research and Development Project) that was launched by the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) in 2004, a regional ensemble prediction system (REPS) at a 15-km horizontal resolution was developed at the National Meteorological Center (NMC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). Supplementing to the forecasters' subjective affirmation on the promising performance of the REPS during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games (BOG), this paper focuses on the objective verification of the REPS for precipitation forecasts during the BOG period. By use of a set of advanced probabilistic verification scores, the value of the REPS compared to the quasi-operational global ensemble prediction system (GEPS) is assessed for a 36-day period (21 July-24 August 2008). The evaluation here involves different aspects of the REPS and GEPS, including their general forecast skills, specific attributes (reliability and resolution), and related economic values. The results indicate that the REPS generally performs significantly better for the short-range precipitation forecasts than the GEPS, and for light to heavy rainfall events, the REPS provides more skillful forecasts for accumulated 6- and 24-h precipitation. By further identifying the performance of the REPS through the attribute-focused measures, it is found that the advantages of the REPS over the GEPS come from better reliability (smaller biases and better dispersion) and increased resolution. Also, evaluation of a decision-making score reveals that a much larger group of users benefits from using the REPS forecasts than using the single model (the control run) forecasts, especially for the heavy rainfall events.

  3. Beijing: Beyond the Olympic city

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies have become part of a deliberate urban policy for cities around the world. There is a particular concern on how to combine the preparation of a mega-event with urban development processes that meet long-term demands. This paper examines how Beijing tried to use the Summer Olympic Games 2008 to fight its spatial and environmental problems, and create a new image for the city.

  4. Photochemical production of ozone in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. C.-K.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Lin, P.-H.; Liu, S. C.; Zhu, T.

    2011-09-01

    As a part of the CAREBeijing-2008 campaign, observations of O3, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and NOy), CO, and hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at the air quality observatory of the Peking University in Beijing, China during August 2008, including the period of the 29th Summer Olympic Games. The measurements were compared with those of the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign to evaluate the effectiveness of the air pollution control measures, which were conducted for improving the air quality in Beijing during the Olympics. The results indicate that significant reduction in the emissions of primary air pollutants had been achieved; the monthly averaged mixing ratios of NOx, NOy, CO, and NMHCs decreased by 42.2, 56.5, 27.8, and 49.7 %, respectively. In contrast to the primary pollutants, the averaged mixing ratio of O3 increased by 42.2 %. Nevertheless, it was revealed that the ambient levels of total oxidant (Ox = O3+NO2+1.5 NOz) and NOz were reduced by 21.3 and 77.4 %, respectively. The contradictions between O3 and Ox were further examined in two case studies. Ozone production rates of 30-70 ppbv h-1 and OPEx of ~8 mole mole-1 were observed on a clear-sky day in spite of the reduced levels of precursors. In that case, it was found that the mixing ratio of O3 increased with the increasing NO2/NO ratio, whereas the NOz mixing ratio leveled off when NO2/NO>8. Consequently, the ratio of O3 to NOz increased to above 10, indicating the shift from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive regime. However, in the other case, it was found that the O3 production was inhibited significantly due to substantial reduction in the NMHCs. According to the observations, it was suggested that the O3 and/or Ox production rates in Beijing should have been reduced as a result of the reduction in the emissions of precursors during the Olympic period. However, the nighttime O3 levels increased due to a decline in the NO-O3 titration, and the midday O3 peak levels were elevated because of the shift in

  5. Health Risks and Travel Preparation Among Foreign Visitors and Expatriates During the 2008 Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Jentes, Emily S.; Davis, Xiaohong M.; MacDonald, Susan; Snyman, P. Johann; Nelson, Hugh; Quarry, Doug; Lai, Irene; van Vliet, Erik W. N.; Balaban, Victor; Marano, Cinzia; Mues, Katherine; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Marano, Nina

    2010-01-01

    During the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games, we conducted surveillance of illnesses among travelers at six Beijing clinics. Surveys asked about demographic, pre-travel, and vaccination information, and physician-provided diagnoses. Of 807 respondents, 38% and 57% were classified as foreign visitors (FV) and expatriates, respectively. Less than one-half of FV sought pre-travel advice; sources included health-care providers and friends/family. FV vaccination rate was also low; however, most va...

  6. Peak career in world-ranked swimmers: Age’s analysis of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M. Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to: (i describe the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games swimmer’s ages and; (ii compare ages according to swimmer’s gender. It was analyzed 1101 inscriptions (588 men and 513 women for all swimming events held at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: 50 meters freestyle (L50, 100 meters freestyle (L100, 200 meters freestyle (L200, 400 meters freestyle (L400, 800 meters freestyle (L800, only women 1500 meters freestyle (L1500, only men, 100 meters backstroke (C100, 200 meters backstroke (C200, 100 meters breaststroke (B100, 200 meters breaststroke (B200, 100 meters butterfly (M100, 200 meters butterfly (M200. The final result lists was consulted at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games official internet site, collecting the swimmer’s name and chronological age for each event. Afterwards, chronological age was converted into decimal age at the day of the event heats. From the quartile analysis became clear that there was a tendency for the age median and variance to decrease from the shorter to the longest events for both genders. There were significant variations in the age, according to gender at the L400 ( p = .01, L1500/L800 ( p = .02, C100 ( p < .01, C200 ( p < .01, B100 ( p = .02, B200 ( p = .04, M100 ( p = .05 and M200 ( p < .01. For all these events, decimal age was higher for men than for women.

  7. 2008 Olympic Games Sponsorship Boosted in Chitec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Olympic Games: An Impetus for Capital Economy Liu Jingmin, Vice Mayor of Beijing: 2008 Olympic Games will be a good opportunity to promote the economic development in Beijing, as well as the progress in science and technology, culture,education, etc.. In the meantime, all walks of life have participated in the preparation.

  8. From Paris to Beijing, a 12,000-km cycle tour to see the Olympic Games !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Two members of CERN’s cycling club have taken up an incredible challenge - that of travelling to the Chinese capital for the inauguration of the Olympic Games this summer by pedal power alone! Peter Dreesen (on the left) and Raymond Cambarrat training in 2007, with the CERN Velo Club. At the Moldova-Ukraine border, on 18 April.Peter Dreesen, an engineer in CERN’s AB-PO Group, and Raymond Cambarrat, a safety officer in TS-AS3, set off "on their own two wheels" from the esplanade of the Trocadéro in Paris, on 16 March. Although approaching retirement, both these members of CERN’s Velo Club are well-trained athletes and have the ambition of completing the 12,000-km journey on their bikes from start to finish, crossing twelve countries on their way and arriving in Beijing five days before the start of the Games. It would all seem a rather hair-brained scheme if it were not for the meticulo...

  9. Biogenic isoprene and implications for oxidant levels in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Shao, Min; Chou, Charles C. K.; Liu, Shaw-Chen; Zhu, Tong; Lee, Kun-Zhang; Lai, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Wang*, Jia-Lin

    2014-05-01

    As the host of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, Beijing implemented a series of stringent, short-term air quality control measures to reduce the emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Large reductions in the daily average concentrations of primary pollutants, e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) of approximately 50% were observed at the air quality observatory of Peking University. Nevertheless, high levels of ozone were present during the control period. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced, the meteorological conditions in summer, including high temperature and light flux, are conducive to the production of large amounts of biogenic isoprene, which is extremely reactive. The diurnal pattern of isoprene showed daily maximum mixing ratios of 0.83 ppbv at noon and a minimum at night, reflecting its primarily biogenic properties. Using the ratio of isoprene to vehicle exhaust tracers, approximately 92% of the daytime isoprene was estimated from biogenic sources, and only 8% was attributed to vehicular emissions. In terms of OH reactivity and the ozone formation potential (OFP), biogenic isoprene with its midday surge can contribute approximately 20% of the total OFPs and 40-50% of the total OH reactivities of the 65 measured NMHCs during the midday hours. The discrepancy between decreased precursor levels and the observed high ozone was most likely caused by a combination of many factors. The changes in the partition among the components of oxidation products (O3, NO2 and NOz) and the contribution of air pollutants from regional sources outside Beijing should be two primary reasons. Furthermore, the influences of biogenic isoprene as well as the non-linearity of O3-VOC-NOx chemistry are other major concerns that can reduce the effectiveness of the control measures for decreasing ozone formation. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced during the Olympic Games, the presence of sufficient biogenic isoprene

  10. Biogenic isoprene and implications for oxidant levels in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As the host of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, Beijing implemented a series of stringent, short-term air quality control measures to reduce the emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Large reductions in the daily average concentrations of primary pollutants, e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx of approximately 50% were observed at the air quality observatory of Peking University. Nevertheless, high levels of ozone were present during the control period. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced, the meteorological conditions in summer, including high temperature and light flux, are conducive to the production of large amounts of biogenic isoprene, which is extremely reactive. The diurnal pattern of isoprene showed daily maximum mixing ratios of 0.83 ppbv at noon and a minimum at night, reflecting its primarily biogenic properties. Using the ratio of isoprene to vehicle exhaust tracers, approximately 92% of the daytime isoprene was estimated from biogenic sources, and only 8% was attributed to vehicular emissions. In terms of OH reactivity and the ozone formation potential (OFP, biogenic isoprene with its midday surge can contribute approximately 20% of the total OFPs and 40–50% of the total OH reactivities of the 65 measured NMHCs during the midday hours. The discrepancy between decreased precursor levels and the observed high ozone was most likely caused by a combination of many factors. The changes in the partition among the components of oxidation products (O3, NO2 and NOz and the contribution of air pollutants from regional sources outside Beijing should be two primary reasons. Furthermore, the influences of biogenic isoprene as well as the non-linearity of O3-VOC-NOx chemistry are other major concerns that can reduce the effectiveness of the control measures for decreasing ozone formation. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced during the Olympic Games, sufficient biogenic

  11. Art Casting of China and 2008 Beijing Olympic Sculptures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, a major international multi-sport event, took place in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. It has well shown the Chinese people's dream and passion about the Games. Hosting an Olympic Games has been a century-old dream for the Chinese nation.

  12. Photochemical production of ozone in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C.-K. Chou

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the CAREBeijing-2008 campaign, observations of O3, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and NOy, CO, and hydrocarbons (NMHCs were carried out at the air quality observatory of the Peking University in Beijing, China during August 2008, including the period of the 29th Summer Olympic Games. The measurements were compared with those of the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign to evaluate the effectiveness of the air pollution control measures, which were conducted for improving the air quality in Beijing during the Olympics. The results indicate that significant reduction in the emissions of primary air pollutants had been achieved; the monthly averaged mixing ratios of NOx, NOy, CO, and NMHCs decreased by 42.2, 56.5, 27.8, and 49.7 %, respectively. In contrast to the primary pollutants, the averaged mixing ratio of O3 increased by 42.2 %. Nevertheless, it was revealed that the ambient levels of total oxidant (Ox = O3+NO2+1.5 NOz and NOz were reduced by 21.3 and 77.4 %, respectively. The contradictions between O3 and Ox were further examined in two case studies. Ozone production rates of 30–70 ppbv h−1 and OPEx of ~8 mole mole−1 were observed on a clear-sky day in spite of the reduced levels of precursors. In that case, it was found that the mixing ratio of O3 increased with the increasing NO2/NO ratio, whereas the NOz mixing ratio leveled off when NO2/NO>8. Consequently, the ratio of O3 to NOz increased to above 10, indicating the shift from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive regime. However, in the other case, it was found that the O3 production was inhibited significantly due to substantial reduction in the NMHCs. According to the observations, it was suggested that the O3 and/or O

  13. Photochemical production of ozone in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C.-K. Chou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the CAREBeijing-2008 campaign, observations of O3, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and NOy, CO, and hydrocarbons (NMHCs were carried out at the air quality observatory of the Peking University in Beijing, China during August 2008, including the period of the 29th Summer Olympic Games. The measurements were compared to those of the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign to evaluate the effectiveness of the air pollution control measures, which were conducted for improving the air quality in Beijing during the Olympics. The results indicate that significant reduction in the emissions of primary air pollutants had been achieved; the monthly averages of NOx, NOy, CO, and NMHCs reduced by 42.2, 56.5, 27.8, and 49.7 %, respectively. In contrast to the primary pollutants, the averaged mixing ratio of O3 increased by 42.2 %. Nevertheless, it was revealed that the ambient levels of total oxidants (Ox=O3+NO2+1.5NOz and NOz reduced by 21.3 and 77.4 %, respectively. The contradictions between O3 and Ox were further examined in two case studies. Ozone production rates of 30–70 ppbv hr−1 and OPEx of ~8 mole mole−1 were observed on a clear-sky day in spite of the reduced levels of precursors. In that case, it was found that the concentrations of O3 increased with the increasing NO2/NO ratio, whereas the NOz concentrations leveled off when NO2/NO>8. Consequently, the ratio of O3 to NOz increased to above 10, indicating the shift from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive regime. However, in the other case, it was found that the O3 production was inhibited significantly due to substantial reduction in the ambient levels of NMHCs. According to the observations, it was suggested that the O3

  14. What can I do for the Olympic Games?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盈

    2006-01-01

    The 29th Olympic Game will be celebrated in Beijing, China. I!m proud ofthis. Olympic Games are always celebrated in big countries,which means ourcountry is stronger than before.The Chinese government is getting ready for the 2008 Olympic Games.Workers are building many big stadiums which will be used in the 2008Olympic Games.The people in Beijing are getting ready for the OlympicGames.They are learning English hard .When the Olympic Games begin, there will be a lot of athletes who comefrom both our country...

  15. Facial recognition technology safeguards Beijing Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ To ensure the safety of spectators and athletes at the biggest-ever Olympic Games, automation experts from CAS have developed China's first system to identify individuals by their facial features, and successfully applied it to the opening night security check on 8 August in Beijing.

  16. Baijing Ready for Green Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Beijing will soon become the focus of attention in the world for hosting the 2008 Olympic Games that is scheduled to open in early August. From design and construction to operation, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCGO) has stipulated that all buildings be in accordance with the "Green Olympics" philosophy, focusing on energy-saving buildings, ecological preservation, sustainable use of resources and use of environmentally friendly construction materials.

  17. Olympic Effect on Beijing Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Olympic logistics network as preparationIn 2003, the Beijing municipal government proposed the blueprint for three key logistics projects for the 2008 Olympics. It planned to build three logistics bases (at Yancun in Fangshan District, Majuqiao in Tongzhou, and Shahe in Changping District) along with four logistics centers (at Tianzhu in Chaoyang, Shibajiadian in Chaoyang, Dazhuang in Daxing, and Mentougou).

  18. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious. PMID:22783614

  19. Impact of Beijing Olympic Games on the Sports Development in China%北京奥运会对中国体育发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志伟

    2011-01-01

    现代奥林匹克运动会不仅是当今世界上历史悠久、规模宏大和水平最高的综合性国际体育竞赛,而且也是影响深远、参与人数最多的社会文化活动。北京奥运会的举办对我国的政治形象、经济效益、文教发展和科技进步都产生了积极的影响,体育更是受益无穷。本文采用文献分析法对北京奥运会在我国体育发展中所起的作用进行归纳总结。%The modern Olympic Games with a long history in the world today has not noly comprehensive international sports competitions at the highest level in the grand scale, but also a far-reaching influence with the largest number of participants engaged in social and cultural activities. Beijing hosting of the Olympic Games has had a positive effect on China' s political image, economic benefit as well as the development of culture, education, science and technology. In addition, Beijing Olympic Games has given Chinese sports a great pull. This article analyses the Beijing Olympic Games' impact on the development of our country sports through the Olympic Games literature.

  20. Impact of pollution controls in Beijing on atmospheric oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the 2008 Olympic Games: observation and modeling implications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y; B. Yuan; Li, X; SHAO, M.; Lu, S.; Li, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Z. Wang; Hu, W; Huang, X.(Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China); He, L.; Zeng, L; Hu, M.; Zhu, T

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) are important products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons. They influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone-forming potential of the atmosphere. In the summer of 2008, 2 months of emission restrictions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality during the Olympic Games. Observational evidence reported in related studies that these control measures were efficient in reducing the concentrations of primary anthropogen...

  1. Beijing: Beyond the Olympic city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies have become part of a deliberate urban policy for cities around the world. There is a particular concern on how to combine the preparation of a mega-event with urban development processes that meet long-term demands. This paper examines how Beijing tried to use the Summer Olymp

  2. The effect of mitigation measures on size distributed mass concentrations of atmospheric particles and black carbon concentrations during the Olympic Summer Games 2008 in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Dietze, Volker; Yu, Yang; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yuan; Cen, Kuang

    2011-12-15

    The period of the 2008 Olympic Summer Games in Beijing can be considered as a unique opportunity to study the influences of emission reduction measures on air quality improvement. Within this study atmospheric particles of different size classes (2.5 to 80 μm) were investigated before, during, and after the Olympic Games period in order to observe and assess the success of short-term measures to mitigate extreme urban aerosol pollution and also to investigate, which particle size classes were reduced most effectively. Furthermore, black carbon (BC) concentrations in fine particles (PM(2.5)) during the source control period were compared to those of the previous years in order to investigate the decrease of combustion-derived aerosols. It is shown that besides the implemented mitigation measures precipitation decisively contributed to a considerable decrease of particulate air pollution in Beijing compared to the respective concentrations during the time directly before and after the Olympic Games, and also compared to average August concentrations during the previous years and the following year 2009. Particles of the fine fraction of the coarse mode (2.5 to 5 μm), which have a residence time in the order of several days and which, therefore, are typically transported over long distances from outside of Beijing, were less efficiently reduced than coarser particles. This indicates that long-range transport of atmospheric particles is difficult to control and that presumably the established mitigation area was not large enough to also reduce the fine fraction of the coarse mode more efficiently. Furthermore, the study showed that coarse geogenic particles, which originated to a high percentage from construction sites and resuspension processes due to traffic seemed to be reduced most efficiently during the Olympic Games period. PMID:22035559

  3. Efficiency of mitigation measures to reduce particulate air pollution--a case study during the Olympic Summer Games 2008 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Shulan

    2012-06-15

    Atmospheric particles were studied before, during, and after the period of the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the mitigation measures implemented by the Chinese Government. Total suspended particles (TSP) and fine particles (PM(2.5) and PM(1)) were collected continuously from October 2007 to February 2009 and were analyzed in detail with regard to mass and element concentrations, water-soluble ions, and black carbon (BC). Mass as well as element concentrations during the Olympic air quality control period were lower than the respective concentrations during the time directly before and after the Olympic Games. The results showed that the applied aerosol source control measures, such as shutting down industries and reducing traffic, had a huge impact on the reduction of aerosol pollution in Beijing. However, the meteorological conditions, especially rainfall, certainly also contributed to the successful reduction of particulate air pollution. Coarse particles were reduced more efficiently than finer particles, which indicates that long-range transport of atmospheric particles is difficult to control and that presumably the established mitigation area was not large enough. The study further showed that elements from predominantly anthropogenic sources, such as S, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb, as well as BC, were reduced more efficiently during the Olympic Games than elements for which geogenic sources are more significant, such as Al, Fe, Rb or Sr. Furthermore, the mentioned anthropogenic element concentrations were reduced more in the finer PM(2.5) samples whereas geogenic ones were reduced stronger in TSP samples including the coarser fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that the mitigation measures, as intended, were successful in reducing more toxic and health-relevant particles from anthropogenic sources. Firework displays, especially at the Opening Ceremony, could be identified as a special short

  4. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gao; Meigen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008.Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind,temperature and ozone,but NOx concentration is overestimated.Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics,high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 μg/m3 at Aoyuncun site,respectively.The analysis of sensitive test,with and without emission controls,shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning.The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate.Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August,horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer.On 24 July,as the wind velocity was smaller,the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  5. Review of "Education Olympics 2008: The Games in Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierros, Edward G.; Kornhaber, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the recently released Thomas P. Fordham Institute report, "Education Olympics: The Games in Review." Published just after the completion of the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, Education Olympics strategically parallels the international competition by awarding gold, silver and bronze medals to top performing countries based on…

  6. Olympic Games framework: published for the 2024 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This document, created in according with the Agenda 2020 recommendations, provides a broad overview of the requirements for hosting the Olympic Games. It is designed to help NOCs, cities and their governments to understand the unique opportunity presented by the Olympic Games, the fundamentals of staging them and the bid process. This Olympic Games Framework is part of the information and support that the IOC is providing as part of the new Invitation Phase for the 2024 Games bid process. Thr...

  7. A modelling study of air quality impact of odd-even day traffic restriction scheme before, during and after the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, H.; S. D. Xie

    2010-01-01

    Systematic air pollution control measures were designed and implemented to improve air quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. This study focuses on the evaluation of the air quality impacts of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS) implemented before, during and after the Games, based on modelling simulation by a well validated urban-scale air quality model. Concentration levels of CO, PM10, NO2 and O3 we...

  8. Beijing Olympics as an aerosol field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, J.; Knutti, R.

    2009-05-01

    During the 2008 Olympic Summer Games, emission reductions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality. Here we explore their effect on the regional aerosol load. We compare satellite-retrieved aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of that period with previous years, both in absolute terms and in a neural network approach taking into account the meteorological conditions. A statistically significant reduction of aerosol load is found in Beijing that decreases in magnitude and significance with increasing region size. Locally, the aerosol load (log(AOT)) was about 0.4 to 0.75 standard deviations below the levels expected for the prevailing meteorological situation. The small size of this effect relative to meteorological variability highlights the importance of regional aerosol transport.

  9. Evaluating The Air Quality Impacts Of The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: The Spatial Distribution Of Inhalable Particulate Matter And Their Impact Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhui; Gong, Huili; Zhao, Wenji; Li, Xiaojuan; Tang, Ming

    2010-10-01

    To achieve good air quality and improve traffic during Olympic Games, the Beijing Municipal Government enacted a series of emission control regulations before and during these events. It created a valuable case study to evaluate the effectiveness of these measures on mitigating air pollution and protecting public health. In this paper, we report the results from our field campaign from summer 2007 to 2009 on the on- road emission factors of inhalable particulate matter (IPM) as well as the meteorological factors like temperature, wind speed and humidity. The control measures on vehicle and using light-duty gasoline vehicles showed considerable reduction in the Olympic year (2008) and after-Olympic year (2009) compared to the pre-Olympic year (2007). The concentration of IPM increased with higher construction ratio and population density, while decreased by the higher vegetation cover ratio (VCR). It is also influenced by meteorological factors: temperature has a positive correlation with coarse particle and negative correlation with fine particle. However, the correlation between humidity and fine IPM was positive and negative in coarse IPM. The most influence factor is humidity, the temperature was the second and the wind speed was the least.

  10. 习作选登·The 29th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱桃珍; 费骏

    2004-01-01

    The Olympic Games is held every four years. This year it was held in Athens. In 2008,it'll be held in Beijing.How exciting!There are hundreds of sport items in the Olympic Games. Some are our doughty items.For example the diving and pingpong.In the 28th Olympic Games,we won 32 gold medals.

  11. All bout the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何杏仙

    2006-01-01

    The Olympic Games is held every four years in a different city in theworld.The Games has become the most important athletic events and a symbolof friendship of all the people of the world!Athletes from different countriestake part in the sports.These sports include winter and summer games.The Olympic Games began in Greece more than2700years ago.So theOlympic Games has a long history.It became the most important festival in allof Greece because the games were originally part of a religious festival in hon-or...

  12. Delivering an Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Treceño Orgaz, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    The technology involved in the distribution of the results during an Olympic Games is extremely complex. More than 900 servers, 1,000 network devices, 9,500 computers and 3,500 technologists are necessary to make it happen. Would it be possible to implement a solution with less resources using cutting edge technology? The following study answers this question by designing two scalable and high performance web-based applications to manage tournaments offering a REST interface...

  13. Non-methane volatile organic compound emission inventories in Beijing during Olympic Games 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junhua; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Xie, Yangyang

    2011-12-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) play important roles in ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of air quality control measures in Beijing in 2008, NMVOC emission inventories were compiled for June, July, August, and September with emission factors and updated activity data. Total NMVOC emissions were 22.6, 20.2, 14.9, and 14.6 Gg in June, July, August, and September, respectively. Anthropogenic NMVOC emissions were 45% lower in August than June; vehicles, solvent utilization, industrial processing, and miscellaneous sources declined by 66, 48, 15, and 75%, respectively. Anthropogenic NMVOC emissions increased in September compared with August. NMVOC emissions from petroleum storage and transport varied little during these months because of the installation of low-fugitive facilities. Reduced emissions from vehicles, industrial processing, and petroleum storage and transport contributed to the total anthropogenic reduction. Inventory uncertainties were evaluated to be [-51%, +126%], [-56%, +146%], [-58%, +161%], and [-52%, +133%] in June, July, August, and September, respectively, at the 95% confidence level.

  14. Underwater robots to safeguard Olympic Games in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A small-sized autonomous underwater vehicle(AUV) independently developed and built by CAS researchers has been designated as an underwater guard for the forthcoming Olympic Game in 2008 in Beijing. It has recently been approved by the Olympic Sub-committee of Sailing to be a component of the "underwater safety alert system" of the competition.

  15. 关于出租车司机英语的课程设计--为北京2008奥运会%A Course Design of Taxi Drivers' English--for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪露秋

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates how an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course is designed to meet the needs of a certain group of people engaging in a specific job. In accordance with the development of the taxi industry in Beijing, the paper focuses on how the ESP course enables the taxi drivers to acquire the English language for specific functions in their working environment. Besides, considering the approaching Olympic Games, the paper also explores how this course helps the taxi drivers develop the communicative competence for the Olympic Games.

  16. Singapore Airlines to Fly A380 to Beijing Due to Olympics Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Customers will enjoy exhilarating sporting action,exciting moments when they fly with Singapore Airlincs during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing.To satisfy higher demand on its flights during the of the Olympic Games,Singapore Airlines will fly the Airbus A380 super-jumbo,the world's largest passenger plane,on one of its three daily flights between Singapore and Beijing for one week in early August.

  17. Victory Ceremony Hosts/Hostess Costume Design Scheme for Beijing Olympics Sought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the 29th Olympiad(BOCOG)announced on May 22 that it is organizing a bid across the nation for the design scheme of the victory ceremony hosts/hostess costumes for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games from May 23 to June 25,2007.

  18. Victory Ceremony Hosts/Hostess Costume Design Scheme for Beijing Olympics Sought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the 29th Olympiad (BOCOG) announced on May 22 that it is organizing a bid across the nation for the design scheme of the victory ceremony hosts/hostess costumes for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games from May 23 to June 25, 2007.

  19. Size distributions of aerosol sulfates and nitrates in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games: Impacts of pollution control measures and regional transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Pathak, Ravi Kant; Hallquist, Mattias; Gao, Xiaomei; Nie, Wei; Xue, Likun; Gao, Jian; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing; Wang, Shulan; Chai, Fahe; Chen, Yizhen

    2013-03-01

    For the 2008 Olympic Games, drastic control measures were implemented on industrial and urban emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and other pollutants to address the issues of poor air quality in Beijing. To investigate the effects of SO2 and NO x reductions on the particulate sulfate and nitrate concentrations as well as their size distributions, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) at urban and downwind rural sites in Beijing before and after full-scale controls. During the sampling period, the mass concentrations of fine particles (PM1.8) at the urban and rural sites were 94.0 and 85.9 μg m-3, respectively. More than 90% of the sulfates and ˜60% of nitrates formed as fine particles. Benefiting from the advantageous meteorological conditions and the source controls, sulfates were observed in rather low concentrations and primarily in condensation mode during the Olympics. The effects of the control measures were separately analyzed for the northerly and the southerly air-mass-dominated days to account for any bias. After the control measures were implemented, PM, sulfates, and nitrates were significantly reduced when the northerly air masses prevailed, with a higher percentage of reduction in larger particles. The droplet mode particles, which dominated the sulfates and nitrates before the controls were implemented, were remarkably reduced in mass concentration after the control measures were implemented. Nevertheless, when the polluted southerly air masses prevailed, the local source control measures in Beijing did not effectively reduce the ambient sulfate concentration due to the enormous regional contribution from the North China Plain.

  20. Size Distributions of Aerosol Sulfates and Nitrates in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games: Impacts of Pollution Control Measures and Regional Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinfeng; WANG Tao; Ravi Kant PATHAK; Mattias HALLQUIST; GAO Xiaomei; NIE Wei; XUE Likun

    2013-01-01

    For the 2008 Olympic Games,drastic control measures were implemented on industrial and urban emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2),nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other pollutants to address the issues of poor air quality in Beijing.To investigate the effects of SO2 and NOx reductions on the particulate sulfate and nitrate concentrations as well as their size distributions,size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) at urban and downwind rural sites in Beijing before and after full-scale controls.During the sampling period,the mass concentrations of fine particles (PM1.8) at the urban and rural sites were 94.0 and 85.9 μg m-3,respectively.More than 90% of the sulfates and ~60%of nitrates formed as fine particles.Benefiting from the advantageous meteorological conditions and the source controls,sulfates were observed in rather low concentrations and primarily in condensation mode during the Olympics.The effects of the control measures were separately analyzed for the northerly and the southerly air-mass-dominated days to account for any bias.After the control measures were implemented,PM,sulfates,and nitrates were significantly reduced when the northerly air masses prevailed,with a higher percentage of reduction in larger particles.The droplet mode particles,which dominated the sulfates and nitrates before the controls were implemented,were remarkably reduced in mass concentration after the control measures were implemented.Nevertheless,when the polluted southerly air masses prevailed,the local source control measures in Beijing did not effectively reduce the ambient sulfate concentration due to the enormous regional contribution from the North China Plain.

  1. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric submicron particles during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region–2008 (CAREBeijing-2008, an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was deployed in urban Beijing to characterize submicron aerosol particles during the time of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Paralytic Games (24 July to 20 September 2008. The campaign mean PM1 mass concentration was 63.1±39.8 μg m−3; the mean composition consisted of organics (37.9%, sulfate (26.7%, ammonium (15.9%, nitrate (15.8%, black carbon (3.1%, and chloride (0.87%. The average size distributions of the species (except BC were all dominated by an accumulation mode peaking at about 600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter, and organics was characterized by an additional smaller mode extending below 100 nm. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset differentiated the organic aerosol into four components, i.e., hydrocarbon-like (HOA, cooking-related (COA, and two oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA-1 and OOA-2, which on average accounted for 18.1, 24.4, 33.7 and 23.7% of the total organic mass, respectively. The HOA was identified to be closely associated with primary combustion sources, while the COA mass spectrum showed high similarity to that measured from cooking aerosol emissions. The OOA components correspond to aged secondary organic aerosol. Although the two OOA components have similar elemental (O/C, H/C compositions, they display differences in mass spectra and time series which appear to correlate with the different source regions sampled during the campaign. Back trajectory clustering analysis indicated that the southerly air flows were associated with the highest PM1 pollution during the campaign. This result is similar to observations made in the summer of 2006, although the average PM1 concentration level for the southerly air flows is 31% lower than

  2. What Does Olympic Games Bring to Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In 1984, Ubeross, a wizard in the U.S.business circle, creatively combined the Olympic Games with commerce,thus made the Los Angeles Olympic Games of that year become "the Olympic Games which makes money for the first time". Since then, the original Olympic Games which "sustain losses in the sports propaganda" has possessed an ultra ability that "makes the golden-rimmed paper turn into money" Thus, the concept "Olympic economy" appeared.

  3. Olympic Games: An Interdisciplinary Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuning, William A.

    1981-01-01

    The 1980 Morley Olympics at May Morley Elementary School is an example of a successful special event in which sport served as the launching pad for an interdisciplinary educational experience. Teachers developed special classroom activities featuring the Olympic Games. Students registered as competitors from several countries. (JN)

  4. Impacts of emission controls and perturbations on an intense convective precipitation event during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y. F.; Cao, W.; Zhang, Q.; Su, Hang; Streets, D. G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Poeschl, U.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2013-05-01

    A fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model (WRF-Chem) is used to assess the impacts of emission controls and perturbations on a summer intense convective precipitation event from August 9-11 during the 2008 Olympic Games. More realistic aerosol representation of aerosols in the model and the fully coupled aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks lead to a better prediction of precipitation, compared with the satellite retrieval. The emission scenario simulations suggest that even small perturbations in the concentration and/or compositions of aerosols can lead to either enhancement or suppression of this summer intensive precipitation event. Detailed process analyses are carried out to diagnostic the key process or mechanism that triggers the changes in precipitation due to the emission perturbation.

  5. Infrastructure Beijing Fends Against Olympic White Elephants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Perhaps the only challenge greater than hosting the Olympic Games is the task of practically making use of its expansive infrastructure remains upon the 16-day event's conclusion.A monumental task in every sense of the word, it is one that all Olympic cities struggle with to some extent or another, but often to varying ends. While hosts such as Barcelona and Sydney are lauded for their post-Olympic stadium and venue planning, the Games'2004 host, Athens, continues to deal with a striking number of vacant, decaying facilities just two years on.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of coarse atmospheric particulate matter between 2.5 μm and 80 μm in Beijing and the impact of 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norra, Stefan; Yu, Yang; Dietze, Volker; Schleicher, Nina; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yuan; Stüben, Doris; Cen, Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Beijing is well known as a megacity facing severe atmospheric pollution problems. One very important kind of pollution is the high amount of particles in Beijing's atmosphere. Numerous studies investigated the dynamics of fine particles smaller 10 μm. Less information is available on the coarse particle fraction larger 10 μm, although geogenic dusts, which often are composed by those coarser particles, frequently affect the air quality in Beijing. Therefore, systematic sampling and analysis of size fractionated particulate matter between 2.5 and 80 μm was performed in Beijing from April 2005 till October 2009. Atmospheric particles were collected in the North-West of Beijing using a cost-effective passive sampling method called Sigma-2. Altogether, 200 weeks could be analysed and assessed. Concentrations and size distribution of atmospheric coarse particles were determined by automated microscopic single particle analysis. Seasonal variability of the total mass of different size fractions was identified as follows: spring > winter > autumn > summer. High concentrations of transparent mineral particles indicate the activity of geogenic sources in spring and winter time, due to asian dust events and resuspension of soil from local bare land during dry and windy periods. The percentage of opaque particle components differs seasonally with relatively high values in winter, confirming combustion of fossil fuels for heating purposes as a predominant pollution source in this season. The influence of meteorological conditions on concentrations and size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter between 2.5 and 80 μm is demonstrated for the whole sampling period. Lowest pollution by coarse aerosols occurred during the period of the 2008 Olympic Summer Games. A general trend of decreasing total coarse particle mass concentrations was observed. Due to frequently observed high total coarse particle mass concentrations of several 100 μg·m-³ it is strongly recommended

  7. Hi-tech Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 7 years ago,China proposed three Principal ideas of "Green Olympics,Hightech Olympic and Humanities Olympic", among which Hightech Olympic refers to applying the modern science technology to every side of Olympic Games, as a result making the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games a sports show which is equipped by the advanced scientific and technical achievement.

  8. Olympics Heat Up Beijing Hotel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUMBO; ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    With the Olympics fast approaching,Beijing has become the hot spot for all types of hotels The Sun Dong An Plaza, located at the center of Beijing’s 'Golden Street'-Wangfujing, is undergoing an overall renovation with a budget of 200 million yuan ($26 mi

  9. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region. PMID:27355197

  10. The Temperament of a City: A Postscript to Post-Olympic Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of amazement in art and architecture: one relies on the ingenuity of artifice to arouse a feeling of enchantment, while the other causes an awe-inspiring ecstasy through the shock of the new. Beijing may have won the race in the latter, with spectacles such as the Olympic Games, but does this prove that a new Beijing has been reinvented?This paper examines the two kinds of amazement to examine two pairs of showcase Olympic buildings: 1 Beijing International Airport’s Terminal 3 and the Olympic Tennis Centre and 2 the Olympic Stadium and the CCTV Tower – to ask what they say about Beijing, and its temperament. It also questions whether or not it is possible to reinvent a new city once its temperament has been formed, and in what way this temperament may be related to the creation of public space, or place.

  11. The Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文彬

    2007-01-01

    1.The Olympic Motto(奥林匹克口号)"Citius,Altius,Fortius"expresses the aspirations of the Olympicmovement.Itis Latin for"Swifter,Higher,Stronger".These three simple words serve as powerful inspiration for ev-ery Olympic athlete.

  12. Visual transfer of knowledge of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games In view of Beijing Olympic Games%南京青奥会“奥运影像知识转让"研究——借鉴北京奥运会模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘润芝; 刘文娟; 王爱军; 罗晓红

    2011-01-01

    “奥运影像知识转让(VTOK)”项目是《奥林匹克宪章》和《主办城市合同》赋予奥组委的一项法律义务,是组委会向国际奥委会所提交总结报告的重要组成部分。北京奥运会VTOK是唯一以影像视频的方式,系统、全面、深入呈现北京奥运会的筹办和组织过程,是北京奥运会的历史纪录和文化遗产。通过文献资料、专家访谈、数理统计等方法。对北京奥运会VTOK项目的视频来源、制作形式和基本内容进行分析,探索该项目的成功经验,旨在为南京青奥会“奥运影像知识转让”提供有价值的参考意见和经验教训。%Visual Transfer of Knowledge (VTOK) program is a legal duty entrusted to the Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games (OCOG) by the Olympic Charter and the Host City Contract, which is an important part of the Official Report submitted to the InternationalOlympic Committee by the OCOG. The VTOK of the Beijing Olympic Games is the only part of the Official Report that presents the preparation and organization of the Beijing Games in audio and video way systematically and comprehensively, and it is also the historic records and cultural heritage of the Games. This thesis analyzes the material resource, form and content of VTOK of the Games by such research methods as literature, interview and statistics. The experiences are drawn from this program so of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games. as to provide the valuable references for the VTOK

  13. Legacies of North American Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Kate

    2011-01-01

    These reports were commissioned by the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC) to gain insight into the legacies of previous North American Olympic Winter Games, held in Lake Placid, Calgary, and Salt Lake City. With this information readily available, VANOC staff can make and encourage references to Winter Games held on this continent and discourage irrelevant comparisons to Olympic Winter and Summer Games held elsewhere. The report begins with...

  14. Relative Age Effect of Olympic Athletes in Beijing 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Romaneiro, Carla; Folgado, Hugo; Batalha, Nuno; Duarte, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Research on expert performance field revealed a strong trend in the association of the birth dates of elite athletes to the first trimesters of the year (Wattie et al. 2008). The aim of this study was to analyze the birth date distribution of all top elite athletes who participated in Olympic Games at Beijing 2008. Athletes (n = 18.132) were divided according to gender, continent and sports. The birth dates of the athletes were divided into quarters. To analyze the distribution of the populat...

  15. The Olympic Games impacts: summary report

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Olympic and Paralympic Games impact studies are carried out as part of the Games host city’s obligations to the International Olympic Committee according to the methodology proposed in the technical manual in 2007. The objective of this study is to identify and assess the Games impact on the country, region and host city where the Games will be staged, and to evaluate the Games legacy for future Games organizers. The research methodology is based on the concept of sustainable development and ...

  16. Impact of pollution controls in Beijing on atmospheric oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs during the 2008 Olympic Games: observation and modeling implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs are important products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons. They influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone forming potential of the atmosphere. In the summer of 2008 two months' emission restrictions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality during the Olympic Games. Observation evidence has been reported in related studies that these control measures were efficient in reducing the concentrations of primary anthropogenic pollutants (CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons, i.e. NMHCs by 30–40%. In this study, the influence of the emission restrictions on ambient levels of OVOCs was explored using a neural network analysis with consideration of meteorological conditions. Statistically significant reductions in formaldehyde (HCHO, acetaldehyde (CH3CHO, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and methanol were found to be 12.9, 15.8, 17.1 and 19.6%, respectively, when the restrictions were in place. The effect of emission control on acetone was not detected in neural network simulations, probably due to pollution transport from surrounding areas outside Beijing. Although the ambient levels of most NMHCs were decreased by ~35% during the full control period, the emission ratios of reactive hydrocarbons attributed to vehicular emissions did not present obvious difference. A zero-dimensional box model based on Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2 (MCM3.2 was applied to evaluate how OVOCs productions respond to the reduced precursors during the emission controlled period. On average, secondary HCHO was produced from the oxidation of anthropogenic alkenes (54%, isoprene (30% and aromatics (15%. The importance of biogenic source for the total HCHO formation was almost on a par with that of anthropogenic alkenes during the daytime. Anthropogenic alkenes and alkanes dominated the photochemical production of other OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, acetone and MEK. The relative changes of modelled aldehydes, methyl vinyl

  17. Impact of pollution controls in Beijing on atmospheric oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the 2008 Olympic Games: observation and modeling implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Li, X.; Shao, M.; Lu, S.; Li, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, Z.; Hu, W.; Huang, X.; He, L.; Zeng, L.; Hu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-03-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) are important products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons. They influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone-forming potential of the atmosphere. In the summer of 2008, 2 months of emission restrictions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality during the Olympic Games. Observational evidence reported in related studies that these control measures were efficient in reducing the concentrations of primary anthropogenic pollutants (CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons, i.e., NMHCs) by 30-40%. In this study, the influence of the emission restrictions on ambient levels of OVOCs was explored using a neural network analysis with consideration of meteorological conditions. Statistically significant reductions in formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methanol were found to be 12.9, 15.8, 17.1 and 19.6%, respectively, when the restrictions were in place. The effect of emission controls on acetone was not detected in neural network simulations, probably due to pollution transport from surrounding areas outside Beijing. Although the ambient levels of most NMHCs were reduced by ~35% during the full control period, the emission ratios of reactive alkenes and aromatics closely related to automobile sources did not present much difference (< 30%). A zero-dimensional box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2 (MCM3.2) was applied to evaluate how OVOC production responds to the reduced precursors during the emissions control period. On average, secondary HCHO was produced from the oxidation of anthropogenic alkenes (54%), isoprene (30%) and aromatics (15%). The importance of biogenic sources for the total HCHO formation was almost on par with that of anthropogenic alkenes during the daytime. Anthropogenic alkenes and alkanes dominated the photochemical production of other OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, acetone and MEK. The relative changes of modeled HCHO, CH3CHO, methyl

  18. Nuclear security and the 2008 Olympic games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of a Major Public Event, for sports, political or other gatherings, presents important security challenges for the Host State. A Cooperation Arrangement was signed by the IAEA and the China Atomic Energy Authority on 13 July 2007, on joint nuclear security activities, including for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. The nuclear security measures were integrated into the overall security system for the event and were aimed at protecting the participants and the public effectively from the consequences of criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material. This was accomplished by performing an assessment of the existing security arrangements, an assessment of the nuclear security needs and the development of a joint action plan. The resulting actions implemented by the IAEA included providing options for concepts and strategies for detection, interdiction and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear or other radioactive materials, the provision of radiation detection equipment for use during the Olympic Games and training on all aspects of nuclear security. (author)

  19. Measurement of atmospheric hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides in Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympic Games: Chemical and physical factors influencing their concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S. Z.; Chen, Z. M.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, D. M.; Zhao, J. N.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zeng, L. M.

    2010-09-01

    For the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games full-scale control (FSC) of atmospheric pollution was implemented to improve the air quality from 20 July to 20 September 2008, resulting in a significant decrease in the emission of pollutants in urban Beijing, especially vehicular emissions. The combination of reduced emissions and weather condition changes provided us with a unique opportunity to investigate urban atmospheric chemistry. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic peroxides play significant roles in atmospheric processes, such as the cycling of HOx radicals and the formation of secondary sulfate aerosols and secondary organic aerosols. We measured atmospheric H2O2 and organic peroxides in urban Beijing, at the Peking University campus, from 12 July to 30 September, before and during the FSC. The major peroxides observed were H2O2, methyl hydroperoxide (MHP), and peroxyacetic acid (PAA), having maximal mixing ratios of 2.34, 0.95, and 0.17 ppbv (parts per billion by volume), respectively. Other organic peroxides were detected occasionally, such as bis-hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, ethyl hydroperoxide, and 1-hydroxyethyl hydroperoxide. On sunny days the concentrations of H2O2, MHP, and PAA exhibited pronounced diurnal variations, with a peak in the afternoon (1500-1900) and, occasionally, a second peak in the evening (2000-0200). The night peaks can be attributed to local night production from the ozonolysis of alkenes, coupled with the reaction between NO3 radicals and organic compounds. Sunny-day weather dominated during 16-26 July, and we found that the concentrations of H2O2, MHP, and PAA increased strikingly on 22-26 July, compared with the concentrations during 16-19 July. This effect was mainly attributed to the NOx (NO and NO2) decline because of the FSC, due to (i) the suppressing effect of NO and NO2 on the production of peroxides and (ii) the indirect effect of reduced NOx on the concentration of peroxides via O3 production in the

  20. Evidence of Aerosol's Influence on Climate from Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Fu, Q.; Huang, J.; Ge, J.; Su, J.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution is a difficult problem during the process of industrialization in most developing countries. In China, the main air pollutants are inhaled aerosol particles. Because of the extremely high loading and rapid development, Beijing became a heavily polluted city, with a population of more than 16 million. The 2008 Olympic Summer Games provided a unique opportunity for the study of climate effects of aerosols due to many measurements taken to fight pollution caused by industrialization and economic growth.Surface temperature is the most intuitive meteorological factor and easy to get. Therefore, aerosol’s radiative effects on regional climate can be known by studying the relationship between aerosols and surface temperature in Beijing city in August 2008. However, many factors can affect the surface temperature and cloud is considered as a very important meteorological element in radiation balance. In order to remove the impact of clouds on surface temperature, here the ground temperature in clear sky days (when cloud cover is less than 2) are selected. Aerosol data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua shows that aerosol concentration decreased significantly in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008. Meanwhile, the ground-based observation data shows the surface temperature during the day (14LT) and night (02LT) in August 2008 is higher and lower than the mean temperature in August from 2002 to 2008, respectively. It is discovered that the distribution of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical Depth (AOD) in the whole area of Beijing in August of 2003 and 2004 is similar to that in 2008. We chosen four meteorological stations to analyze surface temperature and found that the diurnal changes of surface temperature are consistent with that in August of 2003, 2004 and 2008. Meanwhile, the decrease of AOD in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008 leads to the increase of precipitation

  1. Olympic Education and Beyond: Olympism and Value Legacies from the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia

    2012-01-01

    This article starts with a discussion on the links between Olympism and education as presented in the early years of the modern Olympic Movement and the ideological vision of its founder, Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Questions about whether that vision can remain as an ideological platform for the Olympic and Paralympic Games are debated in the…

  2. Preparing for the Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In terms of time, Beijing is drawing ever closer to the 2008 Olympic Games, with just two years to go. In terms of space, a new "Olympic City" has initially taken shape as the Olympic blueprint materializes in Beijing.

  3. O futebol feminino nos Jogos Olímpicos de Pequim Female soccer in the Beijing Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio de Carvalho Ferretti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available NesteAs relações de gênero hierarquizam homens e mulheres em diversas áreas, sendo uma delas o futebol. Este trabalho analisou as reportagens do caderno Pequim 2008 do jornal Folha de São Paulo para identificar o espaço destinado para as reportagens do futebol feminino e masculino, e avaliar qualitativamente o que é informado aos seus leitores. O resultado mostra que a porcentagem de palavras destinada as mulheres foi maior do que em outras pesquisas e a área das fotos foi similar entre os sexos, mas isso só ocorreu devido a influência do evento. As notícias permitiram uma análise da mulher no futebol: as entidades perpetuam a diferença hierárquica entre os sexos ao não dar suporte a elas; o levantamento de questões ligadas a estética aponta porque essas atletas não são erotizadas pela mídia como em outras modalidades; pelo futebol ser visto como espaço masculino a mídia exigiu melhores resultados dos homens.Gender relations put men and women in different areas of the hierarchy, for instance in the case of soccer. This work analyzed the news articles from the Beijing 2008 section of the Newspaper Folha de São Paulo to identify the space attributed to news articles about female and male soccer, and to qualitatively evaluate what is said to its readers. The result shows that the percentage of words addressing women was higher compared to other surveys and the area for pictures was similar for both genders, however this only happened on account of the influence of the event. The news allowed for an analysis of women in soccer: the entities that perpetuate the hierarchical difference between the genders when they don't support them; the raising of issues regarding aesthetics which explains why these athletes are not erotized by the media as is the case in other modalities; as soccer is considered to be a male area the media demanded better results from the men.

  4. Olympic Games: Old and New Paradigms of the Olympic Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin G. Tomilin

    2014-01-01

    The article observes the alternative variants of possible changing the generally accepted paradigm of the Olympic movement in a part of the places` selection of the future conducted Olympiads and mechanism of its financing. The article gives the example of conduction the Olympiad 1984 in Los Angeles (USA), with minimization of the expenses on construction of the athletic buildings, as well as undertaking the ceremony openings and closing of the XXIII summer Olympic games. There considered the...

  5. Olympic Games impact study - London 2012: Games-time report

    OpenAIRE

    University of East London

    2016-01-01

    The Olympic Games Impact Study (OGI1) was born from the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) desire to develop an objective and scientific analysis of the impact of each edition of the Games. The study provides a record both of the individual nature of each Olympiad and its host context. The Olympic Games Impact (OGI) study comprises a number of phases (see page 6). The Pre-Games Report (2010) and the Post-Games Report (scheduled for 2015) are commissioned by the Economic and Social Resear...

  6. Association between changes in exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in children before and during the Beijing Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Weiwei; Zhu, Tong; Xue, Tao; Peng, Wei; Brunekreef, Bert; Gehring, Ulrike; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    It is not known whether exposure to air pollutants causes systemic oxidative stress in children. We investigated the association between exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in relation to a governmental air quality intervention implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. We studied 36 schoolchildren during 5 time periods before and during the Olympic Games in Beijing (June 2007-September 2008). The oxidative stress biomarkers 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine...

  7. The Bronze "Ding of Flourishing Olympic "for the Main Stadium of the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The bronze "Ding of Flourishing Olympic" for the main stadium of the 2008Olympic Games has been completed by Yuda Group Company. The "Ding of Flourishing Olympic" was designed by Lanzhou Ludu Chunqiu Cultural Disseminating Co. Ltd.

  8. Analyses of the dynamics of changes between individual men's events in front crawl during the XIX Olympic Games in Beijing 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucia-Czyszczoń, Katarzyna; Dybińska, Ewa; Bieniek, Paweł; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze tactical solutions used by swimmers, the finalists of the 19th Beijing Olympics in 2008, in individual front crawl events at distances of 50, 100 and 200 m. Observations were carried out on 7 swimmers, the Beijing Olympics medalists competing in front crawl individual events. Detailed analyses were run on: 1) Sports results obtained by the finalists at distances of 50, 100 and 200 m front crawl; 2) block time; 3) results of each 50 m lap time (100 and 200) called split times except 50 m front crawl (there is no split time in 50 m); and 4) the mean swimming speed (V) on individual laps of the analyzed races. To determine the correlation between the response time, the time of individual laps, and the final time of the analyzed front crawl races, Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r was obtained. As a result of detailed analyses of the test material it is believed that not only tactics for an individual race is important, but equally significant is to elaborate the strategy for the whole event and to prepare the swimmer to compete in the system of heats, semifinals and finals. However, some of the following tactical objectives can be formulated: sprinters (a distance of 50 and 100 m front crawl) should start at maximum speed, according to their abilities, and try to maintain that speed until the end of the race; middle-distance swimmers (200 m front crawl) should adopt the most optimal tactical solutions characterized by increasing speed in the second half of the distance. PMID:24708066

  9. Ideals and Realities of the Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Richard W.

    1976-01-01

    With the growth of professionalism and the emphasis on money in sports, modern society is losing sight of the ideals of style and grace that were of primary importance in the early Olympic games. nJD)

  10. Olympic Games: Old and New Paradigms of the Olympic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin G. Tomilin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article observes the alternative variants of possible changing the generally accepted paradigm of the Olympic movement in a part of the places` selection of the future conducted Olympiads and mechanism of its financing. The article gives the example of conduction the Olympiad 1984 in Los Angeles (USA, with minimization of the expenses on construction of the athletic buildings, as well as undertaking the ceremony openings and closing of the XXIII summer Olympic games. There considered the prospects of construction of the tent and frame systems, which are easily disassembled when the Games are finished.

  11. Sustainable Olympics? Background and Legacy of Torino 2006 Winter Olympic Games. 可持续发展的奥运会? 都灵2006年冬奥会的背景和遗产

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Gustavo; Berta, Mauro; Bonino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The text proposes a critic reflection about the experience of Turin's XXth Winter Olympic Games, considering the impact of the Olympic facilities in the broader framework of the recent urban and metropolitan tansformations. The paper is included in a special issue of the review, dedicated to a comparison among Beijing's bidding for the Winter Olympics of 2022 and some other relevant case studies

  12. Zika and Rio Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Pakravan, Amir; Zaeimkohan, Hamid; Shahpar, Farhad Moradi; Khodaee, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that is mainly transmitted via a bite from a female mosquito of the Aedes species. However, ZIKV can be transmitted sexually or via blood. Due to the recent ZIKV outbreak in South and Central America, many national and international organizations are concerned about the safety of athletes, coaches, staff, and spectators during the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Infected individuals are generally asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. However, ZIKV infection can potentially cause serious complications such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and congenital defects. Preferred diagnosis is based on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from blood and urine. Currently, there is no treatment or immunization available for ZIKV infection, and disease control is limited to preventing mosquito bites. PMID:27399828

  13. IOC marketing media guide: Olympic Games Rio 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the Olympic marketing programme is to ensure the independent financial stability of the Olympic Movement. By creating and maintaining long-term marketing programmes, the IOC is able to ensure the financial security of both the Olympic Movement and the Olympic Games. The Olympic marketing programme also ensures that the Olympic Games can be experienced by the maximum number of people throughout the world, principally via broadcast to television and digital media platforms.

  14. The role of arts and culture in the Olympic Games: from olympic arts competitions to Cultural Olympiads

    OpenAIRE

    García, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    After an introductory section reviewing the definition and assigned roles of the Olympic cultural programme according to official IOC guidelines, the paper presents a historical account of arts and cultural programming in the Summer editions of the Games, from the initial conception by Pierre de Coubertin in 1906 up to the last implementations on occasion of the Sydney 2000, Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008 Games. The paper ends with a brief revision of the current challenges and prospects that t...

  15. Marketing report: Beijing 2008

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Marketing Report provides a comprehensive summary of the Beijing 2008 marketing programmes, which made such a significant contribution to the exceptional success of the Games. Highlighted throughout the publication are the contributions, efforts and inter-dependencies of the many stakeholders in the Olympic Movement, on which the modern Olympic Games are built. Beijing delivered great Games because it delivered in every area – record sporting achievements, super...

  16. Partner rate card: Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to the London 2012 Partner Rate Card catalogue, the easy way to order the products, services and facilities you will need to deliver hospitality programmes at the Olympic Hospitality Centre and showcasing facilities at the Olympic Park.

  17. 北京奥运会团体新赛制下我国乒乓球基础训练对策%Basic table tennis training countermeasures under new format of Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋芬

    2009-01-01

    The international Table Tennis Federation modified the game rules and team game format of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Game. These changes makes more requirements on the athletes, coaches and table tennis management organizations. The paper also analyses the features of the new format and proposes countermeasures of tactics, technical policies and basic training strategies.%国际乒联对08年北京奥运会乒乓球比赛的比赛规程和团体赛赛制进行了重大修改,体现了其"变中求生"的思想.这些变革对运动员和教练员以及乒乓球运动管理机构均提出了更高的要求.对奥运会新赛制的特点.进行了深入细致的分析,从备战奥运会的战略战术、技术政策、基础训练策略等方面提出了对策和建议.

  18. Student Reflections on a Study Abroad Course to the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    NAVALTA, JAMES W.; Lyons, Scott; GIBSON, FRED W.

    2008-01-01

    The authors lead a study abroad trip to Beijing, China during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Included are reflections from the students who participated. Throughout the visit, students had the opportunity to complete learning outside of the traditional classroom setting. In addition, various challenges were faced and overcome which also constituted a learning experience and was the cause of reflection. The country of China and all of its historical landmarks had a great impression on these st...

  19. 奥运食品ATP检测与人群症状监测结果相关性研究%CORRELATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN RESULTS OF ATP TEST AND SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE FOR BEIJING OLYMPIC GAMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎新宇; 高婷; 杨鹏; 王全意; 庞星火

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To realize correlation between results of ATP test and syndromic surveillance for Beijing Olympic games. [ Methods] Active rate of ATP test and number of symptoms were analyzed for studying correlation between them. [Results] Number of ATP test in Beijing Olympic venues was 922 and active rate was 14.21%. Jaundice patient was not appearing during the period of the 29th Olympic game. Other four symptoms number was 753 and general incidence was 309.88/ 100 000. The proportions of diarrhea and fever were 50.33% and 33.07%, respectively. By correlative analysis, the correlation between the lour symptoms and results of ATP lest were statistic significant. [Conclusion] ATP test and syndromic surveillance were important measurements for security of major events.%[目的]探讨奥运场馆餐饮 ATP 检测与人群症状发生的相关关系.[方法]统计分析奥运期间餐饮 ATP超过预警值的结果和发生症状人数,采用相关性分析方法探讨两者的关联性.[结果]奥运期间在奥运核心场馆共进行了 ATP 快速检测 922 件,超过预警值百分比为 14.21%.奥运期间未发生黄疸病人,其他 4 类症状共发生 753 人,发生率为 309.88/10 万;其中腹泻发生最多,占 50.33%,其次为发热,占33.07%;通过对二者进行相关性比较发现 4 种症状的发生与 ATP 检测呈现明显的相关性.[结论]在大型活动中开展食品卫生快速检测和症状监测是重要的保障措施.

  20. Beijing Olympic Games volunteer training and the system of the heritage Classification research%北京奥运会志愿者培训遗产体系及分类的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜生成; 张涛涛; 张金棒

    2012-01-01

    according to the definition of the Olympic heritage, through to the Beijing Olympic Games volunteer training produced immediate and follow-up benefit with the content of the systematic analysis and classification, and puts forward the volunteer training includes tangible heritage and intangible heritage. And the tangible heritage of the training organization management system, the training content, form of activity and advocated by the intangible heritage of the Olympic spirit, the volunteer spirit on the social effects of analysis, classification, can our country school education and future for the voluntary service business and volunteers to provide guidance and training for reference.%本文依据奥运会遗产的界定,通过对北京奥运会赛会志愿者培训所产生的具有即时和后续效益的内容进行系统性分析与归粪.提出赛套志愿者培训包括有形盘产和无形遗产。并对有形盘产的培训组织管理体系、培训内容、活动形式与无形遗产所倡导的奥林匹克精神、志愿服务精神对社会的影响进行剖析、分粪,能够为我国学校教育和今后的志愿服务事业及志愿者培训提供指导和借鉴。

  1. Quantitative evaluation of emission controls on primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; M. Hu; Guo, Q.; Zhang, X; Schauer, J. J.; Zhang, R

    2013-01-01

    To assess the primary and secondary sources of fine organic aerosols after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12 h PM2.5 values were measured at an urban site at Peking University (PKU) and an upwind rural site at Yufa during the CAREBEIJING-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in BEIJING and surrounding region) summer field campaign. The average PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5 ± 43.6 μg m−3 and 64.3 ± 36.2 μg ...

  2. SLAKING AN OLYMPIC THIRST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chronically water-short Beijing is carrying out elaborate plans to ensure a steady flow for 2008 "Water demand during the 2008 Olympics will be guaranteed," said Wu Jisong, director of the water supply program under (he Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. Wu's confident response belies what is, to say the least, a difficult situation. Beijing has

  3. OLYMPIC EXCHANGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    British firm Arup helped to build the Bird’s Nest,while Foster & Partners designed the new Terminal 3 at the Beijing Capital Airport British Prime Minister Gordon Brown was the first foreigner who received permission to walk inside the unfin- ished Bird’s Nest,the main sports stadium for Beijing Olympic Games in August."This is going to be the greatest Olympic Games ever,"Brown told reporters after his stadium tour.

  4. III Olympic Winter Games, Lake Placid 1932: Official Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimer, George M

    2013-01-01

    The work: “III Olympic Winter Games, Lake Placid 1932: official report” provides a very full report on the organisation and running of the Olympic Games and a detailed history of the pioneering role of Lake Placid in the development of winter sport. It consists of one 291-page volume, published in English. Part I: Official congratulations ; List of officers and committees ; Olympic regulations and protocol and general rules ; Brief history of the Olympic Winter Games ; History of winter sport...

  5. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  6. Customs and freight guide: National Olympic Committee (NOC) : Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This guide provides important information to assist National Olympic Committees (NOCs) in bringing equipment and supplies to and from Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. This guide outlines relevant customs regulations, and freight policies and procedures.

  7. NOC rate card: Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    These catalogues list all items that will be available for the National Olympic Committees through the Rio 2016 Rate Card portal. They contain also the terms and conditions for all the NOC's purchases.

  8. New Sale Policy for Olympic Tickets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Following the temporary suspension of the phase two domestic ticket sales of the Beijing Olympic Games, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad(BOCOG)released a new policy of tick- et sales on November 5.

  9. Blazing the trail: Official Report : Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The official report of the 1st Youth Olympic Games, “Blazing the trail: Official Report: Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games” consisted of one volume, published in French and English. The French version was published only in electronic form

  10. Candidature questionnaire Olympic Games 2024

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Contains : Questionnaire Stage 1: Vision, Games Concept and Strategy. - Questionnaire Stage 2: Governance, Legal and Venue Funding. - Questionnaire Stage 3: Games Delivery, Experience and Venue Legacy.

  11. The Official Report of the Centennial Olympic Games: Atlanta 1996

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    “The Official Report of the Centennial Olympic Games: Atlanta 1996” marked a return to a more sober and traditional form. There were French and English box sets, published in 1997. The work consisted of three volumes (Planning and organizing; The centennial Olympic Games; The competition results). Volume 3 was bilingual. Vol.1 Part I: Prologue the Bid ; Management and organization ; Accomodations ; Accreditation ; Atlanta Olympic broadcasting ; Centennial Olympic park ; Communications.- Vol.1...

  12. Ozone air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics – effectiveness of emission restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of aggressive measures was launched by the Chinese government to reduce pollutant emissions from Beijing and surrounding areas during the Olympic Games. Observations at Miyun, a rural site 100 km downwind of the Beijing urban center, show significant decreases in concentrations of O3, CO, NOy, and SO2 during August 2008, relative to August 2006–2007. The mean daytime mixing ratio of O3 was lower by about 15 ppbv, reduced to 50 ppbv, in August 2008. The relative reductions in daytime SO2, CO, and NOy were 61%, 25%, and 21%, respectively. Changes in SO2 and in species correlations from 2007 to 2008 indicate that emissions of SO2, CO, and NOx were reduced by 60%, 32%, and 36%, respectively, during the Olympics. Analysis of meteorological conditions and interpretation of observations using a chemical transport model suggest that restrictions on emissions during the Olympics were responsible for about 80% of the observed decreases in O3, with natural variations in meteorology accounting for the remaining 20%. Use of the Olympics emissions results in no significant biases between model and observations. The model predicts that emission restrictions such as those implemented during the Olympics can affect O3 far beyond the Beijing urban area, resulting in reductions in boundary layer O3 of 2–10 ppbv over a large region of the North China Plain and Northeastern China.

  13. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of an Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Darren McHugh

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the net benefit to Canada of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. Two particular classes of problems in Olympic CBA are studied in detail. The first is the unique nature of project dependency in an Olympic Games, and this is surmounted by the classification of Olympic-related costs and benefits as "Event-related" or "Infrastructure-related", with rules for handing each in the context of a CBA for an Olympic Games. The second is the estimation of net benefit...

  14. Environment annual report: Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Protecting and improving the environment is integral to every aspect of the Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games. Salt Lake Organizing Committee for Olympic Winter Games of 2002 is planning a variety of programs to both conserve and enhance the region’s environment, leaving the Salt Lake area a better, cleaner place than it was before the Games.

  15. De Coubertin's Olympism and the Laugh of Michel Foucault: Crisis Discourse and the Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth

    2012-01-01

    De Coubertin developed the sport philosophy of Olympism and the Olympic Games as a response to social and political crisis to promote peace, fair play, and the development of Christian masculinity. The purpose of this paper is to examine how crisis discourse functions as an important shaper of contemporary understandings of Olympism and how…

  16. Post-Olympism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    The Olympic ideal and the Olympic Games stand as symbols of global cooperation, international understanding and the bonding fo individuals through the medium of sports. However, throughout the twentieth century, Olympic rhetoric waas often confronted by a different reality. The Games have regularly...... been faced by crises that have threatened the spirit of Olympism and even the Games themselves. Given the many changes that have occurred in the Olympic Games during the past century it seems reasonable to ask if this global event has a future and, if so, what form it might take. Whit this larger issue...... in mind, the authors of Post-Olympism? ask probing questions about the following: 1) The infamous 1936 Olympics, 2) the effect of new techonologies on the Games, 3) the future impact of the 2008 Beijing Games on China and of China on the Olympics, 4) the local and regional impact of the Sydney 'green...

  17. Analysis of traffic emissions during the period of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games based on the DOAS monitoring%奥运期间北京市交通污染的DOAS监测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素文; 刘文清; 秦敏; 刘世盛; 王峰平

    2011-01-01

    采用差分吸收光谱(DOAS)这一光学遥感技术,对2008年奥运期间北京海淀区福寿寺桥位置的交通排放进行实时监测,获得自2008年7月6日至9月21日大气主要污染物SO2、NO2、光化学烟雾的重要产物O3和苯的体积分数,并与微脉冲雷达获得的车流量进行数据融合,评估机动车对奥运期间北京空气质量的影响.结果表明,监测位置NO2和苯释放源主要为交通排放,O3的生成主要与其前体物和光辐射相关,而SO2和车流量没有明显的相关性.研究表明,机动车排放仍是北京主要污染源之一.%The paper is aimed to report the results of our analysis of traffic exhaust emissions during the period of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games with the samples collected and measured with a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). As a matter of fact, we were appointed to evaluate the environmental quality during the Olympics Games period by monitoring the main pollutants caused by such traffic exhausts. With the work going on, we found that NO2, SO2, O3 and benzene were the chief pollutants of traffic exhausts. The simultaneous measuring and monitoring activities done from July 6 to September 21 of the year at the monitoring spot near Fushousi Bridge of Haidian District, Beijing, made us find that, while monitoring the traffic flow with a micro-impolse Lidar at the spot, we collected and analyzed the diurnal variation characteristics of the pollutants and their sources.Moreover, focus has been put on the average daily concentrations of NO2, SO2, O3 and benzene emitted during the period. Traffic restrictions reduce the levels of NO2 concentrations and benzene concentrations. Therefore, the automobile exhaust is the main source of NO2 and benzene at monitoring site. There are the remarkable correlation between O3 concentration with its precursor and radiation. But the correlation between the SO2 concentration and the traffic flux proved less remarkable. Thus, the car

  18. Beijing’s Olympic Scorecard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing has successfully delivered an Olympic Games to the world. The 2008 summer Games were marked with distinct Chinese elements, while the rules specified in the Olympic Charter and the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) written agreement with the host city were strictly followed.

  19. Environmental Accounting System for the Youth Olympic Games : A Thesis on Environmental Management for the Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Nordby, Petter

    2013-01-01

    The thesis is written in collaboration with Lillehammer Youth Olympic Games Organising committee (LYOGOC) and their desire to create an environmental strategy for the upcoming Youth Olympic Games (YOG) at Lillehammer in 2016. The thesis focuses on the environmental aspects connected to a youth Olympic game and how to control and handle these in a responsible manner. It was therefore chosen to develop a design for an environmental management system, which is coordinated and combined with an en...

  20. The Promotion of the Youth Olympic Games: A Greek Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Kantzidou, Eleni D.; Bellar, David; Peterson, Jeffrey; Gilreath, Erin; Surber, Karin

    2011-01-01

    One of the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) objectives is to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of adolescents who have become increasingly overweight and inactive. In an effort to accomplish this objective, the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) were created, and the inaugural event was held in the summer of 2010. The…

  1. The Phenomenon of the Olympic Games. Women in the Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen M., Ed.; Fritz, Harry, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of articles is offered that examines the history and current status of women in the Olympic Games. Included is a brief historical account of women's participation, criteria for adding sports, examination of women's status, and an explanation of rhythmic gymnastics which was recently added for women. (DF)

  2. National Olympic Committees accreditation manual: for the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games : 7 - 23 February 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This manual has been prepared by the the Organizing Committee of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi (Sochi 2014) to assist National Olympic Committees (NOC) to prepare and complete the accreditation process for their delegations.

  3. Chefs de mission manual: Lillehammer 2016 Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Published in January 2016 2015, the "Chefs de mission manual" offers a detailed overview of the services available to NOCs before and during the Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympic Games, as well as Games time operations.

  4. Chefs de mission dossier: Lillehammer 2016 Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Published in September 2015, the "Chefs de mission dossier" offers a detailed overview of the services available to NOCs before and during the Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympic Games, as well as Games time operations.

  5. Air pollution, athletic health and performance at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to briefly review air pollution and its effects on athletes' health and performance and to examine air quality (AQ) at specific Olympic Summer Games between 1964 and 2008. It will focus on any attempts made by the cities hosting these Olympics to improve AQ for the Games and if undertaken, how successful these were. The author had a medical role at five of the seven Olympic Games that will be examined and hence has personal experiences. Information was obtained from the readily accessible official reports of the Olympic Games, relevant published papers and books and the internet. For each of these seven Olympic Games, monitoring AQ was far below current acceptable standards and for the majority, minimal or no data on major pollutants was available. From what can be ascertained, at these Games, AQ varied but was less than optimal in most if not all. Nevertheless, there were few reported or known unfavorable effects on the health of Olympic athletes. To date, there have been few reported consequences of sub-optimal AQ at Olympic Games. The focus on AQ at Olympic Games has gradually increased over the past five decades and is expected to continue into the future. PMID:25786594

  6. The Beijing Olympics as a Field Experiment - The Aerosol Footprint of a Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, J.; Knutti, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the 2008 Olympic Summer Games, emission reductions were enforced in and around Beijing to improve the notoriously poor air quality in the city. In this presentation we explore the effect of these measures on the regional aerosol load. To this end, we compare satellite-retrieved aerosol optical thickness of that period with previous years. In addition to absolute changes we explore the 2008 situation in its meteorological context. Using a neural network approach we predict summer 2008 aerosol based on meteorological conditions. Predicted values are contrasted with observations. A statistically significant reduction of aerosol load is found in Beijing that decreases in magnitude and significance with increasing region size. Locally, the aerosol load (log(AOT)) was about 10-15% below the levels expected for the prevailing meteorological situation. The small size of this effect highlights the importance of regional aerosol transport.

  7. Equestrian freight manual: Equestrian events of the London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games : March 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This equestrian freight manual (EFM) is the guideline for shipping equestrian freight for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic equestrian events. It is recommend that all National Olympic Committees/National Paralympic Committees (NOCs / NPCs) wishing to ship equestrian freight for the London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games understand and follow the procedures described in this guide.

  8. China-Japan-ROK Relations in Post-Beijing Olympics-Summary of the Sino-Japan-ROK Trilateral Symposium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Fang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The trilateral seminar of "China-Japan-ROK Relations in Post Beijing Olympics" -organized by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR), the Asahi Shimbun Asia Network (AAN) of Japan and the Hwajeong Peace Foundation of Northeast Asia Daily (the Dibg-A Ilbo) in South Korea-opened in Beijing on October 11th, 2008. Over 30 representatives from China, Japan and Korea attended the seminar and shared their views on a variety of issues, including China beyond the Games, security cooperation in Northeast Asia and Sino-Japanese-ROK cooperation in a new era. The discussions are summarized as follows:

  9. Characteristics and inspirations of medical assurance for martial arts events in Beijing Olympic Games%北京奥运会武术比赛医疗保障特点及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴航; 梁阔; 孙长怡; 吴宇彤

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨北京奥运会武术比赛相关医疗准备、医务人员配置和伤员救治等医疗保障特点.方法 收集武术赛场和场馆医疗站诊治的所有伤员资料,对运动员受伤场合、损伤部位、伤情类型和伤后处置等资料进行统计分析.结果 测试赛中,套路比赛受伤运动员占该类参赛人员的0.92%,主要为腰部及下肢扭伤;散手比赛受伤运动员占该类参赛人员的12.4%,多为头面部、躯干、会阴、四肢顿挫伤,并有皮肤撕裂伤,且有16例重伤员转送医院救治.正式比赛中,套路比赛无运动员受伤;散手比赛伤员占该类参赛人员的5.5%,无重伤员转送医院.结论 运动员在散手比赛中的受伤机会多于套路比赛,在测试赛中的受伤人数和伤情严重程度都高于正式比赛,中级别运动员受伤概率高于其他级别运动员,医疗人员配置应选择具有多学科知识的专业外科人员.%Objective To probe into characteristics of medical assurance for medical service preparation, medical staff deployment and injury treatment/rescue for martial arts competitions in Beijing Olympic Games. Methods Collecting data of all injuries treated onsite of martial art venues and in clinics of such venues, for statistical analysis of the injury occasions, injury location, injury types and post-injury treatment. Results During the test games, injuries found in martial arts repertoire competitions account for 0. 92% of all athletes in the category, mostly waist and lower limbs injury; injuries found in sanshou competitions account for 12.4% of all athletes in the category, mostly blunt trauma on head/face, body, perineum and four limbs, along with skin lacerations and 16 heavily wounded transferred to hospitals for rescue. No injuries are found in official games of martial arts repertoire competitions; in sanshou competitions, injuries account for 5. 5% of all athletes of the category, without heavy injuries for hospital rescue

  10. Law-Abiding Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

  11. Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games: pharmacy handbook

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Le guide pharmaceutique des Jeux Olympiques de la Jeunesse Singapour 2010 doit être lu conjointement avec le guide des services médicaux des Jeux Olympiques de la Jeunesse Singapour 2010. Ce guide, approuvé par la commission médicale du CIO, contient la liste définitive des médicaments disponibles à la pharmacie de la clinique médicale du village olympique de la jeunesse. The Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games pharmacy handbook is to be read in conjunction with the Singapore 2010 Youth Oly...

  12. The Olympic Games broadcasted as Interactive Television - New Media new Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    The Olympic Games is the world´s largest media event and television is the engine that has driven the growth of the Olympic Movement. Increases in broadcast revenue over the past two decades have provided the Olympic Movement with a huge financial base. More networks than ever before broadcast...... could change how the viewers watch the Olympic Games. New media initiatives will increase significantly, not only in the broadcast of television but also with broadband Internet coverage of the Olympic Games. In addition, mobile phone subscribers in some territories already have been able to watch live...

  13. Putting on a Game Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More "game experience" needed as Olympics approach, says the IOC’s Verbruggen One year before the 2008 Beijing Olympics, Beijing Review reporter Liu Yunyun sat down with Hein Verbruggen, Chairman of the Coordination Commission of the International Olympic Committee, to get his views on Beijing’s Olympic preparation work.

  14. Youth Olympic Games: candidature procedure and questionnaire : 1st Summer Youth Olympic Games in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The candidature procedure and questionnaire is the document provided by the IOC to Candidate Cities engaged in the Youth Olympic Games bid process. It contains explanations about the various steps of the candidature until the election of the Host City in February 2008. This document is stuctured in three parts. Part 1 outlines what is required of a Candidate City during the bid process. It contains procedures, rules and deadlines to be respected by Candidate Cities. Part 2 contains the detail...

  15. The Living Room Celebration of the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates the pattern of celebratory activities in United States homes that accompanied television viewing of the 1984 Summer Olympic Games. Finds that those watching the Olympics were more likely to be in a group, to have visitors, to plan their viewing, and to pay close attention to the television. (MS)

  16. The Olympic Games and World Politics: A Select Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Evelyn S.

    1984-01-01

    This 62-item annotated bibliography lists books and journal articles published over last decade (historical guides and surveys, memoirs, speeches, essays, biographies, government documents, critical analyses) on the history of politics in modern Olympic games and use of games in politics. A brief history of the games is included with 24…

  17. Sports injuries during the summer Olympic games 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, Astrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Renström, Per; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    Background Standardized assessment of sports injuries provides important epidemiological information and also directions for injury prevention. Purpose To analyze the frequency, characteristics, and causes of injuries incurred during the Summer Olympic Games 2008. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods The chief physicians and/or chief medical officers of the national teams were asked to report daily all injuries newly incurred during the Olympic Games on a standa...

  18. Quantitative evaluation of emission controls on primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the primary and secondary sources of fine organic aerosols after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12 h PM2.5 values were measured at an urban site at Peking University (PKU and an upwind rural site at Yufa during the CAREBEIJING-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in BEIJING and surrounding region summer field campaign. The average PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5 ± 43.6 μg m−3 and 64.3 ± 36.2 μg m−3 (average ± standard deviation, below as the same at PKU and Yufa, respectively, showing the lowest concentrations in recent years. Combining the results from a CMB (chemical mass balance model and secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracer-yield model, five primary and four secondary fine organic aerosol sources were compared with the results from previous studies in Beijing. The relative contribution of mobile sources to PM2.5 concentrations was increased in 2008, with diesel engines contributing 16.2 ± 5.9% and 14.5 ± 4.1% and gasoline vehicles contributing 10.3 ± 8.7% and 7.9 ± 6.2% to organic carbon (OC at PKU and Yufa, respectively. Due to the implementation of emission controls, the absolute OC concentrations from primary sources were reduced during the Olympics, and the contributions from secondary formation of OC represented a larger relative source of fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period prior to the Olympics, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% at the urban site and 24% at the rural site. The reductions in coal combustion contributions were 57% at PKU and 7% at Yufa. Our results demonstrate that the emission control measures implemented in 2008 significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, additional studies are needed to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the emission control effectiveness on SOA formation.

  19. Great Opportunities ahead:An Interviewith a Beijing Olympice Organizing Committee Offcial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHua

    2004-01-01

    Market development is considered a key to the success of Olympic games. As it is only five years before the 2008 Olympics starts in Beijing, people are showing an increasing interest in the organizing committee's work in developing the market for Olympics. Recently, the reporter interviewed Mr. Xu Zenwu, Deputy Director of Marketing of Beijing Olympics Organizing Committee.

  20. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first results of the measurements of trace gases and aerosols at three surface sites in and outside Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympics. The official air pollution index near the Olympic Stadium and the data from our nearby site revealed an obvious association between air quality and meteorology and different responses of secondary and primary pollutants to the control measures. Ambient concentrations of vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs at an urban site dropped by 25% and 20–45% in the first two weeks after full control was put in place, but the levels of ozone, sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 increased by 16%, 64%, 37%, respectively, compared to the period prior to the full control; wind data and back trajectories indicated the contribution of regional pollution from the North China Plain. Air quality (for both primary and secondary pollutants improved significantly during the Games, which were also associated with the changes in weather conditions (prolonged rainfall, decreased temperature, and more frequent air masses from clean regions. A comparison of the ozone data at three sites on eight ozone-pollution days, when the air masses were from the southeast-south-southwest sector, showed that regional pollution sources contributed >34–88% to the peak ozone concentrations at the urban site in Beijing. Regional sources also contributed significantly to the CO concentrations in urban Beijing. Ozone production efficiencies at two sites were low (~3 ppbv/ppbv, indicating that ozone formation was being controlled by VOCs. Compared with data collected in 2005 at a downwind site, the concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2, total sulfur (SO2+PM2.5 sulfate, carbon monoxide (CO, reactive aromatics (toluene and xylenes sharply decreased (by 8–64% in 2008, but no significant changes were observed for the concentrations of

  1. How to win the Olympic Games: the empirics of key success factors of Olympic bids

    OpenAIRE

    Feddersen, Arne; Maennig, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the probability of the success of city bid campaigns on the basis of the quantified factors of a total of 43 bids for the Summer Olympic Games between 1992 and 2012. By using a model with the distance of the sporting venues to the Olympic Village, the local temperatures and unemployment rates, we can correctly predict the decision in 97 % of failed bids and in 60 % of successful bids.

  2. People's Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is the moment the city takes on its young and beautiful look.It is the moment the people do everything to surprise the world.It is the momcnt the whole country hold the breath.The 29th Olympic Games is approaching in Beijing.

  3. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Gong; Zhu, T.; M. Hu; L. W. Zhang; Cheng, H.; L. Zhang; Tong, J; Zhang, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's...

  4. Quantitative evaluation of emission control of primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore the primary and secondary sources of fine organic particles after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12-h PM2.5 concentrations were measured at one urban and one upwind rural site during the CAREBeijing-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in Beijing and surrounding region summer field campaign. The PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5±43.6μg m3 and 64.3±36.2μg m−3 at the urban site and rural site, respectively, which were the lowest in recent years due to the implementation of drastic control measures and favorable weather conditions. Five primary and four secondary fine organic particle sources were quantified using a CMB (chemical mass balance model and tracer-yield method. Compared with previous studies in Beijing, the contribution of vehicle emission increased, with diesel engines contributing 16.2±5.9% and 14.5±4.1% to the total organic carbon (OC concentrations and gasoline vehicles accounting for 10.3±8.7% and 7.9±6.2% of the OC concentrations at two sites. Due to the implementation of emission control measures, the OC concentrations from important primary sources have been reduced, and secondary formation has become an important contributor to fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% and 24% in the urban and regional area, and reductions in the contribution from coal combustion were 57% and 7%, respectively. These results demonstrate the emission control measures significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, the control effectiveness of secondary organic particles was not significant.

  5. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Greg; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed...... and inductively content analyzed. Trustworthiness was reached through credibility activities (i.e., member checking and peer debriefing). The participants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes...... knowledge on sport psychology consultancy at the Olympic Games by showing individual contextual differences between the consultants’ perceptions and by identifying four SPC roles at the Olympic Games....

  6. Homegrown Olympic Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Potential equine Olympians prepare for 2008 "All the horses for the modern pentathlon at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games will be made-in-China," said Zhang Bin, Deputy Director of the Competition Office of the Modern Pentathlon WorldCup Final, which was recently held in Beijing.

  7. The Promotion and Perception of the Youth Olympic Games: A Korean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Lee, Don; Surber, Karin; Bellar, David; Petersen, Jeffrey; Ivan, Emese; Kim, Hyeon Jung

    2013-01-01

    The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) was launched in part to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of increasingly overweight and inactive adolescents. But since the initial announcement of the YOG by the International Olympic Committee in 2007, this new third addition to the Olympic family of events has provoked response from…

  8. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T.; Nie, W.; Gao, J.; L. K. Xue; Gao, X M; Wang, X.F.; Qiu, J.; C. N. Poon; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D.; Wang, S. L.; Ding, A. J.; F. H. Chai; Zhang, Q. Z; Wang, W.X.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of the measurements of trace gases and aerosols at three surface sites in and outside Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympics. The official air pollution index near the Olympic Stadium and the data from our nearby site revealed an obvious association between air quality and meteorology and different responses of secondary and primary pollutants to the control measures. Ambient concentrations of vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NOx

  9. The Historical Evolution of Olympic Games Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Leopkey, Becca

    2009-01-01

    The following document represents the final report owed to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as a result of receiving a 2008 Post Graduate Olympic Studies Grant. Event legacy has become a key term for bid and organizing committees of large/mega sporting events. As such, the specific purpose of this paper was to map the historical evolution of the legacy throughout the modern Olympic movement (i.e., 1896-current day) in order to examine and contextualize the major trends (e.g., changes...

  10. Customs and freight forwarding: official guide : Salt Lake 2002, XIX Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Olympic Winter Games of 2002 (SLOC) and its appointed customs broker and freight forwarder, Schenker, Inc., will help Olympic participants bring baggage, equipment and supplies to and from the United States, Salt Lake City and Olympic venues for the Salt Lake 2002 Games, Cultural Olympiad and related test events.

  11. Foot and ankle injuries during the Athens 2004 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Mirones Steven; Romansky Nick; Forgrave Mike; Siapkara Angeliki; Galanakos Spyros P; Vergados Nikolaos; Papadakis Stamatios A; Badekas Thanos; Trnka Hans-Jeorg; Delmi Marino

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Major, rare and complex incidents can occur at any mass-gathering sporting event and team medical staff should be appropriately prepared for these. One such event, the Athens Olympic Games in 2004, presented a significant sporting and medical challenge. This study concerns an epidemiological analysis of foot and ankle injuries during the Games. Methods An observational, epidemiological survey was used to analyse injuries in all sport tournaments (men's and women's) over th...

  12. A Time for Heroes: International Summer Special Olympics Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Clauldine

    1988-01-01

    The philosophy of the International Summer Special Olympics Games includes striving for mentally retarded athletes' rights, increasing understanding and acceptance of the retarded, emphasis on the individual, the equal importance of varied goals, needs as determiners of competition, equality of competition superceding disability, and an ecological…

  13. A CRUCIAL TEST FOR THE OLYMPICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Beijing Olympic organizers are demonstrating their anti-doping commitment by conducting more tests than ever before Doping tainted the Athens Olympic Games in 2004. Of the nearly 3,700 tests on banned substances conducted at those games, the num-

  14. Serious smog a threat for the Olympic Games 2008; Ernstige smog bedreigt Olympische Spelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bree, L. [Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau MNP, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    Beijing, China, is the host of the Olympic games of 2008 and the number one city with the worst air quality and sometimes severe smog. Especially the exposure to particulates and ozone are a threat to the health of the public and the athletes. From a sporting point of view, the pollution could affect the performances negatively. China is making 11 billion euro available for combating the air pollution. [mk]. [Dutch] Beijing, China, de locatie van de Olympische Spelen van 2008, is 1 van de steden in de wereld met slechte luchtkwaliteit en soms ernstige smog. Vooral de blootstelling aan fijnstof en ozon vormt een bedreiging voor de gezondheid van toeschouwers en atleten. Op het sportieve vlak kan de vervuiling de prestaties in negatieve zin beinvloeden. China trekt 11 miljard euro uit om de luchtvervuiling te bestrijden.

  15. Resident Perceptions of the 2006 Torino Olympic Games, 2002-2007.

    OpenAIRE

    ALESSANDRO CHITO GUALA,; DOUGLAS MICHELE TURCO

    2009-01-01

    Previous Olympic Games research has been primarily on economic impacts, tourists, and destination image with most being one-off assessments of the Summer Games. Other than Ritchie's landmark study of the Calgary Winter Olympic Games, relatively few research studies on the Winter Olympic Games have been published, and fewer still concerning resident attitudes throughout the full lifecycle of the event, from bidding, preparation, operation, and legacy stages. Residents are in a unique position ...

  16. An approach to the historical development of female athletics in the Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Covadonga Mateos Padorno; Antonio González Molina; Ana María Sánchez Mosquera; Aurora Martínez Vidal; Mª José Martínez Patiño

    2010-01-01

    This article will evolve around the subject of female integration and participation in athletics in the Olympic Games, analyzing the initial difficulties they encountered, the role played by sports institutions as well as international federations and the Olympic International Committee.

  17. Regional income and employment effects of the 1972 Munich Olympic Summer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmand, Stephanie; Maennig, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Olympic Games may have impacts on income and employment in the host city, but no ex post study has been carried out for European Olympic host cities to date. The present study closes this gap using the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. The data period examined in this study allows for analysis of long-term effects. In addition, the methodology avoids overestimating the significance of the effects. Finally, we report results for all possible combinations of pre- and post-Olympic p...

  18. Comparative study on 3-point shot rate of Chinese male basketball team in Beijing Olympic Games%北京奥运会中国男篮3分球命中率比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光鼎

    2012-01-01

    By means of literature reviews,video observation,data statistics and comparative analysis,the article systematically summarizes the 3-point shot scores of Chinese male basketball team in the Man Basketball Match of the 29th Olympic Games,such as the scores of the whole team,the guards,the forwards,and the centers.The scores are compared and analyzed with those of the opponents.The aim of article is to find out the problems that lie in the development of the Chinese male basketball team.%采用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法、比较分析法等对第29届奥运会男子篮球赛中国男篮的6场比赛中,中国男篮全队整体3分球得分;后卫3分球得分;前锋3分球得分;中锋3分球得分等进行全面系统地总结,并与对手的情况进行对比与分析,希望从中找出制约我国男子篮球队发展的问题.

  19. China Mobile's SWOT for the Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ling

    2008-01-01

    @@ This is the first time the Olympic Games held in China. The Beijing Olympics are a golden opportunity for Chinese companies to promote their products around the world. On the other hand,it is also a great challenge. Take ChinaMobile, the mobilecommunication partner for the XXIX Olympics, as an example. His marketing performance in this Olympic feast could be analyzed by S.W.O.T.

  20. The Economic Impact of Olympic Games : Evidence from Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Christian D.; Wang, Qingwei

    2008-01-01

    By means of an event study of stock market reactions to the announcement of the Olympic Games host cities, we find a significant and positive announcement effect of hosting the Summer Games, with a cumulative abnormal return of about 2% within a few days. We do not find any significant results for the Winter Games. Neither do we detect a significant impact when bidders lose the competition. Our results differ from those of a similar study by Mirman and Sharma (2008), who find that the Winter ...

  1. Verification and intercomparison of mesoscale ensemble prediction systems in the Beijing 2008 Olympics Research and Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Masaru; Saito, Kazuo; Seko, Hiromu; Hara, Masahiro; Hara, Tabito; Yamaguchi, Munehiko; Gong, Jiandong; Charron, Martin; Du, Jun; Wang, Yong; Chen, Dehui

    2011-05-01

    During the period around the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, the Beijing 2008 Olympics Research and Development Project (B08RDP) was conducted as part of the World Weather Research Program short-range weather forecasting research project. Mesoscale ensemble prediction (MEP) experiments were carried out by six organizations in near-real time, in order to share their experiences in the development of MEP systems. The purpose of this study is to objectively verify these experiments and to clarify the problems associated with the current MEP systems through the same experiences. Verification was performed using the MEP outputs interpolated into a common verification domain with a horizontal resolution of 15 km. For all systems, the ensemble spreads grew as the forecast time increased, and the ensemble mean improved the forecast errors compared with individual control forecasts in the verification against the analysis fields. However, each system exhibited individual characteristics according to the MEP method. Some participants used physical perturbation methods. The significance of these methods was confirmed by the verification. However, the mean error (ME) of the ensemble forecast in some systems was worse than that of the individual control forecast. This result suggests that it is necessary to pay careful attention to physical perturbations.

  2. Education Olympics 2008: The Games in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Amy; Palmieri, Stafford; Winkler, Amber

    2008-01-01

    This report has a simple aim: to present results from international assessments so readers can judge for themselves how American students stack up globally. It's intended to be a stand-alone supplement to the "Education Olympics" web event held between August 8th and August 22nd, 2008 (see edolympics.net). It shows how the U.S. has performed…

  3. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first results of the atmospheric measurements of trace gases and aerosols at three surface sites in and around Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympics. We focus on secondary pollutants including ozone, fine sulfate and nitrate, and the contribution of regional sources in summer 2008. The results reveal different responses of secondary pollutants to the control measures from primary pollutants. Ambient concentrations of vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs at an urban site dropped by 25% and 20–45% in the first two weeks after full control was put in place, but the levels of ozone, sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 increased by 16%, 64%, 37%, respectively, compared to the period prior to the full control; wind data and back trajectories indicated the contribution of regional pollution from the North China Plain. Air quality (for both primary and secondary pollutants improved significantly during the Games, which were also associated with the changes in weather conditions (prolonged rainfall, decreased temperature, and more frequent air masses from clean regions. A comparison of the ozone data at three sites on eight ozone-pollution days, when the air masses were from the southeast-south-southwest sector, showed that regional pollution sources contributed 34%–88% to the peak ozone concentrations in urban Beijing. Ozone production efficiencies at two sites were low (~3 ppbv/ppbv, indicating that ozone formation was being controlled by VOCs. Compared with data collected in 2005 at a downwind site, the concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2, total sulfur (SO2+PM2.5 sulfate, carbon monoxide (CO, reactive aromatics (toluene and xylenes sharply decreased (by 8–64% in 2008, but no significant changes were observed for the concentrations of PM2.5, fine sulfate, total odd reactive nitrogen (NOy, and longer

  4. Imaging at London 2012 summer Olympic Games: Analysis of demand and distribution of workload

    OpenAIRE

    Bethapudi, Sarath; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars; O'Connor, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very little data on the provision of imaging services at the summer Olympic Games have been published before. With 7.9 million Euros (£6.6 million, US$11 million) invested into setting up the imaging equipment at the purpose-built polyclinics for London 2012 summer Olympics, an ideal opportunity was presented to study the demand and distribution of workload on imaging services at the games. Setting Imaging services within polyclinics, London 2012 summer Olympic Games. ...

  5. The regeneration games: purity and security in the Olympic city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussey, Pete; Coaffee, Jon; Armstrong, Gary; Hobbs, Dick

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the wider social impacts of hosting the London 2012 Olympic Games and its 'legacy' ambitions in East London, emphasizing securitization as an inbuilt feature of the urban regeneration project. Drawing on extensive original empirical research, the paper analyses the modalities of Olympic safety and security practices within the Olympic Park itself and their wider impact, while also connecting this research to theorization and debates in urban sociology and criminology. In this complex setting, a raft of formal and informal, often subtle, regulatory mechanisms have emerged, especially as visions of social ordering focused on 'cleansing' and 'purifying' have 'leaked out' from the hyper-securitized 'sterilized' environment of the Olympic Park and become embedded within the Olympic neighbourhood. In such complex circumstances, applying Douglas' (1966) work on purity and danger to the spatial realm provides a key conceptual framework to understand the form and impact of such processes. The imposition of order can be seen to not only perform 'cleansing' functions, but also articulate multiple symbolic, expressive and instrumental roles. PMID:22670647

  6. STUDIES REGARDING THE RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS FROM THE OLYMPIC GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin R.A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic Gymnastics, a symbiosis of art, aesthetic and beauty, paired with the highest performances, is a true women's sport and belongs amongst the most attractive and beautiful disciplines. The main characteristic of Rhythmic Gymnastics as a compositional discipline is the connection of the most difficult acrobatic movement elements which require a very high corporal flexibility and motor activity and which are presented by the gymnasts in perfect harmony with the music chosen for the exercise. Femininity and elegance as well as the artistic expression of the gymnasts never fail to fascinate the public.The first Olympic Games to feature Rhythmic Gymnastics as a discipline of its own were in 1984 in Los Angeles (USA. Only individual gymnasts were allowed to participate. With the exception of Romania, every eastern European country was absent. The first ever Olympic title went to Lori Fung from Canada.In 1996, Atlanta (USA welcomed the first Group competition, in which Spain would triumph over Bulgaria and Russia.The purpose of this study is to present maximum dynamic performance of nations in the eight Olympic Games editions, since rhytmic gymnastics was included in the Olympic program.

  7. Olympic Etiquette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing’s Olympic authorities have rigid standards for the women who will serve at awards ceremonies Changping Vocational School in the suburbs of Beijing is an ideal place for many pretty women.It is the training base of the Beijing Olympic etiquette volunteers,and its graduates hope to become Miss Olympic Etiquette,serving at Olympic awards ceremonies.

  8. Beijing Promises Event to Remember

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The host city is confident of staging a green, dope-free and stunning Olympic Games The world will remember the Beijing Olympic Games for its touching open- ing ceremony and Olympic Village with Chinese cultural elements,prom- ised key figures in the event’s preparation work at a press conference on March 12. During the annual session of the National Committee of the 11th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),

  9. Official Report of the XXVII Olympiad: Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, 15 September - 1 October 2000

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The “Official Report of the XXVII Olympiad: Sydney 2000 Olympic Games” was published in French and English. Each set consisted of two printed volumes (Preparing the Games; Celebrating the Games) and, for the first time, a bilingual CD-ROM (Results).3 Vol.1 Part I: Framework ; Building the Games.- Vol.1 Part II: Preparing the venues ; Competing at the Games ; Transport services ; Volunteers ; The urban domain.- Vol.1 Part III: The city ; Sydney Olympic park ; Security ; Serving the Games ; Syd...

  10. Injury & illness surveillance study: London 2012 Olympic Summer Games

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Injury surveillance provides not only important epidemiological information, but also direction for injury prevention. During the 2004 Olympic Games, the eight international team sports federations (FIBA, FIFA, FINA, the FIH, the FIVB, IBAF, the IHF and the ISF) participated in a study on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in all 14 team sport tournaments using an established injury-surveillance system. The acceptance and compliance of the project was excellent, as demonstrated by ...

  11. Golden Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XIAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is not expected to sweep the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games the way it dominated the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics.However,it has made Chinese Olympic history after winning three gold medals when the Games passed the halfway point of scheduled competition on February 20.On that day,18-year-old Zhou Yang overcame three South Korean rivals to win the women's short-track speed skating 1,500-meter final.

  12. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Li; Y. Q. Han; X. X. Xie; Zhang, S. Q.; R. Y. Zhang; Zheng, J.; T. Zhu; Wang, M.(Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China)

    2009-01-01

    China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used an innovative mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's 4th Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial vari...

  13. The 2008 Olympic Games: Opportunities and Challenges for Sports Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sport marketing refers to the specific application of marketing principles to sport products (e.g.,teams,leagues,events,etc.) together with the marketing of non-sports products (e.g.,cigarettes,beer,longdistance phone service,etc,) through associations with various sports. The explosive growth of sports marketing occurred at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, when corporate sponsors used the Games as a platform to market their brands. Coca-Cola, for example, spent nearly US$30 million to support its official sponsorship of the Games.

  14. beta2-Agonists at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kenneth D

    2006-01-01

    The different approaches that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) had adopted to beta2-agonists and the implications for athletes are reviewed by a former Olympic team physician who later became a member of the Medical Commission of the IOC (IOC-MC). Steadily increasing knowledge of the effects of inhaled beta2-agonists on health, is concerned with the fact that oral beta2-agonists may be anabolic, and rapid increased use of inhaled beta2-agonists by elite athletes has contributed to the changes to the IOC rules. Since 2001, the necessity for athletes to meet IOC criteria (i.e., that they have asthma and/or exercise-induced asthma [EIA]) has resulted in improved management of athletes. The prevalence of beta2-agonist use by athletes mirrors the known prevalence of asthma symptoms in each country, although athletes in endurance events have the highest prevalence. The age-of-onset of asthma/EIA in elite winter athletes may be atypical. Of the 193 athletes at the 2006 Winter Olympics who met th IOC's criteria, only 32.1% had childhood asthma and 48.7% of athletes reported onset at age 20 yr or older. These findings lead to speculation that years of intense endurance training may be a causative factor in bronchial hyperreactivity. The distinction between oral (prohibited in sports) and inhaled salbutamol is possible, but athletes must be warned that excessive use of inhaled salbutamol can lead to urinary concentrations similar to those observed after oral administration. This article provides justification that athletes should provide evidence of asthma or EIA before being permitted to use inhaled beta2-agonists. PMID:17085798

  15. Personal, Popular and Information Portals:Olympic news and the use of mobile phones among migrant workers in Fuzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Based on theory regarding mobile communication in general, this essay relates the experiences of migrant workers from both rural and urban areas in Fuzhou, who used mobile phones to stay in contact with the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, to how these contacts supported and encouraged migrant workers to persist in gathering Olympic Games information. In other words, does the relationship between demographics and knowledge about the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games differ according to the use of mobile ...

  16. The Unique OMI HCHO/NO2 Feature During the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics: Implications for Ozone Production Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Retscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    In preparation of the Beijing Summer Olympic and Paralympics Games, strict controls were imposed between July and September 2008 on motor vehicle traffic and industrial emissions to improve air quality for the competitors. We assessed chemical sensitivity of ozone production to these controls using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) column measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), where their ratio serves as a proxy for the sensitivity. During the emission controls, HCHO/NO2 increased and indicated a NOx-limited regime, in contrast to the same period in the preceding three years when the ratio indicates volatile organic carbon (VOC)-limited and mixed NOx-VOC-limited regimes. After the emission controls were lifted, observed NO2 and HCHO/NO2 returned to their previous values. The 2005-2008 OMI record shows that this transition in regimes was unique as ozone production in Beijing was rarely NOx-limited. OMI measured summertime increases in HCHO of around 13% in 2008 compared to prior years, the same time period during which MODIS vegetation indices increased. The OMI HCHO increase may be due to higher biogenic emissions of HCHO precursors, associated with Beijing's greening initiative for the Olympics. However, NO2 and HCHO were also found to be well-correlated during the summer months. This indicates an anthropogenic VOC contribution from vehicle emissions to OMI HCHO and is a plausible explanation for the relative HCHO minimum observed in August 2008, concurrent with a minimum in traffic emissions. We calculated positive trends in 2005-2008 OMI HCHO and NO2 of about +1 x 10(exp 14) Molec/ square M-2 and +3 x 10(exp 13) molec CM-2 per month, respectively. The positive trend in NO2 may be an indicator of increasing vehicular traffic since 2005, while the positive trend in HCHO may be due to a combined increase in anthropogenic and biogenic emissions since 2005.

  17. Boycott Beijing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of China's harsh suppression of antigovernment protests in Tibet--among other human-rights abuses throughout its territory--world leaders have faced mounting pressure to boycott the opening ceremonies of the approaching Olympic Games in Beijing. The boycott has also become a hot topic on the presidential-campaign trail. John McCain and…

  18. Examining the importance of Olympic Games legacy aspects among host city residents: a temporal approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplanidou, Kyriaki

    2011-01-01

    This document represents the final report to fulfill the obligations of the 2010 International Olympic Comittee (IOC) Post Graduate Olympic Studies Grant. The topic of this research project focuses on the legacy of the Olympic Games overtime. There has been extensive research conducted to understand the impacts of a mega-event on a host city. The purpose of this study, however, was to identify the legacy outcomes for each of the four recent summer Olympic host cities and their importance for ...

  19. Official report of the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games: Nanjing 2014 : Share the Games, share our dreams

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The official report of the 2nd Youth Olympic Games is composed of one volume, published in English and available only in electronic form. However, the Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee (NYOCOG) has also published a Chinese version, available in print only.

  20. Chef de mission dossier: Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games : March 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Chefs de Mission Dossier for Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games will help NOC delegations to prepare the Games. The dossier introduces Nanjing 2014, explains policies and procedures, and includes technical details for the participating NOCs.

  1. The Olympic Games as reflection conditions of development Ancient Greek civilization in Hellenism period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko Ol'ga Gennadievna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of the Olympic Games at consideration the conditions of Ancient Greek civilization development in Hellenism period. Had presented the division into the periodization of Greek civilization development in which had learned a major changes in the world-view of Hellenes under the A. Macedonian influence, notably: professionalization of sport and gradual fading of ideals, making basis of olympism, and also Christianity following late which results in the decline of the Olympic Games.

  2. The impact of the 2004 Olympic Games on the Greek economy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Staging the 2004 Olympic Games in Greece, the birthplace of the Olympics, and earning global acclaim for successfully carrying out the event, were significant achievements for the country. The efforts of the management and the employees of the Organising Committee of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games were crucial for this success, as were the efforts of the officers and staff of the Civil Service and of the private sector companies involved in building the supporting infrastructure, along with th...

  3. For an Olive Wreath? Olympic Games and Anticipation Effects in Macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Bruckner; Evi Pappa

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects that hosting and bidding for the Olympic Games has on macroeconomic outcomes in a panel of 184 countries spanning the period 1950-2006. Actual hosting of the Games generates positive investment, consumption, and output responses before, during, and after hosting. We detect anticipation effects: (i) bidding for the Olympic Games generates positive investment, consumption, and output responses at the time of the bidding; (ii) bidding for the Games has a transitory level e...

  4. Pre-games training guide: Salt Lake 2002 : for National Olympic Committees and National Paralympic Committees

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Salt Lake 2002 Pre-Games Training Guide has been prepared to help National Olympic Committees (NOCs) and National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) find appropriate training sites in North America prior to the 2002 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City. The guide contains basic information on more than 150 possible training sites.

  5. Geography of the Olympic Games: A Geographic Learning Activity for Upper Elementary and Junior High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, Leonard; Lennert, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a learning activity for students in upper elementary and junior high schools that capitalizes on the appeal of the Olympic Games. Using statistical information on the Games, students are asked to generate world maps indicating medal-winning countries. Includes sample Olympic data and maps. (DSK)

  6. Planning for the worst: risk, uncertainty and the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Philip; Haggerty, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Security for the Olympic Games has become undeniably visible in recent years. A certain degree of this visibility became unavoidable after the 1972 Munich Olympics when military personnel and hardware became standard elements of Olympic security. Yet, this visibility is qualitatively different today in that it is often deliberately fashioned for public consumption. This article argues that this expressive dimension of security at the Games provides a window into wider issues of how authorities 'show' that they can deliver on the promise of maximum security under conditions of radical uncertainty. The latter sections of this article examine three ways in which this promise is extended: the discursive work of managers of unease, the staging of highly stylized demonstration projects, and the fabrication of fantasy documents. We focus on how officials emphasize that they have contemplated and planned for all possible security threats, especially catastrophic threats and worst-case scenarios. Actually planning for these events is epistemologically and practically impossible, but saying and showing that authorities are 'planning for the worst' are discursive ways of transforming uncertainty into apparently manageable risks that are independent of the functional activities they describe. As such, our analysis provides insights into the much broader issue of how authorities sustain the appearance of maximum security in order to maintain rhetorical control over what are deemed to be highly uncertain and insecure situations. Such performances may paradoxically amplify uncertainty, thus recreating the conditions that foster the ongoing securitization of everyday life. PMID:22670646

  7. Land-based mobile mapping system with its applications for the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeRen; HU QingWu; GUO Sheng; CHEN ZhiYong

    2009-01-01

    There is a trend for rapid spatial data capture supported by integration of multiple platforms and multiple sensors.This paper presents the principles and technologies of land-based mobile mapping systems based on an integration of remote sensing,GPS and GIS technologies.The innovations and advantages of the integrated system are described.The analytic model and error model of a mobile mapping system are proposed and the application interface of digital measurable images is also discussed.A Truemap Engine(R) with Plug-in and API is designed to manage a huge volume of stereo image series from a land-based mobile mapping system so that other geographic information systems (GIS) engines can freely use the sequence of stereo images.The applications of digital measurable images (DMI) as well as mobile mapping systems in the Olympic Games in Beijing,2008 are presented.

  8. Food safety standards for Beijing 2008 Olympics-Hastening the parturition of international brands of Chinese meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to the predicted statistics of the Beijing Municipal Food Safety Office, during the period of Beijing 2008 Olympics, over 13 millions of meals will be served to the athlete delegations, work personnel and journalists of various countries and the on-site spectators. To ensure the safety of food serving, the Beijing municipal government has specially worked out and initiated an outline for action on food safety. The strict standard on food safety required by the International Olympics Committee will also promote the pace of internationalization of Chinese food and drinks.

  9. 2008 Olympics: Who Cheers More?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As athletes stroke the sporting gold at the Beijing Olympic Games, those big-name sporting brands hope that the effort or cash spent in preparation for the Games would also be proved lucrative. However, sometimes, things are unpredictable, just like "anything is possible".

  10. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yang; Runkui Li; Wenjing Li; Meng Wang; Yang Cao; Zhenglai Wu; Qun Xu

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009,201...

  11. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Beijing after the 2008 Olympics: A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang; Li, Runkui; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Meng; Cao, Yang; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Qun

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing during the two years (2009∼201...

  12. Olympic Summer Games Villages from Paris 1924 to Rio 2016: facts and figures on the Olympic Villages

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2016-01-01

    The Olympic Village is a central element in the organisation of the Games: it bring together athletes from throughout the world in one place and offers accommodation adapted to their needs. This document retraces the evolution of Olympic Villages since they appeared in Paris in 1924. Dive into the atmosphere of these places thanks to mosaics of images, and learn more about the concept, the services proposed and the technical characteristics of each Village.

  13. Olympic Logistics Centers and their Adjustment to Specific Requirementsand Distribution Applications : Comparing the Olympic SummerGames 2000-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Strehlow, Anett; Rehage, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Since there is not much inside information available, the problem that will be handled by this thesis is the coordination of warehousing activities within the logistics centers put to use by the Olympic Summer Games from 2000 to 2008. A special attention is given to certain requirements such as layout, capacity management, ownership and distribution applications. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is based on warehouse requirementsand their specific adjustment to the Olympic Summer ...

  14. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Gong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions. In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5. These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  15. 15th Beijing International Book Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 15th Beijing Intemational Book Fair(BIBF)is to be held in Tianjin on September 1-4.It is the first time that the fair is held outside of Beijing. The change of venue is because the book fair coincides with the closing of the Beijing Olympic Games and the open-

  16. Olympics Offer Development Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As China begins the two-year countdown to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games slated for August 8-24 in Beijing, the nation, still excited about the realization of a centennial dream, is now pondering the real benefits of hosting such an event Besides the economic returns and an expected elevation of national confidence, people hope the course of Chinese society will also see a revolutionary change. In an interview with China Business News, Wei Jizhong, President of the Beijing Olympic Economy Research Institu...

  17. Medical Learning from the Special Olympics World Games 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Aaron L; Woodward, Thad; Harrison, Levi; Simon, Lauren; Rodriquez, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The Special Olympics World Games (SOWG) were held in Los Angeles, CA, during the summer of 2015. Medical care for 26 sporting events spread over six major venues across the city was provided to more than 6,000 athletes and 3,000 delegates from 170 countries. Education on care for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and athletes with additional medical issues was provided in addition to the usual sports medicine care. This required coordination between major medical providers as well as law enforcement, fire rescue, transportation, public health, and the organizers of the games. This article reviews the planning, training, and outcomes of the medical care and the Healthy Athletes program for the SOWG 2015. PMID:27172076

  18. The Differences of Chinese and British Culture in the Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包晨辰

    2015-01-01

    Culture is the kernel and connotation of the country and it is also the irreplaceable soul for the country. The modern Olympic Games is the comprehensive and international sport competition which is with a long history, a large scope and the top level all over the world. It is expressed the culture of the country in the every aspect of the preparation and holding of the Olympic Games. In this paper, it is explored the difference of Chinese and British culture in the oral command, theme, design concepts of the main stadium, emblem and sport events of the Olympic Games through the introduction and comparison of the 4th, 14th London Olympic Games, 29th Beijing Olympic Games and the 30th London Olympic Games.

  19. Differences in birth weight associated with the 2008 Beijing olympics air pollution reduction: Results from a natural experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, DQ; Liu, K.; Thurston, SW; Stevens, TP; Pan, Y.; Kane, C; Weinberger, B; Ohman-Strickland, P; Woodruff, TJ; Duan, X.; Assibey-Mensah, V; Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported decreased birth weight associated with increased air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy. However, it is not clear when during pregnancy increases in air pollution are associated with the largest differences in birth weight. Objectives Using the natural experiment of air pollution declines during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, we evaluated whether having specific months of pregnancy (i.e., 1st…8th) during the 2008 Olympics period was associated with...

  20. The impact of the 1996 Summer Olympic Games on employment and wages in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Moore, Robert E.; Zobay, Stephanie M.

    2002-01-01

    Using the standard differences-in-differences (DD) technique and a modified DD technique in the slopes, this paper determines that hosting the 1996 Summer Olympic Games boosted employment by 17% in the counties of Georgia affiliated with and close to Olympic activity, relative to employment increases in other counties in Georgia (the rate of growth increased by 0.002 percentage points per quarter). Estimation of a random-growth model confirms a positive impact of the Olympics on employment. ...

  1. Olympic Winter Games posters from Chamonix 1924 to Vancouver 2010: presentation and images of the official posters for each edition of the Olympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    The posters produced for the Olympic Games are one of the facets of their visual identity. Making use of all styles and techniques, they never cease to surprise and evolve. Through this document you can obtain an overview of the various posters produced by the OCOGs for each edition of the Games.

  2. Olympic Summer Games posters from Athens 1896 to London 2012: presentation and visuals of the official posters for each edition of the Olympic Summer Games

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    The posters produced for the Olympic Games are one of the facets of their visual identity. Making use of all styles and techniques, they never cease to surprise and evolve. Through this document you can obtain an overview of the various posters produced by the OCOGs for each edition of the Games.

  3. Resident Perceptions of the 2006 Torino Olympic Games, 2002-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO CHITO GUALA,

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous Olympic Games research has been primarily on economic impacts, tourists, and destination image with most being one-off assessments of the Summer Games. Other than Ritchie's landmark study of the Calgary Winter Olympic Games, relatively few research studies on the Winter Olympic Games have been published, and fewer still concerning resident attitudes throughout the full lifecycle of the event, from bidding, preparation, operation, and legacy stages. Residents are in a unique position to evaluate an event's legacy as taxpayers, daily consumers of infrastructure, and as possible leisure consumers of Olympic sport venues. The purpose of this study was to examine Torino residents' perceptions of their city as host of the 2006 Torino Winter Olympic Games from 2002-2007. Results from telephone interviews with Torino residents (n = 900 interviews per year; N = 5,400 are presented to reflect the attitudes of the population toward the 2006 Winter Olympic Games over time. Residents experienced a "rollercoaster" of emotions during the event lifecycle ranging from euphoria once the Games were awarded, to concern over escalating production costs, irritation with inconveniences due to construction, and ultimately pride immediately following the Games. Implications of study findings for event and destination managers are discussed.

  4. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content...... analyzed. The results show that consultants perceived a number of challenges important to being successful at the Olympic Games. These challenges were divided into two general themes: Challenges before the Olympics (e.g. negotiating your role) and Challenges during the Olympics (e.g. dealing with the media......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...

  5. The London 2012 Summer Olympic Games: An analysis of usage of the Olympic Village ‘Polyclinic’ by competing athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivor S. Vanhegan; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; O'Connor, Philip; Bethapudi, Sarath; Budgett, Richard; Haddad, Fares S; Engebretsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The London 2012 Summer Olympic Games involved 10 568 elite athletes representing 204 competing nations. To manage the varied healthcare needs of this diverse population, a Polyclinic was constructed in the athletes’ village. Aim: This work aims to summarise the usage of the Polyclinic by competing athletes and the facilities available to them.

  6. The Use of Instrumental Physiotherapy at the XXII 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Balaban

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the organization of physiotherapeutic aid at the XXII 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi. The author analyzes the structure of demand for instrumental physiotherapy procedures.

  7. Geoethnopolitical Aspect of the Caucasus Development in terms of Sochi Preparation for Winter Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Petrova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with geopolitical problems within the Caucasus Region in terms of modern regional processes, indicates major features of the region and their impact on Sochi preparation for Winter Olympic Games.

  8. Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games marks usage request guide for NOCs: May 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This official publication provides guidelines to outline the parameters by which National Olympic Committees (NOCs) may use Sochi 2014 Games Marks for editorial purposes and non-commercial communications.

  9. International Bias Detected in Judging Gymnastic Competition at the 1984 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Charles J.; Scheer, John K.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of gymnastics judges scores of their own and other countries' gymnasts' performance during the 1984 Olympic Games indicated that the judges were biased in favor of their own country's gymnasts. (Author/CB)

  10. Customs and freight guide: Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games : January 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The current "Customs and freight guide for Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games" is developed to provide concerned NOCs with necessary information on customs clearance formalities and procedures, goods delivery, special logistic services and the service contacts.

  11. Games Uniforms Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda

    2008-01-01

    The uniforms for Beijing Olympics’ workers, technical staff and volunteers have been unveiled to mark the 200-day countdown to the Games. The uniforms feature the key element of the clouds of promise and will be in three colors:red for Beijing Olympic Games Committee staff, blue

  12. MEMBERSHIP PROCESS OF ISTANBUL IN 2020 OLYMPIC GAMES AND ECONOMIC INVESTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    MUSTAFA YILDIZ

    2014-01-01

    The Olympic Game is an expensive and costly sport organization with the participation of athletes, journalists, broadcasters and sportsmen and audiences. This cost can be born only by developed countries and this enables introduction of home countries, increase of tourism activities and acquisition of sports facilities. Membership of Istanbul for 2020 Olympic Games is the first sport organization membership officially announced by prime minister of Turkish government. Therefore the support wa...

  13. Lieux de mémoire / sites of memories and the Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2011-01-01

    the politics and processes of remembering are discussed. The theoretical insights are transferred to the field of sport, in particular to the Olympic Games. Not only the competitions but also the buildings, rituals and ceremonies, the athletes and teams, and the audiences have been used to construct......, change and revive collective memories. The Games of 1896, the architecture of the Olympic site in Berlin, and the opening ceremony in Sydney in 2000 are used as examples....

  14. Active Citizens and Public Policy: The Example of London 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikaia Chatziefstathiou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The author argues how Olympism, the ideology underpinning the Olympic Games, when linked with youth can generate what Foucault called ‘technologies of power’. This article first discusses the increasing rate of governmental interest for sport and the “active citizen”, children and young people. In this light several interventions and policies across the western societies such as the United Kingdom, United States and Canada are examined. The author then argues how the youth agenda for the Olympic Games can also be seen alongside this neo-liberal increased interest for active citizenry.

  15. Comparative analysis of technical and tactical preparedness Greco-Roman style wrestler at the Olympic Games-2008 and the Olympic Games-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Tropin Y.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to test preparedness of Greco-Roman style wrestlers. It is analysed battles of 41 wrestlers conqueror of the finals of the competition. Found that competition on the world stage in the Greco-Roman wrestling is high, the leader is constantly changing. It was determined that the effectiveness of the use of technology at the Olympic Games in 2008 is significantly higher (26%) than in the Olympic Games in 2012 revealed three weight groups: small (55 kg, 60 kg), medium (66 kg, 74 kg, 84...

  16. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Qing W. Tian; Peter Brimblecombe

    2008-01-01

    The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollut...

  17. School Olympics in Estonia: New Chance of Life for Traditional Sports and Games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Voolaid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on an interesting trend in the development of the School Olympic Games in Estonia – the use of traditional sports and games in the School Olympics programme as a means for a fresh approach to sport and education, to make the games more colourful, create a school identity and unite different cultural layers. The School Olympics – a remarkable form of the Olympic education – is currently facing serious challenges in keeping the attention of the younger generation, restoring the active life-style and reshaping moral principles. Traditional sports present a good opportunity to make a difference here. With the help of concrete examples this article gives an overview of the variety of colourful ideas used in Estonian schools, starting with popular traditional sports and ending with some newborn disciplines.

  18. 2008北京奥运会开幕式应急医疗保障%Analysis on the emergency medical services for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games opening ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭碧波; 侯世科; 于清; 陈志

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究超大型国际性集会的应急医疗保障.方法 回顾分析2006年北京奥运会开幕式应急医疗保障,对12万人区分为观众、演职人员、运动员及媒体人员,按集结区域、流动方向、流动路线、流动高峰,进行应急医疗保障,对保障结果进行统计.结果 573伤病员在开幕式期间得到了应急医疗救治,其中27人转送到奥运定点医院.无群体伤害事件发生,无一例死亡.结论 建立完善的应急医疗体系,超强配置院前急救力量,反复演练形成应急救援实力,按伤病员流动方向与流量部署医疗站点是本次开幕式的应急医疗保障的成功经验.%Objective To analyze the emergency medical services of the 2006 Olympic Came opening ceremony,and meanwhile to provide information and data for medical treatment at future international activities.Method About 120 000 people,consisting of athletes,actors,audience and staff,joined the opening ceremony.The emergency medical services were completed according to gathering regions,flowing directions,routes,and peaks,and the results were statistically analyzed.Results Twenty-two medical stations and 61 emergency medical supervising units provided pre-hospital services,and there turned out to be 573 patients during the opening ceremony.All of the patients were provided with emergent medical services on the spot,and some critically ill patients were sent to the local hospital after first aid.There was no death,serious.injuries,or chaos during the Opening Ceremony.Conchusions The foundation of emergency service is to set up a sound emergency response system.To successfully fulfill the minion.it is well-advised to enforce the pre-hospital human resources and emergency equipments,make serial trainings.collocate the medical station and supervising stands according to the the number of patients and its peak.

  19. Olympic Partner Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Partner Programme (TOP) is an international Olympic marketing programme created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC),which includes the Organising Committees of the Games,the National Olympic Committees and the TOP Partners.

  20. Nuclear security at the summer 2004 Olympic Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today announced an unprecedented joint action plan to help ensure a high level of nuclear security at the 2004 Olympic Games. Cooperation between the IAEA, the Greek Atomic Energy Commission and the Greek Olympics Games Security Division to provide expert advice and technical assistance followed a request for assistance from the two Greek authorities to the IAEA last summer. The action plan is designed to protect facilities and materials, to detect illicit trafficking and malicious use of radioactive materials, and to ensure that emergency response forces are effective and efficient. Much of the work in Greece has been undertaken in co-operation with some IAEA Member States - with substantial support provided by the United States and France in the fields of equipment, training and technical advice. The physical protection of the Demokritos nuclear research reactor, in a suburb of Athens, has been upgraded and the security of radioactive sources used at medical and industrial facilities in six Greek cities has been tightened. Radiation detection equipment has been installed at borders and other entry points into Greece, and mobile detection equipment will be deployed elsewhere. Hand-held radiation monitors are being distributed amongst the thousands of security personnel and customs officials who are involved in the security for the Games. The equipment is being deployed to detect radioactive materials that might be used as a weapon by terrorists in a radiological dispersal device, a so-called 'dirty bomb'. Detailed information on the steps that have been taken cannot be disclosed for reasons of security. 'There has been good cooperation with the Greek Atomic Energy Commission and with the other international partners in developing and implementing this work' said Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'We are collectively striving for a high measure of security and the work being undertaken should

  1. Olympic reading list: everything you need to know about the history, legacy and risk of the Games

    OpenAIRE

    Blog Admin, British Politics and Policy at LSE

    2012-01-01

    As London 2012 gets under way, we bring together a selection of books on Olympic history, risk and legacy, and there’s also something for the Olympic pessimists and optimists. Read up on some of the key sociological, architectural and economic ideas behind the Olympic Games.

  2. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  3. Analysis and Evaluation of Strength of Chinese Women Gymnastic Team Based on its Performance in 27th to 29th Olympic Games and Training Tactics in London Olympic Games%从近三届奥运会评析我国体操女队的实力及伦敦奥运会备战的策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅芳香; 宋允清

    2012-01-01

    Through using the method of literature, video observation and mathematical statistics, this paper researches the strength of China and other countries through the matches of the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000, the Athens Olympic Games in 2004 and the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008, points out the advantage and shortcoming of Chinese woman team and put forward the lesson preparation for London Olympic Games combined with its practical situation.%本文采用文献资料法、录像观察法和数理统计法等,通过对2000年悉尼奥运会、2004年雅典奥运会和2008年北京奥运会中国体操女队与世界强队的实力对比研究,分析中国女队存在的优势和不足,并结合女队目前的实际情况,提出一些伦敦奥运会的备战策略。

  4. Study on the Insects Diversity in the Customs Supervision Treasury Area of the Capital Airport during the Beijing Olympic Games%北京奥运期间首都机场海关监管库区昆虫多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗世祥; 许志春; 李建光; 邱爽; 裴思聪

    2011-01-01

    ,Coccinellidae and Melolonthinae, and they formed a dominant population in the inspecting treasury. The population number of Loxostege sticticalis and Cicadella viridi were most, accounting for 4.65% and 2.54%respectively, and they became a dominant species. In addition, we also found some Hyphantria cunnea and Trichoferus campestris, but the population number of that was fewer. The results applied some theoretical reference and practical instruction for monitoring and controlling effectively the invasion of some alien pests in the customs supervision treasury of the capital airport during the Beijing Olympic Games.

  5. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

    2013-01-01

    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes. PMID:23899758

  6. The Value of Clean Air in China: Evidence from Beijing and Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Jijun Tan; Jinhua Zhao

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of Beijing and Shanghai residents for improving the air quality of the two cities from their levels prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games to the level achieved during the Olympics. The data are obtained from a contingent valuation study conducted through face-to-face interviews in June 2008 in Beijing and Shanghai prior to the Beijing Olympics, during which time there was intensive debate about Beijing¡¯s air quality. Residents in both cities are wil...

  7. 融合媒介时代奥运会媒体营销现状与启示%The Status Quo and Inspiration of Media Marketing in Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东

    2012-01-01

    Based on the documentations research on media marketing of Olympic Games,the authors found that the media marketing of Olympic Games advanced in the direction of all media-orientation and integration.The scale of spread of Olympic Games is expanding,the complexity of spread is increasing sharply and the results of Olympic marketing are splendid.As the first Olympic Games in convergence media age,it is the host country China's successful organization and the outstanding performances of all athletes that made a media marketing in Beijing Olympic Games a miracle in communication history.The success of media marketing in Beijing Olympic Games also predicts that the spread of Olympic Games has a better prospect in convergence media age,and brings a stronger impetus to the development of Olympic Games in the future.%运用文献法对奥运会媒体营销现状进行了研究,结果发现:奥运会媒体营销朝着全媒体化和融合化的方向发展,奥运会传播的规模日益扩大,奥运传播的复杂性也与时剧增,奥运媒体营销的成果也日益辉煌。北京奥运会作为融合媒介时代的第一届奥运会,东道主中国的成功组织和选手们的优异表现使北京奥运会媒体营销成为传播史上的奇迹。北京奥运会媒体营销的成功也预示着,在媒介融合时代奥运会传播面临着更美好的前景,奥运传播将给奥运会未来发展带来更强大的推动力。

  8. RELACIÓN ENTRE LOS ELEMENTOS Y LA PUNTUACIÓN OBTENIDA EN LA MODALIDAD DE SUELO DE GIMNASIA ARTÍSTICA DEPORTIVA EN BEIJING 2008 [Relationship between elements and score in floor exercise, in Artistic Gymnastic, in the Beijing 2008 Olympics Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leyton Román

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En la Gimnasia Artística, el rendimiento viene determinado por la ejecución de una serie de movimientos con base en un modelo establecido y recogido en el Código de Puntuación. Con base en esto, el objetivo de nuestro trabajo es determinar si el número  y nivel de dificultades que componen el total de diagonales realizadas en un ejercicio de suelo predice e influye de manera positiva en la puntuación final del gimnasta. Para ello se realiza un estudio descriptivo con una metodología observacional, en el cual se analizan 16 ejercicios de suelo de los 16 gimnastas clasificados para la final individual de suelo de Gimnasia Artística Femenina y Masculina en los Juegos Olímpicos de Pekín 2008. Los resultados concluyen que el número de dificultades que componen el total de diagonales realizadas en un ejercicio de suelo no predice ni influye de manera positiva en la puntuación final del gimnasta. Los resultados muestran también que el nivel de dificultad tampoco predice ni influye de manera positiva en la puntuación final del gimnasta, excepto en el caso del    Nivel E. Palabras clave: Gimnasia Artística, código de puntuación, dificultad, análisis observacional.   Abstract In Artistic Gymnastics, the performance is determined by the execution of a series of movements based on a model established and gathered in the Code of Punctuation. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study if the number and level of difficulty composing all diagonals executed in floor exercise predicts and influences in a positive way the final punctuation of the gymnast. For this, a descriptive study was conducted with an observation method, in which 16 floor exercises of 16 gymnasts qualified for the individual final of floor were analyzed in Artistic Gymnastics in the Olympic Games of Peking 2008. The study  conclude that the number of difficulties composing all diagonals executed in a floor exercise neither predicts nor influences in a

  9. The Olympic Games: The Experience of a Lifetime or Simply the Most Important Competition of an Athletic Career?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Dall; Christiansen, Ask Vest; Henriksen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    As a multi-sport event that only takes place every four years and is accompanied by intense media coverage, the Olympic Games are often described by athletes as a defining moment in their careers. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to describe differences in expectations of Olympic...... debutants towards the Olympics and their actual experiences while they were at the Games; and 2) to describe how the athletes negotiate the balance between performing at and enjoying the experience of the Olympic Games. Further, we will discuss the athletes‘ stories in light of the differences between the...... and expectations within a month preceding their departure for the Olympic Games and about their actual experiences within a month following their return. Condensed narratives from two Olympic debutants represent the spectrum of the athletes‘ expectations and experiences: one failed in his performance...

  10. Go up or down?-Look into the Real Estate Price After the Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Tang

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 Beijing Olympic Games to the Chinese is not only a unique event,but also will influence many aspects of China. To the real estate industry, the effect of the Olympic Games will play an important role in a short period. How about the effect to Beijing's housing price? Does it continue to go up or turn down? This is the main concern for majority of those in this industry and consumers.

  11. The Interference of Politics in the Olympic Games, and How the U.S. Media Contribute to It

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Moretti

    2013-01-01

    In February 2014, Russia will host the Olympic Games for only the second time in its history. Once again, the Olympic spirit—as defined and espoused by the International Olympic Committee—will clash with the political interests that overshadow the Games. This paper examines the political undertones of the 1980 Summer Olympics, hosted by Moscow and which took place during an ice-cold period of the Cold War, and asks whether similar undertones will be on display next year. The 1980 Games were a...

  12. Challenges and opportunities for the Olympic Movement: Balancing the Games lived festival experience and its global media projection

    OpenAIRE

    García, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    After more than one century, the Olympic Games, the most visible dimension of the Olympic Movement, remains the world largest sports mega-event and attracts the largest amount of simultaneous media coverage globally. However, beyond a sports event, the Olympic Games is also a cultural phenomenon that can have considerable influence over local, national and international cultural policy. This cultural dimension tends to be represented by the media via popular ceremonial events, such as the Oly...

  13. Delivery of psychological services to the U.S. Olympic team at the 1992 summer Olimpic Games: Barcelona, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    May, Jerry R.

    1992-01-01

    A description of the psychological services to the U.S. Olympic Team at the 1992 summer Olympic Games, Barcelona, Spain is provided. Services were based upon a crisis intervention model. Philosophy, preparation for games, criteria for psychologists selection, goals and objectives of psychological activities, range of services and intervention strategies are provided, as well as recommendations for the future. The U.S. Olympic team consisted of an excess of six hundred fifty male and female at...

  14. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Zhu, T.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Xie, X. X.; Han, Y. Q.; Li, Y.

    2009-06-01

    China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used an innovative mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's 4th Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial variations in traffic-related air pollutants, including NOx, CO, PM1.0 surface area (SPM1), black carbon (BC), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-, p-, and o-xylene (BTEX). During the Olympics (8-23 August 2008), on-road air pollutant concentrations decreased significantly by up to 54% for CO, 41% for NOx, 70% for SO2, 66% for BTEX, 12% for BC, and 18% for SPM1 compared to the pre-control period (before 20 July). Concentrations increased again after the control period ended (after 20 September), with average increases of 33% for CO, 42% for NOx, 60% for SO2, 40% for BTEX, 26% for BC, and 37% for SPM1. Variations in pollutants concentrations were correlated with changes in traffic speed and the number and types of vehicles on the road. Throughout the measurement periods, the concentrations of NOx, CO, and BTEX varied markedly with the numbers of light- and medium-duty vehicles (LDVs and MDVs, respectively) on the road. Only after 8 August was a noticeable relationship between BC and SPM1 and the number of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) found. Additionally, BC and SPM1 showed a strong correlation with SO2 before the Olympics, indicating possible industrial sources from local emissions as well as regional transport activities in the Beijing area. Such factors were identified in measurements conducted on 6 August in an area southwest of Beijing. The ratio of benzene to toluene, a good indicator of traffic emissions, shifted suddenly from about 0.26 before the Olympics to approximately 0.48 after the Olympics

  15. Press by name accreditation manual: for the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games : 7-23 February 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This manual has been prepared by the Organizing Committee of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi to assist the media and Press Organizations accredited directly by the International Olympic Committee to prepare and complete the accreditation process for their press representatives.

  16. Los Angeles and the 1984 Olympic Games: Cultural Commodification, Corporate Sponsorship, and the Cold War

    OpenAIRE

    Lieser, Joshua Ryan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION Los Angeles and the 1984 Olympic Games: Cultural Commodification, Corporate Sponsorship, and the Cold WarbyJosh R. LieserDoctorate of Philosophy, HistoryUniversity of California, Riverside, December 2014Dr. Catherine Gudis, ChairpersonThe 1984 Olympics offer an unprecedented opportunity to consider the way that sports were used as cultural and ideological warfare or soft power in the late stages of the Cold War era. Despite the Soviet Union's decision to boycott ...

  17. Public support for hosting the Olympic Summer Games in Germany: The CVM approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Wicker; John C. Whitehead; Daniel S Mason; Bruce K. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Cities throughout the world continue to weigh the merits of hosting major sport events, including the Olympic Games. These events are considered desirable due to a range of benefits, including economic and/or tourism development. In addition, previous research has shown that hosting the Olympics may confer intangible benefits for cities and their residents. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation method estimate of the monetary value of intangible benefits to Germans of host...

  18. The empirics of key factors in the success of bids for olympic games

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Feddersen; Wolfgang Maennig; Philipp Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the probability of the success of city bid campaigns on the basis of quantified determinants for a total of 48 bids for the Summer Olympic Games between 1992 and 2012. Using a model comprising the distance of sporting venues from the Olympic Village, local temperatures and unemployment rates, we can correctly predict the decision for 100% of failed bids and 50% of successful bids.

  19. The problem of participation the British team at the Olympic Games in 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Sadykova, Viktoriia

    2013-01-01

    This article is devoted to the Summer Olympics in Moscow in 1980, specifically, the issue of participation the team from Great Britain, which was manifested in the "boycott the Olympics". Paid attention to display the main cause of the boycott and study the role of the British and American governments in its organization.The article notes, that boycott the Olympic Games in Moscow was the impetus for a mass protest the countries of the world against the aggressive policy of the USSR in the lat...

  20. Comparative analysis of technical and tactical preparedness Greco-Roman style wrestler at the Olympic Games-2008 and the Olympic Games-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tropin Y.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to test preparedness of Greco-Roman style wrestlers. It is analysed battles of 41 wrestlers conqueror of the finals of the competition. Found that competition on the world stage in the Greco-Roman wrestling is high, the leader is constantly changing. It was determined that the effectiveness of the use of technology at the Olympic Games in 2008 is significantly higher (26% than in the Olympic Games in 2012 revealed three weight groups: small (55 kg, 60 kg, medium (66 kg, 74 kg, 84 kg, heavy (96 kg, 120 kg. Found that in the Greco-Roman tendency to simplify the technology, increase the intensity of the match. It was revealed that at the Olympics in 2008 the performance indicator is higher than at the Olympic Games in 2012 in all weight groups. Found that the most informative for evaluating the technical and tactical capabilities fighters carries the final part of the competition, which is determined by the efficiency, effectiveness, technical arsenal.

  1. Competing Concepts of Culture: Irish Art at the 1924 Paris Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Claire A. Culleton

    2014-01-01

    Art Competitions formed part of the modern Olympic Games during its early years. From 1912-1948, art contests were featured in Summer Games in Stockholm (1912), Antwerp (1920), Paris (1924), Amsterdam (1928), Los Angeles (1932), Berlin (1936) and London (1948), where artists competed for medals in the categories of painting, architecture, literature, music, and sculpting. Ireland competed in four of those summer games, and a total of thirty-one Irish artists (twenty-one men/ten women, most of...

  2. Chef de mission manual: Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games : July 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The "Chefs de Mission Dossier for Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games", which outlines Games-related policies and procedures, was distributed to NOCs at the Chefs de Mission Seminar in March 2014. As preparations for the Games progressed, the “Dossier” was updated into this “Manual” and refined accordingly, and many policies and procedures have been tested and further developed over the last few months.

  3. A Tale of Two Seasons: Participation and Medal Counts at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Daniel K.N.; Ali, Ayfer

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the post-War Summer and Winter Olympic Games in order to determine the economic and political determinants of national participation, of female participation in particular, and of success at the Games (i.e., medal counts). Compared to the Summer Games, Winter participation levels are driven more by income and less by population, have less host nation bias and a greater effect of climate. Roughly similar factors determine medal count success, although single party and commu...

  4. Olympic main venue construction and urban growth model monitoring using remote sensing temporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chengyin; Chen, Xue; Ma, Jianwen

    2007-11-01

    In order to follow up the concepts of "Green Olympics, High-tech Olympics and People's Olympics", Chinese Academy of Sciences set up a project to monitor the land cover and use change of Beijing city especially inner sixth ring road driven by the venues construction use remote sensing images after the successful bid for the 2008 Olympic Games. Landsat TM and airborne remote sensing temporal data were used in this paper to monitor the construction of Olympic main venues as well as the effluences on neighboring land use and urban growth. This research forms a complete set of urban growth model analysis, records the develop situation of Beijing driven by Olympic games and also provides decision and research reference of Olympic construction.

  5. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings. PMID:27228711

  6. [Zika Virus - Impact on the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, K; Paul, J

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing discussion in the media about the Zika virus and the question of whether or not athletes and visitors will be at risk of an infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. According to an assessment published on 31 May 2016 by the IOC and the WHO, participants and visitors have no reason to panic. However, increasing public pressure has caused the WHO to re-evaluate the current situation, and further recommendations will likely be given before the Olympic Games start. The current facts are as follows: 1) The Olympic Summer Games will be held during the winter months in Brazil, when the appearance of mosquitoes is expected to be low. 2) Extensive use of insecticides every 6 to 8 weeks in Rio de Janeiro and all Olympic venues has almost eradicated the mosquito population. 3) Individual protection of athletes, trainers and visitors is crucial (wearing appropriate clothing with skin coverage, sleeping under mosquito nets, using contact insecticides for clothing and mosquito nets, and applying insect repellents on a regular basis). 4) Pregnant women should avoid travelling to any country with current Zika virus activity. In sum, the risk to incur a Zika virus infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro will likely be comparable to the risk in other countries where cases of Zika virus infections are registered. PMID:27490354

  7. Measurement of inflammation and oxidative stress following drastic changes in air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kipen, Howard; Rich, David,; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Zhang, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality in epidemiology studies. Frequently, oxidative and nitrosative stress are hypothesized to mediate these pollution effects, however precise mechanisms remain unclear. This paper describes the methodology for a major panel study to examine air pollution effects on these and other mechanistic pathways. The study took place during the drastic air pollution changes accompanying the 2008 Olympics in Beij...

  8. Acute Respiratory Inflammation in Children and Black Carbon in Ambient Air before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Weiwei; Huang, Wei; ZHU, TONG; Hu, Min; Brunekreef, Bert; Zhang, Yuanhang; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Hong; Gehring, Ulrike; Li, Chengcai; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for a causative association between black carbon (BC) and health outcomes is limited. Objectives: We estimated associations and exposure–response relationships between acute respiratory inflammation in schoolchildren and concentrations of BC and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in ambient air before and during the air pollution intervention for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Methods: We measured exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) as an...

  9. “The Olympic Torch Burns, and Great Suspicion Blazes” – China Narratives in the German Media during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Poerner

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the description of China in leading German daily and weekly newspapers during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. On the basis of a brief outline of the main China narratives in German media since the 1950s, this paper analyses China-related articles which were published during the period August 8-15, 2008. It argues that reports on China are mostly based on well established German notions of China and centre around the image of a despotic and/or dangerous China. Theref...

  10. Estimating the economic impact of the Sydney Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, John; Crowe, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    This paper employs a multiregional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to examine the effects on the New South Wales and Australian economies of the 2000 Olympics. The Olympics are modelled over a 12-year period from 1994 to 2005, divided into three phases: (i) the Pre-Event phase, 1994 to 1999; (ii) the Event Year, 2000; and (iii) the Post-Event phase, 2001-2005. Construction of the Olympics venues and associated infrastructure is modelled as occurring in the first phase, while the op...

  11. THE POLITICAL IMPACT ON THE OLYMPIC GAMES BETWEEN 1936 AND 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Raul-Marian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games between 1936 and 1984 were influenced and affected by a series of problems which created tensions in the international politics: racial discrimination against Jews and black people (Afro-Americans, the soviet troops’ invasion in Hungary and Afghanistan, the Suez crisis, Arabian-Israeli conflict. These events led in the best case scenario at boycotting the Olympic Games (by not participating or of the national governments (The Black Power greeting, avoiding the use of the national symbol on the flag and replacing the logo of the National Olympic Committee, but there were also bloody episodes (the repression of students in Mexico, the attack in Munich which left an irretrievable negative mark.

  12. Universality, limits and predictability of winners' performances at the Olympic Games

    CERN Document Server

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the legendary Games held in ancient Greece, modern Olympics represent the world's largest pageant of athletic skill and competitive spirit. Athletes' performances at the Olympic Games mirror, since more than a century, human potentialities in sports, and thus provide an optimal source of information for studying the evolution of sport achievements and predicting the limits that athletes can reach. Unfortunately, the models introduced so far for the description of athletes' performances are either sophisticated or unrealistic, and more importantly, do not provide a unified theory for sport performances. Here, we address this issue by showing that relative performance improvements of medal winners at the Olympics are normally distributed, implying that the evolution of performance values can be simply described as an exponential approach to an a priori unknown limiting performance value. This law holds for all specialties in athletics - including running, jumping and throwing - and swimming. We pres...

  13. Sport Tourism and its History and Contribution of Olympic Games to Touristic Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Y I L D I Z

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism sector is one of the sectors that gain momentum and importance with the globalization. One of the important sub branches of the tourism that attracts attention with 1 - 1 - 5 billion people and approximately 2 trillion world incomes is sport tourism. The first tourism movement is the start of Olympics in Ancient Greek and movement of people who want to watch these games. Due to the fact that this tourism type that emerges thanks to the sports activities, contributes the economic and social structure of that region, states carry out significant lobbying activities to host Olympics. The mass of the number of the sportsmen to attend to the sport activity and audience that come to watch these games and more importantly live s treams from the place of the games contribute significantly to the promotion of that region. While eating and drinking, traveling, souvenirs expenses are direct incomes; it significantly contributes to the transportation and carriage sector. The appearance of before and after of the Olympic regions show great difference. One of the most important examples is the province of Mersin that hosts the latest Mediterranean games. While infrastructure and supra structure investments made for the preparation of city to the games in a brief time change the appearance of the city, national and international promotions significantly change the province. Olympic causes important development beyond measure. The objective of this study is to specify social and economic con tributions of tourism type emerged by the sport activities on the region and raise awareness for its contribution to country promotion. The study bases significantly on the literature review. The study will have a solid structure by making use of the dome stic and international statistical data. The scope of the study is Olympics in general and Mediterranean games in Mersin Province in particular.

  14. Pharmacy guide: Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games : January 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The "Pharmacy guide" is approved by the Medical Commission of the IOC. The guide lists the catalogue for drugs available and prescription process at the pharmacy in the Youth Olympic Village Polyclinic and covers therapeutic use exemption and other matters. The guide is mainly aimed at providing NOC delegations with the following information : drugs available at the Youth Olympic Village Polyclinic ; procedures for prescribing ; 2014 Prohibited List.

  15. City look package: the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games : Nanjing 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The City Look Package of the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games (hereinafter referred to as "Nanjing 2014") is the package of designs developed to decorate the host city during Games time, comprised of usage guidelines for combinations of fundamental elements inside the city, including core graphics, emblem, slogan and so on. As a result, it is the most important guiding document in design and implementation of the city Look. In order to protect the authenticity, integrity and consistency of the ...

  16. NOx emission estimates during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, J.; Van der A, R.J.; Mijling, B.; Levelt, P.F.; Hao, N.

    2015-01-01

    The Nanjing Government applied temporary environmental regulations to guarantee good air quality during the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) in 2014. We study the effect of those regulations by applying the emission estimate algorithm DECSO (Daily Emission estimates Constrained by Satellite Observations) t

  17. NOx emission estimates during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, J.; Van der A, R.J.; Mijling, B.; Levelt, P.F.; Hao, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Nanjing Government has taken temporary environmental regulations to guarantee good air quality during the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) in 2014. We study the effect of those regulations by applying the emission estimate algorithm DECSO (Daily Emission estimates Constrained by Satellite Observations)

  18. Newspaper Coverage of Women's Sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Billat, Veronique; Hanghoj, Signe; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Cumps, Elke; Meeusen, Romain

    2005-01-01

    In general, women are well represented among sport participants and sport audiences but not in the media. Data show that women's sport is greatly under-reported and trivialized in newspapers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure press coverage during the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in the largest circulating Belgian, Danish, French,…

  19. In the Zone--Bringing Science to the Olympic Games for Students in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Leah; Atkinson, Melissa; Schofield, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust is running a national engagement and education initiative inspired by the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. "In the Zone" involves sending practical science kits to every UK school and college. Here, we discuss the development of the school activities and how the feedback from pilot schools helped to shape the final…

  20. Italian Women's Television Coverage and Audience during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Cortis, Cristina; Casella, Rita; Camilleri, Enrica; Pesce, Caterina

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the amount of Italian television coverage dedicated to men's and women's sport and the number of male and female viewers during the 2004 Summer Olympic Games. AUDITEL-AGB Nielsen Media Research Italia provided the TV airtime data for the sport events broadcast, which were classified into three categories: men-only,…

  1. Validation of the Olympic Games Attitude Scale (OGAS): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Jennifer Y.; Cheung, Siu-Yin; King, Carina C.; Lam, Eddie T. C.

    2016-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of local residents' perception and reaction to the impacts of mega events. However, there is limited empirical research on the social impacts that shape foreign attitudes toward the host country. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Olympic Games Attitude Scale (OGAS) to examine viewers'…

  2. Designing a Virtual Olympic Games Framework by Using Simulation in Web 2.0 Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2013-01-01

    Instructional simulation had major difficulties in the past for offering limited possibilities in practice and learning. This article proposes a link between instructional simulation and Web 2.0 technologies. More exactly, I present the design of the Virtual Olympic Games Framework (VOGF), as a significant demonstration of how interactivity in…

  3. The Olympic Games: The Experience of a Lifetime or Simply the Most Important Competition of an Athletic Career?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Rune Dall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a multi-sport event that only takes place every four years and is accompanied by intense media coverage, the Olympic Games are often described by athletes as a defining moment in their careers. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to describe differences in expectations of Olympic debutants towards the Olympics and their actual experiences while they were at the Games; and 2 to describe how the athletes negotiate the balance between performing at and enjoying the experience of the Olympic Games. Further, we will discuss the athletes' stories in light of the differences between the goals and expectations of the elite sport system and those of the individual athletes. Data was collected through a qualitative interview study with a pre- and post-Olympic competition design.

  4. Youth Olympic Games mascots from Singapore 2010 to Lillehammer 2016: visual overview of each mascot presented with a description

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by people, animals and even creatures of myth and legend, the mascots are an integral part of the Olympic celebrations. The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) also have their own mascots, which, from the lion to the lynx, showcase imagination and artistic creativity, giving a personal and characteristic touch to each edition of the YOG.

  5. Olympic Winter Games mascots from Innsbruck 1976 to Sochi 2014: visual overview of each mascot presented with a description

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by people, animals and even creatures of myth and legend, the mascots are an integral part of the Olympic celebrations. From Schneemann, the snowman who accompanied the 1976 Winter Games in Innsbruck, to the three mascots that represented the Games in Sochi in 2014, discover these characters which are also part of the history of the Games.

  6. Protecting Major Sporting Events with Particular Reference to the 2012 London Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Blackshaw, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Sport is big business and mega bucks are spent on organising and commercialising major sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup and the Summer and Winter Olympics. In this article, we will consider in what ways the law is able to protect the substantial investments made in these sporting events by organisers and sports sponsors and merchandisers alike, particularly in relation to the 2012 London Olympic Games and the rise of the phenomenon of so-called ‘Ambush Marketing’. Finally, some gen...

  7. RITZ-CARLTON Ladies & Gentlemen Arriving to Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "We plan to make a very positive impact in our community" --Vincent Mercurio As Beijing celebrates its two-year countdown to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, L.L.C., which operates 61 luxury hotels all over the world, is intensively preparing for the debut of its first hotel in the city, scheduled to

  8. Five Rings: Enclosing the London 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan William Gardner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the successive iterations of the fence surrounding the London 2012 Olympic site in Stratford, east London, I demonstrate that during the five periods of enclosure considered, these boundaries have highlighted the London Games’ contested past, present, and future. An examination of the material and discursive constructions of each of these boundaries shows the Janus-faced nature of their relationship to the wider ‘mega-event’. I conclude that though the purpose of such enclosures may initially seem obvious, in actuality they, as parts of a wider assemblage, can act unpredictably both to support and challenge the Olympic brand and its existence in this part of east London.

  9. Competing Concepts of Culture: Irish Art at the 1924 Paris Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A. Culleton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Art Competitions formed part of the modern Olympic Games during its early years. From 1912-1948, art contests were featured in Summer Games in Stockholm (1912, Antwerp (1920, Paris (1924, Amsterdam (1928, Los Angeles (1932, Berlin (1936 and London (1948, where artists competed for medals in the categories of painting, architecture, literature, music, and sculpting. Ireland competed in four of those summer games, and a total of thirty-one Irish artists (twenty-one men/ten women, most of them members of the Royal Hibernian Academy or the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art participated in nine separate art contests and submitted forty-three works for competition.

  10. Improving Olympic health services: what are the common health care planning issues?

    OpenAIRE

    Kononovas, K.; Black, G.; Taylor, J; Raine, R

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Due to their scale, the Olympic and Paralympic Games have the potential to place significant strain on local health services. The Sydney 2000, Athens 2004, Beijing 2008, Vancouver 2010, and London 2012 Olympic host cities shared their experiences by publishing reports describing health care arrangements. HYPOTHESIS: Olympic planning reports were compared to highlight best practices, to understand whether and which lessons are transferable, and to identify recurring health care p...

  11. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used an innovative mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's 4th Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial variations in traffic-related air pollutants, including NOx, CO, PM1.0 surface area (SPM1, black carbon (BC, and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-, p-, and o-xylene (BTEX. During the Olympics (8–23 August 2008, on-road air pollutant concentrations decreased significantly by up to 54% for CO, 41% for NOx, 70% for SO2, 66% for BTEX, 12% for BC, and 18% for SPM1 compared to the pre-control period (before 20 July. Concentrations increased again after the control period ended (after 20 September, with average increases of 33% for CO, 42% for NOx, 60% for SO2, 40% for BTEX, 26% for BC, and 37% for SPM1. Variations in pollutants concentrations were correlated with changes in traffic speed and the number and types of vehicles on the road. Throughout the measurement periods, the concentrations of NOx, CO, and BTEX varied markedly with the numbers of light- and medium-duty vehicles (LDVs and MDVs, respectively on the road. Only after 8 August was a noticeable relationship between BC and SPM1 and the number of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs found. Additionally, BC and SPM1 showed a strong correlation with SO2 before the Olympics, indicating possible industrial sources from local emissions as well as regional transport activities in the Beijing area. Such

  12. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used a versatile mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's Fourth Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial variations in traffic-related air pollutants, including NOx, CO, PM1.0 surface area (S(PM1, black carbon (BC, and benzene, toluene, the sum of ethylbenzene, and m-, p-, and o-xylene (BTEX. During the Olympics (8–23 August, 2008, on-road air pollutant concentrations decreased significantly, by up to 54% for CO, 41% for NOx, 70% for SO2, 66% for BTEX, 12% for BC, and 18% for SPM1, compared with the pre-control period (before 20 July. Concentrations increased again after the control period ended (after 20 September, with average increases of 33% for CO, 42% for NOx, 60% for SO2, 40% for BTEX, 26% for BC, and 37% for S(PM1, relative to the control period. Variations in pollutants concentrations were correlated with changes in traffic speed and the number and types of vehicles on the road. Throughout the measurement periods, the concentrations of NOx, CO, and BTEX varied markedly with the numbers of light- and medium-duty vehicles (LDVs and MDVs, respectively on the road. Only after 8 August was a noticeable relationship found between BC and S(PM1 and the number of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs. Additionally, BC and S(PM1 showed a strong correlation with SO2 before the Olympics, indicating possible industrial sources from local emissions as well as regional transport activities in the Beijing area. Such factors were

  13. Tools of security risk management for the London 2012 Olympic Games and FIFA 2006 World Cup in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Will; Lodge, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Mega-events such as the Olympic Games and the football World Cup represent a special venue for the practice of risk management. This paper explores management of security risks in the case of two sporting mega-events, the London 2012 Olympic Games and the FIFA 2006 World Cup in Germany. The analysis progresses in three stages. First, it explores three explanations that have dominated the literature on policy instruments and tools and introduces the generic tools of government approach develop...

  14. Preparing for the Olympic Games: Training adaptation in endurance sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, G.J.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    For most elite athletes winning an Olympic gold medal is the ultimate dream. To make this dream come true, in the first place one needs sufficient talent. However next to this talent, several years of training with large amounts of strenuous work is necessary. It is therefore not remarkable that the

  15. Route of the Olympic flame: Beijing as a guardian of the antique cult of the European nations

    OpenAIRE

    Malešević Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    It is without doubt that the 2008 Olympic Games in Peking will be remembered as the most grandiose, most spectacular and most expensive sport manifestation ever organized. Ratings are uniform: it will be very difficult to attain a standard posed by Peking in any recent time. Again, through the organization of this manifestation, China resurfaced as a powerful, wealthy and modern country, ready for the challenges of the 21st century. However, a shadow is cast upon China, in spite of its econom...

  16. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  17. Anti-doping analyses at the Sochi Olympic and Paralympic Games 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevsky, Tim; Krotov, Grigory; Dikunets, Marina; Nikitina, Maria; Mochalova, Elena; Rodchenkov, Grigory

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory anti-doping services during XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic games in Sochi in 2014 were provided by a satellite laboratory facility located within the strictly secured Olympic Park. This laboratory, established and operated by the personnel of Antidoping Center, Moscow, has been authorized by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to conduct doping control analyses. The 4-floor building accommodated the most advanced analytical instrumentation and became a place of attraction for more than 50 Russian specialists and 25 foreign experts, including independent observers. In total, 2134 urine and 479 blood samples were delivered to the laboratory and analyzed during the Olympic Games (OG), and 403 urine and 108 blood samples - during the Paralympic Games (PG). The number of erythropoietin tests requested in urine was 946 and 166 at the OG and PG, respectively. Though included in the test distribution plan, a growth hormone analysis was cancelled by the Organizing Committee just before the Games. Several adverse analytical findings have been reported including pseudoephedrine (1 case), methylhexaneamine (4 cases), trimetazidine (1 case), dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (1 case), clostebol (1 case), and a designer stimulant N-ethyl-1-phenylbutan-2-amine (1 case). PMID:25312500

  18. Use of Earth Observation in Support of Major Sport Events: The Post Games Assessment of the Sporting Events of the Olympic Games 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulos, D.; Cartalis, C.; Petrakis, M.; Adaktylou, N.; Stathopoulou, M.; Chrysoulakis, N.

    2013-01-01

    Major sport events may result in the modification of the urban environment, or may be used as a tool for urban planning and/or urban regeneration projects. To this end, the main objective of the DRAGON-2 Project 5295 was to support the planning needs of major sport events with the use of Earth Observation (EO). The project also focused on the post games assessment of sporting events, with application to the Olympic Games (OG) of 2004 and 2008. More specifically, the research that was contacted in the project’s lifecycle was to examine how a major sporting event affected the urban fabric and the urban environmental quality in both Athens and Beijing. A wide number of thematic areas such as land use and cover, urban microclimate, urban green and air quality were examined and specific indicators for each thematic area were evaluated. Special emphasis was given on the description of thermal comfort, as well as on the changes in the quality of life in the host cities prior and following to the organization of the sporting events. A synopsis of the research results of the period 2008 - 2011 is given in this study along with an assessment of the potential of EO to actually support sport events.

  19. Preparing for the Olympic Games: Training adaptation in endurance sports

    OpenAIRE

    Rietjens, G.J.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    For most elite athletes winning an Olympic gold medal is the ultimate dream. To make this dream come true, in the first place one needs sufficient talent. However next to this talent, several years of training with large amounts of strenuous work is necessary. It is therefore not remarkable that the time required for adequate recovery may easily be compromised. Doing so, an athlete is often challenging the optimal balance between exercise and recovery. The general purpose of this study was to...

  20. 全球化背景下后奥运时代大众传媒对我国体育传播的影响%About the influences of mass media to China sports' spread under the globalization and after Olympic Games era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世光; 林少娜

    2012-01-01

    After summarized the experiment of successful broadcasts of Olympic Games, this paper analyses the mass media and its main tasks after 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, in order to make the mass media sustainable and health develop after Olympic Games.%总结了奥运会成功报道的经验,同时对大众体育传播进行认真的思考,分析了2008年北京奥运会后体育传媒主要任务,使大众传媒对体育传播的影响在后奥运时代向持续健康态势发展。

  1. Surface sediment chemistry in the Olympic Games 2004 Sailing Center (Saronikos Gulf)

    OpenAIRE

    Karageorgis, A.P.; Hatzianestis, I.

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the Olympic Games 2004 Sailing Center is planned in the Saronikos Gulf, in the area of Agios Kosmas. A multi-disciplinary base-line study was carried out to provide background levels of inorganic and organic pollutants before the construction. Two shallow reefs (water depth 2-3 m) are the predominant features in the area’s underwater topography. The reef consists of solid rock formations and pebbles, whereas sandy sediments cover predominantly the remaining seabed. Some pocket...

  2. 3rd Summer Youth Olympic Games in 2018: candidature procedure and questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The candidature procedure and questionnaire is the document provided by the IOC to Candidate Cities engaged in the Youth Olympic Games bid process. It contains explanations about the various steps of the candidature until the election of the Host City in June 2013. This document is stuctured in three parts. Part 1 outlines what is required of a Candidate City during the bid process. It contains procedures, rules and deadlines to be respected by Candidate Cities. Part 2 contains the detailed I...

  3. 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games in 2014: candidature procedure and questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The candidature procedure and questionnaire is the document provided by the IOC to Candidate Cities engaged in the Youth Olympic Games bid process. It contains explanations about the various steps of the candidature until the election of the Host City in December 2010. This document is stuctured in three parts. Part 1 outlines what is required of a Candidate City during the bid process. It contains procedures, rules and deadlines to be respected by Candidate Cities. Part 2 contains the detail...

  4. On the determinants of sporting success – A note on the Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Eike Emrich; Markus Klein; Werner Pitsch; Christian Pierdzioch

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed whether, in democratic open societies, economic and demographic conditions allow sporting success at the aggregate level to be predicted. Theoretical considerations led to the hypothesis that the population size and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita should be important determinants of sporting success. Using regression analysis, we analyzed the influence of population size and GDP per capita on sporting success in Olympic Summer and Winter Games (1992 – 2010). Regarding th...

  5. CREATING SUSTAINABLE OLYMPIC GAMES FOR BEIJING'S FUTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IGORLANDAU

    2003-01-01

    Aventis has been part of the international advisory committee of the mayor of Beijing since its inception and once again we are proud to participate. Aventis, through its predecessor companies has been present in China since 1883, and we feel committed to the growth of this country and the well being of its citizens.

  6. Olympic and Paralympic Games: The Impact of Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report is published as part of Universities Week 2012. It includes research by Podium, the further and higher education unit for London 2012, about the level of engagement that universities have had in the 2012 Games. It demonstrates the diverse contribution that universities are making to the Games, their overall impact on the UK sports…

  7. Association between changes in exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in children before and during the Beijing Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Weiwei; Zhu, Tong; Xue, Tao; Peng, Wei; Brunekreef, Bert; Gehring, Ulrike; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    It is not known whether exposure to air pollutants causes systemic oxidative stress in children. We investigated the association between exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in relation to a governmental air quality intervention implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Gam

  8. Unfairness of certain events in the Olympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, T

    1968-10-12

    Boxing, weight-lifting, wrestling, and judo are graded events in that opponents are matched by weight. If protection were to be denied by removing this restriction such sports would overwhelmingly favour the heavyweights. Data on Olympic winners show that many running and jumping events are seriously biased in favour of the very tall. It is suggested that the rules of these events should be revised to include a grading by height. This would remedy an element of unfairness in many athletic contests, beginning at school. PMID:5696539

  9. Attitudes Toward Olympic Games of Swedish Adolescents: Reports from the Institute of Education, University of Goteborg, No. 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriksson, Goran

    This paper presents some empirical findings from the part of the International Socialization Project (an effort to collect more information about the socialization of sport involvement) which dealt with the attitudes of Swedish adolescents toward Olympic games. Attitudes towards the games are regarded here as indicators of affective involvement in…

  10. Olympic Summer Games medals from Athens 1896 to London 2012: visual overview of each medal with a brief description

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    This document traces the evolution of the Olympic Summer Games medals, from the first Games in Athens in 1896 to those in London in 2012. Each medal is presented with a photo of its obverse and reverse, with a description of the design and the technical details available.

  11. Youth Olympic Games medals from Singapore 2010 to Nanjing 2014: visual overview of each medal with a brief description

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the evolution in the medals for the Summer and Winter Youth Olympic Games (YOG), from the first edition in Singapore, in 2010, to the Games in Nanjing in 2014. Each medal is illustrated by a photo of its obverse and reverse, with a description of the design and the technical details available.

  12. Olympic Summer Games mascots from Munich 1972 to Rio 2016: visual overview of each mascot presented with a description

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by people, animals and even creatures of myth and legend, the mascots are an integral part of the Olympic celebrations. From Waldi, the dachshund who accompanied the 1972 Games in Munich, to Vinicius, the agile mascot of Rio 2016, discover these characters which are also part of the history of the Games.

  13. An Experimental High-Resolution Forecast System During the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, J.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Giguère, A.; McTaggart-Cowan, R.; Erfani, A.; Denis, B.; Glazer, A.; Vallée, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environment Canada ran an experimental numerical weather prediction (NWP) system during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, consisting of nested high-resolution (down to 1-km horizontal grid-spacing) configurations of the GEM-LAM model, with improved geophysical fields, cloud microphysics and radiative transfer schemes, and several new diagnostic products such as density of falling snow, visibility, and peak wind gust strength. The performance of this experimental NWP system has been evaluated in these winter conditions over complex terrain using the enhanced mesoscale observing network in place during the Olympics. As compared to the forecasts from the operational regional 15-km GEM model, objective verification generally indicated significant added value of the higher-resolution models for near-surface meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) with the 1-km model providing the best forecast accuracy. Appreciable errors were noted in all models for the forecasts of wind direction and humidity near the surface. Subjective assessment of several cases also indicated that the experimental Olympic system was skillful at forecasting meteorological phenomena at high-resolution, both spatially and temporally, and provided enhanced guidance to the Olympic forecasters in terms of better timing of precipitation phase change, squall line passage, wind flow channeling, and visibility reduction due to fog and snow.

  14. The Interference of Politics in the Olympic Games, and How the U.S. Media Contribute to It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Moretti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2014, Russia will host the Olympic Games for only the second time in its history. Once again, the Olympic spirit—as defined and espoused by the International Olympic Committee—will clash with the political interests that overshadow the Games. This paper examines the political undertones of the 1980 Summer Olympics, hosted by Moscow and which took place during an ice-cold period of the Cold War, and asks whether similar undertones will be on display next year. The 1980 Games were a phenomenal success for Soviet athletes and their Eastern European colleagues. However, in the absence of the United States and more than 50 other nations, the political frame from a Western context was that of athletes from a corrupt system competing alongside their comrades. The boycott of these Games demonstrated the power of the White House and the often lapdog quality of the American media. Now as the Games return to Russia, the issue of whether a Cold War-like mentality will influence U.S. media reporting of the 2014 Sochi Olympics must be asked. The conflicting images in Western news media discourse of Russian president Vladimir Putin and his “Communist past” combined with a tepid diplomatic relationship between his government and the Obama administration provide evidence that a negative portrayal of Russia and therefore its athletes will be displayed in February 2014. And yet there is no impetus for a boycott next year. This paper explores why.

  15. The association between ambient air pollution and daily mortality in Beijing after the 2008 olympics: a time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available In recent decades, ambient air pollution has been an important public health issue in Beijing, but little is known about air pollution and health effects after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We conduct a time-series analysis to evaluate associations between daily mortality (nonaccidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and the major air pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter in Beijing during the two years (2009,2010 after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. We used generalized additive model to analyze relationship between daily mortality and air pollution. In single air pollutant model with two-day moving average concentrations of the air pollutants, increase in their interquartile range (IQR associated with percent increase in nonaccidental mortality, 2.55 percent [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.99, 3.11] for CO, 2.54 percent (95% CI: 2.00, 3.08 for NO2 and 1.80 percent (95% CI: 1.21, 2.40 for PM10, respectively; increases in the IQR of air pollutant concentrations associated with percent increase in cardiovascular mortality, 2.88 percent (95% CI: 2.10,3.65 for CO, 2.63 percent (95% CI: 1.87, 3.39 for NO2 and 1.72 percent (95% CI: 0.88, 2.55 for PM10, respectively; and increase in IQR of air pollutant concentrations associated with respiratory mortality, 2.39 percent (95% CI: 0.68, 4.09 for CO, 1.79 percent (95% CI: 0.11, 3.47 for NO2 and 2.07 percent (95% CI: 0.21, 3.92 for PM10, respectively. We used the principal component analysis to avoid collinearity of varied air pollutants. In addition, the association stratified by sex and age was also examined. Ambient air pollution remained a significant contributor to nonaccidental and cardiopulmonary mortalities in Beijing during 2009,2010.

  16. Principles Underlying the Adjudication of Selection Disputes Preceding the Salt Lake City Winter Olympic Games: Notes for Adjudicators

    OpenAIRE

    Findlay, Hilary A.; Corbett, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Selection disputes inevitably arise prior to any major games such as an Olympics. Prior to the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, some 25 disputes were heard in Canada. 1 In anticipation of the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics, an ad-hoc arbitration system was put in place in Canada to deal with these disputes. To assist the roster of adjudicators appointed to hear these matters, the Centre for Sport and Law 2 compiled and reviewed some 30 sport selection disputes from Canadian courts and tribuna...

  17. Route of the Olympic flame: Beijing as a guardian of the antique cult of the European nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is without doubt that the 2008 Olympic Games in Peking will be remembered as the most grandiose, most spectacular and most expensive sport manifestation ever organized. Ratings are uniform: it will be very difficult to attain a standard posed by Peking in any recent time. Again, through the organization of this manifestation, China resurfaced as a powerful, wealthy and modern country, ready for the challenges of the 21st century. However, a shadow is cast upon China, in spite of its economic power, due to the country's autocratic political system. China's lack of democracy, human rights and liberties and position of minorities have provoked a harsh criticism among the Western countries, reflected at the time when China was granted Olympic games for 2008. Since then, the criticism continues especially directed at the decision of the Olympic committee, with several calls to boycott the Games itself. Anti-Chinese rallies were intensified this spring, when the Olympic torch started its way from Greece to Peking. Thousands of demonstrators worldwide- defenders of the Tibet's freedom- have tried to stop the carriers of the torch, trying to put out 'the eternal flame' and disable its route to the final destination. The torch has changed its route many times in order to deceive the protestors and takeover was also a subject to change and many manipulations. In any case, the broadcasted scenes of conflict between the demonstrators and Chinese official escorts and citizens, charged with emotions at both sides, will remain as a recall of the Olympic Games 2008 for a long time. Regardless of the possible justified cause of this protest, in the worldwide broadcasted scenes for many months there was a totally paradoxical change of roles: the Olympic flame, as well as the idea, China has defended as its own, as a highest value and also as a source and holiness of its own past and identity, while the Europeans, on whose territory that same idea and values

  18. Olympic Fever Sizzling Over Search for Mascot Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YiFu

    2005-01-01

    After the release of the “China Seal”, the emblem of the Beijing 2008 Olympics, the choice of the Games' mascot has become the next excited focus of public attention. By December1, 2004, the collection of the mascot designs had concluded, and committees were evaluating submissions to select the winner. According to Jiang Xiaoyu,

  19. Changes in the Game Characteristics of a Badminton Match: A Longitudinal Study through the Olympic Game Finals Analysis in Men's Singles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffaye, Guillaume; Phomsoupha, Michael; Dor, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze, through a longitudinal study, the Olympic Badminton Men's singles finals from the Barcelona Games (1992) to the London Games (2012) to assess some changes of the Badminton game characteristics. Six Olympic finals have been analyzed based on the official video of the Olympic Games (OG) through the temporal structure and with a notational approach. In total, 537 rallies and 5537 strokes have been analyzed. The results show a change in the game's temporal structure: a significant difference in the rally time, rest time and number of shots per rally (all pBadminton players should be designed, especially in the temporal structure and intensity. Key pointsBadminton game has become faster, with an important increase in the shot frequency (+34%)The effective playing time has decreased between first to last Olympic Games (-34.5%)The strokes distribution and the percentage of unforced and forced errors show no differences through the OG analysis, except for the use of the clear. PMID:26335338

  20. Economic Analysis of the Beijing Green Olympics: Implications on Environmental Protection in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kui Yin Cheung

    2010-01-01

    The rapid economic development and motorization in the last three decades in Beijing has resulted in the deterioration of Beijing’s air quality. Since 1998, the Beijing municipal government has made a great effort to improve Beijing’s air quality, resulting in significant progress in reducing air pollution in Beijing. However, the air quality is still below the international health standard, especially the particular matter, PM10. This could be a challenge to the Government’s promise of clean...

  1. Global University Rankings: The "Olympic Games" of Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkevich, Maria; Altbach, Philip G.; Rumbley, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Global university rankings are often thought of as games, defined by roles and rules that universities must play in order to confirm their legitimacy and gain visibility as actors in the global academic market. While some countries are well represented at the top of rankings charts, others are just joining the race and testing out different…

  2. Several Doubts of Ancient Olympic Games%古奥运会的疑点解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤梅; 王艳芳

    2012-01-01

    古奥运会的相关记载中尚存诸多让人迷惑甚至自相矛盾之处。为了进一步解释和澄清古奥运会的历史真实和消除疑惑,对当前古奥运会研究中存在的几处疑点(游泳未成为比赛项目、斯巴达与雅典教育制度的优劣比较及赛会实体内容的界定)进行了重新解析发现:古希腊人特有的民族性格与游泳场地的特殊要求是造成游泳未能成为古奥运会比赛项目的主要原因;古斯巴达的教育是斯巴达公民根据自己民族的特点而实施的务实教育;明确古奥运会或古奥林匹亚祭典与古奥林匹亚体育竞技的内涵是界定古奥运会实体内容的逻辑前提。%There are many doubts and contradictions in the records of the ancient Olympic Games. In order to explain the doubts of the ancient Olympic Games, the paper analyses the doubts, such as failure of swimming to be the competition item, advantages and disadvantages of Sparta and Athens educational system and definition of competition content. The paper reveals that swimming failed to be one of the Olympic sports items because of the special national personality of the ancient Greeks and the special demands of the swimming spot. The ancient Sparta education is a practical education according to the national features of the Sparta people. Clear recognition of Ancient Olympia fiesta and the connotation of the ancient Olympic sport competition is the precondition of defining the content of the ancient Olympic Games.

  3. Olympic Spirit and Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    从岩

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Games is established as the largest sporting event in the world today.Moreover,Olympic cultural activity can be regarded as a mechanism for developing cultural.In 1992,Barcelona introduced the notion of the Cultural Olympic.

  4. VETERAN BROADCASTER LEADS OLYMPIC CHARGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With its leadership team and technological know-how, the Beijing Olympic Broadcasting Co. Ltd. endeavors to bring the Olympics live to people around the globe The first thing that Ma Guoli, Chief Operating Officer of the Beijing Olympic Broadcasting Co.

  5. From spectator to champion: evolution of the role of women in the Olympic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Samohvalova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of a role of women in Olympic Games is a history of evolution of women from spectators up to the champions and influential managers. It was influenced with following factors: the attitude(relation to female sports in the various states, struggle of women for the equality in all spheres of a public life, a level of development of female kinds of sports, their popularity, distribution in the world, activity and a role of the international sports organizations in development of female sports.

  6. Perils of a Post-Olympic Slump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The seven-year run-up to the Olympics has seen China’s white-hot economy chug along with an annual growth rate of more than 10 percent. But the global economic race is more of a marathon than a sprint. Several former Olympic host countries, including Japan and Australia, suffered economic slumps to varying degrees after the euphoria. Now eyes are turning to China to see if the Games will have a similar impact after they end. Will a post-Olympic slowdown play out here, or could it even prompt another economic take-off in the country? China Development Observation, a business monthly, interviewed Chen Jian, Executive Director of the Beijing Olympic Economy Research Association; Li Yining, a renowned economist; and Zhuang Jian, a senior economist at the Asian Development Bank China Resident Mission, for some answers.

  7. Nuclear security at major public events: Lessons learned from the 2004 Athens Olympic Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greece attributes the highest priority to security issues and in particular to issues related to nuclear and radiological security, and in this context shares the experience gained during the organization of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. In light of the exceptional circumstances arising from hosting the Athens Olympics and from recent major security concerns internationally, there was a clear need for a nuclear security programme in Greece to prevent, detect and respond to the threat of nuclear terrorism. As a result, an unprecedented cooperation started between the IAEA, the United States Department of Energy and a number of Greek authorities under the coordination of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission. This comprehensive programme adopted a multiarea coverage of nuclear and radiological security, including physical protection of nuclear and radiological facilities, prevention of smuggling of radioactive material across borders, prevention of dispersion of radioactive material in Olympic venues, enhancement of emergency preparedness and response to radiation incidents, and extensive training of hundreds of persons belonging to several organizations involved in radiological and nuclear security. (author)

  8. Olympic studies: current intellectual crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    DaCosta, Lamartine

    2009-01-01

    Ch. 1 : Olympic legacy or post-olympism ? Ch. 2 : The aporetic nature of olympism : sport for all or sport for heroes ? Ch. 3 : Questioning olympism : pluralism, multiculturalism or what else ? Ch. 4 : Anchoring olympism in eurhythmics : equilibrium between extremes or conflict-resolution balance ? Ch. 5 : Searching the optimum dimensions for the Games : gigantism or sustainability ? Ch. 6 : Olympic globalization in history : sport geopolitics or IOC power politics ? Ch. 7 : On olympic commer...

  9. Olympic predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2012-01-01

    A new prognosis suggests a major shift of power in elite sport as China seems to be on its way to being the undisputed best performing nation in the Olympic Summer Games in London.......A new prognosis suggests a major shift of power in elite sport as China seems to be on its way to being the undisputed best performing nation in the Olympic Summer Games in London....

  10. Torches and torch relays of the Olympic Summer Games from Berlin 1936 to Rio 2016: presentation and visuals of the Olympic torches, facts and figures on the torch relay for each edition

    OpenAIRE

    IOC Olympic Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    The torch and its relay are closely linked to the Olympic Games. They announce their arrival, allowing everyone to share the Olympic spirit and to get to know the host country better. This document presents, for each edition of the Summer Games, all the facts and figures on the torch, its design and technical characteristics; and information on the various aspects of the relay, such as duration, torchbearers, route and some anecdotes from its journey.

  11. The Place Branding of Istanbul for the Olympic Games of 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouliopoulos Theofilos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay will examine one of the candidate cities of the 2020 Games, Istanbul. We are going to see the theoretical background of nation and place branding and how sports can be the ambassador of a nation. After, we will focus on Istanbul and Turkey. The political situation in Turkey and the role of the leading force in the Middle East is connected to a whole process for Turkey to gain power. The Olympic Games in Istanbul is a strategic point in this process and we are going to see what chances has Istanbul to host the greatest multi-sport event in the world.DOI: 10.5585/podium.v1i1.19

  12. Preparedness for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games: hospital treatment capacity in georeferenced areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Carolina Figueiredo; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Shoaf, Kimberley Irene; Silva, Raulino Sabino da; Miranda, Elaine Silva

    2016-08-01

    Recently, Brazil has hosted mass events with recognized international relevance. The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in 12 Brazilian state capitals and health sector preparedness drew on the history of other World Cups and Brazil's own experience with the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. The current article aims to analyze the treatment capacity of hospital facilities in georeferenced areas for sports events in the 2016 Olympic Games in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on a model built drawing on references from the literature. Source of data were Brazilian health databases and the Rio 2016 website. Sports venues for the Olympic Games and surrounding hospitals in a 10km radius were located by geoprocessing and designated a "health area" referring to the probable inflow of persons to be treated in case of hospital referral. Six different factors were used to calculate needs for surge and one was used to calculate needs in case of disasters (20/1,000). Hospital treatment capacity is defined by the coincidence of beds and life support equipment, namely the number of cardiac monitors (electrocardiographs) and ventilators in each hospital unit. Maracanã followed by the Olympic Stadium (Engenhão) and the Sambódromo would have the highest single demand for hospitalizations (1,572, 1,200 and 600, respectively). Hospital treatment capacity proved capable of accommodating surges, but insufficient in cases of mass casualties. In mass events most treatments involve easy clinical management, it is expected that the current capacity will not have negative consequences for participants. PMID:27487441

  13. 2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance. PMID:27003630

  14. Parental support in sports development of Brazilian gymnasts participants in the Olympic Games (1980-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurita Marconi SCHIAVON

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports development involves important aspects that collaborate towards the achievement of a high level sports performance. Parental support is one such fact to be considered in Long Term Athlete Development (LTAD, capable of benefiting or harming athletes if not adequately administered. This study registers and discusses the importance of parental support in female Artistic Gymnastics, from the perspective of Brazilian gymnasts who have participated in the Olympic Games. The method used was Oral History with the technique known as oral testimony. The participants of the study were the ten Brazilian gymnasts who represented Brazil in the Olympic Games from when the country first participated in this championship, in 1980, up to the best Brazilian classification in Athens (2004, totaling ten gymnasts (a sample comprising 100% or the research universe. Testimony analysis was conducted through crossanalysis. The study shows unanimity among the gymnasts in regards to the importance of parental support in the sports development process. In addition to reinforcing the results found in the literature, the testimonies provide details of the relationships between the gymnasts and their families for deeper reflections around the subject, a distinguishing feature of studies with oral testimonies.

  15. Post-Olympic Flames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    For Olympic host cities, it is always a big challenge to ensure the venues will be used after the Games. The government of Athens is still paying the maintenance bills for some Olympic venues five years after the 2004 Olympiad.

  16. Gender equality probably does not affect performance at the Olympic games : A comment on Berdahl, Uhlmann, and Bai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, Toon; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article, Berdahl, Uhlmann, and Bai (2015) reported that countries with higher gender equality won more medals at the 2012 and 2014 Olympic games. This relation held for both female and male athletes. The authors, however, did not control for GDP per capita, or take into account the clust

  17. Effect of Exposure to Special Olympic Games on Attitudes of Volunteers towards Inclusion of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiao; Wang, Chee Keng John

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of volunteering for Special Olympics Games (SOG) on the attitudes of volunteers towards inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities. Method: A repeated measures design with 3-week follow-up was used. There were 100 volunteers recruited for the study and 90 of them completed the…

  18. 1000 Years of the Olympic Games: Treasures of Ancient Greece--Digital Reconstruction at the Home of the Gods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderdine, Sarah

    This paper results from a recently completed project that augmented an exhibition at the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, entitled "1000 Years of the Olympic Games: Treasures of Ancient Greece" (July 18-November 18, 2000). This Exhibition offered an opportunity to supplement the traditional visitor experience with the introduction of "virtual reality"…

  19. Sportswear Giants Jockey for Olympic Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ "The Beijing Olympics are a lot more than a sporting event,"says Marcus John, managing China director and senior vice-president of IMG Sports & Entertainment. "In the case of China, it is a cause of national pride."Such is the prism through which Chinese view the 2008 Games, creating unprecedented sports interest in a country that is only beginning to realize the height of its athletic potential and with it, extraordinary opportunity for sports shoe and apparel companies.

  20. OLYMPICS BRIEFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ceremony Tickets on Sale The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG) will start to receive applica- tions from domestic spectators for tick- ets to the opening and closing cere- monies of the Beijing Paralympic Games from December 10,BOCOG announced on December 3.

  1. Mega-events, Local Economies, and Global Status: What Happened before the 2008 Olympics in Beijing and the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mega-events such as the World Cup and the Olympics have been used for economic development, urban transformation and global status enhancement. Beijing and Shanghai embraced these purposes when they won the bids for the 2008 Olympics and the 2010 World Expo respectively. This article examines the pre-event economic changes in Beijing and Shanghai that are associated with their pursuit of mega-events. Changes in a group of economic indicators are tracked from 1997 to 2006. It was found that after winning the bids for the Olympics and the World Expo, Beijing and Shanghai experienced greater growth in construction and tourism, a speeding-up in economic development and restructuring, and an improvement in physical infrastructure. However, the enhancement of global exposure was not accompanied by growth in foreign trade and in the finance, insurance and real estate (FIRE industries. The empirical analyses place the mega-events in large economic contexts and provide a base for future post-event studies.

  2. The air quality forecast of PM10 in Beijing with Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) system: emission and improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; A. Shi; Li, Y; Zhao, X.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.; Wang, L.

    2014-01-01

    The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ model system, which was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as the Models-3 system, has been used for daily air quality forecasts in the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center (Beijing MEMC), as a part of the Ensemble Air Quality Forecast System for Beijing (EMS-Beijing) since the Olympic Games 2008. According to the daily forecast results for the entire duration of 2010, the model shows good ...

  3. Air quality forecast of PM10 in Beijing with Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) system: emission and improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Z. Wu; Xu, W. S.; A. J. Shi; Li, Y. T.; Zhao, X.J.; Wang, Z. F.; J. X. Li; L. N. Wang

    2014-01-01

    The MM5-SMOKE-CMAQ model system, which was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as the MODELS-3 system, has been used for daily air quality forecasts in the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center (Beijing MEMC), as a part of the Ensemble air quality Modeling forecast System for Beijing (EMS-Beijing) since the 2008 Olympic Games. According to the daily forecast results for the entire duration of 2010, the model shows g...

  4. Nuclear security and radiological preparedness for the olympic games, athens 2004: lessons learned for organizing major public events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Dimitriou, Panayiotis; Hourdakis, Constantine J; Maltezos, Antonios; Matikas, Theodore; Potiriadis, Constantinos; Camarinopoulos, Leonidas

    2006-10-01

    In light of the exceptional circumstances that arose from hosting the Olympic Games in Athens in 2004 and from recent terrorist events internationally, Greece attributes the highest priority to security issues. According to its statutory role, the Greek Atomic Energy Commission is responsible for emergency preparedness and response in case of nuclear and radiological events, and advises the Government on the measures and interventions necessary to protect the public. In this context, the Commission participated in the Nuclear, Radiological, Biological, and Chemical Threat National Emergency Plan, specially developed for the Olympic Games, and coordinated by the Olympic Games Security Division. The objective of this paper is to share the experience gained during the organization of the Olympic Games and to present the nuclear security program implemented prior to, during, and beyond the Games, in order to prevent, detect, assess, and respond to the threat of nuclear terrorism. This program adopted a multi-area coverage of nuclear security, including physical protection of nuclear and radiological facilities, prevention of smuggling of radioactive materials through borders, prevention of dispersion of these materials into the Olympic venues, enhancement of emergency preparedness and response to radiological events, upgrading of the technical infrastructure, establishment of new procedures for assessing the threat and responding to radiological incidents, and training personnel belonging to several organizations involved in the National Emergency Response Plan. Finally, the close cooperation of Greek Authorities with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, under the coordination of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission, is also discussed. PMID:16966875

  5. A modeling analysis of a heavy air pollution episode occurred in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    An, X.; Zhu, T.; Wang, Z.; C. Li; Wang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM) and ozone in Beijing often exceed healthful levels in recent years, therefore China is to taking steps to improve Beijing's air quality for the 2008 Olympic Games. In this paper, the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System was used to investigate a heavy air pollution episode in Beijing during 3–7 April 2005 to obtain the basic information of how heavy air pollution formed and the contributions of local...

  6. "Offering Something Back to Society?" Learning Disability, Ethnicity and Sporting Legacy: Hosting the Special Olympics GB Summer Games in Leicester, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John; Carter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 the city of Leicester hosted the Special Olympics Great Britain National Summer Games. Around 2500 athletes with learning disabilities competed in 21 sports. This article argues that this sporting mega-event had important potential legacy consequences for the hosts, the governing body --Special Olympics Great Britain (SOGB)--and also for…

  7. ISPO BEIJING 2012- Growth Trend Continues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    In the year of 2008, the Olympic Games were held in the city of Beijing for the first time in the country's history, marking the emergence of a new relationship between China and the sports industry, and resulting in a subsequent three years of fast developmenttowards an exciting sports business future. ISPO BEIJING 2012, which is scheduled to be held from February 22nd to 25th, 2012 at the China National Convention Center in Beijing, would once again offer the sports industrial fields a platform to seek their opportunities.

  8. Olympic Education and Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Hai

    2009-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Olympic education has received increasingly greater attention. It is not just Olympic host cities that have established specialized Olympic education prograrnmes across the board, but also non-host cities are developing Olympic education activities to different degrees. Olympic education has also become an important project in the Olympic preparatory work, and has been an important project in the preparations for the Beijing Olympics. How to understand Olympic education? There are many different ways of looking at it. This essay attempts to take the unique characteristics of Olympic education as a starting point to explore the important role played by issues of cross-cultural communication in Olympic education.

  9. Records already before the games? Exorbitant solar systems on the roofs of the Olympic Village; Rekorde schon im Vorfeld? Exorbitante Solaranlagen auf den Daechern des Olympischen Dorfes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-15

    One of the world's biggest evacuated tube collector systems is currently being constructed in Beijing. The system, with a total surface of 7,500 square metres, will be installed on the roofs of the Olympic Village and will supply warm water to the 18,000 athletes that will inhabit the Olympic Village with its 42 6-9-storey buildings. (orig.)

  10. Motivation and volunteer participation in the «Athens 2004» Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THEODOROS GEORGIADIS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research tackles the topic of motives as they are developed by volunteers –who offer time-consuming services without expecting any material gains– and specifically the Olympic Volunteers of «Athens 2004». Four hundred-thirty (N = 430 volunteers completed the Scale of Motives, that was adapted in Greek from the functional approach of Omoto et al. (1993 and Chacon et al. (1998, aiming mainly at the testing of the hypothesis that the motives of volunteers who have previous volunteering experience, but also of those who wish (or continue to volunteer after the completion the Olympic Games, will differ from the motives of those volunteers who have not volunteered in the past or who do not aim at providing voluntary work in the future. The results supported the hypothesis, while the modified Greek scale offered high internal consistencies and strong indications of validity. The future review and reapplication of the design of the adapted questionnaire of Motives will likely eliminate any potential weaknesses and will allow the scale to reach full applicability.

  11. Principles of the Olympic movement

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to clarify, review and reflect on the importance of the Olympic movement main principles on nowadays sporting society. For this purpose, the paper goes through the contents of the Olympic Charter, the threats to humanist thinking, the Olympic Games history and the most recent contributions to the Olympic philosophy. Similarly, this article goes deep on the figure of Pierre de Coubertin as the precursor of modern Olympic Games leading to the development of a relation...

  12. Changes in the Game Characteristics of a Badminton Match: A Longitudinal Study through the Olympic Game Finals Analysis in Men’s Singles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Laffaye, Michael Phomsoupha, Frédéric Dor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze, through a longitudinal study, the Olympic Badminton Men’s singles finals from the Barcelona Games (1992 to the London Games (2012 to assess some changes of the Badminton game characteristics. Six Olympic finals have been analyzed based on the official video of the Olympic Games (OG through the temporal structure and with a notational approach. In total, 537 rallies and 5537 strokes have been analyzed. The results show a change in the game’s temporal structure: a significant difference in the rally time, rest time and number of shots per rally (all p<0.0001; 0.09 < η2 < 0.16. Moreover, the shot frequency shows a 34.0% increase (p<0.000001; η2 = 0.17, whereas the work density revealed a 58.2% decrease (from 78% to 30.8% as well as the effective playing time (-34.5% from 34.7±1.4% to 22.7±1.4%. This argues for an increase in the intensity of the game and a necessity for the player to use a longer resting time to recover. Lastly, the strokes distribution and the percentage of unforced and forced mistakes did not show any differences throughout the OG analysis, except for the use of the clear. This results impact on the way the training of Badminton players should be designed, especially in the temporal structure and intensity.

  13. Model-theoretic Optimization Approach to Triathlon Performance Under Comparative Static Conditions – Results Based on The Olympic Games 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fröhlich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Olympic-distance triathlon, time minimization is the goal in all three disciplines and the two transitions. Running is the key to winning, whereas swimming and cycling performance are less significantly associated with overall competition time. A comparative static simulation calculation based on the individual times of each discipline was done. Furthermore, the share of the discipline in the total time proved that increasing the scope of running training results in an additional performance development. Looking at the current development in triathlon and taking the Olympic Games in London 2012 as an initial basis for model-theoretic simulations of performance development, the first fact that attracts attention is that running becomes more and more the crucial variable in terms of winning a triathlon. Run times below 29:00 minutes in Olympic-distance triathlon will be decisive for winning. Currently, cycle training time is definitely overrepresented. The share of swimming is considered optimal.

  14. Comparison and assessment of the participation of Polish swimmers at the Olympic and Paralympic Games in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidel Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to assess and analyze the results of the Polish national team swimmers (Olympic and Paralympic at the XIV Summer Games 2012 in London (UK . Material : Score Polish swimmers start in London was carried out on the basis of medals won, participation in the finals. London also comparing the results with respect to the personal life record. The studies used the method of improving the outcome of the relative percentages - RPG% (relative performance gain %. It is based on the equation of RPG% = start time - end time / start time x 100. Material was to analyze and develop the results obtained by the Polish swimmers at the XIV Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012 in London. Results : the basic criterion for evaluating the training and participation of Polish swimmers at the games in London was the number of medals won. By this criterion, the Poles showed a rather weak result. Healthy athletes do not receive medals. Thus, they confirmed their poor showing four years ago. Athletes with disabilities unable to get on the podium three times. In relation to the previous games (they won 10 medals the result was rather weak. Conclusions : in terms of participation in the Olympic finals and improve individual life records, the results were slightly better swimmers with disabilities.

  15. An Investigation into the Familiarity of Physical Education Experts with Historical, Social and Cultural Aspects of Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Sardar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to survey an investigation into the familiarity of physical education experts with historical, social and cultural aspects of Olympic Games. 120 of the physical education experts (the members of physical education, the managers of the Ministry of Sport and Youth, the managers of physical education in the Ministry of Education answered to a researcher made questionnaire on familiarity with different aspects of Olympic Games in order to determine their familiarity with historical, cultural and social aspects of Olympic. The mentioned questionnaire (15 social questions, 14 historical questions, 11 cultural questions was constructed through a guide study and making subsequent revisions and editions. The opinions of the scope of experts were used in order to determine face and content validity and chronbach’s a was used in order to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. Appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVA one- way, MANOVA and the Scheffe Hoc test were used. The findings demonstrated that the viewpoints of the members of the physical education were significantly different from those of the other two groups. The Scheffe Hoc test also demonstrated a significant difference between the ideas of the physical education members and those of the other two groups. The superiority of the physical education members in social part consisting of questions involving nationalism, Doping, professional sport, advertisement, commercialism, multimedia and communications was not due to their knowledge of Olympic chart but their involvement with these subjects in the society. Their superiority in historical questions was owing to the role of multimedia in covering the news and increasing the knowledge of the people in this respect. One of the reasons for the superiority of the physical education members in cultural section was that the addressees of multimedia got information on medals more than the cultural

  16. Chinese Attitudes towards Varieties of English: A Pre-Olympic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Yu; Case, Rod E.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on findings of an investigation into Chinese students' attitudes towards varieties of English before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. One hundred and eight college students in mainland China evaluated six English speeches by two American English speakers, two British English speakers, and two Chinese English speakers for social…

  17. On Rise and Fall of the Ancient Olympic Games%古代奥林匹克运动会的盛衰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志刚

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料研究方法,对古代奥运会的神话与传说、古代奥运会的盛况、古代奥林匹克运动会的衰落、古代奥林匹克运动的特色进行了分析研究。以期以史为鉴,发展具有现代特色的新体育。%With the documentary study,this paper analyzes and researches the myth and legend of the ancient Olympic Games,the pomp of the ancient Olympic Games,the decline of the ancient Olympic Games and the ancient Olympic sports characteristics.Taking history as a mirror,new sports with modern characteristics should be developed.

  18. The Impact of Weather Forecasts of Various Lead Times on Snowmaking Decisions Made for the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics were held from 12 to 28 February 2010, and the Paralympic events followed 2 weeks later. During the Games, the weather posed a grave threat to the viability of one venue and created significant complications for the event schedule at others. Forecasts of weather with lead times ranging from minutes to days helped organizers minimize disruptions to sporting events and helped ensure all medal events were successfully completed. Of comparable importance, however, were the scenarios and forecasts of probable weather for the winter in advance of the Games. Forecasts of mild conditions at the time of the Games helped the Games' organizers mitigate what would have been very serious potential consequences for at least one venue. Snowmaking was one strategy employed well in advance of the Games to prepare for the expected conditions. This short study will focus on how operational decisions were made by the Games' organizers on the basis of both climatological and snowmaking forecasts during the pre-Games winter. An attempt will be made to quantify, economically, the value of some of the snowmaking forecasts made for the Games' operators. The results obtained indicate that although the economic value of the snowmaking forecast was difficult to determine, the Games' organizers valued the forecast information greatly. This suggests that further development of probabilistic forecasts for applications like pre-Games snowmaking would be worthwhile.

  19. Book review: the Olympic Games and the architecture of extreme capitalism: remaining sceptical about the ‘urban renaissance’

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkiss, Fran

    2012-01-01

    The privatisation of our cities has gone too far, argues Anna Minton in this passionate and convincing tale of the brutal links between regeneration, capitalism and unhappiness. Fran Tonkiss finds Minton’s analysis of the real legacy of the Olympic Games compelling, with important warnings on inequality and police states. Ground Control: Fear and happiness in the twenty-first-century city. Anna Minton. Penguin. January 2012. 288 pages.

  20. 3rd Summer Youth Olympic Games in 2018: report of the IOC working group : Lausanne, November 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The IOC Working Group for the 3rd Summer Youth Olympic Games (YOG) in 2018 is pleased to present the results of its evaluation of the five candidate cities (listed in alphabetical order): Buenos Aires (ARG), Glasgow (GBR), Guadalajara (MEX), Medellin (COL) and Rotterdam (NED). The Working Group notes that the city of Poznan (POL) withdrew its candidature mid-October 2012.Following an introduction that provides information on the methodology followed in assessing the cities’ projects and some ...

  1. From Internationalization of Terrorism to the Internationalization of Anti-terrorism : The Role of the Summer Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Selliaas, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The academic literature on international relations and international sports studies has long ignored the linkages between sports and international relations. The present contribution seeks to remedy this shortcoming in the literature on international relations and international sports studies, focusing on the relationship between terrorism, anti-terrorism and the Summer Olympic Games, and examining the role of terrorism and anticipated terrorist actions in the organization of t...

  2. Comparison and assessment of the participation of Polish swimmers at the Olympic and Paralympic Games in London

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel Wojciech; Prystupa Tetyana.; Fic Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    : to assess and analyze the results of the Polish national team swimmers (Olympic and Paralympic) at the XIV Summer Games 2012 in London (UK ). Material: Score Polish swimmers start in London was carried out on the basis of medals won, participation in the finals. London also comparing the results with respect to the personal life record. The studies used the method of improving the outcome of the relative percentages - RPG% (relative performance gain %). It is based on the equation of R...

  3. Development of 1D and 2D coupled model to simulate urban inundation: An application to Beijing Olympic Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI WeiFeng; CHEN QiuWen; MAO JingQiao

    2009-01-01

    Urban inundation due to anomalous storms is a serious problem for many cities worldwide. Therefore, it is important to accurately simulate urban hydrological processes and efficiently predict the potential risks of urban floods for the improvement of drainage designs and implementation of emergency ac-tions. However, the complexity of urban landforma and the diversity of hydraulic infrastructure pose particular challenges for the simulation and risk assessment of urban drainage processes. This study developed a methodology to comprehensively simulate inundation processes by dynamically coupling 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models. By allowing the simultaneous solution of the processes of rainfall and runoff, urban drainage, and flooding, this method can be used to estimate the potential inundation risks of any designed drainage system. Furthermore, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based platform was fully integrated with the model engine to effectively illustrate the context of the problem. The developed model was then demonstrated on the Beijing 2008 Olympic Village under the conditions of the 5-year and 50-year design storms. The sewer discharge, channel discharge, and flood propaga-tion (inundation initiation, extent, depths, and duration) were numerically validated and analyzed. The results identified the potential inundation risks. From the study, it is found that the coupled GIS and 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models have the potential to simulate urban inundation processes, and hence efficiently predict flood risks and support cost-effective drainage design and management. It also im-plies promising prospects about the wide availability of high quality digital data, GIS techniques, and well-developed monitoring infrastructure to develop online urban inundation forecasts.

  4. Very-short range forecasting system for 2018 Pyeonchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ji-Eun; Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Minyou; Kim, Changhwan; Joo, Sangwon

    2016-04-01

    The 23rd Olympic Winter and the 13th Paralympic Winter Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea respectively from 9 to 25 February 2018 and from 9 to 18 February 2018. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the National Institute for Meteorological Science (NIMS) have the responsibility to provide weather information for the management of the Games and the safety of the public. NIMS will carry out a Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) and a Research and Development Project (RDP) which will be called ICE-POP 2018. These projects will focus on intensive observation campaigns to understand severe winter weathers over the Pyeongchang region, and the research results from the RDP will be used to improve the accuracy of nowcasting and very short-range forecast systems during the Games. To support these projects, NIMS developed Very-short range Data Assimilation and Prediction System (VDAPS), which is run in real time with 1 hour cycling interval and up to 12 hour forecasts. The domain is covering Korean Peninsular and surrounding seas with 1.5km horizontal resolution. AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, and radar radial winds are assimilated by 3DVAR on 3km resolution inner domain. The rain rate is converted into latent heat and initialized via nudging. The visibility data are also assimilated with the addition of aerosol control variable. The experiments results show the improvement in rainfall over south sea of Korean peninsula. In order to reduce excessive rainfalls during first 2 hours due to the reduced cycling interval, the data assimilation algorithm is optimized.

  5. Olympic Family Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Another option besides hotel Quoted prices for hotel stays in Beijing during the summer Olympics have jumped up by four to ten times higher than normal, said China's biggest online booking provider Ctrip.com International Ltd.

  6. Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2004-01-01

    As the nation's capital, Beijing hasunderstandably been positioned as China's political and cultural centel As the second largest economy among China's cities according to figures for 2003, Beijing also earns the title of an economic center. In the past two years Beijing has started to realize the indispensable value of finance for its overall economic development and set out to build a financial area in the city.

  7. 1. Race not war: An economic analysis of the Olympic Games in ancient Greece. 2. War without shooting: An analysis of ambush marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Lantinova, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Essay 1: Ancient Greece provided many institutions that became the foundations of Western civilization. One of its most famous innovations was the Olympic Games. I provide an explanation for the existence of these games – namely that they acted as a mecha

  8. The risk of dengue for non-immune foreign visitors to the 2016 summer olympic games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ximenes, Raphael; Amaku, Marcos; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Greenhalgh, David; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Struchiner, Claudio José; Massad, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Rio de Janeiro in Brazil will host the Summer Olympic Games in 2016. About 400,000 non-immune foreign tourists are expected to attend the games. As Brazil is the country with the highest number of dengue cases worldwide, concern about the risk of dengue for travelers is justified. Methods A mathematical model to calculate the risk of developing dengue for foreign tourists attending the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro in 2016 is proposed. A system of differential equation models the...

  9. Spreading the Olympic Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Olympic Truce dates back to the eighth century B.C. and served as the cornerstone of the ancient games for more than 1,200 years. Throughout the duration of the peace accord, from the seventh day prior to the opening of the Olympic Games to the seventh day following the closing, all conflicts should cease according to the truce.

  10. Olympic village: discover all you need to knowabout the Olympic village

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This document provides information about the Olympic village of the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. The topics covered go from information on resident centre, the Olympic village policies, food and beverage, village transport, ceremonies to Village plaza and key contacts.

  11. The age in swimming of champions in World Championships (1994–2013) and Olympic Games (1992–2012): a cross-sectional data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Beat Knechtle; Nicola Luigi Bragazzi; Stefan König; Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis; Stefanie Wild; Thomas Rosemann; Christoph Alexander Rüst

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: We investigated the age of swimming champions in all strokes and race distances in World Championships (1994–2013) and Olympic Games (1992–2012); (2) Methods: Changes in age and swimming performance across calendar years for 412 Olympic and world champions were analysed using linear, non-linear, multi-level regression analyses and MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP); (3) Results: The age of peak swimming performance remained stable in most of all race distances for world champions and...

  12. Managing corporate partner relationships to achieve sustainability: case study of the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xinquan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how corporate sponsorship can contribute to Olympic sustainability (i.e., economic, environmental and social sustainability, the "triple bottom line"). The research focused on the partnership management strategies between the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC) and six national Vancouver 2010 corporate sponsors as well as one Tier 2 corporate sponsor, with an emphasis on the role of social respons...

  13. 2008年奥运会两年倒计时%Two-year Countdown to 2008 Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立宇

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games begins in just two years with the Opening Ceremony starting at 8 p.m. on August 8, 2008. The date is regarded as a very auspicious1 sign of prosperity2 in East Asia.

  14. Surface sediment chemistry in the Olympic Games 2004 Sailing Center (Saronikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. KARAGEORGIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the Olympic Games 2004 Sailing Center is planned in the Saronikos Gulf, in the area of Agios Kosmas. A multi-disciplinary base-line study was carried out to provide background levels of inorganic and organic pollutants before the construction. Two shallow reefs (water depth 2-3 m are the predominant features in the area’s underwater topography. The reef consists of solid rock formations and pebbles, whereas sandy sediments cover predominantly the remaining seabed. Some pockets of fine-grained sand were identified within the existing marina. Sedimentary heavy metal contents were found to be low, showing only slight heavy metal enrichment, attributed mainly to heavy mineral abundance in the area. A small enrichment for lead could be related to anthropogenic sources. Patterns of low concentrations were observed for organic carbon and organic nitrogen. Conversely, the sediment petroleum hydrocarbon content was found to be relatively high, implying anthropogenic pollution related to ship effluents and increased marine traffic.

  15. Auditory status of persons with intellectual disability at the German Special Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Katrin; Dettmer, Gabriele; Euler, Harald A; Giebel, Armin; Gross, Manfred; Herer, Gilbert; Hoth, Sebastian; Lattermann, Christina; Montgomery, Judy

    2006-02-01

    Among persons with intellectual disability, the prevalence of hearing impairments is high. During the German Special Olympics Summer Games 2004, a hearing screening was conducted on 755 athletes with intellectual disabilities. Obligatory screening included ear inspection and recording of otoacoustic emissions, and optional screening included tympanometry and brief pure-tone audiometry. 38.0% of the athletes failed the screening. 53.0% needed ear wax removal. 56.1% of the fails indicated sensorineural hearing loss and 13.6% indicated mixed hearing loss. 12.5% of the fails were caused by unremovable ear wax, 1.4% by ear canal affections, and 16.4% by middle ear problems. Left ear fails were more frequent than right ear fails. A peripheral hearing disturbance can thus be expected in every third subject. The high failure rate, a considerable percentage of previously undetected profound hearing loss (1.1%), and the frequent need for ear wax removal, suggest that nearly half of persons with intellectual disabilities need regular otological or audiological consultations. PMID:16566246

  16. French Olympics Topic Pack Games, Activities and Resources to Teach French

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    The enthusiasm and excitement surrounding the Olympics makes it an ideal topic for teaching French. Not only will pupils learn the French words for sports, we also give you ideas to reinforce vocabulary and sentence structures for a range of topics, from colours and weather to numbers and travel. In addition, using the information on France at the Olympics included in the resource will help to cover the Intercultural Strand of the Framework for Modern Languages. The French Olympics Topic Pac...

  17. Rapid deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system in the state of Utah for the 2002 Olympic Winter Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteland, Per H.; Wagner, Michael M.; Chapman, Wendy W.; Espino, Jeremy U.; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Gardner, Reed M.; Rolfs, Robert T.; Dato, Virginia; James, Brent C.; Haug, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    The key to minimizing the effects of an intentionally caused disease outbreak is early detection of the attack and rapid identification of the affected individuals. The Bush administration's leadership in advocating for biosurveillance systems capable of monitoring for bioterrorism attacks suggests that we should move quickly to establish a nationwide early warning biosurveillance system as a defense against this threat. The spirit of collaboration and unity inspired by the events of 9-11 and the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City provided the opportunity to demonstrate how a prototypic biosurveillance system could be rapidly deployed. In seven weeks we were able to implement an automated, real-time disease outbreak detection system in the State of Utah and monitored 80,684 acute care visits occurring during a 28-day period spanning the Olympics. No trends of immediate public health concern were identified. PMID:12463832

  18. The estimation of author program’s efficiency of preparation Ukrainian rowing women team to the Olympic Games – 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Miftahutdinova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to give the estimation of efficiency of the use of the authorial training program in setup time for the women’s Ukraine rowing team representatives in the process of preparation to Olympic Games in London. Materials and Methods: 10 sportswomen of higher qualification, that are included to Ukraine rowing team, are participated in research. For the estimation of general and special physical preparedness the standard test and rowing ergometre Concept-2 are used. Results: the end of the preparatory period was observed significant improvement significant general and special physical fitness athletes surveyed, and their deviation from the model performance dropped to 5–7%. Conclusions: the high efficiency of the author training program for sportswomen of Ukrainian rowing team are testified and they became the Olympic champions in London.

  19. Comparative Study on Every Position Errors Feature of China Men's Basketball Team and the World Top Teams in Beijing Olympic Games%北京奥运会中国男篮与世界强队各位置失误特征的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文生

    2011-01-01

    本文采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、特尔斐法、录像观察统计法、数理统计等研究方法,依据筛选确定的具体指标,通过比赛中的技术统计数据,对有关失误方面相关因素的比较分析,找出中国男篮各位置在本届奥运会中失误的原因,并提出今后的发展对策.%This paper uses documentation, expert interview and Delphi method, video observation statistics and statistics methods, according to determine the apecific index, screening by the game technology statistical data, the error in the comparative analysis related factors, and find out the Chinese national baskethall team in every position errors in the games of reason, and put forward the countermeasures.

  20. Weather modeling for hazard and consequence assessment operations during the 2006 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P.; Trigg, J. L.; Stauffer, D.; Hunter, G.; McQueen, J.

    2006-05-01

    Consequence assessment (CA) operations are those processes that attempt to mitigate negative impacts of incidents involving hazardous materials such as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosive (CBRNE) agents, facilities, weapons, or transportation. Incident types range from accidental spillage of chemicals at/en route to/from a manufacturing plant, to the deliberate use of radiological or chemical material as a weapon in a crowded city. The impacts of these incidents are highly variable, from little or no impact to catastrophic loss of life and property. Local and regional scale atmospheric conditions strongly influence atmospheric transport and dispersion processes in the boundary layer, and the extent and scope of the spread of dangerous materials in the lower levels of the atmosphere. Therefore, CA personnel charged with managing the consequences of CBRNE incidents must have detailed knowledge of current and future weather conditions to accurately model potential effects. A meteorology team was established at the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) to provide weather support to CA personnel operating DTRA's CA tools, such as the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) tool. The meteorology team performs three main functions: 1) regular provision of meteorological data for use by personnel using HPAC, 2) determination of the best performing medium-range model forecast for the 12 - 48 hour timeframe and 3) provision of real-time help-desk support to users regarding acquisition and use of weather in HPAC CA applications. The normal meteorology team operations were expanded during a recent modeling project which took place during the 2006 Winter Olympic Games. The meteorology team took advantage of special weather observation datasets available in the domain of the Winter Olympic venues and undertook a project to improve weather modeling at high resolution. The varied and complex terrain provided a special challenge to the

  1. 我国特奥运动的再发展%The Redevelopment of Special Olympics Games in Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳艳

    2012-01-01

    The intellectual disabled people are the special social groups, concerning with the intellectual disabled people is the inherent requirement to establish a harmonious society of people-centered. With the successful hosting the 2008 Shanghai Special Olympics World Games, Poster-Special Olympics World Games need the spreading and developing of the Special Olympics World Games. The thesis tries to concerning of intellectual disabled sports partieipadon, physical health, quality of life, social integration and "participation - upgrade - social integration", upgrading the quality of life to the intellectual di- sabled people, integrating them into the big society family.%智障人士是社会中的特殊群体,关注智障人士是构建以人为本的和谐社会的内在要求。08上海特奥会的成功举办,使人们进一步了解了这一特殊人群,更需要进一步推广和发展特奥运动。本文试图从“参与-提升-社会融合”的视角关注智障人士的体育参与、心理情感、生理健康、生活质量、社会融合和社会支持,切实提升智障人士的生活质量。真正让他们走出家庭、融入社会大家庭。

  2. 大型赛事田径团队运行模式研究--以2014年南京青奥会为例%Operating mode of athletics team in large -scale events:A case study of 2014 Nanjing Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫东; 孟德超

    2015-01-01

    2014年南京青奥会是继成功举办北京夏季奥运会后,中国成功举办的又一盛大综合性体育赛事。对大型赛事的组织运行模式进行总结,不断对其进行优化、完善,以期为我国再次举办大型田径赛事时在田径团队组织方面提供借鉴。%2014 Nanjing Youth Olympic Games was another grand comprehensive sports events successfully hosted by China following the success of 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics.To summarize the experience of operation mode and constantly optimize and improve it will provide reference for the future operation of track and field management team in large -scale events.

  3. The Inheritance Mechanism of Spiritual Legacy in the 2008 Beijing Olympics%2008北京奥运会精神遗产的传承机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊; 陈作松

    2012-01-01

    Based on sociology,psychology and communication theories,the study investigates the inheritance mechanism of spiritual legacy in Beijing Olympics.It concludes that the cultivation and inheritance of cultural legacy in Beijing Olympics is a kind of social action as well as a kind of social individual behavior.As a kind of social action,it is an interaction progress of three social control systems,which are the control and guidance of government macro regulation,the motivation and coordination of social organization,and the combination of social emotion respectively;as a kind of social individual behavior,there are three psychology processes that the attitude of social individual is transferred from obedience and identity to internalization.The three social control system and psychology processes having an interactive and coupling relationship,meanwhile,with the aid of culture,sports,education,media and so on,the Abstract spiritual legacy is transferred specific material form,behavior and standard so as to form the effective the inheritance mechanism of spiritual legacy in Beijing Olympics.%从社会学、心理学及传播学的角度出发,探讨了北京奥运会精神遗产的传承机制。研究认为:北京奥运会精神遗产的弘扬和传承既是一项社会行动,又是一种社会个体行为。做为一项社会行动,是政府宏观的控制与导向、社会组织机构的激励与协调、社会情感的融合三个社会控制系统互相作用的过程;做为一个社会个体行为,是社会个体的态度由服从、认同向内化转化的三个心理过程。三个社会控制系统与个体三个心理过程的互动耦合,同时借助文化、体育、教育和传媒等载体,将抽象的精神遗产转化为具体的物质形态、行为和规范,从而形成有效的北京奥运会精神遗产传承机制。

  4. Combined Ground and Space-Based Measurements of Air Quality during the London Olympic Games 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. R.; Leigh, R. J.; Singh Anand, J.; McNally, M.; Lawrence, J.; Remedios, J.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    During July and August 2012 the Summer Olympic Games were held in London. During this period, unusually high levels of traffic and visitors to the city were expected, it is important to understand the effect this had on the air quality in London during this period. To this end three novel CityScan instruments were installed in London from the 20th July though to the end of September; affording the unique opportunity to monitor the spatial and vertical structure of nitrogen dioxide within the boundary layer in unprecedented detail. The deployment was included as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London) involving many other institutions and complementary measurement techniques. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which is has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95° field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5° below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1° per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. The first of the three CityScan instruments was located in North Kensington, the second in Soho and third

  5. “The Olympic Torch Burns, and Great Suspicion Blazes” – China Narratives in the German Media during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing 2008 „Das olympische Feuer brennt. Und mit ihm lodert das Misstrauen“ – Die Chinaberichterstattung während der Olympischen Sommerspiele in Beijing 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Poerner

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the description of China in leading German daily and weekly newspapers during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. On the basis of a brief outline of the main China narratives in German media since the 1950s, this paper analyses China-related articles which were published during the period August 8-15, 2008. It argues that reports on China are mostly based on well established German notions of China and centre around the image of a despotic and/or dangerous China. Theref...

  6. NOx emission estimates during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; van der A, R. J.; Mijling, B.; Levelt, P. F.; Hao, N.

    2015-08-01

    The Nanjing Government applied temporary environmental regulations to guarantee good air quality during the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) in 2014. We study the effect of those regulations by applying the emission estimate algorithm DECSO (Daily Emission estimates Constrained by Satellite Observations) to measurements of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We improved DECSO by updating the chemical transport model CHIMERE from v2006 to v2013 and by adding an Observation minus Forecast (OmF) criterion to filter outlying satellite retrievals due to high aerosol concentrations. The comparison of model results with both ground and satellite observations indicates that CHIMERE v2013 is better performing than CHIMERE v2006. After filtering the satellite observations with high aerosol loads that were leading to large OmF values, unrealistic jumps in the emission estimates are removed. Despite the cloudy conditions during the YOG we could still see a decrease of tropospheric NO2 column concentrations of about 32 % in the OMI observations when compared to the average NO2 columns from 2005 to 2012. The results of the improved DECSO algorithm for NOx emissions show a reduction of at least 25 % during the YOG period and afterwards. This indicates that air quality regulations taken by the local government have an effect in reducing NOx emissions. The algorithm is also able to detect an emission reduction of 10 % during the Chinese Spring Festival. This study demonstrates the capacity of the DECSO algorithm to capture the change of NOx emissions on a monthly scale. We also show that the observed NO2 columns and the derived emissions show different patterns that provide complimentary information. For example, the Nanjing smog episode in December 2013 led to a strong increase in NO2 concentrations without an increase in NOx emissions. Furthermore, DECSO gives us important information on the non-trivial seasonal relation between NOx emissions and NO2 concentrations on a local scale.

  7. 奥林匹克运动会的内部结构性问题审视%Internal Structures of Olympic Games and Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪

    2015-01-01

    The literature study ,mathematical statistics and logical analysis showed that the problems facing the internal structures of the Olympic Games have influenced its healthy development .The competitive sports capacity of different countries were significantly different .Levels of competitive sports capacity of different continents were imbalanced .A same sports event was developed differently in different countries .The motive of each country for hosting the Olympic Games differed .In order to solve these problems ,development of various kinds of Olympic cultures should be encouraged . Education and the Olympic Games should be further integrated .The politicalization of each country's participation in or hosting the Olympic Games should be discouraged .Reform of the internal structures of the Olympic Games was needed .%奥运会面临的内部结构性问题日益危害其健康发展。主要表现为:不同国家竞技体育实力差异显著;洲际竞技体育发展水平的严重失衡;运动项目在各个国家发展水平差距巨大;不同国家对于参与或举办奥运会的动机分化严重等。以上述分析为基础提出改革建议:坚定奥运会的文化多元化发展方向,提升奥运会的文化包容性与多样性;使奥林匹克运动与教育进行深度融合;引导各国淡化参与或举办奥运会的政治色彩;对国际奥委会的内部治理结构进行适当改革等。

  8. On Trends and Distribution of China's Gold Medals in Olympic Games%我国奥运会金牌走向及项目分布特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁锋; 李晓华

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料、数据统计、归纳比较、聚类分析方法,对我国历届夏季奥运会和冬季奥运会金牌数、金牌项目分布以及获金牌运动员特征进行了研究,结果表明:我国共获得210枚奥运金牌,其中9枚冬季奥运会金牌,201枚夏季奥运会金牌,金牌总数呈上升趋势;辽宁、广东、湖北、北京与江苏等省市位列金牌榜前五位,新疆、青海、宁夏、海南、西藏、甘肃6省未获得奥运金牌;金牌项目主要集中在跳水、举重、体操、乒乓球、羽毛球、射击和短道速滑;技能主导类项群是我国奥运金牌的主要贡献者,尤其是表现难美性项目,其金牌贡献率达到30%;奥运金牌项目的区域分布呈现出强、较强和弱3个地带,不同纬度与经度的分布差异具有统计学意义,东西部竞技实力差距明显;女子获奥运金牌数多于男子,但“阴盛阳衰”的局面已在悄然改变。%By means of literature ,statistics ,induction and comparison ,system analysis ,our country in summer and Winter Olympic Games gold medal ,the gold medal project distribution and won the gold med-al athlete features have been studied .The results show that China won 210 gold medals in the Olympic Games ,9 Olympic gold medals and 201 Olympic gold medals ,the gold medal total upward trend;Liaon-ing ,Guangdong ,Hubei ,Beijing and Jiangsu ranked the top five gold medals list ,Xinjiang ,Qinghai , Ningxia ,Hainan ,Tibet ,Gansu six provinces is not to win an Olympic gold medal ;gold projects mainly in diving ,weightlifting ,gymnastics ,table tennis ,badminton ,shooting and short track speed skating ;skill-dominant category is the main contribution to China's Olympic gold medal ,especially difficulty-artistic project gold medal ,the contribution rate of 30% ;the regional distribution of the Olympic gold medal pro-ject showing a strong ,strong and weak three zones ,there are significant differences in

  9. The Youth's Humanistic Education under Nanjing Youth Olympic Games%南京青奥会契机下的青少年人文教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小伟

    2011-01-01

    通过文献资料法,对青奥会和人文教育进行了分析。青奥会是对奥林匹克运动的创新,青奥会更加关注青少年,突出文化和教育的主题。现代社会的发展需要具有科学知识与深厚人文情怀的和谐发展的人,对青少年实施人文教育是教育的根本。青奥会是青少年展示自我的平台,奥林匹克精神是奥林匹克运动的灵魂,弘扬奥林匹克精神有利于推进青少年人文教育。南京申办青奥会理念蕴涵着深厚的人文思想,南京青奥会契机下,应加强我国青少年运动员科学教育和人文教育,学校体育要践行奥林匹克思想,加强青少年学生人文教育。%By adopting the method of literature,the paper analyses the Youth Olympic Games and humanistic education.The Youth Olympic Games,originated from the Olympic Games,pays more attention to the youth generation and stresses the topics of culture and education.The humanistic education for the young people is basic for the development of the modern society which needs the harmoniously developed humans with scientific knowledge and humanistic spirit.Since the Youth Olympic Games provides the youth the chance to show themselves and the Olympic spirit is the soul of the Olympic,spreading the Olympic spirit is beneficial for promoting the youth's humanistic education.Therefore,with Nanjing Youth Olympic Games as a pivot,the scientific and humanistic education should be enhanced for the youth athletes as well as for the young students at the schools in which the Olympic ideals should be put into practice.

  10. Statistical Analysis on the Attack and Defense Techniques of World Men’ s Basket Teams in Recent Two Olympic Games%近两届奥运会男篮攻防技术的统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩庆波; 徐兰君

    2014-01-01

    Based on the statistical analysis on attack and defense techniques of men ’ s basketball in Beijing and London Olympic Games, the overall defense and attack quality has been improved in London Olympics comparing with the Olympics in Beijing , but the behavior of Chinese men ’ s basketball team fell significantly .Using factor and cluster analysis , the technical statistic index can be divided into 4 factors:offense factor , response factor , psychological factor and physical factor .The conclusion that those 4 fac-tors are the main factors determining the scores of a team can be made .In terms of the cluster analysis , the US team can be classi-fied as a group .However , the grouping of other teams varies in those two Olympics .Chinese team with some top European teams like Spanish team will be classifies as the same group because of their apparent similarities .Therefore, the urgent problems are that we should increase our communications with these top European teams , improve our own members ’ strength quality , and raise our technical and tactical capabilities under strong antagonistic conditions .%统计分析北京、伦敦两届奥运会男篮比赛相关攻防技术指标,伦敦奥运会男篮整体攻防质量较北京奥运会有了提高,中国男篮下滑明显。运用因子与聚类分析法检验分析所得数据,把相关技术指标分为:进攻因子、反应因子、心理因子和身体因子四个因子,得出这四个因子是决定球队成绩主要因子的结论。聚类分析结果:美国队独归为一类;其他队伍两届奥运会归类有所变化;中国队与以西班牙为代表的欧洲强队归为一类,相似特征明显。加强与欧洲强队学习交流,提高队员力量素质及在强对抗条件下自身的技战术发挥能力是我们急需解决的问题。

  11. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-01-01

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:22874459

  12. Cardiorespiratory Biomarker Responses in Healthy Young Adults to Drastic Air Quality Changes Surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Huang, Wei; Rich, David; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Diehl, Scott; Hu, Min; Tong, Jian; Gong, Jicheng; Thomas, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Associations between air pollution and cardiorespiratory mortality and morbidity have been well established, but data to support biologic mechanisms underlying these associations are limited. We designed this study to examine several prominently hypothesized mechanisms by assessing Beijing residents’ biologic responses, at the biomarker level, to drastic changes in air quality brought about by unprecedented air pollution control measures implemented during the 2008 Beijing O...

  13. The Analysis of the Technical and Tactical Characteristics of Men's Badminton Doubles finals in recent two Olympic Games%近两届奥运会羽毛球男双决赛技战术特征对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛白; 邹国忠

    2012-01-01

    London Olympic Games has already ended,Chinese badminton players got five gold medals,meanwhile,Chinese reached the peak of badminton history.With the shadow of failure in Beijing Olympic Games,the gold medal that Cai Yun and Fu Haifeng got carries more weight.Through the methods of literature study and video observation,mathematical statistics,the essay studied the men's badminton doubles finals in Beijing and London Olympic Games and made comparative analysis of the technical and tactical characteristics and the feagure of combination of the players.The author provided reference for improving athletes' technical and tactical characteristics and also provided lessons for pairing and combination of different tachnical types of men's badmintion doubles players.%伦敦奥运会已经落下了帷幕,中国羽毛球勇夺五金,达到了历史的巅峰。在北京奥运会失利的阴影下,蔡赟傅海峰的男子双打金牌则显示出了相当重的分量。本文通过文献资料法,录像观察法,数理统计法等对北京奥运会和伦敦奥运会中的羽毛球男子双打决赛进行了研究,对比赛选手的技战术以及组合特征进行了对比分析,为进一步提高运动员的技战术水平提供了参考,同时也为羽毛球不同技术类型男子双打运动员进行配对组合提供借鉴。

  14. Record Breaking Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the evening of August 8, the lighting of the Olympic cauldron in Beijing’s National Stadium marked the formal opening of the 29th Summer Olympic Games. From that moment on, the quest to jump higher, run faster and be stronger began

  15. 经济因素与奥运会举办城市的归属问题探析%Relegation of Olympic Games Host City Decided by Economic Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董杰

    2009-01-01

    本研究根据中对奥运会举办城市遴选的规定,从国际奥委会和候选城市两方面探讨了经济因素对双方的决定作用.对于国际奥委会而言,奥运会巨大的规模,全球目前面临的经济危机和数量众多的比赛场馆的建设,需要坚实的经济基础,奥运会举办国家和城市的经济实力是前提.对于奥运会举办城市来讲,提出诱人的经济条件是获得选票的%In the light of ordain of election of the Olympic Games host city of , the research on economic factor decide the relegation of Olympic Games host city from two aspects of IOC and candidature city. For IOC, the reasons about Olympic Games huge scale and global economic crisis and many venues are built etc. need stability economic base. Economic strength is precondition for Olympic Games host country and city. The key to obtain the votes of host Olympic Games is lodging lure condition. At the same time, it only supply huge money can guarantee needs of host Olympic Games. Local sponsorship obtains huge income can clam down civil dissatisfaction and guarantee Olympic Games favoring. The article's aim is supply evidence to development of Olympic Games and candidature other Games of China in future.

  16. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Janssens

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  17. The People’s Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The honor of being part of the first-ever Chinese Olympic Games has spurred enormous enthusiasm Atotal ofhalf a million volunteers are needed to host the Olympic Games in China next year, but organizers will still have to turn many people away because of

  18. Sexual Orientation, Human Rights, and Corporate Sponsorship of the Sochi Olympic Games: Rethinking the Voluntary Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Van Detta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-national enterprises (MNEs have provided substantial sponsorship for the Sochi Winter Olympic Games despite a host-country government that has recently enacted stunningly harsh legislation aimed at the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI communities within Russia. This is a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR problem. Should Europe address it through voluntary corporate compliance, Europe’s historically preferred mode of promoting CSR? Or should Europe reconsider whether it can more effectively promote CSR compliance legislatively – and if so, by what kind of legislation? To honor the explicit and increased protections of human rights against sexual orientation discrimination in the Treaty of Amsterdam and the Charter of Fundamental Human Rights, more than voluntary, good intentions are needed. Particularly since the United States has effectively bowed out of enforcing CSR through the American federal courts, there now exists a regulatory lacuna that the European Commission is best situated to fill through the precision offered by judicious rulemaking. The article ultimately proposes an approach that combines the public-pressure engine that fuels voluntary CSR with public disclosures mandated by law to optimize the information and mobilization of public opinion and pressure – factors particularly noteworthy given the powerful “branding” benefits that MNEs seek through Olympic sponsorship.

  19. Vibration test and analysis of Laoshan bicycle gymnasium for the Olympic Games under multi-support excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The vibration tests of Laoshan bicycle gymnasium for the Olympic Games are performed under multi-support excitations in order to verify the effectiveness of multi-support time history method. The excitation sources come from the impact forces acting on the ring beam of the reticulated structure, on the basis of which the records of motions of each excited point and corresponding structural vibration responses are all collected. The theoretical analytical model of the structure is further established and the structural dynamic responses are obtained subjected to the same excitation case via multi-support time history method. The calculation results are generally in agreement with those of the test in both time domain and frequency domain, which verify the effectiveness of multi-support time history method. The vibration test can also provide references for long-span structures under multi-support excitations.

  20. Sex equity in French newspaper photographs: A content analysis of 2012 Olympic Games by L'Equipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Nicolas; Testard, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine sex equity in the photographic coverage of the London 2012 Olympic Games by a French sports daily newspaper. A sample of 1073 photographs was collected and analysed. A content analysis was carried out focusing on the number of photographs, the space they cover, their location and position, the type and colour of shot and the sport they depict. A significant under-representation of female athletes' photographs was found. However, contrary to most of previous research in this field, the other quantitative and qualitative variables do not show any differences. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the number of photographs for each sport and the number of French medals was found (for women, for men and for the whole sample), suggesting that the photographic coverage of this event is mainly based on the success of French athletes independently of their sex. PMID:26255825

  1. Research on the acid rain under the short-term environment control measures of the Youth Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Qing, W.; Chen, Y.; Peng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Northern China emits the most part of acid pollution of the whole nation but turns out to be in a light acid precipitation extent. Research shows that it is the carbonate particles from dust that neutralize the acid in the rainfall. Construction in southern China becomes more and more active so that alkaline dusts from construction are receiving an increasing attention. Nanjing hosts the Youth Olympic Games in 2015 and implements a strict plan to control the emission of construction dust. Thus, The Youth Olympic Games provides a good opportunity to analyze the neutralization of alkaline dusts emitted from construction in Nanjing. Experiment is conducted by collecting the total of rainfall events from June to September in 2015, besides, TSP (total suspended particles) before and after each rainfall events is collected due to find the collaboration with rainfall. Ca2+,Mg2+,K+,Na+,Sr2+,F-,Cl-,SO42-,NO3- concentrations in rain water and water soluble fraction of TSP are analyzed using ICP-OES and ICS in Nanjing University. Results showed that Ca2+and SO42- makes the major part of total ions, indicating the fact that Nanjing is suffering from a severe acid rainfall and alkaline dusts which mainly consist of Ca2+ neutralize a large number of acid particles. pH of rainfall has a good correlation with the flux of TSP. pH of rainfall keeps falling as the YOG plan starts and picking up after the YOG, which indicates that the declination of artificial alkaline dust in TSP reduces the neutralization on the acid rainfall.

  2. The second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China: preparing youth athletes to compete in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Joao Brito,1 Sebastien Racinais,2 George P Nassis,1,3 1National Sports Medicine Programme, Excellence in Football Project, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 2Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece  All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: The second Summer Youth Olympic Games will take place August 16–28, 2014 in Nanjing, People's Republic of China during the peak of the summer. Nanjing has been reported as one of the hottest cities in the People's Republic of China, with temperatures reaching as high as 40°C. There is limited clinical evidence of the real risks that youth athletes face when training and competing in the heat, but some recommendations can be made. The estimated average wet bulb globe temperature for Nanjing in August is 32°C, which has been classified as a very high risk/stop play condition for heat illness and injury. Training and competing under extreme heat conditions could stress the thermoregulatory system and adversely affect health and performance. However, current guidelines appear to be inadequate or too conservative, and mostly focus on adult elite athletes. Therefore, proper preventive measures are warranted to reduce the risks of heat illness and injury. With proper heat acclimatization and monitoring, youth athletes can exercise reasonably well and safely in the heat. During the second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China, special attention should be devoted to athletes exposed to long and extensive sunny and hot conditions. Keywords: youth sports, heat acclimatization, thermoregulation

  3. 棒球退出奥运会比赛的现状分析%Analysis of baseball withdraw from the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2012-01-01

    From the London Olympic Games start, baseball is no longer an official Olympic sport. October 7, 2005, the International Olympic Committee should be international bar group requirements, announced the Singapore all the project Settings the vote, baseball project for 50 ticket support, 54 votes against to 4 vote short been ruled out of the London 2012 Olympics. Similarly, baseball missed the 2016 Olympics, these decided to give the world baseball sports development brought serious challenges.Why did the International Olympic Committee this decision? The author through widely data access, baseball games out reason of discussion and analysis, and carries on the induction and summary.%从伦敦奥运套开始,棒球不再是奥运会正式比赛项目。2005年10月7日,一际奥委会应国际棒联的要求,公布了新加坡全全项目设置投票结果,棒球项目因50票支持、54票反对,以4票之差被排除出2012年伦敦奥运会。同样,棒球无缘2016年奥运会,这些决定给世界棒球运动的发展带来了严峻的挑战。为什么国际奥委会做出这一决定,作者通过广泛地查阅资料,就棒球退出奥运会的原因进行探讨和分析,并进行归纳和总结。

  4. London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay: look & feel style guide

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay Emblem (the “Emblem”).

  5. 2012 London Olympics - Society on Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Barchetti, Federica; Castañer Huix, Silvia; Holm, Kristoffer; Lang, Mikas; Schicker Hartnack, Mads; Mikkelsen Jensen, Lea

    2013-01-01

    This project has examined the urban development, and conflicts over this, associated with the 2012 London Olympics and how the staging of this relates to general tendencies within the staging of the Olympics. It has been found that the Olympic Games of the last 30 years are generally organised in accordance with David Harvey's notions on entrepreneurialism in urban governance. Moreover, the Olympic Games have often entailed displacements of parts of the local population, in par...

  6. “The Olympic Torch Burns, and Great Suspicion Blazes” – China Narratives in the German Media during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing 2008 „Das olympische Feuer brennt. Und mit ihm lodert das Misstrauen“ – Die Chinaberichterstattung während der Olympischen Sommerspiele in Beijing 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poerner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the description of China in leading German daily and weekly newspapers during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. On the basis of a brief outline of the main China narratives in German media since the 1950s, this paper analyses China-related articles which were published during the period August 8-15, 2008. It argues that reports on China are mostly based on well established German notions of China and centre around the image of a despotic and/or dangerous China. Therefore, they primarily refer back to the source culture and contain little information of value regarding the target culture. Der Autor untersucht die China-Darstellung in führenden deutschen Tages- und Wochenzeitungen während der Sommer-Olympiade 2008 in Peking.

  7. Comparative Analysis on Classiifcation Management between Beijing and London Paralymic Games%伦敦残奥会与北京残奥会分级管理的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莹; 常肖雯

    2015-01-01

    分级是开展残疾人体育竞赛的基础。相比北京残奥会,伦敦残奥会的分级管理残疾类别、分级标准和工作程序及方法上都有了诸多改进,例如吸引更多类别的残疾运动员参赛、重视功能变化、残健融合日渐突出、更多的运动员将在赛前获得级别等等。对此应当认真关注、研究并予以借鉴,通过制定国内分级纲领性文件、壮大分级员队伍、增强分级手段、规范分级工作等具体措施对我国残疾人体育运动分级管理进行改进。%The classification is the basis for disabled sports competition. This article compared the classification management in London Paralympic Games with that in Beijing. Compared with Beijing, London Paralympic Games improved the disability classification rules and management process;for example, attracting more athletes from different disability categories;emphasis on athlete’s functional assessment; integration of Paralympic and Olympic Games;and more athletes getting their classifications before the Games, etc. China should learn these experiences to improve the standardization of disability classification management, in terms of establishing classification regulations, enhancing classification means and inspection methods;developing a regulated and skillful team of assessment classifiers, in order to promote development of China's sports undertakings for disabilities.

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES LOGO DESIGN%浅谈奥林匹克运动会标志设计的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雨龙

    2015-01-01

    The Olympic Games is an international sporting event. It represents a large gathering of different culture, geography, history around the world. The Olympic emblem is obviously reflecting the national characteristic, geographic characteristic and cultural characteristic of each session and each host place. The paper analyzes the development process and trend of the Olympic emblem folowing the development of previous Olympic Games.%奥林匹克运动会是一项国际性的体育盛会,它代表着全世界各地不同人文,地理,历史文化方面的大汇聚,大交流。奥林匹克运动会的会徽很鲜明地反映了每一届,每一个举办地的民族特征,地域特征和文化特征。本文将以往届奥运会会徽的发展情况至今,逐步分析奥运会会徽的发展进程和发展趋势。

  9. Olympijské hry jako kulturní událost The Olympic Games as a cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdan Savić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Olympijské hry se staly událostí zahrnující mnoho sportů, která zaměstnává nejen sportovce z různých zemí, ale také milióny diváků z celého světa. Z hlediska veřejného zájmu tedy převyšují jakoukoliv jinou sportovní nebo kulturní událost. Z iniciativy několika málo zemí a malého počtu sportovců se vyvinul historický fenomén dnešní civilizace, odehrávající se na určeném místě, s vlastními soutěžícími, nabídkou a pravidly. Olympijské hry vyjadřují ideologii různých národů na jediném místě, ideologii náboženství, zvyků, tradic, jazyků nebo obecně kultur. Probíhá při nich masová komunikace mezi soutěžícími a zbytkem celého světa. Sociální, vědecký, sportovně-technický a politický vývoj otevřel sportu jako sociálně-kulturnímu jevu široké obzory a sport se stal obecně prospěšným. Olympijských her se dnes účastní více než sto devadesát zemí. Sportovci a rozhodčí pocházejí z různých sociálních prostředí, což bylo v době, ve které hry vznikly, něco nepředstavitelného. Přesto je sociální komunikace mezi mladými lidmi celého světa v rámci této grandiózní události významným prvkem dnešních olympijských her. Můžeme při nich sledovat mistrovské sportovní výkony i setkávání mladých lidí bez ohledu na ideologii, rasu a náboženství. Právě to činí hry mimořádně krásnými a významnými. Autoři výzkumu se snažili podat podrobnější vysvětlení důležitých kulturních aspektů olympijských her a ukázat jejich sociální kontext. The Olympic Games have become a multi sport event, which entertains not only athletes from different countries, but a world wide audience numbering millions. They therefore exceed any other sports or cultural event when it comes to matters of public interest. Deriving from the initiative of a few countries and a small number of athletes, a historically significant phenomenon

  10. What Goes into a Medal: Women's Inclusion and Success at the Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Noland; Kevin Stahler

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of women's participation and performance in the Olympics. Female inclusion and success are not merely functions of size, wealth, and host advantage, but a more complex process involving the socioeconomic status of women and, more weakly, broad societal attitudes on gender issues. Female labor force participation and educational attainment in particular are tightly correlated with both participation and outcomes, even controlling for per capita income. Female e...

  11. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  12. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  13. Governing mega-events: tools of security risk management for the London 2012 Olympic Games and FIFA 2006 World Cup in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Will; Lodge, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Mega-events present a special venue for the practice of risk management. This article analyses the management of security risks in the case of two sporting mega-events, the London 2012 Olympic Games and the FIFA 2006 World Cup in Germany. To what extent do strategies and practices of risk management resemble each other across events? And what explains similarities or differences in the tools of risk management observed in each of these cases? First, this article explores three theoretical exp...

  14. 奥运会的效益分析与商业运作%Benefit Analysis and commercial operation ofthe Olympic game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋均; 魏军

    2001-01-01

    对办奥运会的短期和长期经济效益、社会效益以及对奥运会进行商业运作的必要性、可行性和主要方式进行了分析。%the tong- term economy beneftt and social beneit of Olynlpic garlte, the necessity, feasibility and the main mode to commercial operation for Olympic game are analyzed.

  15. Arboviral and other illnesses in travellers returning from Brazil, June 2013 to May 2016: implications for the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Mockenhaupt, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P; Rothe, Camilla; von Sonnenburg, Frank; van Genderen, Perry J; Chappuis, Francois; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Caumes, Eric; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Malvy, Denis; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Jensenius, Mogens; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Castelli, Francesco; Rapp, Christophe; Field, Vanessa; Molina, Israel; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Florescu, Simin; Lalloo, David; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated EuroTravNet (a GeoSentinel subnetwork) data from June 2013 to May 2016 on 508 ill travellers returning from Brazil, to inform a risk analysis for Europeans visiting the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil. Few dengue fever cases (n = 3) and no cases of chikungunya were documented during the 2013-15 Brazilian winter months, August and September, the period when the Games will be held. The main diagnoses were dermatological (37%), gastrointestinal (30%), febrile systemic illness (29%) and respiratory (11%). PMID:27416907

  16. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeço, Claudia; Villela, Daniel; Gomes, Marcelo F; Bastos, Leonardo; Cruz, Oswaldo; Struchiner, Claudio; Carvalho, Luis Max; Coelho, Flavio

    2016-06-01

    Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016). We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016). PMID:27304097

  17. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Codeço

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016. We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016.

  18. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeço, Claudia; Villela, Daniel; Gomes, Marcelo F; Bastos, Leonardo; Cruz, Oswaldo; Struchiner, Claudio; Carvalho, Luis Max; Coelho, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016). We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016). PMID:27304097

  19. Jogos olímpicos da era moderna: uma proposta de periodização Olympic games of modern era: a proposal of periodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Rubio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os Jogos Olímpicos da Era Moderna foram recriados por Pierre de Coubertin e tiveram sua primeira edição no ano de 1896. Respeitando o calendário grego, no qual foi espelhado, os Jogos de Olímpicos de Verão realizam-se de quatro em quatro anos, período de uma Olimpíada, e atravessaram o século XX sofrendo de perto toda intensa dinâmica de um momento histórico marcado por profundos conflitos sociais de ordem mundial. A partir da análise desses momentos, é possível observar as transformações vividas pelo Movimento Olímpico. A partir de então, pretende-se nesse artigo discutir e caracterizar esses momentos históricos propondo uma periodização para os Jogos Olímpicos. Intenta-se com isso criar parâmetros de análise para os acontecimentos olímpicos a partir de seu contexto histórico-socialThe Olympics of the modern age have been recreated by Pierre de Coubertin and its first edition was in 1896. Respecting the Greek calendar, which was mirrored, the Summer Olympic Games are held every four years, during the Olympics, and went through the XX Century were influenced to the dynamics of a historical moment marked by deep social conflicts world order. From the analysis of these moments, it was possible to observe the changes experienced by the Olympic Movement. Thereafter, we intend to discuss in this article and characterize these historical moments proposing a timeline for the Olympics. The intention of this was to create analysis parameters for the Olympic events from their historical and social context

  20. OL i Beijing - markedskræfternes sejr over moralen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    Despite the servere criticism against Beijing as host of the Olympic Games the number of influential state reprsentatives from various countries at the opening ceremony had never been larger. In view of the strong moral criticism of the problems with the human rights in China this is difficult to...... understand. Why did so many governments decide to support China and the Olympics in the end? This is one of the cricial questions to be answered in this article. The strating point of the analysis is the statement that the moral argument were overruled by economic interest and the politics of power. Thus the...... article examines and points out Cinas powerful economic role and the role of some of the most important Olympic sponsors in the world economy with the respect to questions of international politics....

  1. 伦敦奥运会申诉改判现象引发的思考%Reflections on the London Olympic Games Appeal to Phenomenon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹晶晶; 刘建

    2014-01-01

    综观本届伦敦奥运会可以说是精彩与遗憾并存,我们既领略了菲尔普斯、博尔特的英勇风姿,也见证了误判、争议、压分等不公平事件的频繁发生。从竞赛规则、竞赛规程、赛制、竞赛组织层面对2012年伦敦奥运会上发生的一系列备受争议的事件和现象进行归纳和总结。研究认为:我们必须从提升裁判员业务素质、提高裁判员的职业道德、不断完善项目规则、加强赛制组合和创新、科学管理策划赛事等5个地方落手,确保奥林匹克运动会真正的秉承友谊、团结、公平竞争的精神。%Throughout the London Olympic, we not only appreciate the Phelps, Bolt heroic grace, but also find there is a variety of unfair justice events occur. This paper summarizes, conclude, analyze, and research sets of controversial events and phenomena which occurred on the 2012 London Olympics from the competition rules, competition regulations, game system and the competition organizational level. Research shows: we must proceed from five aspects that is constantly improving the quality of referees, improving the basic professional ethics of referees, perfecting the rules of Olympic games, strength the combination and innovation of competition and scientific management planning of sports-event to ensure that the Olympic Games truly underpin friendship, solidarity, the spirit of fair competition.

  2. Olympic participation and performance since 1896

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We analyze the decision to participate and Olympic performance at the country level. We use an unbalanced panel of 118 countries over 24 editions of the Olympic Summer Games. The main focus of the paper is on economic, geographic and demographic explanations of Olympic participation and suc

  3. 现代夏季奥运会会徽的文化学释义%Cultural Explanation of the Emblem of Modern Summer Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白银龙

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料、逻辑分析等方法研究夏季奥运会会徽,对其蕴含的文化学意义进行系统解读。主要结论:各国对会徽的设计理念不尽相同;会徽的文化内涵与奥运精神、主办国、城市的文化有关;会徽的来源可分为事物、运动人物、精神3类;会徽关乎着奥运会文化构建和表达;会徽向着以精神理念为主的方向综合发展。%Using literature, logic analysis method to study the summer Olympic Games emblem, systematic interpretation the cultural significance of the emblem. Conclusion : the emblem design is not the same ; the emblem of the cultural connotation and the spirit of the Olympic Games, the host country, city culture ; the emblem of the source can be divided into things, sports figures, the spirit of the three class; emblem about Olympic cultural construction and expression to the spirit of Philosophy; emblem to comprehensive development.

  4. Variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Beijing city in summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with hosting the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the municipal government implemented a series of stringent air quality control measures. To assess the impacts on variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, the whole air was sampled by canisters at one urban site and two suburban sites in Beijing, and 55 NMHC species were quantified by gas chromatography equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (GC/MSD/FID as parts of the field Campaign for the Beijing Olympic Games Air Quality program (CareBeijing. According to the control measures, the data were presented according to four periods: 18–30 June, 8–19 July, 15–24 August (during the Olympic Games, and 6–15 September (during the Paralympic Games. Compared with the levels in June, the mixing ratios of NMHCs obtained in the Olympic and Paralympic Games periods were reduced by 35% and 25%, respectively. Source contributions were calculated using a chemical mass balance model (CMB 8.2. After implementing the control measures, emissions from target sources were obviously reduced, and reductions in vehicle exhaust could explain 48–82% of the reductions of ambient NMHCs. Reductions in emissions from gasoline evaporation, paint and solvent use, and the chemical industry contributed 9–40%, 3–24%, and 1–5%, respectively, to reductions of ambient NMHCs. Sources of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG and biogenic emissions were not controlled, and contributions from these sources from July to September were stable or even higher than in June. Ozone formation potentials (OFPs were calculated for the measured NMHCs. The total OFPs during the Olympic and Paralympic Games were reduced by 48% and 32%, respectively, compared with values in June. Reductions in the OFPs of alkenes and aromatics explained 77–92% of total OFP reductions. The alkenes and aromatics were mainly from vehicle exhausts, and reductions of vehicle exhaust gases explained 67–87% of

  5. Variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Beijing city in summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with hosting the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the municipal government implemented a series of stringent air quality control measures. To assess the impacts on variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, the whole air was sampled by canisters at one urban site and two suburban sites in Beijing, and 55 NMHC species were quantified by gas chromatography equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (GC/MSD/FID as parts of the field Campaign for the Beijing Olympic Games Air Quality program (CareBeijing. According to the control measures, the data were presented according to four periods: 18–30 June, 8–19 July, 15–24 August (during the Olympic Games, and 6–15 September (during the Paralympic Games. Compared with the levels in June, the mixing ratios of NMHCs obtained in the Olympic and Paralympic Games periods were reduced by 35% and 25%, respectively. Source contributions were calculated using a chemical mass balance model (CMB 8.2. After implementing the control measures, emissions from target sources were obviously reduced, and reductions in vehicle exhaust could explain 48–82% of the reductions of ambient NMHCs. Reductions in emissions from gasoline evaporation, paint and solvent use, and the chemical industry contributed 9–40%, 3–24%, and 1–5%, respectively, to reductions of ambient NMHCs. Sources of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG and biogenic emissions were not controlled, and contributions from these sources from July to September were stable or even higher than in June. Ozone formation potentials (OFPs were calculated for the measured NMHCs. The total OFPs during the Olympic and Paralympic Games were reduced by 48% and 32%, respectively, compared with values in June. Reductions in the OFPs of alkenes and aromatics explained 77–92% of total OFP reductions. The alkenes and aromatics were mainly from vehicle exhausts, and reductions of vehicle exhaust gases explained 67–87% of

  6. Social networking and the Olympic Movement: social media analysis, opportunities and trends : final report

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Peña, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Table of contents : 1: Introduction. - 2 : Sociodemographic data of social networking sites. - 3 : The Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games on Facebook, Twitter and Orkut. - 4 : Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games communication strategies on Facebook and Twitter. - 5 : Sport organizations social networking strategies : case study analysis. - 6 : Olympic athletes and social media use during a non olympic-period. - 7. The Olympic Games, NBA and FC Barcelona on Facebook : content and fan participa...

  7. NOTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN, WORLD, AND OLYMPIC BMX CYCLING RACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mateo-March

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were 1 to describe the technical requirements of different tracks where classifying points are disputed for the Olympics as the European continent tracks (E, world championship competitions tracks (W, and Olympic Games track - Beijing, 2008- (O; and 2 to compare and establish differences or similarities between the three previous contexts. The sample used for this study was made of the 8 best qualifying male athletes from each competition (n = 48 during the 2007 and 2008 seasons (pre-Olympic and Olympic years. A descriptive design was used, based on systematic structured observation of the competitions filmed on video, paying attention to the different techniques used (overtaking skills, complete pedalling cycles and registered effort times. The results show that aerial techniques predominate over non aerial techniques on O and W type tracks more than on E tracks by ~20% (p < 0.001, pedaling cycles predominate in E vs. W and O by 11.85 and 24.23% respectively (p < 0.05, and effort times predominate in O vs. W and E by 6.50 and 12.94% respectively (p < 0.01. In conclusion, O and W tracks stand out because of the aerial component and greater technical complexity in comparison to E tracks, which has a decisive effect on the way the riders train in relation to the type of championship they aim to compete in

  8. System design of the traction power supply for the high-speed line Beijing - Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, Martin; Fischer, Andreas; Tornow, Torsten [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The high-speed line Beijing - Tianjin connecting the Capital Beijing with the harbour city Tianjin is the first high-speed line in China dedicated only to passenger traffic and is operated at 300 km/h. The commercial service started in due time for the Olympic games in 2008. For the system design and a reliable traction power supply the simulation software Sitras {sup registered} Sidytrac was used. The program incorporates all modules necessary for the overall system design and relating detailed investigations. Measurements during system integration test validated the simulation results. (orig.)

  9. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Measles Virus Genotypes H1 and D8 During Outbreaks of Infection Following the 2010 Olympic Winter Games Reveals Viral Transmission Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardy, Jennifer L; Naus, Monika; Amlani, Ashraf; Chung, Walter; Kim, Hochan; Tan, Malcolm; Severini, Alberto; Krajden, Mel; Puddicombe, David; Sahni, Vanita; Hayden, Althea S; Gustafson, Reka; Henry, Bonnie; Tang, Patrick

    2015-11-15

    We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate a dual-genotype outbreak of measles occurring after the XXI Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. By sequencing 27 complete genomes from H1 and D8 genotype measles viruses isolated from outbreak cases, we estimated the virus mutation rate, determined that person-to-person transmission is typically associated with 0 mutations between isolates, and established that a single introduction of H1 virus led to the expansion of the outbreak beyond Vancouver. This is the largest measles genomics project to date, revealing novel aspects of measles virus genetics and providing new insights into transmission of this reemerging viral pathogen. PMID:26153409

  10. The Influence of the Program of Preparation for the Olympic Games on the Indicator of Quality of Life in Sochi city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey S. Kopyrin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of quality of life measurement of the population is especially actual for the analysis of "megaevents" consequences – large investment projects on carrying out actions of nation-wide importance. The purpose of this work is to conduct research of current trends of change of an standard of living indicator in the city of Sochi. In issue the method of calculation of an integrated indicator of a quality of life is presented and the analysis of dynamics of this parameter in the course of preparation for a megaevent (the winter Olympic Games and after it is carried out.

  11. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Fritzdorf, Stephen;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games.......To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games....

  12. Atmospheric particulate mercury in the megacity Beijing: Efficiency of mitigation measures and assessment of health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, N. J.; Schäfer, J.; Chen, Y.; Blanc, G.; Chen, Y.; Chai, F.; Cen, K.; Norra, S.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate mercury (HgP) was studied before, during, and after the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the emission control measures implemented by the Chinese Government. These source control measures comprised traffic reductions, increase in public transportation, planting of vegetation, establishment of parks, building freeze at construction sites, cleaner production techniques for industries and industry closures in Beijing and also in the surrounding areas. Strictest measures including the "odd-even ban" to halve the vehicle volume were enforced from the 20th of July to the 20th of September 2008. The Olympic period provided the unique opportunity to investigate the efficiency of these comprehensive actions implemented in order to reduce air pollution on a large scale. Therefore, the sampling period covered summer (August, September) and winter (December and January) samples over several years from December 2005 to September 2013. Average HgP concentrations in total suspended particulates (TSP) sampled in August 2008 were 81 ± 39 pg/m3 while TSP mass concentrations were 93 ± 49 μg/m3. This equals a reduction by about 63% for TSP mass and 65% for HgP, respectively, compared to the previous two years demonstrating the short-term success of the measures. However, after the Olympic Games, HgP concentrations increased again to pre-Olympic levels in August 2009 while values in August 2010 decreased again by 30%. Moreover, winter samples, which were 2- to 11-fold higher than corresponding August values, showed decreasing concentrations over the years indicating a long-term improvement of HgP pollution in Beijing. However, regarding adverse health effects, comparisons with soil guideline values and studies from other cities highlighted that HgP concentrations in TSP remained high in Beijing despite respective control measures. Consequently, future mitigation measures need to be tailored more

  13. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  14. Host government directorate: London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic emblem guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”), the London 2012 Paralympic Games Emblem (the “Paralympic Emblem”) and the Dual London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Emblems (“Dual Emblems”) by authorised Host Government Directorate only.

  15. Estimation and prediction of black carbon emissions in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan; SHAO Min

    2007-01-01

    Black carbon is a by-product of incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels. It can alter atmospheric radiation property and make adverse impacts on human health. The energy consumption in Beijing City depends largely on coal burning. Recently, Beijing City has been performing the municipal energy structure adjustment as a tool for air pollution abatement, aiming at the air quality goal for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Based on Beijing energy use data in 2000, combined with emission factors of major sources of black carbon, the emission of black carbon in Beijing City is estimated to be 7.77 Gg. Coke, raw coal and biomass as non-commercial energy are the main contributors to municipal black carbon emissions. Based on Beijing energy planning in the year 2008, the emission of black carbon in 2008 will be 2.97 Gg if the contribution from biomass is not taken into account. Assuming that the black carbon emission from rural biomass in 2008 is the same as that in 2004, the biomass burning will be the largest emitter of black carbon to Beijing City in 2008.

  16. Estimation and prediction of black carbon emissions in Beijing City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Shao, M. [Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2007-05-15

    Black carbon is a by-product of incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels. It can alter atmospheric radiation property and make adverse impacts on human health. The energy consumption in Beijing City depends largely on coal burning. Recently, Beijing City has been performing the municipal energy structure adjustment as a tool for air pollution abatement, aiming at the air quality goal for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Based on Beijing energy use data in 2000, combined with emission factors of major sources of black carbon, the emission of black carbon in Beijing City is estimated to be 7.77 Gg. Coke, raw coal and biomass as non-commercial energy are the main contributors to municipal black carbon emissions. Based on Beijing energy planning in the year 2008, the emission of black carbon in 2008 will be 2.97 Gg if the contribution from biomass is not taken into account. Assuming that the black carbon emission from rural biomass in 2008 is the same as that in 2004, the biomass burning will be the largest emitter of black carbon to Beijing City in 2008.

  17. Seeking Opinions Concerning... : - the Swedish Olympic Committee and its Trademarks

    OpenAIRE

    Arklöf, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the XX Winter Olympics 2006 in Torino the Swedish Olympic Team succeeded by winning 14 medals. The best result that Sweden has ever made during a Winter Olympics. The happiness was shortly after mixed with disputes between the Swedish Olympic Committee and Swedish companies. There were companies who wrongly had used the trademark ‘OS’ in their marketing campaigns. The disputes happened because the use of the protected trademarks concerning the Olympic Games are reserved only to...

  18. Olympic Legislation Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Management of the number of visitors to the city during the Olympic Games Rules related to free transportation services on railways, highways and city buses Regulations on traffic control and special traffic routes Regulations involving dogs, such as seeing-eye dogs, in public places

  19. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  20. Using public health scenarios to predict the utility of a national syndromic surveillance programme during the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbey, R A; Elliot, A J; Charlett, A; Ibbotson, S; Verlander, N Q; Leach, S; Hall, I; Barrass, I; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Said, B; Walsh, A; Pebody, R; Smith, G E

    2014-05-01

    During 2012 real-time syndromic surveillance formed a key part of the daily public health surveillance for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. It was vital that these systems were evaluated prior to the Games; in particular what types and scales of incidents could and could not be detected. Different public health scenarios were created covering a range of potential incidents that the Health Protection Agency would require syndromic surveillance to rapidly detect and monitor. For the scenarios considered it is now possible to determine what is likely to be detectable and how incidents are likely to present using the different syndromic systems. Small localized incidents involving food poisoning are most likely to be detected the next day via emergency department surveillance, while a new strain of influenza is more likely to be detected via GP or telephone helpline surveillance, several weeks after the first seed case is introduced. PMID:23902949

  1. On the Merit of the Legacy of Failed Olympic Bid

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Cesar R.

    2012-01-01

    Olympic legacy has become a dominant theme within the Olympic Movement. For decades, legacy concerns were confined to the hosting of the Olympic Games. However, these concerns have been recently extended to the bidding process itself. Cities bidding for the Olympic Games are now required to identify their legacy regardless of the outcome of their bids. This paper explores the merits of extending legacy discourse in case bids failed. It contends that the extension of legacy discourse into fail...

  2. Olympic arts festival: cultural Olympiad Salt Lake 2002

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Since Ancient times, the arts have been celebrated as an integral part of the Olympic Games. The 2002 Cultural Olympiad advances this tradition by embracing the achievements of artists alongside the accomplishments of athletes. This synthesis of sport and art defines the Olympic Movement. Our Olympic Arts Festival runs through the 2002 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games and honors the human spirit through the eyes of artists.

  3. Conception of ecological strategy «Olympic sport for maintainance of nature» during leadthrough of winter Olympic Games 2022 in Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko O.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is conducted scientific and to scientifically-methodical literatures on issue of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiads. Conception of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiad is developed 2022 (Ukraine, Carpathians. It was offered, that ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of Olympiad had an ecological motto «Olympic sport for the maintainance of nature». Strategy included the ways of decision of problem of negative influence of global change of climate on the olympic winter types of sport. The problems of providing of ecological safety of sporting activity are considered in relation to a man and wild-life. Solution is offered questions of the ecological marketing, management and ecological inlightening. The ecological ground of choice of Lvov is conducted as a city of organizer of winter Olympiad 2022. As a mountain-skier center a mountain-skier complex Borzhava, located in the area Carpathians of Ukraine, is offered.

  4. Employing the Olympic Legacy in Sochi: A Promising Component - Sochi-Way

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid А. Kalinkin; Tamara V. Dolmatova; Dmitry K. Malashenkov; Maria Michel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines, as an important component of the Olympic legacy, the possibility of employing the material-technical base of the Sochi Olympic Games-2014 for staging sports games among volunteers, personnel servicing the Olympic Games, and professional athletes specializing in summer sports. Post-Olympic sports games are expected to facilitate the popularization of mass sports. The author brings forward the idea of staging a sports event called “Sochi-Way”, which would feature summer-a...

  5. The Geography Research on Success Factors of Chinese Olympic Champions——Take Summer Olympic Games as example%中国奥运冠军成功因素的地理学研究——以夏季奥林匹克运动会为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁国斌

    2012-01-01

    Paper collected the information of the athletes in varies provinces who accessed to Olympic champions from the 23rd Olympic Games in 1984 to the 29th Olympic Games in 2008,and the total population,total GDP,average GDP in 2008.On the basis of establishing Olympic champions database,using Statistical Methods,from the perspective of Geography,analyze the regional characteristics of the Olympic champions success.%收集整理了1984年第23届奥运会至2008年第29届奥运会期间,我国获得奥运会冠军的中国各省份运动员的相关资料,以及2008年中国各省(市、区)的人口总量、GDP总值、GDP均值的有关资料。在建立奥运冠军数据库的基础上,用统计学方法,从地理学视角出发,分析了我国奥运冠军成功的区域性特征。

  6. The Olympics' Impacts on China's Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xinliang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Olympics will have a lasting effect on China, especially on its politics and diplomacy, but the Olympics will only have limited and indirect influence on its foreign trade in my view. The rapid increase of China's foreign trade has remained a strong trend and could not be easily changed or accelerated by other factors including the Olympics. Meanwhile, China doesn't expect the Olympics to be a propeller for its foreign trade. With the fast development of past years.China has become one of the most important global trading nations that can be easily told from the perspective of its share of international trade flows.

  7. 第31届夏季奥运会中国田径项目备战方向研究%Research on Preparation Direction for Track and Filed of China on the 31th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于润生

    2015-01-01

    China athletics project has been at a disadvantage status in the previous Summer Olympics, that not match with the power status of China's sports. Based on analysis of recent Olympic Games track and field performance and has China Legion medal ability of active Chinese outstanding athletes competitive ability present situation, to explore the Chinese breakthrough direction of 2016 Summer Olympic Games track and field project, in order to prepare the theory for the Olympic Games.%中国田径项目在历届夏季奥运会中一直处于劣势状态,与我国体育强国地位极不匹配.通过对近几届奥运会中国田径军团的表现以及具有可能夺牌能力的现役中国田径优秀运动员竞技能力现状进行分析研究,探寻中国2016年夏季奥运会田径项目突破方向,为备战奥运会提供理论支持.

  8. 散打与奥运拳击、跆拳道“暂停”比赛现象的研究%Analysis on the Halt of Sanda, Olympic Boxing and Tae kwon do in the Olympic Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐诚堂; 贾月国

    2012-01-01

    暂停比赛是格斗类体育项目的共有规则,是现代体育理念下文明与野蛮的分水岭,在比较出谁“更强”的目标下充分保护运动员。通过文献资料、录像观察、数理统计、对比分析等方法对散打与奥运会比赛项目拳击、跆拳道进行对比研究,研究发现:散打场上裁判对比赛过程干预较多,散打与拳击、跆拳道在暂停比赛频率上存在明显差异。奥运搏斗项目以较少的暂停保留了项目本身的激烈格斗特性。临时性暂停可以更好的保持格斗项目比赛的连续性,可将其引入散打竞赛中,在突出现代奥林匹克精神的前提下减少散打比赛的暂停现象,比赛更精彩。%To require a halt during the fighting is a common rule adopted in the combative sports, it is also the watershed between the savageness and the civilization guided by the modem physical game philosophy, i.e. to get the athletes fully protected when selecting the stronger one by competition. Through research of the literature records, video observation, statistics collection, comparison and other methods, we did the comparative analysis on Sanda and Olympic sports of boxing and tae kwon do, and we find that: there are more intervenes from the referee in Sanda than boxing and tae kwon do, and, there are distinctive differences in the frequency of requiring halt when compare Sanda to the other two. The Olympic combative sports apply less halt so that their fierce fighting properties are maintained. More usage oftemporary stop could better retains the coherence of the combative sports. If we introduce the rule of temporary stop to Sanda, with the times ofhalt reduced under the guide of the modem Olympic sprit, the competition may become more attracting to the audience.

  9. 中国男篮奥运会比赛情况的分析研究%An Analysis of the Man Basketball Game of China in Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏杨

    2001-01-01

    对中国男子篮球队在奥运会比赛中进攻投篮和防守对手投篮的情况进行了统计分析和研究,揭示了中国男子篮球队在比赛中存在的一些问题,并提出一些解决问题的方法。%The essay discloses the question of the man basketball game ofChina in Olympics games through statistic analysis and study of it's shoot and defending shoot and provides some methods for the questions in order to provide a certain reference and help for the latter basketball training.

  10. Effects of particulate air pollution on blood pressure in a highly exposed population in Beijing, China : a repeated-measure study

    OpenAIRE

    Baccarelli Andrea; Barretta Francesco; Dou Chang; Zhang Xiao; McCracken John P; Díaz Anaité; Bertazzi Pier; Schwartz Joel; Wang Sheng; Hou Lifang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Particulate Matter (PM) exposure is critical in Beijing due to high population density and rapid increase in vehicular traffic. PM effects on blood pressure (BP) have been investigated as a mechanism mediating cardiovascular risks, but results are still inconsistent. The purpose of our study is to determine the effects of ambient and personal PM exposure on BP. Methods Before the 2008 Olympic Games (June 15-July 27), we examined 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers on tw...

  11. Adaptive Blending of Model and Observations for Automated Short-Range Forecasting: Examples from the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Monika E.; Isaac, George A.; Gultepe, Ismail; Heckman, Ivan; Reid, Janti

    2014-01-01

    An automated short-range forecasting system, adaptive blending of observations and model (ABOM), was tested in real time during the 2010 Vancouver Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in British Columbia. Data at 1-min time resolution were available from a newly established, dense network of surface observation stations. Climatological data were not available at these new stations. This, combined with output from new high-resolution numerical models, provided a unique and exciting setting to test nowcasting systems in mountainous terrain during winter weather conditions. The ABOM method blends extrapolations in time of recent local observations with numerical weather predictions (NWP) model predictions to generate short-range point forecasts of surface variables out to 6 h. The relative weights of the model forecast and the observation extrapolation are based on performance over recent history. The average performance of ABOM nowcasts during February and March 2010 was evaluated using standard scores and thresholds important for Olympic events. Significant improvements over the model forecasts alone were obtained for continuous variables such as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The small improvements to forecasts of variables such as visibility and ceiling, subject to discontinuous changes, are attributed to the persistence component of ABOM.

  12. A Critical Analysis of Britain’s Living, Dead and Zombie Multiculturalism: From 7/7 to the London 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Allen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A day after the London 2012 Bid Committee succeeded in bringing the Olympic Games to Britain using the slogan “the world in one city”, a series of coordinated suicide bomb attacks occurred across London (7/7. In one day, Britain’s somewhat beleaguered multiculturalism went from prompting national celebrations to being decried as “dead” by politicians and commentators alike. Against a backdrop of the Committee’s success in July 2005 through to the end of the Games themselves in August 2012, this article analyses the social and political discourses and debates that ensued in relation to Britain’s multiculturalism. Exploring the metamorphosis of these discourses—using the analogous language of being alive, dead and zombie—this article reflects on the impact and legacy of the London Games on future understandings of multiculturalism. In doing so, this article argues that the everyday lived variety of multiculturalism will always be distinct and different from the political discourses appropriated—or rejected—by political actors.

  13. Innovative Subjectivity of Transeditors in Intercultural Communication--A Case Study of the Translated News of the 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with transeditors' innovative subjectivity in facilitating intercultural communication from both the journalistic and the translational perspectives. By applying the basic notions of Douglas Robinson's 'dialogical' mode to the analysis of the translated news carried by "The Global Times" that relates to the Summer Olympic Games…

  14. Cultural Differences between China and ROK:a Perspective of Appeals in Olympic Games%从奥运申诉看中韩文化差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈燕飞

    2013-01-01

    In London Olympic Games , China and Korean delegation and athletes reacted differently when they suffered controversial penalties in some competition events .From their reactions , we can find cultural differences between China and ROK on values , way of thinking and culture of the sport diplomacy .%伦敦奥运会上,中韩两国代表团及运动员在面对争议性判罚时,现场的情绪反应及申诉表现各不相同。本文试图透过中韩两国不同的申诉表现的表象,从深层次上揭示两国在价值观、思维方式、及体育外交文化上的差异性。

  15. Use of Earth Observation in Support of Major Sport Events: Case Study for the Athens, Beijing and London Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Huili; Zhao, Wenji; Li, Xiaojuan; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui

    2013-01-01

    This research provides suggestions for more effective air particulate pollution control policies by government. Inhalable particulate matter (IPM) samples PM0.3, PM3 and PM5 were taken in heating season from 2007 to 2010 in order to determine temporal and spatial variations of IPM concentration based on the indicator Kriging of Geostatistics. Meanwhile, the correlation between IPM and meteorological factors was discussed; the influences of different factors on pollutant concentration were compared.

  16. 北京奥运会仲裁案件综述%Arbitration cases of Beijing olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智

    2009-01-01

    北京奥运会六起仲裁案件的解决,显现了国际体育仲裁及时有效解决体育争端的优势.作为体育自治框架之下的争端解决方式,国际体育仲裁院也得到了各国及各体育单项组织的认可和尊重.但通过对这六起案件的分析可以看出,相比其他仲裁机制,体育仲裁仍面临着审理权限、规则适用、与各体育单项组织处罚规则的协调以及审理程序等诸多问题.

  17. To Construct the World's First High-temperature & Superconductor Maglev Line for the 2008 Olympic Games in BeiJing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A high-temperature & superconductor (HT-SC) magnetic levitation train has its merits shared by the conventional conductor type and the lowertemperature type of the maglev trains but hasn't the latter two's demerits.

  18. 近8届奥运会中国竞技实力的演变%The Competitive Strength Evolution of China in Recent Eight Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天宏

    2012-01-01

    With the research methods of literature study,mathematical statistics,and comparison this paper analyzes the competitive strength of China in recent eight Olympic Games and the research shows that the competitive strength of Chinais continuously enhanced.According to the performance of China in recent eight Olympic Games,the competitive strength evolution of China can be grouped into three periods: the rapid development period(1979-1984),the slow development period(1985-2000),and the balanced development period(2001-present).But there is still gap between sports power and China,the project structure is irrational,and the male and female athlete get a big gap between the numbers of gold medals.%运用文献资料法、数理统计法、比较分析法等方法对中国近8届奥运会的竞技实力进行了分析,研究表明:近8届奥运会中国的竞技实力在不断增强。根据近8届奥运会成绩可将中国竞技实力演变特征归纳为三个阶段:迅速发展阶段(1979-1984年)、缓慢发展阶段(1985-2000年)、均衡发展阶段(2001至今)。但是与体育强国的差距较大,项目结构不合理,男女运动员获得金牌数量差距较大。

  19. London Olympic Games Men's Singles Final Technology Comparative Analysis --Analysis of Technical Characteristics of Wang Hao's " Three Silver Medal Winner " in the Olympic Games%2012年伦敦奥运会乒乓球男单决赛技术对比分析——王皓奥运“三连亚”技术特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆祥; 敬继红; 王冬慧

    2012-01-01

    三段分析法经常被用于小球比赛领域,运用乒乓球“三段分析法”等,对王皓、张继科在伦敦奥运会乒乓球男单决赛中各项技战术进行统计,分析他们在发球抢攻段、接发球抢攻段和相持段的技战术运用特点,找出其优势和不足,为进一步提高我国男子乒乓球运动员的技战术水平提供参考。分析王皓连着三届奥运会都是奥运亚军的原因。%It uses the " three sections of analysis" method, which is often used in the ball game field, to do the statistics of the various tactics of the Zhang Ji - ke, Wang Hao in London Olympic table tennis men's singles final, analyse their tactics using characteristics in serve attacking section, receiving attacking section and the stalemate section, to find out their advantages and disadvantages. It is for the purpose to provide the reference for further improving our level of skill and tactics of the male table tennis players and analyse the reason of that Wang Hao only got the silver medal in the consecutive Olympic Games.

  20. The Microbial Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youle, Merry; Rohwer, Forest; Stacy, Apollo; Whiteley, Marvin; Steel, Bradley C; Delalez, Nicolas J; Nord, Ashley L; Berry, Richard M; Armitage, Judith P; Kamoun, Sophien; Hogenhout, Saskia; Diggle, Stephen P; Gurney, James; Pollitt, Eric J G; Boetius, Antje; Cary, S Craig

    2012-08-01

    Every four years, the Olympic Games plays host to competitors who have built on their natural talent by training for many years to become the best in their chosen discipline. Similar spirit and endeavour can be found throughout the microbial world, in which every day is a competition to survive and thrive. Microorganisms are trained through evolution to become the fittest and the best adapted to a particular environmental niche or lifestyle, and to innovate when the 'rules of the game' are changed by alterations to their natural habitats. In this Essay, we honour the best competitors in the microbial world by inviting them to take part in the inaugural Microbial Olympics. PMID:22796885

  1. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xiao; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Zifa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Lin, CaiYan; Xin, Jinyuan; Song, Tao; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been used in the companion study to improve ozone forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over this region during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observ...

  2. 青奥会视域下我国传统体育文化跨文化传播的思考%Cross - cultural communication of China traditional sports culture from the perspective of Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若穷; 王朝军

    2011-01-01

    摘要:南京青奥会作为一次重大体育事件,具备了跨文化传播的功能,是我国传统体育文化向全世界传播的又一契机。通过对我国传统体育文化进行解读,找出其传播过程中l的瓶颈,并结合青奥会传播平台提出对策。%Youth Olympic Games held in Nanjing will be a great sports event with the function of cross - cultural communication. It is another opportunity what China traditional sports culture spread to the world. This paper discusses the traditional sports culture communication process and find out the interpretation of the bottleneck, so as to put forward some rmeasures combining with the spreading platform of Youth Olympic Games.

  3. Spatial distribution of aerosol pollution based on MODIS data over Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the help of regression analysis, the relationships were detected between aAerosol's contribution to apparent reflectance (ACR) derived from MoDerate Resdution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board Terra and hourly PM10 mass concentration measured at 30 ground-based locations in Beijing for the August of 2003 and 2004. It was shown that there was a good correlation between the ACR and PM10 (linear correlation coefficient, R=0.56). On the basis of this relationship, spatial distribution and possible soureces of PM10 derived from MODIS were analyzed and two frequently heavily-polluted regions were found, namely downtown of the city and the district near Xishan Mountain. These two regions coincidently are also urban heat island centers. The foundings of this paper will be greatly useful for environmental monitoring and urban planning for Beijing, especially for the 2008 Olympic game to be held in Beijing.

  4. Historical evolution of Olympic commercialism: the evolution of attitudes towards commercialism within the American Olympic Movement : a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The uneasy relationship between the long-standing amateur ideals of the Olympic Games and commercialism, including sponsorship, licensing, and television, is spotlighted via this historical perspective spanning 100 years of the Olympic movement. Utilizing primary sources such as personal correspondence and minutes of meetings of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and its Executive Board, this paper demonstrates how attitudes towards commercialism within the U.S.-based Olympic movement ...

  5. Olympic participation and performance since 1896

    OpenAIRE

    Kuper, Gerard; Sterken, Elmer

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the decision to participate and performance at the Modern Olympic Summer Games at the country level. We use an unbalanced panel of 118 countries over all 24 editions of the Summer Games since 1896. The main focus of the paper is on economic, geographic and demographic determinants of Olympic participation and success. We estimate the impact of income per capita, population size, home advantage, and some fixed country factors on participation and success rates. We present separate r...

  6. An integrated MM5-CMAQ modeling approach for assessing trans-boundary PM 10 contribution to the host city of 2008 Olympic summer games—Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. S.; Cheng, S. Y.; Liu, L.; Chen, T.; Guo, X. R.

    In this paper, an integrated MM5-CMAQ modeling approach was employed to investigate the PM 10 air pollution issue in Beijing, China, with a focus on assessing pollution contributions from surrounding provinces. A 2-level-nested grid domain with spatial resolutions of 36 and 12 km was designed for the study region. Seven monitoring stations across Beijing municipality were selected to provide hourly PM 10 measurement data. The months of January, April, July and October in 2002 were taken as target periods for model performance evaluation. Five emission scenarios were designed and run in order to quantitatively assess the trans-boundary PM 10 contributions. The results show that, while Beijing needs to take positive steps to reduce its own pollution emissions, much effort should also be placed on demanding more pollution reduction and better environmental performance from surrounding provinces.

  7. 北京马拉松赛事运作的 SWOT分析%A SWOT analysis of Beijing Marathon game operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂丹

    2014-01-01

    In order to systematically analyze various factors in Beijing Marathon game operation, and to boost its better development, the author analyzed the internal and external environments of Beijing Marathon by means of SWOT analysis. The internal advantages of Beijing Marathon are mainly the organizer’s game operating experi-ences and resources, unique game routes and human landscapes, diversified game activities, market and common-weal combined game operating conception, relatively perfected safety and medical security, its internal disadvan-tages are mediocre game input and prize money, to be improved game service performance, and inadequate game derivative product development; its external opportunities are the time background of government function trans-formation, the changing of the game organizer, and gradually expanding mass base;its external threats are incom-plete sports legal environment, and the reinforcement of competitive power of similar games at home and abroad. According to the said factors, the author put forward pioneering, striving, contending and conservative types of strategies and specific measures.%运用SWOT分析法分析北京马拉松的内部与外部环境。北京马拉松内部优势主要是主办方的办赛经验和资源,独特的比赛路线和人文景观,丰富多彩的赛事活动,市场与公益结合的办赛理念,相对完善的安全、医疗保障;内部劣势是赛事投入和奖金不高,赛事服务水平有待提高,赛事衍生产品开发不足;外部机会是政府职能转变的时代背景,比赛承办单位的变化,逐渐扩大的群众基础;外部威胁是体育法治环境尚不健全,国内外同类赛事竞争力的加剧。根据上述因素提出了开拓型、争取型、抗争型、保守型4种战略及具体措施。

  8. London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay style guide for licensees

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay Emblem (the “Emblem”), by authorised licensees only.

  9. Participation and Performance at the London 2012 Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Sterken, Elmer

    2012-01-01

    The current paper predicts the medal tally for the London 2012 Olympic Games. The forecast procedure consists of analyzing participation and success at the country level of the three most recent editions of the Olympic Summer Games. Potential explanatory variables for medal winnings are income per c

  10. 大众传媒视野中的奥林匹克文化传播--基于符号学的夏季奥运会口号文本分析%Olympic Culture Communication in the Perspective of Mass Media---Text Analysis of the Slogan of the Summer Olympic Games Based on Semiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛媛; 陈源

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,based on the background of mass media,made the Semiotics as the research method,analyzed the slogan of the eight Summer Olympic Games from 1984 to 2012. From the surface analysis to the deep analysis,carding O-lympic culture in the slogan. The slogan of the Olympic Games will always be defined. The Olympic movement,the Olympic spirit and the Olympic movement,the Olympic culture as the collective memory of a generation after generation of people forever.%在大众传媒蓬勃发展的背景下,以符号学作为研究的理论背景,运用文本分析的方法,对1984年到2012年间,共八届夏季奥运会的口号进行研究。从表层文字的拿捏到深层意涵的赋予,从看似简单的口号文本中梳理其所包含的奥林匹克文化的深厚底蕴。进行文本分析的过程分为以下两个层面:首先,从文字和语词的层面识别相关符号的表层含义;其次,从历史、社会、文化的层面探索相关符号的深层含义。研究认为:奥运口号是现代奥运会的重要标识,将历久弥新地被定义、被诠释、被命题;简短的奥运口号凝练了奥林匹克的精神,将作为一代又一代人们的集体回忆,将永载人类文明的史册并源远流长地传承下去。

  11. Utilizing Chinese high-resolution satellite images for inspection of unauthorized constructions in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeRen; WANG Mi; HU Fen

    2009-01-01

    After Beijing wins the bit to host the 29th Olympic Games, in order to manifest the technical support advantages and capabilities of the autonomously-developed RS and GIS based change detection techniques in 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, and from the standpoints of executing new city planning, relieving the traffic congestion as well as maintaining the historic features, an automatic satellite monitoring system has been studied and established to accomplish the mission of unauthorized construction inspection within the Sixth Ring Road of Beijing city quarterly, by adopting the CBERS-2 satellite images and combining technologies of GIS, GPS, etc. This article discusses the applicable procedures and key issues when utilizing such Chinese satellite images and relevant techniques to discover the illegal constructions, and introduces the monitoring system from both the design and implementation aspects; additionally, some typical application cases in the practice of the system are also illustrated. The monitoring system can timely supply abundant information to facilitate the policy-making of relevant planning departments, thus providing consolidate technical support to eliminate the illegal constructing behaviors in the blossom. During the five years' excellent performance, it has helped China save large amounts of expenditures for processing of unauthorized constructed buildings.

  12. Androgenic-anabolic steroids and the Olympic Games%雄激素类固醇激素与奥运会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth D. Fitch

    2008-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) have been misused by athletes at the Olympic Games, both before and after they were prohibited in sport in 1974. Systematic doping with AAS occurred in the German Democratic Republic(GDR) from 1965 to 1989 which assisted that country to win many medals at Olympic Games, especially in female events. Currently, AAS are the most frequent category of prohibited substances detected in the urine of athletes both globally and at the last two Summer Olympic Games. Scientific confirmation that AAS are effective in enhancing sports performance was difficult because ethical approval was difficult for research involving male subjects taking massive doses of androgens as some athletes and bodybuilders did. Methods to detect AAS have evolved gradually over the past three decades and currently, despite an impressive array of sophisticated analytical equipment and methods, anti-doping authorities and analytical scientists continue to face challenges as have occurred from the use by athletes of designer AAS during the past few years. The future development and use of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) can be anticipated to pose problems in the years ahead. Endocrinologists should be aware that on occasions, replacement testosterone (T) therapy may be authorized in sport as a therapeutic use exemption (TUE)and these circumstances are discussed.%即使在1974年被禁用后,雄激素类固醇激素(AAS)仍然一直被参加奥运会的运动员滥用.掺杂有AAS的药物于1965年到1989年之间出现在德意志民主共和国(GDR),这些药物帮助GDR在奥运会上赢得了许多奖牌,尤其在女子项目上.AAS是目前在全世界和近两届夏季奥运会上在运动员尿检中检测到的最常见的违禁药物.获得科学证据证实AAS提高运动成绩的有效性是十分困难的,因为在研究工作中让男性实验者服用某些运动员和健美人士服用的大剂量的雄激素是很难获得伦理学批准

  13. Travel to the Rio Olympics

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-21

    Learn how to stay healthy and safe when travelling to the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.  Created: 7/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/21/2016.

  14. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  15. The Inspiration of"Wrestling "Fading Out the Olympic Games to Wushu Bid%“摔跤”淡出奥运对武术申奥的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚红军; 姜传银; 刘为坤

    2013-01-01

    The International Olympic Committee voted to take Wrestling out of the 2020 Summer Olympics at February 2013. Wushu is also one of the sports to impact the 2020 Summer Olympics. This time, Wrestling fading out of the Olympic Games has brought many aspects of the experiences and lessons . This study suggests that the development policies of the International Wushu Federation ,the competition rules of the martial arts and the popularity of martial arts are the key factors of Wushu bid.%  2013年2月,国际奥委会通过投票决定,摔跤将淡出2020年夏季奥运会,而武术则是冲击2020年夏季奥运会的体育项目之一。此次,摔跤淡出奥运给武术带来了诸多方面的经验和教训。文章认为,国际武术联合会的发展政策、武术的比赛规则、武术的普及度、武术赛事的运作是左右武术入奥的关键性因素。

  16. The nutrition and health profile of the Turkish female national weightlifting team who attended to pre-camp of Beijing Olympics- Pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ozdemir, Gunay; Ersoy, Gülgün

    2010-01-01

    In this study, National Turkish weightlifter female team who joined preparation camp before 2008 Beijing Olympiads nutrition habits, food intake, using of nutritional ergogenic aids, anthropometric measures and biochemical findings have been evaluated. Nine athletes who have been taken the camp participated to this study. The information were collected about their anthropometric (height, body weight, waist-hip circumference, waist / height ratio, body fat values) and biochemical measures, nut...

  17. Beijing International Sculpture Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Inauguration of the 2002 Beijing International Urban Sculptural Art Exhibition also saw the opening of the Beijing International Sculpture Park on Yuquan Road, Beijing. The park houses 140 statues.This exhibition is aimed at promoting exchanges and cooperation among sculptors across the world, integrating urban sculpture into everyday life, and encouraging innovation in this sector. It is expected to bring inspiration to Beijing as regards new concepts in urban construction, through exchanges with other nations. This exhibition constitutes interaction between the public and art, and dialogue between China and the world.The works on display are Beijing’s latest attraction, and add a touch of modernity to this ancient city. Some are to be placed in sports stadiums during the 2008 Olympics.

  18. 从伦敦奥运会探析世界跆拳道格局变化原因%An Analysis on the Changes of World Taekwondo Competitive set- up at London Olympic Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱朝阳

    2012-01-01

    伦敦奥运会跆拳道比赛打破了传统跆拳道格局。通过统计对比历届奥运会金牌和奖牌分布情况,分析出本届奥运会跆拳道比赛特点和跆坛格局新变化。促成跆坛格局变化的原因有:采用电子护具记分、录像重审判决、以高分值鼓励高难度技术等规则的变化,以及跆拳道的全球化发展趋势的形成。%At London Olympic Game, the world Taekwondo Competitive setup was broken. This paper analysis the new changes of the taekwondo competitive setup and the games, by comparing the statistics of the Olympic medal' characteristics of London Olympic taekwondo competitive distribution through all these years. The reason for these new changes are : record the score by electronic protective apparatus, re -judge according to the video proof, high bonus points for the high difficulty movements, the formation of the global development trend for the taekwondo sports.

  19. Special Olympics Brings New Hope and Prospect to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Tim

    2008-01-01

    More than 7,000 athletes from 165 nations came to Shanghai to participate in the 2007 World Summer Games. The event marked only the second time that Special Olympics World Games have been held in East Asia and the first time for World Summer Games. Chinese President Hu Jintao pledged that the Summer Games would be a key part of his domestic…

  20. Olympic Legacy: Material and Non-Material Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry K. Malashenkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the material and non-material aspects of making use of Olympic legacy. The author looks into existing approaches to assessing economic, ecological, and social effects of staging the Olympic Games and dwells upon one of the aspects of the legacy of the Sochi Winter Olympic Games-2014 – developing and testing federal standards for sports preparation across Olympic sports, which provide for the creation of a basis for forming the medical-biological components of sports preparation.

  1. 后奥运竞技武术展望及设项问题的再思考%The Thoughts of Item-setting and the Prospects of Competitive Wushu after Olympic Game in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高家兴

    2012-01-01

    Wushu missed the chance of getting in 2008 Olympic Games,but has been listed as the Olympic performance project,with an increasingly powerful country and it's international influence,we believe that the Wushu will eventually get into the Olympics,viewing the future development direction of Wushu,after analysis of the research from many experts and scholars,we also believe that combining Wushu and SanDa is the best way to get into the Olympic Games.%2008年武术与奥运会失之交臂,但已被列为了奥运表演项目,随着祖国日益强大,文化软实力提高,国际影响力增强,笔者相信武术最终会进入奥运。诸多专家学者对武术进入奥运会设项问题展开了研究,但结果却不尽人意,本文通过文献资料、数据统计、专家访谈、逻辑分析等研究方法,对武术未来发展方向做出了展望,对武术项目编排设置进行了大胆设想,认为最佳设项为套路跟散打相结合的方式进入奥运会。

  2. Analysis on the Changes of the Advantage Competitive Sports Level among China、 America and Russia in Last Three Olympic Games%近三届奥运会中、美、俄三国竞技体育水平变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 李蓉

    2011-01-01

    运用文献资料法和对比分析法,对中、美、俄三国在悉尼、雅典和北京三届奥运会中夺取的奖牌数量、优势项目布局和各项目水平变化情况进行对比分析。结果表明:中国奖牌总数增加明显,优势项目表现突出,夺金面不断扩大,整体水平有较大提高,但金、银、铜牌数量分布不合理,呈"倒梯形";美国金牌总数趋于稳定,奖牌分布点较广,游泳、田径、篮球、沙滩排球等项目仍占有绝对优势;俄罗斯虽然奖牌数量明显减少,但部分项目仍具有较强的整体实力。%By using the methods of documentary and comparative analysis, this paper made comparative analysis on the numberof medals, the distribution of advantage sports events and the changes of the sports items level among China, America and Russia in Sydney, Athens and Beijing Olympics games. The result indicates that the number of medals and gold medals increase significantly, the advantage projects' performance is outstanding and the overall level has been enhanced greatly, but the distribution of gold, silver and bronze medals is unreasonable in China and looks like an inverted trapezoid. The total number of gold medals America has won is stable, and swimming, track and field, basketball, beach volleyball games have the absolute superiority in America. Although the number of medals Russia won reduces significantly, they still have a strong overall strength in some projects.

  3. Assimilation and High Resolution Forecasts of Surface and Near Surface Conditions for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Natacha B.; Bélair, Stéphane; Bilodeau, Bernard; Tong, Linying

    2014-01-01

    A dynamical model was experimentally implemented to provide high resolution forecasts at points of interests in the 2010 Vancouver Olympics and Paralympics Region. In a first experiment, GEM-Surf, the near surface and land surface modeling system, is driven by operational atmospheric forecasts and used to refine the surface forecasts according to local surface conditions such as elevation and vegetation type. In this simple form, temperature and snow depth forecasts are improved mainly as a result of the better representation of real elevation. In a second experiment, screen level observations and operational atmospheric forecasts are blended to drive a continuous cycle of near surface and land surface hindcasts. Hindcasts of the previous day conditions are then regarded as today's optimized initial conditions. Hence, in this experiment, given observations are available, observation driven hindcasts continuously ensure that daily forecasts are issued from improved initial conditions. GEM-Surf forecasts obtained from improved short-range hindcasts produced using these better conditions result in improved snow depth forecasts. In a third experiment, assimilation of snow depth data is applied to further optimize GEM-Surf's initial conditions, in addition to the use of blended observations and forecasts for forcing. Results show that snow depth and summer temperature forecasts are further improved by the addition of snow depth data assimilation.

  4. ACTIVITIES OF SAINT-PETERSBURG RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF RADIATION HYGIENE AFTER PROFESSOR P.V. RAMZAEV FOR PROVISION OF RADIATION SAFETY OF XXII WINTER OLYMPIC AND XI WINTER PARALYMPICS GAMES OF 2014 IN SOCHI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains an analysis of the experience of Rospotrebnadzor radiological units’ activities for  radiation  safety  provision  of  the  participators  and  guests  of  XXII  Winter  Olympic  Games  in  Sochi  and  also of Sochi city inhabitants as during the period of preparations for the Games so during the period of the Olympic and Paralympics Games. Peculiarities of organization of activities of Rospotrebnadzor specialists are considered for  the  preparation  period  and  main  period,  the  occurred  problems  of  technical  and  methodical  provision  of radiation control which was carried out for the purpose of counteraction to possible actions of radiation terrorism are considered as well. The role is noted of the specialists of Radiation Hygiene Institute in the methodical and organizational provision of the whole complex of carried-out activities.

  5. Education meaning of the Youth Olympic Games for the youth's civic awareness%青奥会之于青少年公民意识教育的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛在军; 冯现玲

    2011-01-01

    In 2014,the Youth Olympic Games will be held in Nanjing after the 29th Summer Olympic Games. It will be a teaching material for juvenile education of civic awareness. It aimed at understanding the subjective consciousness, citizenship, democratic rights, the sense ofequality, and social morality of young people, manifestation. On the one hand, all this will serve regulated through its target concept and specific to help create a healthy, orderly and well culture environment for the Youth Olympic Games; on the other hand, the civic awareness can strike root in the hearts of the youth, and accumulate strength for citizens and healthy communities.%2014年,青奥会将追随奥运会的脚步来到中国南京,必会成为对青少年进行公民意识教育的重要契机。它将通过自身的理念目标和具体的表现形态将主体意识、权力和责任意识、民主平等意识和法治公德意识等内化于青少年的思维中,一方面为青奥会的成功举办创造健康成熟的人文环境,另一方面,可以使公民意识深入青少年心中,为培育合格的公民和社会的健康发展积蓄力量。

  6. Employing the Olympic Legacy in Sochi: A Promising Component - Sochi-Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid А. Kalinkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, as an important component of the Olympic legacy, the possibility of employing the material-technical base of the Sochi Olympic Games-2014 for staging sports games among volunteers, personnel servicing the Olympic Games, and professional athletes specializing in summer sports. Post-Olympic sports games are expected to facilitate the popularization of mass sports. The author brings forward the idea of staging a sports event called “Sochi-Way”, which would feature summer-and-winter sports based on a scenario that would be brought into action taking account of the landscape and natural environment of Greater Sochi

  7. System Design and Testing for CCTV Studio of the Olympic Games in London%伦敦奥运会央视前方报道中心演播室视频系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗新艳

    2013-01-01

      介绍伦敦奥运会中央电视台前方报道中心演播室视频系统的具体设计和实施过程,并总结了高清数字电视系统设计中整体调试情况。%  Video system design and installation for CCTV studio of the Olympic Games in London was introduced, and integral debug of HD digital TV program was also expressed in details.

  8. Athletes with the Most Olympic Gold Medals in History%“奥”林霸主英雄榜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿诺(译)

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 Summer Olympic Games are approaching, taking place in London for a third time. Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt, the heroes and biggest stars of the Olympic games in Beijing, will be making a return to defend their medals, with Phelps aiming to keep his legend and record for golds going, while Bolt will try to do the unthinkable and actually break his un-human like records. But Bolt has a long way to go before he enters the list of most decorated Olympians, with 3 gold medals to his name so far. The following is the list of most successful Olympic athletes in terms of gold medals.%何谓“奥”林英雄?院黑马之势,大杀各方,勇夺金牌,笑傲群雄。何谓“奥”林霸主?雄踞一方,岿然不动,领奖领到腿抽筋,数金牌数到手软。当英雄不易,成为霸主更是难上加难,可还是有些人天纵奇才、勤学苦练,所得奖牌数让人可望而不可即。现在就随本文一起盘点—下历史上夺金最多的五大“奥”林霸主吧!

  9. Health protection of the olympic athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Kathrin; Soligard, Torbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Protection of the athletes' health is a clearly articulated objective of the International Olympic Committee. Longitudinal surveillance of injuries and illnesses can provide valuable data that may identify high-risk sports and disciplines. This is a foundation for introducing tailored preventive measures. During the XXIX Summer and XXI Winter Games, comprehensive injury and illness recording through the medical staff of the participating National Olympic Committees and the sports medicine cli...

  10. The Modern Olympic Games "Oligarchs" Monopoly Status and Development Trend Explored%现代奥运会“寡头”垄断现状和发展态势探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志雷; 郭龙飞

    2012-01-01

    The modern Olympic Games after one hundred years development,advocates of "peace,friendship,progress" concept already thorough popular feeling.And in the future the integration of globalization will play more and more important role.For a long time the Olympic Games has always been the monopoly of the western firmly.And with its successful business model in the global scope to spread and expand.As the western colonial culture "angel" has long been the focus of today's talk about.Many of the sociology of the Olympic Games this global experts social phenomenon from different angle to the more and more detailed exposition.The authors think:the monopoly its essence is the monopoly of the western culture.From western powerful economic strength of support.And in these monopoly system is more of its economic kidnapped reflect.So can we use economics theory of the monopoly of the Olympic Games to the chain for comb.Make us better predict the human great social practice movement trend of full understanding of the Olympic movement has important significance.And for our country to adapt to the development trend of the Olympic Games to provide the reference.%现代奥运会历经百年发展,所倡导的"和平.友谊.进步"理念早已深入人心,并将在未来全球化的整合中扮演着越来越重要的角色。长期以来,奥运会被西方垄断着,并以其成功的商业运作模式得以在全球传播和扩展,作为西方殖民文化的"使者"早已成为当今谈论的焦点。很多社会学专家从不同的角度对奥运会这种全球社会现象进行了细致地阐述,认为:奥运会垄断其实质是西方文化的垄断,它是以西方强势的经济实力作为后盾。而在这一垄断体系中更多的是体现对本国经济的绑架。那么能否用经济学等理论对当今奥运会的垄断链条进行梳理,使我们能更好地预测奥运会这一人类伟大的社会实践运动的趋势,对全面了解奥林匹克运动有着重要的意义。

  11. 汉城奥运会后韩国群众体育发展研究%Public sport development in South Korea after Seoul Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁春梅; 杨依坤; 袁军; 刘雪松

    2011-01-01

    With the research methods of literature study and logic analysis,the paper analyses the public sport development in South Korea and discusses the management system,policy and law,investment,facility construction,public sport publicity and operation of the national sports meeting of the public sport in South Korea after the Seoul Olympic Games.The paper also discusses the relative experiences of the public sport.The sports talents needed by the public sport are developed by the community sports guides.The annual national sports meeting promotes the development of the public sport.%在分析韩国群众体育发展背景的基础上,剖析了汉城奥运会后韩国群众体育在管理体制、政策与法律、经费投入、设施建设、群众体育宣传、全运会的开展等方面的变化,总结其群众体育发展的相关经验。群众体育发展所需的体育人才主要以培养社区体育指导员的方式产生,另外,一年一度全运会的召开也为群众体育的发展起到了促进作用,借助于全运会的影响力,政府大力倡导开展群众体育运动。

  12. [Pollution Level and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric PM₂.₅ in Nanjing Before and After the Youth Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Zi-qiang; Zhao, Hai-yan; Xiong, Zheng-qin

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human activities on the atmospheric environment has attracted people's attention. This study reported the dynamic changes in PM₂.₅ concentration, its heavy metal compositions and health risk assessment from April to September, 2014 in Nanjing when the Youth Olympic Games ( YOG) was held. The results showed that the mass levels of PM₂.₅ ranged from 26.39 to 80.31 µg · m⁻³ from April to September. The mass levels of PM₂.₅ met the level II standard of ambient air quality in China (24 h average concentration, 75 µg · m⁻³) in months of April, May and July while met the level I standard (24 h average concentration, 35 µg · m⁻³) in August during the YOG. The average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ reached 76.14 µg · m⁻¹ after the YOG, showing resilience of air pollution. The variations of heavy metals were not consistent with each other throughout the observation period. Principal component analysis indicated that emission sources significantly affected the variations of PM₂.₅ and its heavy metals. PM₂.₅ and all of the heavy metals decreased to their minimum values during the YOG, indicating the effectiveness of those temporary measures for reducing atmospheric pollutant before and during the YOG. The health risks of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in PM₂.₅ via breathing and dermal contact exposure were all within the acceptable ranges, but potential carcinogenic risk existed for Cr in PM₂.₅. There was potential non-carcinogenic health risk for adult males via breathing of Mn and greater non-carcinogenic health risk for children via dermal contact exposures to all these 6 heavy metals. PMID:27078937

  13. Sulfur isotopic fractionation and source appointment of PM2.5 in Nanjing region around the second session of the Youth Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaobing; Shi, Lei; Chen, Shanli; Jiang, Wenjuan; Wei, Ying; Rui, Maoling; Zeng, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34S) of PM2.5 in Nanjing region were determined in order to evaluate sulfur sources of PM2.5 around the second session of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG). Meanwhile, δ34S values from different potential sources of PM2.5, such as coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, and straw burning, were synchronously measured for the first time. The results showed that PM2.5 concentrations and δ34S values were much lower during the YOG (2 August to 11 September 2014) compared to those before (6 July to 1 August 2014) and after (15 September to 20 September 2014) the YOG. δ34S values of PM2.5 were generally located in a small range of 3.5‰ to 4.6‰, suggesting a stable sulfur sources in Nanjing region around the YOG. Combining with δ34S values of potential sources and SO2, ion concentrations of PM2.5 and MODIS fire spot photos, we inferred that sulfur in PM2.5 was mainly from direct emission of coal combustion and vehicle exhaust as well as the secondary sulfate from SO2 oxidation in the atmosphere. Besides, biologic sulfur release might make a contribution to sulfur content in PM2.5. High [NO3-]/[SO42 -] ratio of PM2.5 indicated that vehicle exhaust emission was predominant over coal combustion during the YOG. In addition, we studied sulfur isotopic fractionation coefficients during SO2 oxidation to sulfate in PM2.5 and found the contribution ratio (51.3%) of SO2 homogeneous oxidation was slightly higher than that (48.7%) of SO2 heterogeneous oxidation around the YOG.

  14. Influence of pollution control on lead inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5: A case study of 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Wei; Li, Hong-Bo; Luo, Jun; Li, Hui-Ming; Qian, Xin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Bi, Jun; Cui, Xin-Yi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-09-01

    Pollution controls were implemented to improve the air quality for the 2014 Youth Olympic Games (YOG) in Nanjing. To investigate the influence of pollution control on Pb inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5, samples were collected before, during, and after YOG. The objectives were to identify Pb sources in PM2.5 using stable isotope fingerprinting technique and compare Pb inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5 using two simulated lung fluids. While artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) simulates interstitial fluid at pH 7.4, Gamble's solution simulates fluid in alveolar macrophages at pH 4.5. The Pb concentration in PM2.5 samples during YOG (88.2ngm(-3)) was 44-48% lower than that in non-YOG samples. Based on stable Pb isotope ratios, Pb in YOG samples was mainly from coal combustion while Pb in non-YOG samples was from coal combustion and smelting activities. While Pb bioaccessibility in YOG samples was lower than those in non-YOG samples (59-79% vs. 55-87%) by ALF, it was higher than those in non-YOG samples (11-29% vs. 5.3-21%) based on Gamble's solution, attributing to the lower pH and organic acids in ALF. Different Pb bioaccessibility in PM2.5 between samples resulted from changes in Pb species due to pollution control. PbSO4 was the main Pb species in PM2.5 from coal combustion, which was less soluble in ALF than PbO from smelting activities, but more soluble in Gamble's solution. This study showed it is important to consider Pb bioaccessibility during pollution control as source control not only reduced Pb contamination in PM2.5 but also influenced Pb bioaccessibility. PMID:27209002

  15. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  16. 近5届奥运会举办城市大型体育场馆的开发利用%Study on the Development and Utilization of the Large-scale Stadiums of the Latest Five Host Cities of Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小瑜; 谢建华

    2014-01-01

    运用文献资料法、案例分析法等研究近5届奥运会举办城市(亚特兰大、悉尼、雅典、北京和伦敦)的奥运场馆赛后开发利用策略。研究发现:高度重视场馆科学设计与赛后规划,建立专业开发机构,积极引进职业体育赛事,注重发展多业态综合运营是近5届奥运会举办城市体育场馆开发的成功经验。建议我国大型体育场馆应科学规划场馆赛后运营,积极融入城市生活;夯实职业体育基础,加大无形资产开发力度;开发场馆多元价值,推动多业态综合运营;打造四季多元的大型活动,创立具有自主品牌特色的驻场演出;组建专业管理团队,加强中介机构合作,实现场馆运营效益提升。%By applying the methods of literature study and case analysis, the article studies the post-game development and utilization of the large-scale stadiums in Atlanta, Sydney, Athens, Beijing and London that held the latest Olympic Games. It is discovered that the successful experience of these cities is to pay high attention to scientiifc design and post-game planning of the stadiums, set up professional development agencies, actively introduce professional sport events and lay stress on developing multi-format comprehensive operation. And it is suggested that we should scientiifcally plan the post-game operation of the large-scale stadiums, actively get involved in urban life, consolidate the foundation of professional sports, enhance the development of intangible assets, explore the multiple value of stadiums, promote multi-format comprehensive operation, organize diverse major events all the year round, create on-site performance featuring independent brands, form professional management teams, strengthen the cooperation with intermediary agencies and realize the promotion of stadium operation proifts.

  17. Awareness of olympic issues and evaluations of the olympic concepts among the school of physical education and sport students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilşad Çoknaz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the awareness of Olympic Issues and evaluations in relation to Olympic concepts among the school of physical education and sport students. In the study, descriptive method was used and the "Olympic Information Form" which was developed by the researchers was used to collect data. The form included "Olympic games" "history", "persons" and "institutions", "symbols", "concepts" and "Olympic ideals". 726 students  from 11 different schools of physical education and sports in six different regions participated in the study. Also the qualitative methodology was used to gather data from the written evaluations through open ended questions. In order to increase the reliability and to decrease the subjectivity of the study the qualitative data obtained through open ended questions were numerically grouped. Therefore it was possible to make a comparison between the themes found and categories. Four researchers worked independently on qualitative analysis and the results were compared to reveal the similarities and differences. For the validity of the study the findings were combined to gather meaningful and consistent data. As a result 77.8% of the students were aware that the Olympic Games take place every four years. However 69.7% of them did not know when the first Olympic Games were organized. 78.9% of the students did not know the organization which represents the Olympic Movement in the world and 71.1% of them did not know it for Turkey. Findings for symbols showed that the Olympic Rings were mentioned in the first place both verbally and visually. In the analysis of the Olympic concepts, sport and organization were found. In the concept of Olympism, organization and management and ideas of Olympic Games, and in the concept of Olympic Movement physical movement and Olympic Ideas were found.  It was also found that among the first five con­cepts the initial reaction of the students when the Olympic Games

  18. Awareness of olympic issues and evaluations of the olympic concepts among the school of physical education and sport students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilşad Çoknaz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the awareness of Olympic Issues and evaluations in relation to Olympic concepts among the school of physical education and sport students. In the study, descriptive method was used and the "Olympic Information Form" which was developed by the researchers was used to collect data. The form included "Olympic games" "history", "persons" and "institutions", "symbols", "concepts" and "Olympic ideals". 726 students from 11 different schools of physical education and sports in six different regions participated in the study. Also the qualitative methodology was used to gather data from the written evaluations through open ended questions. In order to increase the reliability and to decrease the subjectivity of the study the qualitative data obtained through open ended questions were numerically grouped. Therefore it was possible to make a comparison between the themes found and categories. Four researchers worked independently on qualitative analysis and the results were compared to reveal the similarities and differences. For the validity of the study the findings were combined to gather meaningful and consistent data. As a result 77.8% of the students were aware that the Olympic Games take place every four years. However 69.7% of them did not know when the first Olympic Games were organized. 78.9% of the students did not know the organization which represents the Olympic Movement in the world and 71.1% of them did not know it for Turkey. Findings for symbols showed that the Olympic Rings were mentioned in the first place both verbally and visually. In the analysis of the Olympic concepts, sport and organization were found. In the concept of Olympism, organization and management and ideas of Olympic Games, and in the concept of Olympic Movement physical movement and Olympic Ideas were found. It was also found that among the first five con­cepts the initial reaction of the students when the Olympic Games were

  19. Agricultural and urban land use change analysis in Changping County, Beijing, using remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Hongga; Li, Xia; Ming, An

    Urban growth is regarded as a necessary transitional stage for a sustainable economy, but uncontrolled or arbitrary urban growth rapidly consumes rural resources and causes environmental pollution, ecological deterioration. In this paper, we developed a remote sensing and GIS-based integrated approach to monitor and analyze agricultural and urban spatial land use and ecological landscape change characteristics. In the proposed approach, multi-temporal satellite images from 1995 to 2010 were selected and classified to obtain land cover and use spatial changes. And GIS was used to analyze variation tendency for land use and ecological landscape indices. Experiments were performed in the Changping County, north of Beijing to analyze rapid urbanization effects in the past two decades, especially during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The results indicate that there has been a notable urban growth and a visible loss about 38.8% in cropland, meanwhile dominated landscape structures and patterns have greatly changed from agriculture to urban in the study area.

  20. CHANGXINDIAN OIL STORAGE TO BE LARGEST ONE IN BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 11, the revision and expansion engineering of Changxindian Oil Storage, run by Sinopec Beijing Oil Company, kicked off formally, marking that another Olympic infrastructure engineering started building.