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Sample records for beijing olympic games

  1. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  2. Tasting Beijing ,Approaching Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sponsored by Beijing Tour Administration, co-organized by Singapore Conference and Exhibition Administration Service Co., Ltd. and Beijing Relation Exhibition Co., Ltd., "2007 Beijing International Tour Expo" was held in Beijing in June. Commissioner Du Jiang gave a presentation with the opening ceremmony, and pointed out that with the theme of "Tasting Beijing, Approaching Olympic Games", the expo was a platform of promoting the communication and cooperation between the Chinese and foreign tourism industries.

  3. Chinese Satellites Serve Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Shufang

    2008-01-01

    @@ METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES PROVIDING WEATHER SERVICES As the opening and closing ceremonies and many competition events such as athletics, football, cycling and sailing etc., were held in open air stadiums, field or on water, it was of great importance to provide exact weather forecasts and on-time climate information to prepare for disastrous weather so as to ensure the Olympic Games proceeded smoothly. For this purpose, China launched the meteorological satellite service project in 2002 to safeguard the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

  4. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.

  5. CPAFFC Holds Activities to Greet Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Olympic Games are com-ing and really coming! We have been looking forward to this day for 100 years. At last, the Beijing Olympic Games will begin tomorrow with the attention of the whole world. To celebrate the one-day countdown to the Beijing Olympic Games, on the morning

  6. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.……

  7. RISK EVALUATION ON RAILWAY PUBLIC EMERGENCIES DURING 2008 BEIJING OLYMPIC GAMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Risk evaluation is fundamental to eliminate and prenent any kind of public emergencies ,while that for railway public emergencies is the foundation to guarantee railway sicurity.With the researches on the flow and methods of risk evaluation and the evaltation on railway public evtergencies during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games,the article puts forward measures and suggestions for risk control,providing reference for decision making by government departments,the Organizing Committee of Beijing Olympic Games,and the Security Coorduating Tean of Beijing Olympics as well as jproviding basis for solutions by the Security Control Center of Beijing Olympics and the relevant dipartments of railway sector.

  8. Dietary supplementation patterns of Korean olympic athletes participating in the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongkyu; Kang, Seung-ki; Jung, Han-sang; Chun, Yoon-suck; Trilk, Jennifer; Jung, Seung Ho

    2011-04-01

    Athletes report frequent use of various dietary supplements (DSs). However, no study has examined DS use and antidoping knowledge in Korean Olympians. The objectives of this study were to obtain information about Korean Olympians' DS use during the training period for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games and immediately before their Olympic events, to obtain DS-intake reasons and DS providers, and to obtain information on athletes' doping education, knowledge, and educators. Korean Olympians completed 2 questionnaires 1 wk before the opening and within 1 wk after the closing of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Results showed that 79% of male and 82% of female Olympians take more than 1 DS during the training period and that vitamins and Oriental supplements are the 2 top-ranked DSs. Reasons for DS use were to improve recovery ability (66%) and muscle performance (22%), and sources of obtaining DSs were parents (36%) and coaches (35%). Furthermore, 79% of Korean Olympians reported receiving regular education on antidoping regulations from Olympic-sponsored education classes (64%) and coaches (15%). In conclusion, this study was the first to examine DS use and antidoping-related information in Korean Olympians. Because some herbal products contain substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, athletes should be cautious in using mixed Oriental supplements.

  9. The eco-origins, actions and demonstration roles of Beijing Green Olympic Game1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 29th Olympic Game will be held in Beijing in 2008. It will be a green game to promote sustainable development of men,cities and regions through ecological development advocating "man and nature be in one". "Eco" here means a process, a driving force, an action, a culture and a kind of vitality leading to sustainable development. It is a mechanism embodying the Olympic spirit ofcompetition, cooperation and self-reliance. The paper explained the ecological significance, connotation and objectives of Beijing Green Olympic Game. Ten major ecological heritages of Beijing have been investigated including ecologically sound landscape, culture, trnsportation, physical exercise, health care, sanitation, food, family relationship, agriculture, and human ecological totality. To preserve or restore the above mentioned old tradition, a green Olympic action plan has been made out in Beijing initiated by NGOs, supported by entrepreneurs and coordinated by government agencies. Four kinds of eco-engineering have been planned for blue sky, cleanwater, green land and eco-city development. The demonstration role of Beijing Green Olympic Game to developing regions and countries is also discussed.

  10. Safe Olympics Beijing's top police officers offer security assurances to 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With a formidable antiterrorism team, Beijing's top cops are ready to deal with any security incidents that might take place during the 2008 Olympics. This assurance was given by Lu Shimin, Deputy Director General of the Beijing Public Security Bureau, at a press

  11. The State, Citizenship Education, and International Events in a Global Age: The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2010-01-01

    With reference to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, this article shows how the Chinese state continues to be a key actor in defining citizenship and citizenship education by promoting nationalism and nation-specific elements of citizenship education while linking its people to an increasingly interconnected world. In particular, this study examines…

  12. A Typical Production and Elimination Process of Particles in Beijing during Early 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to discuss he produce and elimination rules of particles in Beijing during early 2008 Olympic Games. [Method] Based on the analysis of particulate matter online observation data and meteorological data during the corresponding period in Chinese environmental science college, Hysplit Back trace model and Numerical weather prediction graphs, and combined with the different analytical methods on meteorological flow fields, a typical process of particles in Beijing during early 2008 Olym...

  13. Technical Skills Leading in Winning or Losing Volleyball Matches During Beijing Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASTERIOS PATSIAOURAS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Volleyball is included in sports where individual success of final efforts such as a successful attack or aneffective block, is achieved by the harmonious collaboration of the preceded players’ efforts. The purpose of thispresent study was to evaluate the importance of technical skills that led to the success of the national teams thattook part in the Olympic Games of Beijing 2008. The sample was constituted by all the matches of the volleyballmen teams that participated in the Beijing Olympic Games. Overall, 29 games were videotaped and evaluated.Collection of data included the use of the statistical recording program Data Volley 2. The parameters that wereevaluated were: a service, b service reception, c attack, and d attack blocked. The statistical treatment of datawas realised through non parametric statistical analysis. The results showed that, service points, reception errors,and attacks blocked emerged as important factors that were decisive for wining or losing a match

  14. The Olympic Games of Beijing: Mobility, Environment and New Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Fistola

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental condition of Beijing is characterized by high level of entropy mainly referable to the air pollution that considerably affects the conditions of urban life. The basic idea of this text is to succeed in finding a thread among some building realizations and infrastructures in course of completion and in verifying, also thanks to the use of advanced technologies, the entropic or neghentropic contribution to the actual quality of life in the Chinese capital. The buildings considered useful for an investigation are the following: The Olympic Stadium, destined to entertain about 90 thousand spectators and covered with more than one thousand solar panels to satisfy the whole energetic requirement of the structure and of the surrounding area; the National Aquatic Centre (known as “water cube” inside which competitions of aquatic sports will take place and thanks to the new technologies it will be possible to recycle tons of water a year; the new terminal n.3 of the Beijing Capital Airport, designed by Sir Norman Foster, which will become, with its 66 million passengers, the biggest terminal all over the world. The paper describes the sudden transformations that the Chinese capital is undergoing in the last years, which are contributing to conform its new pattern of world city reshaped to the western model.

  15. Lucky baby appeared, and the whole China reveled The Beijing Olympic Games mascot figure was expected hopefully to bring 2.5 billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The naissance of lucky baby Beijing 2008 Olympic Games started 1,000 days countdowns at 8 pm,on November 11 the Beijing Olympic Games mascot figure also appeared in the public expection, which was composed by 5 personifications baby images, general designated "lucky baby", five mascot figures received the whole country’s appreciation.

  16. Disease distribution and medical resoureces during the Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xue-ya; LAN Ling; CHEN Wei-na; ZHANG Ai-ping; L(U) Chao-ying; L(U) Yan-wei; DAI Jian-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate planning and staffing for medical services at large-scale athletic events is essential to provide for a safe and successful competition. There are few well-documented accounts describing the demand for such services.The present study provided the data from the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics,with a view to provide the guidance for planning future events.Methods A total of 22 029 and 8046 patients,who received medical care from a physician at an Olympic or Paralympic medical station,were included. The patient proportion among different personnel,various disease proportions at different kinds of venues,and the disease spectrum at specified venues at the Olympics and Paralympics were analyzed.Results At both games,the patient proportion varied by accreditation status. The staff accounted for the largest number of visits at the Olympics (44.83%) and Paralympics (36.95%),with respiratory diseases the most common. Various disease spectrums were discovered at the different kinds of venues. Surgical diseases were the most frequently listed reason for visits,both at competition and non-competition venues,especially during the Paralympics. The sport-related injuries accounted for a majority of the surgical cases during both games. At training venues,ear nose and throat diseases accounted for the greatest number of visits during both games.Conclusions During both games,people contracted different diseases at different venues. Adequate surgeons should be designated to offer assistance mostly in trauma situations. Appropriate numbers of physicians in respiratory diseases and otorhinolaryngology is of great importance.

  17. [Observations and comparison analysis of air pollution in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Ji, Dong-Sheng; Song, Tao; Lin, Hong; Wang, Yue-Si; Jiang, Chang-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    In order to study regional air quality, evaluate the interaction of air quality among Beijing and four cities and assess the effects of regional collaborative emission abatement in Beijing and surrounding areas for the Olympic Games period on regional air quality, and seek an effective means of early warning of air pollution, a monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and four nearby cities which were Zhuozhou, Langfang, Xianghe and Yanjiao, was established to measure concentrations of NO(x), O3 and particulate matter in June 2008. The results show that the primary pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas are particulates during the study periods. The average mass concentrations of PM10 were (114 +/- 66) microg/m3 and (128 +/- 59) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively, while the average mass concentrations of PM2.5 were (77 +/- 47) microg/m3 and (81 +/- 51) microg/m3, respectively. The average maximum hourly mass concentrations of O3 were (164 +/- 52) microg/m3 and (165 +/- 55) microg/m3, as well as the average mass concentrations of NO(x) were (58 +/- 23) microg/m3 and (25 +/- 14) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively. Compared to June, concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO(x) decreased by 69%, 62%, 18% and 41% during the Olympic period (from August 8 to 24) and 56%, 49%, 17% and 16% during the Paralympic Games period (from September 6 to 17) in Beijing. The mass concentration of PM2.5 was affected by the surrounding areas of Beijing seriously. The relative high concentrations of NO(x) in Beijing implied NO(x) had the potential tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. Ozone showed regional pollution characteristics in summer. It shows that the monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas is significant in early warning of air pollution, and could provide scientific support for interregional cooperation of air pollution control.

  18. IMS based on Personal Communication Empowers Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Liu

    2008-01-01

    IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) has now developed into a range of commercially proven products that deliver end users experience and efficiently reduce the cost of building convergent multi media and multi service networks. This paper briefly presents you the successful project with China Netcom to support the company with the advanced Olympic Command Supporting System (CSS) developed by Ericsson based on IMS architecture which provides a fast and efficient personal communication and dispatching platform through a multimedia way by seamlessly integrating a host of communication applications and technologies.

  19. The impact of transportation control measures on emission reductions during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Ye; Yang, Liu; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Chen, Jinchuan; Li, Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    Traffic congestion and air pollution were two major challenges for the planners of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The Beijing municipal government implemented a package of temporary transportation control measures during the event. In this paper, we report the results of a recent research project that investigated the effects of these measures on urban motor vehicle emissions in Beijing. Bottom-up methodology has been used to develop grid-based emission inventories with micro-scale vehicle activities and speed-dependent emission factors. The urban traffic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) during the 2008 Olympics were reduced by 55.5%, 56.8%, 45.7% and 51.6%, respectively, as compared to the grid-based emission inventory before the Olympics. Emission intensity was derived from curbside air quality monitoring at the North 4th Ring Road site, located about 7 km from the National Stadium. Comparison between the emission intensity before and during the 2008 Olympics shows a reduction of 44.5% and 49.0% in daily CO and NO x emission from motor vehicles. The results suggest that reasonable traffic system improvement strategies along with vehicle technology improvements can contribute to controlling total motor vehicle emissions in Beijing after the Olympic Games.

  20. Reductions of PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomerations during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Wang, Lili; Tang, Guiqian; Sun, Yang; Pan, Yuepeng; Ji, Dongsheng

    2012-11-01

    The Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Network successfully undertook the task of monitoring the atmospheric quality of Beijing and its surrounding area during the 2008 Olympics. The results of this monitoring show that high concentrations of PM2.5 pollution exhibited a regional pattern during the monitoring period (1 June-30 October 2008). The PM2.5 mass concentrations were 53 μg m-3, 66 μg m-3, and 82 μg m-3 at the background site, in Beijing, and in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomerations, respectively. The PM2.5 levels were lowest during the 2008 Olympic Games (8-24 August): 35 μg m-3 at the background site, 42 μg m-3 in Beijing and 57 μg m-3 in the region. These levels represent decreases of 49%, 48%, and 56%, respectively, compared to the prophase mean concentration before the Olympic Games. Emission control measures contributed 62%-82% of the declines observed in Beijing, and meteorological conditions represented 18%-38%. The concentration of fine particles met the goals set for a "Green Olympics."

  1. Reductions of PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomerations during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Jinyuan; WANG Yuesi; WANG Lili; TANG Guiqian; SUN Yang; PAN Yuepeng; JI Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Network successfully undertook the task of monitoring the atmospheric quality of Beijing and its surrounding area during the 2008 Olympics.The results of this monitoring show that high concentrations of PM2.5 pollution exhibited a regional pattern during the monitoring period (1 June-30 October 2008).The PM2.5 mass concentrations were 53 μg m-3,66 μg m-3,and 82 μg m-3 at the background site,in Beijing,and in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomerations,respectively.The PM2.5 levels were lowest during the 2008 Olympic Games (8-24 August):35 μg m-a at the background site,42 μg m-3 in Beijing and 57 μg m-3 in the region.These levels represent decreases of 49%,48%,and 56%,respectively,compared to the prophase mean concentration before the Olympic Games.Emission control measures contributed 62%-82% of the declines observed in Beijing,and meteorological conditions represented 18%-38%.The concentration of fine particles met the goals set for a "Green Olympics."

  2. One-Year Countdown to Beijing Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Bai Yifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ August 8, 2007, a special day for Chinese people, marks the beginning of one-year countdown to the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. A grand ceremony opened in China's Olympic City at 8:08pm on August 8, 2008.On this significant day, many celebrations referring to Olympic Games were held all around China. All together, there were 63 events taking place across the country.

  3. Impact of emission control on regional air quality: an observational study of air pollutants before, during and after the Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shulan; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Yuechong; Zhang, Jingqiao; Cha, Fahe; Wang, Tao; Ren, Chun; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-01-01

    An observational study on trace gases and PM2.5 was conducted at three sites in and around Beijing, during the Olympic season from 2007 to 2009. Air quality improved significantly during the Olympic Games due to the special emission control measures. However, concentrations of the primary pollutants and PM were found to have risen significantly after the Games. Although the major O3 precursors (NO(x) and VOCs) were well controlled during the Olympic season, O3 was still found to be the highest in 2008, based on the data of ground-based observation. All this information suggests that while control of regional emissions for the Beijing Olympic Games did improved the air quality in Beijing, more efforts will be needed for the continuous improvement of regional air quality, especially for significant reductions of O3 and fine particulate pollution, and not only in Beijing, but also in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

  4. Three Concepts Embodied in Beijing Olympic Venues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The designs of the Beijing Olympic venues have attracted more attention from around the world than those in any preceding Olympic Games. For the 2008 Olympics, Beiiing has prepared 31 venues, including 12 that are newly-built, 11 that have been improved or expanded and 8 which are temporary. Unique world-class venues like the "Bird's Nest" and the "Water Cube" have shocked the world,fully reflecting the three concepts of holding a "Green Olympics,High-tech Olympics and People's Olympics".

  5. Atmospheric concentrations, sources and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs in Beijing after the 29th Olympic Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wanli [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Sun Dezhi [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen Weiguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang Meng [IJRC-PTS, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian (China); Qi Hong; Liu Liyan; Shen Jimin [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Li Yifan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario M3H5T4 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    A comprehensive sampling campaign was carried out to study atmospheric concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Beijing and to evaluate the effectiveness of source control strategies in reducing PAHs pollution after the 29th Olympic Games. The sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logP{sub L}{sup o})-based model and octanol-air partition coefficient (K{sub oa})-based model were applied based on each seasonal dateset. Regression analysis among log K{sub P}, logP{sub L}{sup o} and log K{sub oa} exhibited high significant correlations for four seasons. Source factors were identified by principle component analysis and contributions were further estimated by multiple linear regression. Pyrogenic sources and coke oven emission were identified as major sources for both the non-heating and heating seasons. As compared with literatures, the mean PAH concentrations before and after the 29th Olympic Games were reduced by more than 60%, indicating that the source control measures were effective for reducing PAHs pollution in Beijing. - Highlights: > This is the first comprehensive study of PAHs in atmosphere after the 29th Olympics in Beijing, China. > The air quality before and after 29th Olympics has attracted much attention worldwide. > The study was helpful for other countries to understand how the Olympics affected PAHs emissions. > The study would act as a case study to know the effects that big events can impose on the host cities. - The source control measures implemented before and during the 29th Olympic Games were effective for reducing the emissions of air pollutants in Beijing.

  6. Preparations for Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ I Venues 1.The completion of the Water Cube On January 28th,2008,after the construction of over four years,one of the symboIic architectures of Beijing Olympic-National Center of Swimming (The Water Cube)was completed and has been put into use.During the period from 31st of January to 5th of February,the first testing game was held in the Water Cube-China Swim Open,2008.

  7. Photochemical production of ozone in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. C.-K.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Lin, P.-H.; Liu, S. C.; Zhu, T.

    2011-09-01

    As a part of the CAREBeijing-2008 campaign, observations of O3, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and NOy), CO, and hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at the air quality observatory of the Peking University in Beijing, China during August 2008, including the period of the 29th Summer Olympic Games. The measurements were compared with those of the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign to evaluate the effectiveness of the air pollution control measures, which were conducted for improving the air quality in Beijing during the Olympics. The results indicate that significant reduction in the emissions of primary air pollutants had been achieved; the monthly averaged mixing ratios of NOx, NOy, CO, and NMHCs decreased by 42.2, 56.5, 27.8, and 49.7 %, respectively. In contrast to the primary pollutants, the averaged mixing ratio of O3 increased by 42.2 %. Nevertheless, it was revealed that the ambient levels of total oxidant (Ox = O3+NO2+1.5 NOz) and NOz were reduced by 21.3 and 77.4 %, respectively. The contradictions between O3 and Ox were further examined in two case studies. Ozone production rates of 30-70 ppbv h-1 and OPEx of ~8 mole mole-1 were observed on a clear-sky day in spite of the reduced levels of precursors. In that case, it was found that the mixing ratio of O3 increased with the increasing NO2/NO ratio, whereas the NOz mixing ratio leveled off when NO2/NO>8. Consequently, the ratio of O3 to NOz increased to above 10, indicating the shift from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive regime. However, in the other case, it was found that the O3 production was inhibited significantly due to substantial reduction in the NMHCs. According to the observations, it was suggested that the O3 and/or Ox production rates in Beijing should have been reduced as a result of the reduction in the emissions of precursors during the Olympic period. However, the nighttime O3 levels increased due to a decline in the NO-O3 titration, and the midday O3 peak levels were elevated because of the shift in

  8. Evaluating the air quality impacts of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: On-road emission factors and black carbon profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Westerdahl, Dane; Chen, Lung Chi; Wu, Ye; Hao, Jiming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Guo, Xinbiao; Zhang, K. Max

    The aggressive traffic interventions and emission control measures implemented to improve air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games created a valuable case study to evaluate the effectiveness of these measures on mitigating air pollution and protecting public health. In this paper, we report the results from our field campaign in summer 2008 on the on-road emission factors of carbon monoxide, black carbon (BC) and ultrafine particles (UFP) as well as the ambient BC concentrations. The fleet average emission factors for light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) showed considerable reduction in the Olympic year (2008) compared to the pre-Olympic year (2007). Our measurement of Black Carbon (BC), a primary pollutant, at different elevations at the ambient site suggests consistent decrease in BC concentrations as the height increased near the ground level, which indicates that the nearby ground level sources, probably dominated by traffic, contributed to a large portion of BC concentrations in the lower atmospheric layer in Beijing during summertime. These observations indicate that people living in near ground levels experience higher exposures than those living in higher floors in Beijing. The BC diurnal patterns on days when traffic control were in place during the Olympic Games were compared to those on non-traffic-control days in both 2007 and in 2008. These patterns strongly suggest that diesel trucks are a major source of summertime BC in Beijing. The median BC concentration on Olympic days was 3.7 μg m -3, which was dramatically lower than the value on non-traffic-control days, indicating the effectiveness of traffic control regulations in BC reduction in Beijing.

  9. 2008 Olympic Games Sponsorship Boosted in Chitec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Olympic Games: An Impetus for Capital Economy Liu Jingmin, Vice Mayor of Beijing: 2008 Olympic Games will be a good opportunity to promote the economic development in Beijing, as well as the progress in science and technology, culture,education, etc.. In the meantime, all walks of life have participated in the preparation.

  10. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  11. Peak career in world-ranked swimmers: Age’s analysis of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M. Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to: (i describe the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games swimmer’s ages and; (ii compare ages according to swimmer’s gender. It was analyzed 1101 inscriptions (588 men and 513 women for all swimming events held at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: 50 meters freestyle (L50, 100 meters freestyle (L100, 200 meters freestyle (L200, 400 meters freestyle (L400, 800 meters freestyle (L800, only women 1500 meters freestyle (L1500, only men, 100 meters backstroke (C100, 200 meters backstroke (C200, 100 meters breaststroke (B100, 200 meters breaststroke (B200, 100 meters butterfly (M100, 200 meters butterfly (M200. The final result lists was consulted at the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games official internet site, collecting the swimmer’s name and chronological age for each event. Afterwards, chronological age was converted into decimal age at the day of the event heats. From the quartile analysis became clear that there was a tendency for the age median and variance to decrease from the shorter to the longest events for both genders. There were significant variations in the age, according to gender at the L400 ( p = .01, L1500/L800 ( p = .02, C100 ( p < .01, C200 ( p < .01, B100 ( p = .02, B200 ( p = .04, M100 ( p = .05 and M200 ( p < .01. For all these events, decimal age was higher for men than for women.

  12. From Paris to Beijing, a 12,000-km cycle tour to see the Olympic Games !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Two members of CERN’s cycling club have taken up an incredible challenge - that of travelling to the Chinese capital for the inauguration of the Olympic Games this summer by pedal power alone! Peter Dreesen (on the left) and Raymond Cambarrat training in 2007, with the CERN Velo Club. At the Moldova-Ukraine border, on 18 April.Peter Dreesen, an engineer in CERN’s AB-PO Group, and Raymond Cambarrat, a safety officer in TS-AS3, set off "on their own two wheels" from the esplanade of the Trocadéro in Paris, on 16 March. Although approaching retirement, both these members of CERN’s Velo Club are well-trained athletes and have the ambition of completing the 12,000-km journey on their bikes from start to finish, crossing twelve countries on their way and arriving in Beijing five days before the start of the Games. It would all seem a rather hair-brained scheme if it were not for the meticulo...

  13. Biogenic isoprene and implications for oxidant levels in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-C.; Shao, M.; Chou, C. C. K.; Liu, S.-C.; Wang, J.-L.; Lee, K.-Z.; Lai, C.-H.; Zhu, T.; Lin, P.-H.

    2013-10-01

    As the host of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, Beijing implemented a series of stringent, short-term air quality control measures to reduce the emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Large reductions in the daily average concentrations of primary pollutants, e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) of approximately 50% were observed at the air quality observatory of Peking University. Nevertheless, high levels of ozone were present during the control period. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced, the meteorological conditions in summer, including high temperature and light flux, are conducive to the production of large amounts of biogenic isoprene, which is extremely reactive. The diurnal pattern of isoprene showed daily maximum mixing ratios of 0.83 ppbv at noon and a minimum at night, reflecting its primarily biogenic properties. Using the ratio of isoprene to vehicle exhaust tracers, approximately 92% of the daytime isoprene was estimated from biogenic sources, and only 8% was attributed to vehicular emissions. In terms of OH reactivity and the ozone formation potential (OFP), biogenic isoprene with its midday surge can contribute approximately 20% of the total OFPs and 40-50% of the total OH reactivities of the 65 measured NMHCs during the midday hours. The discrepancy between decreased precursor levels and the observed high ozone was most likely caused by a combination of many factors. The changes in the partition among the components of oxidation products (O3, NO2 and NOz) and the contribution of air pollutants from regional sources outside Beijing should be two primary reasons. Furthermore, the influences of biogenic isoprene as well as the non-linearity of O3-VOC-NOx chemistry are other major concerns that can reduce the effectiveness of the control measures for decreasing ozone formation. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced during the Olympic Games, sufficient biogenic isoprene and moderate NOx

  14. Biogenic isoprene and implications for oxidant levels in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chung; Shao, Min; Chou, Charles C. K.; Liu, Shaw-Chen; Zhu, Tong; Lee, Kun-Zhang; Lai, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Wang*, Jia-Lin

    2014-05-01

    As the host of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, Beijing implemented a series of stringent, short-term air quality control measures to reduce the emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Large reductions in the daily average concentrations of primary pollutants, e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) of approximately 50% were observed at the air quality observatory of Peking University. Nevertheless, high levels of ozone were present during the control period. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced, the meteorological conditions in summer, including high temperature and light flux, are conducive to the production of large amounts of biogenic isoprene, which is extremely reactive. The diurnal pattern of isoprene showed daily maximum mixing ratios of 0.83 ppbv at noon and a minimum at night, reflecting its primarily biogenic properties. Using the ratio of isoprene to vehicle exhaust tracers, approximately 92% of the daytime isoprene was estimated from biogenic sources, and only 8% was attributed to vehicular emissions. In terms of OH reactivity and the ozone formation potential (OFP), biogenic isoprene with its midday surge can contribute approximately 20% of the total OFPs and 40-50% of the total OH reactivities of the 65 measured NMHCs during the midday hours. The discrepancy between decreased precursor levels and the observed high ozone was most likely caused by a combination of many factors. The changes in the partition among the components of oxidation products (O3, NO2 and NOz) and the contribution of air pollutants from regional sources outside Beijing should be two primary reasons. Furthermore, the influences of biogenic isoprene as well as the non-linearity of O3-VOC-NOx chemistry are other major concerns that can reduce the effectiveness of the control measures for decreasing ozone formation. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced during the Olympic Games, the presence of sufficient biogenic isoprene

  15. Art Casting of China and 2008 Beijing Olympic Sculptures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, a major international multi-sport event, took place in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. It has well shown the Chinese people's dream and passion about the Games. Hosting an Olympic Games has been a century-old dream for the Chinese nation.

  16. Photochemical production of ozone in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C.-K. Chou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the CAREBeijing-2008 campaign, observations of O3, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and NOy, CO, and hydrocarbons (NMHCs were carried out at the air quality observatory of the Peking University in Beijing, China during August 2008, including the period of the 29th Summer Olympic Games. The measurements were compared to those of the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign to evaluate the effectiveness of the air pollution control measures, which were conducted for improving the air quality in Beijing during the Olympics. The results indicate that significant reduction in the emissions of primary air pollutants had been achieved; the monthly averages of NOx, NOy, CO, and NMHCs reduced by 42.2, 56.5, 27.8, and 49.7 %, respectively. In contrast to the primary pollutants, the averaged mixing ratio of O3 increased by 42.2 %. Nevertheless, it was revealed that the ambient levels of total oxidants (Ox=O3+NO2+1.5NOz and NOz reduced by 21.3 and 77.4 %, respectively. The contradictions between O3 and Ox were further examined in two case studies. Ozone production rates of 30–70 ppbv hr−1 and OPEx of ~8 mole mole−1 were observed on a clear-sky day in spite of the reduced levels of precursors. In that case, it was found that the concentrations of O3 increased with the increasing NO2/NO ratio, whereas the NOz concentrations leveled off when NO2/NO>8. Consequently, the ratio of O3 to NOz increased to above 10, indicating the shift from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive regime. However, in the other case, it was found that the O3 production was inhibited significantly due to substantial reduction in the ambient levels of NMHCs. According to the observations, it was suggested that the O3

  17. What can I do for the Olympic Games?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盈

    2006-01-01

    The 29th Olympic Game will be celebrated in Beijing, China. I!m proud ofthis. Olympic Games are always celebrated in big countries,which means ourcountry is stronger than before.The Chinese government is getting ready for the 2008 Olympic Games.Workers are building many big stadiums which will be used in the 2008Olympic Games.The people in Beijing are getting ready for the OlympicGames.They are learning English hard .When the Olympic Games begin, there will be a lot of athletes who comefrom both our country...

  18. Impact of air pollution control measures and weather conditions on asthma during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Wen; Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lin, Weili; Yang, Yuanqin

    2011-07-01

    The alternative transportation strategy implemented during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing provided an opportunity to study the impact of the control measures and weather conditions on air quality and asthma morbidity. An ecological study compared the 41 days of the Olympic Games (8 August-17 September 2008) to a baseline period (1-30 June). Also, in order to emphasize the impact of weather conditions on air quality, a pollution linking meteorological index (Plam) was introduced to represent the air pollution meteorological condition. Our study showed that the average number of outpatient visits for asthma was 12.5 per day at baseline and 7.3 per day during the Olympics—a 41.6% overall decrease. Compared with the baseline, the Games were associated with a significant reduction in asthma visits (RR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.52-0.65). At 16.5 visits per day, asthma visits were also significantly higher, during the pre-Olympic period (RR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.15-1.52). The study also showed that the RR of asthma events on a given day, as well as the average daily peak ozone concentration during the preceding 48-72 h, increased at cumulative ozone concentrations of 70 to 100 ppb and 100 ppb or more compared with ozone concentrations of less than 70 ppb ( P Olympic Games were associated with a prolonged reduction in air pollution and significantly lower rates of adult asthma events. These data provide support for efforts to reduce air pollution and improve health via reductions in motor vehicle traffic.

  19. Baijing Ready for Green Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Beijing will soon become the focus of attention in the world for hosting the 2008 Olympic Games that is scheduled to open in early August. From design and construction to operation, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCGO) has stipulated that all buildings be in accordance with the "Green Olympics" philosophy, focusing on energy-saving buildings, ecological preservation, sustainable use of resources and use of environmentally friendly construction materials.

  20. Facial recognition technology safeguards Beijing Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ To ensure the safety of spectators and athletes at the biggest-ever Olympic Games, automation experts from CAS have developed China's first system to identify individuals by their facial features, and successfully applied it to the opening night security check on 8 August in Beijing.

  1. Impact of air pollution control measures and weather conditions on asthma during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Wen; Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lin, Weili; Yang, Yuanqin

    2011-07-01

    The alternative transportation strategy implemented during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing provided an opportunity to study the impact of the control measures and weather conditions on air quality and asthma morbidity. An ecological study compared the 41 days of the Olympic Games (8 August-17 September 2008) to a baseline period (1-30 June). Also, in order to emphasize the impact of weather conditions on air quality, a pollution linking meteorological index (Plam) was introduced to represent the air pollution meteorological condition. Our study showed that the average number of outpatient visits for asthma was 12.5 per day at baseline and 7.3 per day during the Olympics-a 41.6% overall decrease. Compared with the baseline, the Games were associated with a significant reduction in asthma visits (RR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.52-0.65). At 16.5 visits per day, asthma visits were also significantly higher, during the pre-Olympic period (RR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.15-1.52). The study also showed that the RR of asthma events on a given day, as well as the average daily peak ozone concentration during the preceding 48-72 h, increased at cumulative ozone concentrations of 70 to 100 ppb and 100 ppb or more compared with ozone concentrations of less than 70 ppb (P air pollution and significantly lower rates of adult asthma events. These data provide support for efforts to reduce air pollution and improve health via reductions in motor vehicle traffic.

  2. Beijing to Boost Gas Consumption for Green Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2002-01-01

    @@ To implement the "Green Olympic"strategy proposed in "Plan for Beijing Olympic Games,"Beijing Gas Group Company will boost its annual gas supply to 4 billion cubic meters by 2005 and 6 billion cubic meters by 2010.

  3. Olympic Effect on Beijing Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Olympic logistics network as preparationIn 2003, the Beijing municipal government proposed the blueprint for three key logistics projects for the 2008 Olympics. It planned to build three logistics bases (at Yancun in Fangshan District, Majuqiao in Tongzhou, and Shahe in Changping District) along with four logistics centers (at Tianzhu in Chaoyang, Shibajiadian in Chaoyang, Dazhuang in Daxing, and Mentougou).

  4. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  5. Impact of Beijing Olympic Games on the Sports Development in China%北京奥运会对中国体育发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志伟

    2011-01-01

    现代奥林匹克运动会不仅是当今世界上历史悠久、规模宏大和水平最高的综合性国际体育竞赛,而且也是影响深远、参与人数最多的社会文化活动。北京奥运会的举办对我国的政治形象、经济效益、文教发展和科技进步都产生了积极的影响,体育更是受益无穷。本文采用文献分析法对北京奥运会在我国体育发展中所起的作用进行归纳总结。%The modern Olympic Games with a long history in the world today has not noly comprehensive international sports competitions at the highest level in the grand scale, but also a far-reaching influence with the largest number of participants engaged in social and cultural activities. Beijing hosting of the Olympic Games has had a positive effect on China' s political image, economic benefit as well as the development of culture, education, science and technology. In addition, Beijing Olympic Games has given Chinese sports a great pull. This article analyses the Beijing Olympic Games' impact on the development of our country sports through the Olympic Games literature.

  6. Beijing: Beyond the Olympic city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-event strategies have become part of a deliberate urban policy for cities around the world. There is a particular concern on how to combine the preparation of a mega-event with urban development processes that meet long-term demands. This paper examines how Beijing tried to use the Summer Olymp

  7. Review of "Education Olympics 2008: The Games in Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierros, Edward G.; Kornhaber, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the recently released Thomas P. Fordham Institute report, "Education Olympics: The Games in Review." Published just after the completion of the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, Education Olympics strategically parallels the international competition by awarding gold, silver and bronze medals to top performing countries based on…

  8. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gao; Meigen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008.Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind,temperature and ozone,but NOx concentration is overestimated.Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics,high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 μg/m3 at Aoyuncun site,respectively.The analysis of sensitive test,with and without emission controls,shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning.The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate.Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August,horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer.On 24 July,as the wind velocity was smaller,the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  9. Reviewing the countdown on the fifth anniversary of Beijing's successful Olympic bid for 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    December 13,2001: The BOCOG was established. February 4,2002: The State Council put forth the Regulations on the Protection of Olympic Symbols, which went into effect on April 1, 2002. July 12, 2002: The Beijing Olympic Action Plan formulated jointly by the Beijing Municipal Government and the BOCOG was promulgated, detailing the main tasks of the preparatory work for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. June 11, 2003: The BOCOG Sailing Committee (Qingdao) was set up in Qingdao.

  10. 习作选登·The 29th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱桃珍; 费骏

    2004-01-01

    The Olympic Games is held every four years. This year it was held in Athens. In 2008,it'll be held in Beijing.How exciting!There are hundreds of sport items in the Olympic Games. Some are our doughty items.For example the diving and pingpong.In the 28th Olympic Games,we won 32 gold medals.

  11. Underwater robots to safeguard Olympic Games in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A small-sized autonomous underwater vehicle(AUV) independently developed and built by CAS researchers has been designated as an underwater guard for the forthcoming Olympic Game in 2008 in Beijing. It has recently been approved by the Olympic Sub-committee of Sailing to be a component of the "underwater safety alert system" of the competition.

  12. 关于出租车司机英语的课程设计--为北京2008奥运会%A Course Design of Taxi Drivers' English--for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪露秋

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates how an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course is designed to meet the needs of a certain group of people engaging in a specific job. In accordance with the development of the taxi industry in Beijing, the paper focuses on how the ESP course enables the taxi drivers to acquire the English language for specific functions in their working environment. Besides, considering the approaching Olympic Games, the paper also explores how this course helps the taxi drivers develop the communicative competence for the Olympic Games.

  13. 北京奥运会医疗服务团队的人力资源整合%Human resources integration within medical service teams for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军; 戴建平; 吕超英; 孙醒明; 张进军; 陈志

    2009-01-01

    Building of medical teams was a basic preparation for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games as well. In this consideration, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (BOCOG) and Beijing Health Bureau developed a complete set of mechanism to integrate human resources, coveting standards development, selection, training and testing for members of medical teams. This ensures the success of medical services delivery and provides medical services delivery of subsequent Large-scale activities with valuable experiences as well%在北京奥运会和残奥会的医疗服务筹备过程中,组建医疗团队是一项基础工作.北京奥组委和北京市卫生局建立了一套完整的人力资源整合机制,包括医疗团队成员的标准制定、选拔、培训、测试等多个方面,保证了场馆医疗服务的圆满完成,也给大型活动的医疗服务留下了宝贵经验.

  14. What Does Olympic Games Bring to Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In 1984, Ubeross, a wizard in the U.S.business circle, creatively combined the Olympic Games with commerce,thus made the Los Angeles Olympic Games of that year become "the Olympic Games which makes money for the first time". Since then, the original Olympic Games which "sustain losses in the sports propaganda" has possessed an ultra ability that "makes the golden-rimmed paper turn into money" Thus, the concept "Olympic economy" appeared.

  15. Singapore Airlines to Fly A380 to Beijing Due to Olympics Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Customers will enjoy exhilarating sporting action,exciting moments when they fly with Singapore Airlincs during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing.To satisfy higher demand on its flights during the of the Olympic Games,Singapore Airlines will fly the Airbus A380 super-jumbo,the world's largest passenger plane,on one of its three daily flights between Singapore and Beijing for one week in early August.

  16. Victory Ceremony Hosts/Hostess Costume Design Scheme for Beijing Olympics Sought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the 29th Olympiad (BOCOG) announced on May 22 that it is organizing a bid across the nation for the design scheme of the victory ceremony hosts/hostess costumes for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games from May 23 to June 25, 2007.

  17. Victory Ceremony Hosts/Hostess Costume Design Scheme for Beijing Olympics Sought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the 29th Olympiad(BOCOG)announced on May 22 that it is organizing a bid across the nation for the design scheme of the victory ceremony hosts/hostess costumes for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games from May 23 to June 25,2007.

  18. Size distributions of aerosol sulfates and nitrates in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games: Impacts of pollution control measures and regional transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Pathak, Ravi Kant; Hallquist, Mattias; Gao, Xiaomei; Nie, Wei; Xue, Likun; Gao, Jian; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing; Wang, Shulan; Chai, Fahe; Chen, Yizhen

    2013-03-01

    For the 2008 Olympic Games, drastic control measures were implemented on industrial and urban emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and other pollutants to address the issues of poor air quality in Beijing. To investigate the effects of SO2 and NO x reductions on the particulate sulfate and nitrate concentrations as well as their size distributions, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) at urban and downwind rural sites in Beijing before and after full-scale controls. During the sampling period, the mass concentrations of fine particles (PM1.8) at the urban and rural sites were 94.0 and 85.9 μg m-3, respectively. More than 90% of the sulfates and ˜60% of nitrates formed as fine particles. Benefiting from the advantageous meteorological conditions and the source controls, sulfates were observed in rather low concentrations and primarily in condensation mode during the Olympics. The effects of the control measures were separately analyzed for the northerly and the southerly air-mass-dominated days to account for any bias. After the control measures were implemented, PM, sulfates, and nitrates were significantly reduced when the northerly air masses prevailed, with a higher percentage of reduction in larger particles. The droplet mode particles, which dominated the sulfates and nitrates before the controls were implemented, were remarkably reduced in mass concentration after the control measures were implemented. Nevertheless, when the polluted southerly air masses prevailed, the local source control measures in Beijing did not effectively reduce the ambient sulfate concentration due to the enormous regional contribution from the North China Plain.

  19. Size Distributions of Aerosol Sulfates and Nitrates in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games: Impacts of Pollution Control Measures and Regional Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinfeng; WANG Tao; Ravi Kant PATHAK; Mattias HALLQUIST; GAO Xiaomei; NIE Wei; XUE Likun

    2013-01-01

    For the 2008 Olympic Games,drastic control measures were implemented on industrial and urban emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2),nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other pollutants to address the issues of poor air quality in Beijing.To investigate the effects of SO2 and NOx reductions on the particulate sulfate and nitrate concentrations as well as their size distributions,size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) at urban and downwind rural sites in Beijing before and after full-scale controls.During the sampling period,the mass concentrations of fine particles (PM1.8) at the urban and rural sites were 94.0 and 85.9 μg m-3,respectively.More than 90% of the sulfates and ~60%of nitrates formed as fine particles.Benefiting from the advantageous meteorological conditions and the source controls,sulfates were observed in rather low concentrations and primarily in condensation mode during the Olympics.The effects of the control measures were separately analyzed for the northerly and the southerly air-mass-dominated days to account for any bias.After the control measures were implemented,PM,sulfates,and nitrates were significantly reduced when the northerly air masses prevailed,with a higher percentage of reduction in larger particles.The droplet mode particles,which dominated the sulfates and nitrates before the controls were implemented,were remarkably reduced in mass concentration after the control measures were implemented.Nevertheless,when the polluted southerly air masses prevailed,the local source control measures in Beijing did not effectively reduce the ambient sulfate concentration due to the enormous regional contribution from the North China Plain.

  20. Tolerance and Harmony: Chinese Culture and 2008 Olympics Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiJianping

    2004-01-01

    "People's Olympics", one of the slogans of 2008 Olympics Beijing, represents the core of Chinese culture -tolerance and harmony. In fact, the Olympics spirit"sports means peace" accords to values of Chinese nation.

  1. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric submicron particles during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region-2008 (CAREBeijing-2008, an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was deployed in urban Beijing to characterize submicron aerosol particles during the time of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (24 July to 20 September 2008. The campaign mean PM1 mass concentration was 63.1 ± 39.8 μg m−3; the mean composition consisted of organics (37.9%, sulfate (26.7%, ammonium (15.9%, nitrate (15.8%, black carbon (3.1%, and chloride (0.87%. The average size distributions of the species (except BC were all dominated by an accumulation mode peaking at about 600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter, and organics was characterized by an additional smaller mode extending below 100 nm. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset differentiated the organic aerosol into four components, i.e., hydrocarbon-like (HOA, cooking-related (COA, and two oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA-1 and OOA-2, which on average accounted for 18.1, 24.4, 33.7 and 23.7% of the total organic mass, respectively. The HOA was identified to be closely associated with primary combustion sources, while the COA mass spectrum and diurnal pattern showed similar characteristics to that measured for cooking emissions. The OOA components correspond to aged secondary organic aerosol. Although the two OOA components have similar elemental (O/C, H/C compositions, they display differences in mass spectra and time series which appear to correlate with the different source regions sampled during the campaign. Back trajectory clustering analysis indicated that the southerly air flows were associated with the highest PM1 pollution during the campaign. Aerosol particles in southern airmasses were especially rich in inorganic and oxidized organic species. Aerosol particles in northern airmasses

  2. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric submicron particles during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region–2008 (CAREBeijing-2008, an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS was deployed in urban Beijing to characterize submicron aerosol particles during the time of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and Paralytic Games (24 July to 20 September 2008. The campaign mean PM1 mass concentration was 63.1±39.8 μg m−3; the mean composition consisted of organics (37.9%, sulfate (26.7%, ammonium (15.9%, nitrate (15.8%, black carbon (3.1%, and chloride (0.87%. The average size distributions of the species (except BC were all dominated by an accumulation mode peaking at about 600 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter, and organics was characterized by an additional smaller mode extending below 100 nm. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset differentiated the organic aerosol into four components, i.e., hydrocarbon-like (HOA, cooking-related (COA, and two oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA-1 and OOA-2, which on average accounted for 18.1, 24.4, 33.7 and 23.7% of the total organic mass, respectively. The HOA was identified to be closely associated with primary combustion sources, while the COA mass spectrum showed high similarity to that measured from cooking aerosol emissions. The OOA components correspond to aged secondary organic aerosol. Although the two OOA components have similar elemental (O/C, H/C compositions, they display differences in mass spectra and time series which appear to correlate with the different source regions sampled during the campaign. Back trajectory clustering analysis indicated that the southerly air flows were associated with the highest PM1 pollution during the campaign. This result is similar to observations made in the summer of 2006, although the average PM1 concentration level for the southerly air flows is 31% lower than

  3. Hi-tech Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 7 years ago,China proposed three Principal ideas of "Green Olympics,Hightech Olympic and Humanities Olympic", among which Hightech Olympic refers to applying the modern science technology to every side of Olympic Games, as a result making the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games a sports show which is equipped by the advanced scientific and technical achievement.

  4. Seasonal dynamics of coarse atmospheric particulate matter between 2.5 μm and 80 μm in Beijing and the impact of 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norra, Stefan; Yu, Yang; Dietze, Volker; Schleicher, Nina; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yuan; Stüben, Doris; Cen, Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Beijing is well known as a megacity facing severe atmospheric pollution problems. One very important kind of pollution is the high amount of particles in Beijing's atmosphere. Numerous studies investigated the dynamics of fine particles smaller 10 μm. Less information is available on the coarse particle fraction larger 10 μm, although geogenic dusts, which often are composed by those coarser particles, frequently affect the air quality in Beijing. Therefore, systematic sampling and analysis of size fractionated particulate matter between 2.5 and 80 μm was performed in Beijing from April 2005 till October 2009. Atmospheric particles were collected in the North-West of Beijing using a cost-effective passive sampling method called Sigma-2. Altogether, 200 weeks could be analysed and assessed. Concentrations and size distribution of atmospheric coarse particles were determined by automated microscopic single particle analysis. Seasonal variability of the total mass of different size fractions was identified as follows: spring > winter > autumn > summer. High concentrations of transparent mineral particles indicate the activity of geogenic sources in spring and winter time, due to asian dust events and resuspension of soil from local bare land during dry and windy periods. The percentage of opaque particle components differs seasonally with relatively high values in winter, confirming combustion of fossil fuels for heating purposes as a predominant pollution source in this season. The influence of meteorological conditions on concentrations and size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter between 2.5 and 80 μm is demonstrated for the whole sampling period. Lowest pollution by coarse aerosols occurred during the period of the 2008 Olympic Summer Games. A general trend of decreasing total coarse particle mass concentrations was observed. Due to frequently observed high total coarse particle mass concentrations of several 100 μg·m-³ it is strongly recommended

  5. The Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文彬

    2007-01-01

    1.The Olympic Motto(奥林匹克口号)"Citius,Altius,Fortius"expresses the aspirations of the Olympicmovement.Itis Latin for"Swifter,Higher,Stronger".These three simple words serve as powerful inspiration for ev-ery Olympic athlete.

  6. Olympics Heat Up Beijing Hotel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUMBO; ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    With the Olympics fast approaching,Beijing has become the hot spot for all types of hotels The Sun Dong An Plaza, located at the center of Beijing’s 'Golden Street'-Wangfujing, is undergoing an overall renovation with a budget of 200 million yuan ($26 mi

  7. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region.

  8. The Temperament of a City: A Postscript to Post-Olympic Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of amazement in art and architecture: one relies on the ingenuity of artifice to arouse a feeling of enchantment, while the other causes an awe-inspiring ecstasy through the shock of the new. Beijing may have won the race in the latter, with spectacles such as the Olympic Games, but does this prove that a new Beijing has been reinvented?This paper examines the two kinds of amazement to examine two pairs of showcase Olympic buildings: 1 Beijing International Airport’s Terminal 3 and the Olympic Tennis Centre and 2 the Olympic Stadium and the CCTV Tower – to ask what they say about Beijing, and its temperament. It also questions whether or not it is possible to reinvent a new city once its temperament has been formed, and in what way this temperament may be related to the creation of public space, or place.

  9. The Olympic Stories in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Up to the press time,China and the whole world were experiencing the most exciting two weeks.The athletes won,failed,laughed,and cried,all of which define the Olympic Spirit—Unity.Friendship, Progress,Harmony,Participation and Dream to the largest extent. Chen Xiexia wins China 1st gold medal

  10. 2008年奥运会后北京作为旅游目的地形象的研究%Image of Beijing as Tourist Destination after 2008 Beijing Summer Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈焱; 朴根秀

    2012-01-01

    旅游目的地形象被认为是影响选择一个城市作为旅游目的地以及市场营销的重要因素。许多城市和社区都致力于举办标志性事件以改善其旅游目的地的形象。北京作为一个旅游目的地一直被人们视为"东方古都"、"长城的故乡"或"文化之都"。本研究的目的在于探讨2008年北京奥运会之后最新的北京城市形象,试图确定其更新更积极的旅游目的地形象。本研究通过对在北京机场的176名入境游客进行问卷调查,采用定性和定量相结合的研究方法,提取7个可以很好表现北京城市形象的因子,同时调查研究的结果也显示受访者普遍认同北京良好的整体城市形象,而丰富的历史和文化遗产被认为是北京最有特色的城市形象。不过对于城市整体拥挤和繁忙的形象认知也很高。%Image is regarded as an important factor influencing in the selection of a city as tourism destination as well as in the field of marketing.Many cities and communities try to use hallmark events to improve image of destination.Beijing as a tourism destination is always regarded as the "oriental ancient capital","home of great wall" or "cultural capital".This research tries to examine the latest city image of Beijing after 2008 Beijing summer Olympic games,seeks to determine the new and more positive destination image after 2008 Beijing Olympic games.A sample of 176 inbound tourists was collected at the Beijing Airport departure hall.Seven factors that better represent the city image of Beijing are extracted by using factor analysis approach.The findings indicated an overall positive city image perceived by respondents.And rich history and heritage is considered as the most distinctive city image of Beijing.But the busy,hectic and crowded city images are also perceived.

  11. A modelling study of air quality impact of odd-even day traffic restriction scheme before, during and after the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, H.; Xie, S. D.

    2010-02-01

    Systematic air pollution control measures were designed and implemented to improve air quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. This study focuses on the evaluation of the air quality impacts of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS) implemented before, during and after the Games, based on modelling simulation by a well validated urban-scale air quality model. Concentration levels of CO, PM10, NO2 and O3 were predicted for the pre- (10-19 July), during- (20 July-20 September) and post-TRS (21-30 September) periods, based on the on-line monitored traffic flows on a total of 334 road segments constituting the 2nd, 3rd, 4th Ring Roads (RR) and the major Linkage Roads (LRs) that were subject to the TRS policy and distributed around the main urban area of Beijing, and on the hourly sequential meteorological data from a representative Observatory. Subsequently, we used the predictions and observations at a roadside air quality monitoring site to evaluate the model, based on a widely used statistical framework for model evaluation, as well as on the dependence of model performance on time-of-the-day and on wind direction, and the model predictions turned out satisfactory. Results showed that daily average concentrations on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th RR and LRs during the TRS period decreased significantly, by about 35.8%, 38.5%, 34.9% and 35.6% for CO, about 38.7%, 31.8%, 44.0% and 34.7% for PM10, about 30.3%, 31.9%, 32.3% and 33.9% for NO2, and about 36.7%, 33.0%, 33.4% and 34.7% for O3, respectively, compared with the pre-TRS period. Besides, hourly average concentrations were also reduced significantly, particularly for the morning and evening peaks for CO and PM10, for the evening peak for NO2, and for the afternoon peak for O3. Consequently, both the daily and hourly concentration level of CO, PM10, NO2 and O3 conformed to the CNAAQS (China National Ambient Air Quality Standards) Grade II during the Games. Besides, a notable ozone weekend effect was revealed

  12. A modelling study of air quality impact of odd-even day traffic restriction scheme before, during and after the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic air pollution control measures were designed and implemented to improve air quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. This study focuses on the evaluation of the air quality impacts of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS implemented before, during and after the Games, based on modelling simulation by a well validated urban-scale air quality model. Concentration levels of CO, PM10, NO2 and O3 were predicted for the pre- (10–19 July, during- (20 July–20 September and post-TRS (21–30 September periods, based on the on-line monitored traffic flows on a total of 334 road segments constituting the 2nd, 3rd, 4th Ring Roads (RR and the major Linkage Roads (LRs that were subject to the TRS policy and distributed around the main urban area of Beijing, and on the hourly sequential meteorological data from a representative Observatory. Subsequently, we used the predictions and observations at a roadside air quality monitoring site to evaluate the model, based on a widely used statistical framework for model evaluation, as well as on the dependence of model performance on time-of-the-day and on wind direction, and the model predictions turned out satisfactory. Results showed that daily average concentrations on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th RR and LRs during the TRS period decreased significantly, by about 35.8%, 38.5%, 34.9% and 35.6% for CO, about 38.7%, 31.8%, 44.0% and 34.7% for PM10, about 30.3%, 31.9%, 32.3% and 33.9% for NO2, and about 36.7%, 33.0%, 33.4% and 34.7% for O3, respectively, compared with the pre-TRS period. Besides, hourly average concentrations were also reduced significantly, particularly for the morning and evening peaks for CO and PM10, for the evening peak for NO2, and for the afternoon peak for O3. Consequently, both the daily and hourly concentration level of CO, PM10, NO2 and O3

  13. Impact of pollution controls in Beijing on atmospheric oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs during the 2008 Olympic Games: observation and modeling implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs are important products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons. They influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone forming potential of the atmosphere. In the summer of 2008 two months' emission restrictions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality during the Olympic Games. Observation evidence has been reported in related studies that these control measures were efficient in reducing the concentrations of primary anthropogenic pollutants (CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons, i.e. NMHCs by 30–40%. In this study, the influence of the emission restrictions on ambient levels of OVOCs was explored using a neural network analysis with consideration of meteorological conditions. Statistically significant reductions in formaldehyde (HCHO, acetaldehyde (CH3CHO, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and methanol were found to be 12.9, 15.8, 17.1 and 19.6%, respectively, when the restrictions were in place. The effect of emission control on acetone was not detected in neural network simulations, probably due to pollution transport from surrounding areas outside Beijing. Although the ambient levels of most NMHCs were decreased by ~35% during the full control period, the emission ratios of reactive hydrocarbons attributed to vehicular emissions did not present obvious difference. A zero-dimensional box model based on Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2 (MCM3.2 was applied to evaluate how OVOCs productions respond to the reduced precursors during the emission controlled period. On average, secondary HCHO was produced from the oxidation of anthropogenic alkenes (54%, isoprene (30% and aromatics (15%. The importance of biogenic source for the total HCHO formation was almost on a par with that of anthropogenic alkenes during the daytime. Anthropogenic alkenes and alkanes dominated the photochemical production of other OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, acetone and MEK. The relative changes of modelled aldehydes, methyl vinyl

  14. Analysing Olympic Games through dominance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Infante, Laura; Lozano, Sebastián

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the results/performance of countries in the Olympic Games, taking into account their size and resources. A complex network analysis approach is proposed. The first step is to build the dominance network, which is a weighted directed graph in which nodes represent the participating nations and the arc length between any two nations measures the weighted difference in the number of medals won by both countries. An arc from a country to another b exists only if the latter has won more medals than the former and, in addition, it is smaller in population and in terms of GDP. In other words, an arc between two nodes exists if the origin nation performs worse than the destination when, given the population and GDP of both countries, it should have performed better (or at least equally). This dominance network has transitive links and a layered structure and, apart from being visualized, it can be characterized using different complex network measures. The results of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games are used to illustrate the proposed approach.

  15. Olympic Education and Beyond: Olympism and Value Legacies from the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia

    2012-01-01

    This article starts with a discussion on the links between Olympism and education as presented in the early years of the modern Olympic Movement and the ideological vision of its founder, Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Questions about whether that vision can remain as an ideological platform for the Olympic and Paralympic Games are debated in the…

  16. Evidence of Aerosol's Influence on Climate from Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Fu, Q.; Huang, J.; Ge, J.; Su, J.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution is a difficult problem during the process of industrialization in most developing countries. In China, the main air pollutants are inhaled aerosol particles. Because of the extremely high loading and rapid development, Beijing became a heavily polluted city, with a population of more than 16 million. The 2008 Olympic Summer Games provided a unique opportunity for the study of climate effects of aerosols due to many measurements taken to fight pollution caused by industrialization and economic growth.Surface temperature is the most intuitive meteorological factor and easy to get. Therefore, aerosol’s radiative effects on regional climate can be known by studying the relationship between aerosols and surface temperature in Beijing city in August 2008. However, many factors can affect the surface temperature and cloud is considered as a very important meteorological element in radiation balance. In order to remove the impact of clouds on surface temperature, here the ground temperature in clear sky days (when cloud cover is less than 2) are selected. Aerosol data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua shows that aerosol concentration decreased significantly in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008. Meanwhile, the ground-based observation data shows the surface temperature during the day (14LT) and night (02LT) in August 2008 is higher and lower than the mean temperature in August from 2002 to 2008, respectively. It is discovered that the distribution of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical Depth (AOD) in the whole area of Beijing in August of 2003 and 2004 is similar to that in 2008. We chosen four meteorological stations to analyze surface temperature and found that the diurnal changes of surface temperature are consistent with that in August of 2003, 2004 and 2008. Meanwhile, the decrease of AOD in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008 leads to the increase of precipitation

  17. Preparing for the Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In terms of time, Beijing is drawing ever closer to the 2008 Olympic Games, with just two years to go. In terms of space, a new "Olympic City" has initially taken shape as the Olympic blueprint materializes in Beijing.

  18. The Bronze "Ding of Flourishing Olympic "for the Main Stadium of the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The bronze "Ding of Flourishing Olympic" for the main stadium of the 2008Olympic Games has been completed by Yuda Group Company. The "Ding of Flourishing Olympic" was designed by Lanzhou Ludu Chunqiu Cultural Disseminating Co. Ltd.

  19. Olympic Games: Old and New Paradigms of the Olympic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin G. Tomilin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article observes the alternative variants of possible changing the generally accepted paradigm of the Olympic movement in a part of the places` selection of the future conducted Olympiads and mechanism of its financing. The article gives the example of conduction the Olympiad 1984 in Los Angeles (USA, with minimization of the expenses on construction of the athletic buildings, as well as undertaking the ceremony openings and closing of the XXIII summer Olympic games. There considered the prospects of construction of the tent and frame systems, which are easily disassembled when the Games are finished.

  20. Healthcare guide: Olympic Games Rio 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This guide provides information on the medical services programme for the Rio 2016 Summer Olympic Games. It contains the map of the organisation, the IOC medical policies and procedures, and many more.

  1. O futebol feminino nos Jogos Olímpicos de Pequim Female soccer in the Beijing Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio de Carvalho Ferretti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available NesteAs relações de gênero hierarquizam homens e mulheres em diversas áreas, sendo uma delas o futebol. Este trabalho analisou as reportagens do caderno Pequim 2008 do jornal Folha de São Paulo para identificar o espaço destinado para as reportagens do futebol feminino e masculino, e avaliar qualitativamente o que é informado aos seus leitores. O resultado mostra que a porcentagem de palavras destinada as mulheres foi maior do que em outras pesquisas e a área das fotos foi similar entre os sexos, mas isso só ocorreu devido a influência do evento. As notícias permitiram uma análise da mulher no futebol: as entidades perpetuam a diferença hierárquica entre os sexos ao não dar suporte a elas; o levantamento de questões ligadas a estética aponta porque essas atletas não são erotizadas pela mídia como em outras modalidades; pelo futebol ser visto como espaço masculino a mídia exigiu melhores resultados dos homens.Gender relations put men and women in different areas of the hierarchy, for instance in the case of soccer. This work analyzed the news articles from the Beijing 2008 section of the Newspaper Folha de São Paulo to identify the space attributed to news articles about female and male soccer, and to qualitatively evaluate what is said to its readers. The result shows that the percentage of words addressing women was higher compared to other surveys and the area for pictures was similar for both genders, however this only happened on account of the influence of the event. The news allowed for an analysis of women in soccer: the entities that perpetuate the hierarchical difference between the genders when they don't support them; the raising of issues regarding aesthetics which explains why these athletes are not erotized by the media as is the case in other modalities; as soccer is considered to be a male area the media demanded better results from the men.

  2. IOC marketing media guide: Olympic Games Rio 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the Olympic marketing programme is to ensure the independent financial stability of the Olympic Movement. By creating and maintaining long-term marketing programmes, the IOC is able to ensure the financial security of both the Olympic Movement and the Olympic Games. The Olympic marketing programme also ensures that the Olympic Games can be experienced by the maximum number of people throughout the world, principally via broadcast to television and digital media platforms.

  3. OLYMPIC BRIEFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Improved Olympic Weather Forecasts A detailed weather forecast system that will be used during the Olympic Games is fully functional,according to leading offi- cials of the Beijing Meteorological Bureau. The system is multi-layered.The first layer is a series of automatic meteorological stations in 15 Olympic venues that have been in place since 2003.The functions of these stations

  4. 北京2008年奥运会吉祥物亮相%Beijing Unveils Mascots for 2008 Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德林

    2005-01-01

    @@ After years of fierce lobbying2 and months of secrecy, Beijing unveiled five mascots for the 2008 Olympics on Nov. 11, opening a marketing blitz that is expected to reap record profits.3 In an elaborate, nationally televised gala4 at a Beijing sports arena5 to mark the 1,000-day countdown6 until the Games, senior Chinese leaders introduced the mascots-Beibei, Jingjing, Huanhuan, Yingying and Nini- which, put together, translates to "Beijing welcomes you!"

  5. Analyses of the dynamics of changes between individual men's events in front crawl during the XIX Olympic Games in Beijing 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucia-Czyszczoń, Katarzyna; Dybińska, Ewa; Bieniek, Paweł; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze tactical solutions used by swimmers, the finalists of the 19th Beijing Olympics in 2008, in individual front crawl events at distances of 50, 100 and 200 m. Observations were carried out on 7 swimmers, the Beijing Olympics medalists competing in front crawl individual events. Detailed analyses were run on: 1) Sports results obtained by the finalists at distances of 50, 100 and 200 m front crawl; 2) block time; 3) results of each 50 m lap time (100 and 200) called split times except 50 m front crawl (there is no split time in 50 m); and 4) the mean swimming speed (V) on individual laps of the analyzed races. To determine the correlation between the response time, the time of individual laps, and the final time of the analyzed front crawl races, Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r was obtained. As a result of detailed analyses of the test material it is believed that not only tactics for an individual race is important, but equally significant is to elaborate the strategy for the whole event and to prepare the swimmer to compete in the system of heats, semifinals and finals. However, some of the following tactical objectives can be formulated: sprinters (a distance of 50 and 100 m front crawl) should start at maximum speed, according to their abilities, and try to maintain that speed until the end of the race; middle-distance swimmers (200 m front crawl) should adopt the most optimal tactical solutions characterized by increasing speed in the second half of the distance.

  6. 北京奥运会赛会志愿者培训遗产及转化的研究%The Study on Beijing Olympic Games Volunteer Training Heritage And the Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜生成; 秦巍; 王跃; 高晓松

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, literature research, expert interviews on the Beijing Olymp heritage, through the Games-time volunteers in the training process to produce tangible ic Games volunteer heritage, intangible training heritage conversion analysis; proposed Games-time volunteer training heritageextensive transformation of the way to school education and social voluntary service, enabling us to better training heritage protection and transformation play a reference for the future development of school education, and social voluntary service undertakings.%通过采用文献资料法、专家访谈法对北京奥运会赛会志愿者培训遗产进行了调查研究,对赛会志愿者培训过程中产生的有形遗产、无形遗产转化进行了分析;提出赛会志愿者培训遗产向学校教育和社会志愿服务事业进行广泛转化的途径,从而使我们更好的对培训遗产进行保护和转化,为今后我国学校教育以及社会志愿服务事业的发展起到借鉴作用。

  7. Beijing Olympic Games volunteer training and the system of the heritage Classification research%北京奥运会志愿者培训遗产体系及分类的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜生成; 张涛涛; 张金棒

    2012-01-01

    according to the definition of the Olympic heritage, through to the Beijing Olympic Games volunteer training produced immediate and follow-up benefit with the content of the systematic analysis and classification, and puts forward the volunteer training includes tangible heritage and intangible heritage. And the tangible heritage of the training organization management system, the training content, form of activity and advocated by the intangible heritage of the Olympic spirit, the volunteer spirit on the social effects of analysis, classification, can our country school education and future for the voluntary service business and volunteers to provide guidance and training for reference.%本文依据奥运会遗产的界定,通过对北京奥运会赛会志愿者培训所产生的具有即时和后续效益的内容进行系统性分析与归粪.提出赛套志愿者培训包括有形盘产和无形遗产。并对有形盘产的培训组织管理体系、培训内容、活动形式与无形遗产所倡导的奥林匹克精神、志愿服务精神对社会的影响进行剖析、分粪,能够为我国学校教育和今后的志愿服务事业及志愿者培训提供指导和借鉴。

  8. SLAKING AN OLYMPIC THIRST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chronically water-short Beijing is carrying out elaborate plans to ensure a steady flow for 2008 "Water demand during the 2008 Olympics will be guaranteed," said Wu Jisong, director of the water supply program under (he Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games. Wu's confident response belies what is, to say the least, a difficult situation. Beijing has

  9. The Olympic dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-11

    As the immediate excitement of an amazing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics in Beijing for team GB subsides, some are already looking towards the 2012 games. Dentist and medical team consultant for the 2012 games Dr Tony Clough has recently returned from the Beijing Olympics, where he got involved prematurely with this year's athletes, as Jonica Love discovered.

  10. Olympic Games Rio 2016: winners and losers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Barbosa Matias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to question the process of preparation of the Olympic Games in 2016. For that was done a literature review on the subject and their legacies as well as a document analysis of sports institutions, the Olympic Delivery Authority and the Federal Government about the mega event. In this sense , it was found that the preparation of the 2016 Games is prioritizing the actions of market interest, with measures establishing a state of emergency , which does not respect the constitutional laws, are linked to human rights, the environment, public property etc. The beneficiary groups are those who financed the Rio campaign headquarters of mega event and/ or are directly involved with members of all three government levels , as well as proprietary sports entities of the commodity Olympics.

  11. Satellite observations of changes in air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Gleason, J. F.; Krotkov, N. A.; Gille, J. C.; Pickering, K. E.; Livesey, N.

    2009-09-01

    For the August-September 2008 Olympic and the Paralympic Games held in Beijing, China, strict controls on pollutant emissions and motor vehicle traffic were imposed on Beijing and neighboring provinces to the South to improve the air quality in and around the city. Satellite measurements over Beijing between July and September showed 43% reductions of tropospheric column nitrogen dioxide, compared to the past three years. When neighboring provinces to the south are included in our analyses, satellite measurements show boundary layer sulfur dioxide reductions of 13% and carbon monoxide reductions of 12% at 700 hPa. Thus, based on satellites observations alone, noticeable reductions in these pollutant tracers were measured during both games.

  12. Air Quality Measurements from Satellites during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M.; Douglass, A.; Gleason, J.; Krotkov, N.; Gille, J.; Pickering, K.; Livesey, N.

    2009-05-01

    In preparation for the Olympic and Paralympic games in August and September 2008 in Beijing, China, the Chinese government imposed strict controls on industrial emissions and motor vehicle traffic in and around the city and vicinity before and during the events to improve the air quality for the competitors and visitors. To test the efficacy of these measures, we used satellite data from NASA's Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra/Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) over Beijing and surrounding areas during the Olympic and Paralympic period. The satellite instruments recorded significant reductions in nitrogen dioxide of up to 50%, up to 10% in tropospheric column ozone, 20-40% in boundary layer sulfur dioxide, and 10-20% reductions in carbon monoxide concentrations below 700 hPa.

  13. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  14. New Sale Policy for Olympic Tickets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Following the temporary suspension of the phase two domestic ticket sales of the Beijing Olympic Games, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad(BOCOG)released a new policy of tick- et sales on November 5.

  15. De Coubertin's Olympism and the Laugh of Michel Foucault: Crisis Discourse and the Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth

    2012-01-01

    De Coubertin developed the sport philosophy of Olympism and the Olympic Games as a response to social and political crisis to promote peace, fair play, and the development of Christian masculinity. The purpose of this paper is to examine how crisis discourse functions as an important shaper of contemporary understandings of Olympism and how…

  16. 2008年北京奥运会女子排球赛4强进攻能力对比分析%Comparative Analysis on Attacking Ability of Top 4 Woman Volleyball Teams in 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史友宽; 张岩

    2009-01-01

    采用文献资料调研和录像观察法,对2008年北京奥运会女子排球比赛4强的进攻能力进行分析.结论:巴西队和古巴队扣球进攻能力相对较强,其中,巴西队的进攻更为稳定;现代排球运动的发展更重视接应运动员的进攻作用;巴西队的拦网能力一枝独秀;中国队在发球的进攻性和稳定性的平衡上做得最好;美国队发球进攻能力不足,失误率较高.%Through using the methods of literature review and video observation, this paper studied the attacking ability of top 4 woman volleyball teams in 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Conclusion: the spike ability of Brazil and Cuba team is relative strength, in which the Brazil team' offense is more stable. The development of modern volleyball pays more attention to the role of the attack. The block ability of Brazil team is the best, while the Chinese team is in the favorite of offensive and stability. American women team is lack of service attack with high failure rate.

  17. Ozone air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics – effectiveness of emission restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of aggressive measures was launched by the Chinese government to reduce pollutant emissions from Beijing and surrounding areas during the Olympic Games. Observations at Miyun, a rural site 100 km downwind of the Beijing urban center, show significant decreases in concentrations of O3, CO, NOy, and SO2 during August 2008, relative to August 2006–2007. The mean daytime mixing ratio of O3 was lower by about 15 ppbv, reduced to 50 ppbv, in August 2008. The relative reductions in daytime SO2, CO, and NOy were 61%, 25%, and 21%, respectively. Changes in SO2 and in species correlations from 2007 to 2008 indicate that emissions of SO2, CO, and NOx were reduced by 60%, 32%, and 36%, respectively, during the Olympics. Analysis of meteorological conditions and interpretation of observations using a chemical transport model suggest that restrictions on emissions during the Olympics were responsible for about 80% of the observed decreases in O3, with natural variations in meteorology accounting for the remaining 20%. Use of the Olympics emissions results in no significant biases between model and observations. The model predicts that emission restrictions such as those implemented during the Olympics can affect O3 far beyond the Beijing urban area, resulting in reductions in boundary layer O3 of 2–10 ppbv over a large region of the North China Plain and Northeastern China.

  18. Beijing’s Olympic Scorecard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing has successfully delivered an Olympic Games to the world. The 2008 summer Games were marked with distinct Chinese elements, while the rules specified in the Olympic Charter and the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) written agreement with the host city were strictly followed.

  19. History of mass spectrometry at the Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmersbach, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Mass spectrometry has played a decisive role in doping analysis and doping control in human sport for almost 40 years. The standard of qualitative and quantitative determinations in body fluids has always attracted maximum attention from scientists. With its unique sensitivity and selectivity properties, mass spectrometry provides state-of-the-art technology in analytical chemistry. Both anti-doping organizations and the athletes concerned expect the utmost endeavours to prevent false-positive and false-negative results of the analytical evidence. The Olympic Games play an important role in international sport today and are milestones for technical development in doping analysis. This review of the part played by mass spectrometry in doping control from Munich 1972 to Beijing 2008 Olympics gives an overview of how doping analysis has developed and where we are today. In recognizing the achievements made towards effective doping control, it is of the utmost importance to applaud the joint endeavours of the World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, the international federations and national anti-doping agencies to combat doping. Advances against the misuse of prohibited substances and methods, which are performance-enhancing, dangerous to health and violate the spirit of sport, can be achieved only if all the stakeholders work together.

  20. China’s Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-06

    Administration, China received nearly 132 million “ inbound tourists” — including over 26 million “foreigners” in 2007.16 China’s domestic tourism has grown...same level as last year.17 Just like the case of Lillehammer, Beijing hotels built in anticipation of a surge in tourism are experiencing...see Jon Tiegland, “Mega-events and Impacts on Tourism ; the Predictions and Realities of the Lillehammer Olympics,” Impact Assessment and Project

  1. Beijing Paralympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Paralympics is an important milestone for Beijing as it continues to steadily progress toward fulfilling its promise of delivering Paralympic Games equally as important and splendid as the Olympic Games.Scheduled for September 6--17,the Beijing Paralympics will see 20 sports con- tested——more than any Games in Paralympic history.

  2. Research on the Defense of Chinese Men's Basketball Team in Beijing Olympic Games%对北京奥运会男子篮球比赛中国队防守的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞艳芬

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料法、观察统计法、对比分析法等研究方法,对北京奥运会我国男篮与竞赛对手及前四名队防守技战术指标进行对比分析。研究结果表明:中国男篮在防守上存在攻防转换节奏慢、快攻和内线失分较多、篮板球不占优势、抢断等指标与竞赛对手及前四名队差异具显著性,防守缺乏攻击性、轮转换位不及时、身体对抗能力差、整体协同防守配合能力不足。%The paper conducted a competitive analysis on the ability of defense between Chinese men's basketball team and its competitive teams and the top four men's basketball teams in Beijing Olympic Games adopted the methods of documentary analysis, observation and technical statistics and competitive analysis. There are some questions comparative with its competitive teams and the top four men's basketball teams: the alternate rhythm of attacking and defense is slow, the lost score of fast breaking and inside is more than its competitive teams and the top four men's basketball teams, rebounds is not superior to contrast groups, steals is lack of contrast groups apparently, aggressive defense is inadequate, and changing position ist timely, Chinese men's basketball team cannot adapt the higher level defensive antagonism, overall coordination ability of defense is weak.

  3. Research on the development strategy of Beijing Olympic Games, mass sports in China%北京奥运会后我国群众体育的发展策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪春

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料法和理论分析法,研究了2008年北京奥运会后我国群众体育发展中面临的问题:1竞技体育优先发展战略向竞技体育与群众体育协调发展的转变;2.区域发展不平衡;3.城乡发展不均衡。并提出若干发展策略和观点:1改变政府旧的体育管理体制,倡导社会力量积极参与群众体育;2.让休闲,娱乐方面的群众体育引领风尚;3.利用群众消费促进体育产业发展。%Using the method of literature and theoretical analysis, the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games after the face of mass sports development in China: (1) to change the strategy of competitive sports and Mass Sports Coordinated Development giving priority to the development of competitive sports; (2) the imbalance of regional development; (3) urban and rural development is not balanced. And puts forward some development strategies and ideas: (1) to change the government, old sport management system, promote social forces to actively participate in the mass sports; (2) for leisure, entertainment sports leading fashion; (3) use of mass consumption and promote the development of sports industry.

  4. Chemical and strontium isotope characterization of rainwater in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhifang; Tang, Yang; Ji, Jianpeng

    2012-04-01

    To improve the air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, the Beijing Municipal Government enforced a series of emission control measures. This provided a valuable case study to evaluate the effectiveness of these aggressive measures on mitigating air pollution and improving the atmospheric environment. In this paper, we report the first results of the chemical and Sr isotopic compositions of the rainwater in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic year. The ionic composition of samples show that Ca2 + and NH4+ were the dominant cations, accounting for about 76-97% of the total cations, and that SO42 - and NO3- were the major anions, accounting for 61-91% of the total anions measured. Using Na as the indicator of marine origin and Al as that of terrestrial inputs, the proportions of sea salt and terrestrial elements were estimated from elemental ratios. The calculated results indicate that the major chemical components were mainly of non-sea-salt origin. Good correlation between Ca2 + and Sr2 + (R2 = 0.85) in rainwater samples indicates the potential of Sr as a provenance tracer for Ca. Sr2 + concentrations in rainwater samples ranged from 0.01 to 2.87 μmol l- 1, with 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.7092 to 0.7109. All of the samples had a 87Sr/86Sr ratio higher than that of seawater. The 87Sr/86Sr isotopic and elemental ratio systems show that the data set of rainwater was mainly distributed between the seawater end-member (~ 0.70917) and the soil dust end-member (0.7111-0.7115), and the analysis indicate that the effect of anthropogenic inputs could decrease in 2008. Comparisons of the chemical composition of the rainwater in different periods show that all chemical components, except NH4+, had the lowest concentration levels during the Olympic Game period. The VWM concentrations of major ions in the rainwater decreased significantly during the Olympic period by up to 29% for SO42 -, 39% for NO3-, 38% for Ca2 +, 51% for Mg2 +, 57% for K+, and 44% for Na+, compared with

  5. Law-Abiding Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

  6. Building the Olympic Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Experience offers valuable lessons.In less than 500 days,what can Chinese organizers learn from Sydney,who beat out Beijing in hosting the 2000 Olympic Games?What can be done to realize the Beijing Olympic slogan“One World,One Dream?” In a recent interview with Beijing Review reporter CHEN RAN,Glenn Bourke and George Blake,two Olympic experts who participated in the preparation and operation of the Sydney Olympics,shared their views on the above-mentioned questions and the future of water sports in China.

  7. 北京奥运大气污染控制措施对大气细颗粒物金属组分及其细胞毒性的影响%Influence of Air Pollution Control during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on Metal Components and Cytotoxicity of PM2.5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红英; 邓芙蓉; 郭新彪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the influece of the pollution control measures for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on the metal components and the cytotoxicity of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Methods PM2.5 was collected before and during Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. The metal elements of PM2.5 were analyzed. The AS49 cell was exposed to two kinds of PM2.5 for 24 h at different concentrations. After 24 h of exposure, the cell membrane permeability, the activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and the leakage of acid phosphatase (ACP) were detected. Results The contents of metal elements of PM2.5 collected during Beijing Olympic Games were lower than those of which collected before Beijing Olympic Games. Above 5 μg/ml, both kinds of PM2.5 could significantly induce the suppression of SDH activity and the increase in ACP leakage, while the increase in cell membrane permeability was observed at the higher concentration. Compared with PM2.5 collected before Beijing Olympic Games, the impact of PM2.5 collected during Beijing Olympic Games on cell membrane induced significantly decrease in 25 and 125 μg/ml groups. Conclusion Two kinds of PM2.5 show significant cytotoxicity on A549 cell. The reduction of cell membrane toxicity of PM2.5 collected during Beijing Olympic games may be associated with the reduction of the metal components resulted from the air pollution control measures for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.%目的 探讨2008北京奥运相关大气污染控制措施对大气细颗粒物(PM2.5)金属组分及其细胞毒性的影响.方法于2008年采集奥运前与奥运期间PM2.5,以电感耦合等离子体质谱仪和发射光谱仪测定PM2.5中金属元素含量.以不同浓度的两种PM2.5处理人肺腺癌A549细胞24h,观察PM2.5对细胞膜通透性、线粒体琥珀酸脱氢酶(SDH)活力及溶酶体酸性磷酸酶(ACP)漏出的影响.结果奥运期间PM2.5元素含量大多低于奥运前PM2.5.与对照组相比,奥运前与奥运期间PM2

  8. Satellite Air Quality Monitoring Before, During and After the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Streets, D. G.; Gleason, J. F.; Gille, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In 2001, Beijing, China was awarded the hosting rights to the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Since then, the government has gradually implemented pollution emission control strategies to improve Beijing's air quality in preparation for both games. Long-term industrial and short-term vehicle emission controls have also been enforced upwind of Beijing's neighboring provinces to the south and west. This region is characterized by numerous heavy-polluting industries whose emissions are typically transported towards Beijing, significantly impacting the city's air quality. We examine the efficacy of these emission control measures on tropospheric NO2, SO2, and CO pollution using satellite data from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra's Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) from 2004 to the present. During both games, held in August and September 2008, OMI and MOPITT measured significant decreases in all three tracer gases compared to the past three years: NO2 (-43%), SO2 (-13%), and CO (-12%). This decrease in CO and SO2 over northeastern China continues through 2009, reflecting the longer-term nature of emission controls on heavily polluting industries. The global recession is also a likely contributor, as factories have shut down or slowed production due to the decrease in demand for manufactured goods. The tropospheric NO2 column over Beijing returned to typical monthly mean values when controls on vehicle emissions were lifted by the end of September 2008. However, we observe a slight NO2 decrease at the beginning of 2009 relative to 2008 suggesting a decrease in the contribution of industrial emissions of NOx to the overall NO2 column.

  9. 2008年北京奥运会802例急救转运病案特点分析%Analysis on characteristics of 802 emergency cases transported from venues of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志; 张永利; 万立东; 张进军; 马军; 王戎; 戴建平

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过对2008年北京奥运会场馆内医疗急救转运病案进行分析,研究大型人群聚集活动中急危重症病案特点和医疗急救转运保障方案.方法 使用国际奥组委统一制定的医疗信息统计表系统(MEFS)对北京奥运会期间(2008-07-27 T 09;00/2008-08-27 T 23:00)场馆医疗救治病案进行统计和分析.结果 在北京奥运期间共从场馆转出802例患者,男471例,女331例;平均年龄42.67岁,中国籍490例,外国籍312例.按MEFS将疾病分为12大类,802例患者疾病种类由多至少依次为外伤(占39.03%)、消化系统(占21.82%)、心血管系统(占7.36%)、呼吸系统(占6.48%)、神经系统(占6.23%)、皮肤科(占4.49%)、眼科(占4.24%)、耳鼻喉科(占3.74%)、热相关疾病(占3.37%)、泌尿生殖系统(占1.87%)、口腔科(占1.37%)、精神科(为0);就诊人群由多至少依次为工作人员(占34.04%)、非注册人员(占33.29%),其他人员(占13.59%)、运动员(占12.72%)、贵宾(占3.74%)、媒体(占2.62%).结论 大型活动的医疗保障应针对重点疾病和高危人群制定合理的现场救援方案并建立高效的医疗急救转运体系.%Objective To analyze 802 emergency cases transported from venues of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games,in order to study the characteristics of critically ill patients and injured in mass gatherings for the purpose of improving medical care and transportation.Methods Using the standard medical encounter form system (MEFS) formulated by International Olympic Committee (IOC),the data of patients treated in various venues of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (2008-07-27 T 09:00/2008-08-27 T 23:00) were analyzed.Results Eight hundred and two patients had been transported from 227 medical stations of different venues,including 471 male,331 female,with a mean age of 42.67 years.According to MEFS,802 patients were divided into 12 types of diseases,i.e.injury (39.03%),digestive disorder (21.82%),cardiovascular disorder (7

  10. Putting on a Game Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More "game experience" needed as Olympics approach, says the IOC’s Verbruggen One year before the 2008 Beijing Olympics, Beijing Review reporter Liu Yunyun sat down with Hein Verbruggen, Chairman of the Coordination Commission of the International Olympic Committee, to get his views on Beijing’s Olympic preparation work.

  11. Effects of Beijing Olympics control measures on reducing reactive hydrocarbon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shao; Bin, Wang; Sihua, Lu; Bin, Yuan; Ming, Wang

    2011-01-15

    Stringent air-quality control measures were implemented for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. This large-scale manmade experiment provided an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of measures to reduce the reactivity of hydrocarbons (HCs) from emission sources, which is important for ground-level ozone abatement. Photochemical initial concentrations (PICs), i.e., the levels of HCs from sources before undergoing chemical reactions, were calculated from ambient measurements. PICs obtained using the ratio method for HCs and the sequential reaction model for alkyl nitrates were in good agreement. Propene, 1-butene, iso-butene, trans-2-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-pentene, and m,p-xylene were identified as key reactive species in terms of their photochemical consumptions and correspondent ozone formation potentials (OFPs). During the Olympics and Paralympics, the PICs of these seven species were reduced by 27-66%, contributing 20% to the reduction in total PICs and 60% to the reduction in total OFP compared with June levels. Source apportionments from the chemical mass balance model indicated that gasoline vehicle exhaust was the predominant contributor to the key reactive species (45-78%). Reductions of gasoline vehicle exhaust during the Olympics and Paralympics explained 53-77% and 59-68% of the reductions in PICs of the key reactive HCs and total OFP, respectively.

  12. Foot and ankle injuries during the Athens 2004 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirones Steven

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major, rare and complex incidents can occur at any mass-gathering sporting event and team medical staff should be appropriately prepared for these. One such event, the Athens Olympic Games in 2004, presented a significant sporting and medical challenge. This study concerns an epidemiological analysis of foot and ankle injuries during the Games. Methods An observational, epidemiological survey was used to analyse injuries in all sport tournaments (men's and women's over the period of the Games. Results A total of 624 injuries (525 soft tissue injuries and 99 bony injuries were reported. The most frequent diagnoses were contusions, sprains, fractures, dislocations and lacerations. Significantly more injuries in male (58% versus female athletes (42% were recorded. The incidence, diagnosis and cause of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. Conclusion Our experience from the Athens Olympic Games will inform the development of public health surveillance systems for future Olympic Games, as well as other similar mass events.

  13. The Olympic Games broadcasted as Interactive Television - New Media new Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    could change how the viewers watch the Olympic Games. New media initiatives will increase significantly, not only in the broadcast of television but also with broadband Internet coverage of the Olympic Games. In addition, mobile phone subscribers in some territories already have been able to watch live...... or delayed video coverage of the Olympic Games. The Torino Olympic Broadcasting was the first to be filmed entirely in High Definition Television. In the future the use of digital video processing, computer vision, 3D-visualisation and animation techniques allow viewers to watch sports events almost...

  14. People's Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is the moment the city takes on its young and beautiful look.It is the moment the people do everything to surprise the world.It is the momcnt the whole country hold the breath.The 29th Olympic Games is approaching in Beijing.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of emission controls on primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; Hu, M.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, X.; Schauer, J. J.; Zhang, R.

    2013-08-01

    To assess the primary and secondary sources of fine organic aerosols after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12 h PM2.5 values were measured at an urban site at Peking University (PKU) and an upwind rural site at Yufa during the CAREBEIJING-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in BEIJING and surrounding region) summer field campaign. The average PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5 ± 43.6 μg m-3 and 64.3 ± 36.2 μg m-3 (average ± standard deviation, below as the same) at PKU and Yufa, respectively, showing the lowest concentrations in recent years. Combining the results from a CMB (chemical mass balance) model and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracer-yield model, five primary and four secondary fine organic aerosol sources were compared with the results from previous studies in Beijing. The relative contribution of mobile sources to PM2.5 concentrations was increased in 2008, with diesel engines contributing 16.2 ± 5.9% and 14.5 ± 4.1% and gasoline vehicles contributing 10.3 ± 8.7% and 7.9 ± 6.2% to organic carbon (OC) at PKU and Yufa, respectively. Due to the implementation of emission controls, the absolute OC concentrations from primary sources were reduced during the Olympics, and the contributions from secondary formation of OC represented a larger relative source of fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period prior to the Olympics, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% at the urban site and 24% at the rural site. The reductions in coal combustion contributions were 57% at PKU and 7% at Yufa. Our results demonstrate that the emission control measures implemented in 2008 significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, additional studies are needed to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the emission control effectiveness on SOA formation.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of emission controls on primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the primary and secondary sources of fine organic aerosols after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12 h PM2.5 values were measured at an urban site at Peking University (PKU and an upwind rural site at Yufa during the CAREBEIJING-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in BEIJING and surrounding region summer field campaign. The average PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5 ± 43.6 μg m−3 and 64.3 ± 36.2 μg m−3 (average ± standard deviation, below as the same at PKU and Yufa, respectively, showing the lowest concentrations in recent years. Combining the results from a CMB (chemical mass balance model and secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracer-yield model, five primary and four secondary fine organic aerosol sources were compared with the results from previous studies in Beijing. The relative contribution of mobile sources to PM2.5 concentrations was increased in 2008, with diesel engines contributing 16.2 ± 5.9% and 14.5 ± 4.1% and gasoline vehicles contributing 10.3 ± 8.7% and 7.9 ± 6.2% to organic carbon (OC at PKU and Yufa, respectively. Due to the implementation of emission controls, the absolute OC concentrations from primary sources were reduced during the Olympics, and the contributions from secondary formation of OC represented a larger relative source of fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period prior to the Olympics, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% at the urban site and 24% at the rural site. The reductions in coal combustion contributions were 57% at PKU and 7% at Yufa. Our results demonstrate that the emission control measures implemented in 2008 significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, additional studies are needed to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the emission control effectiveness on SOA formation.

  17. Rethinking on Lip-synching Scandal in Beijing Olympic Games Opening Ceremony%北京奥运会开幕式“假唱门”事件的回顾与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璐; 吴新宇

    2015-01-01

    以北京奥运会开幕式“假唱门”事件为案例,从法哲学的视角切入论述,着力于该事件法哲学阐释的一般性和特殊性,即在整个运行体系中体现了整体运行理念,在外部形象方面获得整体与局部的精神统一,当拥有这种外在的,且为体现开幕式演出真实性的权利要求时,事件的内在属性本身存在演出权利的分属性,由此形成了外在整体形象与内在属性本身的价值冲突。透过该事件的法哲学意义层面的思考,一方面认为中国离法治社会和现代公民社会的建立还有很长的路要走,也亟待相关政策法规和行业秩序的完善与发展。另一方面认为事件本身引起全社会广泛积极的参与互动反思,为推进中国法治社会与公民社会的未来发展打下了基础。最后,对“假唱门”事件与民众认知衔接过程中媒体的作用进行了论述,分析了该事件的国际媒体政治表现。%By studying relevant literatures and taking the "lip‐synching" incident happened on the opening ceremony of Beijing Olympic Games as a case ,the incident in details from the perspective of legal philoso‐phy was analyzed ,focusing on the general and special natures of the legal philosophy interpretation .The general and special natures are that the entire operation system reflects the overall operation concept and that the whole and partial spirit unity was achieved in terms of external image .When there are external claims of right to reflect the authenticity of the opening ceremony ,the intrinsic properties of the event it‐self has sub‐property of performance right ,thus forming the conflict between the external whole image and the intrinsic properties .Thinking about the significances of the event at legal philosophy level ,this pa‐per thought that ,on the one hand ,China still has a long way to go to establish legal and modern civil soci‐ety which needs to improve and

  18. Great Opportunities ahead:An Interviewith a Beijing Olympice Organizing Committee Offcial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHua

    2004-01-01

    Market development is considered a key to the success of Olympic games. As it is only five years before the 2008 Olympics starts in Beijing, people are showing an increasing interest in the organizing committee's work in developing the market for Olympics. Recently, the reporter interviewed Mr. Xu Zenwu, Deputy Director of Marketing of Beijing Olympics Organizing Committee.

  19. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Nie, W.; Gao, J.; Xue, L. K.; Gao, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Qiu, J.; Poon, C. N.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D.; Wang, S. L.; Ding, A. J.; Chai, F. H.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the first results of the measurements of trace gases and aerosols at three surface sites in and outside Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympics. The official air pollution index near the Olympic Stadium and the data from our nearby site revealed an obvious association between air quality and meteorology and different responses of secondary and primary pollutants to the control measures. Ambient concentrations of vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an urban site dropped by 25% and 20-45% in the first two weeks after full control was put in place, but the levels of ozone, sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 increased by 16%, 64%, 37%, respectively, compared to the period prior to the full control; wind data and back trajectories indicated the contribution of regional pollution from the North China Plain. Air quality (for both primary and secondary pollutants) improved significantly during the Games, which were also associated with the changes in weather conditions (prolonged rainfall, decreased temperature, and more frequent air masses from clean regions). A comparison of the ozone data at three sites on eight ozone-pollution days, when the air masses were from the southeast-south-southwest sector, showed that regional pollution sources contributed >34-88% to the peak ozone concentrations at the urban site in Beijing. Regional sources also contributed significantly to the CO concentrations in urban Beijing. Ozone production efficiencies at two sites were low (~3 ppbv/ppbv), indicating that ozone formation was being controlled by VOCs. Compared with data collected in 2005 at a downwind site, the concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), total sulfur (SO2+PM2.5 sulfate), carbon monoxide (CO), reactive aromatics (toluene and xylenes) sharply decreased (by 8-64%) in 2008, but no significant changes were observed for the concentrations of PM2.5, fine sulfate, total odd reactive nitrogen (NOy), and longer

  20. 100-Year UPS,"Swifter" Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan; Yang Wei

    2007-01-01

    @@ As the official logistics and express delivery sponsor of 2008Beijing Olympics,UPS will manage all logistical operations at the Olympics Test Events(formally known as "Good Luck Beijing Events")and the actual Games through which majority of equipmerit used at the events will flow.

  1. Drug testing at the 10th Asian Games and 24th Seoul Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Park, S; Lho, D; Choo, H P; Chung, B; Yoon, C; Min, H; Choi, M J

    1990-01-01

    Drug testing (doping test) procedures in the 1986 10th Asian Olympic Games and 1988 24th Seoul Olympic Games are reported. The International Olympic Committee Medical Commission (IOC-MC) conducted its first doping tests at the 1968 Olympics in Grenoble. With the guidance of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) introduced doping tests at the 1986 10th Asian Olympic Games in Seoul, Korea, September 21st to October 5th, 1986. 585 samples were tested at the Doping Control Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (DCC/KAIST), for stimulants, narcotics, anabolic steroids, and beta-blockers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and fluorescence polarization immunoassay. These tests covered about 100 different drugs and another 400 as metabolites in addition to pharmacologically related substances. For the Seoul Olympic Games from September 17 to October 2, 1988, the IOC-MC with the DCC/KAIST conducted doping tests on 1601 samples for stimulants, narcotics, beta-blockers, diuretics, and anabolic steroids using GC, HPLC, GC/MSD, GC/MS, LC/MS, and TDx.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of emission control of primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; Hu, M.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, X.; Schauer, J. J.; Zhang, R.

    2012-12-01

    To explore the primary and secondary sources of fine organic particles after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12-h PM2.5 concentrations were measured at one urban and one upwind rural site during the CAREBeijing-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in Beijing and surrounding region) summer field campaign. The PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5±43.6μg m3 and 64.3±36.2μg m-3 at the urban site and rural site, respectively, which were the lowest in recent years due to the implementation of drastic control measures and favorable weather conditions. Five primary and four secondary fine organic particle sources were quantified using a CMB (chemical mass balance) model and tracer-yield method. Compared with previous studies in Beijing, the contribution of vehicle emission increased, with diesel engines contributing 16.2±5.9% and 14.5±4.1% to the total organic carbon (OC) concentrations and gasoline vehicles accounting for 10.3±8.7% and 7.9±6.2% of the OC concentrations at two sites. Due to the implementation of emission control measures, the OC concentrations from important primary sources have been reduced, and secondary formation has become an important contributor to fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% and 24% in the urban and regional area, and reductions in the contribution from coal combustion were 57% and 7%, respectively. These results demonstrate the emission control measures significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, the control effectiveness of secondary organic particles was not significant.

  3. Homegrown Olympic Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Potential equine Olympians prepare for 2008 "All the horses for the modern pentathlon at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games will be made-in-China," said Zhang Bin, Deputy Director of the Competition Office of the Modern Pentathlon WorldCup Final, which was recently held in Beijing.

  4. Prosthodontic Olympics: Gaming To Aid Students Gain Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, Robert W.; Murphy, H. Joseph; Miller, Victor J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of an educational game, "The Prosthodontic Olympics," to improve the speed of dental students in their performance of selected laboratory procedures. The students race to complete a procedure which is then judged for quality. Evaluation indicated participants increased their speed by as much as 50 percent without…

  5. Chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particulate matters in Beijing during the 2008 Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingru; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yuesi; Wen, Tianxue; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yingfeng

    2012-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected daily in Beijing from 1 Jun. to 20 Sep. during the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 to investigate aerosol concentrations, particle size distributions, and sources as well as the effects of pollution control measures on the chemical compositions (including Water-soluble ions, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC)) in aerosols of different sizes. Water-soluble ions, EC, OC, and trace elements accounted for 45.0%, 1.6%, 14.7%, and 11.4% of the total particle mass (PM), respectively. Approximately 56%, 56%, 30%, 71% and 55% of the PM, water-soluble ions, trace elements, EC and OC, respectively, were associated with particles smaller than 2.1 μm. Sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the dominant ions, which together accounted for approximately 77% of total water-soluble ions. The crustal elements accounted for the majority of the trace elements present. Different sources showed different mass size distributions. Anthropogenic source compounds, such as sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC, EC, and toxic elements, were mainly present in fine mode aerosols, whereas crustal elements, such as Al, Fe, Ca, Mg and Ba, primarily occurred in the coarse mode. SO42- and NH4+ concentrations were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.90, slope = 1.63) in the fine mode, thereby indicating that SO42- was mainly present as (NH4)2SO4; in contrast, a weak correlation between SO42- and NH4+ (r2 = 0.18, slope = 0.54) was observed in the coarse mode, indicating that SO42- was associated with other ions. Similarly, SO42- and NO3- exhibited a stronger correlation in the fine mode than in the coarse mode, indicating that SO42- and NO3- were formed via the same in-cloud processes in fine particles. The OC/EC ratio and the correlations between EC and OC concentrations showed that the sources of carbonaceous species were secondary organic carbon from fine particles and the long-range transport of coarse carbonaceous particles from biomass

  6. A CRUCIAL TEST FOR THE OLYMPICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Beijing Olympic organizers are demonstrating their anti-doping commitment by conducting more tests than ever before Doping tainted the Athens Olympic Games in 2004. Of the nearly 3,700 tests on banned substances conducted at those games, the num-

  7. The unique OMI HCHO/NO 2 feature during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: Implications for ozone production sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Retscher, C.

    2011-06-01

    In preparation of the Beijing Summer Olympic and Paralympics Games, strict emission control measures (ECMs) were imposed between July and September 2008 on motor vehicle traffic and industrial emissions to improve air quality. We estimated changes in the chemical sensitivity of ozone production to these ECMs using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) column measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), where their ratio serves as a proxy for the sensitivity. During the ECMs, OMI NO 2 significantly decreased, subsequently increasing the HCHO/NO 2. For the first half of the ECM time period, the ratios maintained values greater than two indicating that ozone production became primarily NO x-limited. In contrast, ozone production was predominantly volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited or mixed VOC-NO x-limited during the same period in the preceding three years. After the ECMs were lifted, NO 2 and HCHO/NO 2 returned to their previous values. The 2005-2008 OMI record shows that this transition to a predominantly NO x-limited regime during the ECMs was unique. Meteorological factors likely explain the variability in HCHO/NO 2, particularly the transition to a mixed NO x-VOC-limitation in mid-August during the Olympics, where ozone production became sensitive to both NO x and VOCs until the end of the ECMs. The mixed VOC-NO x-limited regime observed during the Paralympics is also unique because previous years show that Beijing in September is predominantly VOC-limited. Beijing's large-scale tree-planting program was expected to increase levels of biogenic VOCs, but this is not supported by OMI HCHO data. However, MODIS vegetation indices show a small increase in vegetation cover from 2003 leading up to the Games in 2008. After the Games, however, there was a downturn in the indices (2009 and 2010) to levels similar to 2006.

  8. China Mobile's SWOT for the Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ling

    2008-01-01

    @@ This is the first time the Olympic Games held in China. The Beijing Olympics are a golden opportunity for Chinese companies to promote their products around the world. On the other hand,it is also a great challenge. Take ChinaMobile, the mobilecommunication partner for the XXIX Olympics, as an example. His marketing performance in this Olympic feast could be analyzed by S.W.O.T.

  9. The Official Report of the Olympic Games of Stockholm 1912: the Fifth Olympiad

    OpenAIRE

    Bergvall, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Published in 1913, “The Official Report of the Olympic Games of Stockholm 1912: the Fifth Olympiad”, was very detailed and well structured. It consisted of one volume, published in English and Swedish. Part I: Lists of Committees ; The Chief General features of the Olympic Games.- Part II: General questions ; Preparing the sites of the competitions.- Part III: The arrangements made for the reception and accomodation of competitors ; How the Olympic Games were advertised ; The training of the ...

  10. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  11. Comparative study on 3-point shot rate of Chinese male basketball team in Beijing Olympic Games%北京奥运会中国男篮3分球命中率比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光鼎

    2012-01-01

    By means of literature reviews,video observation,data statistics and comparative analysis,the article systematically summarizes the 3-point shot scores of Chinese male basketball team in the Man Basketball Match of the 29th Olympic Games,such as the scores of the whole team,the guards,the forwards,and the centers.The scores are compared and analyzed with those of the opponents.The aim of article is to find out the problems that lie in the development of the Chinese male basketball team.%采用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法、比较分析法等对第29届奥运会男子篮球赛中国男篮的6场比赛中,中国男篮全队整体3分球得分;后卫3分球得分;前锋3分球得分;中锋3分球得分等进行全面系统地总结,并与对手的情况进行对比与分析,希望从中找出制约我国男子篮球队发展的问题.

  12. Official Report of the XVII Olympic Winter Games Lillehammer 1994

    OpenAIRE

    Mjelde, Helge

    2010-01-01

    The “Official report of the XVII Olympic Winter Games Lillehammer 1994” was innovative in more ways than just its title. Published in 1995 by LOOC, it is composed of a small-format set in four volumes, published in three separate versions: French, English and Norwegian. Each set also contains a CD-ROM containing electronic versions of all the texts, as well as video clips. Volume 1: An international festival and sports extravaganza ; Historical background ; Finance and administration ; Staff ...

  13. Olympic Etiquette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing’s Olympic authorities have rigid standards for the women who will serve at awards ceremonies Changping Vocational School in the suburbs of Beijing is an ideal place for many pretty women.It is the training base of the Beijing Olympic etiquette volunteers,and its graduates hope to become Miss Olympic Etiquette,serving at Olympic awards ceremonies.

  14. The 2008 Olympic Games: Opportunities and Challenges for Sports Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lizhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sport marketing refers to the specific application of marketing principles to sport products (e.g.,teams,leagues,events,etc.) together with the marketing of non-sports products (e.g.,cigarettes,beer,longdistance phone service,etc,) through associations with various sports. The explosive growth of sports marketing occurred at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, when corporate sponsors used the Games as a platform to market their brands. Coca-Cola, for example, spent nearly US$30 million to support its official sponsorship of the Games.

  15. Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympics on the risk of pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assibey-Mensah, Vanessa; Liu, Kaibo; Thurston, Sally W; Stevens, Timothy P; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Jinliang; Kane, Cathleen; Pan, Ying; Weinberger, Barry; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Woodruff, Tracey; Rich, David Q

    2016-07-01

    Taking advantage of the natural experiment of the 2008 Beijing Olympics (August 8 to September 24), when air pollution levels decreased by 13% to 60%, the authors assessed whether having ≥1 pregnancy month during the Olympics was associated with decreased risks of hypertensive disorders (HDs) and/or fetal-placental conditions (FPCs). Singleton births to mothers with ≥1 pregnancy month in 2008 or 2009 (N = 56,155) were included. Using generalized additive models, the authors estimated the risk of HDs and FPCs associated with (1) the 2008 Olympics compared with the same dates in 2009, and (2) increased mean ambient PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter Olympic period was found. This may, in part, be due to a small number of pregnancy complications in this population.

  16. Verification and intercomparison of mesoscale ensemble prediction systems in the Beijing 2008 Olympics Research and Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Masaru; Saito, Kazuo; Seko, Hiromu; Hara, Masahiro; Hara, Tabito; Yamaguchi, Munehiko; Gong, Jiandong; Charron, Martin; Du, Jun; Wang, Yong; Chen, Dehui

    2011-05-01

    During the period around the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, the Beijing 2008 Olympics Research and Development Project (B08RDP) was conducted as part of the World Weather Research Program short-range weather forecasting research project. Mesoscale ensemble prediction (MEP) experiments were carried out by six organizations in near-real time, in order to share their experiences in the development of MEP systems. The purpose of this study is to objectively verify these experiments and to clarify the problems associated with the current MEP systems through the same experiences. Verification was performed using the MEP outputs interpolated into a common verification domain with a horizontal resolution of 15 km. For all systems, the ensemble spreads grew as the forecast time increased, and the ensemble mean improved the forecast errors compared with individual control forecasts in the verification against the analysis fields. However, each system exhibited individual characteristics according to the MEP method. Some participants used physical perturbation methods. The significance of these methods was confirmed by the verification. However, the mean error (ME) of the ensemble forecast in some systems was worse than that of the individual control forecast. This result suggests that it is necessary to pay careful attention to physical perturbations.

  17. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first results of the atmospheric measurements of trace gases and aerosols at three surface sites in and around Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympics. We focus on secondary pollutants including ozone, fine sulfate and nitrate, and the contribution of regional sources in summer 2008. The results reveal different responses of secondary pollutants to the control measures from primary pollutants. Ambient concentrations of vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs at an urban site dropped by 25% and 20–45% in the first two weeks after full control was put in place, but the levels of ozone, sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 increased by 16%, 64%, 37%, respectively, compared to the period prior to the full control; wind data and back trajectories indicated the contribution of regional pollution from the North China Plain. Air quality (for both primary and secondary pollutants improved significantly during the Games, which were also associated with the changes in weather conditions (prolonged rainfall, decreased temperature, and more frequent air masses from clean regions. A comparison of the ozone data at three sites on eight ozone-pollution days, when the air masses were from the southeast-south-southwest sector, showed that regional pollution sources contributed 34%–88% to the peak ozone concentrations in urban Beijing. Ozone production efficiencies at two sites were low (~3 ppbv/ppbv, indicating that ozone formation was being controlled by VOCs. Compared with data collected in 2005 at a downwind site, the concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2, total sulfur (SO2+PM2.5 sulfate, carbon monoxide (CO, reactive aromatics (toluene and xylenes sharply decreased (by 8–64% in 2008, but no significant changes were observed for the concentrations of PM2.5, fine sulfate, total odd reactive nitrogen (NOy, and longer

  18. 北京奥运会周期训练理论与实践创新趋势%New Tendencies of Periodic Training Theory and Practice Innovation at the Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁守龙

    2011-01-01

    Following the development tendencies of systematization,diversification,high frequency and high value of the Olympic Games and professional events,competition organization has become more meticulous,competition system more perfect,competition management m%随着奥林匹克赛事和职业赛事的系统化、多样化、高频次、价值高等发展趋势,竞赛组织更加周密,竞赛制度更加完备,竞赛管理更加科学,竞赛市场更加拓展,竞赛效益渗透广泛。通过对当代竞赛体系发展趋势的分析,总结北京奥运会周期运动训练理论与实践创新趋势,即复合型团队逐步取代单一教练模式;动态恢复才能更好地超量恢复;文化软实力也是竞技硬实力;体能训练理论与方法创新(新理念:"Sport Is Movment"——运动实质是动作模式;新模式:动作准备——程序化准备活动;新认识:从核心训练到核心柱训练;新体系:功能性训练体系

  19. Consideration on Insurance Claim Caused by LIU Xiang’s Withdrawal in Beijing Olympic Games%北京奥运会刘翔退赛保险理赔事件引发的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娟; 陈志凌

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief review on insurance claim caused by LIU Xiang's withdraw-al in Beijng Olympic Games ,and discusses the social impact of events behind . The result shows that the cause of insurance to refuse to compensate is domestic professional sports insur-ance breed missing ,and the structural imbalance of insurance coverage .On this basis ,this pa-per systematically analyzes the athlete insurance basic structure and the restriction factor ,fur-ther clarifies the current main problems of the athlete insurance and its obstacles ,and puts for-ward the optimization of the structure of the athlete insurance path and way ,in order to mini-mize the athlete career risk and loss .%对北京奥运会刘翔退赛保险理赔事件进行了简要回顾,探讨了事件背后产生的社会影响,认为导致保险弃赔的原因是国内专业体育保险品种缺失以及保险结构失衡。在此基础上,系统分析了我国运动员保险基本结构及其制约因素,明晰了当前运动员保险存在的主要问题及其障碍。提出了优化运动员保险结构的路径与方式,以期最大限度降低运动员职业风险及其损失。

  20. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Greg; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how sport psychology consultants perceive the challenges they face at the Olympic Games. Post-Olympics semistructured interviews with 11 experienced sport psychology consultants who worked at the London Games were conducted. The interviews were transcribed...... the Olympics (e.g., negotiating one’s role) and Challenges During the Olympics (e.g., dealing with the media). The challenges the sport psychology consultants perceived as important validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions that exist in the literature. The findings extend the knowledge on sport...... psychology consultancy at the Olympic Games by showing individual contextual differences between the consultants’ perceptions and by identifying four SPC roles at the Olympic Games....

  1. Golden Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XIAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is not expected to sweep the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games the way it dominated the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics.However,it has made Chinese Olympic history after winning three gold medals when the Games passed the halfway point of scheduled competition on February 20.On that day,18-year-old Zhou Yang overcame three South Korean rivals to win the women's short-track speed skating 1,500-meter final.

  2. Universality, limits and predictability of gold-medal performances at the Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Radicchi

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the Games held in ancient Greece, modern Olympics represent the world's largest pageant of athletic skill and competitive spirit. Performances of athletes at the Olympic Games mirror, since 1896, human potentialities in sports, and thus provide an optimal source of information for studying the evolution of sport achievements and predicting the limits that athletes can reach. Unfortunately, the models introduced so far for the description of athlete performances at the Olympics are...

  3. The Olympic Games as reflection conditions of development Ancient Greek civilization in Hellenism period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko Ol'ga Gennadievna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of the Olympic Games at consideration the conditions of Ancient Greek civilization development in Hellenism period. Had presented the division into the periodization of Greek civilization development in which had learned a major changes in the world-view of Hellenes under the A. Macedonian influence, notably: professionalization of sport and gradual fading of ideals, making basis of olympism, and also Christianity following late which results in the decline of the Olympic Games.

  4. Geography of the Olympic Games: A Geographic Learning Activity for Upper Elementary and Junior High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, Leonard; Lennert, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a learning activity for students in upper elementary and junior high schools that capitalizes on the appeal of the Olympic Games. Using statistical information on the Games, students are asked to generate world maps indicating medal-winning countries. Includes sample Olympic data and maps. (DSK)

  5. Beijing Promises Event to Remember

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The host city is confident of staging a green, dope-free and stunning Olympic Games The world will remember the Beijing Olympic Games for its touching open- ing ceremony and Olympic Village with Chinese cultural elements,prom- ised key figures in the event’s preparation work at a press conference on March 12. During the annual session of the National Committee of the 11th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),

  6. Land-based mobile mapping system with its applications for the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeRen; HU QingWu; GUO Sheng; CHEN ZhiYong

    2009-01-01

    There is a trend for rapid spatial data capture supported by integration of multiple platforms and multiple sensors.This paper presents the principles and technologies of land-based mobile mapping systems based on an integration of remote sensing,GPS and GIS technologies.The innovations and advantages of the integrated system are described.The analytic model and error model of a mobile mapping system are proposed and the application interface of digital measurable images is also discussed.A Truemap Engine(R) with Plug-in and API is designed to manage a huge volume of stereo image series from a land-based mobile mapping system so that other geographic information systems (GIS) engines can freely use the sequence of stereo images.The applications of digital measurable images (DMI) as well as mobile mapping systems in the Olympic Games in Beijing,2008 are presented.

  7. Association between changes in exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in children before and during the Beijing Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weiwei; Zhu, Tong; Xue, Tao; Peng, Wei; Brunekreef, Bert; Gehring, Ulrike; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-04-15

    It is not known whether exposure to air pollutants causes systemic oxidative stress in children. We investigated the association between exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in relation to a governmental air quality intervention implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. We studied 36 schoolchildren during 5 time periods before and during the Olympic Games in Beijing (June 2007-September 2008). The oxidative stress biomarkers 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and malondialdehyde were measured in urine samples collected daily during each period. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between repeated biomarker measurements and ambient air pollutant levels. During the Olympic intervention period, substantial reductions in air pollution (-19% to -72%), urinary 8-oxodG concentrations (-37.4%; 95% confidence interval: -53.5, -15.7), and urinary malondialdehyde concentrations (-25.3%; 95% confidence interval: -34.3, -15.1) were found. Malondialdehyde and 8-oxodG were significantly associated with concentrations of black carbon, fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic with diameter less than 2.5 μm, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Biomarker changes per each interquartile-range increase in pollutants were largest at lag 0 or lag 1. In a 2-pollutant model, the most robust associations were for black carbon. These findings suggest that exposure to black carbon leads to systemic oxidative stress in children.

  8. The Unique OMI HCHO/NO2 Feature During the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics: Implications for Ozone Production Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Retscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    In preparation of the Beijing Summer Olympic and Paralympics Games, strict controls were imposed between July and September 2008 on motor vehicle traffic and industrial emissions to improve air quality for the competitors. We assessed chemical sensitivity of ozone production to these controls using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) column measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), where their ratio serves as a proxy for the sensitivity. During the emission controls, HCHO/NO2 increased and indicated a NOx-limited regime, in contrast to the same period in the preceding three years when the ratio indicates volatile organic carbon (VOC)-limited and mixed NOx-VOC-limited regimes. After the emission controls were lifted, observed NO2 and HCHO/NO2 returned to their previous values. The 2005-2008 OMI record shows that this transition in regimes was unique as ozone production in Beijing was rarely NOx-limited. OMI measured summertime increases in HCHO of around 13% in 2008 compared to prior years, the same time period during which MODIS vegetation indices increased. The OMI HCHO increase may be due to higher biogenic emissions of HCHO precursors, associated with Beijing's greening initiative for the Olympics. However, NO2 and HCHO were also found to be well-correlated during the summer months. This indicates an anthropogenic VOC contribution from vehicle emissions to OMI HCHO and is a plausible explanation for the relative HCHO minimum observed in August 2008, concurrent with a minimum in traffic emissions. We calculated positive trends in 2005-2008 OMI HCHO and NO2 of about +1 x 10(exp 14) Molec/ square M-2 and +3 x 10(exp 13) molec CM-2 per month, respectively. The positive trend in NO2 may be an indicator of increasing vehicular traffic since 2005, while the positive trend in HCHO may be due to a combined increase in anthropogenic and biogenic emissions since 2005.

  9. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition, and light extinction before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; He, Kebin; Li, Chengcai; Yang, Fumo; Zhao, Qing; Ma, Yongliang; Cheng, Yuan; Ouyang, Wenjuan; Chen, Gangcai

    2013-11-01

    contrast of air quality and visibility before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games provides a rare opportunity to investigate the links between PM2.5 mass, chemical composition, and light extinction in this megacity. Twenty-four hour integrated PM2.5 samples were collected, and light scattering coefficients and the concentrations of black carbon were measured at urban Beijing for this purpose during a measurement campaign from 1 July to 20 September 2008, which was classed into four stages according to the levels of emission control measures. Daily PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 15.9 to 156.7 µg m-3 with an average of 66.0 ± 35.1 µg m-3. The average PM2.5 mass during the Olympics decreased by 49% from the second stage (20 July to 7 August), mainly due to the reduction of secondary inorganic aerosols (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA)). The counterintuitive increase of PM2.5 mass (by 27% on average) during the second stage with two most serious haze episodes, although more rigorous emission control measures were in place, compared to the first stage (1-19 July), was mainly explained by the unfavorable meteorology and input of sulfate aerosols. A daily PM2.5 mass threshold of 50 µg m-3 was extracted for frequent haze occurrence. The extinction fractions of SNA and organic material were each approximately 30% during the 20% best visibility days but changed to 81.7% and 8.4%, respectively, during the 20% worst visibility days. The results indicated that the role of SNA was magnified in haze formation during the 2008 summer in Beijing.

  10. Russia and Its International Image: From Sochi Olympic Games to Annexing Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyze the change of the Russian Federation’s international image in the light of two significant events: the Olympic Winter Games in 2014 in Sochi and the annexation of Crimea. According to the first hypothesis, one of the main aims for hosting the Olympic Games was to improve the international prestige of Russia. Shortly after the Olympics Russia increased its activity in Eastern Ukraine, which resulted in the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula. Therefore the article is also aimed to investigate whether by annexing Crimea Russia squandered the possible positive effects of hosting the Olympics in terms of its international image.

  11. Olympic Flame Illuminates National Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan; Brownell

    2008-01-01

    In an e-mail interview,the pundit of China Central Television’s On the Spot Olympics coverage,Susan Brownell,gave Beijing Review her impressions of the Olympics lasting legacy on the nation and the Games themselves. A former U.S. track-and-field athlete her-self,Brownell is an authority on Chinese sports,having written several books on the country itself and conducted fieldwork on sports and body culture,and Olympic Studies. She was guest pro-fessor at the Beijing Sports University throughout 2007-08,and is currently Professor of Anthropology at the University of Missouri-St. Louis.

  12. Ancient and Modern Architecture Emanate-The Vigor of New Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey

    2008-01-01

    @@ Beijing,with a 3,000-year history, is the combination of Chinese traditional Culture and the modern fashion. The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games undertakes millions of people's passion and dreams. At the start of the preparing the grand pageant,three concepts were put forward, in which, culture-highlighted Olympics embodies the culture of great splendor of Beijing.

  13. OLYMPICS IN TWO SESSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The counting-down clock is ticking:Beijing Olympic Games are just 4 months away.When China's "Two Sessions',the top political sessions,held in the national capital this spring,this heated topic has been inevitably stamped with the remarks among the CPPCC members and NPC deputies.

  14. Medical Learning from the Special Olympics World Games 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Aaron L; Woodward, Thad; Harrison, Levi; Simon, Lauren; Rodriquez, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The Special Olympics World Games (SOWG) were held in Los Angeles, CA, during the summer of 2015. Medical care for 26 sporting events spread over six major venues across the city was provided to more than 6,000 athletes and 3,000 delegates from 170 countries. Education on care for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and athletes with additional medical issues was provided in addition to the usual sports medicine care. This required coordination between major medical providers as well as law enforcement, fire rescue, transportation, public health, and the organizers of the games. This article reviews the planning, training, and outcomes of the medical care and the Healthy Athletes program for the SOWG 2015.

  15. Food safety standards for Beijing 2008 Olympics-Hastening the parturition of international brands of Chinese meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to the predicted statistics of the Beijing Municipal Food Safety Office, during the period of Beijing 2008 Olympics, over 13 millions of meals will be served to the athlete delegations, work personnel and journalists of various countries and the on-site spectators. To ensure the safety of food serving, the Beijing municipal government has specially worked out and initiated an outline for action on food safety. The strict standard on food safety required by the International Olympics Committee will also promote the pace of internationalization of Chinese food and drinks.

  16. 2008 Olympics, We Are Ready!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Stepping into August 2007, the Beijing Olympic Games is already being counted down for just one year. Chinese people are making every effort to prepare for the great ceremony in full swing.So, how is the process going now? Let's hear the voice of authorities from Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games (BOCOG) of the XXIX Olympiad released on the press conference of the State Council Information Office on August 6, to get the lastest news.

  17. 大型体育赛事东道主国家形象研究——以北京奥运会为例%Study on the National Image of Host Country of Mega Events——Case Study on Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾国军; 弗朗克·高; 克里斯汀·科尔莫

    2011-01-01

    采用议程设置理论对2008年北京奥运前后国际电视传媒有关中国的报道进行内容分析,旨在探索大型事件如何影响东道国国家形象。以国家形象可见性、效价、主题结构、归因四个要素为框架,对美国、英国、德国、法国等九个国家的电视媒体报道中有关中国的新闻进行定量内容分析。结论如下:1)大型事件之前,东道主国家形象的可见性将升高,然而,在大型事件之后,东道国在国际媒体中的可见性甚至低于往常;2)奥运会后一年有关中国的新闻与会前一年相比,不明确的效价显著减少,正面和负面的效价比例均显著增加,2008北京奥运对中国的贡献在于增进了世界媒体和公众对中国的理解,但奥运会后中国的国际形象并没有显著改善;3)中国形象的主题结构和归因两个属性保持相对稳定,大型事件仅仅能够激发国际媒体对东道国的兴趣,并使东道国国家形象清晰化。%The impact of 2008 Olympic Games on China's image in international TV media is examined in this paper.The theory of agenda setting was utilized to analyze how the process of the foreign TV media in nine countries telecasts on Beijing 2008 affects the worldwide perceptions about China.Based on the framework of national image richness(visibility,valence,breadth and attribution),the conclusions are: Firstly,before the mega events,the visibility of host country in international media will become higher than before,while after the mega events,the visibility of the host country will become even lower than the average.Secondly,the main contribution of 2008 Olympic Games for China is to enhance the understanding of China around the world,but it is difficult to say China has more positive international televised image around the world after the Olympics.The breadth and attribution of China' image keep relatively stable.Therefore,mega events can not improve national image of host

  18. Olympics Offer Development Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As China begins the two-year countdown to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games slated for August 8-24 in Beijing, the nation, still excited about the realization of a centennial dream, is now pondering the real benefits of hosting such an event Besides the economic returns and an expected elevation of national confidence, people hope the course of Chinese society will also see a revolutionary change. In an interview with China Business News, Wei Jizhong, President of the Beijing Olympic Economy Research Institu...

  19. Resident Perceptions of the 2006 Torino Olympic Games, 2002-2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO CHITO GUALA,

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous Olympic Games research has been primarily on economic impacts, tourists, and destination image with most being one-off assessments of the Summer Games. Other than Ritchie's landmark study of the Calgary Winter Olympic Games, relatively few research studies on the Winter Olympic Games have been published, and fewer still concerning resident attitudes throughout the full lifecycle of the event, from bidding, preparation, operation, and legacy stages. Residents are in a unique position to evaluate an event's legacy as taxpayers, daily consumers of infrastructure, and as possible leisure consumers of Olympic sport venues. The purpose of this study was to examine Torino residents' perceptions of their city as host of the 2006 Torino Winter Olympic Games from 2002-2007. Results from telephone interviews with Torino residents (n = 900 interviews per year; N = 5,400 are presented to reflect the attitudes of the population toward the 2006 Winter Olympic Games over time. Residents experienced a "rollercoaster" of emotions during the event lifecycle ranging from euphoria once the Games were awarded, to concern over escalating production costs, irritation with inconveniences due to construction, and ultimately pride immediately following the Games. Implications of study findings for event and destination managers are discussed.

  20. Tibet is Looking Forward to the Olympic Torch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Penkyi

    2008-01-01

    In June 2008 the Olympic torch,representing sport- ing ethos of the world,will embark on its primary journey to Mt.Qomolangma.The world will once again focus on"the roof of the world"-Tibet. On July 13~(th),2001,the Beijing Organizing Committee for the 29~(th) Olympic Games made its final statement with the promise that"if Beijing was accepted as the host of the 2008 Olympiad,Beijing will organize the route of the

  1. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Gong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions. In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5. These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  2. SHINING STAR IN NORTH BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The area around the Asian Games Village in north Beijing has seen rapid development in recent years,boosted by the construction of Olympic stadiums,such as the National Stadium,National Aquatics Center,Olympic Hockey Field, Archery Field and Tennis Center. Equipped with complete facilities,

  3. Smoke Rings: Towards a Comprehensive Tobacco Free Policy for the Olympic Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Lee

    Full Text Available The tobacco industry has long sought affiliation with major sporting events, including the Olympic Games, for marketing, advertising and promotion purposes. Since 1988, each Olympic Games has adopted a tobacco-free policy. Limited study of the effectiveness of the smoke-free policy has been undertaken to date, with none examining the tobacco industry's involvement with the Olympics or use of the Olympic brand.A comparison of the contents of Olympic tobacco-free policies from 1988 to 2014 was carried out by searching the websites of the IOC and host NOCs. The specific tobacco control measures adopted for each Games were compiled and compared with measures recommended by the WHO Tobacco Free Sports Initiative and Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. This was supported by semi-structured interviews of key informants involved with the adoption of tobacco-free policies for selected games. To understand the industry's interests in the Olympics, the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu was systematically searched between June 2013 and August 2014. Company websites, secondary sources and media reports were also searched to triangulate the above data sources. This paper finds that, while most direct associations between tobacco and the Olympics have been prohibited since 1988, a variety of indirect associations undermine the Olympic tobacco-free policy. This is due to variation in the scope of tobacco-free policies, limited jurisdiction and continued efforts by the industry to be associated with Olympic ideals.The paper concludes that, compatible with the IOC's commitment to promoting healthy lifestyles, a comprehensive tobacco-free policy with standardized and binding measures should be adopted by the International Olympic Committee and all national Olympic committees.

  4. The Use of Instrumental Physiotherapy at the XXII 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Balaban

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the organization of physiotherapeutic aid at the XXII 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi. The author analyzes the structure of demand for instrumental physiotherapy procedures.

  5. Beijjing Olympics,not only an opportunity for logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On July 13,2001,Beijing drew the attention of the world as the capital of China won the bid to host the 2008 Olympic Games.From the year 2004 on,the construction of the Olympic venues and related facilities will begin on a large scale,signifying a new stage for the preparation for the Games.Investors at home and abroad are closely watching the preparation work,because of the great business opportunities the Olympic Games will offer.Beijing is devoted to implementing

  6. 15th Beijing International Book Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 15th Beijing Intemational Book Fair(BIBF)is to be held in Tianjin on September 1-4.It is the first time that the fair is held outside of Beijing. The change of venue is because the book fair coincides with the closing of the Beijing Olympic Games and the open-

  7. Olympic Figures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing Olympic Village A 6,000-square-meter solar heating system is capable of providing hot bathing water for 17,200 athletes in the Olympic Village and saving about 5 million kwh of energy every year. After the Olympics, this system will provide hot water for nearly2,000 homes. The low energy-consuming constructions in the Beijing Olympic Village can save 16,000 kwh of energy during the air-conditioning season.

  8. Active Citizens and Public Policy: The Example of London 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikaia Chatziefstathiou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The author argues how Olympism, the ideology underpinning the Olympic Games, when linked with youth can generate what Foucault called ‘technologies of power’. This article first discusses the increasing rate of governmental interest for sport and the “active citizen”, children and young people. In this light several interventions and policies across the western societies such as the United Kingdom, United States and Canada are examined. The author then argues how the youth agenda for the Olympic Games can also be seen alongside this neo-liberal increased interest for active citizenry.

  9. School Olympics in Estonia: New Chance of Life for Traditional Sports and Games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Voolaid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on an interesting trend in the development of the School Olympic Games in Estonia – the use of traditional sports and games in the School Olympics programme as a means for a fresh approach to sport and education, to make the games more colourful, create a school identity and unite different cultural layers. The School Olympics – a remarkable form of the Olympic education – is currently facing serious challenges in keeping the attention of the younger generation, restoring the active life-style and reshaping moral principles. Traditional sports present a good opportunity to make a difference here. With the help of concrete examples this article gives an overview of the variety of colourful ideas used in Estonian schools, starting with popular traditional sports and ending with some newborn disciplines.

  10. Olympic Partner Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Partner Programme (TOP) is an international Olympic marketing programme created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC),which includes the Organising Committees of the Games,the National Olympic Committees and the TOP Partners.

  11. Games Uniforms Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda

    2008-01-01

    The uniforms for Beijing Olympics’ workers, technical staff and volunteers have been unveiled to mark the 200-day countdown to the Games. The uniforms feature the key element of the clouds of promise and will be in three colors:red for Beijing Olympic Games Committee staff, blue

  12. The Enlightenment of the Growth Characteristics of Chinese Champion in Beijing Olympic Games%北京奥运会中国冠军的成长特征及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一平; 孙庆祝

    2009-01-01

    Through using the method of literature review, the paper analyzed and summarized the gender, the nationality, the family background, the educational background and the train-ing, background of the Olympic champions as well as the movement-groups engaged in sports training at all stages of the period of the age and the physical road to success. The results showed that the number of male and female athletes in the championships and gold medals, as well as the Han people and minorities in terms of per capita number of the gold medals was no significant difference;the movement-groups we got gold medals located in the seven different fields, and there are their own characteristics both at the beginning age of engaging in exercise training and the training times by the champion athletes from different movement-groups; they came from poor families in general, as well as their family members with no history of competi-tive sports champion experiences accounted for 98.4%;88.9% of Champions have gone to Sports School for exercise training, 61.9% of the Olympic champions have higher education experience, their success are subjective efforts and objective conditions for the result of the in-teraction.%对奥运冠军的性别、民族、家庭背景、教育背景、训练背景、运动项群、从事运动训练各阶段的年龄年限、成长过程、成功经验进行分析与总结.结果表明,男、女运动员在夺冠人数与夺金数以及汉民族与少数民族在人均夺金数上无显著性差异;夺金项目分布在7个项群,且各项群冠军运动员从事运动训练的年龄与年限有各自的特征;来自于一般与贫困家庭以及直系亲属无竞技体育运动史的冠军占98.4%;88.9%的冠军有体校训练经历,61.9%的奥运冠军有高等教育经历,其成功是主观努力与客观条件相互作用的结果.

  13. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

    2013-01-01

    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes.

  14. Analysis and Evaluation of Strength of Chinese Women Gymnastic Team Based on its Performance in 27th to 29th Olympic Games and Training Tactics in London Olympic Games%从近三届奥运会评析我国体操女队的实力及伦敦奥运会备战的策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅芳香; 宋允清

    2012-01-01

    Through using the method of literature, video observation and mathematical statistics, this paper researches the strength of China and other countries through the matches of the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000, the Athens Olympic Games in 2004 and the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008, points out the advantage and shortcoming of Chinese woman team and put forward the lesson preparation for London Olympic Games combined with its practical situation.%本文采用文献资料法、录像观察法和数理统计法等,通过对2000年悉尼奥运会、2004年雅典奥运会和2008年北京奥运会中国体操女队与世界强队的实力对比研究,分析中国女队存在的优势和不足,并结合女队目前的实际情况,提出一些伦敦奥运会的备战策略。

  15. Sports and Politics: Los Angeles Times' Coverage of the 1984 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Michael B.; Garrison, Bruce

    To investigate whether political assertions were interjected into American sports coverage of the 1984 Olympic games and which direction those assertions took, a study examined the Los Angeles Times' coverage of the games in its award-winning special supplement sections. The "Times" included these special supplements in its papers from July 22,…

  16. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  17. Microbiological aspects of public health planning and preparedness for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Gilad, J; Chand, M; Brown, C; Shetty, N; Morris, G; Green, J; Jenkins, C; Ling, C; McLauchlin, J; Harrison, T; Goddard, N; Brown, K; Bolton, F J; Zambon, M

    2012-12-01

    Although communicable diseases have hitherto played a small part in illness associated with Olympic Games, an outbreak of infection in a national team, Games venue or visiting spectators has the potential to disrupt a global sporting event and distract from the international celebration of athletic excellence. Preparation for hosting the Olympic Games includes implementation of early warning systems for detecting emerging infection problems. Ensuring capability for rapid microbiological diagnoses to inform situational risk assessments underpins the ability to dispel rumours. These are a prelude to control measures to minimize impact of any outbreak of infectious disease at a time of intense public scrutiny. Complex multidisciplinary teamwork combined with laboratory technical innovation and efficient information flows underlie the Health Protection Agency's preparation for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. These will deliver durable legacies for clinical and public health microbiology, outbreak investigation and control in the coming years.

  18. Olympic Flame Burning In Athens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>At 6:00pm March 25 (Beijing time), 2004 Athens Olympic flame was lit in Greece’s ancient sanctuary, indicating that the torch relay started.The torch relay, established at the Berlin Games in 1936, will for the first time visit all five continents

  19. 融合媒介时代奥运会媒体营销现状与启示%The Status Quo and Inspiration of Media Marketing in Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东

    2012-01-01

    Based on the documentations research on media marketing of Olympic Games,the authors found that the media marketing of Olympic Games advanced in the direction of all media-orientation and integration.The scale of spread of Olympic Games is expanding,the complexity of spread is increasing sharply and the results of Olympic marketing are splendid.As the first Olympic Games in convergence media age,it is the host country China's successful organization and the outstanding performances of all athletes that made a media marketing in Beijing Olympic Games a miracle in communication history.The success of media marketing in Beijing Olympic Games also predicts that the spread of Olympic Games has a better prospect in convergence media age,and brings a stronger impetus to the development of Olympic Games in the future.%运用文献法对奥运会媒体营销现状进行了研究,结果发现:奥运会媒体营销朝着全媒体化和融合化的方向发展,奥运会传播的规模日益扩大,奥运传播的复杂性也与时剧增,奥运媒体营销的成果也日益辉煌。北京奥运会作为融合媒介时代的第一届奥运会,东道主中国的成功组织和选手们的优异表现使北京奥运会媒体营销成为传播史上的奇迹。北京奥运会媒体营销的成功也预示着,在媒介融合时代奥运会传播面临着更美好的前景,奥运传播将给奥运会未来发展带来更强大的推动力。

  20. Olympic Map: A Brief Introduction of Main Olympic Venues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Olympic Venue Distribution New Venues in Beijing 1 National Stadium 2 National Aquatics Center 3 National Indoor Stadium 4 Beijing Shooting Range Hall 5 Beijing Olympic Basketball Gymnasium 6 Laoshan Velodrome

  1. The contradictions with the olympic games` principles seen through the prism of politics, terrorism, protest and race discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the known examples in the history of gaming, revealing conflicting realities of famous slogans of the Olympic Games. And purpose of this article is not debunking the existing view modernity of the peaceful nature of the Olympic movement, and attempt to prove the importance of respect for these principles, rather than the allegation.

  2. Comparative analysis of technical and tactical preparedness Greco-Roman style wrestler at the Olympic Games-2008 and the Olympic Games-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tropin Y.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to test preparedness of Greco-Roman style wrestlers. It is analysed battles of 41 wrestlers conqueror of the finals of the competition. Found that competition on the world stage in the Greco-Roman wrestling is high, the leader is constantly changing. It was determined that the effectiveness of the use of technology at the Olympic Games in 2008 is significantly higher (26% than in the Olympic Games in 2012 revealed three weight groups: small (55 kg, 60 kg, medium (66 kg, 74 kg, 84 kg, heavy (96 kg, 120 kg. Found that in the Greco-Roman tendency to simplify the technology, increase the intensity of the match. It was revealed that at the Olympics in 2008 the performance indicator is higher than at the Olympic Games in 2012 in all weight groups. Found that the most informative for evaluating the technical and tactical capabilities fighters carries the final part of the competition, which is determined by the efficiency, effectiveness, technical arsenal.

  3. A Tale of Two Seasons: Participation and Medal Counts at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel K.N. Johnson; Ali, Ayfer

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the post-War Summer and Winter Olympic Games in order to determine the economic and political determinants of national participation, of female participation in particular, and of success at the Games (i.e., medal counts). Compared to the Summer Games, Winter participation levels are driven more by income and less by population, have less host nation bias and a greater effect of climate. Roughly similar factors determine medal count success, although single party and commu...

  4. Who Wins The Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Busse, Meghan R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  5. Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  6. Go up or down?-Look into the Real Estate Price After the Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet Tang

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 Beijing Olympic Games to the Chinese is not only a unique event,but also will influence many aspects of China. To the real estate industry, the effect of the Olympic Games will play an important role in a short period. How about the effect to Beijing's housing price? Does it continue to go up or turn down? This is the main concern for majority of those in this industry and consumers.

  7. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings.

  8. RELACIÓN ENTRE LOS ELEMENTOS Y LA PUNTUACIÓN OBTENIDA EN LA MODALIDAD DE SUELO DE GIMNASIA ARTÍSTICA DEPORTIVA EN BEIJING 2008 [Relationship between elements and score in floor exercise, in Artistic Gymnastic, in the Beijing 2008 Olympics Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leyton Román

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En la Gimnasia Artística, el rendimiento viene determinado por la ejecución de una serie de movimientos con base en un modelo establecido y recogido en el Código de Puntuación. Con base en esto, el objetivo de nuestro trabajo es determinar si el número  y nivel de dificultades que componen el total de diagonales realizadas en un ejercicio de suelo predice e influye de manera positiva en la puntuación final del gimnasta. Para ello se realiza un estudio descriptivo con una metodología observacional, en el cual se analizan 16 ejercicios de suelo de los 16 gimnastas clasificados para la final individual de suelo de Gimnasia Artística Femenina y Masculina en los Juegos Olímpicos de Pekín 2008. Los resultados concluyen que el número de dificultades que componen el total de diagonales realizadas en un ejercicio de suelo no predice ni influye de manera positiva en la puntuación final del gimnasta. Los resultados muestran también que el nivel de dificultad tampoco predice ni influye de manera positiva en la puntuación final del gimnasta, excepto en el caso del    Nivel E. Palabras clave: Gimnasia Artística, código de puntuación, dificultad, análisis observacional.   Abstract In Artistic Gymnastics, the performance is determined by the execution of a series of movements based on a model established and gathered in the Code of Punctuation. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study if the number and level of difficulty composing all diagonals executed in floor exercise predicts and influences in a positive way the final punctuation of the gymnast. For this, a descriptive study was conducted with an observation method, in which 16 floor exercises of 16 gymnasts qualified for the individual final of floor were analyzed in Artistic Gymnastics in the Olympic Games of Peking 2008. The study  conclude that the number of difficulties composing all diagonals executed in a floor exercise neither predicts nor influences in a

  9. Sport psychology consultants’ perceptions of their challenges at the London 2012 Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Diment, Gregory; Elbe, Anne-Marie

    The aim of the study was to explore the challenges sport psychology consultants perceived at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 sport psychology consultants up to six weeks after the London Games. The interviews were transcribed and inductively content......). Furthermore, four different Sport psychology consultant roles during the Olympics could be defined. On the one hand, the reported challenges validate and cohere with the challenge descriptions in the literature. On the other hand, the data identifies individual contextual differences between the consultants...

  10. [Change trend of vegetation cover in Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2012-11-01

    The MODIS-NDVI data from 2000 to 2009 were used to analyze the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of the vegetation cover in the Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics. During the study period, the proportion of the significantly increased pixels of NDVI occupied 20.7% while that of the significantly decreased pixels only occupied 4.1% of the total, and the decreasing rate of the NDVI was slightly faster than the increasing rate. The significant changes of the NDVI were mainly concentrated in the low altitude and small slope areas with intensive human activities, and two bands were formed in the plain area, i. e., the vegetation increasing band within the 5th Ring Road and the vegetation decreasing band from the 5th Ring Road to the outside areas of the 6th Ring Road. In the areas with significant vegetation change, there was an obvious transition between the high and low NDVI sections but less change in the medium NDVI section, mainly due to the conversion of land cover type. In the Capital function core area and ecological conservation zones, vegetation change represented a positive trend; while in the urban function expansion area and urban development area, vegetation change had the dual characteristics of both positive and negative trends. A series of ecological engineering projects during the preparatory period of the 2008 Olympics was the main cause of the vegetation increase in the study area.

  11. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Zhu, T.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Xie, X. X.; Han, Y. Q.; Li, Y.

    2009-11-01

    China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used a versatile mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's Fourth Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial variations in traffic-related air pollutants, including NOx, CO, PM1.0 surface area (S(PM1)), black carbon (BC), and benzene, toluene, the sum of ethylbenzene, and m-, p-, and o-xylene (BTEX). During the Olympics (8-23 August, 2008), on-road air pollutant concentrations decreased significantly, by up to 54% for CO, 41% for NOx, 70% for SO2, 66% for BTEX, 12% for BC, and 18% for SPM1, compared with the pre-control period (before 20 July). Concentrations increased again after the control period ended (after 20 September), with average increases of 33% for CO, 42% for NOx, 60% for SO2, 40% for BTEX, 26% for BC, and 37% for S(PM1), relative to the control period. Variations in pollutants concentrations were correlated with changes in traffic speed and the number and types of vehicles on the road. Throughout the measurement periods, the concentrations of NOx, CO, and BTEX varied markedly with the numbers of light- and medium-duty vehicles (LDVs and MDVs, respectively) on the road. Only after 8 August was a noticeable relationship found between BC and S(PM1) and the number of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). Additionally, BC and S(PM1) showed a strong correlation with SO2 before the Olympics, indicating possible industrial sources from local emissions as well as regional transport activities in the Beijing area. Such factors were identified in measurements conducted on 6 August in an area southwest of Beijing. The ratio of benzene to toluene, a good indicator of traffic emissions, shifted suddenly from about 0

  12. Proscribed drugs at the Olympic Games: permitted use and misuse (doping) by athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Athletes have always sought to outperform their competitors and regrettably some have resorted to misuse of drugs or doping to achieve this. Stimulants were taken by the first Olympic athletes to be disqualified in 1972. Although undetectable until 1975, from the 1950s androgenic anabolic steroids were administered for increased strength and power followed in the 1990s by erythropoietin for enhanced endurance. Both are highly effective doping agents. As analytical science validated improved techniques to identify these drugs, Olympic athletes, including many medallists were caught and disqualified. When the International Olympic Committee (IOC) prohibited beta blockers (beneficial in shooting), diuretics (assist weight classified athletes) and glucocorticosteroids, some athletes with genuine medical conditions were denied legitimate medical therapy. To overcome this, in 1992 the IOC introduced a system known now as Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE). This paper discusses Olympic athletes who have been known to dope at past Games and some medical indications and pitfalls in the TUE process.

  13. Universality, limits and predictability of gold-medal performances at the olympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the Games held in ancient Greece, modern Olympics represent the world's largest pageant of athletic skill and competitive spirit. Performances of athletes at the Olympic Games mirror, since 1896, human potentialities in sports, and thus provide an optimal source of information for studying the evolution of sport achievements and predicting the limits that athletes can reach. Unfortunately, the models introduced so far for the description of athlete performances at the Olympics are either sophisticated or unrealistic, and more importantly, do not provide a unified theory for sport performances. Here, we address this issue by showing that relative performance improvements of medal winners at the Olympics are normally distributed, implying that the evolution of performance values can be described in good approximation as an exponential approach to an a priori unknown limiting performance value. This law holds for all specialties in athletics-including running, jumping, and throwing-and swimming. We present a self-consistent method, based on normality hypothesis testing, able to predict limiting performance values in all specialties. We further quantify the most likely years in which athletes will breach challenging performance walls in running, jumping, throwing, and swimming events, as well as the probability that new world records will be established at the next edition of the Olympic Games.

  14. Universality, limits and predictability of gold-medal performances at the olympic games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Inspired by the Games held in ancient Greece, modern Olympics represent the world's largest pageant of athletic skill and competitive spirit. Performances of athletes at the Olympic Games mirror, since 1896, human potentialities in sports, and thus provide an optimal source of information for studying the evolution of sport achievements and predicting the limits that athletes can reach. Unfortunately, the models introduced so far for the description of athlete performances at the Olympics are either sophisticated or unrealistic, and more importantly, do not provide a unified theory for sport performances. Here, we address this issue by showing that relative performance improvements of medal winners at the Olympics are normally distributed, implying that the evolution of performance values can be described in good approximation as an exponential approach to an a priori unknown limiting performance value. This law holds for all specialties in athletics-including running, jumping, and throwing-and swimming. We present a self-consistent method, based on normality hypothesis testing, able to predict limiting performance values in all specialties. We further quantify the most likely years in which athletes will breach challenging performance walls in running, jumping, throwing, and swimming events, as well as the probability that new world records will be established at the next edition of the Olympic Games.

  15. 再谈北京奥运遗产:福娃传递的和谐理念%Research on Beijing 2008 Olympic Heritage: Heritage: Harmonious Concepts Conveyed By The Mascots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国岳

    2011-01-01

    北京奥运吉祥物“福娃”彰显了中华民族悠久的灿烂历史文化,体现了世界各国人民共有美好家园、共享文明成果、共创和平未来的和谐思想,反映了北京奥运“人文和谐、绿色生态、科技进步”的核心理念。表达了一个正在阔步迈向现代化的伟大民族坚决执行奥林匹克精神的和关心声,传递了国家和顺、民族和睦、世界和平的和谐价值,从全球视野中准确地把握了奥林匹克现代发展的主题,具有独特的吸引力和强劲的感召力,为世界留下了丰厚的奥运遗产。%The mascot Fuwa of the Beijing Olympic Games highlight the long and glorious Chinese history and tra- ditions. The collection of mascots conveys information on the home planet shared by all human beings, the achieve- ments of human civilizations, peace and progress in anticipation, revealing the concept of "humanistic, harmoni- ous, green, and innovative Olympics" and indicating an advancing nation's resolve to promote harmony by carrying forward the Olympic spirit. The paper comes to the conclusion that the Beijing Olympic mascots, featured by ap- pealing designs, enhance the values of prosperity, harmony, peace and progress by focusing on the theme of modern Olympic Games. This leaves rich Olympic Heritage for the world.

  16. Post-Olympism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    The Olympic ideal and the Olympic Games stand as symbols of global cooperation, international understanding and the bonding fo individuals through the medium of sports. However, throughout the twentieth century, Olympic rhetoric waas often confronted by a different reality. The Games have regularly......' Olympics, 5) the Games and globalizations, 6) disneyfication, 7) racism, and 8) drug abuse....

  17. 2008 Beijing Auto Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Automakers wage war over Chinese market Athletes from around the world will contend for gold this August during the Beijing Olympic Games, but before the sports gala begins, automakers are already locked in an intense competition of their own to see which will catch the most Chinese buyers.

  18. Universality, limits and predictability of winners' performances at the Olympic Games

    CERN Document Server

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the legendary Games held in ancient Greece, modern Olympics represent the world's largest pageant of athletic skill and competitive spirit. Athletes' performances at the Olympic Games mirror, since more than a century, human potentialities in sports, and thus provide an optimal source of information for studying the evolution of sport achievements and predicting the limits that athletes can reach. Unfortunately, the models introduced so far for the description of athletes' performances are either sophisticated or unrealistic, and more importantly, do not provide a unified theory for sport performances. Here, we address this issue by showing that relative performance improvements of medal winners at the Olympics are normally distributed, implying that the evolution of performance values can be simply described as an exponential approach to an a priori unknown limiting performance value. This law holds for all specialties in athletics - including running, jumping and throwing - and swimming. We pres...

  19. Sport Tourism and its History and Contribution of Olympic Games to Touristic Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Y I L D I Z

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism sector is one of the sectors that gain momentum and importance with the globalization. One of the important sub branches of the tourism that attracts attention with 1 - 1 - 5 billion people and approximately 2 trillion world incomes is sport tourism. The first tourism movement is the start of Olympics in Ancient Greek and movement of people who want to watch these games. Due to the fact that this tourism type that emerges thanks to the sports activities, contributes the economic and social structure of that region, states carry out significant lobbying activities to host Olympics. The mass of the number of the sportsmen to attend to the sport activity and audience that come to watch these games and more importantly live s treams from the place of the games contribute significantly to the promotion of that region. While eating and drinking, traveling, souvenirs expenses are direct incomes; it significantly contributes to the transportation and carriage sector. The appearance of before and after of the Olympic regions show great difference. One of the most important examples is the province of Mersin that hosts the latest Mediterranean games. While infrastructure and supra structure investments made for the preparation of city to the games in a brief time change the appearance of the city, national and international promotions significantly change the province. Olympic causes important development beyond measure. The objective of this study is to specify social and economic con tributions of tourism type emerged by the sport activities on the region and raise awareness for its contribution to country promotion. The study bases significantly on the literature review. The study will have a solid structure by making use of the dome stic and international statistical data. The scope of the study is Olympics in general and Mediterranean games in Mersin Province in particular.

  20. Estimating the Value of Medal Success at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, Brad; Johnson, Bruce; Mason, Daniel; Whitehead, John

    2011-01-01

    We estimate Canadians’ willingness to pay (WTP) for success by Team Canada in the 2010 Winter Olympics. The Canadian government subsidized elite athletes in the run up to the 2010 Games through the Own the Podium program, which was designed to increase Canada’s medal count. WTP estimates from a contingent valuation method (CVM) study using data from nationally representative surveys before and after the Games suggest that Own the Podium generated intangible benefits of between 3 and 5 times i...

  1. In the Zone--Bringing Science to the Olympic Games for Students in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Leah; Atkinson, Melissa; Schofield, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust is running a national engagement and education initiative inspired by the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. "In the Zone" involves sending practical science kits to every UK school and college. Here, we discuss the development of the school activities and how the feedback from pilot schools helped to shape the…

  2. Designing a Virtual Olympic Games Framework by Using Simulation in Web 2.0 Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2013-01-01

    Instructional simulation had major difficulties in the past for offering limited possibilities in practice and learning. This article proposes a link between instructional simulation and Web 2.0 technologies. More exactly, I present the design of the Virtual Olympic Games Framework (VOGF), as a significant demonstration of how interactivity in…

  3. Preliminary Study of the Mesoscale Numerical Simulation of the Rain Mitigation Operation during the Opening Ceremony of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games%2008年奥运会开幕式日人工消减雨作业中尺度数值模拟的初步结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晖; 金华; 李宏宇; 刘建忠

    2012-01-01

    2008年8月8日,在2008年北京奥运会开幕式举行之际,北京及周边地区出现了较强对流云团,给国家体育场内开幕式活动的顺利进行带来了极大威胁.根据云系的发展状况,北京市人工影响天气办公室有针对性地组织实施了大规模地面火箭人工消减雨作业,对抑制云、降水的形成和发展起到了一定作用.在中尺度数值模式MM5的Reisner2方案中引入了AgI粒子与云相互作用的过程,在MM5中实现了催化功能.参照2008年8月8日20:05至20:12进行的消减雨作业情况,利用加入催化方案的中尺度数值模式对该作业进行了数值模拟试验,就不同的播撒量对催化效果的影响进行了研究,并对其中的微物理机制进行了分析.研究结果表明:AgI播撒率对降水量改变影响很明显,当以5g·s-1的速率持续播撒AgI 7 min,在播撒作业后2h,催化区域内均表现为减雨,2h后为增雨.对于减雨的微物理机制主要是由于大量播撒AgI后导致空中云水大量减少,进一步导致霰减少,霰的减少导致雨水的减少;而2h后的增雨机制则是由于在雨水、云水、霰以及温度之间形成了正反馈,最终导致地面降水的增加.需要指出的是由于单参数方案的局限性,模拟的最大减雨率仅为8%~12%,离消雨的要求尚有差距,应利用双参数云方案作进一步模拟研究.%Strong convective clouds occurred in Beijing and its surrounding areas during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, which posed a threat to the ongoing ceremony activities at the National Stadium. According to the actual weather condition, rain mitigation by firing lots of special rockets was operated by the Beijing Weather Modification Office. The operation played a certain role in inhibiting the formation and development of cloud and precipitation. Based on the dynamic frame of MM5 and Reisner2 explicit cloud scheme, an Agl-seeding scheme is developed and used to

  4. The Olympic Games: The Experience of a Lifetime or Simply the Most Important Competition of an Athletic Career?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Rune Dall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a multi-sport event that only takes place every four years and is accompanied by intense media coverage, the Olympic Games are often described by athletes as a defining moment in their careers. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to describe differences in expectations of Olympic debutants towards the Olympics and their actual experiences while they were at the Games; and 2 to describe how the athletes negotiate the balance between performing at and enjoying the experience of the Olympic Games. Further, we will discuss the athletes' stories in light of the differences between the goals and expectations of the elite sport system and those of the individual athletes. Data was collected through a qualitative interview study with a pre- and post-Olympic competition design.

  5. Discussion on Olympic Games and Olympic Economy%当代奥林匹克运动与奥运经济浅议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘捷

    2012-01-01

    当代奥林匹克运动与奥运经济关系十分密切。离开了奥运经济即围绕奥运开展的一系列商业运作,当代奥林匹克运动将陷入困境。萨马兰奇以改革创新的精神,用商业运作的方式,解决了国际奥委会面临的经济危机,为奥林匹克运动打下了牢固的经济基础,也为举办国城市的经济发展提供了契机。%There is close link between Olympic movement and Olympic economy.Without the Olympic economic,the commercial operations around Olympic movement,the contemporary Olympic movement will be in troublesome.With reform and innovation spirit,through commercial operations,Mr.Juan Antonio Samaranch solved the economic crisis faced by the International Olympic Committee.He laid a solid economic foundation for the Olympic movement and also provided an opportunity for the city'economy in hosting Olympic Games.

  6. MEMBERSHIP PROCESS OF ISTANBUL IN 2020 OLYMPIC GAMES AND ECONOMIC INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSTAFA YILDIZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Game is an expensive and costly sport organization with the participation of athletes, journalists, broadcasters and sportsmen and audiences. This cost can be born only by developed countries and this enables introduction of home countries, increase of tourism activities and acquisition of sports facilities. Membership of Istanbul for 2020 Olympic Games is the first sport organization membership officially announced by prime minister of Turkish government. Therefore the support was obtained by every branch of Turkish Government for 2020 membership of Istanbul. When the Olympics are regarded as the experience of sport organizations throughout the world, it increases the value of Istanbul on earth more and more. Istanbul has hosted more than twenty international sports events in the last few years and has gained serious experience about this field. Condition of sports facilities, geographical location of city, climactic features, accommodation facilities, medical services, security, legal issues, support of government and public, financial issues are among the membership criteria of IOC. Istanbul, Tokyo and Madrid compete with each other according to these features. It is clear that the most important factor in membership would shoe parallelism with the economy of nation. In this study, endeavors of Istanbul for membership process of 2020 Olympic Games and economic investments will be analyzed.

  7. Historical Way of Sochi Development: From Resort to Olympic Games Host City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N. Markaryan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article traces historical way of destination development from resort to Winter Olympic Games host city, discloses the unusual method of natural resources use both for resort treatment and winter sports development. The characteristic of unique natural and climatic conditions and curative factors of the resort, such as mineral springs, landscapes, climate, Esto Sadok, Roza Khutor, Krasnaya Ployana, Laura ski resorts is presented. The article analyzes sports facilities and the use of Sochi as a center for athletes’ rehabilitation. The future use of Olympic facilities, both exhibition, shopping and entertainment and business centers is revealed. The zone of international hospitality will enable Sochi to develop as international resort.

  8. Five Rings: Enclosing the London 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan William Gardner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the successive iterations of the fence surrounding the London 2012 Olympic site in Stratford, east London, I demonstrate that during the five periods of enclosure considered, these boundaries have highlighted the London Games’ contested past, present, and future. An examination of the material and discursive constructions of each of these boundaries shows the Janus-faced nature of their relationship to the wider ‘mega-event’. I conclude that though the purpose of such enclosures may initially seem obvious, in actuality they, as parts of a wider assemblage, can act unpredictably both to support and challenge the Olympic brand and its existence in this part of east London.

  9. Hotels Gear up for Olympic Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2005-01-01

    The 2008 Olympic games is a great opportunity for China to present itself on the world stage. As the host city, Beijing is preparing to extend the best hospitality it can to the many expected guests from all around the world.

  10. Competing Concepts of Culture: Irish Art at the 1924 Paris Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A. Culleton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Art Competitions formed part of the modern Olympic Games during its early years. From 1912-1948, art contests were featured in Summer Games in Stockholm (1912, Antwerp (1920, Paris (1924, Amsterdam (1928, Los Angeles (1932, Berlin (1936 and London (1948, where artists competed for medals in the categories of painting, architecture, literature, music, and sculpting. Ireland competed in four of those summer games, and a total of thirty-one Irish artists (twenty-one men/ten women, most of them members of the Royal Hibernian Academy or the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art participated in nine separate art contests and submitted forty-three works for competition.

  11. Consideration the lists of winners, as reflection of changes in the Ancient Olympic Games (in archaic and classic periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko O.G.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of one of the information sources about Ancient Olympic games, namely lists of winners. Had presented the description of geographical information, characterizing the sportsmen's place of origin, and also social origin of afore-named, allows to conduct parallels in consideration of the studied information with political and cultural changes in Greek civilization in archaic and classic periods which had a direct influence on the Olympic Games.

  12. Satellite-based estimates of reduced CO and CO2 emissions due to traffic restrictions during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Helen M.; Cheng, Yafang; Pfister, Gabriele; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David G.; Deeter, Merritt; Edwards, David P.; Gille, John C.; Worden, John R.

    2012-07-01

    During the 2008 Olympics, the Chinese government made a significant effort to improve air quality in Beijing, including restrictions on traffic. Here we estimate the reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from the control measures on Beijing transportation. Using MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) multispectral satellite observations of near-surface CO along with WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry) simulations for Beijing during August, 2007 and 2008, we estimate changes in CO due to meteorology and transportation sector emissions. Applying a reported CO/CO2 emission ratio for fossil fuels, we find the corresponding reduction in CO2, 60 ± 36 Gg[CO2]/day. As compared to emission scenarios being considered for the IPCC AR5 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 5th Assessment Report), this result suggests that urban traffic controls on the Beijing Olympics scale could play a significant role in meeting target reductions for global CO2 emissions.

  13. Preparing for the Olympic Games: Training adaptation in endurance sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, G.J.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    For most elite athletes winning an Olympic gold medal is the ultimate dream. To make this dream come true, in the first place one needs sufficient talent. However next to this talent, several years of training with large amounts of strenuous work is necessary. It is therefore not remarkable that the

  14. An evaluation of atmospheric Nr pollution and deposition in North China after the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. S.; Liu, P.; Tang, A. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Zong, X. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Kou, C. L.; Zhang, L. J.; Fowler, D.; Fangmeier, A.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.

    2013-08-01

    North China is known for its large population densities and rapid development of industry and agriculture. Air quality around Beijing improved substantially during the 2008 Summer Olympics. We measured atmospheric concentrations of various Nr compounds at three urban sites and three rural sites in North China from 2010 to 2012 and estimated N dry and wet deposition by inferential models and the rain gauge method to determine current air conditions with respect to reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds and nitrogen (N) deposition in Beijing and the surrounding area. NH3, NO2, and HNO3 and particulate NH4+ and NO3-, and NH4+-N and NO3--N in precipitation averaged 8.2, 11.5, 1.6, 8.2 and 4.6 μg N m-3, and 2.9 and 1.9 mg N L-1, respectively, with large seasonal and spatial variability. Atmospheric Nr (especially oxidized N) concentrations were highest at urban sites. Dry deposition of Nr ranged from 35.2 to 60.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1, with wet deposition of Nr of 16.3 to 43.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and total deposition of 54.4-103.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The rates of Nr dry and wet deposition were 36.4 and 33.2% higher, respectively, at the urban sites than at the rural sites. These high levels reflect the occurrence of a wide range of Nr pollution in North China and suggest that further strict air pollution control measures are required.

  15. Anti-doping analyses at the Sochi Olympic and Paralympic Games 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevsky, Tim; Krotov, Grigory; Dikunets, Marina; Nikitina, Maria; Mochalova, Elena; Rodchenkov, Grigory

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory anti-doping services during XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic games in Sochi in 2014 were provided by a satellite laboratory facility located within the strictly secured Olympic Park. This laboratory, established and operated by the personnel of Antidoping Center, Moscow, has been authorized by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to conduct doping control analyses. The 4-floor building accommodated the most advanced analytical instrumentation and became a place of attraction for more than 50 Russian specialists and 25 foreign experts, including independent observers. In total, 2134 urine and 479 blood samples were delivered to the laboratory and analyzed during the Olympic Games (OG), and 403 urine and 108 blood samples - during the Paralympic Games (PG). The number of erythropoietin tests requested in urine was 946 and 166 at the OG and PG, respectively. Though included in the test distribution plan, a growth hormone analysis was cancelled by the Organizing Committee just before the Games. Several adverse analytical findings have been reported including pseudoephedrine (1 case), methylhexaneamine (4 cases), trimetazidine (1 case), dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (1 case), clostebol (1 case), and a designer stimulant N-ethyl-1-phenylbutan-2-amine (1 case).

  16. Performance evaluation and ranking of participation Asian countries in 2012 London Olympic Games through Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shirouyehzad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games ranking is done through lexicographic multi criteria method in each period. According to this method, the country receiving the most gold medals will have the highest score, and in case of having equal silver medals, comparison will be done according to bronze ones. The problem of this method is to pay the most attention merely to gold medals. Using data envelopment analysis, some studies have recently suggested various ranking for the Olympic Games. The present research uses DEA to rank the participating Asian countries in London Olympic that have at least won one medal. As an output-oriented BCC model, this one considers the number of male and female athletes, received medals in two previous Olympic as well as the number of their presence in the Olympic games as the inputs. Gold, silver and bronze medals are the only output of the model. This model is solved in two forms of female and male athlete combination and their separation. Solving this model makes this opportunity to present a new rankings model for participating Asian countries in the Olympic Games that can be compared with the ranking used by Olympic committee.

  17. Olympic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Veerabhadran Ramanathan, James Schauer, Hung Nguyen and colleagues found the Beijing Olympics to be conducive to international collaboration in science, as well as sport, as they attempted to assess the effect of emission restrictions on climate forcing.

  18. Individualization in swimming and a way of preparation for Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopchikova S.G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the high-end training swimmers who specialize in complex navigation. Material : Ukraine national team members from different years of training, swimmers high class of 50 people. A review of questionnaires and coaches of the national team of Ukraine to the XXVIII Olympic Games in Athens. Results found that athletes training and competitive activities differ in structure and content compared to previous preparation for the Olympic Games. In the 2004 Olympic champion set, the largest amount of work is 2520 km with the largest number of events in that year. It is indicated that the athlete in the first 4 years of preparation for his first Olympics gradually increasing annual volume and intensity of training loads. Over the next 4 years - the number of competitions, including commercial. An important factor in this stage is moral and strong-willed and psychological preparation. Conclusions : preparing athletes for major competitions at the stage of conservation achievements is narrowly focused specialized nature, depending on the age of the athlete, his specialization, gender, duration of phase conservation achievements.

  19. Comparison of near-surface CO from multispectral measurements from MOPITT with WRF-Chem simulations using emissions inventory for the Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, H. M.; Cheng, Y.; Pfister, G.; Carmichael, G.; Deeter, M. N.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    We present initial comparisons of MOPITT multispectral (TIR + NIR) CO measurements with WRF-Chem simulations for the Beijing Olympics in August 2008. The Chinese government made a significant effort to improve air quality during the Olympics by controlling pollution emissions around Beijing before and during Olympics. A new emissions inventory has been created to account for these controls and implemented in WRF-chem. The inventory is specific for pollution sectors such as power, industry, transport and domestic, with corresponding emission factors. By comparing to the MOPITT data, we can test the model predictions for CO and derive improved emissions estimates, then potentially use the emission factors to infer the corresponding reduction in CO2 emissions during the Olympics.

  20. Use of Earth Observation in Support of Major Sport Events: The Post Games Assessment of the Sporting Events of the Olympic Games 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulos, D.; Cartalis, C.; Petrakis, M.; Adaktylou, N.; Stathopoulou, M.; Chrysoulakis, N.

    2013-01-01

    Major sport events may result in the modification of the urban environment, or may be used as a tool for urban planning and/or urban regeneration projects. To this end, the main objective of the DRAGON-2 Project 5295 was to support the planning needs of major sport events with the use of Earth Observation (EO). The project also focused on the post games assessment of sporting events, with application to the Olympic Games (OG) of 2004 and 2008. More specifically, the research that was contacted in the project’s lifecycle was to examine how a major sporting event affected the urban fabric and the urban environmental quality in both Athens and Beijing. A wide number of thematic areas such as land use and cover, urban microclimate, urban green and air quality were examined and specific indicators for each thematic area were evaluated. Special emphasis was given on the description of thermal comfort, as well as on the changes in the quality of life in the host cities prior and following to the organization of the sporting events. A synopsis of the research results of the period 2008 - 2011 is given in this study along with an assessment of the potential of EO to actually support sport events.

  1. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used a versatile mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's Fourth Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial variations in traffic-related air pollutants, including NOx, CO, PM1.0 surface area (S(PM1, black carbon (BC, and benzene, toluene, the sum of ethylbenzene, and m-, p-, and o-xylene (BTEX. During the Olympics (8–23 August, 2008, on-road air pollutant concentrations decreased significantly, by up to 54% for CO, 41% for NOx, 70% for SO2, 66% for BTEX, 12% for BC, and 18% for SPM1, compared with the pre-control period (before 20 July. Concentrations increased again after the control period ended (after 20 September, with average increases of 33% for CO, 42% for NOx, 60% for SO2, 40% for BTEX, 26% for BC, and 37% for S(PM1, relative to the control period. Variations in pollutants concentrations were correlated with changes in traffic speed and the number and types of vehicles on the road. Throughout the measurement periods, the concentrations of NOx, CO, and BTEX varied markedly with the numbers of light- and medium-duty vehicles (LDVs and MDVs, respectively on the road. Only after 8 August was a noticeable relationship found between BC and S(PM1 and the number of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs. Additionally, BC and S(PM1 showed a strong correlation with SO2 before the Olympics, indicating possible industrial sources from local emissions as well as regional transport activities in the Beijing area. Such factors were

  2. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used an innovative mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's 4th Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial variations in traffic-related air pollutants, including NOx, CO, PM1.0 surface area (SPM1, black carbon (BC, and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-, p-, and o-xylene (BTEX. During the Olympics (8–23 August 2008, on-road air pollutant concentrations decreased significantly by up to 54% for CO, 41% for NOx, 70% for SO2, 66% for BTEX, 12% for BC, and 18% for SPM1 compared to the pre-control period (before 20 July. Concentrations increased again after the control period ended (after 20 September, with average increases of 33% for CO, 42% for NOx, 60% for SO2, 40% for BTEX, 26% for BC, and 37% for SPM1. Variations in pollutants concentrations were correlated with changes in traffic speed and the number and types of vehicles on the road. Throughout the measurement periods, the concentrations of NOx, CO, and BTEX varied markedly with the numbers of light- and medium-duty vehicles (LDVs and MDVs, respectively on the road. Only after 8 August was a noticeable relationship between BC and SPM1 and the number of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs found. Additionally, BC and SPM1 showed a strong correlation with SO2 before the Olympics, indicating possible industrial sources from local emissions as well as regional transport activities in the Beijing area. Such

  3. Motivation and satisfaction among polyclinic volunteers at the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J; Berg, R; Rhea, D; Willick, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Olympic and Paralympic Games rely heavily on volunteers to provide many essential services, including medical care of athletes. Objective: This preliminary investigation sought to characterise the motivational influences and factors responsible for the satisfaction of Olympic and Paralympic healthcare volunteers. Methods: The 2002 Winter Games polyclinic healthcare volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to elicit information about their motives for volunteering and the factors that contributed to their satisfaction with their volunteer experience. Results: There was no significant difference in the motivation or satisfaction summary scores based on event worked. There was a strong positive correlation between motivation and satisfaction. Physician respondents had a lower mean motivation score than did non-physician volunteers. Conclusions: There were no significant motivational differences between Olympic and Paralympic volunteers, but there were several differences noted between physician and non-physician volunteers. The 2002 polyclinic volunteers appear to have been motivated by a complex process best described as "enlightened self interest," and all were generally well satisfied with their experience. These results may assist organisers of future Games in selecting appropriately motivated volunteer personnel and creating rewarding work environments for them. PMID:15793078

  4. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  5. 全球化背景下后奥运时代大众传媒对我国体育传播的影响%About the influences of mass media to China sports' spread under the globalization and after Olympic Games era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世光; 林少娜

    2012-01-01

    After summarized the experiment of successful broadcasts of Olympic Games, this paper analyses the mass media and its main tasks after 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, in order to make the mass media sustainable and health develop after Olympic Games.%总结了奥运会成功报道的经验,同时对大众体育传播进行认真的思考,分析了2008年北京奥运会后体育传媒主要任务,使大众传媒对体育传播的影响在后奥运时代向持续健康态势发展。

  6. Torino 2006. XX Olympic and IX Paralympic Winter Games: the ENT experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, G; Crosetti, E; Mattiazzo, A; Riontino, E; Massazza, G

    2008-01-01

    Summary A total of 27 competition days, more than 3000 athletes, over 10,000 components of the Olympic family, 3,500 workers, 2,500 volunteers, an overall business of more than 2 billion Euros. These, in a nutshell, are just a few of the data concerning the XX Olympic and the IX Paralympic Winter Games, Torino, Italy, 2006. Such a huge event, obviously required a meticulously organized medical service to cope with the healthcare of the athletes, official workers and the Olympic family, distributed over a geographic area of approximately 80 km in diameter. An ENT service was organized within the medical service, which was divided between 3 Polyclinics, in which 12 ENT Specialists were on duty. The present report gives an account of the final data concerning the service involved, together with a description of the approach used in the actual organization, with a view to providing useful information for colleagues who will be called upon, for a similar service, in future Olympic Winter Games. The ENT healthcare offered was confirmed to be proportional to the requirements, both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. All the ENT specialists involved, reported having gained an immense store of human experience from having lived the Olympic atmosphere as a volunteer exerting one’s own profession. The facilities available in the Polyclinics, which were at a considerable distance from the Hospital, were found to be more than adequate with respect to the pathological conditions and service requested, particularly in 17% of the cases which would otherwise have been sent to a Hospital Outpatient Unit at least 80 km away. PMID:18646571

  7. Olympic and Paralympic Games: The Impact of Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report is published as part of Universities Week 2012. It includes research by Podium, the further and higher education unit for London 2012, about the level of engagement that universities have had in the 2012 Games. It demonstrates the diverse contribution that universities are making to the Games, their overall impact on the UK sports…

  8. Olympic Winter Games medals from Chamonix 1924 to Sochi 2014: visual overview of each medal with a brief description

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This document looks at the evolution of the Olympic Winter Games medals, from the first Games in Chamonix in 1924 to those in Sochi 2014. Each medal is presented with a photo of its obverse and reverse, with a description of the design and the technical details available.

  9. Olympic Summer Games medals from Athens 1896 to London 2012: visual overview of each medal with a brief description

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This document traces the evolution of the Olympic Summer Games medals, from the first Games in Athens in 1896 to those in London in 2012. Each medal is presented with a photo of its obverse and reverse, with a description of the design and the technical details available.

  10. Youth Olympic Games medals from Singapore 2010 to Nanjing 2014: visual overview of each medal with a brief description

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the evolution in the medals for the Summer and Winter Youth Olympic Games (YOG), from the first edition in Singapore, in 2010, to the Games in Nanjing in 2014. Each medal is illustrated by a photo of its obverse and reverse, with a description of the design and the technical details available.

  11. Cardiorespiratory biomarker responses in healthy young adults to drastic air quality changes surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Huang, Wei; Rich, David; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Diehl, Scott; Hu, Min; Tong, Jian; Gong, Jicheng; Thomas, Duncan

    2013-02-01

    Associations between air pollution and cardiorespiratory mortality and morbidity have been well established, but data to support biologic mechanisms underlying these associations are limited. We designed this study to examine several prominently hypothesized mechanisms by assessing Beijing residents' biologic responses, at the biomarker level, to drastic changes in air quality brought about by unprecedented air pollution control measures implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. To test the hypothesis that changes in air pollution levels are associated with changes in biomarker levels reflecting inflammation, hemostasis, oxidative stress, and autonomic tone, we recruited and retained 125 nonsmoking adults (19 to 33 years old) free of cardiorespiratory and other chronic diseases. Using the combination of a quasi-experimental design and a panel-study approach, we measured biomarkers of autonomic dysfunction (heart rate [HR*] and heart rate variability [HRV]), of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress (plasma C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, blood cell counts and differentials, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]), of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress (fractional exhaled nitric oxide [FeNO], exhaled breath condensate [EBC] pH, EBC nitrate, EBC nitrite, EBC nitrite+nitrate [sum of the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate], and EBC 8-isoprostane), of hemostasis (platelet activation [plasma sCD62P and sCD40L], platelet aggregation, and von Willebrand factor [vWF]), and of blood pressure (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]). These biomarkers were measured on each subject twice before, twice during, and twice after the Beijing Olympics. For each subject, repeated measurements were separated by at least one week to avoid potential residual effects from a prior measurement. We measured a large suite of air pollutants (PM2.5 [particulate matter Olympics periods). We used mixed-effects models to assess changes

  12. CREATING SUSTAINABLE OLYMPIC GAMES FOR BEIJING'S FUTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IGORLANDAU

    2003-01-01

    Aventis has been part of the international advisory committee of the mayor of Beijing since its inception and once again we are proud to participate. Aventis, through its predecessor companies has been present in China since 1883, and we feel committed to the growth of this country and the well being of its citizens.

  13. An Experimental High-Resolution Forecast System During the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, J.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Giguère, A.; McTaggart-Cowan, R.; Erfani, A.; Denis, B.; Glazer, A.; Vallée, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environment Canada ran an experimental numerical weather prediction (NWP) system during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, consisting of nested high-resolution (down to 1-km horizontal grid-spacing) configurations of the GEM-LAM model, with improved geophysical fields, cloud microphysics and radiative transfer schemes, and several new diagnostic products such as density of falling snow, visibility, and peak wind gust strength. The performance of this experimental NWP system has been evaluated in these winter conditions over complex terrain using the enhanced mesoscale observing network in place during the Olympics. As compared to the forecasts from the operational regional 15-km GEM model, objective verification generally indicated significant added value of the higher-resolution models for near-surface meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) with the 1-km model providing the best forecast accuracy. Appreciable errors were noted in all models for the forecasts of wind direction and humidity near the surface. Subjective assessment of several cases also indicated that the experimental Olympic system was skillful at forecasting meteorological phenomena at high-resolution, both spatially and temporally, and provided enhanced guidance to the Olympic forecasters in terms of better timing of precipitation phase change, squall line passage, wind flow channeling, and visibility reduction due to fog and snow.

  14. 浅析奥运场馆的规划、设计与赛后利用——以青岛奥运帆船中心为例%Brief analysis of the planning and design of Olympic venues and post-game use——Take Qingdao Olympic Sailing Center for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴玲; 尚春雷; 徐强

    2012-01-01

    China has entered the post-Olympic era since Beijing Olympics ended.The planning and design of Olympic venues,including the use,have aroused the thinking of the public.This paper attempts to compare and sum up the differences before and after the use of Qingdao Olympic Sailing Center through analysing the overall planning,architectural features and post-game use,which will provide some reference for the future construction and use of Olympic architecture and large sports venues.%北京奥运会已经结束,中国进入了"后奥运时代",奥运场馆的规划与设计以及赛后利用等问题引起了大众的再思考.对青岛奥帆中心的总体规划、建筑特色、赛后利用等方面进行分析,对青岛奥帆中心的赛前和赛后的规划设计进行比较总结.希望能够为以后的奥运建筑与大型体育场馆、体育建筑的建设和利用方面提供一些参考.

  15. 南京青奥会空气质量监测保障的经验与思考%Experiences and Reflections on Air Quality Monitoring Security for Nanjing Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻义勇; 陆晓波; 丁峰; 朱志峰

    2015-01-01

    从空气质量保障目标、监测网络、预测预报、信息发布、科研课题等角度,对比分析了南京青奥会、北京奥运会、上海世博会、广州亚运会等4大赛事/活动的空气质量监测保障体系,总结了南京青奥会在空气流动监测车布设、空气质量专家会商与信息发布等方面的经验得失,并提出了改善建议。%Based on air quality security objectives,monitoring network,air quality forecast,information re-lease and scientific research projects,a comparative analysis was made over the outcomes of air quality monitoring systems of past international events held in China which included Nanjing Youth Olympic Games,Beijing Olympic Games,Shanghai World Expo and Guangzhou Asian Games and so on.The improvements or otherwise were sum-marized and some suggestions were put forward over the distribution of mobile air quality monitoring vehicles for the security of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games,the consultation with experts for air quality and the information re-lease.

  16. The Interference of Politics in the Olympic Games, and How the U.S. Media Contribute to It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Moretti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2014, Russia will host the Olympic Games for only the second time in its history. Once again, the Olympic spirit—as defined and espoused by the International Olympic Committee—will clash with the political interests that overshadow the Games. This paper examines the political undertones of the 1980 Summer Olympics, hosted by Moscow and which took place during an ice-cold period of the Cold War, and asks whether similar undertones will be on display next year. The 1980 Games were a phenomenal success for Soviet athletes and their Eastern European colleagues. However, in the absence of the United States and more than 50 other nations, the political frame from a Western context was that of athletes from a corrupt system competing alongside their comrades. The boycott of these Games demonstrated the power of the White House and the often lapdog quality of the American media. Now as the Games return to Russia, the issue of whether a Cold War-like mentality will influence U.S. media reporting of the 2014 Sochi Olympics must be asked. The conflicting images in Western news media discourse of Russian president Vladimir Putin and his “Communist past” combined with a tepid diplomatic relationship between his government and the Obama administration provide evidence that a negative portrayal of Russia and therefore its athletes will be displayed in February 2014. And yet there is no impetus for a boycott next year. This paper explores why.

  17. The 2008 Beijing Olympics,a Dream That Will Come True!%The 2008 Beijing Olympics, a Dream That Will Come True!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋鹏程

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2008 is a time for everyone in China. 2008 is a time long anticipated by millions of people. My heart is fired with the warmest expectations. At barely 14, nothing shall stop me from contributing all I have to the success of this great event. Whether as a volunteer or as a middle-school student, I will loudly cheer for the 2008 Olympics, and give it my all! 2008, wait for me to grow up!

  18. Satellite based estimates of reduced CO and CO2 emissions due to traffic restrictions during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, H. M.; Cheng, Y.; Pfister, G.; Carmichael, G. R.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; Deeter, M. N.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Worden, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present estimates of the reductions in CO and CO2 emissions resulting from the control measures on the Beijing transportation sector taken during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. This study used MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) multispectral satellite measurements of near surface CO along with WRF Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry) simulations for Beijing during August, 2007 and 2008 to estimate changes in CO due to meteorology and emissions. Using fractional changes in the emissions inventory transportation sector along with a reported CO/CO2 emission ratio for Beijing vehicles, we find the corresponding reduction in CO2 emissions. We then compare this reduction to target CO2 emissions in the RCP (representative concentration pathway) scenarios being considered for the IPCC AR5 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 5th Assessment Report). Our result suggests that urban traffic reductions could play a significant role in meeting target cuts for global CO2 emissions, even for the most aggressive control scenario (RCP2.6).

  19. Methodological aspects of a GIS-based environmental health inspection program used in the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelopoulos Efstathios

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of geographical information system (GIS technologies in public health surveillance is gradually gaining momentum around the world and many applications have already been reported in the literature. In this study, GIS technology was used to help county departments of Public Health to implement environmental health surveillance for the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic Games. Methods In order to assess the workload in each Olympic county, 19 registry forms and 17 standardized inspection forms were developed to register and inspect environmental health items requiring inspection (Hotels, restaurants, swimming pools, water supply system etc, respectively. Furthermore, related databases were created using Epi Info 2002 and a geographical information system (GIS were used to implement an integrated Environmental Health inspection program. The project was conducted in Athens by the Olympic Planning Unit (OPU of the National School of Public Health, in close cooperation with the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity and the corresponding departments of Public Health in all municipalities that were scheduled to host events during the Athens 2004 Olympic and Para Olympic games. Results A total of 44,741 premises of environmental health interest were geocoded into GIS databases and several electronic maps were developed. Using such maps in association with specific criteria, we first identified the maximum workload required to execute environmental health inspections in all premises within the eleven Olympic County Departments of Public Health. Six different scenarios were created for each county, based on devised algorithms in order to design the most effective and realistic inspection program using the available inspectors from each municipality. Furthermore, GIS applications were used to organize the daily inspection program for the Olympic games, provide coloured displays of the inspection results and link those

  20. Association between changes in exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in children before and during the Beijing Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Weiwei; Zhu, Tong; Xue, Tao; Peng, Wei; Brunekreef, Bert; Gehring, Ulrike; Huang, Wei; Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    It is not known whether exposure to air pollutants causes systemic oxidative stress in children. We investigated the association between exposure to air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress in relation to a governmental air quality intervention implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Gam

  1. Sports e-guide: Innsbruck 2012 Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Together with the previously published Sport Explanatory Brochures, this Sports E-Guide contains the most up-to-date information about the sporting events, venues and services that have been prepared to support all IF Representatives and NOC Team Officials as they get ready for the Games.

  2. Olympic Spirit and Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    从岩

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Games is established as the largest sporting event in the world today.Moreover,Olympic cultural activity can be regarded as a mechanism for developing cultural.In 1992,Barcelona introduced the notion of the Cultural Olympic.

  3. Game Analysis of Olympic, World and European Championships in Men's Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Murat

    2012-12-01

    The development of men's handball was analyzed using data from the Olympic, World and European Championships held within the last eight years. The most obvious change, especially within these last nine tournaments, was that men's handball was played more dynamically and rapidly, both in attack and defense, especially by European teams. The first aim of this study was to conduct a technical analysis of current handball and to determine factors related to success in this sport discipline. The second aim was to compare the data of European Championships with other tournaments, considering the success of European teams in Men's World Handball. The technical variables used to compare the tournaments included: the average number of attacks, the efficiency of attacks, the efficiency of goal throws, fast break goals per game, the efficiency of fast breaks, the efficiency of the goalkeeper, saves by the goalkeeper per game, number of turnovers per game, and the efficiency of position throws (wing, pivot, back court, break-through, fast break, and 7-meter). This technical analysis used cumulative statistics from the European Handball Federation and International Handball Federation. ANOVA revealed significant differences between the first eight teams in the European Championships and their counterparts in the other two tournaments (Olympics and World Championships) in terms of several technical variables. The results showed that the efficiency of fast break, pivot position and back court players affected the ranking in favor of the European teams in significant international tournaments.

  4. Olympic Fever Sizzling Over Search for Mascot Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YiFu

    2005-01-01

    After the release of the “China Seal”, the emblem of the Beijing 2008 Olympics, the choice of the Games' mascot has become the next excited focus of public attention. By December1, 2004, the collection of the mascot designs had concluded, and committees were evaluating submissions to select the winner. According to Jiang Xiaoyu,

  5. Olympic Maps Available

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing is publishing a set of Olympic maps covering everything from the location of sporting venues to the city’s history As soon as Zhou Liyi hopped off the train from Shanghai to Beijing, he hurried to Wangfujing Xinhua Book Store,one of the largest of its kind in Beijing,to buy an Olympic map. Zhou is a Shanghai resident who came to Beijing on business and plans to return as a

  6. Lieux de mémoire / sites of memories and the Olympic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, research about collective memories of groups or nations has increased decisively. At the same time, ‘lieux de mémoire’ have become an issue of heated debates and controversies about the ‘right memories’, which may support political claims or even wars. Sports provide excellent...... as the politics and processes of remembering are discussed. The theoretical insights are transferred to the field of sport, in particular to the Olympic Games. Not only the competitions but also the buildings, rituals and ceremonies, the athletes and teams, and the audiences have been used to construct, change...

  7. Route of the Olympic flame: Beijing as a guardian of the antique cult of the European nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is without doubt that the 2008 Olympic Games in Peking will be remembered as the most grandiose, most spectacular and most expensive sport manifestation ever organized. Ratings are uniform: it will be very difficult to attain a standard posed by Peking in any recent time. Again, through the organization of this manifestation, China resurfaced as a powerful, wealthy and modern country, ready for the challenges of the 21st century. However, a shadow is cast upon China, in spite of its economic power, due to the country's autocratic political system. China's lack of democracy, human rights and liberties and position of minorities have provoked a harsh criticism among the Western countries, reflected at the time when China was granted Olympic games for 2008. Since then, the criticism continues especially directed at the decision of the Olympic committee, with several calls to boycott the Games itself. Anti-Chinese rallies were intensified this spring, when the Olympic torch started its way from Greece to Peking. Thousands of demonstrators worldwide- defenders of the Tibet's freedom- have tried to stop the carriers of the torch, trying to put out 'the eternal flame' and disable its route to the final destination. The torch has changed its route many times in order to deceive the protestors and takeover was also a subject to change and many manipulations. In any case, the broadcasted scenes of conflict between the demonstrators and Chinese official escorts and citizens, charged with emotions at both sides, will remain as a recall of the Olympic Games 2008 for a long time. Regardless of the possible justified cause of this protest, in the worldwide broadcasted scenes for many months there was a totally paradoxical change of roles: the Olympic flame, as well as the idea, China has defended as its own, as a highest value and also as a source and holiness of its own past and identity, while the Europeans, on whose territory that same idea and values

  8. Science and technology in order to the best Olympic Games%科技托起最出色的奥运会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李连芝

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to explore the role of science and technology for the Olympic Games. Methods: the article USES the qualitative analysis, access to relevant data, analysis the concept and characteristics of science and technology Olympics, explore the influence of modern science and technology for the Olympic Games, the last discuss how to realize the science and technology Olympics. Results: the modern science and technology improved the level of the Olympic Games, implementation "faster, higher, stronger" the Olympic Games. Conclusion: high level Olympic Games can not do without the support of modern science and technology, the Olympic Games has promoted the progress of human science and technology.%目的:探究科技对奥运会的作用。方法:文章采用定性分析法,查阅相关资料,分析科技奥运的概念和特点,探究现代科技对奥运会的影响,最后讨论如何实现科技奥运。结果:现代科学技术提升了奥运会的水平,实现“更快、更高、更强”的奥运目标。结论:高水平的奥运会离不开现代科技的支持,奥运会也促进了人类科技的进步。

  9. Olympic predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2012-01-01

    A new prognosis suggests a major shift of power in elite sport as China seems to be on its way to being the undisputed best performing nation in the Olympic Summer Games in London.......A new prognosis suggests a major shift of power in elite sport as China seems to be on its way to being the undisputed best performing nation in the Olympic Summer Games in London....

  10. Perils of a Post-Olympic Slump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The seven-year run-up to the Olympics has seen China’s white-hot economy chug along with an annual growth rate of more than 10 percent. But the global economic race is more of a marathon than a sprint. Several former Olympic host countries, including Japan and Australia, suffered economic slumps to varying degrees after the euphoria. Now eyes are turning to China to see if the Games will have a similar impact after they end. Will a post-Olympic slowdown play out here, or could it even prompt another economic take-off in the country? China Development Observation, a business monthly, interviewed Chen Jian, Executive Director of the Beijing Olympic Economy Research Association; Li Yining, a renowned economist; and Zhuang Jian, a senior economist at the Asian Development Bank China Resident Mission, for some answers.

  11. VETERAN BROADCASTER LEADS OLYMPIC CHARGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With its leadership team and technological know-how, the Beijing Olympic Broadcasting Co. Ltd. endeavors to bring the Olympics live to people around the globe The first thing that Ma Guoli, Chief Operating Officer of the Beijing Olympic Broadcasting Co.

  12. The Place Branding of Istanbul for the Olympic Games of 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouliopoulos Theofilos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay will examine one of the candidate cities of the 2020 Games, Istanbul. We are going to see the theoretical background of nation and place branding and how sports can be the ambassador of a nation. After, we will focus on Istanbul and Turkey. The political situation in Turkey and the role of the leading force in the Middle East is connected to a whole process for Turkey to gain power. The Olympic Games in Istanbul is a strategic point in this process and we are going to see what chances has Istanbul to host the greatest multi-sport event in the world.DOI: 10.5585/podium.v1i1.19

  13. Preparedness for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games: hospital treatment capacity in georeferenced areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Figueiredo Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Recently, Brazil has hosted mass events with recognized international relevance. The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in 12 Brazilian state capitals and health sector preparedness drew on the history of other World Cups and Brazil's own experience with the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. The current article aims to analyze the treatment capacity of hospital facilities in georeferenced areas for sports events in the 2016 Olympic Games in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on a model built drawing on references from the literature. Source of data were Brazilian health databases and the Rio 2016 website. Sports venues for the Olympic Games and surrounding hospitals in a 10km radius were located by geoprocessing and designated a "health area" referring to the probable inflow of persons to be treated in case of hospital referral. Six different factors were used to calculate needs for surge and one was used to calculate needs in case of disasters (20/1,000. Hospital treatment capacity is defined by the coincidence of beds and life support equipment, namely the number of cardiac monitors (electrocardiographs and ventilators in each hospital unit. Maracanã followed by the Olympic Stadium (Engenhão and the Sambódromo would have the highest single demand for hospitalizations (1,572, 1,200 and 600, respectively. Hospital treatment capacity proved capable of accommodating surges, but insufficient in cases of mass casualties. In mass events most treatments involve easy clinical management, it is expected that the current capacity will not have negative consequences for participants.

  14. Post-Olympic Flames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    For Olympic host cities, it is always a big challenge to ensure the venues will be used after the Games. The government of Athens is still paying the maintenance bills for some Olympic venues five years after the 2004 Olympiad.

  15. 2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance.

  16. Catering for the athletes village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: the role of sports dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona; O'Connor, Helen; Denyer, Gareth; Caterson, Ian

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the development, analysis, and implementation of the menu available to athletes and patrons in the main dining hall of the Athletes Village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the significant role of sports dietitians in this process. Menu design and development was informed by focus groups, literature reviews, and food-preference surveys of athletes. The final menu was also assessed by an expert panel of Australian sports dietitians. A custom-designed database (Foodweb) was developed to enable dietary analysis of food-production data and creation of point-of-choice nutrition labels. Dietitians assisted with quality assurance testing and training of catering staff. Athletes surveyed in the main dining hall (N=414) agreed that the menu contained sufficient variety and adequate meat, pasta/rice, vegetable/salad, fruit, and snack items. Sports dietitians played a significant role in ensuring that the menu met the needs of athletes from a range of differing cultural and sporting backgrounds. Dining-hall patrons provided positive feedback and few complaints about the overall dining experience. The information presented in this report can help future caterers and dietitians with the planning and provision of suitable food for athletic performance at an Olympic Games.

  17. Effect of Exposure to Special Olympic Games on Attitudes of Volunteers towards Inclusion of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiao; Wang, Chee Keng John

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of volunteering for Special Olympics Games (SOG) on the attitudes of volunteers towards inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities. Method: A repeated measures design with 3-week follow-up was used. There were 100 volunteers recruited for the study and 90 of them completed the…

  18. Standards Serve the Olympics:Building a "Green Olympics"——Forum on Green Olympics and Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On June 26th a forum entitled Green Olympics and Sustainable Development was hosted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO); Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China (SAC);Science and Technology Committee for the Games of the ⅩⅩⅨ Olympiad; General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the PRC (AQSIQ); State Environmental Protection Administration of China; China Meteorological Administration;and the Certification and Accreditation Administration of the PRC at Beijing International Conference Hall.

  19. The Beijing Olympics and the art of nation-state maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Kloet; G. Pak Lei Chong; W. Liu

    2008-01-01

    This article maps out how different actors are involved in the promotion and mediation of the Olympics. It looks at the roles of, first, the nation-state, through an analysis of the promotional materials; second, the art world and global companies, through an analysis of the touring exhibition "Spor

  20. Sportswear Giants Jockey for Olympic Success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ "The Beijing Olympics are a lot more than a sporting event,"says Marcus John, managing China director and senior vice-president of IMG Sports & Entertainment. "In the case of China, it is a cause of national pride."Such is the prism through which Chinese view the 2008 Games, creating unprecedented sports interest in a country that is only beginning to realize the height of its athletic potential and with it, extraordinary opportunity for sports shoe and apparel companies.

  1. "Offering Something Back to Society?" Learning Disability, Ethnicity and Sporting Legacy: Hosting the Special Olympics GB Summer Games in Leicester, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John; Carter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 the city of Leicester hosted the Special Olympics Great Britain National Summer Games. Around 2500 athletes with learning disabilities competed in 21 sports. This article argues that this sporting mega-event had important potential legacy consequences for the hosts, the governing body --Special Olympics Great Britain (SOGB)--and also for…

  2. OLYMPICS BRIEFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ceremony Tickets on Sale The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG) will start to receive applica- tions from domestic spectators for tick- ets to the opening and closing cere- monies of the Beijing Paralympic Games from December 10,BOCOG announced on December 3.

  3. Olympic Education and Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Hai

    2009-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Olympic education has received increasingly greater attention. It is not just Olympic host cities that have established specialized Olympic education prograrnmes across the board, but also non-host cities are developing Olympic education activities to different degrees. Olympic education has also become an important project in the Olympic preparatory work, and has been an important project in the preparations for the Beijing Olympics. How to understand Olympic education? There are many different ways of looking at it. This essay attempts to take the unique characteristics of Olympic education as a starting point to explore the important role played by issues of cross-cultural communication in Olympic education.

  4. Motivation and volunteer participation in the «Athens 2004» Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THEODOROS GEORGIADIS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research tackles the topic of motives as they are developed by volunteers –who offer time-consuming services without expecting any material gains– and specifically the Olympic Volunteers of «Athens 2004». Four hundred-thirty (N = 430 volunteers completed the Scale of Motives, that was adapted in Greek from the functional approach of Omoto et al. (1993 and Chacon et al. (1998, aiming mainly at the testing of the hypothesis that the motives of volunteers who have previous volunteering experience, but also of those who wish (or continue to volunteer after the completion the Olympic Games, will differ from the motives of those volunteers who have not volunteered in the past or who do not aim at providing voluntary work in the future. The results supported the hypothesis, while the modified Greek scale offered high internal consistencies and strong indications of validity. The future review and reapplication of the design of the adapted questionnaire of Motives will likely eliminate any potential weaknesses and will allow the scale to reach full applicability.

  5. Going for gold: blood planning for the London 2012 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, S M; Allard, S; Rackham, R; Doughty, H

    2014-06-01

    The Olympics is one of the largest sporting events in the world. Major events may be complicated by disruption of normal activity and major incidents. Health care and transfusion planners should be prepared for both. Previously, transfusion contingency planning has focused on seasonal blood shortages and pandemic influenzas. This article is the first published account of transfusion contingency planning for a major event. We describe the issues encountered and the lessons identified during transfusion planning for the London 2012 Olympics. Planning was started 18 months in advance and was led by a project team reporting to the Executive. Planning was based on three periods of Gamestime. The requirements were planned with key stakeholders using normal processes enhanced by service developments. Demand planning was based on literature review together with computer modelling. The aim was blood-stock sufficiency complimented by a high readiness donor panel to minimise waste. Plans were widely communicated and table-top exercised. Full transfusion services were maintained during both Games with all demands met. The new service improvements and high readiness donors worked well. Emergency command and control have been upgraded. Red cell concentrate (RCC) stock aged but wastage was not significantly increased. The key to success was: early planning, stakeholder engagement, service developments, integration of transfusion service planning within the wider health care community and conduct within an assurance framework.

  6. Mega-events, Local Economies, and Global Status: What Happened before the 2008 Olympics in Beijing and the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mega-events such as the World Cup and the Olympics have been used for economic development, urban transformation and global status enhancement. Beijing and Shanghai embraced these purposes when they won the bids for the 2008 Olympics and the 2010 World Expo respectively. This article examines the pre-event economic changes in Beijing and Shanghai that are associated with their pursuit of mega-events. Changes in a group of economic indicators are tracked from 1997 to 2006. It was found that after winning the bids for the Olympics and the World Expo, Beijing and Shanghai experienced greater growth in construction and tourism, a speeding-up in economic development and restructuring, and an improvement in physical infrastructure. However, the enhancement of global exposure was not accompanied by growth in foreign trade and in the finance, insurance and real estate (FIRE industries. The empirical analyses place the mega-events in large economic contexts and provide a base for future post-event studies.

  7. Changes in the Game Characteristics of a Badminton Match: A Longitudinal Study through the Olympic Game Finals Analysis in Men’s Singles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Laffaye, Michael Phomsoupha, Frédéric Dor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyze, through a longitudinal study, the Olympic Badminton Men’s singles finals from the Barcelona Games (1992 to the London Games (2012 to assess some changes of the Badminton game characteristics. Six Olympic finals have been analyzed based on the official video of the Olympic Games (OG through the temporal structure and with a notational approach. In total, 537 rallies and 5537 strokes have been analyzed. The results show a change in the game’s temporal structure: a significant difference in the rally time, rest time and number of shots per rally (all p<0.0001; 0.09 < η2 < 0.16. Moreover, the shot frequency shows a 34.0% increase (p<0.000001; η2 = 0.17, whereas the work density revealed a 58.2% decrease (from 78% to 30.8% as well as the effective playing time (-34.5% from 34.7±1.4% to 22.7±1.4%. This argues for an increase in the intensity of the game and a necessity for the player to use a longer resting time to recover. Lastly, the strokes distribution and the percentage of unforced and forced mistakes did not show any differences throughout the OG analysis, except for the use of the clear. This results impact on the way the training of Badminton players should be designed, especially in the temporal structure and intensity.

  8. [Modern methods application of genotyping of infectious diseases pathogens in the context of operational work of specialized anti-epidemic team during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzkin, B P; Kulichenko, A N; Volynkina, A S; Efremenko, D V; Kuznetsova, I V; Kotenev, E S; Lyamkin, G I; Kartsev, N N; Klindukhov, V P

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the experience of genotyping and sequencing technologies in laboratories of specialized anti-epidemic team (SAET) during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. The work carried out during the pre-Olympic period on performance of readiness by SAET for these studies is analyzed. The results of genotyping strains of pathogens during the Olympic Games are presented. A conclusion about the effectiveness of the use of molecular genetic techniques in terms of SAET is made.

  9. [FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF SANITARY-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE DURING THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION AND HOSTING OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI IN 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Kuzkin, B P; Guskova, A S; Ivanov, G E; Pakskina, N D; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Balaeva, M I; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Tesheva, S Ch; Daragan, Iu G; Parkhomenko, V V; Rafeenko, G K; Kulichenko, A N; Manin, E A; Maletskaia, O V; Vasilenko, N F; Efremenko, D V; Orobeĭ, V G; Eldinova, V E; Pilikova, O M; Malaĭ, V I; Iunicheva, Iu V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are presented the basic principles of the organization of activities for the assurance ofthe sanitary- epidemiological welfare in the period ofpreparation and hosting of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort City of Sochi. There are considered features of the organization ofepidemiological surveillance in the pre-Olympic period, the period of the games and the state of the morbidity rate in the region after the Olympics. There are presented data on certain directions of the work of organs and institutions of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare on the disease control of the event.

  10. Model-theoretic Optimization Approach to Triathlon Performance Under Comparative Static Conditions – Results Based on The Olympic Games 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fröhlich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Olympic-distance triathlon, time minimization is the goal in all three disciplines and the two transitions. Running is the key to winning, whereas swimming and cycling performance are less significantly associated with overall competition time. A comparative static simulation calculation based on the individual times of each discipline was done. Furthermore, the share of the discipline in the total time proved that increasing the scope of running training results in an additional performance development. Looking at the current development in triathlon and taking the Olympic Games in London 2012 as an initial basis for model-theoretic simulations of performance development, the first fact that attracts attention is that running becomes more and more the crucial variable in terms of winning a triathlon. Run times below 29:00 minutes in Olympic-distance triathlon will be decisive for winning. Currently, cycle training time is definitely overrepresented. The share of swimming is considered optimal.

  11. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games Olympic—Intelligence Centre: Lessons Learned from Working with the Olympic Sponsors and the Private Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Wilkinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reflective discussion that critically describes the role of the Olympic Intelligence Centre (OIC played in the delivery of a safe and secure London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. In particular, it examines how the OIC worked with the Olympic Sponsors and the wider private sector to provide them with the classified intelligence and information they needed to play their role in the safety and security operation effectively. Issues discussed include the cultural, statutory and systemic challenges that had to be overcome; how relationships were built to allay concerns and build trust and confidence; and the process that was put into place to allow the exchange of classified intelligence that supported the Sponsors and private sector in their operation. It details how the OIC worked with Sponsors to allow them in turn to exchange intelligence they held in their systems with the OIC, thus completing the intelligence cycle, enhancing the security operation. The article concludes with an outline of the lessons learned that were deduced through a reflective process and are offered to practitioners for consideration in future intelligence work involving the private sector.

  12. On Rise and Fall of the Ancient Olympic Games%古代奥林匹克运动会的盛衰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志刚

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料研究方法,对古代奥运会的神话与传说、古代奥运会的盛况、古代奥林匹克运动会的衰落、古代奥林匹克运动的特色进行了分析研究。以期以史为鉴,发展具有现代特色的新体育。%With the documentary study,this paper analyzes and researches the myth and legend of the ancient Olympic Games,the pomp of the ancient Olympic Games,the decline of the ancient Olympic Games and the ancient Olympic sports characteristics.Taking history as a mirror,new sports with modern characteristics should be developed.

  13. On the implications of a sex difference in the reaction times of sprinters at the Beijing Olympics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Lipps

    Full Text Available Elite sprinters offer insights into the fastest whole body auditory reaction times. When, however, is a reaction so fast that it represents a false start? Currently, a false start is awarded if an athlete increases the force on their starting block above a given threshold before 100 ms has elapsed after the starting gun. To test the hypothesis that the fastest valid reaction times of sprinters really is 100 ms and that no sex difference exists in that time, we analyzed the fastest reaction times achieved by each of the 425 male and female sprinters who competed at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. After power transformation of the skewed data, a fixed effects ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of sex, race, round and lane position. The lower bounds of the 95, 99 and 99.9% confidence intervals were then calculated and back transformed. The mean fastest reaction time recorded by men was significantly faster than women (p<0.001. At the 99.9% confidence level, neither men nor women can react in 100 ms, but they can react in as little as 109 ms and 121 ms, respectively. However, that sex difference in reaction time is likely an artifact caused by using the same force threshold in women as men, and it permits a woman to false start by up to 21 ms without penalty. We estimate that female sprinters would have similar reaction times to male sprinters if the force threshold used at Beijing was lowered by 22% in order to account for their lesser muscle strength.

  14. The Impact of Weather Forecasts of Various Lead Times on Snowmaking Decisions Made for the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics were held from 12 to 28 February 2010, and the Paralympic events followed 2 weeks later. During the Games, the weather posed a grave threat to the viability of one venue and created significant complications for the event schedule at others. Forecasts of weather with lead times ranging from minutes to days helped organizers minimize disruptions to sporting events and helped ensure all medal events were successfully completed. Of comparable importance, however, were the scenarios and forecasts of probable weather for the winter in advance of the Games. Forecasts of mild conditions at the time of the Games helped the Games' organizers mitigate what would have been very serious potential consequences for at least one venue. Snowmaking was one strategy employed well in advance of the Games to prepare for the expected conditions. This short study will focus on how operational decisions were made by the Games' organizers on the basis of both climatological and snowmaking forecasts during the pre-Games winter. An attempt will be made to quantify, economically, the value of some of the snowmaking forecasts made for the Games' operators. The results obtained indicate that although the economic value of the snowmaking forecast was difficult to determine, the Games' organizers valued the forecast information greatly. This suggests that further development of probabilistic forecasts for applications like pre-Games snowmaking would be worthwhile.

  15. Historical Contribution and Influence of Beijing Asian Games%北京亚运会的历史贡献及其影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉文

    2015-01-01

    采用文献资料法与历史研究法,对1990年北京亚运会的历史地位及作用进行了分析,目的在于更好地了解其历史影响。基于此,本文分析了1990年北京亚运会前中国所面临的国内外局势,阐述了中国申办和举办北京亚运会的初衷,在此基础上论述了申办也举办北京亚运会的重大意义:彰显了中国体育的巨大进步、强化了民族团结意识、显示了中国社会主义制度的优越性和改革开放的成就、展现了中国的新形象和实力、加强了中国与亚洲国家的联系,为申奥和举办奥运会做好了物质和思想上的准备。研究认为,中国体育的进步是中国全面进步的表征,可以说,北京亚运会不仅是在中华人民共和体育史上,而且在中华人民共和国史上也画上了浓重的一笔,伟大的中华民族朝着实现“中国梦”一步步踏实前进,在这个伟大的历史进程中,1990年北京亚运会做出了历史性的贡献并延续着其历史影响。%literature and historical research on the histori-cal status and role of the 1990 Beijing Asian Games were analyzed,aimed to better understand its historical influ-ence. Based on this,the paper analyzes the situation faced by Chinese at home and abroad before the 1990 Beijing Asian Games, and expounded China’s bid for the Asian Games held in Beijing in mind,on the basis of the bid al-so discussed the significance of the Asian Games held in Beijing:highlights great progress of Chinese sports, and strengthen the sense of national unity,showing the superi-ority of China’s socialist system and the achievements of reform and opening up, showing China’s new image and strength, strengthen links with Asian countries of China, and the Olympic Games for the Olympic bid ready on the substance and ideas. Studies suggest that China’s progress is the characterization of Chinese sports overall progress,it can be said,Beijing Asian Games is not only in the sports

  16. A profile of 2008 Olympic Taekwondo competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Perri, Giovanni; Soave, David

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of Olympic medal winners (gold, silver, bronze) who competed in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and compare these characteristics to those who competed but did not earn medals. We have also descriptively analysed the 2008 data in comparison to the 2004 data (Kazemi et al., 2009), and 2000 data (Kazemi et al., 2006) and summarized changes that were identified. This study as well as the last two studies did not find any statistically significant differences between winners and non-winners with regards to average age, weight, height and BMI. There are, however, some trends that were observed. Female winners were slightly younger, shorter, with greater BMI's versus non-winners. There was a significant decrease in frequency of warnings from 2004 to 2008. Unlike 2004, the 2008 Olympic Taekwondo competitors used more defensive kicks to score. These suggest a shift from aggressive tactics to score to a more conservative one.

  17. OL i Beijing - markedskræfternes sejr over moralen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    Despite the servere criticism against Beijing as host of the Olympic Games the number of influential state reprsentatives from various countries at the opening ceremony had never been larger. In view of the strong moral criticism of the problems with the human rights in China this is difficult...

  18. ISPO BEIJING 2012- Growth Trend Continues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    In the year of 2008, the Olympic Games were held in the city of Beijing for the first time in the country's history, marking the emergence of a new relationship between China and the sports industry, and resulting in a subsequent three years of fast developmenttowards an exciting sports business future. ISPO BEIJING 2012, which is scheduled to be held from February 22nd to 25th, 2012 at the China National Convention Center in Beijing, would once again offer the sports industrial fields a platform to seek their opportunities.

  19. Very-short range forecasting system for 2018 Pyeonchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ji-Eun; Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Minyou; Kim, Changhwan; Joo, Sangwon

    2016-04-01

    The 23rd Olympic Winter and the 13th Paralympic Winter Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea respectively from 9 to 25 February 2018 and from 9 to 18 February 2018. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the National Institute for Meteorological Science (NIMS) have the responsibility to provide weather information for the management of the Games and the safety of the public. NIMS will carry out a Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) and a Research and Development Project (RDP) which will be called ICE-POP 2018. These projects will focus on intensive observation campaigns to understand severe winter weathers over the Pyeongchang region, and the research results from the RDP will be used to improve the accuracy of nowcasting and very short-range forecast systems during the Games. To support these projects, NIMS developed Very-short range Data Assimilation and Prediction System (VDAPS), which is run in real time with 1 hour cycling interval and up to 12 hour forecasts. The domain is covering Korean Peninsular and surrounding seas with 1.5km horizontal resolution. AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, and radar radial winds are assimilated by 3DVAR on 3km resolution inner domain. The rain rate is converted into latent heat and initialized via nudging. The visibility data are also assimilated with the addition of aerosol control variable. The experiments results show the improvement in rainfall over south sea of Korean peninsula. In order to reduce excessive rainfalls during first 2 hours due to the reduced cycling interval, the data assimilation algorithm is optimized.

  20. Beijing’s Olympic Legacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAYNE; HICKSON

    2009-01-01

    In the very same way that Olympic athletes remain Olympians for the rest of their lives, Olympic cities are forever Olympic. And, in the eyes of the world, the deeds of the thousands upon thousands of athletes, organizers, volunteers and citizens of Beijing

  1. Effects of the Post-Olympics Driving Restrictions on Air Quality in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To reduce congestion and air pollution, 20% driving restriction, a license plate-based traffic control measure, has been implemented in Beijing since October 2008. While the long-term impacts of this policy remain controversial, it is important to understand how and why the policy effects of driving restrictions change over time. In this paper, the short- and long-run effects of the 20% driving restrictions in Beijing and the key factors shaping the effects are analyzed using daily PM10 pollution data. The results showed that in the short run, 20% driving restriction could effectively reduce ambient PM10 levels. However, this positive effect rapidly faded away within a year due to long-term behavioral responses of residents. A modified 20% restriction, designed to replace the original 20% restriction system since April 2009, which is less stringent and provides more possibility for intertemporal driving substitution, has shown some positive influence on air quality over the long run comparing with that under the original policy design. Temporarily, the more stringent the driving restriction was, the better effects it would have on air quality. In the long-run, however, the policy was likely to cause a vicious circle, and more stringent policy might induce stronger negative incentives which would result in even worse policy effects. Lessons learned from study of the effects of driving restrictions in Beijing will help other major cities in China and abroad to use driving restrictions more prudently and effectively in the future. Decision-makers should carefully consider the pros and cons of a transport policy and conduct the ex-ante and ex-post evaluations on it.

  2. Modeling study on the air quality impacts from emission reductions and atypical meteorological conditions during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Shuxiao; Liu, Xiaohuan; Cheng, Shuhui; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yaosheng; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Wenxing

    2011-04-01

    Understanding of the relative impacts of emission reductions and meteorological variations on air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics has an important policy implication. In this work, detailed process analyses and sensitivity simulations under different emission and meteorology scenarios were conducted using CMAQ and the Process Analysis tool to quantify the air quality benefits from emission reductions and meteorological variations in August 2008. The results indicate that emission-driven changes dominate surface concentration reductions of SO 2, NO 2, VOCs, daily maxima O 3 and PM 2.5 by -11% to -83%. The effect of meteorology-driven changes on species concentrations can be either ways (by -46% to 105%) at different locations. The dominant processes contributing to O 3, PM 2.5, SO 42-, NO 3-, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are identified. Gas-phase chemistry is a major process for O 3 production, and PM processes are dominant sources for PM 2.5 in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The reduced emissions weaken the source contributions of gas-phase chemistry to O 3 and those of PM processes to PM 2.5, with weaker vertical mixing processes and horizontal transport in the PBL. Compared with 2007, 2008 has a higher humidity, lower temperature and more precipitation that benefit O 3 reduction within the PBL, and a weaker vertical mixing that disbenefits reductions of all pollutants concentrations. Stronger process contributions of cloud processes (e.g., below- and in-cloud scavenging, and wet deposition) in 2008 help reduce concentrations of PM 2.5, NO 3-, and SOA, but they (e.g., aqueous-phase chemistry) enhance surface SO 42- concentrations. Smaller process contributions of aerosol processes help reduce the concentrations of SOA and SO 42- but enhance NO 3- and PM 2.5 in lower layers (1-6) due to the evaporation of NO 3-. The ratios of P O /P increase under the controlled simulation, indicating that the emission control actions enforced during the 2008

  3. Olympic Family Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Another option besides hotel Quoted prices for hotel stays in Beijing during the summer Olympics have jumped up by four to ten times higher than normal, said China's biggest online booking provider Ctrip.com International Ltd.

  4. Olympic village: discover all you need to knowabout the Olympic village

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This document provides information about the Olympic village of the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. The topics covered go from information on resident centre, the Olympic village policies, food and beverage, village transport, ceremonies to Village plaza and key contacts.

  5. Infectious diseases prioritisation for event-based surveillance at the European Union level for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulou, A; Kinross, P; Domanovic, D; Coulombier, D

    2014-04-17

    In 2012, London hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Games (the Games), with events occurring throughout the United Kingdom (UK) between 27 July and 9 September 2012. Public health surveillance was performed by the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Collaboration between the HPA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established for the detection and assessment of significant infectious disease events (SIDEs) occurring outside the UK during the time of the Games. Additionally, ECDC undertook an internal prioritisation exercise to facilitate ECDC’s decisions on which SIDEs should have preferentially enhanced monitoring through epidemic intelligence activities for detection and reporting in daily surveillance in the European Union (EU). A team of ECDC experts evaluated potential public health risks to the Games, selecting and prioritising SIDEs for event-based surveillance with regard to their potential for importation to the Games, occurrence during the Games or export to the EU/European Economic Area from the Games. The team opted for a multilevel approach including comprehensive disease selection, development and use of a qualitative matrix scoring system and a Delphi method for disease prioritisation. The experts selected 71 infectious diseases to enter the prioritisation exercise of which 27 were considered as priority for epidemic intelligence activities by ECDC for the EU for the Games.

  6. Analysis on Disease Distribution at Beijing 2008 Olympic Venues%2008年北京奥运会场馆疾病分布情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁学亚; 张爱萍; 陈维娜; 李梦圆; 吕超英; 沙马什; 戴建平; 王戎

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence and the variety of diseases at Olympic competition venues, non-competition venues and special control zones through the statistical analysis of medical data of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games.Methods The proportions of people contracting diseases among different groups, i.e. non-registered people, athletes, staff, media, VIPs and others were analyzed. At different venues the incidence proportions of diseases in cardiovascular system, stomatology, gastroenterolgy, ENT, respiratory system, surgery, neuropsychiatry, physical injury, genitourinary system and burns were calculated. And the disease spectrum and incidence proportions at specified venues were analyzed.Results (1) Among all groups of people involved in Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, the proportion of disease-contracting staff was the highest (44.83%) while that of VIPs the lowest (4.76%) so that the incidence proportions were different among different groups of people. (2) χ2=2427.803, (P<0.01)The statistical analysis of disease distribution indicates that people at different venues might contract different diseases. (3) The proportions of disease-contracting people at competition venues, non-competition venues, training venues and special control zones were 36.08%, 50.66%, 2.31% and 10.96% respectively, which was related to the number of people at a particular venue. (4) The incidence proportion of surgical diseases was quite high, especially maxillofacial and orthopedic diseases (orthopedic trauma) ranking as top 2 at all venues. Thus there should be surgeons at every venue, especially maxillofacial (for hockey) and orthopedic surgeons. At training venues, the number of people contracting E.N.T. diseases ranked No. 1, χ2=74.859 (P<0.01), compared with that of non-competition venues at No. 2. So the incidence proportion of ENT diseases was higher at training venues than at non-competition venues. The number of people contracting respiratory diseases was the largest in special

  7. Surface sediment chemistry in the Olympic Games 2004 Sailing Center (Saronikos Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. KARAGEORGIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the Olympic Games 2004 Sailing Center is planned in the Saronikos Gulf, in the area of Agios Kosmas. A multi-disciplinary base-line study was carried out to provide background levels of inorganic and organic pollutants before the construction. Two shallow reefs (water depth 2-3 m are the predominant features in the area’s underwater topography. The reef consists of solid rock formations and pebbles, whereas sandy sediments cover predominantly the remaining seabed. Some pockets of fine-grained sand were identified within the existing marina. Sedimentary heavy metal contents were found to be low, showing only slight heavy metal enrichment, attributed mainly to heavy mineral abundance in the area. A small enrichment for lead could be related to anthropogenic sources. Patterns of low concentrations were observed for organic carbon and organic nitrogen. Conversely, the sediment petroleum hydrocarbon content was found to be relatively high, implying anthropogenic pollution related to ship effluents and increased marine traffic.

  8. Development of 1D and 2D coupled model to simulate urban inundation: An application to Beijing Olympic Village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI WeiFeng; CHEN QiuWen; MAO JingQiao

    2009-01-01

    Urban inundation due to anomalous storms is a serious problem for many cities worldwide. Therefore, it is important to accurately simulate urban hydrological processes and efficiently predict the potential risks of urban floods for the improvement of drainage designs and implementation of emergency ac-tions. However, the complexity of urban landforma and the diversity of hydraulic infrastructure pose particular challenges for the simulation and risk assessment of urban drainage processes. This study developed a methodology to comprehensively simulate inundation processes by dynamically coupling 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models. By allowing the simultaneous solution of the processes of rainfall and runoff, urban drainage, and flooding, this method can be used to estimate the potential inundation risks of any designed drainage system. Furthermore, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based platform was fully integrated with the model engine to effectively illustrate the context of the problem. The developed model was then demonstrated on the Beijing 2008 Olympic Village under the conditions of the 5-year and 50-year design storms. The sewer discharge, channel discharge, and flood propaga-tion (inundation initiation, extent, depths, and duration) were numerically validated and analyzed. The results identified the potential inundation risks. From the study, it is found that the coupled GIS and 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models have the potential to simulate urban inundation processes, and hence efficiently predict flood risks and support cost-effective drainage design and management. It also im-plies promising prospects about the wide availability of high quality digital data, GIS techniques, and well-developed monitoring infrastructure to develop online urban inundation forecasts.

  9. French Olympics Topic Pack Games, Activities and Resources to Teach French

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaford, Priscilla

    2012-01-01

    The enthusiasm and excitement surrounding the Olympics makes it an ideal topic for teaching French. Not only will pupils learn the French words for sports, we also give you ideas to reinforce vocabulary and sentence structures for a range of topics, from colours and weather to numbers and travel. In addition, using the information on France at the Olympics included in the resource will help to cover the Intercultural Strand of the Framework for Modern Languages. The French Olympics Topic Pac...

  10. A healthy anniversary? Exploring narratives of health in media coverage of the 1968 and 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safai, Parissa

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly examining the tenuous relationship between participation in high performance sport and health, and yet IOC-sanctioned and popular discourse around the Olympics remains replete with references to the supposed healthfulness of the Games. Using the 1968 Mexico City Games and the 2008 Bejing Games as bookends, this paper explores national and international media coverage of athletic performance in relation to health and well-being. Three central narratives emerged: (1) pain, perseverance, and the pervasiveness of the "culture of risk" in high performance sport; (2) the performance imperative in the face of the challenges and anxieties of the environment; and (3) the presence and emerging sophistication of sports sciences/scientists in determining health.

  11. Weather modeling for hazard and consequence assessment operations during the 2006 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P.; Trigg, J. L.; Stauffer, D.; Hunter, G.; McQueen, J.

    2006-05-01

    Consequence assessment (CA) operations are those processes that attempt to mitigate negative impacts of incidents involving hazardous materials such as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosive (CBRNE) agents, facilities, weapons, or transportation. Incident types range from accidental spillage of chemicals at/en route to/from a manufacturing plant, to the deliberate use of radiological or chemical material as a weapon in a crowded city. The impacts of these incidents are highly variable, from little or no impact to catastrophic loss of life and property. Local and regional scale atmospheric conditions strongly influence atmospheric transport and dispersion processes in the boundary layer, and the extent and scope of the spread of dangerous materials in the lower levels of the atmosphere. Therefore, CA personnel charged with managing the consequences of CBRNE incidents must have detailed knowledge of current and future weather conditions to accurately model potential effects. A meteorology team was established at the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) to provide weather support to CA personnel operating DTRA's CA tools, such as the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) tool. The meteorology team performs three main functions: 1) regular provision of meteorological data for use by personnel using HPAC, 2) determination of the best performing medium-range model forecast for the 12 - 48 hour timeframe and 3) provision of real-time help-desk support to users regarding acquisition and use of weather in HPAC CA applications. The normal meteorology team operations were expanded during a recent modeling project which took place during the 2006 Winter Olympic Games. The meteorology team took advantage of special weather observation datasets available in the domain of the Winter Olympic venues and undertook a project to improve weather modeling at high resolution. The varied and complex terrain provided a special challenge to the

  12. 我国特奥运动的再发展%The Redevelopment of Special Olympics Games in Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳艳

    2012-01-01

    The intellectual disabled people are the special social groups, concerning with the intellectual disabled people is the inherent requirement to establish a harmonious society of people-centered. With the successful hosting the 2008 Shanghai Special Olympics World Games, Poster-Special Olympics World Games need the spreading and developing of the Special Olympics World Games. The thesis tries to concerning of intellectual disabled sports partieipadon, physical health, quality of life, social integration and "participation - upgrade - social integration", upgrading the quality of life to the intellectual di- sabled people, integrating them into the big society family.%智障人士是社会中的特殊群体,关注智障人士是构建以人为本的和谐社会的内在要求。08上海特奥会的成功举办,使人们进一步了解了这一特殊人群,更需要进一步推广和发展特奥运动。本文试图从“参与-提升-社会融合”的视角关注智障人士的体育参与、心理情感、生理健康、生活质量、社会融合和社会支持,切实提升智障人士的生活质量。真正让他们走出家庭、融入社会大家庭。

  13. Combined Ground and Space-Based Measurements of Air Quality during the London Olympic Games 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R. R.; Leigh, R. J.; Singh Anand, J.; McNally, M.; Lawrence, J.; Remedios, J.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    During July and August 2012 the Summer Olympic Games were held in London. During this period, unusually high levels of traffic and visitors to the city were expected, it is important to understand the effect this had on the air quality in London during this period. To this end three novel CityScan instruments were installed in London from the 20th July though to the end of September; affording the unique opportunity to monitor the spatial and vertical structure of nitrogen dioxide within the boundary layer in unprecedented detail. The deployment was included as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London) involving many other institutions and complementary measurement techniques. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which is has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95° field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5° below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1° per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. The first of the three CityScan instruments was located in North Kensington, the second in Soho and third

  14. The Olympic Collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Products bearing Beijing Olympics images are big business for China’s dedicated collectors As every December over last few years,retired teacher Li Mi in Beijing started to collect thick stacks of postcards sent by her former students from her mailbox in the weeks running up to the New Year.

  15. 奥林匹克运动会的内部结构性问题审视%Internal Structures of Olympic Games and Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪

    2015-01-01

    The literature study ,mathematical statistics and logical analysis showed that the problems facing the internal structures of the Olympic Games have influenced its healthy development .The competitive sports capacity of different countries were significantly different .Levels of competitive sports capacity of different continents were imbalanced .A same sports event was developed differently in different countries .The motive of each country for hosting the Olympic Games differed .In order to solve these problems ,development of various kinds of Olympic cultures should be encouraged . Education and the Olympic Games should be further integrated .The politicalization of each country's participation in or hosting the Olympic Games should be discouraged .Reform of the internal structures of the Olympic Games was needed .%奥运会面临的内部结构性问题日益危害其健康发展。主要表现为:不同国家竞技体育实力差异显著;洲际竞技体育发展水平的严重失衡;运动项目在各个国家发展水平差距巨大;不同国家对于参与或举办奥运会的动机分化严重等。以上述分析为基础提出改革建议:坚定奥运会的文化多元化发展方向,提升奥运会的文化包容性与多样性;使奥林匹克运动与教育进行深度融合;引导各国淡化参与或举办奥运会的政治色彩;对国际奥委会的内部治理结构进行适当改革等。

  16. Urban Great Events Marketing: From Flowing Space to Place Promotion:Case Study of Beijing Olympic Games%城市大事件营销:从流动空间到场所提升——北京奥运的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京祥; 陆枭麟; 罗震东; 王莉莉

    2011-01-01

    全球化营造了一个要素高度流动的竞争世界,城市更加关注于如何在流动世界中吸引和粘连各种发展要素,大事件营销成为大都市实现从流动空间到场所提升的重要途径.文章以北京为实证进行了研究,并指出大事件营销有可能导致的一些负面效应,对于这种高风险、短期性、外向型的城市增长策略,必须善加把握、谨慎运用,妥善处理各种关系.%Globalization has created a competitive world with high factor flow. City focuses more on how to attract and connect different development factors in the flowing world. Great event marketing has become an important way for the metropolis to realize promotion from flow space to place. With the case study of Beijing, this paper makes a study and points out that great event marketing could lead to some negative effects. With high risk, short-term and export-oriented characteristics, such an urban growth strategy should be well grasped and cautiously applied so as to deal with different relationships.

  17. On Trends and Distribution of China's Gold Medals in Olympic Games%我国奥运会金牌走向及项目分布特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁锋; 李晓华

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料、数据统计、归纳比较、聚类分析方法,对我国历届夏季奥运会和冬季奥运会金牌数、金牌项目分布以及获金牌运动员特征进行了研究,结果表明:我国共获得210枚奥运金牌,其中9枚冬季奥运会金牌,201枚夏季奥运会金牌,金牌总数呈上升趋势;辽宁、广东、湖北、北京与江苏等省市位列金牌榜前五位,新疆、青海、宁夏、海南、西藏、甘肃6省未获得奥运金牌;金牌项目主要集中在跳水、举重、体操、乒乓球、羽毛球、射击和短道速滑;技能主导类项群是我国奥运金牌的主要贡献者,尤其是表现难美性项目,其金牌贡献率达到30%;奥运金牌项目的区域分布呈现出强、较强和弱3个地带,不同纬度与经度的分布差异具有统计学意义,东西部竞技实力差距明显;女子获奥运金牌数多于男子,但“阴盛阳衰”的局面已在悄然改变。%By means of literature ,statistics ,induction and comparison ,system analysis ,our country in summer and Winter Olympic Games gold medal ,the gold medal project distribution and won the gold med-al athlete features have been studied .The results show that China won 210 gold medals in the Olympic Games ,9 Olympic gold medals and 201 Olympic gold medals ,the gold medal total upward trend;Liaon-ing ,Guangdong ,Hubei ,Beijing and Jiangsu ranked the top five gold medals list ,Xinjiang ,Qinghai , Ningxia ,Hainan ,Tibet ,Gansu six provinces is not to win an Olympic gold medal ;gold projects mainly in diving ,weightlifting ,gymnastics ,table tennis ,badminton ,shooting and short track speed skating ;skill-dominant category is the main contribution to China's Olympic gold medal ,especially difficulty-artistic project gold medal ,the contribution rate of 30% ;the regional distribution of the Olympic gold medal pro-ject showing a strong ,strong and weak three zones ,there are significant differences in

  18. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-08-02

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  19. Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGPEI

    2004-01-01

    As the nation's capital, Beijing hasunderstandably been positioned as China's political and cultural centel As the second largest economy among China's cities according to figures for 2003, Beijing also earns the title of an economic center. In the past two years Beijing has started to realize the indispensable value of finance for its overall economic development and set out to build a financial area in the city.

  20. Statistical Analysis on the Attack and Defense Techniques of World Men’ s Basket Teams in Recent Two Olympic Games%近两届奥运会男篮攻防技术的统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩庆波; 徐兰君

    2014-01-01

    Based on the statistical analysis on attack and defense techniques of men ’ s basketball in Beijing and London Olympic Games, the overall defense and attack quality has been improved in London Olympics comparing with the Olympics in Beijing , but the behavior of Chinese men ’ s basketball team fell significantly .Using factor and cluster analysis , the technical statistic index can be divided into 4 factors:offense factor , response factor , psychological factor and physical factor .The conclusion that those 4 fac-tors are the main factors determining the scores of a team can be made .In terms of the cluster analysis , the US team can be classi-fied as a group .However , the grouping of other teams varies in those two Olympics .Chinese team with some top European teams like Spanish team will be classifies as the same group because of their apparent similarities .Therefore, the urgent problems are that we should increase our communications with these top European teams , improve our own members ’ strength quality , and raise our technical and tactical capabilities under strong antagonistic conditions .%统计分析北京、伦敦两届奥运会男篮比赛相关攻防技术指标,伦敦奥运会男篮整体攻防质量较北京奥运会有了提高,中国男篮下滑明显。运用因子与聚类分析法检验分析所得数据,把相关技术指标分为:进攻因子、反应因子、心理因子和身体因子四个因子,得出这四个因子是决定球队成绩主要因子的结论。聚类分析结果:美国队独归为一类;其他队伍两届奥运会归类有所变化;中国队与以西班牙为代表的欧洲强队归为一类,相似特征明显。加强与欧洲强队学习交流,提高队员力量素质及在强对抗条件下自身的技战术发挥能力是我们急需解决的问题。

  1. Record Breaking Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the evening of August 8, the lighting of the Olympic cauldron in Beijing’s National Stadium marked the formal opening of the 29th Summer Olympic Games. From that moment on, the quest to jump higher, run faster and be stronger began

  2. The Inheritance Mechanism of Spiritual Legacy in the 2008 Beijing Olympics%2008北京奥运会精神遗产的传承机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊; 陈作松

    2012-01-01

    Based on sociology,psychology and communication theories,the study investigates the inheritance mechanism of spiritual legacy in Beijing Olympics.It concludes that the cultivation and inheritance of cultural legacy in Beijing Olympics is a kind of social action as well as a kind of social individual behavior.As a kind of social action,it is an interaction progress of three social control systems,which are the control and guidance of government macro regulation,the motivation and coordination of social organization,and the combination of social emotion respectively;as a kind of social individual behavior,there are three psychology processes that the attitude of social individual is transferred from obedience and identity to internalization.The three social control system and psychology processes having an interactive and coupling relationship,meanwhile,with the aid of culture,sports,education,media and so on,the Abstract spiritual legacy is transferred specific material form,behavior and standard so as to form the effective the inheritance mechanism of spiritual legacy in Beijing Olympics.%从社会学、心理学及传播学的角度出发,探讨了北京奥运会精神遗产的传承机制。研究认为:北京奥运会精神遗产的弘扬和传承既是一项社会行动,又是一种社会个体行为。做为一项社会行动,是政府宏观的控制与导向、社会组织机构的激励与协调、社会情感的融合三个社会控制系统互相作用的过程;做为一个社会个体行为,是社会个体的态度由服从、认同向内化转化的三个心理过程。三个社会控制系统与个体三个心理过程的互动耦合,同时借助文化、体育、教育和传媒等载体,将抽象的精神遗产转化为具体的物质形态、行为和规范,从而形成有效的北京奥运会精神遗产传承机制。

  3. Research on the Interaction of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games and the Nanjing Sports Tourism%2014年青奥会与南京市体育旅游的互动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱顺强

    2012-01-01

    With the continuous development of sports tourism at home and abroad as well as sporting events has become increasingly prominent role in promoting host tourism,organizing events has become the countries,cities important historical opportunity to enhance the tourism brand image.In recent years,China's sports tourism is gradually on the rise and hosting major sports events have become increasingly frequent,especially in the 2008 Beijing Olympics,setting off the boom of the tourism development of major sports events.The 2014 Youth Olympic Games will is another international event after the Olympic Games in Beijing will be a good opportunity for the development of sports tourism in Nanjing.In this paper,the analysis of large-scale events sports tourism and sports tourism resources in Nanjing advantage,combined with the actual situation of the Nanjing feasibility of the program in order to provide some reference for the development of sports tourism in Nanjing.%随着国内外体育旅游的不断发展以及体育赛事对举办地旅游推动作用的日益凸显,举办大型赛事已经成为各国、各城市提升旅游品牌形象的重要历史机遇。近年来,我国体育旅游逐渐兴起与举办大型体育赛事的日益频繁,尤其是2008年北京奥运会的举办,掀起了我国大型体育赛事旅游发展的热潮。而2014年南京青奥会将是继北京奥运会之后的又一次国际性赛事,对南京的体育旅游发展来说将是很好的契机。本文通过分析大型赛事对体育旅游的影响及南京体育旅游资源的优势,结合南京实际情况提出可行性方案,以期为南京体育旅游的发展提供一些参考。

  4. The Analysis of the Technical and Tactical Characteristics of Men's Badminton Doubles finals in recent two Olympic Games%近两届奥运会羽毛球男双决赛技战术特征对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛白; 邹国忠

    2012-01-01

    London Olympic Games has already ended,Chinese badminton players got five gold medals,meanwhile,Chinese reached the peak of badminton history.With the shadow of failure in Beijing Olympic Games,the gold medal that Cai Yun and Fu Haifeng got carries more weight.Through the methods of literature study and video observation,mathematical statistics,the essay studied the men's badminton doubles finals in Beijing and London Olympic Games and made comparative analysis of the technical and tactical characteristics and the feagure of combination of the players.The author provided reference for improving athletes' technical and tactical characteristics and also provided lessons for pairing and combination of different tachnical types of men's badmintion doubles players.%伦敦奥运会已经落下了帷幕,中国羽毛球勇夺五金,达到了历史的巅峰。在北京奥运会失利的阴影下,蔡赟傅海峰的男子双打金牌则显示出了相当重的分量。本文通过文献资料法,录像观察法,数理统计法等对北京奥运会和伦敦奥运会中的羽毛球男子双打决赛进行了研究,对比赛选手的技战术以及组合特征进行了对比分析,为进一步提高运动员的技战术水平提供了参考,同时也为羽毛球不同技术类型男子双打运动员进行配对组合提供借鉴。

  5. 青奥会青年志愿者的价值与意义%the Value of Student Volunteers of the Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雅男

    2012-01-01

    Youth Olympic Games (The Youth Olympic Games, YOG) is a aims to let young people by The Olympic values education, from The movement of The harvest healthy life style and The establishment of The sports events. Mr Green wi U need a lot of volunteers for the service, young students is green Olympic host, student volunteers play an important rol e as youth Olympic successfully held one of the important conditions. They participate in green Olympic volunteer activity, eye-opening, growth talents, to show themselves, in addition to giving play to their own skill, also provide service for ot hers besides.%青少年奥林匹克运动会(TheYouthOlympicGames,YOG)是一项旨在让青年们受到奥林匹克价值教育,从运动中收获健康生活方式而设立的体育赛事。青奥会需要大量的志愿者为其服务,青年学生们是青奥会的主人,学生志愿者发挥着重要的作用,成为青奥会成功举办的重要条件之一。他们在参加青奥会志愿活动中,开阔眼界、增长才干、展示自我,除了发挥自己的一技之长之外,也为他人提供服务。

  6. Terrorism and the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-02

    Resources • In-Transit • Infrastructure • Intelligence • International Entry • Legal Issues • Military Affairs • Paralympics • Private Security...affect the general public’s safety and general welfare during the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic games. A threat carried out that disrupts critical...infrastructure before, during or after the 2002 Winter Olympic and/or Paralympic Games will impact Utah and the nation! The old question…is it a matter

  7. The People’s Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The honor of being part of the first-ever Chinese Olympic Games has spurred enormous enthusiasm Atotal ofhalf a million volunteers are needed to host the Olympic Games in China next year, but organizers will still have to turn many people away because of

  8. Stennis hosts 2010 Special Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sarah Johnson, 28, of Gulfport, carries in the Olympic torch to signal the start of the 2010 Area III Special Olympic games at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on March 27. Stennis volunteers hosted special needs athletes from across the area for the event. Stennis is an annual host of the games.

  9. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  10. A follow-up study on the degree of satisfaction regarding environment, life style and the coming Olympic events in the inhabitants living in the typical communities of Beijing%北京市典型社区居民对环境与生活满意度和举办奥林匹克运动会满意度的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衡; 马军; 宋逸; 李研; 宗树亭; 肖峰; 陈博文

    2008-01-01

    condition and on Olympic events. Results The top 4 aspects with the highest satisfaction rates were "overall rates of satisfaction on current life" "green space", "housing conditions" and "water quality", which were 50.43 %, 48.59 %,38.95 %, 37.08 %, respectively. Residents' satisfaction on "impact of hosting the Olympic Games on China' s international image", "China' s economic development level", "living conditions" and "personal life" were 65.53 %, 56.09 %, 47.27 %, 46.40 %, respectively. Data from partial correlation analysis showed that the total scores of satisfaction on environment and life had positive correlation with the total scores of Olympic satisfaction ( P < 0.05). The satisfaction degree on Olympic event through factor analysis showed that 10 entries of the Olympic impact could be reflected by two factors -- the influence of image to the nation and impact on personal income. Logistic regression showed that the impact of Olympic Games on personal income, the impact of Olympic Games on the image of the nation and standard of living, gender,education level were independent influencing factors of the total scores of environment and life satisfaction (P < 0.05). Conclusion Other than "green space", most of health-related environment components of Beijing had low degree of satisfaction among inhabitants from the 'typical' communities in Beijing.However, residents had a higher degree of satisfaction on the impact of the Olympic Games to the country's image, the country's economic development level, the environment and personal standard of living.

  11. Sexual Orientation, Human Rights, and Corporate Sponsorship of the Sochi Olympic Games: Rethinking the Voluntary Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Van Detta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-national enterprises (MNEs have provided substantial sponsorship for the Sochi Winter Olympic Games despite a host-country government that has recently enacted stunningly harsh legislation aimed at the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI communities within Russia. This is a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR problem. Should Europe address it through voluntary corporate compliance, Europe’s historically preferred mode of promoting CSR? Or should Europe reconsider whether it can more effectively promote CSR compliance legislatively – and if so, by what kind of legislation? To honor the explicit and increased protections of human rights against sexual orientation discrimination in the Treaty of Amsterdam and the Charter of Fundamental Human Rights, more than voluntary, good intentions are needed. Particularly since the United States has effectively bowed out of enforcing CSR through the American federal courts, there now exists a regulatory lacuna that the European Commission is best situated to fill through the precision offered by judicious rulemaking. The article ultimately proposes an approach that combines the public-pressure engine that fuels voluntary CSR with public disclosures mandated by law to optimize the information and mobilization of public opinion and pressure – factors particularly noteworthy given the powerful “branding” benefits that MNEs seek through Olympic sponsorship.

  12. Vibration test and analysis of Laoshan bicycle gymnasium for the Olympic Games under multi-support excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The vibration tests of Laoshan bicycle gymnasium for the Olympic Games are performed under multi-support excitations in order to verify the effectiveness of multi-support time history method. The excitation sources come from the impact forces acting on the ring beam of the reticulated structure, on the basis of which the records of motions of each excited point and corresponding structural vibration responses are all collected. The theoretical analytical model of the structure is further established and the structural dynamic responses are obtained subjected to the same excitation case via multi-support time history method. The calculation results are generally in agreement with those of the test in both time domain and frequency domain, which verify the effectiveness of multi-support time history method. The vibration test can also provide references for long-span structures under multi-support excitations.

  13. Sex equity in French newspaper photographs: A content analysis of 2012 Olympic Games by L'Equipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Nicolas; Testard, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine sex equity in the photographic coverage of the London 2012 Olympic Games by a French sports daily newspaper. A sample of 1073 photographs was collected and analysed. A content analysis was carried out focusing on the number of photographs, the space they cover, their location and position, the type and colour of shot and the sport they depict. A significant under-representation of female athletes' photographs was found. However, contrary to most of previous research in this field, the other quantitative and qualitative variables do not show any differences. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the number of photographs for each sport and the number of French medals was found (for women, for men and for the whole sample), suggesting that the photographic coverage of this event is mainly based on the success of French athletes independently of their sex.

  14. The thrill of victory and the agony of defeat: spontaneous expressions of medal winners of the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Willingham, Bob

    2006-09-01

    Facial behaviors of medal winners of the judo competition at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games were coded with P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen's (1978) Facial Affect Coding System (FACS) and interpreted using their Emotion FACS dictionary. Winners' spontaneous expressions were captured immediately when they completed medal matches, when they received their medal from a dignitary, and when they posed on the podium. The 84 athletes who contributed expressions came from 35 countries. The findings strongly supported the notion that expressions occur in relation to emotionally evocative contexts in people of all cultures, that these expressions correspond to the facial expressions of emotion considered to be universal, that expressions provide information that can reliably differentiate the antecedent situations that produced them, and that expressions that occur without inhibition are different than those that occur in social and interactive settings.

  15. Olympic Medals for 2008 Beijing Games%奥运奖牌之秘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈未

    2008-01-01

    @@ 当奥运火炬在神州大地接力传递,一座又一座城市响起"中国加油!"、"我们准备好了!"的时候,2008年第29届国际奥林匹克运动会走进了中国. 是的,中国准备好了.本文要介绍的,就是中国为这次奥运准备的最高荣誉--全世界独一无二"金镶玉"奖牌的诞生之秘.

  16. The second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China: preparing youth athletes to compete in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Joao Brito,1 Sebastien Racinais,2 George P Nassis,1,3 1National Sports Medicine Programme, Excellence in Football Project, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 2Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, Aspetar – Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece  All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: The second Summer Youth Olympic Games will take place August 16–28, 2014 in Nanjing, People's Republic of China during the peak of the summer. Nanjing has been reported as one of the hottest cities in the People's Republic of China, with temperatures reaching as high as 40°C. There is limited clinical evidence of the real risks that youth athletes face when training and competing in the heat, but some recommendations can be made. The estimated average wet bulb globe temperature for Nanjing in August is 32°C, which has been classified as a very high risk/stop play condition for heat illness and injury. Training and competing under extreme heat conditions could stress the thermoregulatory system and adversely affect health and performance. However, current guidelines appear to be inadequate or too conservative, and mostly focus on adult elite athletes. Therefore, proper preventive measures are warranted to reduce the risks of heat illness and injury. With proper heat acclimatization and monitoring, youth athletes can exercise reasonably well and safely in the heat. During the second Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, People's Republic of China, special attention should be devoted to athletes exposed to long and extensive sunny and hot conditions. Keywords: youth sports, heat acclimatization, thermoregulation

  17. Research on the acid rain under the short-term environment control measures of the Youth Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Qing, W.; Chen, Y.; Peng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Northern China emits the most part of acid pollution of the whole nation but turns out to be in a light acid precipitation extent. Research shows that it is the carbonate particles from dust that neutralize the acid in the rainfall. Construction in southern China becomes more and more active so that alkaline dusts from construction are receiving an increasing attention. Nanjing hosts the Youth Olympic Games in 2015 and implements a strict plan to control the emission of construction dust. Thus, The Youth Olympic Games provides a good opportunity to analyze the neutralization of alkaline dusts emitted from construction in Nanjing. Experiment is conducted by collecting the total of rainfall events from June to September in 2015, besides, TSP (total suspended particles) before and after each rainfall events is collected due to find the collaboration with rainfall. Ca2+,Mg2+,K+,Na+,Sr2+,F-,Cl-,SO42-,NO3- concentrations in rain water and water soluble fraction of TSP are analyzed using ICP-OES and ICS in Nanjing University. Results showed that Ca2+and SO42- makes the major part of total ions, indicating the fact that Nanjing is suffering from a severe acid rainfall and alkaline dusts which mainly consist of Ca2+ neutralize a large number of acid particles. pH of rainfall has a good correlation with the flux of TSP. pH of rainfall keeps falling as the YOG plan starts and picking up after the YOG, which indicates that the declination of artificial alkaline dust in TSP reduces the neutralization on the acid rainfall.

  18. 棒球退出奥运会比赛的现状分析%Analysis of baseball withdraw from the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2012-01-01

    From the London Olympic Games start, baseball is no longer an official Olympic sport. October 7, 2005, the International Olympic Committee should be international bar group requirements, announced the Singapore all the project Settings the vote, baseball project for 50 ticket support, 54 votes against to 4 vote short been ruled out of the London 2012 Olympics. Similarly, baseball missed the 2016 Olympics, these decided to give the world baseball sports development brought serious challenges.Why did the International Olympic Committee this decision? The author through widely data access, baseball games out reason of discussion and analysis, and carries on the induction and summary.%从伦敦奥运套开始,棒球不再是奥运会正式比赛项目。2005年10月7日,一际奥委会应国际棒联的要求,公布了新加坡全全项目设置投票结果,棒球项目因50票支持、54票反对,以4票之差被排除出2012年伦敦奥运会。同样,棒球无缘2016年奥运会,这些决定给世界棒球运动的发展带来了严峻的挑战。为什么国际奥委会做出这一决定,作者通过广泛地查阅资料,就棒球退出奥运会的原因进行探讨和分析,并进行归纳和总结。

  19. Research on Ability of Elite Guards in the 29th Olympic Games Basketball Competition%第29届奥运会男篮比赛中外优秀后卫进攻能力比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹贻伟

    2011-01-01

    By the 29th Beijing Olympic Games men's basketball game in all the analysis data and field performance of the competition,summary and match the technical characteristics of guard members,combined with strong outside China Basketball weak in reality,to identify the Chinese Men's Basketball Guards and the gap between the world's best for the future training of our men's basketball reference offensive guard,and promote China Basketball Offensive Guard standards.%通过对第29届北京奥运会中国男篮参与的全部比赛的分析,根据比赛数据和现场表现,总结与赛队后卫队员的技术特征,结合中国男篮内强外弱的实际,找出中国男篮后卫与世界优秀后卫之间的差距,为今后我国男篮后卫的进攻训练提供参考,促进我国男篮后卫进攻水平的提高。

  20. The Age in Swimming of Champions in World Championships (1994–2013 and Olympic Games (1992–2012: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Knechtle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: We investigated the age of swimming champions in all strokes and race distances in World Championships (1994–2013 and Olympic Games (1992–2012; (2 Methods: Changes in age and swimming performance across calendar years for 412 Olympic and world champions were analysed using linear, non-linear, multi-level regression analyses and MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP; (3 Results: The age of peak swimming performance remained stable in most of all race distances for world champions and in all race distances for Olympic champions. Longer (i.e., 200 m and more race distances were completed by younger (-20 years old for women and -22 years old for men champions than shorter (i.e., 50 m and 100 m race distances (-22 years old for women and -24 years old for men. There was a sex difference in the age of champions of -2 years with a mean age of -21 and -23 years for women and men, respectively. Swimming performance improved in most race distances for world and Olympic champions with a larger trend of increase in Olympic champions; (4 Conclusion: Swimmers at younger ages (<20 years may benefit from training and competing in longer race distances (i.e., 200 m and longer before they change to shorter distances (i.e., 50 m and 100 m when they become older (>22 years.

  1. Analysis on Successful Experience of Singapore Youth Olympic Games and Enlightenment to Nanjing Youth Olympic Games%新加坡青奥会成功经验分析以及对南京青奥会的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振宇

    2014-01-01

    第二届南京青奥会将于2014年举行,这对于提升南京的城市形象,弘扬中国文化具有不可估量的意义。首届新加坡青奥会作为“开路先锋”为我们作了很好的示范,其成功经验也值得我们借鉴。在此基础上,如何最大限度地发挥南京资源优势,创新打造一个具有中国---南京风格的青奥会是本篇论文要研究探讨的。%The second Nanjing Youth Olympic Games will be held in 2014, of inestimable significance for enhan-cing the image of the city of Nanjing , and the promotion of Chinese culture .Inaugural Singapore Youth Olympic Games as a “pioneer”, We made a very good demonstration , in view of its successful experience worthy of our study.Therefore, maximize resource advantages of Nanjing , innovate and go beyond the first Youth Olympic Games to create a style China -Nanjing Youth Olympic Games is just around the corner .

  2. Olympijské hry jako kulturní událost The Olympic Games as a cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdan Savić

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Olympijské hry se staly událostí zahrnující mnoho sportů, která zaměstnává nejen sportovce z různých zemí, ale také milióny diváků z celého světa. Z hlediska veřejného zájmu tedy převyšují jakoukoliv jinou sportovní nebo kulturní událost. Z iniciativy několika málo zemí a malého počtu sportovců se vyvinul historický fenomén dnešní civilizace, odehrávající se na určeném místě, s vlastními soutěžícími, nabídkou a pravidly. Olympijské hry vyjadřují ideologii různých národů na jediném místě, ideologii náboženství, zvyků, tradic, jazyků nebo obecně kultur. Probíhá při nich masová komunikace mezi soutěžícími a zbytkem celého světa. Sociální, vědecký, sportovně-technický a politický vývoj otevřel sportu jako sociálně-kulturnímu jevu široké obzory a sport se stal obecně prospěšným. Olympijských her se dnes účastní více než sto devadesát zemí. Sportovci a rozhodčí pocházejí z různých sociálních prostředí, což bylo v době, ve které hry vznikly, něco nepředstavitelného. Přesto je sociální komunikace mezi mladými lidmi celého světa v rámci této grandiózní události významným prvkem dnešních olympijských her. Můžeme při nich sledovat mistrovské sportovní výkony i setkávání mladých lidí bez ohledu na ideologii, rasu a náboženství. Právě to činí hry mimořádně krásnými a významnými. Autoři výzkumu se snažili podat podrobnější vysvětlení důležitých kulturních aspektů olympijských her a ukázat jejich sociální kontext. The Olympic Games have become a multi sport event, which entertains not only athletes from different countries, but a world wide audience numbering millions. They therefore exceed any other sports or cultural event when it comes to matters of public interest. Deriving from the initiative of a few countries and a small number of athletes, a historically significant phenomenon

  3. The Olympic Games--网络环境下的英语阅读教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋焘

    2004-01-01

    @@ 教学目标设计 认知目标: 1.学生对The Olympic Games有全面了解. 2理解并记忆与奥运有关知识. 能力目标: 1.学生学会收集整理和积累课外知识,能充分利用网络资源.

  4. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  5. 北京市顺义区涉奥场所淋浴热水及中央空调冷却塔水嗜肺军团菌污染调查%Investigation of Water Contamination of Cooling Towers of Centralized Air Conditioning and Shower Caused by Legionella Pneumophila in Olympics-related Places in Shunyi District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞霞; 刘晓涛; 荆洪波; 梁和平; 甄国新; 黄晓凤; 谈敦芳

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]To ensure the Beijing Olympic Games holding harmoniously and successfully, to provide healthy and safe public places for the world's athletes and guests, and provide technical guidance for health security in Shunyi District during the Olympic Games.[Methods]Shunyi Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) investigated shower hot water and central air conditioning cooling water samples from 8 Olympic related public places in July 11 to August 8, 2008. According to appendix A.1, methods for detecting of Legionella pneumophila, of Beijing local standards, BDI 1/485-2007 "Health Management Norms of Central Air Conditioning Ventilation System in Public Places," legionella pneumophila was detected whether existed in water samples.[Results]In all 6 hot water samples, 2 samples were detected legionella, the detection rate was 33.3%; and 2 of l 8 cooling water samples was positive, the detection rate was 11.1%.[Conclusion]Legionella contamination exists in central air-conditioning cooling water and shower hot water in Shunyi district, it is proposed to strengthen the monitoring of legionella in the environmental water.%目的 为了保障北京奥运会和谐、顺利举办,向中外运动员及宾客提供安全卫生的公共场所,为顺义区奥运卫生保障提供技术指导.方法 顺义区疾病预防控制中心于2008年7月11日-8月12日对顺义区8家涉奥公共场所的淋浴热水及中央空调冷却水水样进行调查.依据北京市地方标准BD 11/485-2007附录A.1空调系统冷却(凝)水中嗜肺军团菌检验方法,对水样中的军团菌进行检测.结果 共采集淋浴热水6件,2件检出嗜肺军团菌,检出率为33.3%;采集冷却水18件,2件检出嗜肺军团菌,检出率为11.1%.结论 顺义区中央空调冷却塔水及生活热水中存在军团菌污染,建议加强对环境水中军团菌的监测.

  6. Jogos olímpicos da era moderna: uma proposta de periodização Olympic games of modern era: a proposal of periodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Rubio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os Jogos Olímpicos da Era Moderna foram recriados por Pierre de Coubertin e tiveram sua primeira edição no ano de 1896. Respeitando o calendário grego, no qual foi espelhado, os Jogos de Olímpicos de Verão realizam-se de quatro em quatro anos, período de uma Olimpíada, e atravessaram o século XX sofrendo de perto toda intensa dinâmica de um momento histórico marcado por profundos conflitos sociais de ordem mundial. A partir da análise desses momentos, é possível observar as transformações vividas pelo Movimento Olímpico. A partir de então, pretende-se nesse artigo discutir e caracterizar esses momentos históricos propondo uma periodização para os Jogos Olímpicos. Intenta-se com isso criar parâmetros de análise para os acontecimentos olímpicos a partir de seu contexto histórico-socialThe Olympics of the modern age have been recreated by Pierre de Coubertin and its first edition was in 1896. Respecting the Greek calendar, which was mirrored, the Summer Olympic Games are held every four years, during the Olympics, and went through the XX Century were influenced to the dynamics of a historical moment marked by deep social conflicts world order. From the analysis of these moments, it was possible to observe the changes experienced by the Olympic Movement. Thereafter, we intend to discuss in this article and characterize these historical moments proposing a timeline for the Olympics. The intention of this was to create analysis parameters for the Olympic events from their historical and social context

  7. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Codeço

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016. We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016.

  8. “The Olympic Torch Burns, and Great Suspicion Blazes” – China Narratives in the German Media during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing 2008 „Das olympische Feuer brennt. Und mit ihm lodert das Misstrauen“ – Die Chinaberichterstattung während der Olympischen Sommerspiele in Beijing 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poerner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the description of China in leading German daily and weekly newspapers during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. On the basis of a brief outline of the main China narratives in German media since the 1950s, this paper analyses China-related articles which were published during the period August 8-15, 2008. It argues that reports on China are mostly based on well established German notions of China and centre around the image of a despotic and/or dangerous China. Therefore, they primarily refer back to the source culture and contain little information of value regarding the target culture. Der Autor untersucht die China-Darstellung in führenden deutschen Tages- und Wochenzeitungen während der Sommer-Olympiade 2008 in Peking.

  9. Comparative Analysis on Classiifcation Management between Beijing and London Paralymic Games%伦敦残奥会与北京残奥会分级管理的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莹; 常肖雯

    2015-01-01

    分级是开展残疾人体育竞赛的基础。相比北京残奥会,伦敦残奥会的分级管理残疾类别、分级标准和工作程序及方法上都有了诸多改进,例如吸引更多类别的残疾运动员参赛、重视功能变化、残健融合日渐突出、更多的运动员将在赛前获得级别等等。对此应当认真关注、研究并予以借鉴,通过制定国内分级纲领性文件、壮大分级员队伍、增强分级手段、规范分级工作等具体措施对我国残疾人体育运动分级管理进行改进。%The classification is the basis for disabled sports competition. This article compared the classification management in London Paralympic Games with that in Beijing. Compared with Beijing, London Paralympic Games improved the disability classification rules and management process;for example, attracting more athletes from different disability categories;emphasis on athlete’s functional assessment; integration of Paralympic and Olympic Games;and more athletes getting their classifications before the Games, etc. China should learn these experiences to improve the standardization of disability classification management, in terms of establishing classification regulations, enhancing classification means and inspection methods;developing a regulated and skillful team of assessment classifiers, in order to promote development of China's sports undertakings for disabilities.

  10. Matrix Game Methodology - Support to V2010 Olympic Marine Security Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    general nature on the methodology and its characteristics that may help in deciding under what circumstance Matrix Games can be most usefully employed...beneficial. As further iterations of the game were run, and participants became more comfortable, and interaction happened more naturally . The...A morning television news report indicates that the security fence around False Creek has been breached overnight when a kayaker infiltrated the

  11. Olympic participation and performance since 1896

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We analyze the decision to participate and Olympic performance at the country level. We use an unbalanced panel of 118 countries over 24 editions of the Olympic Summer Games. The main focus of the paper is on economic, geographic and demographic explanations of Olympic participation and suc

  12. 南京青奥会举办的价值与意义探析%On the Value and Significance of the Nanj ing Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章茹

    2013-01-01

    运用文献资料、综合分析等研究方法,从分析青奥会的目标与特点出发,探究南京青奥会的现实价值与教育意义有:强化我国青少年民族精神与民族意识;增进全世界青少年之间的交流与合作;强化对青少年的人文精神教育和奥林匹克文化教育;推动奥林匹克运动的可持续发展,创新奥林匹克运动发展平台;拉动南京城市发展,与青奥共成长。并提出践行青奥会价值的策略与建议为:加强青少年崇尚民族精神的坚定性和实践性;搭建广大青少年沟通文化与友谊的平台;加强奥林匹克文化和人文精神教育;营造奥林匹克运动可持续发展的氛围。%By the methods of literature review and comprehensive analysis and upon analysis of the target and characteristics of the Youth Olympic Games,the essay explores the practical value and educational sig-nificance of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games,that is,to sharpen the national spirit and the national con-sciousness of the young Chinese,to enhance the communication and cooperation of the teenagers all over the world,to strengthen the education of the teenagers in humanistic spirit and the Olympic culture,to promote the sustainable development and innovation of the Olympic movement,and to promote the devel-opment of Nanjing as well as the Games.It also puts forward the strategies and suggestions to practice the value of the Youth Olympic Games.

  13. Evaluation of food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic Games: the opinion of sports nutrition experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni; Burkhart, Sarah J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of post-competition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.

  14. Post-Olympics Bubble Unlikely

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Olympic Games will generate enormous business opportunities and facilitate a major face-lift for China. However, some countries have experienced an economic recession after hosting the world’s largest sports event. This phenomenon has been termed the

  15. 论奥林匹克运动与社会经济的双向驱动关系%On Inter -driving Relation between Olympic Games and Social Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传友

    2015-01-01

    The thesis analyses the inter -driving relation between Olympic Games and social economy with the method of literature.Modern society has provided the economical foundation for Olympic Games,while Olympic Games greatly promoted social economy.Hosting Olympic Game is not only an opportunity for the host country to show the world her political,economical and social achievements,but also promotes domestic harmonious development and social stability.Only when this relation is clearly understood,can the economic development of a country be promoted by taking the opportunity of Olympic economy.%本文采用文献法分析了奥林匹克运动与社会经济的关系。现代社会提供了奥林匹克运动所需要的经济基础,奥林匹克运动对社会经济具有极大的促进作用。举办奥运会不仅是举办国向世人展示政治、经济和社会发展成就的一次契机,而且通过奥运会,可促使国家和谐发展和社会稳定。只有正确认识这一关系,才能以奥运经济为契机,促进本国的经济发展。

  16. Beijing, Beijing!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ "There is a saying about Beijing,it goes:she is the lover,the mother of everyone.It seems that Beijing possess this magical attraction to everyone coming to her".Everyone,living in Beijing or even spent some moments here,keeps a vivid picture of Beijing in their eyes and hearts.Now,let's listen to what they would like to say about this city.

  17. Clinical conditions and outcomes of medical patients cared at the Polyclinic of Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Village%北京奥运村暨残奥村综合诊所内科患者病情及转归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东; 范洪伟; 吴炜; 高凤莉; 马遂

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析北京奥运会暨残奥会运动员村医疗服务特点,为今后大型集会的医疗服务提供借鉴.方法 回顾性分析奥运会(2008年7月27日至8月27日)及残奥会(2008年8月29日至9月19日)运动员村综合诊所内科就诊患者资料,进行单因素和多因素分析.结果 奥运会期间综合诊所内科共接诊患者1537例,残奥会1206例.残奥会运动员患者比例显著高于奥运会(14.2%比9.8%,P<0.01).奥运会共接诊775例(50.4%)急性呼吸道疾病,其中哮喘16例(1.0%);残奥会接诊686例(56.9%),其中哮喘8例(0.7%).奥运会和残奥会接诊患者分别有149例(9.7%)和162例(13.4%)应用抗生素.奥运会12例(0.8%)患者住院,残奥会4例(0.3%).年龄≥55岁(OR值5.3,95%C/1.4~19.6)和患消化系统疾病(OR值9.5,95%CI 2.5~36.4)是住院的独立危险因素.结论 呼吸道疾病是综合诊所内科最常见的就诊原因,哮喘没有对运动员造成较大影响.抗生素的使用得到了较好的控制.高龄患者和消化道疾病患者病情相对较重,今后大型集会医疗服务应予以关注.%Objective To investigate clinical service delivered at the Polyclinic of Beijing 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Village and outcomes of the medical patients visited there.to provide experiences in medical care service for other mass-gatherings in the future.Methads Clinical data of all the medical patients evaluated at the Polyclinic during July 27 to August 27 and during August 29 to September 19,2008 were reviewed retrospectively.with univariate and multivariate analyses.Results In total.1537 and 1206 medical patients visited the Polyclinic at the Olympic and Paralympic Village,respectively.Proportion of athletes visited was hisher during the Paralympic Games than that during the Olympic Games(14.2% vs.9.8%,P<0.01).We reeeived 775 patients(50.4%)with acute respiratory tract disorders,including 16 cases(1.0%)with asthma,during the Olympic Games,and 686(56.9%),including eight cases (0

  18. The Olympic Games: The Experience of a Lifetime or Simply the Most Important Competition of an Athletic Career?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Dall; Christiansen, Ask Vest; Henriksen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    are caught in a very real dilemma between the Olympics as the ―most important competition of their athletic careers‖ and ―the Olympics as the experience of a lifetime.‖ This dilemma is linked to a wide rift between the perspectives and goals of the sport organization and those of the athletes....

  19. Olympic scale of sport-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean du Plessis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Olympic Games have displaced more than two million people in the last 20 years, disproportionately affecting particular groups such as the homeless, the poor, Roma and African-Americans. Mega-events such as the Olympic Games often leave a negative housing legacy for local populations.

  20. Physiological characteristics of an aging Olympic athlete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Fritzdorf, Stephen;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games.......To investigate the physiological basis of continued world-class performance of a world-class rower who won medals (3 gold and 2 bronze) at five consecutive Olympic Games....

  1. Analysis of the Attitude of the Sport Fans for the Wushu into the Olympic Games%关于"体育迷"对武术申请入奥态度的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 汲智勇

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料法、访谈法等研究手段,在第二届青奥会期间,分析汇聚南京的"体育迷"对武术申请入奥的态度. 访谈发现:"体育迷"对中国武术的认知具有浅泛性;武术申请进入奥运会满足"体育迷"的奥运心理需求. 结论:我们应该冷静而理性对待武术入奥,以分享东方精神蕴意作导向,在武术运动国际化传播的路径与模式选择上应该较多地照顾广大体育受众即"体育迷"的期待;预防为进入奥运会,对武术进行独断、功利地自我价值遗弃,驰离我们借助奥运舞台推广武术文化的理想初衷.%The International Olympic Games is the world'most widely and recognize and support competitive sports games that different ethnic groups and ideology in different countries around the world. China pay great efforts to make Wushu into the O?lympic Games but failed so far. By using the methods of literature, interviews and other research methods, during the second session of Youth Olympic Games, interview of attitude for in Nanjing "Sports Fans" of Wushu into the Olympic finding:"Sports Fans" cognition on Wushu has a shallow pan;Wushu apply into the Olympic Games to meet the Olympic psychology demand of "The Sport Fans". Conclusion:We should be calm and rational treatment of Wushu entering Olympic, share the O?riental spirit connotation as the guide and in the paths and modes selection of wushu international communication should be more care for the majority of sports audience that"Sports Fans" expectations;Preventing for into the Olympic Games, utilitar?ian abandoned self value but become a metaphysical things, deviate from us the ideal purpose which is by the Olympic stage to promote martial arts culture .

  2. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Measles Virus Genotypes H1 and D8 During Outbreaks of Infection Following the 2010 Olympic Winter Games Reveals Viral Transmission Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardy, Jennifer L; Naus, Monika; Amlani, Ashraf; Chung, Walter; Kim, Hochan; Tan, Malcolm; Severini, Alberto; Krajden, Mel; Puddicombe, David; Sahni, Vanita; Hayden, Althea S; Gustafson, Reka; Henry, Bonnie; Tang, Patrick

    2015-11-15

    We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate a dual-genotype outbreak of measles occurring after the XXI Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. By sequencing 27 complete genomes from H1 and D8 genotype measles viruses isolated from outbreak cases, we estimated the virus mutation rate, determined that person-to-person transmission is typically associated with 0 mutations between isolates, and established that a single introduction of H1 virus led to the expansion of the outbreak beyond Vancouver. This is the largest measles genomics project to date, revealing novel aspects of measles virus genetics and providing new insights into transmission of this reemerging viral pathogen.

  3. Man Who Lit the Olympic Flame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    From sport to business,success follows China’s Prince of Gymnastics People around the world gasped in awe when the final torchbearer at the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics lifted into the air and

  4. NOTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN, WORLD, AND OLYMPIC BMX CYCLING RACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mateo-March

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were 1 to describe the technical requirements of different tracks where classifying points are disputed for the Olympics as the European continent tracks (E, world championship competitions tracks (W, and Olympic Games track - Beijing, 2008- (O; and 2 to compare and establish differences or similarities between the three previous contexts. The sample used for this study was made of the 8 best qualifying male athletes from each competition (n = 48 during the 2007 and 2008 seasons (pre-Olympic and Olympic years. A descriptive design was used, based on systematic structured observation of the competitions filmed on video, paying attention to the different techniques used (overtaking skills, complete pedalling cycles and registered effort times. The results show that aerial techniques predominate over non aerial techniques on O and W type tracks more than on E tracks by ~20% (p < 0.001, pedaling cycles predominate in E vs. W and O by 11.85 and 24.23% respectively (p < 0.05, and effort times predominate in O vs. W and E by 6.50 and 12.94% respectively (p < 0.01. In conclusion, O and W tracks stand out because of the aerial component and greater technical complexity in comparison to E tracks, which has a decisive effect on the way the riders train in relation to the type of championship they aim to compete in

  5. Little Threat of Zika Spread from Rio Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Little Threat of Zika Spread From Rio Olympics: Study Because it's winter in Brazil, mosquito activity ... HealthDay News) -- Travelers and competitors at the 2016 Olympic Games in Brazil are not likely to contract ...

  6. Variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Beijing city in summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with hosting the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the municipal government implemented a series of stringent air quality control measures. To assess the impacts on variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, the whole air was sampled by canisters at one urban site and two suburban sites in Beijing, and 55 NMHC species were quantified by gas chromatography equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (GC/MSD/FID as parts of the field Campaign for the Beijing Olympic Games Air Quality program (CareBeijing. According to the control measures, the data were presented according to four periods: 18–30 June, 8–19 July, 15–24 August (during the Olympic Games, and 6–15 September (during the Paralympic Games. Compared with the levels in June, the mixing ratios of NMHCs obtained in the Olympic and Paralympic Games periods were reduced by 35% and 25%, respectively. Source contributions were calculated using a chemical mass balance model (CMB 8.2. After implementing the control measures, emissions from target sources were obviously reduced, and reductions in vehicle exhaust could explain 48–82% of the reductions of ambient NMHCs. Reductions in emissions from gasoline evaporation, paint and solvent use, and the chemical industry contributed 9–40%, 3–24%, and 1–5%, respectively, to reductions of ambient NMHCs. Sources of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG and biogenic emissions were not controlled, and contributions from these sources from July to September were stable or even higher than in June. Ozone formation potentials (OFPs were calculated for the measured NMHCs. The total OFPs during the Olympic and Paralympic Games were reduced by 48% and 32%, respectively, compared with values in June. Reductions in the OFPs of alkenes and aromatics explained 77–92% of total OFP reductions. The alkenes and aromatics were mainly from vehicle exhausts, and reductions of vehicle exhaust gases explained 67–87% of

  7. Analysis on Un- meltability and Meltability Factor of Aerobics Entering Olympic Games%健美操入奥不融性和可融性因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺改芹

    2012-01-01

    通过文献资料、逻辑归纳等方法,从健美操进入奥运会的背景、奥运“瘦身”改革的大环境出发,对健美操进入奥运会自身因素的不融性和健美操与奥运竞技体育在技术方面的可融性等进行了分析,以唤起大家对健美操项目发展的深入思考,从而为健美操能进入奥运会走健康、可持续发展的道路提供一个新的思路和切入点。%Through using the method of literature review and logical induction, from the background of aerobics entering Olympic Games, and the Olympic downsizing reform, this paper made analysis on un - meltability of aerobics entering Olympic Games and meltability of aerobics with Olympic sports in technical aspect. The main purpose is to arouse the deeply consideration on aerobics development and provide the new idea for aerobics entering Olympic Games.

  8. Olympic Legislation Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Management of the number of visitors to the city during the Olympic Games Rules related to free transportation services on railways, highways and city buses Regulations on traffic control and special traffic routes Regulations involving dogs, such as seeing-eye dogs, in public places

  9. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-22

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  10. Notational Analysis of European, World, and Olympic BMX Cycling Races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-March, Manuel; Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Doran, Dominic; Romero-Rodríguez, Rubén C; Zabala, Mikel

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to describe the technical requirements of different tracks where classifying points are disputed for the Olympics as the European continent tracks (E), world championship competitions tracks (W), and Olympic Games track - Beijing, 2008- (O); and 2) to compare and establish differences or similarities between the three previous contexts. The sample used for this study was made of the 8 best qualifying male athletes from each competition (n = 48) during the 2007 and 2008 seasons (pre-Olympic and Olympic years). A descriptive design was used, based on systematic structured observation of the competitions filmed on video, paying attention to the different techniques used (overtaking skills, complete pedalling cycles and registered effort times). The results show that aerial techniques predominate over non aerial techniques on O and W type tracks more than on E tracks by ~20% (p < 0.001), pedaling cycles predominate in E vs. W and O by 11.85 and 24.23% respectively (p ≤ 0.05), and effort times predominate in O vs. W and E by 6.50 and 12.94% respectively (p ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, O and W tracks stand out because of the aerial component and greater technical complexity in comparison to E tracks, which has a decisive effect on the way the riders train in relation to the type of championship they aim to compete in. Key pointsEuropean tracks involve more non aerial techniques than world and Olympic tracks, respectively; more non aerial techniques are associated with more pedaling effort time.Bicycle motocross cyclists develop greater values of aerial Techniques in World and Olympic tracks compared with the European tracks and, consequently, reduced non aerial techniques.European tracks involve less technical jumps but more simple jumps. World tracks involve more technical jumps than European and Olympic tracks, but Olympic track jumps, despite being less in number, are more difficult and decisive than the rest.Olympic and World class

  11. Conception of ecological strategy «Olympic sport for maintainance of nature» during leadthrough of winter Olympic Games 2022 in Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko O.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is conducted scientific and to scientifically-methodical literatures on issue of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiads. Conception of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiad is developed 2022 (Ukraine, Carpathians. It was offered, that ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of Olympiad had an ecological motto «Olympic sport for the maintainance of nature». Strategy included the ways of decision of problem of negative influence of global change of climate on the olympic winter types of sport. The problems of providing of ecological safety of sporting activity are considered in relation to a man and wild-life. Solution is offered questions of the ecological marketing, management and ecological inlightening. The ecological ground of choice of Lvov is conducted as a city of organizer of winter Olympiad 2022. As a mountain-skier center a mountain-skier complex Borzhava, located in the area Carpathians of Ukraine, is offered.

  12. 探析南京青奥会对南京高校体育的推动%Analysis on Promotion of College Sports in Nanjing by Nanjing Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦成生

    2015-01-01

    在社会经济的飞速发展和人民健康意识的不断加强的背景下,南京成功申报了2014年青奥会,本文运用文献资料法、专家访谈法、逻辑分析法等研究方法,从青奥会的教育理念和目标出发,对青奥会与南京高校体育发展的互动关系进行了研究,探讨南京青奥会效应对推动高校体育的积极作用。%Under the background of rapid development of social economy and continual strengthening of people’s health awareness,Nanjing successfully bade for the 2014 Youth Olympic Games.With methods of literature, expert -interview,logical analysis and starting from the educational concept and goals of Youth Olympic Games, the paper studies the interaction between Youth Olympic Games and college sports development in Nanjing to explore the positive role Nanjing Youth Olympic Games played in promoting college sports.

  13. SWOT analysis on hosting 2022 Winter Olympic Games%举办2022年北京冬奥会的 SWOT 剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向朝

    2015-01-01

    SWOT analysis was used to study the strength,weakness,opportunity and threats for Beijing and Zhangjiakou bidding for the 2022 Winter Olympics. The strategies for the successful bid include:making full use of their advantages and making the advantage absolute;overcoming shortcomings and turning disadvantages into advantages;catering to the 3 purposes of 2022 Winter Olympics:thrifty race,promoting &improving and decentralizedly organizing.%运用 SWOT 分析法对北京、张家口申办2022年冬奥会的优势、劣势、机会、威胁进行剖析。总结北京、张家口成功申办冬奥会的策略是:发挥自身优势,将优势转化为强势;克服“短板”,将劣势化为优势;充分迎合了2022年冬奥会举办的3个宗旨:节俭办赛、推广与普及及分散举办的原则。

  14. Interview: partnering with the industry: the Olympic laboratory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, David A; Barker, Campbell P

    2012-07-01

    David A Cowan and Campbell P Barker speak to Ryan De Vooght-Johnson at Bioanalysis in May 2012 about the partnership between industry and academia for the setup and running of the doping-control laboratory for the London 2012 Olympic Games. David A Cowan is Director of the London 2012 anti-doping laboratory as well as Director of the King's College London Drug Control Centre, the UK's only WADA-accredited anti-doping laboratory, and Head of the Department of Forensic Science and Drug Monitoring. Cowan co-founded the Drug Control Centre in 1978 and became its Director in 1990. He has published extensively in the field of pharmaceutical analysis, especially as it relates to detecting drug administration in sport, and was awarded a personal chair in pharmaceutical toxicology in 1996. Cowan became Head of the Department of Forensic Science and Drug Monitoring at King's College London in 2002. He has served on a number of national and international committees, including the Council of Europe Working Party Investigating Drug Abuse in Sport that led to the first World Anti-Doping Convention, the Laboratory Representative on the International Olympic Committee's Medical Commission, and WADA's Laboratory Accreditation Subcommittee. He is a member of the Crippen Club for Distinguished Toxicologists. In 1998 he was awarded the IOC Trophy for Sport Ethics by the BOA. He was a founding member of the World Association of Anti-Doping Scientists and became its first President serving on its Executive Board between 2001 and 2004. He was a Visiting Laboratory Director at the Salt Lake City Winter Olympic Games 2002, where the first novel erythropoiesis-stimulating protein (NESP) positive was discovered. He was also a senior advisory scientist at both the Turin Winter Olympic Games in 2006 and the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. He was also a member of the IOC Medical Commission for the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000 and the Vancouver Winter Olympic Games in 2010. The Drug Control

  15. From "Sport" to "Cultural Education"--From the Youth Olympic Games to see the Return of the Olympic Movement%“体育竞技”到“文化教育”--从青奥会看奥林匹克运动文化教育理念的回归

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞建民

    2015-01-01

    现代奥林匹克的精神内涵包括竞技、文化、教育三个方面。而一段时期内竞技是凌驾于文化与教育之上的。实则以竞技为媒进行文化交流和教育方是现代奥林匹克运动复兴的初衷,文本从现代奥林匹克运动“竞技”理念的生成机制及“教育”理念回归动因分析中揭示青奥会诞生的背景,并论述了青奥会在教育与文化交流中的价值所在。%The modern Olympic spirit connotation including athletics,culture and education from three aspects.A period of athletics is above the culture and education.But in athletics as a medium for cultural exchange and education is the intent of the revival of the modern Olympic movement,and text from "athletics" concept of the modern Olympic movement and the formation mechanism and"education" concept in the regression analysis reveals the background of the birth of youth Olympic Games,and discusses the youth Olympic Games in the value of education and cultural exchange.

  16. System design of the traction power supply for the high-speed line Beijing - Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, Martin; Fischer, Andreas; Tornow, Torsten [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The high-speed line Beijing - Tianjin connecting the Capital Beijing with the harbour city Tianjin is the first high-speed line in China dedicated only to passenger traffic and is operated at 300 km/h. The commercial service started in due time for the Olympic games in 2008. For the system design and a reliable traction power supply the simulation software Sitras {sup registered} Sidytrac was used. The program incorporates all modules necessary for the overall system design and relating detailed investigations. Measurements during system integration test validated the simulation results. (orig.)

  17. Atmospheric particulate mercury in the megacity Beijing: Efficiency of mitigation measures and assessment of health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, N. J.; Schäfer, J.; Chen, Y.; Blanc, G.; Chen, Y.; Chai, F.; Cen, K.; Norra, S.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate mercury (HgP) was studied before, during, and after the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the emission control measures implemented by the Chinese Government. These source control measures comprised traffic reductions, increase in public transportation, planting of vegetation, establishment of parks, building freeze at construction sites, cleaner production techniques for industries and industry closures in Beijing and also in the surrounding areas. Strictest measures including the "odd-even ban" to halve the vehicle volume were enforced from the 20th of July to the 20th of September 2008. The Olympic period provided the unique opportunity to investigate the efficiency of these comprehensive actions implemented in order to reduce air pollution on a large scale. Therefore, the sampling period covered summer (August, September) and winter (December and January) samples over several years from December 2005 to September 2013. Average HgP concentrations in total suspended particulates (TSP) sampled in August 2008 were 81 ± 39 pg/m3 while TSP mass concentrations were 93 ± 49 μg/m3. This equals a reduction by about 63% for TSP mass and 65% for HgP, respectively, compared to the previous two years demonstrating the short-term success of the measures. However, after the Olympic Games, HgP concentrations increased again to pre-Olympic levels in August 2009 while values in August 2010 decreased again by 30%. Moreover, winter samples, which were 2- to 11-fold higher than corresponding August values, showed decreasing concentrations over the years indicating a long-term improvement of HgP pollution in Beijing. However, regarding adverse health effects, comparisons with soil guideline values and studies from other cities highlighted that HgP concentrations in TSP remained high in Beijing despite respective control measures. Consequently, future mitigation measures need to be tailored more

  18. 青奥会与南京城市文化的传播%The Youth Olympic Games and Culture Communication of Nanjing City Through

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆正林

    2014-01-01

    通过大型运动会传播城市文化、城市品牌,是竞技体育服务于人类文明发展的一项重要内容。2013年、2014年南京先后举办亚青会、青奥会,这使南京获得了一次很好的城市推广机会,南京得以向国际社会展示自己的城市文化和建设成就。本论文从城市文化的保护与建设的角度出发,运用案例分析、文本分析和对比分析的方法,较为深入地研究了在青奥会前后南京城市文化的发掘和传播问题。研究认为南京应该借助青奥会的机会,在深入盘点南京现有城市文化资源的基础上,进一步提炼南京城市文化的主题,力争让“博爱之都”的品牌在国际上叫得更响。同时,南京青奥组委会应该将中国文化、南京元素和青奥精神结合起来,通过策划仪式性活动,精心组织青奥开幕式,设计城市旅游线路,实施“走出去”战略等各种渠道传播南京文化,让南京和青奥共成长。%Through large-scale sports games spreading city culture and city brand is an important content which Competi-tive sports serve the development of human civilization .In 2013 and 2014 ,Nanjing will hold the Youth Olympic Games and the Asian Youth Olympic Games ,which give Nanjing a good opportunity to promote city brand .Nanjing may display its city culture and achievements to the international society .This paper thoroughly studies the exploration and spreading of Nanjing city culture before and after the Youth Olympic Games from the point of the protection and the construction of city culture by using the methods of case analysis ,context analysis and comparison analysis .The author suggests that Nanjing should take the opportunity of holding Games ,further refine the theme of Nanjing city culture on the basis of thorough study existing culture resources of Nanjing city ,and strive to make "the capital of fraternity" brand called louder in the world .At the same time

  19. The Olympics' Impacts on China's Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xinliang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Olympics will have a lasting effect on China, especially on its politics and diplomacy, but the Olympics will only have limited and indirect influence on its foreign trade in my view. The rapid increase of China's foreign trade has remained a strong trend and could not be easily changed or accelerated by other factors including the Olympics. Meanwhile, China doesn't expect the Olympics to be a propeller for its foreign trade. With the fast development of past years.China has become one of the most important global trading nations that can be easily told from the perspective of its share of international trade flows.

  20. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  1. Olympics-fired Economy Requires Regional Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaiYue

    2004-01-01

    Some predict that hosting the 2008 Olympics will help Beijing realize its aim of basic modernization two years ahead of schedule, with a GDP per capita ofUS$ 6,000. But without the economic growth of neighboring cities as a means of support, Beijing will have difficulty in achieving its goal to become a truly international city. Therefore, according

  2. 第31届夏季奥运会中国田径项目备战方向研究%Research on Preparation Direction for Track and Filed of China on the 31th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于润生

    2015-01-01

    China athletics project has been at a disadvantage status in the previous Summer Olympics, that not match with the power status of China's sports. Based on analysis of recent Olympic Games track and field performance and has China Legion medal ability of active Chinese outstanding athletes competitive ability present situation, to explore the Chinese breakthrough direction of 2016 Summer Olympic Games track and field project, in order to prepare the theory for the Olympic Games.%中国田径项目在历届夏季奥运会中一直处于劣势状态,与我国体育强国地位极不匹配.通过对近几届奥运会中国田径军团的表现以及具有可能夺牌能力的现役中国田径优秀运动员竞技能力现状进行分析研究,探寻中国2016年夏季奥运会田径项目突破方向,为备战奥运会提供理论支持.

  3. Estimation and prediction of black carbon emissions in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan; SHAO Min

    2007-01-01

    Black carbon is a by-product of incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels. It can alter atmospheric radiation property and make adverse impacts on human health. The energy consumption in Beijing City depends largely on coal burning. Recently, Beijing City has been performing the municipal energy structure adjustment as a tool for air pollution abatement, aiming at the air quality goal for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Based on Beijing energy use data in 2000, combined with emission factors of major sources of black carbon, the emission of black carbon in Beijing City is estimated to be 7.77 Gg. Coke, raw coal and biomass as non-commercial energy are the main contributors to municipal black carbon emissions. Based on Beijing energy planning in the year 2008, the emission of black carbon in 2008 will be 2.97 Gg if the contribution from biomass is not taken into account. Assuming that the black carbon emission from rural biomass in 2008 is the same as that in 2004, the biomass burning will be the largest emitter of black carbon to Beijing City in 2008.

  4. Association of Systemic Inflammation with Marked Changes in Particulate Air Pollution in Beijing in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao; Lv, Peng; Zhong, Mianhua; Liu, Cuiqing; Wang, Aixia; Tzan, Kevin; Jiang, Silis Y.; Lippmann, Morton; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung-Chi; Sun, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have linked ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) air pollution to increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases in the general population, but the biologic mechanisms of these associations are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between daily variations in exposure to PM2.5 and inflammatory responses in mice during and for 2 months after the Beijing Olympic Games. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Beijing PM2.5 or filtered air (FA) in 2008 during the 2 months of Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games, and for 2 months after the end of the Games. During the Games, circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin 6 were increased significantly in the PM2.5 exposure group, when compared with the FA control group, although there were no significant inter-group differences in tumor necrosis factor α or interferon γ, or in macrophages, neutrophils or lymphocytes in the spleen or thymus between these 2 groups. However, macrophages were significantly increased in the lung and visceral fat with increasing PM2.5. After the Olympic Games, there were no significant PM2.5-associated differences for macrophages, neutrophils or lymphocytes in the thymus, but macrophages were significantly elevated in the lung, spleen, subcutaneous and visceral fat with increasing PM2.5, and the numbers of macrophages were even higher after than those during the Games. Moreover, the number of neutrophils was markedly higher in the spleen for the PM2.5-exposed- than the FA-group. These data suggest that short-term increases in exposure to ambient PM2.5 leads to increased systemic inflammatory responses, primarily macrophages and neutrophils in the lung, spleen, and visceral adipose tissue. Short-term air quality improvements were significantly associated with reduced overall inflammatory responses. PMID:22617750

  5. 伦敦奥运周期世界女子体操发展态势%On the Developing Trend of Women Gymnastics before London Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯军; 邓岚; 王莉静

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the developing trend of Women Gymnastics before London Olympic Games, based on the materials of 2010 and 2011 World Championship. The results show that: 1.U.S.A, Russian and China are the three top ones around the world; 2. It is of special importance to have all-round athletes in the new competition system of gymnastics; 3. It is essential to raise the competition strength with the appearance of more and more competitive athletes; 3. Chinese Women Gymnastics will face greater challenge in London Olympics.%以2010年、2011年两届世锦赛为主要资料,对伦敦奥运周期女子体操发展态势进行研究。结果表明:美俄中三强称霸世界体坛;体操新赛制实施更显全能型选手重要;新人辈出实力提升竞争激烈;全面提高竞争实力至关重要;伦敦奥运中国体操女子体操面临更大挑战。

  6. A Critical Analysis of Britain’s Living, Dead and Zombie Multiculturalism: From 7/7 to the London 2012 Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Allen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A day after the London 2012 Bid Committee succeeded in bringing the Olympic Games to Britain using the slogan “the world in one city”, a series of coordinated suicide bomb attacks occurred across London (7/7. In one day, Britain’s somewhat beleaguered multiculturalism went from prompting national celebrations to being decried as “dead” by politicians and commentators alike. Against a backdrop of the Committee’s success in July 2005 through to the end of the Games themselves in August 2012, this article analyses the social and political discourses and debates that ensued in relation to Britain’s multiculturalism. Exploring the metamorphosis of these discourses—using the analogous language of being alive, dead and zombie—this article reflects on the impact and legacy of the London Games on future understandings of multiculturalism. In doing so, this article argues that the everyday lived variety of multiculturalism will always be distinct and different from the political discourses appropriated—or rejected—by political actors.

  7. Research on 200m Butterfly Stroke Techniques of LIU Zi-ge Prepared for the 29th Olympic Games%对刘子歌备战第29届奥运会200 m蝶泳技术攻关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑闽生; 金炜; 王建国; 施闻

    2009-01-01

    After comprehensive analysis on butterfly stroke techniques of LIU Zi-ge prepared for the 29th Olympic Games, it was found that the butterfly stroke technique of LIU Zi-ge is small wave butterfly, which breathe better with time, up and down small and is good at drag reduction in swimming process. The techniques are in line with the development trends of mod-ern butterfly technique. Her physical fitness and condition is good enough to top the world's highest level. During the research period of preparing the Beijing Olympic Games, the research process has been divided into two stages, which is based on the technique of LIU Zi-ge. After the technical improvements of her starts and turns, she won the championship on the 2008 Shaoxing Championship by 2min7s76, which is beyond the former best score 2s39, and ob-tained the Olympic 200m butterfly entry qualifications. The main job of the second stage is to improve the techniques of catch and pull in swimming process. She finally won the gold medal of 200m butterfly on the 29th Olympic Games by 2min4s18, which break the world record. The result of Olympic Games and the analysis of technique and tactics indicate that the coun-termeasures and methods proposed are effective to the research of technical training.%对刘子歌备战第29届奥运会的蝶泳技术全面解析认为,刘子歌蝶泳属于呼吸配合时机好,上下起伏小,游进中减阻技术好的小波浪蝶泳技术,符合现代蝶泳技术发展趋势;身体、体能条件也是非常出色的,具备冲击世界最高水平的条件.在备战北京奥运会攻关期间,针对刘子歌技术将攻关研究分为两个阶段,通过对其出发转身的技术改进,于2008年绍兴冠军赛以2 min7 s76超越此前本人最好成绩2 s39并夺冠,获得奥运会200 m蝶泳的参赛资格;第2个阶段通过对其途中游抱水和推水技术的改进,最终在第29届奥运会上以2min4 s18的成绩夺取金牌并打破世界纪录,证明对其技术训

  8. Rio 2016 golf Olympic course: technical brief

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Through the RFP, Rio 2016™ seeks to identify the best concept design for the Olympic golf course, for both women’s and men’s competition at the Rio 2016™ Olympic Games as well as the best legacy solution for the future.

  9. London Olympic Games Men's Singles Final Technology Comparative Analysis --Analysis of Technical Characteristics of Wang Hao's " Three Silver Medal Winner " in the Olympic Games%2012年伦敦奥运会乒乓球男单决赛技术对比分析——王皓奥运“三连亚”技术特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆祥; 敬继红; 王冬慧

    2012-01-01

    三段分析法经常被用于小球比赛领域,运用乒乓球“三段分析法”等,对王皓、张继科在伦敦奥运会乒乓球男单决赛中各项技战术进行统计,分析他们在发球抢攻段、接发球抢攻段和相持段的技战术运用特点,找出其优势和不足,为进一步提高我国男子乒乓球运动员的技战术水平提供参考。分析王皓连着三届奥运会都是奥运亚军的原因。%It uses the " three sections of analysis" method, which is often used in the ball game field, to do the statistics of the various tactics of the Zhang Ji - ke, Wang Hao in London Olympic table tennis men's singles final, analyse their tactics using characteristics in serve attacking section, receiving attacking section and the stalemate section, to find out their advantages and disadvantages. It is for the purpose to provide the reference for further improving our level of skill and tactics of the male table tennis players and analyse the reason of that Wang Hao only got the silver medal in the consecutive Olympic Games.

  10. Ice Hockey Arena-A, for Nagano Winter Olympic Games, Nagano all purpose sports arena, Wakasato `Big Hat`; Nagano Olympic toki kyogi taikai ice hockey A kaijo Naganoshi Wakasato tamokuteki arena BIG HAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, M.; Ando, T.

    1998-01-05

    The Nagano all purpose sports arena aimed at a unique design suitable for the international city, Nagano in harmony with fortunate natural landscape and plentiful natural features. The aspect of this arena is composed of a rectangular lower part and a smoothly curved upper part. Thus, huge and coercive sense of the large-scale building can be suppressed. In response to various events, a heavily equipped arena roof was adopted, which has a functional structure without ceiling for imaging a huge studio space. Nagano City is located in the inland basin. It is hot in the daytime in summer, but is comfortable in the morning and evening. Although it is cold at temperatures around -10degC in winter, they do not have heavy snow and have fine days. They have a delightful climate in the intermediate seasons. Under such circumstances, high heat insulation, natural illumination and natural ventilation were considered as an energy saving architectural technique. In response to external cooling and difference of audience numbers, the whole air conditioning method was adopted. It was expected that the Olympic Games were completed under the most excellent condition. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. The Contest for Olympic Succes as a Public Good

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, L.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study considers the performance of countries at the Olympic Games as a public good. Firstly, it is argued that, at the national level, Olympic success meets the two key conditions of a public good: non-rivalry and non-excludability. Secondly, it is demonstrated that standard income inequality measures, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index, can be successfully applied to the distribution of Olympic success. The actual distribution of Olympic success is compared with alternative hyp...

  12. 里约奥运会中国女排夺冠因素分析%Analysis of Chinese Women’s Volleyball Team Won the Olympic Games in Rio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常存强

    2016-01-01

    中国女排在里约奥运会上演“黑四”奇迹,历史上第三次摘得奥运会金牌。金牌的背后是中国女排拥有优秀的教练员团队与世界顶级教练郎平、稳定发挥的主攻手朱婷以及永不言弃,顽强拼搏的女排精神。%Chinese Women's Volleyball Team stage a "dark four"miracle Olympic Games in Rio.It’s the third gold medal in Olympic Games.The Gold Medal for Chinese Women’s Volleyball Team is attributed to the excellent coaches group,Lang Ping is the best Volleyball Coach in the world,the most valuable player Zhu Ting and spirit of never give up and indomitable in women's volleyball.

  13. To Construct the World's First High-temperature & Superconductor Maglev Line for the 2008 Olympic Games in BeiJing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A high-temperature & superconductor (HT-SC) magnetic levitation train has its merits shared by the conventional conductor type and the lowertemperature type of the maglev trains but hasn't the latter two's demerits.

  14. Use of Earth Observation in Support of Major Sport Events: Case Study for the Athens, Beijing and London Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Huili; Zhao, Wenji; Li, Xiaojuan; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui

    2013-01-01

    This research provides suggestions for more effective air particulate pollution control policies by government. Inhalable particulate matter (IPM) samples PM0.3, PM3 and PM5 were taken in heating season from 2007 to 2010 in order to determine temporal and spatial variations of IPM concentration based on the indicator Kriging of Geostatistics. Meanwhile, the correlation between IPM and meteorological factors was discussed; the influences of different factors on pollutant concentration were compared.

  15. 2004 Olympic Tae Kwon Do Athlete Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Casella, Claudia; Perri, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of Tae kwon do champions (gold, silver, and bronze medalists) who competed in the Athens 2004 Olympic Games (N = 124) and compare these characteristics to those who competed but did not earn medals. All the data for the study was obtained from the official website of the 2004 Olympic Games www.athens2004.com and the following information was collected: weight category, weight, height, age, country representation, total points from k...

  16. Reflections on the Rio Olympic Games to increase the representation of the refugees%对里约奥运会增设难民代表队的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪炎桥

    2015-01-01

    运用文献资料法、逻辑分析法等方法,从地理学、社会学等层面对里约热内卢奥运会增设难民代表队这一事件进行分析。研究认为,里约奥运会增设难民代表队有利于难民世界的团结稳定、降低难民输入国的犯罪率、引起国际社会对难民问题的关注与反思。该问题的研究对奥运会的改革与发展具有一定的借鉴意义。%The author used the literature data method and logic analysis method,based on international affairs,human geography,sociology, and other aspects,thinking and analysis of the incident of the additional refugees’representative team in Rio De Janeiro Olympic Games .The study shows that Rio Olympic Games add refugee team,is conducive to the unity and stability of the refugee world,is conducive to reducing the crime rate of refugees in the country,is conducive to the cause of the international community on the issue of refugees and reflection.The research of this problem has certain reference significance to the reform and development of the Olympic Games.

  17. Reflections on the Rio Olympic Games to increase the representation of the refugees%对里约奥运会增设难民代表队的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪炎桥

    2016-01-01

    运用文献资料法、逻辑分析法等方法,从地理学、社会学等层面对里约热内卢奥运会增设难民代表队这一事件进行分析。研究认为,里约奥运会增设难民代表队有利于难民世界的团结稳定、降低难民输入国的犯罪率、引起国际社会对难民问题的关注与反思。该问题的研究对奥运会的改革与发展具有一定的借鉴意义。%The author used the literature data method and logic analysis method,based on international affairs,human geography,sociology, and other aspects,thinking and analysis of the incident of the additional refugees’representative team in Rio De Janeiro Olympic Games .The study shows that Rio Olympic Games add refugee team,is conducive to the unity and stability of the refugee world,is conducive to reducing the crime rate of refugees in the country,is conducive to the cause of the international community on the issue of refugees and reflection.The research of this problem has certain reference significance to the reform and development of the Olympic Games.

  18. New Mentality of Post-Olympic Games Period Our Country Sports Industrial Development%论后奥运时代我国体育产业发展方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于清; 袁吉

    2009-01-01

    研究目的:探讨后奥运时代我国体育产业发展方式对拉动体育经济增长的作用.研究方法:主要采用产业经济学和体育产业经济学发展理论等方法.研究结果表明:要统筹谋划后奥运时代我国体育产业的发展方式,进一步推进我国体育产业结构优化升级,提升自主创新能力,优先发展优势体育产业,为拉动后奥运时代体育经济的增长做出重大贡献.%Research goal : The discussion transforms post-Olympic Games period our country sports industrial development way advancement sports economic growth the function. Research method: Mainly uses the industrial economics and methods and so on sports industrial economics development theory. The research findings: the government must plan as whole plans post-Olympic Games period our country sports industry development way, further advances the sports upgrading of industries, promotion independent innovation ability, gives priority to the superiority sports industry, impetus post-Olympic Games period sports economy's growth makes the important contributions.

  19. 基于层次分析法的南京青奥会影响力评价模型%Analytic Hierarchy Process-based Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Influence Evaluation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚亚

    2016-01-01

    2014年中国举办了万众瞩目的南京青奥会。为了定量评价2014年南京青奥会的影响力,依据层次分析法建立数学模型。首先以南京青奥会与新加坡青奥会参加的国家数、参赛运动员数、投入资金等指标构建评价指标矩阵。然后用判断矩阵来确定各指标的权重。最后,通过所建立的模型,计算出两届青奥会的影响力并进行比较分析。%In 2014,the Second Youth Olympic Games was held in Nanjing,China.In order to give a quantitative evaluation to analyze its influence, a mathematical model is established through the analytic hierarchy process. An evaluation index matrix was built by comparing the number of countries,athletes and the investment index between Nanjing and Singapore Youth Olympic Games. And then, the weight of each index is determined by the judgment matrix. Finally, through the established model, the Youth Olympic Games influence is calculated and compared.

  20. Participation and Performance at the London 2012 Olympics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Sterken, Elmer

    2012-01-01

    The current paper predicts the medal tally for the London 2012 Olympic Games. The forecast procedure consists of analyzing participation and success at the country level of the three most recent editions of the Olympic Summer Games. Potential explanatory variables for medal winnings are income per c

  1. A dea model with a non discritionary variablefor olympic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jõao Carlos C.B. Soares de Mello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of work has been done dealing with alternative performance rankings for the Olympic Games. Almost all of these works use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Generally speaking, those works can be divided into two categories: Pure rankings with unitary input models and relative rankings with classical DEA models; both output oriented. In this paper we introduce an approach taking into account the number of athletes as a proxy to the country investment in sports. This number is an input for a DEA model, and the other input is the population of the country. We have three outputs,the number of gold, silver and bronze medals earned by each country. Contrary to the usual approach in the literature, our model is not output oriented. It is a non-radial DEA model oriented to the "number of athletes" input, as our goal is not a countries' ranking. We intend to analyse whether the number of athletes competing for each country accords with the number of won medals. For this analysis, we compare eachcountry with its benchmarks. The Decision Making Units (DMU are all the countries participating in the Beijing Olympic Games, including those that did not earn a single medal. We use a BCC model and we compare each DMU's target with the number of athletes who have won, at least one medal.

  2. 雅典举办两届现代奥运会历史背景及全球性贡献考略%The Historical Background of Two Modern Olympic Games Held in Athens and Their Global Contributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马岳良

    2012-01-01

    从19世纪末到21世纪初,雅典举办了两届现代奥运会,这是奥林匹克运动跨世纪发展和人类文明急速演进的最好见证。本文通过历史追溯认为,首届现代奥运会是在欧洲工业化时代爆发的文艺复兴、宗教改革和启蒙运动推动近代体育的发展,从而使以人文主义为主旨的奥林匹克运动得以复兴;28届雅典奥运会则是在经济全球化、文化多元化趋势加快得以复兴,人类高扬“和平与发展”主题的大背景下复归的。雅典举办两届现代奥运会对人类的文明与发展具有历史性和开创性贡献。%From the 19th century to the 21th century, twice modem Olympic Games were held in Athens which is the best witness of trans - century development of the Olympic movement and the rapid evolution of human civiliza-tion. This paper holds the view that with the retrospection to the history, the first modem Olympic Games is the renaissance during the outbreak of the industrial age in Europe, the religious reform and the development that the enlightenment promotes modem sports, so that the Olympic Movement as the mayor idea of humanism gets revita - lized; and that the 28th Athens Olympic Games was held in the background that the economic globalization and the tendency of cultural diversity speed up, and that humans uplift the theme of "peace and development" ; and that the two modem Olympic Games held in Athens have made historical and pioneering contributions to the human civilization and development.

  3. Androgenic-anabolic steroids and the Olympic Games%雄激素类固醇激素与奥运会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth D. Fitch

    2008-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) have been misused by athletes at the Olympic Games, both before and after they were prohibited in sport in 1974. Systematic doping with AAS occurred in the German Democratic Republic(GDR) from 1965 to 1989 which assisted that country to win many medals at Olympic Games, especially in female events. Currently, AAS are the most frequent category of prohibited substances detected in the urine of athletes both globally and at the last two Summer Olympic Games. Scientific confirmation that AAS are effective in enhancing sports performance was difficult because ethical approval was difficult for research involving male subjects taking massive doses of androgens as some athletes and bodybuilders did. Methods to detect AAS have evolved gradually over the past three decades and currently, despite an impressive array of sophisticated analytical equipment and methods, anti-doping authorities and analytical scientists continue to face challenges as have occurred from the use by athletes of designer AAS during the past few years. The future development and use of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) can be anticipated to pose problems in the years ahead. Endocrinologists should be aware that on occasions, replacement testosterone (T) therapy may be authorized in sport as a therapeutic use exemption (TUE)and these circumstances are discussed.%即使在1974年被禁用后,雄激素类固醇激素(AAS)仍然一直被参加奥运会的运动员滥用.掺杂有AAS的药物于1965年到1989年之间出现在德意志民主共和国(GDR),这些药物帮助GDR在奥运会上赢得了许多奖牌,尤其在女子项目上.AAS是目前在全世界和近两届夏季奥运会上在运动员尿检中检测到的最常见的违禁药物.获得科学证据证实AAS提高运动成绩的有效性是十分困难的,因为在研究工作中让男性实验者服用某些运动员和健美人士服用的大剂量的雄激素是很难获得伦理学批准

  4. EXPLORING THE PERCEPTIONS OF THE VOLUNTEERS FOR THE 2011 EUROPEAN YOUTH OLYMPICS THROUGH METAPHORS

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, İdris; İbrahim YILDIRAN,; Gamze BEYAZOĞLU,; Fatih BEKTAŞ,

    2013-01-01

    This research stemmed from the need to determine the volunteers’ points of view on the Olympics before Trabzon 2011 European Youth Olympics. The overall objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of volunteers who participated in the Olympic Games, by studying the metaphors they used. 480 participants randomly selected among volunteers of the European Youth Olympics held in Trabzon in 2011 took part in this study. Metaphors, used in relation to the concept of Olympics, were examine...

  5. Travel to the Rio Olympics

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-21

    Learn how to stay healthy and safe when travelling to the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.  Created: 7/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/21/2016.

  6. 亚运会和亚残运会运动员医疗实践比较分析%Analysis of medical practice for athletes in Asian Olympic Games and Paralympics Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤微珊; 杨宁; 沈怡; 姚红; 叶广春

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过对2010年亚运会和亚残运会亚运城医疗门诊部运动员的就诊病例进行对比分析,分析大型运动会中健全运动员与残疾人运动员的病例特点,提出相应的医疗保障方案。方法使用医疗信息统计表(MEF)采集亚运会和亚残运会期间就诊运动员的病例数据,进行对比分析。结果亚运会期间,亚运城医疗门诊部接诊运动员的前四位疾病依次是损伤性疾病(60.9%)、口腔科疾病(8.4%)、呼吸系统疾病(8.3%)、耳鼻喉科疾病(5.1%);亚残运会依次是损伤性疾病(61.6%)、呼吸系统疾病(9.2%)、口腔科疾病(7.9%)、耳鼻喉科疾病(3.1%)。结论大型运动会运动员的就诊趋势有典型的时间聚集性,一般集中在开赛前4天至运动会比赛期间,其中残疾人运动会运动员的接诊高峰较亚运会提前。运动员发生损伤性疾病的比例远高于其他疾病,对运动医学的康复治疗和外科损伤的治疗需求量大,医疗门诊部应重点配备充足的运动医学康复治疗师和医生,以及外科和急救医生。%Objective To conduct a comparing analysis on the out-patient cases collected during the Asian Olympic games and Paralympics Games and identify their characteristics and create more suitable medical care programs. Methods The data was collected by adopting the Medical Encounter Form (MEF) which was created by Asian Olympic committee, and was processed. Results The following diseases were found during the Asian Olympic Games: Injury (60.9% ), dental (8.4% ), respiratory (8.3% ), and ear-nose-throat (5.1% ); while during the Paralympics games were injury (61.6% ), respiratory (9.2% ), dental (7.9% ), and ear-nose-throat (3.1%). Conclusion It reflects that most hospital visits are occurred a few days before and during the games with a feature of majority of injury than other types of disease, which largely demands rehabilitation and

  7. The Microbial Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youle, Merry; Rohwer, Forest; Stacy, Apollo; Whiteley, Marvin; Steel, Bradley C.; Delalez, Nicolas J.; Nord, Ashley L.; Berry, Richard M.; Armitage, Judith P.; Kamoun, Sophien; Hogenhout, Saskia; Diggle, Stephen P.; Gurney, James; Pollitt, Eric J. G.; Boetius, Antje; Cary, S. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Every four years, the Olympic Games plays host to competitors who have built on their natural talent by training for many years to become the best in their chosen discipline. Similar spirit and endeavour can be found throughout the microbial world, in which every day is a competition to survive and thrive. Microorganisms are trained through evolution to become the fittest and the best adapted to a particular environmental niche or lifestyle, and to innovate when the ‘rules of the game’ are changed by alterations to their natural habitats. In this Essay, we honour the best competitors in the microbial world by inviting them to take part in the inaugural Microbial Olympics. PMID:22796885

  8. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  9. 从伦敦奥运会探析世界跆拳道格局变化原因%An Analysis on the Changes of World Taekwondo Competitive set- up at London Olympic Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱朝阳

    2012-01-01

    伦敦奥运会跆拳道比赛打破了传统跆拳道格局。通过统计对比历届奥运会金牌和奖牌分布情况,分析出本届奥运会跆拳道比赛特点和跆坛格局新变化。促成跆坛格局变化的原因有:采用电子护具记分、录像重审判决、以高分值鼓励高难度技术等规则的变化,以及跆拳道的全球化发展趋势的形成。%At London Olympic Game, the world Taekwondo Competitive setup was broken. This paper analysis the new changes of the taekwondo competitive setup and the games, by comparing the statistics of the Olympic medal' characteristics of London Olympic taekwondo competitive distribution through all these years. The reason for these new changes are : record the score by electronic protective apparatus, re -judge according to the video proof, high bonus points for the high difficulty movements, the formation of the global development trend for the taekwondo sports.

  10. 南京青奥会食品供应企业HACCP体系的建立%HACCP System Construction of Food Suppliers for Nanjing Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李榕; 周骏贵; 杨军; 胡飞杰

    2015-01-01

    Based on the relevant national standards for HACCP system, basic principles of HACCP system and the production & processing flow chart of food suppliers for Nanjing Youth Olympic Games (YOG), the paper makes the systematic analysis of all kinds of hazardous factors which may cause food pollution in the processing of milk, meat products, pastries and drinks, defines the critical control points and controls hazardous factors effectively, monitoring the control effects.%本文对在南京青奥会食品安全保障中实施HACCP体系进行探讨.依据与HACCP体系相关的国家标准,并根据南京青奥会食品供应企业的生产加工流程图和HACCP体系的基本原理,对液体乳、肉制品、糕点、饮料的加工过程中可能造成食品污染的各种危害因素进行系统分析,确定关键控制点,对危害因素进行控制,并对控制效果进行监控.

  11. Olympic Legacy: Material and Non-Material Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry K. Malashenkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the material and non-material aspects of making use of Olympic legacy. The author looks into existing approaches to assessing economic, ecological, and social effects of staging the Olympic Games and dwells upon one of the aspects of the legacy of the Sochi Winter Olympic Games-2014 – developing and testing federal standards for sports preparation across Olympic sports, which provide for the creation of a basis for forming the medical-biological components of sports preparation.

  12. Analytical progresses of the International Olympic Committee and World Anti-Doping Agency Olympic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Costas; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain; Robinson, Neil; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    The Summer Olympic Games constitute the biggest concentration of human sports and activities in a particular place and time since 776 BCE, when the written history of the Olympic Games in Olympia began. Summer and Winter Olympic anti-doping laboratories, accredited by the International Olympic Committee in the past and the World Anti-Doping Agency in the present times, acquire worldwide interest to apply all new analytical advancements in the fight against doping in sports, hoping that this major human event will not become dirty by association with this negative phenomenon. This article summarizes the new analytical progresses, technologies and knowledge used by the Olympic laboratories, which for the vast majority of them are, eventually, incorporated into routine anti-doping analysis.

  13. A SWOT analysis of Beijing Marathon game operation%北京马拉松赛事运作的 SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂丹

    2014-01-01

    In order to systematically analyze various factors in Beijing Marathon game operation, and to boost its better development, the author analyzed the internal and external environments of Beijing Marathon by means of SWOT analysis. The internal advantages of Beijing Marathon are mainly the organizer’s game operating experi-ences and resources, unique game routes and human landscapes, diversified game activities, market and common-weal combined game operating conception, relatively perfected safety and medical security, its internal disadvan-tages are mediocre game input and prize money, to be improved game service performance, and inadequate game derivative product development; its external opportunities are the time background of government function trans-formation, the changing of the game organizer, and gradually expanding mass base;its external threats are incom-plete sports legal environment, and the reinforcement of competitive power of similar games at home and abroad. According to the said factors, the author put forward pioneering, striving, contending and conservative types of strategies and specific measures.%运用SWOT分析法分析北京马拉松的内部与外部环境。北京马拉松内部优势主要是主办方的办赛经验和资源,独特的比赛路线和人文景观,丰富多彩的赛事活动,市场与公益结合的办赛理念,相对完善的安全、医疗保障;内部劣势是赛事投入和奖金不高,赛事服务水平有待提高,赛事衍生产品开发不足;外部机会是政府职能转变的时代背景,比赛承办单位的变化,逐渐扩大的群众基础;外部威胁是体育法治环境尚不健全,国内外同类赛事竞争力的加剧。根据上述因素提出了开拓型、争取型、抗争型、保守型4种战略及具体措施。

  14. Utilizing Chinese high-resolution satellite images for inspection of unauthorized constructions in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeRen; WANG Mi; HU Fen

    2009-01-01

    After Beijing wins the bit to host the 29th Olympic Games, in order to manifest the technical support advantages and capabilities of the autonomously-developed RS and GIS based change detection techniques in 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, and from the standpoints of executing new city planning, relieving the traffic congestion as well as maintaining the historic features, an automatic satellite monitoring system has been studied and established to accomplish the mission of unauthorized construction inspection within the Sixth Ring Road of Beijing city quarterly, by adopting the CBERS-2 satellite images and combining technologies of GIS, GPS, etc. This article discusses the applicable procedures and key issues when utilizing such Chinese satellite images and relevant techniques to discover the illegal constructions, and introduces the monitoring system from both the design and implementation aspects; additionally, some typical application cases in the practice of the system are also illustrated. The monitoring system can timely supply abundant information to facilitate the policy-making of relevant planning departments, thus providing consolidate technical support to eliminate the illegal constructing behaviors in the blossom. During the five years' excellent performance, it has helped China save large amounts of expenditures for processing of unauthorized constructed buildings.

  15. Assimilation and High Resolution Forecasts of Surface and Near Surface Conditions for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Natacha B.; Bélair, Stéphane; Bilodeau, Bernard; Tong, Linying

    2014-01-01

    A dynamical model was experimentally implemented to provide high resolution forecasts at points of interests in the 2010 Vancouver Olympics and Paralympics Region. In a first experiment, GEM-Surf, the near surface and land surface modeling system, is driven by operational atmospheric forecasts and used to refine the surface forecasts according to local surface conditions such as elevation and vegetation type. In this simple form, temperature and snow depth forecasts are improved mainly as a result of the better representation of real elevation. In a second experiment, screen level observations and operational atmospheric forecasts are blended to drive a continuous cycle of near surface and land surface hindcasts. Hindcasts of the previous day conditions are then regarded as today's optimized initial conditions. Hence, in this experiment, given observations are available, observation driven hindcasts continuously ensure that daily forecasts are issued from improved initial conditions. GEM-Surf forecasts obtained from improved short-range hindcasts produced using these better conditions result in improved snow depth forecasts. In a third experiment, assimilation of snow depth data is applied to further optimize GEM-Surf's initial conditions, in addition to the use of blended observations and forecasts for forcing. Results show that snow depth and summer temperature forecasts are further improved by the addition of snow depth data assimilation.

  16. ACTIVITIES OF SAINT-PETERSBURG RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF RADIATION HYGIENE AFTER PROFESSOR P.V. RAMZAEV FOR PROVISION OF RADIATION SAFETY OF XXII WINTER OLYMPIC AND XI WINTER PARALYMPICS GAMES OF 2014 IN SOCHI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains an analysis of the experience of Rospotrebnadzor radiological units’ activities for  radiation  safety  provision  of  the  participators  and  guests  of  XXII  Winter  Olympic  Games  in  Sochi  and  also of Sochi city inhabitants as during the period of preparations for the Games so during the period of the Olympic and Paralympics Games. Peculiarities of organization of activities of Rospotrebnadzor specialists are considered for  the  preparation  period  and  main  period,  the  occurred  problems  of  technical  and  methodical  provision  of radiation control which was carried out for the purpose of counteraction to possible actions of radiation terrorism are considered as well. The role is noted of the specialists of Radiation Hygiene Institute in the methodical and organizational provision of the whole complex of carried-out activities.

  17. Analysis on the Changes of the Advantage Competitive Sports Level among China、 America and Russia in Last Three Olympic Games%近三届奥运会中、美、俄三国竞技体育水平变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 李蓉

    2011-01-01

    运用文献资料法和对比分析法,对中、美、俄三国在悉尼、雅典和北京三届奥运会中夺取的奖牌数量、优势项目布局和各项目水平变化情况进行对比分析。结果表明:中国奖牌总数增加明显,优势项目表现突出,夺金面不断扩大,整体水平有较大提高,但金、银、铜牌数量分布不合理,呈"倒梯形";美国金牌总数趋于稳定,奖牌分布点较广,游泳、田径、篮球、沙滩排球等项目仍占有绝对优势;俄罗斯虽然奖牌数量明显减少,但部分项目仍具有较强的整体实力。%By using the methods of documentary and comparative analysis, this paper made comparative analysis on the numberof medals, the distribution of advantage sports events and the changes of the sports items level among China, America and Russia in Sydney, Athens and Beijing Olympics games. The result indicates that the number of medals and gold medals increase significantly, the advantage projects' performance is outstanding and the overall level has been enhanced greatly, but the distribution of gold, silver and bronze medals is unreasonable in China and looks like an inverted trapezoid. The total number of gold medals America has won is stable, and swimming, track and field, basketball, beach volleyball games have the absolute superiority in America. Although the number of medals Russia won reduces significantly, they still have a strong overall strength in some projects.

  18. Public Security Risk Factors and Defense Measures of 2014 Nanjing Youth Olympic Games%2014年南京青奥会公共安全风险及防范对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋

    2012-01-01

    举办青奥会,事关城市形象和国家利益,安全是关键所在.在公共安全领域,南京青奥会除了借鉴国内外大型体育赛事举办的经验之外,更重要的是根据南京的实际情况,运用风险管理技术,因地制宜地进行风险管理.本文从风险管理的角度出发,对2014年青奥会的公共安全风险进行分析,并结合国内外大型体育活动公共安全风险管理经验,提出南京青奥会公共安全风险防范措施,期望能对南京青奥会公共安全风险管理工作有所借鉴.%Nanjing will hold Youth Olympic Games in 2014, which is the image of the city and the interests of the state, and peace is the key. As the 2014 Youth Olympic Games organizer, Nanjing must draw lessons from others in the area of public security. It is important to apply risk management technology according to Nanjing reality and carry out the risk management to local conditions. The paper applies all kinds of risk management technology, combines successful experience of previous domestic and foreign large-scale sports activities, puts forward some risk defense measures, and hopes it will be helpful to Nanjing Youth Olympic Games, risk management.

  19. A medal share model for Olympic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ang Sun; Rui Wang; Zhaoguo Zhan

    2015-01-01

    A sizable empirical literature relates a nation's Olympic performance to socioeconomic factors by adopting linear regression or a Tobit approach suggested by Bernard and Busse (2004). We propose an alternative model where a nation's medal share depends on its competitiveness relative to other nations and the model is logically consistent. Empirical evidence shows that our model fits data better than the existing linear regression and Tobit model. Besides Olympic Games, the proposed model and ...

  20. System Design and Testing for CCTV Studio of the Olympic Games in London%伦敦奥运会央视前方报道中心演播室视频系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗新艳

    2013-01-01

      介绍伦敦奥运会中央电视台前方报道中心演播室视频系统的具体设计和实施过程,并总结了高清数字电视系统设计中整体调试情况。%  Video system design and installation for CCTV studio of the Olympic Games in London was introduced, and integral debug of HD digital TV program was also expressed in details.

  1. Analyzing rationality of scale adj ustment in weight-lifting of the Olympic Games%奥运会举重量级调整的合理性分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾博谦; 余先川

    2015-01-01

    通过建立数学模型来分析奥运会举重项目量级调整的合理性,为其将来的量级调整提供合理的参考依据。%Rationality of scale adj ustment in weight-lifting program of the Olympic Games is analyzed.A mathematical model is established,which can provide a reasonable reference for future adj ustment of weight-lifting program.

  2. Does the Olympic movement need the "white elephants"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Ermakov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It's no secret that one of the most sensitive issues related to the Olympic legacy is the issue of the white elephants. That’s what we call buildings and facilities constructed specifically for the competitions but not used after the Games and only inflicting losses. This issue is now growing into one of the most relevant, not only for the countries and cities which have received the highest honour of hosting the Olympic and Paralympic Games, but for the Olympic movement in general. This article describes the authors’ vision of ways to address the issue of white elephants through the implementation of a new organizational and financial model, which provides for the shift of the conventional Olympic paradigm, particularly with respect to selection of the to-be-host cities for the up-coming Olympics, and their funding instrument. The main idea of the proposed change is resolving to transformation of the Games venue selection procedures, with the abandonment of the city-specific applicant selection approach, and transition to deciding in favour of one of the Earth’s five continents as a future Olympic tilt-yard, with respect to the rotation principle. It is proposed that the obligations to organize the Olympic Games within this new system should be assigned to the Continental Olympic Committee (COC, operating on a permanent basis and including the representatives of the National Olympic Committees of this continent according to an agreed quota. Furthermore, it is proposed that governments of the continent’s countries should proportionately provide for financing the costs of the Games delivery. It is proposed to select locations for the future Olympic competitions from the standpoint that such locations should have all the necessary infrastructure in place and should not require fundamental investment. Continental Olympic Centres should be established in such locations. In our opinion, Continental Olympic Centre is a unified facility located

  3. The Modern Olympic Games "Oligarchs" Monopoly Status and Development Trend Explored%现代奥运会“寡头”垄断现状和发展态势探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志雷; 郭龙飞

    2012-01-01

    The modern Olympic Games after one hundred years development,advocates of "peace,friendship,progress" concept already thorough popular feeling.And in the future the integration of globalization will play more and more important role.For a long time the Olympic Games has always been the monopoly of the western firmly.And with its successful business model in the global scope to spread and expand.As the western colonial culture "angel" has long been the focus of today's talk about.Many of the sociology of the Olympic Games this global experts social phenomenon from different angle to the more and more detailed exposition.The authors think:the monopoly its essence is the monopoly of the western culture.From western powerful economic strength of support.And in these monopoly system is more of its economic kidnapped reflect.So can we use economics theory of the monopoly of the Olympic Games to the chain for comb.Make us better predict the human great social practice movement trend of full understanding of the Olympic movement has important significance.And for our country to adapt to the development trend of the Olympic Games to provide the reference.%现代奥运会历经百年发展,所倡导的"和平.友谊.进步"理念早已深入人心,并将在未来全球化的整合中扮演着越来越重要的角色。长期以来,奥运会被西方垄断着,并以其成功的商业运作模式得以在全球传播和扩展,作为西方殖民文化的"使者"早已成为当今谈论的焦点。很多社会学专家从不同的角度对奥运会这种全球社会现象进行了细致地阐述,认为:奥运会垄断其实质是西方文化的垄断,它是以西方强势的经济实力作为后盾。而在这一垄断体系中更多的是体现对本国经济的绑架。那么能否用经济学等理论对当今奥运会的垄断链条进行梳理,使我们能更好地预测奥运会这一人类伟大的社会实践运动的趋势,对全面了解奥林匹克运动有着重要的意义。

  4. Sulfur isotopic fractionation and source appointment of PM2.5 in Nanjing region around the second session of the Youth Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaobing; Shi, Lei; Chen, Shanli; Jiang, Wenjuan; Wei, Ying; Rui, Maoling; Zeng, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34S) of PM2.5 in Nanjing region were determined in order to evaluate sulfur sources of PM2.5 around the second session of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG). Meanwhile, δ34S values from different potential sources of PM2.5, such as coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, and straw burning, were synchronously measured for the first time. The results showed that PM2.5 concentrations and δ34S values were much lower during the YOG (2 August to 11 September 2014) compared to those before (6 July to 1 August 2014) and after (15 September to 20 September 2014) the YOG. δ34S values of PM2.5 were generally located in a small range of 3.5‰ to 4.6‰, suggesting a stable sulfur sources in Nanjing region around the YOG. Combining with δ34S values of potential sources and SO2, ion concentrations of PM2.5 and MODIS fire spot photos, we inferred that sulfur in PM2.5 was mainly from direct emission of coal combustion and vehicle exhaust as well as the secondary sulfate from SO2 oxidation in the atmosphere. Besides, biologic sulfur release might make a contribution to sulfur content in PM2.5. High [NO3-]/[SO42 -] ratio of PM2.5 indicated that vehicle exhaust emission was predominant over coal combustion during the YOG. In addition, we studied sulfur isotopic fractionation coefficients during SO2 oxidation to sulfate in PM2.5 and found the contribution ratio (51.3%) of SO2 homogeneous oxidation was slightly higher than that (48.7%) of SO2 heterogeneous oxidation around the YOG.

  5. Olympic diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Ian W; Redgrave, Ann; Redgrave, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Winning an Olympic gold medal represents the pinnacle of achievement in any sporting event, to do so with diabetes is almost miraculous. This report outlines the history and management of Steven Redgrave's diabetes, and describes the physiology associated with the extremes of human endurance and the difficulties that this presents.

  6. Athletes with the Most Olympic Gold Medals in History%“奥”林霸主英雄榜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿诺(译)

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 Summer Olympic Games are approaching, taking place in London for a third time. Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt, the heroes and biggest stars of the Olympic games in Beijing, will be making a return to defend their medals, with Phelps aiming to keep his legend and record for golds going, while Bolt will try to do the unthinkable and actually break his un-human like records. But Bolt has a long way to go before he enters the list of most decorated Olympians, with 3 gold medals to his name so far. The following is the list of most successful Olympic athletes in terms of gold medals.%何谓“奥”林英雄?院黑马之势,大杀各方,勇夺金牌,笑傲群雄。何谓“奥”林霸主?雄踞一方,岿然不动,领奖领到腿抽筋,数金牌数到手软。当英雄不易,成为霸主更是难上加难,可还是有些人天纵奇才、勤学苦练,所得奖牌数让人可望而不可即。现在就随本文一起盘点—下历史上夺金最多的五大“奥”林霸主吧!

  7. Succession, Development and Innovation of the Master Plan of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> The Master Plan of Beijing (2004 - 2020),approved in January 2005 by the State Council, is an important strategic, holistic and comprehensive plan for Beijing to face the new century, to realize the stra-tegic proposition of"New Beijing, Great Olympics", and to fully push forward the harmonious and sustainable development of economy, society, population, resources and environment.

  8. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  9. The Contest for Olympic Succes as a Public Good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study considers the performance of countries at the Olympic Games as a public good. Firstly, it is argued that, at the national level, Olympic success meets the two key conditions of a public good: non-rivalry and non-excludability. Secondly, it is demonstrated that standard income inequality m

  10. Go for the Gold by Utilizing the Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests ways to incorporate legal issues related to the Olympic Games into a business law or legal environment course. As demonstrated in previous issues of this journal and elsewhere, material related to sports law can serve as an engaging supplement to traditional legal subjects. Topics that can be related to the Olympics include…

  11. Residence Halls for the Olympics--and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Allen

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia Institute of Technology received some funding from the Olympic 1996 Summer Games to add 2,800 new beds and renovate 4,600 existing beds to meet the needs of Olympic athletes and future students. The housing department used market research to find out what facilities students preferred. (MLF)

  12. China Says No to Post-Olympic Recession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Can China break the magic spell? Will China break the traditional pattern of post-Olympic slowdown?Since the Second World War.GDP growth in the host country of the Summer Olympics has always suffered in the year following the Games.

  13. Beijing International Sculpture Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Inauguration of the 2002 Beijing International Urban Sculptural Art Exhibition also saw the opening of the Beijing International Sculpture Park on Yuquan Road, Beijing. The park houses 140 statues.This exhibition is aimed at promoting exchanges and cooperation among sculptors across the world, integrating urban sculpture into everyday life, and encouraging innovation in this sector. It is expected to bring inspiration to Beijing as regards new concepts in urban construction, through exchanges with other nations. This exhibition constitutes interaction between the public and art, and dialogue between China and the world.The works on display are Beijing’s latest attraction, and add a touch of modernity to this ancient city. Some are to be placed in sports stadiums during the 2008 Olympics.

  14. 伦敦奥运会羽毛球消极比赛事件的可拓策略分析%Analysis of the Badminton Match-throwing at London Olympic Games Based on ESGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪志; 刘玮

    2013-01-01

    2012年伦敦奥运会上,羽毛球选手的消极比赛引起了广泛关注.运用可拓学的理论和方法,对产生羽毛球消极比赛事件的关键因素进行基元分析,并以博弈论和可拓集合理论为指导,探索处理这一问题的系统最优策略.%At the London Olympics Games in 2012,the badminton match-throwing scandal caused a big stir and hurt most spectators.This paper presents an element analysis of the key factors causing the lackluster performance from the perspective of ESGS and attempts to find a systematic and optimal approach to cases of this kind under the guidance of extension set theory and game theory.

  15. 夏季奥运会中国体育代表团奖牌点变化特征研究%Medals’variation characteristics of Chinese sports delegation in summer Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋亮

    2014-01-01

    运用文献资料法、对比分析法、数理统计法等,对“奥运争光计划”实施以来中国体育代表团夏季奥运会奖牌点的变化进行分析研究。研究表明:1)我国在奥运会金、奖牌榜的名次稳步提升,从“第二集团前列”到“跻身第一集团”再到伦敦奥运会“站稳第一集团”;2)金、银、铜牌的倒挂现象比较明显,得牌效率在提高;3)从对金、奖牌的贡献率来看,不存在“阴盛阳衰”的情况;4)传统优势项目对奥运奖牌贡献率逐届降低;5)非传统优势项目逐步突破,但不够稳定;6)项目结构有所优化,但还需进一步改善。%Through adopting documentation,mathematical statistics and comparative analysis,the pa-per made an analysis on the medals’variation characteristics of China in Summer Olympic Games since the implementation of“the program of striving for Olympic glory”. The research showed that since the implementation of“the program”,1 )the ranking of our country in Olympic Games promote steadily:from the front“row of second group”to“ascend the first group”to“stabilize the first group”in London Olympic Games;2 )the phenomenon of upside down of gold,silver and bronze medals is obvious,the efficiency of winning medals is improving;3 )from the view of contribution rate to gold medals and medals,the phenomenon of“strong female,weak male”does not exist;4) the contribution rate of traditional advantage events to medals is lowering;5 )untraditional advantage events got breakthrough step by step,but still unstable;6)events’structure got optimizing but need more improvement.

  16. 北京奥运物流仓库地基处理方案比选与实施%Ground treatment design and practice of Beijing Olympic Distribution Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心军

    2011-01-01

    Considering the condition of hydrogeology,structure,base,environment,material and the limit of construction time,cost and quality of Beijing Olympic Distribution Center project,two schemes of ground treatment were selected.The best scheme was chosen by means of comparing the cost,reinforce theory,material,and so on.The technological process and key points of quality control for piles were determined.Based on the current codes and practical experience,suitable methods were chosen to test the effect of ground treatment,and the results show that the selected scheme is suitable.%综合考虑北京奥运物流仓库工程的水文地质条件、建筑结构类型及基础形式、周围环境条件、材料供应情况、施工条件等因素,平衡各方对工程质量、工期和成本的要求,初选两种地基处理方案;运用地基基础理论进行方案设计,通过工程造价、加固机理、使用材料等技术经济指标比较,选择最佳方案。选择成桩工艺,确定施工工艺流程和质量控制要点;依据现行相关规范,结合实践经验,选用低应变反射波、单桩竖向抗压静载试验和现场观测等方法进行桩身完整性、单桩承载力及沉降效果检验,结果表明已选的方案满足设计要求。

  17. System Construction and Process Management of Volunteer Service in Nan-jing Youth Olympic Games%南京青奥会志愿服务的系统建构与流程管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      “奥林匹克运动会是运动员的盛会,也是志愿者的盛会”。2014年8月,南京青奥会即将举行。为了举办一届成功精彩的赛会,有必要对青奥会志愿服务的组织与管理进行深入研究设计,以完善系统构架、提高管理效率。本文从系统论和流程管理的基本思想出发,提出志愿服务系统建构与流程管理的具体思路,为提升南京青奥会志愿服务水平进言献策。%The Olympic Games is a celebration of both athletes and volunteers .Nanjing Youth O-lympic Games will be held in August 2014 .In order to make it successful and wonderful ,the or-ganization and management of volunteer service in Nanjing YOG must be well studied and de-signed .Thus ,the efficiency of volunteer system and management can be improved .This article bases on theories of general system theory and process management ,and puts forward specific i-deas of system construction and process management of volunteer service in Nanjing YOG .

  18. Principle of Sports Tipping Point and Its Inspiration for The Nan Jing Youth Olympic Games%体育引爆流行的机制及其对南京青奥会的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立平

    2014-01-01

    运用文献分析、归纳演绎等研究方法,对体育引爆流行的历史事实进行了梳理,探讨了体育引爆流行的归因及机制。本文认为,南京青奥会可以借助体育引爆流行的法则进行城市营销,并初步提出了南京青奥会引爆流行的设想。%The history of Sports Tipping Point was reviewed in this paper by the method of literature analysis, induction and deduction. It discussed the attribution and mechanism of Sports Tipping Point. This paper proposed that, The Nan Jing 2014 Youth Olympic Games can improve its competence by city marketing with the law of Sports Tipping Point. It also put forward the ideas of Tipping Point for Nan Jing Youth Olympic Games.

  19. 南京2014青奥会推广宣传片视觉文化解析%Visual Culture Analysis of Publicity Program of Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing,2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊东声; 史立峰

    2012-01-01

    The publicity program of Youth Olympic Games is the visual text tranmitted with visual signs and is the main media connecting the host city.It transforms the sports spirit,host concept and something like that the host city want to deliver into a series of visual signs which resemble true images,and deliver its values in a metaphorical way.The paper proposes to apply the semiotics method of the visual culture transmission to analyze the extending broadcast program of Youth Olympic Games of Nanjing,in 2014,with a macroscopic and microcosmic visual culture view.%青奥推广宣传片是以视觉符号为传播的电视影像文本,是外界连接主办城市的主要媒介。它将主办城市要传递的体育精神、主办理念等转换为一连串的接近真实意象的视觉符号,并以"隐喻"的方式传达价值观。运用视觉文化传播的符号学方法,对南京2014年青奥会推广宣传片进行宏观和微观的视觉文化分析。

  20. Research on Medals in the 29th Olympic Games and the Development of Track and Field of the World%29届奥运会田径奖牌分布及世界田径发展态势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 吴国生

    2009-01-01

    The Olympic Games are the true level of the national sports reflection. The distribution of medals fully reflects the item in their ability to meet the world's advanced level. As a major of sports,Track and fields often reflects the level of development of the country's competitive strength. Through the statistics of track and field medals in this Olympic Games, and analysis of the development of track and fields, the direction of development of track and fields will be grasped.%奥运会是各国体育运动水平的真实体现,奖牌的分布情况充分体现了各国在各项目上的水平.田径作为体育运动的大项,它的发展水平往往体现了该国的竞技实力,通过对29届奥运会田径奖牌的分布情况进行统计,分析田径运动的发展态势,从而把握田径运动的发展方向.

  1. History of Psychological Service in Preparation for Olympic Games for China National Teams%国家队备战奥运会心理科技服务工作三十年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雪琴

    2013-01-01

    为运动队开展心理科技服务是备战奥运会的重要科技支持工作.本文回顾了我国运动心理科技服务发展的历史片断,并结合本人三十年深入运动实践,为不同运动项目奥运健儿开展针对性心理监测、心理咨询、心理训练、心理恢复和重大比赛前的心理准备等工作经验,总结出了一套适用于运动队的心理科技服务工作内容、工作程序和方式方法.%Psychology service is important for China National Teams for preparation of Olympic Games. This paper reviewed the history of sport psychology service in China and summarized 30-year experiences of the author on psychological measurement and evaluation, psychological counseling, mental training, mental rehabilitation and psychological preparation before important competitions and Olympic Games. In the paper, the items,procedures and methods of psychological service specially designed for Chinese athletes were outlined.

  2. 大型体育赛事风险评估研究*--以南京青奥会为例%A Study on the Risk Assessment for Major Sports Events---A Case Study from Nanjing Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华桂; 吴超

    2014-01-01

    依据风险管理理论及体育赛事组织运行规律,以2014年南京青奥会为研究样本,运用列表排列法进行权重分析与预测,提出了南京青奥会的风险应对措施。通过对大型体育赛事的风险要素体系进行研究,以期为我国大型体育赛事风险管理提供参考。%Based on the theory of risk management and the organization and operation rules of sports events ,with the study sample of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games in year 2014 ,and using the method of list arrangement to conduct weight analysis and prediction .this paper puts forward several risk countermeasures for Nanjing Youth Olympic Games .Through the study on the risk factors system of major sports events ,it is hoped to provide reference for risk management for China during hosting major sports events .

  3. 大型体育赛事风险评估研究*--以南京青奥会为例%A Study on the Risk Assessment for Major Sports Events---A Case Study from Nanjing Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华桂; 吴超

    2013-01-01

    依据风险管理理论及体育赛事组织运行规律,以2014年南京青奥会为研究样本,运用列表排列法进行权重分析与预测,提出了南京青奥会的风险应对措施。通过对大型体育赛事的风险要素体系进行研究,以期为我国大型体育赛事风险管理提供参考。%Based on the theory of risk management and the organization and operation rules of sports events ,with the study sample of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games in year 2014 ,and using the method of list arrangement to conduct weight analysis and prediction .this paper puts forward several risk countermeasures for Nanjing Youth Olympic Games .Through the study on the risk factors system of major sports events ,it is hoped to provide reference for risk management for China during hosting major sports events .

  4. The SWOT Analysis of Tourism Development in Nanjing in Background of Youth Olympic Games%青奥会背景下南京旅游业发展的SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉韵

    2013-01-01

    The Second Youth Olympic Games is an international sports event,and it has significant promoting effect on improving the force of Nanjing city,developing its tourism resources,and accelerating the common infrastructure construction. In the background of preparing for The Youth Olympic Games in 2014,the paper utilizes the SWOT method to analyze the whole situation in Nanjing.%第二届青年奥林匹克运动会作为国际性赛事对于南京提高城市影响力,开发旅游资源,加快公共基础设施建设有着重要的推动作用。在2014年青奥会的背景下,本文对南京市发展旅游业存在的优势与机遇、问题和威胁进行了分析,为以后的系列研究课题打下基础。

  5. Adidas Eyes Olympics to Take Nike's UK Crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    German sportswear maker Adidas plans to use the Olympic Games in London next year to generate 100 million pounds($165 million)of sales in the UK and steal market leadership there from arch rival Nike.

  6. 动商--献给南京青奥会的一份特殊礼物%Motor Quotient---A Special Gift to Nanjing Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗平; 张红兵; 张怡

    2014-01-01

    Nanjing Youth Olympic Games in 2014,as the International Olympic Committee(IOC) gift to the 8 mil-lion Nanjing residents help us to get into the good habit of sports and a healthy lifestyle. Besides presenting the first-class sports facilities,long history and culture,beautiful environment of the city,what else can we offer?Our sports-related spiritual and cultural product,or new ideas and theories innovation? Perhaps the theory of Motor Quotient ( MQ) could fill in the blanks. As a sport card of Nanjing,MQ is an unprecedented interpretation of sports to the world. It is the ability of people conquer themselves and objective in exercises,the motor talents and potential. Most of students have higher IQ,EQ is not enough,but the most lack is MQ. As an aid in the person�s growth,the adult, enlightenment and success,the key to a successful,a generator,achievement. MQ comes from sports,from exercises, and more from life,it should become an important part of our lives.%2014年南京青奥会,作为国际奥委会献给800万南京市民的一份厚礼,有助于激发我们养成良好的运动习惯和形成健康的生活方式。作为回馈,我们除了呈现一流的体育设施、悠久的历史文化、优美的城市环境外,还可以奉献什么呢?我们与体育有关的的精神和文化产品呢?我们与运动有关的思想和理论创新呢?动商,或许可以弥补这一空白!动商,作为南京向世界递交的运动名片,谱写了前所未有的运动理念。动商,是人们克服自身和客观事物进行运动的能力,是运动天赋和运动潜能。现在的学生,大多数智商不低,情商不高,最缺少的是动商,动商作为启迪和辅助人的成长、成人、成才、成功、成器、成就的关键,源于体育、源于运动,更源于生活,因此也应该成为我们生活的一部分。

  7. Coastal Wind Analysis Based on Active Radar in Qingdao for Olympic Sailing Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartalis, C.; Stathopoulou, M.; Iacovides, S.; Stratoulias, D.; Karvounis, G.; Helmi, A.

    2008-04-01

    The impact of a major sporting event, such as the Olympic Games, is assessed for the city of Athens which hosted the Olympic Games in 2004. A special indicator depicting the quality of life in an urban environment is defined and applied so as to assess changes prior and after the Olympic Games for Athens. The estimation of the indicator is based to satellite and ground data. It is found that several areas of the overall urban agglomeration of Athens enjoy an improvement in the quality of life indicator. This is mostly due to the hosting of sporting and non sporting Olympic venues as well as due to urban regeneration and transport projects.

  8. The Educational Value of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games for Teenagers and Its Realization Path%南京青奥会对青少年的教育价值及其实现途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    东芬; 尤传豹; 杨静

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the educational value of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games for teenagers and the path to its realization. It has found that the educational value of Nanjing youth Olympic Games mainly lies in the spreading of the Olympic Spirit,helping the youth develop a good lifestyle and raise their awareness of social re-sponsibility. The value has been realized through the carrier-role of the logo of the Games and the educational role of model athletes. The study suggests that after the Games the educational value be further promoted so that an educa-tional legacy is preserved. The study intends to provide valuable information for raising the physical and mental health levels of the youth and the development of sports work for the youth.%运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法、逻辑分析法等研究方法,围绕南京青奥会对青少年的教育价值及其实现途径进行了深入研究,认为南京青奥会对青少年的教育价值主要体现在:传播奥林匹克精神;促进青少年参与体育运动,建立良好的生活方式;培养青少年的公民意识和公共精神等方面。实现途径主要有:通过南京青奥会标志的载体作用、榜样教育等。研究还对“后青奥”时期推广南京青奥会的教育价值提出了建议,以期形成南京青奥会的教育遗产,为提高青少年身心健康水平,推动青少年体育工作的发展提供参考。

  9. The List of Summer Olympic Mascots%历届夏季奥运会吉祥物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    日尧

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since the first mascot in Olympic history made its appearance at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, mascots have become a main element of the Olympic image. As a unique and popular image full of vitality2, a mascot is able to materialize3 the Olympic spirit, communicate the concepts of each Olympic Games, promote the history and culture of the host city4 and create a festive atmosphere for the Games. Mascots act as a significant vehicle5 for communieating the Olympic spirit to the general public, especially children and youth. Whatever shapes they have, they fundamentally share a creative rationale6, that is, the mascots must be able to convey the theme of the Olympic Games, showcase7 the distinctive8 geographical features, history and culture unique to the host city.

  10. 第30届奥运会男篮比赛的核心致胜因素分析%An analysis of core factors for winning men’s basketball games played in the 30th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永波; 吴泽泰

    2014-01-01

    The authors applied Spearman’s two column rank correlation analysis method to calculate the correla-tions between rankings listed for and techniques used in men’s basketball games played in the 30th London Olympic Games, used top 12 indexes arranged in the order of such correlation coefficients to compare the differences be-tween strong, medium and weak teams in order to verify various factors for winning, and therefore drew the fol-lowing conclusions:rankings were closely related to assists, 2-pointers, average points per game, misses and defen-sive rebounds;it can be known from index differences that ordinary factors for strong teams to win weak teams in group games were stronger individual offense ability, teamwork ability, defense aggressiveness and 3-point shooting ability;important factors for strong teams to win in elimination games were defense ability stronger than their op-ponents, stronger contest ability during offense, capability to make their opponents foul more and strong un-der-basket offense ability; competitions between strong teams were competitions of 3-pointers, rebounds, penalty shots and assists;core factors for strong teams to win were steady long shot technique, super strong individual of-fense ability, rebound snatching ability and inside scoring ability.%运用Spearman(斯皮尔曼)二列等级相关分析法计算第30届伦敦奥运会男篮比赛名次与技术相关关系,以此相关系数排序较高12项指标比较奥运会比赛强、中、弱3种水平队的差幅,求证获胜各种因素。因而得出,名次与助攻、2分球命中率次数及场均得分、失误、防守篮板有密切的关系。从指标差幅中可知,小组赛中强队胜弱队的一般制胜因素是较强的个人攻击能力、配合能力、防守攻击性和3分球远投能力。复赛中获胜强队的重要制胜因素是防守能力强于对手,进攻中对抗能力强,能更多地造成对方犯规和篮下攻击能力

  11. The Study on the Gold Medals of China at Beijing Olympic Games and Athens Olympic Games%北京奥运会与雅典奥运会中国金牌对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁海中; 杨国顺

    2009-01-01

    通过北京奥运会与雅典奥运会金牌分布情况的对比分析,探讨北京奥运会在雅典奥运会基础上的伟大进步,以及两届奥运会的金牌项目的差别,分析我国竞技体育项目的发展不平衡状况和存在的问题,展望我国竞技体育项目的发展趋势.

  12. Evaluation and Effectiveness of Tourism Strategies of Olympics Hosting Cities

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The Olympic Games is one of the most important mega-events of the world. On this platform, the human beings do not only peruse “higher, quicker, and stronger”, but also the integration of diverse cultures and the development of the economy. Tourism industry catches people’s attention for its great benefits brought by the Olympic Games. This dissertation focuses on the tourism strategies, the key element to maximize the Olympic tourism profits of the host country. With the main purpose of eval...

  13. CHANGXINDIAN OIL STORAGE TO BE LARGEST ONE IN BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 11, the revision and expansion engineering of Changxindian Oil Storage, run by Sinopec Beijing Oil Company, kicked off formally, marking that another Olympic infrastructure engineering started building.

  14. Springboard to Success China’s top woman diver sets out to make a big splash at the Beijing Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Four years ago,Guo Jingjing, the young diving queen could have retired at the prime of her career.She had nothing left to prove.Back then,she was already a legendary athlete.She had competed in three Olympics,pocketing two gold

  15. The nutrition and health profile of the Turkish female national weightlifting team who attended to pre-camp of Beijing Olympics- Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Ozdemir

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, National Turkish weightlifter female team who joined preparation camp before 2008 Beijing Olympiads nutrition habits, food intake, using of nutritional ergogenic aids, anthropometric measures and biochemical findings have been evaluated. Nine athletes who have been taken the camp participated to this study. The information were collected about their anthropometric (height, body weight, waist-hip circumference, waist / height ratio, body fat values and biochemical measures, nutritional habits of the athletes. Total energy were evaluated by taking three days food consumption records of macro and micro-nutrient consumption and and analyzed with nutrition information program (BEBIS. All the parameters have been analysized as statistics, mean and standart deviations have been calculated. It has been determined that athletes haven’t intake sufficient energy, needs of macro and micro nutrition nutrients (especially, they have been consuming protein, carbohydrate, calcium, potassium, iron, folic acid and B1 vitamin insufficently, and their intake of fluid and fibre are insufficent. It has been found that athletes are using supplements (aminoacid, whey protein, multivitamin/mineral, tribulus terrestris, glucozamine chondroitin sulfate, gincgo bloba ve creatine and they aren’t conscious enough using these products. Inspite of aminoacid and protein supports, it has been understood that intake doesn’t cover necessity. It has been found as average of athletes age is 19.7 ± 3.7 years, average of height is 156.7 ± 5.9 cm, average of body weight is 57.5 ± 10.4 kg, average of body mass index (BMI is 23.2 ± 2.7 kg/m2, average of body fat percentage is %21.8 ± 5.9, average of body fat mass 13.0 ± 5.9 kg. It has been found that there were five athletes who are more heavier than body weight (3.2± 1.0 kg by competition weight, and there is one athletes who has lower weight (4 kg by competition weight. It has been concluded that athletes

  16. Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA and Major Sports Events: A Comparative Analysis of the London 2012 Olympic Games and the Rio 2007 Pan American Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Silva Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores public participation in environmental impact assessment (EIA and the decision making in the context of major sports events and their associated infrastructure in Brazil and England. The methodology is based on detailed case study analysis involving document analysis and interviews with key stakeholders. The results demonstrated that there is evidence that public participation within the EIA process informed the decision making and planning process for London 2012 and for the Pan American Village of the Rio 2007 Games. Finally, a practical recommendation for the Brazilian context and recommendations for further research are made. Participação pública na Avaliação de Impacto Ambiental (AIA e megaeventos esportivos: uma análise comparativa dos Jogos Olímpicos de Londres 2012 e dos Jogos Pan Americanos do Rio 2007 - Este artigo explora a participação pública na Avaliação de Impacto Ambiental (AIA e a tomada de decisão no contexto de megaeventos esportivos e a infraestrutura associada no Brasil e na Inglaterra. A metodologia baseia-se em estudo de caso envolvendo análise de documentos e entrevistas com atores-chave. Os resultados demonstraram que há evidência de que a participação pública integrante do processo de AIA informou a tomada de decisão e o processo de planejamento para Londres 2012 e para a Vila Pan Americana dos Jogos do Rio 2007. Finalmente, uma recomendação prática para o contexto brasileiro e recomendações para pesquisas futuras são destacadas.

  17. 南京青奥会与江苏省初中生体育价值观的研究%Research on Nanjing Youth Olympic Games and the Values of Junior Middle School Students in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈程

    2014-01-01

    本研究通过自编问卷调查江苏省南京市、扬州市、常州市、淮安市共计9所中初中生,调查了解江苏省初中生的体育价值观现状、初中生对南京青奥会的认知情况。调查研究表明:到目前为止,我省初中生的体育价值观和初中生对南京青奥会的认知情况还是值得肯定的,但是还存在不足和可提升的地方,如存在认知内容上的脱节现象和地区之间的差异现象,本研究旨在通过调查了解南京青奥会对我省初中生体育价值观的影响,推动初中生积极参与体育锻炼,形成正确的体育价值观。%This paper conducted by the self -made questionnaire making a survey of Nanjing , Yangzhou, Changzhou city in Jiangsu province , aims to study the situation of sports values of junior middle school students in Jiangsu province , junior school students cognition of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games .The survey research shows that the junior middle school students sports values and the cognition of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games in junior middle school students is still worthy of recognition , but there is insufficient , such as the existence of disconnection between cognitive content and regional differences between phenomenon , this study aims to investigate the Nanjing Youth Olympic Games influence on junior middle school students in our province , promote the junior middle school students to take an active part in physical exercise , forming the correct sports values .

  18. Green Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It seems all happened in a moment.White clouds float in blue sky,green trees are decorated by colorful flags with warm smiling images,and the building are taking a brand new appearance...Some magic must has been done to Beijing:it turns to a cleaner,healthier and more beautiful city.

  19. Some Case Studies on How Media Constructs Olympic Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lennartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During the entire history of the modern Olympic Games, from their renaissance in 1896, when the firsth edition had been heldin Athens and until the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936, the present paper makes an analyse of the real facts and of thelegends created around them. The sports journal and the other publications are important factors in the distorsion of the realityand keeping the legend. From the athletes heros like Spiridon Louis, the first winner of the marathon and the myth buildaround the way of winning this race , to the story of the 100m won by Jesse Owens at 36 Olympic Games who have been heldin Berlin and the fact that Hitler refused to shake the hand of the Olympic champion, the purpose of this paper is to combat themyths developed since. The facts are substantiated by using the chronological datas, using the notes and minutes of meetings,as well using photographic means.

  20. Exploring an Olympic "Legacy": Sport Participation in Canada before and after the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Guided by the notion of a trickle-down effect, the present study examines whether sport participation in Canada increased following the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Comparing rates of sport participation prior to and following the Games using nationally representative data, the results suggest that the Olympics had almost no impact on sport participation in Canada, although there does appear to be a modest "bounce" in sport participation in the Vancouver area immediately following the Vancouver Games. As such, if the trickle-down effect did occur, the analysis suggests that the effect was locally situated, short-lived, and small.

  1. NOT FOR ONE TIME USE ONLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Olympic stadiums, at a cost of billions of dollars, should be well utilized after the Beijing Olympic Games Now that the bell of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is soon to ring, people at home and abroad have

  2. Impact of the Bidding for Winter Olympics on Zhangjiakou’s Tourism Industry and Corresponding Countermeasures%申办冬奥会对张家口旅游业的影响及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永莉; 王建红

    2015-01-01

    在当今世界,冬奥会是影响力仅次于夏奥会的综合性体育赛事,它对举办地的旅游业乃至经济会产生重大影响。在分析京张联合申办冬奥会对张家口旅游业产生影响的各种因素的基础上,从打造形象品牌、加强市场开发和创建旅游环境等方面提出一些建议与对策,希望能引起业界对奥运旅游的重视,采取积极主动的措施,实现奥运旅游效应的最大化。%Among the sport games in the modern world,the influence of the Winter Olympic Games is only second to that of the Summer Olympic Games,which tends to have a significant impact on the tourism industry and economy of the host city.Aiming at the Beijing-Zhangjiakou co-bidding for the Winter Olym-pics of 2022,the paper analyzes some impacts which the bidding brings about on Zhangjiakou,and offers some suggestions in forging image brand,strengthening market development and establishing tourist envi-ronment,hoping that the tourism industry can pay more attention to Olympic tourism,take initiative meas-ures and realize the maximization of Olympic tourist effect.

  3. 非奥运项目视野下对武术发展模式的思考%Reflection on Wushu Development Mode f rom the Perspective of Non -Olympic Games Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华

    2015-01-01

    对非奥运会正式比赛项目———竞技武术进行了相关研究,从其面临的困境及未来的发展方向进行探讨,并提出了以市场需求为导向,借鉴品牌模式发展武术是解决目前困境的正确路径。%T he article attempts to do related research into Competitive Wushu ———non Olympic Games project and discuss the challenge it faces and the future ,providing a right way to solve the prob‐lems ,that is ,take the market demand as the guidance and depend on the development of brand model .

  4. “让理念照进现实”:探究青奥会成功之道--专访2014年南京青奥组委会总体策划部朱华林部长%“Ideals into Reality ":Exploring Success of Youth Olympic Games---Interveiw with ZHU Hua -lin,the Secretary of Corporate Planning Department,Nanjing Youth O-lympic Games Organizing Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成

    2014-01-01

    With the close of Nanjing Asian Youth Games ,2014 Nanjing Youth Olympic Games have been in close proximity after careful preparation more than four years .During the final stage of organization ,people become more and more con-cerned about following subjects :what work still needs attention ,how to implement frugal idea ,how to play the continuity and longevity of the Cultural and Educational Program ,how to layout the YOG’s events ,how to plan and implement herit-age after the Games .With regards to those issues ,the author taked an exclusive interview with ZHU Hua -lin ,the Secre-tary of Corporate Planning Department ,2014 Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organizing Committee ,to explore and pros-pect organizing vision and principles of Nanjing YOG .The issues of this interview are as follows :the organization process and focuses at present ;organizing philosophy and characteristics of Nanjing YOG ;design and implementation of Cultural and Educational Program ;events layout ;volunteerism Spiritual refinement ;sports city construction ;planning and assess-ment after the Games ,and YOG legacy .%历经4年多的精心筹备,随着南京亚青会的圆满落幕,2014年南京青奥会已近在咫尺。在筹办的最后阶段,有哪些工作仍需注意,节俭理念如何落实,文化与教育活动如何发挥出持续性和长久性,青奥项目比赛如何布局,赛后遗产如何规划实施等问题,日益引起人们的关注和思考。为此,《体育与科学》杂志编辑部与南京青奥组委会总体策划部朱华林部长进行专访,就现阶段南京青奥会的筹办进程与重点、南京青奥会的办会理念与特色、文化与教育活动的设计与实施、比赛项目布局、志愿精神提炼、体育名城建设、赛后规划评估以及青奥遗产理念等问题展开访谈,展望青奥筹办愿景,探讨青奥办会之道。

  5. English for The Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article is part of a series produced by the British Council to help you learn English and enjoy the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Do you know which language 'hockey' comes from? Find out here,

  6. 本地居民对南京青奥会感知的纵向比较研究%A Longitudinal Comparison of Local Residents’ Pre-and Post-Games Perceptions of the 2014 Nanjing Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖弦; 黄海燕; 廉涛

    2016-01-01

    Taking the 2014 Youth Olympic Games as an example,this paper discussed the local residents’ perceptions of the Games’ social,economic,and environmental impacts,both positive and negative. Based on the social exchange theory and prospect theory,the paper analyzed the change in local residents’ perceptions,and found that positive impacts of the e-vent were greater than negative ones,and that the post-game perception levels were enhanced. Significant differences in perception levels before and after the Games included positive and negative social impacts and negative economic ones. The study offers the following suggestions for future mega sports events:(1)bringing into full play the functions of the govern-ment;(2)increasing the participation of residents;(3)controlling the negative impacts of events;(4)making practical and feasible strategic plans for post-event development.%以2014年南京青奥会为研究对象,运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法及纵向比较法等,对青奥会举办前三个月和举办后三个月的同一居民进行跟踪调查,以社会交换理论及展望理论为理论基础,从本地居民的角度探讨青奥会赛前赛后居民在社会、经济、环境正负方面感知的变化。研究表明:从居民角度,南京青奥会的正面影响大于负面影响,且居民在赛后对青奥会影响的感知水平有所增强;居民在青奥会赛前和赛后感知变化显著的方面包括青奥会对社会的正面影响、青奥会对社会的负面影响和青奥会对经济的负面影响。据此,该研究结果可以为未来我国举办各项大型体育赛事提供建议与参考:(1)加快促进赛事正面影响,加强遏制赛事负面影响;(2)制定长期的后赛事发展战略规划,提高赛后感知水平;(3)适时改变相关政策,提高赛后经济正面影响和环境影响感知。

  7. 从青奥会看大型体育赛事场馆运行风险管理%Operation risk management of large sports venues from the Youth Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温阳; 余方亮

    2015-01-01

    对场馆运行模式下南京青奥会的风险识别、评估和应对的成功经验进行总结。大型体育赛事组织模式从“条条”转变成“块块”,场馆运行的内容发生了变化,风险也随之增加。以大型体育赛事场馆运行风险作为研究对象,通过风险的识别,构建了风险评估指标体系和评估细则;接着以南京青奥会为例进行风险评估;最后提出了大型体育赛事场馆运行风险的应对和监控措施,达到风险管理的目标。%This paper has summarized the successful experience in risk identification, evaluation and response under venue operation mode of Nanjing Youth Olympic Games.The organization model has transformed from vertical management to unit management that takes each venue as a unit.Risks increased as the venue operation content changed.By taking the operation risk of large -scale sports venues as the research object,the authors first established risk evaluation index system and evaluation rules through risk identification;next,risk assessment was conducted by taking Nanjing Youth Olympic Games as an example;finally,risk response and control measures were put forward for large sports venues to achieve the goal of risk management.

  8. HI-TECH OLYMPICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The only Chinese company in The Olympic Partner Program, Lenovo supplies hi-tech in return for worldwide rights to Olympic logos Nineteen eighty-four was a lucky year for China as the country resumed its seat on the

  9. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  10. The Olympic movement and the sport of peacemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spaaij; C. Burleson

    2014-01-01

    Sport and peacemaking have evolved. It is no longer the case that the Olympic Games and war games exist in isolation from each other. Increasingly, policymakers, peacekeepers, athletes, development workers, presidents of nations and others combine forces in an "integrated" approach towards peace. Th

  11. Leveraging the Sydney Olympics for tourism

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Paper presented at the 2000 seminar of the International Chair in Olympism. Key issues of the seminar included references to the concern for legacy in terms of tourism, benefits and challenges of the Olympic Games and strategic needs, among others. Ponència presentada al seminari de la Càtedra Internacional d'Olimpisme l'any 2000 que se centra, entre altres temes, en el llegat dels Jocs en termes de turisme, els beneficis i reptes dels Jocs i les necessitats estratègiques. Ponencia pres...

  12. Analysis on the Development of Chinese Field and Trace Based on Field and Trace Medal Distribution in the 30th Olympic Games'%透过第30届奥运会田径奖牌演变看中国竞技田径的走势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆飞

    2012-01-01

    By using the literature material,mathematical statistics,summary method,this paper analyzes Chinese Field and Trace development trend based on the 30th Olympic Games medal distribution and the comparison of the 28th,29th Olympic Games,and the achievements of Chinese Field and Trace.%本文运用文献资料、数理统计、归纳总结等方法,通过对第30届奥运会田径比赛奖牌分布的归纳分析及与第28、29届奥运会田径比赛奖牌分布情况的比较,以及我国田径项目所取得的成绩分析,总结我国竞技田径的发展态势。

  13. 不同节奏下奥运会男篮比赛技术统计差异分析%An analysis of technical statistic differences between Olympic basketball games played at different paces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学领

    2014-01-01

    通过对奥运会男篮比赛在不同节奏下获胜球队和失败球队的数据对比以及不同节奏下技术统计指标的差异分析,探索影响篮球比赛节奏的技术因素及影响比赛胜负的因素;通过中国队与对手的比较,寻找中国队在历届奥运会存在的问题,为今后的训练和比赛提供参考依据。研究结果显示:在较快节奏下胜队更能发挥出实力优势,表现出较高的绩效;在较慢的节奏中弱队能够减少与强队技术统计数据上的差距。2分投、抢断、2分中、失误决定着控球权次数,影响着比赛节奏的快慢。中国队在快节奏比赛中综合表现很差;一般节奏下2分球命中率较低,3分投篮出手机会较少,助攻较少,失误较多;在慢节奏下中国队才能正常发挥自己的水平,胜率较高。%By comparing the data of winning and losing teams in Olympic men’s basketball games played at different paces, and by analyzing technical statistic differences between the games played at different paces, the author probed into basketball game pace affecting technical factors and game outcome affecting factors; by comparing team China with its opponents, the author sought for problems which team China had in all previous Olympic Games, so as to provide a refer-ence criterion for training and competition henceforward. The author revealed the following findings: at a faster pace, the winning teams were more capable of exerting their strength advantage, showing higher performance; at a slower pace, the weak teams could reduce their differences form the strong teams in terms of technical statistic data; two-point shots, steals, two-point winners and turnovers determined the number of ball possessions, affected the pace of a game; in fast pace games, team China had very poor comprehensive performance; at an ordinary pace, team China had a low two-point win-ner rate, few three-point shooting opportunities, few assists

  14. 南京电视台青奥会国际广播中心演播室灯光设计%Lighting Design of The 2ndSummer Youth Olympic Games International Broadcast Center Studio for Nanjing TV Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪义生; 朱欣春

    2014-01-01

    介绍南京电视台青奥会国际广播中心演播室灯光布光方案,结合案例进行技术分析。%The lighting scheme of The 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games international broadcast center studio for Nanjing TV Station was introduced, and technical analysis was made combined with specific instance.

  15. 第29届奥运会中外男篮进攻能力指标的对比分析%29th Olympic Games Men's Basketball Foreign Comparative Analysis of Indicatiors of Offensive Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林华

    2011-01-01

    Participating in the 29th game of the Chinese Olympic men's basketball team in six games with the opponent's offensive statistics and performance techniques, the use of literature, video observation, mathematical statistics, logic, analysis and other methods, as well as individual players on the overall attack Technical indicators for comparative study. Study found that Chinese men's basketball offensive tactics of appropriateness , effectiveness is not strong, attacked the concept itself must combine the characteristics of the players physical confrontation poor, weak fighting sense.%本文对参加第29届奥运会男篮比赛的中国队与对手6场比赛的进攻技术统计数据和表现,运用文献资料、录像观察、数理统计、逻辑分析等方法,对整体以及个别队员的进攻技术指标进行对比研究。研究发现中国男篮进攻战术运用的针对性、实效性不强,攻击理念还须结合本身特点,球员身体对抗能力差。拼搏意识较弱。

  16. Comparison of initial perturbation methods for the mesoscale ensemble prediction system of the Meteorological Research Institute for the WWRP Beijing 2008 Olympics Research and Development Project (B08RDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuo; Hara, Masahiro; Kunii, Masaru; Seko, Hiromu; Yamaguchi, Munehiko

    2011-05-01

    Different initial perturbation methods for the mesoscale ensemble prediction were compared by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) as a part of the intercomparison of mesoscale ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) of the World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) Beijing 2008 Olympics Research and Development Project (B08RDP). Five initial perturbation methods for mesoscale ensemble prediction were developed for B08RDP and compared at MRI: (1) a downscaling method of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)'s operational one-week EPS (WEP), (2) a targeted global model singular vector (GSV) method, (3) a mesoscale model singular vector (MSV) method based on the adjoint model of the JMA non-hydrostatic model (NHM), (4) a mesoscale breeding growing mode (MBD) method based on the NHM forecast and (5) a local ensemble transform (LET) method based on the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) using NHM. These perturbation methods were applied to the preliminary experiments of the B08RDP Tier-1 mesoscale ensemble prediction with a horizontal resolution of 15 km. To make the comparison easier, the same horizontal resolution (40 km) was employed for the three mesoscale model-based initial perturbation methods (MSV, MBD and LET). The GSV method completely outperformed the WEP method, confirming the advantage of targeting in mesoscale EPS. The GSV method generally performed well with regard to root mean square errors of the ensemble mean, large growth rates of ensemble spreads throughout the 36-h forecast period, and high detection rates and high Brier skill scores (BSSs) for weak rains. On the other hand, the mesoscale model-based initial perturbation methods showed good detection rates and BSSs for intense rains. The MSV method showed a rapid growth in the ensemble spread of precipitation up to a forecast time of 6 h, which suggests suitability of the mesoscale SV for short-range EPSs, but the initial large growth of the perturbation did not last long. The

  17. 中国的奥运征程(1980-2012)%China's Olympic Journey:from 1980 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘戈

    2013-01-01

      文章介绍了中国恢复国际奥委会合法席位后所参加的历届冬夏季奥运会,以2008年奥运会为分界,将中国体育发展分为体育大国和体育强国建设阶段,论证奥林匹克运动对中国体育发展的影响和中国体育在奥林匹克运动发展中所扮演的重要角色。提醒国人须清醒认识到我国体育实力仍与强国存在差距。还认为,奥运不只是金牌,体育也不只是竞技、赛场和强身健体,我国应加强对体育真实内涵和奥林匹克真谛精神的宣传教育。%The paper studies the history of the resumption of Chinese lawful seat in IOC. It concludes that China sports development can be divided into sports giant construction phase and sports power construction phase by the holding of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. During the two phases, Olympics made a great impression on China while China embraced the world and gradually played a more important role in the Olympic moverment. But we must keep a clear head that there is still much to be done to become a sports power for China. Olympics is not only about gold medals, also sports is not only about competition, race and body building, we should strengthen the promotion and education on the real meaning of sports and the true spirit of Olympics.

  18. Monkey King —Prime Candidate for 2008 Olympics Mascot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDAOYING; YOUZHENGJUN; LIWUZHOU

    2003-01-01

    IS the monkey an appropriate 2008 Olympic mascot? No one will know for sure until next year. Now that the Chinese Seal has been officially des-ignated as the 2008 Olympics emblem,the games'' mascot has taken over as hot topic. Animal images like the panda, dragon, lion, tiger, Tibetan ante-lope, and rabbit are also under consid-eration, but monkeyking2008.com, a website promoting the Monkey King as 2008 Olympics mascot, reports that 89 percent of its visitors want the monkey. Results of a survey conducted by China''s largest portal site, Sina.com, also indicate the Monkey King as hot favorite for mascot.

  19. A modeling analysis of a heavy air pollution episode occurred in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. An

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM and ozone in Beijing often exceed healthful levels in recent years, therefore China is to taking steps to improve Beijing's air quality for the 2008 Olympic Games. In this paper, the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Modeling System was used to investigate a heavy air pollution episode in Beijing during 3–7 April 2005 to obtain the basic information of how heavy air pollution formed and the contributions of local sources and surround emissions. The modeling domain covered from East Asia with four nested grids with 81 to 3 km horizontal resolution focusing on urban Beijing. This was coupled with a regional emissions inventory with a 10 km resolution and a local 1 km Beijing emissions database. The trend of predicted concentrations of various pollutants agreed reasonably well with the observations and captured the main features of this heavy pollution episode. The simulated column concentration distribution of PM was correlated well with the MODIS remote sensing products. Control runs with and without Beijing emissions were conducted to quantify the contributions of non-Beijing sources (NBS to the Beijing local air pollution. The contributions of NBS to each species differed spatially and temporally with the order of PM2.5>PM10>SO2> soil for this episode. The percentage contribution of NBS to fine particle (PM2.5 in Beijing was averaged about 39%, up to 53% at the northwest of urban Beijing and only 15% at southwest. The spatial distribution of NBS contributions for PM10 was similar to that for PM2.5, with a slightly less average percentage of about 30%. The average NBS contributions for SO2 and soil (diameter between 2.5 μm and 10 μm were 18% and 10%. In addition, the pollutant transport flux was calculated and compared at different levels to investigate transport pathway and magnitude. It was found

  20. 北京奥运物流的分析与探究%Analysis and Inquisition of Beijing Olympic Games Logistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌艳

    2008-01-01

    通过对2008年奥运会物流需求的分析,运用文献资料、逻辑分析等研究方法,发现北京物流现有能力不能满足北京奥运的需要.针对性的提出了建立科学的物流管理模式,成立强有力的物流组织,制订细致入微的配送计划,提升从业人员素质与管理水平等措施.

  1. 北京奥运会开幕式音乐的人文解读%The Humanistic Interpretation of the Music for the Beijing Olympic Games Opening Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许黎

    2011-01-01

    北京奥运会开幕式音乐具有丰富的文化内涵,通过对它的人文解读可以发现,它展示了时代的巨大变迁,寄寓着东西方文化的融合,象征了人与自然的和谐以及博弈关系,诠释了崭新的奥运理念.

  2. 北京奥运的金牌期待分析%Analysis of Gold Medal Expectation of Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀平

    2007-01-01

    本文从"夺取奖牌"、"关注奥运"和"奥林匹克精神"三个方面探讨了北京市民的奥运金牌期待.年龄、学历、收入、职业和户籍等五个因素对不同人群的奥运金牌期待有显著影响.最后,作者从爱国主义、生活场域及人际沟通等三个方面对不同群体的奥运金牌期待特点作出了解释.

  3. HACCP system applying successfully in Beijing Olympic Games catering%HACCP管理系统在北京奥运餐饮中的成功应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红梅

    2009-01-01

    HACCP体系是目前国际上广泛使用的一种对食品安全卫生监控的管理制度,而且是迄今为止人们在实践中总结出来的最有效保障食品安全的管理方法.事实证明,北京奥运餐饮管理引入HACCP管理,是确保餐饮安全管理的有效手段之一.

  4. 奥运会品牌管理经验及对我国体育赛事品牌创建的启示%The Management Experience of Olympic Games and Enlightenment to Building Sports Events Brand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志辉; 张宇; 李兵; 资武成

    2014-01-01

    奥运会是世界上最有影响力的体育赛事品牌,其品牌管理经验对我国体育赛事品牌创建具有重要参考价值。研究认为,奥运会品牌管理的主要成功之处有:形成了产品、组织、个人和符号相统一的多维品牌识别系统;定位于全人类“和平、友谊、团结、进步”的文化盛宴;多品牌组合加速其品牌国际化进程;形成了一系列有利于资产提升的品牌保护措施。针对我国体育赛事品牌建设中的一些问题,应做到:以消费者为导向建立与完善品牌识别体系;形成品牌传播参与各方利益共享的长效机制;从人财物等方面推进品牌国际化;确保品牌建设有章可循。%The Olympic Games is the most influential sports brand all over the world and the management experience of the Olympic Games is worth learning and thinking for us .Studies point out that the Olympic Games has been successful due to several reasons :Firstly ,the Olympic Games is a multidimensional brand recognition of products ,organizations ,individuals and symbols .Secondly , the Olympic Games is a cultural feast of the world which is characterized by “peace ,unity ,friendship and progress” .Thirdly , throughout the years ,multi-brands portfolio has boosted its speed to develop internationally .Finally ,a series of measures to pro-tect brands and promote assets have been taking effect .According to problems existing in sports brands building process in China , this paper points out that :To create and perfect the brand recognition system oriented to consumers .To build up a lasting system that brands development can share benefit from all parties .To develop internationally with the help of human ,finance and property , etc .To create regulations and laws that brands building can refer to .

  5. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervoni Julia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  6. 伦敦奥运会男子体操比赛前景分析%An analysis of the prospects of men’s gymnastic competitions in the London Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史海现

    2012-01-01

      By basing research subjects on athletes participating in the finals of 3 World Gymnastic Championships in the London Olympic Games period, the author analyzed the prospects of men’s gymnastic competitions in the London Olympic Games: in terms of team strength, teams China and Japan in Asian are the most powerful, belong-ing to the first group, team USA is the best of the second group; in terms of individual all-round, team Japan has the most powerful strength, its Uchimura Kohei alone is the best of the best; team China has double insurance for gold metal winning in such events as free exercise, rings, parallel bars and horizontal bar etc.; European athletes have group advantages in the pommel horse event; Asian athletes in teams Korea and Japan etc. have the slight upper hand in terms of vault, the performances of athletes from different countries are getting close gradually, the results of competitions will depend on their performances on the court.%  以参加伦敦奥运周期3届世锦赛决赛运动员为研究对象,对伦敦奥运会男子体操比赛前景进行分析:团体实力以亚洲的中国和日本最强,属于第一集团,美国队是第二集团的佼佼者;个人全能以日本队实力最强,其中内村航平更是一枝独秀;中国在吊环、双杠和单杠等项目上,都构成夺金“双保险”;欧洲运动员在鞍马项目上具有集团优势;韩国和日本等亚洲运动员在跳马上略占上风,各国运动员的水平逐渐接近,比赛胜负取决于临场发挥的水平

  7. 从伦敦奥运会看世界田径竞争格局研究%Research on the London Olympic Games Track and Field Competition Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓林; 李晓华

    2015-01-01

    采用文献资料、数据统计与比较研究等方法对伦敦奥运会田径比赛成绩进行统计分析,探讨国际田径运动竞争格局。结果表明:美国、俄罗斯、牙买加位列金牌榜和总积分榜的前三甲;北美洲和欧洲是田径发展的优势区域;美国女将成为其夺金的核心力量,俄罗斯金牌数超过历届奥运会,英国受东道主效应影响,实力上升较快,位列金牌第四,中国队田径实力迅速提升,竞走项目将成为我国新的金牌分布点。建议坚持和完善竞技体育举国体制,加强体教结合,培养田径后备人才,实施科技兴体和科学训练战略,提升田径人才培养质量和效率等。%Using the methods of literature, statistics and comparative research methods will be detailed statistical analysis results of the London Olympic Games track and field competition, competition pattern of international track and field. The results show that:the United States, Russia, Jamaica ranked gold medals and overall standings top;North America and Europe is the advantage of regional development of track and field;the United States will become the core force of the gold, the Russian gold medal number more than the previous Olympic Games, the UK host effects, strength increased rapidly, in the gold medal fourth, rapid promotion Chinese track and field strength, walking will become Chinese new gold medal distribution point.

  8. On the Sustainable Development of the Competitive Sports in Shanghai Again --National Games or Olympic Games%再论上海竞技体育可持续发展之路:全运会?还是奥运会?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪佳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the performance of Shanghai Athletes (including the athletes intro- duced into Shanghai) at the previous Olympic Games, the paper sums up the development characteristics of swimming, for Shanghai swimmers captured the medals, including the gold medals at the Olympic Games, which have seen more swimmers from Shanghai than the athletes of other sport disciplines. The paper suggests that the development of the competitive sports in Shanghai should be based on international perspective, advanced training concept and scientific training methods in order to bring up new athletes, who can attract international attention and become pillars of society. In terms of the sustainable development of the competitive sports in Shanghai, the city should aim at the Olympic Games and enhance the international influence of the sports in Shanghai. The city of Shanghai should be at the forefront of the positive development of the competitive sports in China.%摘要:从对上海运动员(包括引进运动员)在历届奥运会上的成绩的分析,总结上海在奥运会上获得金牌、奖牌及参加人数最多的游泳项目的发展特点,提出上海竞技体育发展应该以国际化的视野、先进的训练理念、科学的训练方法,培养既有国际影响力、又能成为未来社会栋梁的新型运动员。并探析上海竞技体育的可持续发展之路:以奥运会为主要发展目标,在提高上海体育国际影响力的同时,辐射、引领中国竞技体育的良性发展。

  9. Beyond the "High-Tech" Suits: Predicting 2012 Olympic Swim Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Chris L.; Stager, Joel M.; Tanner, Dave A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the authors in this study was to predict the mean swim time of the top eight swimmers in swim events at the 2012 Olympic Games based upon prior Olympic performances from 1972 through 2008. Using the mean top eight time across all years, a best fit power curve [time = a x year[superscript b

  10. Olympic Sports (Ⅺ): Gymnastics--Artistic Gymnastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜全红

    2004-01-01

    A perfect fusion of athletics and aesthetics, gymnastics ranks among the defining sports of the Olympic Games. Mixing strength and agility with style and grace, the high-flying acrobats have provided many of the most breathtaking Olympic spectacles of the past quarter-century.

  11. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  12. Enlightenments from Olympic Games Security Work on Urban Important Targets for Anti-Terrorism%奥运安保对城市反恐重要目标安全防范的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆

    2013-01-01

    自1972年慕尼黑奥运会发生针对以色列代表团的恐怖袭击事件以来,防范各种恐怖袭击一直是各奥运会主办城市最为关注的问题之一。恐怖分子之所以瞄准奥运会,主要想借助实施恐怖活动以得到最大的新闻效应和公众心理震撼效果。近几届奥运会的主办国投入了大量的人力、物力和财力,并采取了一系列行之有效的措施进行安全保卫工作。奥运会安全保卫为我国做好城市反恐重要目标安全防范工作提供了有益启示:一是建立党政领导,部门参与的反恐防范工作格局;二是加强防范恐怖犯罪公众教育,增强公众的防范意识;三是建立统一高效的情报信息工作机制;四是明确责任,建章立制,夯实基础;五是制定应对预案,通过演练予以巩固完善;六是强化检查考核,促进防范责任和措施落实。%Since the terrorist attack against Israeli delegation in Munich Olympics Games of 1972, the precaution against terrorist attacks has been one of the main concerns for host cities. Terrorists take the Olympics as target, aiming at maximizing media effects and public psychological impact. For the recent Olympics, the host countries endeavored in manpower, material and expenditure, adopted a series of effective precautions to manage the secu-rity issues. Inspirations from the Olympics security on defending important targets for urban anti-terrorism in-clude:First, establish the working pattern with the leadership of the party and joint efforts from departments. Sec-ond, enhance public education on anti-terrorist precautions. Third, establish efficient and accordant intelligence system. Fourthly, identify responsibility, make regulations and enhance groundwork. Fifthly, formulate contingency plans, complete and consolidate them by rehearse. Sixthly, reinforce the assessment system, and enhance precau-tion responsibility and execution.

  13. An Analysis of the Impact of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games on the Development of Tourism in Nanjing%2014青奥会的成功举办对南京旅游业发展的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于盼盼

    2015-01-01

    我国体育事业的发展已经进入成熟稳定的时期,南京成功举办青奥会,给南京是带来了巨大的人流量,把南京这座充满人文气息的绿色城市推向了世界。南京也利用了这次青奥会的契机,改善了自己的市容市貌和城市环境。提高了旅游吸引力,实现了旅游的可持续发展。本文重点分析南京青奥会的成功举办给南京旅游业带来的影响。%The development of sports in our country has entered a mature and stable period.Nanjing successfully hosted the Youth Olympic Games which has brought a huge number of people to the city,and has introduced the city of culture to the world.Nanjing also used the opportunity of Youth Olympic Games to improve the quality of city environment,which has led to a boom as well as a sustainable development of tourism.This paper focuses on the analysis of the impact of the success of Nanjing Youth Olympic on the tourism in this city.

  14. The Introduction of the Antiochene Olympics: A Proposal for a New Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Remijsen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Malalas' account of games at Antioch, the confusions and doublets reflect his simplification of diverse festivals; the first Olympics there should be dated to A.D. 212 rather than earlier.

  15. A Comprehensive Analysis on the Offensive and Defensive Ability of the 30th Olympic Games Men’s Basketball Game by RSR%第三十届奥运会男篮赛中国队攻防能力的 RSR 综合评价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立平

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a comprehensive analysis on the offensive and defensive ability of the men’s basketball game group B in the 30th London Olympic Games in 2012 by using the method of RSR. The purpose of this paper is making an objective position about the offensive and defensive ability of the Chinese men’s basketball team and finding out the technological gap between Chinese men’s basketball team and other team in men’s basketball game group B. The analytical data about the difference of the technology will offer a reference for the targeted training in the future.%本文运用 RSR 秩和比法对2012年第三十届伦敦奥运会男篮 B 组赛攻防能力进行综合评价分析,旨为中国男篮比赛攻防能力作出客观定位;找出技术层面存在的差距,为今后有针对性训练提供有益参考。

  16. The Offensive Tactics Research for the 29th Olympic Games Women's Volleyball Match%第29届奥运会女子排球比赛进攻战术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    春潮; 高亮

    2011-01-01

    运用聚类分析、多重比较、数理统计等研究方法,对29届奥运会女子排球赛的12支参赛球队按进攻战术运用效果进行聚类分析,并运用LSD多重比较对各类属球队按各项进攻指标进行了不同角度的比较分析。结果显示:不同类型球队的进攻战术效果呈现出不同的规律;中国、日本等女子排球队组成的A类球队强攻不强的软肋依然存在;亚洲女子排球队一向擅长的快攻战术没有得到充分发挥,主要原因是没有很好地将快攻与强攻相融合;俄罗斯、古巴等球队组成的B类球队网上实力依然最强,美国、意大利组成的C类球队除发球成功率低于中国等A类球队外,扣球及拦网等网上实力也明显优于A类球队和D类球队,仅次于B类球队。%Using cluster analysis,multiple comparison methods of mathematical statistics,on the 29th Olympic Games women's volleyball tournament of the 12 participating teams were the effects of Attacking Tactics by cluster analysis and multiple comparisons using LSD is a team on various The attack by two indicators of comparative analysis of two different angles to improve the next cycle of the Chinese Olympic women's volleyball team training targeted.The results showed that: different types of clustering obtained results show the team's offensive tactics,different rules;China,Japan and other women's volleyball team composed of Class A storm is not strong weaknesses still exist;Asia has always been good at women's volleyball team Fast Attack Tactics in the Olympic Games are not given full play,much as opponents of the main reasons there is no good to the integration of fast and strong;Russia,Cuba,Class B team consisting of web strength is still the best team strong,United States,Italy,the starting composition of the C class team the ball below the success rate of Class A teams such as China,the spiking and blocking and so on-line strength was better than Class A Class D

  17. The main differences of accomplishment conditions of shooting exercise RFP in the training process for the XXIX and XXX Olympic Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petriv O. S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Main changes and terms of implementation of the speed firing an are certain standard pistol on five targets which simultaneously appear on distance 25 meters. The features of such firing are analysed. The changes of cartridges, pull of trigger hook, new features of firing in a finale, are described. Assertion is grounded, that complication of implementation of the speed firing consists in exact co-ordination of aiming in the center of target with smooth pressure on a trigger hook. The necessity of development of method of prelaunch training of sportsmen is certain. The necessity of perfection of facilities and methods of prelaunch limbering-up is well-proven before implementation of olympic exercise the «Speed firing a pistol». Directions the correction of training of sportsmen are recommended in accordance with cardinal changes in order of leadthrough of finale.

  18. 索契冬奥会单板U型场地滑雪决赛成绩与难度战术间关联及其发展趋势研究%Research on the Association between the Final Results of Half-Pipe Athletes and the Difficult Tactics and the Developing Trends of the Difficult in Sochi Winter Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志国; 周文婷

    2015-01-01

    The purpose is to find out the association between the final results of male and female half‐pipe athletes in Sochi Winter Olympic Games and the difficult tactics and the developing trends of the difficult tactics .Methods :With the methods of video analysis ,expert interview , documental information and comparative analysis ,this paper compared and analyzed two rou‐tines of technical difficulty motions of male and female athletes in the half‐pipe final in Sochi Winter Olympic Games ,so as to find out the association between the final results and the diffi‐cult tactics ,as well as comparing them with the ones in Vancouver Winter Olympic Games .Re‐sults :In male and female athletes with higher results and lower results ,difficult tactics of im‐provement and maintenance were selected .Besides ,difficult tactics of reduction was also chosen by female athletes both with higher results and lower ones .Compared to the Vancouver Winter Olympic Games ,the female athletes chosen the difficult tactic of improvement reduced signifi‐cantly (66 .7% → 33 .3% ) ,and 25% athletes selected the difficult tactic of reduction ,while the trend of difficult tactics chosen by male athletes was identical to the one in Vancouver Win‐ter Olympic Games .Conclusions :There was no association between the final results of half‐pipe athletes in Sochi Winter Olympics .The choice of difficult tactics in female final has signif‐icant change trend ,while the trend of difficult tactics in male was identical comparing to the Vancouver Winter Olympic Games .%目的:寻找索契冬奥会单板 U型场地滑雪男、女运动员决赛成绩与难度战术间的关联性及其发展趋势。方法:采用视频分析法、调查访谈法,文献资料调研法和对比分析法,对索契冬奥会单板 U型场地滑雪决赛男、女运动员两轮比赛的技术动作进行对比分析,研究其比赛成绩与难度战术选择间的关联性,并与温哥华冬奥会男

  19. 第30届奥运会中外女排技战术指标量化分析%Quantitative Analysis on Women's Volleyball Indicators in the 30th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明洋

    2014-01-01

    本文从定量的角度出发,通过统计学的方法对第30届奥运会中国女排与比赛对手在参赛队员身体形态指标和发球、扣球、拦网、接发球技术指标这五个方面进行量化分析,反映出中国女排在相关数据上与比赛对手的优势和差距,进而剖析中国女排在比赛中的不足之处,得出结论,并根据结论提出相关建议,从而制定出适合我国女排发展的具体措施,提高我国女排的技战术水平。%This paper , from the perspective of quantitative , makes analysis on Chinese women's volleyball team and the opponents in the team member body shape indices and serving , spiking, blocking, receiving technical indicators in the 30th Olympic Games by using the method of statistical , and reflects the Chinese women's volleyball team on the relevant data and the advantage and disadvantage of opponents , and analyze the Chinese women's volleyball team in the game deficiency , and puts forward related suggestions according to the conclusions , so as to work out specific measures suited to the development of the Chinese women 's volleyball , raise the level of Chinese women's volleyball technology and tactics .

  20. 青奥会对南京市民国际意识的影响探析%A Study on the Influences of the Youth Olympic Games on Nanjing Citizens' International Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于水; 孙金华

    2011-01-01

    International consciousness is a way of thinking and value orientation, indicating citizens' understanding of interna- tional affairs and insights into the relation between self and othe world. Interaction, integration, epochal character and inclu- siveness are considered as typical of international consciousness. There is a mutually beneficial relation between the Youth O- lympic Games and citizens' international consciousness. Such consciousness can be raised by educating, strengthening interna- tional communication, directing the media in a planned manner and building a scientific assessment System, on the part of gov- ernments, so as to provide a favorable public environment for the Youth Olympic Games.%国际意识体现的是对国际事务的见解和对自身与世界关系把握的一种思维方式和价值取向,互动性、混合性、时代性和包容性是国际意识最显著的特征。青奥会与市民国际意识之间是一种互相促进的关系,政府可以通过教育、加强国际交往、有计划地引导媒体以及建立科学的考核体系来提升市民的国际意识,从而为青奥会的顺利举办创造良好的市民环境。

  1. The 2008 Olympic Games Basketball Match The Chinese Women's Basketball Team Rebounds Situation Analyses%2008年奥运会篮球比赛中国女篮篮板球情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹭芸

    2011-01-01

    通过对2008年中国奥运会篮球中国女篮与美国和澳大利亚的比赛中前场子篮板球相关的技术指标进行统计,采用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法等研究方法对中、外篮板球急夺方式和运用进行了对比研究,找出篮板球对抗技术运用与提高上所出现问题的症结所在,认为应根据由于运动员的个体差异有针对性的提高运动员的体能、技术、预判意识。%Through to the 2008 China's Olympic basketball the Chinese women's basketball team and the United States and Australia game midfield and the son of technical indexes related rebounding statistics, the literature material law, video observation and statistics methods of a rebound in the way, and use a comparative study of rebounding, and find out the use and improve against technology in the crux of the problem, that shotdd be based on the individual differences because athletes corresponding improve the athlete's physical fitness, technology, anticipation consciousness.

  2. 第27届奥运会中国女排进攻战术效果的剖析%Analysis for Effect of Attack Tactics of Chinese Women′s Volleyball Team in the 27th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭荣; 张欢

    2001-01-01

    Through counting the effect of attack tactics of volleyball match on the 27th Olympic Games, results show that the strong-attack′s rate of succeed in attack tactics of the Chinese Women′s Volleyball Team is lower than that of Russia, Brazil and U.S.A. We have clear gap compared with high-grade teams. We just have a bit advantage in fast-attack. At present, the Chinese Women′s Volleyball Team must strengthen force. Meanwhile, we insist in that we shoud have overall, quick and varied tactics, in addition, keep and develop advantage in fast-attack′s tactics.%通过对27届奥运会女子排球比赛的进攻战术效果统计显示,中国女排进攻战术中的强攻威力均低于俄罗斯、巴西、美国等强队,与世界一流水平队存在着明显差距。仅快攻战术的成功率稍高于俄、巴、美。中国女排亟待加强个人强攻手法变化,提高威慑力,须坚持全面、快速、多变的进攻战术,保持与发展其快攻战术的优势。

  3. 从刘璇奥运夺金谈体操运动员心理定势%Disscussion on mental orientation of gymnastic athletes through LIU Xuan's Winning at Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史益平

    2001-01-01

    心理定势在当今的体操运动中有着举足轻重的作用。通过归纳奥运会平衡木冠军刘璇及中国体操队赛前的心理训练内容,分析我国优秀运动员在比赛中的事例,提出体操运动员在日常训练及比赛时期应具有的心理定势。%The mental orientation plays a very important role in moderngymnastics.This paper presented the mental training of pre-competition of Liu Xuan,the winner of balance beam at Olympic Games,and her teammates.It analyzed the competitive performances of Chinese elite athletes and put forward the required mental orientation of gymnastic athletes during their training and competition,which might be used for gymnastic coaches and athletes'reference.

  4. Research on after Olympic Games Time China Sports Insurance Market System's Construction%后奥运时代我国体育保险市场体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璋

    2009-01-01

    The sports insurance market is one of sports healthy development essential conditions, it is an insurance market branch. The sports insurance makes a general reference in the sports domain various populations body, provides the risk safeguard the insurance solution. The Olympic Games time our country sports insurance market system's basic tentative plan, as well as the concrete construction measure, regarding speeds up our country sports insurance market the development, the promotion sports and national economy coordinated development has the very vital significance.%体育保险市场是体育运动健康发展的必备条件之一,它是保险市场的一个分支.体育保险泛指在体育领域内的各种群体,提供风险保障的解决方案.本文在分析我国后奥运时代体育保险市场重要意义的基础上,提出了构建后奥运时代我国体育保险市场体系的基本设想.

  5. Research on the Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Security Monitoring System for Air Quality%南京青奥会空气质量保障监测工作体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻义勇; 陆晓波; 丁峰; 朱志锋

    2015-01-01

    According to the air quality assurance goals of the Nanjing Youth Olympic Games (YOG),Nanjing has established a YOG monitoring system for ambient air quality.In order to provide the scientific and technical support for the air quality security during the YOG,the real-time monitoring of the regional air quality and scientific prediction of air quality trend in the future were made.In practice,the system successfully predicted atmospheric pollution.Finally,emergency linkages and mitigation measures based on findings from the monitoring system were also launched.%根据南京青奥会空气质量保障目标,建立了青奥会环境空气质量保障监测体系。青奥会期间,实时监控了区域空气质量状况,科学预测了空气质量未来变化趋势,成功发布了大气污染预警,启动了应急联动措施,为青奥会空气质量保障提供了科学的技术支撑。

  6. Review and Revelation of Air Quality Assurance Work during the Nanjing Youth Olympic Games%南京青奥会空气质量保障工作的回顾与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘良宝; 汤浩; 刘晓蕾

    2015-01-01

    This paper discussed the ambient air quality of Nanjing and surrounding cities during the 2nd summer Youth Olympic Games.Besides,it summarized the control measures and revelation from the experience of air quality assurance.For improving air quality,we suggested normalizing air quality assurance system,speeding up industrial restructuring,controlling the emission of coal combustion and other serious pollution industriescomprehensively,and enhancing the work foundation and capability of environmental protection system.%分析了青奥会期间南京及周边城市空气质量状况;总结了保障青奥会空气质量的管控措施以及得到的启示。提出,青奥会保障机制应常态化,切实加快工业结构调整,全面控制燃煤污染,深入推进重点领域污染治理,夯实工作基础和能力。

  7. Analysis of Current Situation and Development Strategy of Chinese Men’s Basketball Team from London Olympic Games%从伦敦奥运会看中国男篮的现状与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟杰

    2013-01-01

    采用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法及逻辑分析法,对比分析了第30届伦敦奥运会中国男篮与八强队伍的比赛情况,找出了中国男篮与世界强队的差距,并根据存在的队伍断层、技战术打法不合理、对抗性弱等问题,找出了相应的对策。%Using literature material method, video observation, mathematical statistics method and logic analysis method, the competition situation of Chinese men’s basketball team and the final eight in the 30th London Olympic Games is analyzed, and the disparity is found out. According to the problems of talent fault, irrational technique and tactics and weak antagonism, etc al, the corresponding solutions are proposed.

  8. The Revelation and Analysis of Items Characteristic of China's Games Medals Distribution in London Olympics%伦敦奥运会中国奖牌分布的项群特征诠析及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍军

    2013-01-01

    采用文献资料法、访谈法和数理统计法等研究方法,以项群理论为基础,针对中国军团在伦敦奥运会上获得的奖牌分布情况,重点研究中国获奖项目的项群归属及其团体奖牌项目的分布特征,揭示了中国奖牌项目对应的项群特征及其项群等级问题,旨在为丰富项群训练理论奠定基础,为今后更好地实施科学选材、训练提供参考.%In this paper, using the literature, interviews and statistics and other research methods to the item group theory. The paper Analysised the distribution of medals for the Chinese army in the London Olympic games, highlighting the winning projects, group attribution groups Medal the distribution of the project, revealing a medal corresponding group characteristics and the event group level. The mainaim is to enrich the event group training theory, providing a reference for the future implementation for scientific selection amd training.

  9. A Win-Win Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nanjing looks forward to upgrading its infrastructure and stature by hosting a successful Youth Olympic Games As the inaugural Youth Olympic Games(YOG) of 2010 wrapped up in Singapore on August 26,people turned their attention to China’s Nanjing,where the next YOG will be held in 2014. The organizers said they expect the second YOG to be an accelerator for the city’s bid to become an international metropolis and for the young event to "grow up."

  10. Die Olympischen Spiele 2008 in Beijing und die Kunst der Aufrechterhaltung des Nationalstaates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Kloet; G.P.L. Chong; W. Liu

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing Olympics and the art of nation-state maintenance This article maps out how different actors are involved in the promotion and mediation of the Olympics. It looks at the roles of, first, the nation-state, through an analysis of the promotional materials; second, the art world and global c

  11. Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions and the relationships with air mass history and source apportionment in the summer of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-10-01

    A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during the Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 μm-3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons for the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air masses from the south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime in Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from the south was 1.3 times higher compared to the average of the previous years, which however did not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. Therefore, the reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games cannot be only explained by meteorological conditions. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified as local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.

  12. Extending the Civilization Axis Line:The 2008Olympic Venue Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    On July 14, the 2008 Summer Olympic Venue Design Competition concluded with a U.S.-China joint venture scooping the first prize. The event was held for the conceptual designs of two major venues for the Games ?the Olympic Green and the Wukesong Culture and Sports Center. A total of 87 plans were submitted since the contest was opened in April, 54 for the Olympic Green and 33 for the Wukesong Center.San Francisco-based Sasaki Associates won the top prize for the Olympic Green which was designed in partnership with Tianjin Huahui

  13. Pride and Prejudice: A Five-Nation Comparative Study of Television News Coverage of the Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    HAYASHI Kaori; Curran, James P.; Kwak, Sunyoung; Esser, Frank; Daniel C., Hallin; Chin-Chuan, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Olympic Games are one of the most popular global mega-media events. However, the ways in which the opening of the 2012 Olympic Games in London were reported varied significantly from one country to another. In order to compare how different countries represented this event, we conducted a qualitative discourse analysis of three days of television news coverage from 10 channels in five countries: the United States, China, Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom. We explored whether differen...

  14. Bring on the Games!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It hardly seems possible that time could have flown so fast,but the much anticipated Beijing 2008 Olympics are nearly upon us.With so much media attention focused on the biggest athletic event in China's modern history,we decided that now is an opportune time to take a look at the state of the sports industry in China.

  15. Multiplier Effect of Major Sports Events on City Development---Taking Nanjing Youth Olympic Games as an Example%大型体育赛事对城市发展的乘数效应--以南京青奥会为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊东声

    2015-01-01

    Adopting the multiplier principle of macroeconomics and with Olympic investment and economic benefits as support points,the paper conducts a theoretical demonstration and outlook for the benefits that 2014 Youth Olympic Games will bring for city economy and development.%本文运用宏观经济学中乘数原理,从奥运会的投入与经济收益为支撑点,对南京举办2014年青奥将会给城市经济将带来的收益,以及青奥会对南京城市的发展进行了理论论证和展望。

  16. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  17. CALCULATION OF HOME ADVANTAGE AND ANALYSIS OF INEVITABILITY CHINA EXCEEDING US IN GOLD MEDALS IN THE LONDON OLYMPICS GAMES%东道主效应的测算——兼论伦敦奥运会中国金牌数超越美国的必然性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴殿廷; 郭谦; 姜桂萍; 纪仲秋

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the reasons of home advantages in sports games,and devised measurement of home advantages;The total number of Olympics medals were compared between the Chinese and US teams in recent Olympics games,the potential number of medals the two teams are likely to win at the London 2012 Olympics Games were predicted by multiple parameter models such as the double moving average method,second exponential smoothing method and autoregressive model.It was found that home advantages indeed exist for the Olympic Games,being more pronounced for smaller teams;In recent Olympics Games,the number of medals Team China won has been increasing,but that for the US either remained steady or rather been declining;This paper predicts that during the 2012 Games,Team China may win 49 gold medals and the US 36.Team China will overtake Team U.S.in gold medals,but not in total.Bear in mind that countries participate in the Olympics Games to communicate with the rest of the world,to improve national image and to enhance international status.Team China should therefore be broad-minded and avoid narrow-minded nationalism%通过分析体育比赛中东道主效应产生的原因,提出了东道主效应的简单测算方法;通过考察了近几届奥运会中美金牌、奖牌的具体对比情况,利用二次滑动平均、二次指数平滑、自回归等多模型综合预测法推算了2012年伦敦奥运会中国队和美国队的金牌、奖牌数量.奥运会比赛中东道主效应确实存在,而且越是小国越明显;中国在近几届奥运会上金牌、奖牌总量持续增加,美国增加不明显,甚至有下降的趋势;预计在2012年伦敦奥运会上,中国将获得金牌49枚左右,而美国将获得金牌36枚左右;中国还将在金牌总数上超过美国,但奖牌总数与美国仍有差距.参加奥运会的最主要目的是沟通与世界各国的联系,提高本国的形象和地位.我们要有大国的襟怀,避免狭隘的民族主义,不能拿了金牌丢了世界.

  18. Characterization of new particle and secondary aerosol formation during summertime in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Gong, S. L.; Shen, X. J.; Yang, S.

    2011-07-01

    Size-resolved aerosol number and mass concentrations and the mixing ratios of O3 and various trace gases were continuously measured at an urban station before and during the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games (5 June to 22 September, 2008). 23 new particle formation (NPF) events were identified; these usually were associated with changes in wind direction and/or rising concentrations of gas-phase precursors or after precipitation events. Most of the NPF events started in the morning and continued to noon as particles in the nucleation mode grew into the Aitken mode. From noon to midnight, the aerosols grew into the accumulation mode through condensation and coagulation. Ozone showed a gradual rise starting around 10:00 local time, reached its peak around 15:00 and then declined as the organics increased. The dominant new particle species were organics (40-75% of PM1) and sulphate; nitrate and ammonium were more minor contributors.

  19. Characterization of new particle and secondary aerosol formation during summertime in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y. M. (Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing (China); Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)); Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Lin, W. L.; Shen, X. J. (Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing (China)), e-mail: xiaoye@cams.cma.gov.cn; Gong, S. L. (Air Quality Research Div., Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada)); Yang, S. (State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Inst. of Atmospheric Physics, CAS, Beijing (China))

    2011-07-15

    Size-resolved aerosol number and mass concentrations and the mixing ratios of O{sub 3} and various trace gases were continuously measured at an urban station before and during the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games (5 June to 22 September, 2008). 23 new particle formation (NPF) events were identified; these usually were associated with changes in wind direction and/or rising concentrations of gas-phase precursors or after precipitation events. Most of the NPF events started in the morning and continued to noon as particles in the nucleation mode grew into the Aitken mode. From noon to midnight, the aerosols grew into the accumulation mode through condensation and coagulation. Ozone showed a gradual rise starting around 10:00 local time, reached its peak around 15:00 and then declined as the organics increased. The dominant new particle species were organics (40-75% of PM{sub 1}) and sulphate; nitrate and ammonium were more minor contributors

  20. A profile of the Youth Olympic Taekwondo Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; De Ciantis, Marco G; Rahman, Alima

    2013-12-01

    Our study aims to identify trends in anthropomorphic attributes and competitive strategies of successful (medalists) versus non medalist young Olympic Taekwondo competitors by gender in terms of body mass, body-mass index (BMI) and fighting technique at the Youth Olympic Games 2010. Results were then compared to adult Taekwondo Olympic athletes in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Data on 96 Taekwondo athletes were obtained from the official Youth Olympic website. A LOGIT analysis was performed on the following six independent variables: height, body mass, body mass index, gender, techniques used to score, and warnings obtained during a match. The study did find some differences between winners and non-winners for males and female, although none of the differences were statistically significant. Consequently, training personnel may enhance winning potential of Taekwondo competitors by focusing on offensive versus defensive techniques and improving the quality of punching.