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Sample records for beijing genomics institute

  1. Genomic diversity among Beijing and non-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Stavrum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dominant in countries in East Asia. Genomic polymorphisms are a source of diversity within the M. tuberculosis genome and may account for the variation of virulence among M. tuberculosis isolates. Till date there are no studies that have examined the genomic composition of M. tuberculosis isolates from the high TB-burden country, Myanmar.Twenty-two M. tuberculosis isolates from Myanmar were screened on whole-genome arrays containing genes from M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis CDC1551 and M. bovis AF22197. Screening identified 198 deletions or extra regions in the clinical isolates compared to H37Rv. Twenty-two regions differentiated between Beijing and non-Beijing isolates and were verified by PCR on an additional 40 isolates. Six regions (Rv0071-0074 [RD105], Rv1572-1576c [RD149], Rv1585c-1587c [RD149], MT1798-Rv1755c [RD152], Rv1761c [RD152] and Rv0279c were deleted in Beijing isolates, of which 4 (Rv1572-1576c, Rv1585c-1587c, MT1798-Rv1755c and Rv1761c were variably deleted among ST42 isolates, indicating a closer relationship between the Beijing and ST42 lineages. The TbD1 region, Mb1582-Mb1583 was deleted in Beijing and ST42 isolates. One M. bovis gene of unknown function, Mb3184c was present in all isolates, except 11 of 13 ST42 isolates. The CDC1551 gene, MT1360 coding for a putative adenylate cyclase, was present in all Beijing and ST42 isolates (except 1. The pks15/1 gene, coding for a putative virulence factor, was intact in all Beijing and non-Beijing isolates, except in ST42 and ST53 isolates.This study describes previously unreported deletions/extra regions in Beijing and non-Beijing M. tuberculosis isolates. The modern and highly frequent ST42 lineage showed a closer relationship to the hypervirulent Beijing lineage than to the ancient non-Beijing lineages. The pks15/1 gene was disrupted only in modern non-Beijing isolates. This is the first report of an in-depth analysis on

  2. National Human Genome Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  3. Whole genome sequencing identifies circulating Beijing-lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Guatemala and an associated urban outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Joseph W; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Moller, Anneliese; Medina, Narda; Guzmán, Brenda; Calderón, Maylena; Herrera, Raúl; Sisk, Dana M; Xet-Mull, Ana M; Stout, Jason E; Arathoon, Eduardo; Samayoa, Blanca; Tobin, David M

    2015-12-01

    Limited data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains circulating in Guatemala. Beijing-lineage Mtb strains have gained prevalence worldwide and are associated with increased virulence and drug resistance, but there have been only a few cases reported in Central America. Here we report the first whole genome sequencing of Central American Beijing-lineage strains of Mtb. We find that multiple Beijing-lineage strains, derived from independent founding events, are currently circulating in Guatemala, but overall still represent a relatively small proportion of disease burden. Finally, we identify a specific Beijing-lineage outbreak centered on a poor neighborhood in Guatemala City. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. A Taste of Algal Genomes from the Joint Genome Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-06-17

    Algae play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, provide models for the study of symbiosis, photosynthesis, and eukaryotic evolution, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). To date JGI has sequenced, assembled, annotated, and released to the public the genomes of 18 species and strains of algae, sampling almost all of the major clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. With more algal genomes currently undergoing analysis, JGI continues its commitment to driving forward basic and applied algal science. Among these ongoing projects are the pan-genome of the dominant coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, the interrelationships between the 4 genomes in the nucleomorph-containing Bigelowiella natans and Guillardia theta, and the search for symbiosis genes of lichens.

  5. Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology Discover. Predict. Improve. Advancing Human and , 2015 See all Research Papers Featured Video Introduction to Systems Biology Video: Introduction to Systems Biology News Jack Gilbert Heading UChicago Startup that Aims to Predict Behavior of Trillions of

  6. 2013 Progress Report -- DOE Joint Genome Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    In October 2012, we introduced a 10-Year Strategic Vision [http://bit.ly/JGI-Vision] for the Institute. A central focus of this Strategic Vision is to bridge the gap between sequenced genomes and an understanding of biological functions at the organism and ecosystem level. This involves the continued massive-scale generation of sequence data, complemented by orthogonal new capabilities to functionally annotate these large sequence data sets. Our Strategic Vision lays out a path to guide our decisions and ensure that the evolving set of experimental and computational capabilities available to DOE JGI users will continue to enable groundbreaking science.

  7. DOE Joint Genome Institute 2008 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, David

    2009-01-01

    While initially a virtual institute, the driving force behind the creation of the DOE Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, California in the Fall of 1999 was the Department of Energy's commitment to sequencing the human genome. With the publication in 2004 of a trio of manuscripts describing the finished 'DOE Human Chromosomes', the Institute successfully completed its human genome mission. In the time between the creation of the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) and completion of the Human Genome Project, sequencing and its role in biology spread to fields extending far beyond what could be imagined when the Human Genome Project first began. Accordingly, the targets of the DOE JGI's sequencing activities changed, moving from a single human genome to the genomes of large numbers of microbes, plants, and other organisms, and the community of users of DOE JGI data similarly expanded and diversified. Transitioning into operating as a user facility, the DOE JGI modeled itself after other DOE user facilities, such as synchrotron light sources and supercomputer facilities, empowering the science of large numbers of investigators working in areas of relevance to energy and the environment. The JGI's approach to being a user facility is based on the concept that by focusing state-of-the-art sequencing and analysis capabilities on the best peer-reviewed ideas drawn from a broad community of scientists, the DOE JGI will effectively encourage creative approaches to DOE mission areas and produce important science. This clearly has occurred, only partially reflected in the fact that the DOE JGI has played a major role in more than 45 papers published in just the past three years alone in Nature and Science. The involvement of a large and engaged community of users working on important problems has helped maximize the impact of JGI science. A seismic technological change is presently underway at the JGI. The Sanger capillary-based sequencing process that

  8. DOE Joint Genome Institute 2008 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, David

    2009-03-12

    While initially a virtual institute, the driving force behind the creation of the DOE Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, California in the Fall of 1999 was the Department of Energy's commitment to sequencing the human genome. With the publication in 2004 of a trio of manuscripts describing the finished 'DOE Human Chromosomes', the Institute successfully completed its human genome mission. In the time between the creation of the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) and completion of the Human Genome Project, sequencing and its role in biology spread to fields extending far beyond what could be imagined when the Human Genome Project first began. Accordingly, the targets of the DOE JGI's sequencing activities changed, moving from a single human genome to the genomes of large numbers of microbes, plants, and other organisms, and the community of users of DOE JGI data similarly expanded and diversified. Transitioning into operating as a user facility, the DOE JGI modeled itself after other DOE user facilities, such as synchrotron light sources and supercomputer facilities, empowering the science of large numbers of investigators working in areas of relevance to energy and the environment. The JGI's approach to being a user facility is based on the concept that by focusing state-of-the-art sequencing and analysis capabilities on the best peer-reviewed ideas drawn from a broad community of scientists, the DOE JGI will effectively encourage creative approaches to DOE mission areas and produce important science. This clearly has occurred, only partially reflected in the fact that the DOE JGI has played a major role in more than 45 papers published in just the past three years alone in Nature and Science. The involvement of a large and engaged community of users working on important problems has helped maximize the impact of JGI science. A seismic technological change is presently underway at the JGI. The Sanger capillary

  9. Implementing genomics and pharmacogenomics in the clinic: The National Human Genome Research Institute's genomic medicine portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolio, Teri A

    2016-10-01

    Increasing knowledge about the influence of genetic variation on human health and growing availability of reliable, cost-effective genetic testing have spurred the implementation of genomic medicine in the clinic. As defined by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), genomic medicine uses an individual's genetic information in his or her clinical care, and has begun to be applied effectively in areas such as cancer genomics, pharmacogenomics, and rare and undiagnosed diseases. In 2011 NHGRI published its strategic vision for the future of genomic research, including an ambitious research agenda to facilitate and promote the implementation of genomic medicine. To realize this agenda, NHGRI is consulting and facilitating collaborations with the external research community through a series of "Genomic Medicine Meetings," under the guidance and leadership of the National Advisory Council on Human Genome Research. These meetings have identified and begun to address significant obstacles to implementation, such as lack of evidence of efficacy, limited availability of genomics expertise and testing, lack of standards, and difficulties in integrating genomic results into electronic medical records. The six research and dissemination initiatives comprising NHGRI's genomic research portfolio are designed to speed the evaluation and incorporation, where appropriate, of genomic technologies and findings into routine clinical care. Actual adoption of successful approaches in clinical care will depend upon the willingness, interest, and energy of professional societies, practitioners, patients, and payers to promote their responsible use and share their experiences in doing so. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Joint Genome Institute's Automation Approach and History

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Simon

    2006-07-05

    Department of Energy/Joint Genome Institute (DOE/JGI) collaborates with DOE national laboratories and community users, to advance genome science in support of the DOE missions of clean bio-energy, carbon cycling, and bioremediation.

  11. Conceptualizing a Genomics Software Institute (GSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jack A; Catlett, Charlie; Desai, Narayan; Knight, Rob; White, Owen; Robbins, Robert; Sankaran, Rajesh; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Field, Dawn; Meyer, Folker

    2012-03-19

    Microbial ecology has been enhanced greatly by the ongoing 'omics revolution, bringing half the world's biomass and most of its biodiversity into analytical view for the first time; indeed, it feels almost like the invention of the microscope and the discovery of the new world at the same time. With major microbial ecology research efforts accumulating prodigious quantities of sequence, protein, and metabolite data, we are now poised to address environmental microbial research at macro scales, and to begin to characterize and understand the dimensions of microbial biodiversity on the planet. What is currently impeding progress is the need for a framework within which the research community can develop, exchange and discuss predictive ecosystem models that describe the biodiversity and functional interactions. Such a framework must encompass data and metadata transparency and interoperation; data and results validation, curation, and search; application programming interfaces for modeling and analysis tools; and human and technical processes and services necessary to ensure broad adoption. Here we discuss the need for focused community interaction to augment and deepen established community efforts, beginning with the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), to create a science-driven strategic plan for a Genomic Software Institute (GSI).

  12. Genomic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains isolated in Tuscany, Italy, based on large sequence deletions, SNPs in putative DNA repair genes and MIRU-VNTR polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzelli, Carlo; Lari, Nicoletta; Rindi, Laura

    2016-03-01

    The Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is cause of global concern as it is rapidly spreading worldwide, is considered hypervirulent, and is most often associated to massive spread of MDR/XDR TB, although these epidemiological or pathological properties have not been confirmed for all strains and in all geographic settings. In this paper, to gain new insights into the biogeographical heterogeneity of the Beijing family, we investigated a global sample of Beijing strains (22% from Italian-born, 78% from foreign-born patients) by determining large sequence polymorphism of regions RD105, RD181, RD150 and RD142, single nucleotide polymorphism of putative DNA repair genes mutT4 and mutT2 and MIRU-VNTR profiles based on 11 discriminative loci. We found that, although our sample of Beijing strains showed a considerable genomic heterogeneity, yielding both ancient and recent phylogenetic strains, the prevalent successful Beijing subsets were characterized by deletions of RD105 and RD181 and by one nucleotide substitution in one or both mutT genes. MIRU-VNTR analysis revealed 47 unique patterns and 9 clusters including a total of 33 isolates (41% of total isolates); the relatively high proportion of Italian-born Beijing TB patients, often occurring in mixed clusters, supports the possibility of an ongoing cross-transmission of the Beijing genotype to autochthonous population. High rates of extra-pulmonary localization and drug-resistance, particularly MDR, frequently reported for Beijing strains in other settings, were not observed in our survey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 75 FR 8374 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health...

  14. 77 FR 71604 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special..., Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  15. Draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain B9741 of Beijing B0/W lineage from HIV positive patient from Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Shur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain B9741 belonging to Beijing B0/W lineage isolated from a HIV patient from Siberia, Russia. This clinical isolate showed MDR phenotype and resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin and pyrazinamide. We analyzed SNPs associated with virulence and resistance. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession NZ_LVJJ00000000.

  16. 77 FR 5035 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health...

  17. 78 FR 64222 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301...

  18. 76 FR 28056 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated... National Human Genome Research Institute, including consideration of personnel qualifications and...

  19. 76 FR 17930 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane...

  20. 78 FR 107 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd Floor Conference Room....D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute...

  1. 76 FR 58023 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial..., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National...

  2. 77 FR 28888 - National Human Genome Research Institute Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3635...

  3. 78 FR 70063 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated... NATIONAL HUMAN GENOME RESEARCH INSTITUTE, including consideration of personnel qualifications and...

  4. 76 FR 5390 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076...

  5. 75 FR 13558 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Counselors, National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be closed to the public as indicated... National Human Genome Research Institute, including consideration of personnel qualifications and...

  6. 76 FR 29772 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... of Scientific Review, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health...

  7. How social structure changes in Chinese global cities: Synthesizing globalization, migration and institutional factors in Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Q.; Liu, T.; Musterd, S.; Cao, G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies on the social structural change in global cities have recognized globalization, migration, and institutional factors as three main forces underlying this process. However, effects of these factors have rarely been synthetically examined and the social structure of emerging Chinese

  8. What does it mean to be genomically literate?: National Human Genome Research Institute Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurle, Belen; Citrin, Toby; Jenkins, Jean F; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Lamb, Neil; Roseman, Jo Ellen; Bonham, Vence L

    2013-08-01

    Genomic discoveries will increasingly advance the science of medicine. Limited genomic literacy may adversely impact the public's understanding and use of the power of genetics and genomics in health care and public health. In November 2011, a meeting was held by the National Human Genome Research Institute to examine the challenge of achieving genomic literacy for the general public, from kindergarten to grade 12 to adult education. The role of the media in disseminating scientific messages and in perpetuating or reducing misconceptions was also discussed. Workshop participants agreed that genomic literacy will be achieved only through active engagement between genomics experts and the varied constituencies that comprise the public. This report summarizes the background, content, and outcomes from this meeting, including recommendations for a research agenda to inform decisions about how to advance genomic literacy in our society.

  9. The genome portal of the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute: 2014 updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Henrik [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Cantor, Michael [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Dusheyko, Serge [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Hua, Susan [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Poliakov, Alexander [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Shabalov, Igor [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Smirnova, Tatyana [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Grigoriev, Igor V. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Dubchak, Inna [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2013-11-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI), a national user facility, serves the diverse scientific community by providing integrated high-throughput sequencing and computational analysis to enable system-based scientific approaches in support of DOE missions related to clean energy generation and environmental characterization. The JGI Genome Portal (http://genome.jgi.doe.gov) provides unified access to all JGI genomic databases and analytical tools. The JGI maintains extensive data management systems and specialized analytical capabilities to manage and interpret complex genomic data. A user can search, download and explore multiple data sets available for all DOE JGI sequencing projects including their status, assemblies and annotations of sequenced genomes. In this paper, we describe major updates of the Genome Portal in the past 2 years with a specific emphasis on efficient handling of the rapidly growing amount of diverse genomic data accumulated in JGI.

  10. Catalogue of the type specimens in the fish collection of the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Enqi; Xing, Yingchun; Zhang, Chunguang; Zhao, Yahui

    2015-05-22

    A checklist of type specimens housed in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, is presented for research and scientific communication. Included are 80 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 1 neotype, 402 paratypes and 17 syntypes of 99 species belonging to 28 families and 12 orders. With 60 species, Cypriniformes has the largest representation. All of the specimens were collected in China and neighboring countries in the past 90 years.

  11. 77 FR 20646 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635...

  12. 77 FR 58402 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635...

  13. 76 FR 65204 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane...

  14. 77 FR 12604 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. >Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: National Human Genome Reseach Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane...

  15. 77 FR 59933 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research....D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute...

  16. 78 FR 9707 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076...

  17. Development and application of characteristic database for uranium mining and metallurgy in the library of Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Renxi

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy (BRICEM) is a multi disciplinary comprehensive research institute engaged in uranium mining, engineering design and related material researches. After 53 years of researches and development, BRICEM has accumulated a plenty of valuable data and resources. By analyzing the actual conditions of BRICEM's technological database, this thesis aims to propose the idea of building a characteristic database for uranium mining and metallurgy. It gives an in-depth analysis on content design, development status and problems of database development, in order to come up with solutions to these problems, as well as suggestions on the future development plans of the characteristic database. (author)

  18. 78 FR 21382 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, Suite 4076, 5635 Fisher's Lane, Bethesda, MD..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4075...

  19. 77 FR 8268 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fisher's Lane, Room 4076, Rockville, MD..., CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite...

  20. 77 FR 74676 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4075, Bethesda.... 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 11, 2012. David...

  1. 76 FR 10909 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: February 18, 2011. Jennifer S. Spaeth...

  2. 77 FR 35991 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4075, Bethesda.... 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 8, 2012. Jennifer S...

  3. 75 FR 8977 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 18, 2010. Jennifer Spaeth...

  4. 75 FR 53703 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  5. 75 FR 67380 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Review Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  6. 78 FR 55752 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research.... Pozzatti, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...

  7. 78 FR 56905 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research....m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research...

  8. 76 FR 19780 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research Institute, National... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  9. 76 FR 3917 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9306, Rockville, MD...

  10. 75 FR 56115 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS...

  11. 76 FR 3643 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  12. 78 FR 24223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd floor...

  13. 78 FR 20933 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, Room 3055, 5635...

  14. 78 FR 31953 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 3rd Floor...

  15. 77 FR 22332 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635...

  16. 76 FR 22407 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  17. 75 FR 19984 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4075... Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...

  18. 75 FR 26762 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of...

  19. 77 FR 31863 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 22, 2012. Jennifer S. Spaeth...

  20. 76 FR 66731 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 21, 2011...

  1. 76 FR 36930 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 17, 2011. Jennifer S. Spaeth...

  2. 77 FR 61770 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) [[Page 61771...

  3. 76 FR 63932 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 7...

  4. 78 FR 66752 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 15, 2013, 01:00 p.m. to October 15, 2013, 02:30 p.m., National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 3055, Rockville...

  5. Genome Variation Map: a data repository of genome variations in BIG Data Center

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Shuhui; Tian, Dongmei; Li, Cuiping; Tang, Bixia; Dong, Lili; Xiao, Jingfa; Bao, Yiming; Zhao, Wenming; He, Hang; Zhang, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Genome Variation Map (GVM; http://bigd.big.ac.cn/gvm/) is a public data repository of genome variations. As a core resource in the BIG Data Center, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, GVM dedicates to collect, integrate and visualize genome variations for a wide range of species, accepts submissions of different types of genome variations from all over the world and provides free open access to all publicly available data in support of worldwide research a...

  6. 76 FR 66076 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 19...

  7. 77 FR 60706 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special.... Nakamura, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...

  8. 77 FR 2735 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: February 13... Extramural Research National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9305...

  9. 77 FR 2304 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome....S.C. 281(d)(4)), notice is hereby given that the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI... meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Background materials on the proposed...

  10. 76 FR 22112 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  11. 75 FR 10488 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research...- 4280, [email protected]gov . Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special...

  12. 77 FR 64816 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome...

  13. 75 FR 8373 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  14. 75 FR 2147 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Council for Human Genome Research. The meetings will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Extramural Research, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9305...

  15. 76 FR 65204 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome...

  16. 76 FR 3642 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel eMERGE...

  17. 75 FR 52537 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  18. 78 FR 61851 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome...

  19. 75 FR 80509 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome... Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: December 16...

  20. 75 FR 2148 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Initial....nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  1. 75 FR 52538 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Person: Ken D. Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome...

  2. 76 FR 35223 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... Person: Rudy O. Pozzatti, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome...

  3. 75 FR 32957 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  4. 78 FR 14806 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research Institute Special... p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Human Genome Research...

  5. 75 FR 51828 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: February 7... Research, National Human Genome Research Institute, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 4076, MSC 9305, Bethesda, MD...

  6. 75 FR 60467 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., National Human Genome Research Institute. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors, National Human Genome...

  7. Beijing Time

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Michael; Lo, Hsiu-ju Stacy; Wu, Dong Dong

    2010-01-01

    “Where is the market?” inquires the tourist one dark, chilly morning. “Follow the ghosts,” responds the taxi driver, indicating a shadowy parade of overloaded tricycles. “It’s not called the ghost market for nothing!” And indeed, Beijing is nothing if not haunted. Among the soaring skyscrapers, choking exhaust fumes, nonstop traffic jams, and towering monuments, one discovers old Beijing—newly styled, perhaps, but no less present and powerful than in its ancient incarnation. Beijing Time cond...

  8. Remembering Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian Corbett

    2012-01-01

    Every General Assembly is remembered for something - in the past few years, Sydney for starting the International Year of Astronomy, Prague for Pluto, and Rio de Janeiro for the Strategic Plan. 1 thought that Beijing would be remembered for restructuring the Divisions and for the impressive progress we have made in implementing the Strategic Plan. But I was wrong! Above all, Beijing will be remembered for the unobtrusive but impeccable organization, the overwhelming generosity of our hosts, the smiling teams of volunteers, and the impressive CNCC.

  9. 78 FR 68856 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Nakamura, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research...-402-0838. [[Page 68857

  10. 77 FR 67385 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 29, 2012, 8:00 a.m. to October 30...

  11. 78 FR 65342 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, October 17, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 17...

  12. 76 FR 65738 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, November 29, 2011, 8 a.m. to November 29...

  13. 76 FR 71581 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Human Genome Research Institute Special Emphasis Panel, November 22, 2011, 12 p.m. to November 22...

  14. Boycott Beijing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of China's harsh suppression of antigovernment protests in Tibet--among other human-rights abuses throughout its territory--world leaders have faced mounting pressure to boycott the opening ceremonies of the approaching Olympic Games in Beijing. The boycott has also become a hot topic on the presidential-campaign trail. John McCain and…

  15. 76 FR 35224 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome...). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIR, National Human Genome Research..., [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  16. 75 FR 48977 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome.... Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research..., [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  17. 75 FR 44800 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... for Human Genome Research. The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with the provisions... Committee: National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research. Date: August 18, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 3 p.m...

  18. 75 FR 35821 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  19. 78 FR 47715 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  20. 76 FR 79199 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome.... Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome Research..., [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human Genome Research...

  1. 76 FR 28056 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Human Genome Research... D. Nakamura, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Human Genome...

  2. 77 FR 50140 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 13, 2012. Anna Snouffer, Deputy..., Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human...

  3. 77 FR 64816 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 16, 2012. David Clary, Program... Conference Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human...

  4. 77 FR 55853 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, September 10, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to September 11, 2012, 5...

  5. 78 FR 11898 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome....172, Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 13, 2013. David Clary... Conference Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer CIDR, National Human...

  6. 78 FR 77477 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome..., Human Genome Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: December 17, 2013. David Clary... Conference Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human...

  7. 77 FR 27471 - National Human Genome Research Institute Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, May 21, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to May 22, 2012, 5:00 p.m...

  8. 76 FR 9031 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome...- 402-8837, [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human...

  9. 75 FR 62548 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome...- 402-8837, [email protected] . Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human...

  10. 76 FR 50486 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Human Genome... Conference Call). Contact Person: Camilla E. Day, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, CIDR, National Human Genome...- 402-8837, [email protected] . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.172, Human...

  11. 2012 U.S. Department of Energy: Joint Genome Institute: Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, David [DOE JGI Public Affairs Manager

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) is to serve the diverse scientific community as a user facility, enabling the application of large-scale genomics and analysis of plants, microbes, and communities of microbes to address the DOE mission goals in bioenergy and the environment. The DOE JGI's sequencing efforts fall under the Eukaryote Super Program, which includes the Plant and Fungal Genomics Programs; and the Prokaryote Super Program, which includes the Microbial Genomics and Metagenomics Programs. In 2012, several projects made news for their contributions to energy and environment research.

  12. Radio- and magnetobiology program GENOM at Nuclear Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molchanov, E

    1985-01-01

    The five-year program called GENOM was adopted at OIYAI five years ago. The main task of this program has been the study of mechanisms that determine differences in the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiations with different stopping powers, as well as regularities involved in the action of magnetic fields. A unit called GENOM, which is controlled by a computer, was built at OIYAI. With this unit, living cells have been irradiated with charged particles of various energies, using the U-200. Magnetic-field generators and a unit which makes it possible to weaken the strength of the earth's magnetic field by a million times have been developed for magnetobiology research. DNA molecules, bacteria, yeasts, plant cells, normal and tumor cells of animals, and nerve cells of mollusks have been objects of research.

  13. Whole genome sequencing reveals complex evolution patterns of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains in patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Merker

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant (MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains represent a major threat for tuberculosis (TB control. Treatment of MDR-TB patients is long and less effective, resulting in a significant number of treatment failures. The development of further resistances leads to extensively drug-resistant (XDR variants. However, data on the individual reasons for treatment failure, e.g. an induced mutational burst, and on the evolution of bacteria in the patient are only sparsely available. To address this question, we investigated the intra-patient evolution of serial MTBC isolates obtained from three MDR-TB patients undergoing longitudinal treatment, finally leading to XDR-TB. Sequential isolates displayed identical IS6110 fingerprint patterns, suggesting the absence of exogenous re-infection. We utilized whole genome sequencing (WGS to screen for variations in three isolates from Patient A and four isolates from Patient B and C, respectively. Acquired polymorphisms were subsequently validated in up to 15 serial isolates by Sanger sequencing. We determined eight (Patient A and nine (Patient B polymorphisms, which occurred in a stepwise manner during the course of the therapy and were linked to resistance or a potential compensatory mechanism. For both patients, our analysis revealed the long-term co-existence of clonal subpopulations that displayed different drug resistance allele combinations. Out of these, the most resistant clone was fixed in the population. In contrast, baseline and follow-up isolates of Patient C were distinguished each by eleven unique polymorphisms, indicating an exogenous re-infection with an XDR strain not detected by IS6110 RFLP typing. Our study demonstrates that intra-patient microevolution of MDR-MTBC strains under longitudinal treatment is more complex than previously anticipated. However, a mutator phenotype was not detected. The presence of different subpopulations might confound phenotypic and

  14. Ploidy and genome composition of Musa germplasm at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pillay, M.; Ogundiwin, E.; Tenkouano, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2006), s. 1224-1232 ISSN 1684-5315 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Banana * plantain * genomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. 77 FR 6810 - National Human Genome Research Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    .... Pozzatti, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Human Genome Research... Institute Special Emphasis Panel; ENCODE Production SEP (M1). Date: March 5, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m... Potomac Avenue, Studio 6, Arlington, VA 22202. Contact Person: Keith McKenney, Ph.D., Scientific Review...

  16. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets Across Cancer Types | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dana Farber Cancer Institute CTD2 Center focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  17. Famous Food in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    MORE than 3,000 years have passed since Shao Gongshi was granted territory at Yon (Beijing) by the King of Zhon in 1045 B.C. Ever since,Beijing has had a long and glorious history as the capital for five Chinese feudal dynasties--the Liao (907-1125), Jin (1115-1234),Yuan (1206-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing(1644-1911). As a political, cultural and economic centre,Beijing has formed a unique taste on food with many long-lasting, wellknown eateries.

  18. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue

    2005-01-01

    Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DN...... on quantitative trait loci using data from collaborating institutions and public resources. Our data can be queried by search engine and homology-based BLAST searches. ChickVD is publicly accessible at http://chicken.genomics.org.cn. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jan-1...

  19. BGI-RIS: an integrated information resource and comparative analysis workbench for rice genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Wenming; Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao

    2004-01-01

    Rice is a major food staple for the world's population and serves as a model species in cereal genome research. The Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) has long been devoting itself to sequencing, information analysis and biological research of the rice and other crop genomes. In order to facilitate....... Designed as a basic platform, BGI-RIS presents the sequenced genomes and related information in systematic and graphical ways for the convenience of in-depth comparative studies (http://rise.genomics.org.cn/). Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Jan-1...

  20. The national cancer institute (NCI) and cancer biology in a 'post genome world'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klausner, Richard D.

    1996-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) exists to reduce the burden of all cancers through research and discovery. Extensive restructuring of the NCI over the past year has been aimed at assuring that the institution functions in all ways to promote opportunities for discovery in the laboratory, in the clinic, and in the community. To do this well requires the difficult and almost paradoxical problem of planning for scientific discovery which, in turn is based on the freedom to pursue the unanticipated. The intellectual and structural landscape of science is changing and it places new challenges, new demands and new opportunities for facilitating discovery. The nature of cancer as a disease of genomic instability and of accumulated genetic change, coupled with a possibility of the development of new technologies for reading, utilizing, interpreting and manipulating the genome of single cells, provides unprecedented opportunities for a new type of high through-put biology that will change the nature of discovery, cancer detection, diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic decision-making and therapeutic discovery. To capture these new opportunities will require attention to be paid to integrate the development of technology and new scientific discoveries with the ability to apply advances rapidly and efficiently through clinical trials

  1. The Beijing ISOL initial conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Baoqun; Gao, Yuan; Ge, Yucheng; Guo, Zhiyu; Li, Zhihong; Liu, Weiping; Peng, Shixiang; Peng, Zhaohua; Wang, Zhi; Yan, Sha; Ye, Yanlin; Zeng, Sheng; Zhang, Guohui; Zhu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Peking University and China Institute of Atomic Energy are proposing to construct a facility called “Beijing ISOL”. • Beijing ISOL is aimed at both basic science and application goals. • Beijing ISOL is the double driver system, namely reactor driving (RD) and intense deuteron-beam driving (IDD). • Multi-beam, multi-energy and multi-terminal will be used to meet the users’ requirements. -- Abstract: Peking University (PKU) and China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) are jointly proposing to construct a large science facility, temporarily called “Beijing ISOL”. This facility aims at both basic science and application goals, and is based on the double driver system, namely reactor driving and intense deuteron-beam driving. On the basic science side, the radioactive ion beams produced from the isotope separation online (ISOL) device will be used to study the new physics and technologies at the limit of nuclear stability. On the other side regarding to the applications, the facility will be devoted to material research for the nuclear energy system by using typically the intense neutron and ion beams. In the whole process of design, construction and operation, an opening policy will be pursued, and the domestic and international cooperation will be emphasized. Through this project, a joint research and education mode will be established

  2. Beijing Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Beijing Badaling Development Area The Development Area is planned to cover an area of 6.56 km2.Currently,more than 300 enterprises have located in the area.Their investments add up to about RMB 1 billion.Major business trades include machine building,mineral ore processing,medicine,electronic parts,foodstuff processing,and warehousing transportation.

  3. Guidelines for collecting vouchers and tissues intended for genomic work (Smithsonian Institution: Botany Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Funk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Next Generation Sequencing into the disciplines of plant systematics, ecology, and metagenomics, among others, has resulted in a phenomenal increase in the collecting and storing of tissue samples and their respective vouchers. This manual suggests standard practices that will insure the quality and preservation of the tissue and vouchers and their respective data. Although written for use by the Smithsonian Institution botanists it suggests a framework for collecting tissues and vouchers that other research programs can adapt to their own needs. It includes information on collecting voucher specimens, collecting plant tissue intended for genomic analysis, how to manage these collections, and how to incorporate the data into a database management system. It also includes many useful references for collecting and processing collections. We hope it will be useful for a variety of botanists but especially those who know how to collect plants and want to collect tissue samples that will be useful for genomic research, and those who are skilled in lab work and want to know how to properly voucher and record their tissue collections.

  4. Institutional Responsibility and the Flawed Genomic Biomarkers at Duke University: A Missed Opportunity for Transparency and Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, David L; Fleming, Thomas R; Geller, Gail; Ransohoff, David F

    2017-08-01

    When there have been substantial failures by institutional leadership in their oversight responsibility to protect research integrity, the public should demand that these be recognized and addressed by the institution itself, or the funding bodies. This commentary discusses a case of research failures in developing genomic predictors for cancer risk assessment and treatment at a leading university. In its review of this case, the Office of Research Integrity, an agency within the US Department of Health and Human Services, focused their report entirely on one individual faculty member and made no comment on the institution's responsibility and its failure to provide adequate oversight and investigation. These actions missed an important opportunity to emphasize the institution's critical responsibilities in oversight of research integrity and the importance of institutional transparency and accountability.

  5. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets in KRAS Driven Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Dana Farber Cancer Institute focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  6. Cardiovascular genomics, personalized medicine, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: part I: the beginning of an era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christopher J; Nabel, Elizabeth G

    2008-10-01

    The inaugural issue of Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics arrives at a remarkable time in the history of genetic research and cardiovascular medicine. Despite tremendous progress in knowledge gained, cardiovascular disease(CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States,1 and it has overcome infectious diseases as the leading cause of death worldwide.2 In addition, rates of CVD remain higher in black and Hispanic populations in the United States.1 The recent Strategic Plan of the National Heart, Lung,and Blood Institute (NHLBI) emphasizes research areas to fill the significant knowledge gaps needed to improve the diagnosis,treatment, and control of known risk factors and clinically apparent disease. Simultaneously, the NHLBI Strategic Plan recognizes a tremendous opportunity that is available for use of genetic and genomic research to generate new knowledge that might reduce the morbidity and mortality from CVD in US populations.3 Public availability of vast amounts of detailed sequence information about the human genome, completed sequence data on dozens of other animal genomes, and private sector development of high-throughput genetic technologies has transformed in a few short years the conduct of cardiovascular genetics and genomics research from a primary focus on mendelian disorders to a current emphasis on genome-wide association studies (GWAS; Figure1). In this review, we describe the rationale for the current emphasis on large-scale genomic studies, summarize the evolving approaches and progress to date, and identify immediate-term research needs. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the NHLBI are supporting a portfolio of large-scale genetic and genomic programs in diverse US populations with the longer-term objective of translating knowledge into the prediction, prevention, and preemption of CVD, as well as lung, sleep, and blood disorders. Underlying this portfolio is a strong commitment to make available participant-level data and

  7. Cambridge Healthtech Institute's 5th Annual Conference: impact of genomics on medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanders, E D

    2001-08-01

    The recent publications in Nature and Science by the Human Genome Consortium and Celera Genomics, respectively, while being landmark achievements in themselves, have also given pause for thought. A definitive catalogue of human genes is still not available but the broad picture of how humans compare with lower organisms at the genomic level is becoming clearer. The full impact of these findings on the practice of medicine is hard to predict, but research being conducted now, in the early years of the 21st century, will form the basis of future advances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Exactly what this will entail is the subject of intense debate, but there are some common starting points that were discussed at this meeting in Munich. The main theme to emerge was the need to move beyond the human genome sequence towards an understanding of proteins and their interactions in complex biological pathways, thereby increasing opportunities for drug discovery through the identification of new targets. The majority of the talks were therefore devoted to the description of technological advances in the analysis of gene and protein expression (and interaction) and in the use of various methods of gene deletion in order to validate individual proteins as drug targets. Perhaps it will still be a few years before it will be possible to report on the application of genomic analyses to routine medical practice at the first point of care for patients but when that happens, the research efforts described here will have been worthwhile.

  8. Haze over Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Thick haze collected over the Beijing region in late March 2007. Earlier that month, the BBC News reported that an international team of scientists had documented how increasing pollution in China led to decreasing rainfall over the region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard the Aqua satellite captured these images of the Beijing region on March 22, 2007. The top image is a 'true-color' picture, similar to a digital photo. The bottom, 'false-color,' image uses a combination of visible and infrared light to more clearly show vegetation, water, and clouds. Even sparse vegetation appears bright green, while water appears deep blue (bright blue when tinged with sediment). Clouds dominated by water droplets appear white, while clouds made of ice crystals appear light blue. The false-color image highlights water bodies, perhaps aqua-culture ponds, that are all but invisible in the true-color image, especially along the shores of the Bo Hai. While vegetation and water show up more clearly in the false-color image, haze is much more transparent. Although dingy gray haze dominates the true-color picture, it is all but invisible in the false-color view. The haze 'disappears' in the infrared-enhanced image because tiny haze particles do not reflect longer-wavelength infrared light very well, making this type of image useful for distinguishing haze from clouds. The bank of clouds in the upper right corner shows up clearly in both pictures. As China industrializes, factories, power plants, and automobiles all contribute to pollution in the region. In examining pollutants and rainfall, the team of scientists examined records covering more than 50 years, concluding that pollution decreased precipitation at Mount Hua near Xi'an in central China. They concluded that when conditions are so hazy that visibility is reduced to less than 8 kilometers (5 miles), hilly precipitation can drop by 30 to 50 percent. When moist air passes over mountains

  9. The electronic system of Beijing spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1990-01-01

    Beijing Spectrometer (BES) in an experimental facility of high energy physics on Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). A brief description including the global design, the read out circuits, the performances and the recent status of its electronic system is presented

  10. Genomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, T. A. (Terence A.)

    2002-01-01

    ... of genome expression and replication processes, and transcriptomics and proteomics. This text is richly illustrated with clear, easy-to-follow, full color diagrams, which are downloadable from the book's website...

  11. Physics Accomplishments and Future Prospects of the BES Experiments at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Roy A.; Harris, Frederick A.; Mitchell, Ryan E.

    2016-10-01

    The cornerstone of the Chinese experimental particle physics program is a series of experiments performed in the τ-charm energy region. China began building e+e- colliders at the Institute for High Energy Physics in Beijing more than three decades ago. Beijing Electron Spectrometer (BES) is the common root name for the particle physics detectors operated at these machines. We summarize the development of the BES program and highlight the physics results across several topical areas.

  12. Properties of Aerosols during a Dust Storm over the Beijing Area,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-12

    THE BEIJING AREA by Zhou Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, et al DTIC S ELECTE JAN 04 1984 N Lum E Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 84 01 04 015...STORM OVER THE BEIJING AREA By: Zhou Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, et al. English~ pages: 22 Source: Huanjing Kexue Xuebao, Vol. 1, Nr. 3, September 1981, pp... Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, Song Ximing, Li Yuying, Yang Shaojin and Qian Qinfang Zhou, Qu, Song and Li of Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy

  13. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  14. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  15. Fish species diversity and conservation in Beijing and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Chunguang Zhang; Yahui Zhao; Yingchun Xing; Ruilu Guo; Qing Zhang; Yun Feng; Enyuan Fan

    2011-01-01

    Based on field surveys between 2002 and 2010, and fish collections in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a total of 93 wild fish species including 12 in-troduced species had been recorded in Beijing and adjacent areas. Eighty five of these species, including some migratory and estuarine fishes, are native to the region. Only 43 native wild species were collected in our field work from 2002 to 2010. Compared with the historical records, nearly 50...

  16. Genome Variation Map: a data repository of genome variations in BIG Data Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuhui; Tian, Dongmei; Li, Cuiping; Tang, Bixia; Dong, Lili; Xiao, Jingfa; Bao, Yiming; Zhao, Wenming; He, Hang; Zhang, Zhang

    2018-01-04

    The Genome Variation Map (GVM; http://bigd.big.ac.cn/gvm/) is a public data repository of genome variations. As a core resource in the BIG Data Center, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, GVM dedicates to collect, integrate and visualize genome variations for a wide range of species, accepts submissions of different types of genome variations from all over the world and provides free open access to all publicly available data in support of worldwide research activities. Unlike existing related databases, GVM features integration of a large number of genome variations for a broad diversity of species including human, cultivated plants and domesticated animals. Specifically, the current implementation of GVM not only houses a total of ∼4.9 billion variants for 19 species including chicken, dog, goat, human, poplar, rice and tomato, but also incorporates 8669 individual genotypes and 13 262 manually curated high-quality genotype-to-phenotype associations for non-human species. In addition, GVM provides friendly intuitive web interfaces for data submission, browse, search and visualization. Collectively, GVM serves as an important resource for archiving genomic variation data, helpful for better understanding population genetic diversity and deciphering complex mechanisms associated with different phenotypes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Genome Variation Map: a data repository of genome variations in BIG Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dongmei; Li, Cuiping; Tang, Bixia; Dong, Lili; Xiao, Jingfa; Bao, Yiming; Zhao, Wenming; He, Hang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Genome Variation Map (GVM; http://bigd.big.ac.cn/gvm/) is a public data repository of genome variations. As a core resource in the BIG Data Center, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, GVM dedicates to collect, integrate and visualize genome variations for a wide range of species, accepts submissions of different types of genome variations from all over the world and provides free open access to all publicly available data in support of worldwide research activities. Unlike existing related databases, GVM features integration of a large number of genome variations for a broad diversity of species including human, cultivated plants and domesticated animals. Specifically, the current implementation of GVM not only houses a total of ∼4.9 billion variants for 19 species including chicken, dog, goat, human, poplar, rice and tomato, but also incorporates 8669 individual genotypes and 13 262 manually curated high-quality genotype-to-phenotype associations for non-human species. In addition, GVM provides friendly intuitive web interfaces for data submission, browse, search and visualization. Collectively, GVM serves as an important resource for archiving genomic variation data, helpful for better understanding population genetic diversity and deciphering complex mechanisms associated with different phenotypes. PMID:29069473

  18. Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. Diagnosing Beijing 2020: Mapping the Ungovernable City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Visser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beijing Municipality, characterised by the ‘off-ground’ architecture distinguishing neo-liberal privatisation, is attempting to mitigate the damaging effects of rampant development on the social fabric, cultural heritage, and the environment by adopting sustainable urban planning. I argue that the sustainability rhetoric in the Beijing Municipality 2020 Plans functions in part as strategic metaphors masking unnamed, imminent threats to governance. In this article I diagnose four Beijing plans (Beijing 2006-2015 ‘Rail Transit Plan’ for Compact City, Beijing 2005-2020 ‘Underground Space Plan’ for Alternative Space, Beijing 2006-2020 ‘Undeveloped Area Plan’ for Ecological Responsibility, and Beijing 2006-2010 ‘Low-income Housing Plan’ for Affordability and Liveability. A diagrammatics of the plans illuminates not so much a mapping of Beijing’s future as the forms of spontaneity preoccupying the nation at this historical juncture. The Beijing 2020 plan, as city mapping more generally, discloses the imminence of ungovernable city. The fact that citizens are demanding greater authority over Beijing governance suggests that radical alterations to its urban fabric and quality of life have incited the imminent sociability that is the city.

  20. A comprehensive crop genome research project: the Superhybrid Rice Genome Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Liu, Siqi; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming

    2007-06-29

    In May 2000, the Beijing Institute of Genomics formally announced the launch of a comprehensive crop genome research project on rice genomics, the Chinese Superhybrid Rice Genome Project. SRGP is not simply a sequencing project targeted to a single rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome, but a full-swing research effort with an ultimate goal of providing inclusive basic genomic information and molecular tools not only to understand biology of the rice, both as an important crop species and a model organism of cereals, but also to focus on a popular superhybrid rice landrace, LYP9. We have completed the first phase of SRGP and provide the rice research community with a finished genome sequence of an indica variety, 93-11 (the paternal cultivar of LYP9), together with ample data on subspecific (between subspecies) polymorphisms, transcriptomes and proteomes, useful for within-species comparative studies. In the second phase, we have acquired the genome sequence of the maternal cultivar, PA64S, together with the detailed catalogues of genes uniquely expressed in the parental cultivars and the hybrid as well as allele-specific markers that distinguish parental alleles. Although SRGP in China is not an open-ended research programme, it has been designed to pave a way for future plant genomics research and application, such as to interrogate fundamentals of plant biology, including genome duplication, polyploidy and hybrid vigour, as well as to provide genetic tools for crop breeding and to carry along a social burden-leading a fight against the world's hunger. It began with genomics, the newly developed and industry-scale research field, and from the world's most populous country. In this review, we summarize our scientific goals and noteworthy discoveries that exploit new territories of systematic investigations on basic and applied biology of rice and other major cereal crops.

  1. People’s Olympics? (Beijing 2008)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, G.P.L.; de Kloet, J.; Zeng, G.; Bajc, V.

    2016-01-01

    Granted, the question mark was not included in this main slogan of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The Beijing Olympics generated heated debates worldwide on China’s authoritarian governance, environmental pollution, human rights situation, alleged indulgence of humanitarian disaster in Darfur in

  2. Parent-School Councils in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Bjork, Lars G.; Zhao, Yuru; Chi, Bin

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines how schools in Beijing have responded to a Chinese national policy mandate to establish and maintain parent councils. We surveyed principals and parent council members across schools in the Beijing municipality about the establishment and functions of their schools' parent councils. Survey results provide insights…

  3. American Jazz Cathedra Enters into Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> On the evening of 25 June, 2003, an American Music Cathedra was held in the In ternational Friendship Hall of Beijing Jintai Art Museum. And its theme is "a form of American Art-Jazz". The Economic Department, Press Department of American Embassy and Beijing Jueshi Culture Development Co.Ltd. sponsored the activity.

  4. "Pseudo-Beijing": evidence for convergent evolution in the direct repeat region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Fenner

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a global population structure consisting of six main phylogenetic lineages associated with specific geographic regions and human populations. One particular M. tuberculosis genotype known as "Beijing" has repeatedly been associated with drug resistance and has been emerging in some parts of the world. "Beijing" strains are traditionally defined based on a characteristic spoligotyping pattern. We used three alternative genotyping techniques to revisit the phylogenetic classification of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains exhibiting the typical "Beijing" spoligotyping pattern.MTBC strains were obtained from an ongoing molecular epidemiological study in Switzerland and Nepal. MTBC genotyping was performed based on SNPs, genomic deletions, and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. We identified three MTBC strains from patients originating from Tibet, Portugal and Nepal which exhibited a spoligotyping patterns identical to the classical Beijing signature. However, based on three alternative molecular markers, these strains were assigned to Lineage 3 (also known as Delhi/CAS rather than to Lineage 2 (also known as East-Asian lineage. Sequencing of the RD207 in one of these strains showed that the deletion responsible for this "Pseudo-Beijing" spoligotype was about 1,000 base pairs smaller than the usual deletion of RD207 in classical "Beijing" strains, which is consistent with an evolutionarily independent deletion event in the direct repeat (DR region of MTBC.We provide an example of convergent evolution in the DR locus of MTBC, and highlight the limitation of using spoligotypes for strain classification. Our results indicate that a proportion of "Beijing" strains may have been misclassified in the past. Markers that are more phylogenetically robust should be used when exploring strain-specific differences in experimental or clinical phenotypes.

  5. Measurements of ozone and its precursors in Beijing in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. D.; Squires, F. A.; Dunmore, R.; Hamilton, J. F.; Hopkins, J. R.; Rickard, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years there have been substantial reductions in emission of primary pollutants (e.g. PM, NOx) in Beijing. However, levels of ozone (O3), which is produced from VOCs and NOxin the presence of sunlight, frequently break recommended exposure limits in Beijing and other large conurbations in China. In fact, it is suggested that ozone is likely to become the major air pollutant effecting human health in Beijing over the next 5-10 years. For 5 weeks in May and June 2017 O3 was measured, along with NOx, CO and a large range of VOCs (C2 - C13) at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences site, close to the 4th ring road in central Beijing. Elevated levels of O3 were regularly observed, with maximum concentrations of 180 ppbv. On 75% of days during this period, O3 breached the recommended WHO 8 hour exposure limit of 60 ppbv. Data will be presented showing the effect of different levels of precursor species and photolysis rates on O3. The peak concentration of O3 on each day seemed to have little correlation with NOx. Typically NO concentrations were elevated during the morning but often decreased to below 35oC meaning biogenic emissions also influenced the chemistry at the site, with several ppbv of isoprene measured during the afternoons. The importance of different VOCs for in-situ O3 formation is investigated using a simple steady state analysis of OH reactivity, along with a more detailed analysis using the Master Chemical Mechanism.

  6. The Genomics Education Partnership: Successful Integration of Research into Laboratory Classes at a Diverse Group of Undergraduate Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher D.; Alvarez, Consuelo; Bailey, Cheryl; Barnard, Daron; Bhalla, Satish; Chandrasekaran, Chitra; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Chung, Hui-Min; Dorer, Douglas R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeff L.; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L.; Gosser, Yuying; Hauser, Charles; Hoopes, Laura L.M.; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Christopher J.; Kaehler, Marian; Kokan, Nighat; Kopp, Olga R.; Kuleck, Gary A.; McNeil, Gerard; Moss, Robert; Myka, Jennifer L.; Nagengast, Alexis; Morris, Robert; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Parrish, Susan; Reed, Kelynne; Regisford, E. Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Saville, Ken; Schroeder, Stephanie; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher; Smith, Mary; Spana, Eric P.; Spratt, Mary; Stamm, Joyce; Thompson, Jeff S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Wilson, Barbara A.; Youngblom, Jim; Leung, Wilson; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.; Lopatto, David

    2010-01-01

    Genomics is not only essential for students to understand biology but also provides unprecedented opportunities for undergraduate research. The goal of the Genomics Education Partnership (GEP), a collaboration between a growing number of colleges and universities around the country and the Department of Biology and Genome Center of Washington University in St. Louis, is to provide such research opportunities. Using a versatile curriculum that has been adapted to many different class settings, GEP undergraduates undertake projects to bring draft-quality genomic sequence up to high quality and/or participate in the annotation of these sequences. GEP undergraduates have improved more than 2 million bases of draft genomic sequence from several species of Drosophila and have produced hundreds of gene models using evidence-based manual annotation. Students appreciate their ability to make a contribution to ongoing research, and report increased independence and a more active learning approach after participation in GEP projects. They show knowledge gains on pre- and postcourse quizzes about genes and genomes and in bioinformatic analysis. Participating faculty also report professional gains, increased access to genomics-related technology, and an overall positive experience. We have found that using a genomics research project as the core of a laboratory course is rewarding for both faculty and students. PMID:20194808

  7. Agriculture and water in Shunyi District, Beijing; results of a rapid diagnostic appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, B.M.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Cheng, X.; Lu, C.

    2004-01-01

    Land use and agriculture in Shunyi District were studied in a Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal (RDA) held November 2003 in the frame of the project `Resource Management Options in the Greater Beijing Area`. Officials of governmental institutions in Shunyi were interviewed and during three days, a team of

  8. Beijing: a conference of commitments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S

    1996-05-01

    The author of this article holds the view that the Declaration and Platform for Action at the UN Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995 was the product of the most highly participatory process ever organized under the auspices of the UN. The Declaration and Platform expressed the strongest views on gender equality, empowerment, and justice that governments have ever endorsed. These documents were the consolidation of gains made by women in previous UN conferences. The 135-page Platform can be used at all levels of decision making. Governments and international can be held accountable for its provisions. The Platform exposes the problems violence and exploitation against women and girls as well as the revelation that environmental destruction is due to an unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in developed countries. Conference participants included about 3000 nongovernmental groups (NGOs). The Women's Linkage Caucus and WEDO served to facilitate the advocacy process by providing briefings on text still under negotiation and providing on-line recommendations from the 1995 and 1994 Commission on the Status of Women preparatory committee meetings. A scoreboard that tracked government's commitment at the 1995 preparatory committee meetings was reinstated in Beijing. The information was conveyed on the Internet. The European Union is credited with diluting the language about government commitment to the Platform. Governments are still given responsibility for implementation, and the need for political will is stressed (paragraph 293). Paragraph 297 indicates the process for implementation of the Platform and coordination with NGOs. Although the Platform recognizes the importance of women's groups and other NGOs, the responsibility for implementation is still given to governments.

  9. Use of Comparative Genomics To Characterize the Diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii Surveillance Isolates in a Health Care Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lalena; Daugherty, Sean C.; Nagaraj, Sushma; Johnson, J. Kristie; Harris, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, little is known about which genomic components contribute to clinical presentation of this important pathogen. Most whole-genome comparisons of A. baumannii have focused on specific genomic regions associated with phenotypes in a limited number of genomes. In this work, we describe the results of a whole-genome comparative analysis of 254 surveillance isolates of Acinetobacter species, 203 of which were A. baumannii, isolated from perianal swabs and sputum samples collected as part of an infection control active surveillance program at the University of Maryland Medical Center. The collection of surveillance isolates includes both carbapenem-susceptible and -resistant isolates. Based on the whole-genome phylogeny, the A. baumannii isolates collected belong to two major phylogenomic lineages. Results from multilocus sequence typing indicated that one of the major phylogenetic groups of A. baumannii was comprised solely of strains from the international clonal lineage 2. The genomic content of the A. baumannii isolates was examined using large-scale BLAST score ratio analysis to identify genes that are associated with carbapenem-susceptible and -resistant isolates, as well as genes potentially associated with the source of isolation. This analysis revealed a number of genes that were exclusive or at greater frequency in each of these classifications. This study is the most comprehensive genomic comparison of Acinetobacter isolates from a surveillance study to date and provides important information that will contribute to our understanding of the success of A. baumannii as a human pathogen. PMID:27458211

  10. Headquarters Of APSCO Opens In Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yansong

    2009-01-01

    @@ The headquarters of Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO) has been inaugurated in Beijing.APSCO is the biggest space organization in Asia. Established in 2008, the organization has 9 members in the Asia-Pacific region.

  11. China's Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    China will host the 2008 Olympic Summer Games from August 8 to 24, 2008. Most of the events will be held in the vicinity of Beijing, with selected competitions held in Hong Kong, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Tianjin...

  12. High participation rate among 25 721 patients with broad age range in a hospital-based research project involving whole-genome sequencing - the Lausanne Institutional Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochud, Murielle; Currat, Christine; Chapatte, Laurence; Roth, Cindy; Mooser, Vincent

    2017-10-24

    We aimed to evaluate the interest of adult inpatients and selected outpatients in engaging in a large, real-life, hospital-based, genomic medicine research project and in receiving clinically actionable incidental findings. Within the framework of the cross-sectional Institutional Biobank of Lausanne, Switzerland, a total of 25721 patients of the CHUV University Hospital were systematically invited to grant researchers access to their biomedical data and to donate blood for future analyses, including whole-genome sequencing. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify personal factors, including age, gender, religion, ethnicity, citizenship, education level and mode of admission, associated with willingness to participate in this genomic research project and with interest in receiving clinically actionable incidental findings. The overall participation rate was 79% (20343/25721). Participation rate declined progressively with age, averaging 83%, 75%, 67% and 62% in patients aged rate, but not with higher willingness to receive incidental findings within the population who had agreed to participate. A large proportion of adult patients, even among the elderly, are willing to actively participate and receive incidental findings in this systematic hospital-based precision and genomic medicine research program with broad consent.

  13. Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage.

    OpenAIRE

    Merker Matthias; Blin Camille; Mona Stefano; Duforet-Frebourg Nicolas; Lecher Sophie; Willery Eve; Blum Michael G B; Rüsch-Gerdes Sabine; Mokrousov Igor; Aleksic Eman; Allix-Béguec Caroline; Antierens Annick; Augustynowicz-Kopec Ewa; Ballif Marie; Barletta Francesca

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage are globally distributed and are associated with the massive spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eurasia. Here we reconstructed the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this lineage by genetic analysis of 4,987 isolates from 99 countries and whole-genome sequencing of 110 representative isolates. We show that this lineage initially originated in the Far East, from where it radiat...

  14. Volatile organic compound mixing ratios above Beijing in November and December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, William; Shaw, Marvin; Huang, Zhonghui; Wang, Zhaoyi; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Davison, Brian; Langford, Ben; Mullinger, Neil; Nemitz, Eiko; Fu, Pingqing; Squires, Freya; Carpenter, Lucy; Lewis, Alastair; Hewitt, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere from vegetation and anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and the evaporation of petroleum products. These compounds play an important role in the chemistry of the lower atmosphere through secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and facilitating the formation of tropospheric ozone. As well as their indirect impact on human health via the formation of ozone and SOA, some VOCs, including benzene, directly affect human health adversely. Here we report VOC mixing ratios measured in Beijing during a 5 week intensive field campaign from the 7th November to the 10th December 2016. This work was carried out as part of the Sources and Emissions of Air Pollutants in Beijing (AIRPOLL-Beijing) work project within the Air Pollution and Human Health in a Developing Megacity (APHH-Beijing) research programme. APHH is a large multi-institutional study which aims to record the concentrations and identify the sources of urban air pollutants in Beijing, determine exposure, understand their effects on human health, and to identify solutions. VOC mixing ratios were recorded using a Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS, Ionicon Analytik) and a Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometer (SIFT-MS, SYFT Technologies). During the measurement period Beijing was subject to multiple pollution events that alternated with periods of relatively good air quality, allowing the VOCs within the polluted air masses to be identified and quantified. VOCs were sampled at 102 m with additional gradient measurements made at 3, 15, 32 and 64 m providing a vertical profile of VOC mixing ratios. Mixing ratios of methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and aromatics species will be reported together with a discussion of potential sources. Comparisons will then be drawn with other large cities.

  15. Succession, Development and Innovation of the Master Plan of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> The Master Plan of Beijing (2004 - 2020),approved in January 2005 by the State Council, is an important strategic, holistic and comprehensive plan for Beijing to face the new century, to realize the stra-tegic proposition of"New Beijing, Great Olympics", and to fully push forward the harmonious and sustainable development of economy, society, population, resources and environment.

  16. Economic impact of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Peng

    2009-01-01

    It has been one year since Beijing successfully hosts the 2008 Olympic Games. It needs to stress the economic impacts of the city as the Olympic effect could boost economy of Beijing a long and lasting growth. In this paper, a large number of academic articles are reviewed given a general view of these impacts and put insights into the economic impacts of previous host cities. Both positive and negative effects are mentioned with rich discussions. Based on the statistical data, growth trend o...

  17. Pattern of sports- and recreation-related spinal cord injuries in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, C; Sun, T; Li, J; Zhang, F

    2009-12-01

    Retrospective study. To determine the characteristics of sports- and recreation-related (SR-related) spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in Beijing. Beijing, China. A review of the complete medical records of 57 consecutive SR-related SCI patients referred to four general hospitals and two rehabilitation institutions was carried out. Patients were injured between 1993 and 2006. The variables studied included demography, sports and recreation characteristics, diagnoses and outcome. There were 44 males and 13 females with a ratio of 3.3:1. The mean age was 24.49+/-11.92 years. In 37 patients (64.9%), water sports was the single most commont cause. Of them, injury because of diving was seen in 34, which constituted 59.6% of the total. Other types of sports and recreation accounted for 35.1%. Level of cord lesion was cervical in 89.5% and thoracic in 10.5% of the injured. The lesion of C4 alone constituted 45.6% of the total. The ratio of complete to incomplete lesion was 1.2:1. In all, two patients died, and one with an injury at the C4 level recovered completely. Of the other 54 survivals, 48 (89%) remained tetraplegic and six remained paraplegic (11%). The main underlying cause was the lack of safety awareness, safety regulations and their implementation. SR-related SCI was most commonly seen among young male adults, predominantly as a result of diving accidents. There was a significant increase in sports injuries, other than those caused by diving, in later years. Successful prevention programs of other countries are being adopted in Beijing in recent years, hence an improvement in safety is expected in the years to come. This work was sponsored by Funding Project for Academic Human Resources Development in Institutions of Higher Learning Under the Jurisdiction of Beijing Municipality(2007) and Funding Project for Science and Technology Development of Beijing Municipality(km200710029003).

  18. Vicarious Calibration of Beijing-1 Multispectral Imagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For on-orbit calibration of the Beijing-1 multispectral imagers (Beijing-1/MS, a field calibration campaign was performed at the Dunhuang calibration site during September and October of 2008. Based on the in situ data and images from Beijing-1 and Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, three vicarious calibration methods (i.e., reflectance-based, irradiance-based, and cross-calibration were used to calculate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiance of Beijing-1. An analysis was then performed to determine or identify systematic and accidental errors, and the overall uncertainty was assessed for each individual method. The findings show that the reflectance-based method has an uncertainty of more than 10% if the aerosol optical depth (AOD exceeds 0.2. The cross-calibration method is able to reach an error level within 7% if the images are selected carefully. The final calibration coefficients were derived from the irradiance-based data for 6 September 2008, with an uncertainty estimated to be less than 5%.

  19. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenshan; Yang Lei; Qu XiaoYan; Sui Yumei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km 2 with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

  20. Reflections on Beijing: Meet the Lambacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushett, Travis

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the story of the Lambacks. Lantz Lamback is a gold medalist in the S7 cerebral palsy classification at the 2008 Paralympic Games in Beijing. Lantz can look intimidating; however, he is gentle and courteous. His family has been an important factor in Lantz's swimming career. For the Lambacks, Lantz's swimming is a family…

  1. FY 1999 report on the results of the project supplementary to the New Sunshine Project - Feasibility of coal hydrogasification technology in China. Investigational study of the social adaptability (Feasibility study of the international cooperation - Report of Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry); 1999 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo (Bessatsu, Kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa Pekin Bai kagaku kenkyujo) hokokusho. Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu - Shakai tekigo sei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the coal hydrogasification technology which has a possibility of producing high-quality substitute natural gas in quantity and at low cost, an investigational study of the social adaptability was made. In this fiscal year, the following were carried out: outlook of energy supply/demand in China and the problems, natural gas resource and the plan for the use, actual state of the town gas business and the future plan, etc. As a part of the study, Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry, China Coal Research Institute, made a survey under the research contract. As to the general situation of natural gas in China, report was made on the following: present situation of the development of natural gas resource in China, present situation of town gas in large cities of China, present situation and outlook of coal development and utilization in China, assessment of the coal mine area adaptable to coal hydrogasification, etc. In the survey of the area suitable for coal hydrogasification, report was made on the present situation and future of energy supply/demand in Shanghai, Shanxi, Shenfua and Xinjiang, present situation and future of town gas supply, etc. Survey/report were also made on the coal hydrogasification technology and the applicability. (NEDO)

  2. FY 2000 report on the results of the project supplementary to the New Sunshine Project - Feasibility of coal hydrogasification technology in China. II - Final report. Investigational study of the social adaptability (Feasibility study of the international cooperation - Report of Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry); 2000 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo (Bessatsu kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa Pekin Bai kagaku kenkyujo) hokokusho. Sekitan suiso tenka gaska gijutsu kaihatsu - Shakai tekigo sei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the coal hydrogasification technology which has a possibility of producing high-quality substitute natural gas in quantity and at low cost, an investigational study of the social adaptability was made. In this fiscal year, the following were carried out: natural gas resource and the plan for the use in China, actual state of the town gas business and the future plan, etc. As a part of the study, Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry, China Coal Research Institute, made a survey under the research contract. As a result of the survey, the following was found out: In Xinjiang and Urumchi, Uigur Autonomous Region, there is an abundant coal resource that is suitable for coal hydrogasification, the transportation pipeline of natural gas had been constructed, and public facilities are prepared, and therefore, both cities are suitable for the construction of coal hydrogasification plant. Datong, Shanxi Province, is a largest city of coal production, enables the long-term coal supply for coal hydrogasification, and has a plan for remodeling of old facilities and construction of new facilities for the introduction of natural gas, and therefore, the city is suitable for the construction of coal hydrogasification plant. (NEDO)

  3. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  4. The ecology of medical care in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We presented the pattern of health care consumption, and the utilization of available resources by describing the ecology of medical care in Beijing on a monthly basis and by describing the socio-demographic characteristics associated with receipt care in different settings. METHODS: A cohort of 6,592 adults, 15 years of age and older were sampled to estimate the number of urban-resident adults per 1,000 who visited a medical facility at least once in a month, by the method of three-stage stratified and cluster random sampling. Separate logistic regression analyses assessed the association between those receiving care in different types of setting and their socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: On average per 1,000 adults, 295 had at least one symptom, 217 considered seeking medical care, 173 consulted a physician, 129 visited western medical practitioners, 127 visited a hospital-based outpatient clinic, 78 visited traditional Chinese medical practitioners, 43 visited a primary care physician, 35 received care in an emergency department, 15 were hospitalized. Health care seeking behaviors varied with socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, ethnicity, resident census register, marital status, education, income, and health insurance status. In term of primary care, the gate-keeping and referral roles of Community Health Centers have not yet been fully established in Beijing. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a first attempt to map the medical care ecology of Beijing urban population and provides timely baseline information for health care reform in China.

  5. Beijing nuclear medicine survey 2005: general information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Jianhua; Si Hongwei; Chen Shengzu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the status of nuclear medicine department in Beijing area. Methods: Staff, equipment and clinical applications of nuclear medicine departments in Beijing area during 2005 were evaluated by postal questionnaires. Results: Thirty nuclear medicine departments responded to our survey. In these departments, 321 staff, 141 doctors, 122 technicians, 7 physicists, 22 nurses and 29 other staff were employed; and 41 large imaging equipments, 37 SPECT, 3 PET, 1 PET-CT were equipped. During 2005, 88135 radionuclide imaging (84734 for SPECT, 3401 for PET), 462246 radioimmunoassay and 2228 radionuclide therapies (the most for Graves' disease, the second for thyroid cancer, the third for bone metastasis) were performed. For only 41.5% and 22.0% equipments the daily quality control (QC) and weekly QC were conducted. Conclusions Staff, equipments and activities of nuclear medicine department in Beijing were in a considerable scale, but did not balance among hospitals. Most departments should increase the number of physicists and the equipment QC procedures to improve the image quality. (authors)

  6. Environmental impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Huijuan, Cao; Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Beijing organized the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, and the main goal of the Chinese government regarding this event was to hold a Green Olympics. A difference-in-differences approach was used to estimate the environmental impact the Olympic Games on air quality improvement in Beijing, compared to improvements in other areas in China. The results indicate that compared to other regions, air quality in Beijing improved for a short period of time. These improvements were largely due to the impleme...

  7. Assessment of hospital emergency management in the Beijing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantao, Xin

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, the number of public health emergencies has increased. Improving hospital emergency management is an important challenge. This is a pilot study intended to assess hospital emergency management in the Beijing area, make recommendations to government health authorities and hospital managers, and offer references for similar studies. This was an observational, cross-sectional survey. Forty-five hospitals in the Beijing area were selected randomly. A self-administered questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. It comprised of three sections: (1) Section A was the introduction; (2) Section B asked for the respondent's personal information; and (3) Section C comprised the major part of the questionnaire and was intended to gather information regarding the hospital's general emergency management situation. The survey response rate was 44%, accounting for 29% of total hospitals that the study targeted. No hospital had an established emergency management department or full-time staff for emergency management. A total of 15-45% of the hospitals had established a hospital emergency management committee, performed a vulnerability analysis, or evaluated emergency management regularly. Twenty-five percent of respondents thought that the local government health authority had established an integrated hospital incident command system. A total of 40%-55% of hospitals contracted with outside institutions for supplements, backup of key functional systems and professional support. After the occurrence of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, Chinese hospital managers took many measures to improve hospital resilience. However, most of these efforts lacked the guidance of theories, concepts, principles, and methods. An integrated, standardized, operational hospital emergency management model has not been established. Although the survey response rate was relatively low, some clues for further study were discovered, and suggestions to the

  8. Radiogenomics of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: Multireader Multi-Institutional Study from the Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer Imaging Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Huang, Erich P; Lakhman, Yulia; Ippolito, Joseph E; Bhosale, Priya; Mellnick, Vincent; Shinagare, Atul B; Anello, Maria; Kirby, Justin; Fevrier-Sullivan, Brenda; Freymann, John; Jaffe, C Carl; Sala, Evis

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate interradiologist agreement on assessments of computed tomography (CT) imaging features of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), to assess their associations with time-to-disease progression (TTP) and HGSOC transcriptomic profiles (Classification of Ovarian Cancer [CLOVAR]), and to develop an imaging-based risk score system to predict TTP and CLOVAR profiles. Materials and Methods This study was a multireader, multi-institutional, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 92 patients with HGSOC (median age, 61 years) with abdominopelvic CT before primary cytoreductive surgery available through the Cancer Imaging Archive. Eight radiologists from the Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer Imaging Research Group developed and independently recorded the following CT features: characteristics of primary ovarian mass(es), presence of definable mesenteric implants and infiltration, presence of other implants, presence and distribution of peritoneal spread, presence and size of pleural effusions and ascites, lymphadenopathy, and distant metastases. Interobserver agreement for CT features was assessed, as were univariate and multivariate associations with TTP and CLOVAR mesenchymal profile (worst prognosis). Results Interobserver agreement for some features was strong (eg, α = .78 for pleural effusion and ascites) but was lower for others (eg, α = .08 for intraparenchymal splenic metastases). Presence of peritoneal disease in the right upper quadrant (P = .0003), supradiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy (P = .0004), more peritoneal disease sites (P = .0006), and nonvisualization of a discrete ovarian mass (P = .0037) were associated with shorter TTP. More peritoneal disease sites (P = .0025) and presence of pouch of Douglas implants (P = .0045) were associated with CLOVAR mesenchymal profile. Combinations of imaging features contained predictive signal for TTP (concordance index = 0.658; P = .0006) and CLOVAR profile (mean

  9. Efficient Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains of the W-Beijing Family from Russia using Highly Polymorphic VNTR Loci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surikova, O. V.; Voitech, D. S.; Kuzmicheva, G.; Tatkov, S. I.; Mokrousov, I. V.; Narvskaya, O. V.; Rot, M. A.; Soolingen, D. van; Filipenko, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    The W-Beijing family is a widespread Mycobacterium tuberculosis clonal lineage that frequently causes epidemic outbreaks. This family is genetically homogeneous and conserved, so ETR-VNTR (exact tandem repeat-variable number of tandem repeats) typing is insufficient for strain differentiation, due to a common ETR-A to E profile (42435). This leads to the false clustering in molecular epidemiological studies, especially in the regions of predominance of the W-Beijing family. In this study, we searched for VNTR loci with a high evolutionary rate of polymorphism in the W-Beijing genome. Here we further evaluated VNTR typing on a set of 99 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates and reference strains. These isolates were characterized and classified into several genotype families based on three ETR loci (A, C, E) and eight additional loci [previously described as QUB (Queen's University Belfast) or MIRU (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units) or Mtubs]. Ninety-nine strains were divided into 74 VNTR-types, 51 isolates of the W-Beijing family identified by IS6110 RFLP-typing (the restriction fragment length polymorphism-typing) and/or spoligotyping were subdivided into 30 VNTR-types. HGDI (the Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index) for all studied loci was close to that of IS6110 RFLP typing, a 'gold standard' method for subtyping M. tuberculosis complex strains. The QUB 26 and QUB 18 loci located in the PPE genes were highly polymorphic and more discriminative than other loci (HGDI is 0.8). Statistically significant increase of tandem repeats number in loci ETR-A, -E, QUB 26, QUB 18, QUB 11B, Mtub21 was revealed in the W-Beijing group compared to genetically divergent non-W-Beijing strains. Thirty-six isolates were subjected to IS6110 RFLP typing. The congruence between results of the IS6110 RFLP typing and 11-loci VNTR typing was estimated on 23 isolates of the W-Beijing family. These isolates were subdivided into 9 IS6110-RFLP types and 13 VNTR types. The poor

  10. CPAFFC Holds Activities to Greet Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Olympic Games are com-ing and really coming! We have been looking forward to this day for 100 years. At last, the Beijing Olympic Games will begin tomorrow with the attention of the whole world. To celebrate the one-day countdown to the Beijing Olympic Games, on the morning

  11. Beijing/W genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glynn, Judith R; Kremer, Kristin; Borgdorff, Martien W; Rodriguez, Mar Pujades; Soolingen, Dick van

    2006-01-01

    Beijing/W genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis is widespread, may be increasing, and may have a predilection for drug resistance. Individual-level data on >29,000 patients from 49 studies in 35 countries were combined to assess the Beijing genotype's prevalence worldwide, trends over time and with

  12. Recent trend in family households in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Guo, L

    1997-01-01

    This study examined trends in household size and age structure in Beijing, China, in 1995. Data were reliably obtained from the 1% sample survey of China. Findings indicate that the average size of a family household was 3.15 persons, that is, 0.050 persons fewer than the 3.20 from the 1990 Census. Children aged 0-14 years in each household averaged 0.04 fewer children during 1990-95. 80% of the decline in household size was due to decreases in the number of children. The percentage of single-family and single-person households declined. Three-person households were the only size group that increased (23.2-40.7%). The household headship (HH) rate for males increased dramatically between the ages of 20 and 30 years and stabilized after 35 years. The HH rate for women grew slowly and continuously until age 50 years and then stabilized. The gender gap in HH appeared at an early age and remained thereafter. The HH rate declined at older ages. The HH rate in Beijing, compared to the national rate, suggests relative gender equity in Beijing. As a child ages, the percentage of three-generation households declines and the percentage of two-generation households rises. As a child becomes an adult, the percentages of single-person households and single-couple households increase. Single-couple households decreased among the middle-aged. 67.4% of the elderly lived in two- or three-generation households. 31.4% of elderly lived in single-person/couple households. The percentage of elderly living with their children declined by 2 points during 1990-95.

  13. Simplified monte carlo simulation for Beijing spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taijie; Wang Shuqin; Yan Wuguang; Huang Yinzhi; Huang Deqiang; Lang Pengfei

    1986-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method based on the functionization of the performance of detectors and the transformation of values of kinematical variables into ''measured'' ones by means of smearing has been used to program the Monte Carlo simulation of the performance of the Beijing Spectrometer (BES) in FORTRAN language named BESMC. It can be used to investigate the multiplicity, the particle type, and the distribution of four-momentum of the final states of electron-positron collision, and also the response of the BES to these final states. Thus, it provides a measure to examine whether the overall design of the BES is reasonable and to decide the physical topics of the BES

  14. Linear electron accelerators for medicine and radiation processing developed in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benguang, G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of the wide applications in radiotherapy, sterilization, industrial radiography, irradiation processing, etc., the authors started to develop their own machines in this field in 1974. The first linac made in Beijing is a medical one, Model BJ-10. It was completed in 1977 and installed at the Beijing Municipal Tumor Institute and has been used in treatment for 3 years. The parameters of this radiotherapy equipment are determined from the requirements of the treatment on the deep and superficial tumors. In subsystems of this medical linac, the advanced techniques developed since the appearance of the first world's medical linac such as the isocentric gantry system, etc., are adopted as much as possible. The second machine is an industrial linac, Model BF-5 finished manufacturing in 1977 and installed at Beijing Irradiation Experiment Center. The BF-5 is the successor of the BJ-10 in various techniques. A series of irradiation experiments have been carried out on this machine. Now the authors are developing new linacs to meet the demand for cancer therapy, industrial radiography and other aspects in our country

  15. Beijing Bubble, Beijing Bust: Inequality, Trade, and Capital Inflow into China Beijing Blase, Beijing Krise: Ungleichheit, Handel und Kapitalzufluss nach China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Galbraith

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between inequality, trade, and capital flows into China since the early 1990s and particularly in the first years of the present decade. We show that the rise in economic inequality in China has more to do directly with the activities associated with China’s financial and building boom, notably in Beijing, than with the massive growth in manufacturing employment and in Chinese exports since China joined the WTO in 2001. Nevertheless, it is likely that a flow of profits from the export boom did feed the speculative fires in the capital and elsewhere, and therefore it should be no surprise that the fall of one should be linked to the fall of the other, in a particularly painful reduction of economic inequality. In diesem Artikel werden die Beziehungen zwischen Ungleichheit, Handel und Kapitalzufluss nach China seit den frühen 1990er Jahren untersucht. Es wird aufgezeigt, dass die steigende wirtschaftliche Ungleichheit in China weit mehr mit Chinas Finanz- und Bauboom insbesondere in Beijing zu tun hat als mit dem großen Anstieg der Beschäftigung in der Produktion und in Chinas Exporten seit dem WTO-Beitritt im Jahr 2001.

  16. Estimation of site effects in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Z.; Chen, Y.T.; Panza, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    For the realistic modeling of the seismic ground motion in lateral heterogeneous anelastic media, the database of 3-D geophysical structures for Beijing City has been built up to model the seismic ground motion in the City, caused by the 1976 Tangshan and the 1998 Zhangbei earthquakes. The hybrid method, that combines the modal summation and the finite difference algorithms, is used in the simulation. The modeling of the seismic ground motion for both the Tangshan and the Zhangbei earthquakes shows that the thick Quaternary sedimentary cover amplifies the peak values and increases the duration of the seismic ground motion in the northwest part of the City. Therefore the thickness of the Quaternary sediments in Beijing City is the key factor that controls the local ground effects, and four zones are defined on the base of the different thickness of the Quaternary sediments. The response spectra for each zone are computed, indicating that peak spectral values as high as 0.1g are compatible with past seismicity and can be well exceeded if an event similar to the 1697 Sanhe-Pinggu occurs. (author)

  17. Estimation of Site Effects in Beijing City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z.; Chen, Y. T.; Panza, G. F.

    For the realistic modeling of the seismic ground motion in lateral heterogeneous anelastic media, the database of 3-D geophysical structures for Beijing City has been built up to model the seismic ground motion in the City, caused by the 1976 Tangshan and the 1998 Zhangbei earthquakes. The hybrid method, which combines the modal summation and the finite-difference algorithms, is used in the simulation. The modeling of the seismic ground motion, for both the Tangshan and the Zhangbei earthquakes, shows that the thick Quaternary sedimentary cover amplifies the peak values and increases the duration of the seismic ground motion in the northwestern part of the City. Therefore the thickness of the Quaternary sediments in Beijing City is the key factor controling the local ground effects. Four zones are defined on the base of the different thickness of the Quaternary sediments. The response spectra for each zone are computed, indicating that peak spectral values as high as 0.1 g are compatible with past seismicity and can be well exceeded if an event similar to the 1697 Sanhe-Pinggu occurs.

  18. MIPS plant genome information resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Ernst, Rebecca; Schoof, Heiko; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2007-01-01

    The Munich Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) has been involved in maintaining plant genome databases since the Arabidopsis thaliana genome project. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable data sets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, for example from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and evaluated. In addition, model genomes also form a scaffold for comparative genomics, and much can be learned from genome-wide evolutionary studies.

  19. [Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Patricia; Calvopiña, Karina; Herrera, Diana; Rojas, Carlos; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Grijalva, Marcelo; Guna, Remedios; García-de Viedma, Darío

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported. We obtained a convenience sample (2006-2012) from two hospitals covering different populations. The isolates were genotyped using 24-MIRU-VNTR. Lineages were assigned by comparing their patterns to those in the MIRU-VNTRplus platform. Isolates belonging to the Beijing lineage were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. We identified the first Beijing isolate in Ecuador in an unexpected epidemiological scenario: A patient was infected in the Andean region, in a population with low mobility and far from the borders of the neighboring countries where Beijing strains had been previously reported. This is the first report of the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador in an unusual epidemiological context that deserves special attention.

  20. Source apportionment and air quality impact assessment studies in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Schrader, S.; Shen, R.; Ling, H.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Wang, Y.

    2012-04-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2005 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. Further experimental studies include the operation of remote sensing systems to determine continuously the MLH (by a ceilometer) and gaseous air pollutants near the ground (by DOAS systems) as well as at the 320 m measurement tower (adhesive plates at different heights for passive particle collection) in cooperation with the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The influence of the MLH on

  1. Sustainable Development Strategies of Biomass Energy in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Z.; Huang, B. R.

    2017-10-01

    The development of biomass energy industry can effectively improve the rural environment and alleviate the shortage of living energy in rural areas, especially in mountain areas. In order to make clear the current situation of biomass energy industry development in Beijing, this paper analyzed the status of biomass resources and biomass energy utilization and discussed the factors hindering the development of biomass energy industry in Beijing. Based on the analysis, suggestions for promoting sustainable development of Biomass Energy Industry in Beijing are put forward.

  2. Study on radon geological potential of Beijing city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingcheng; Wu Xinmin; Liu Yujuan; Yang Yaxin; Zhang Ye

    2009-01-01

    According to elemental geochemistry in Beijing, the uranium content in the area was measured, and distribution of radon concentration was predicted. Based on the uranium-radium equilibrium coefficient, porosity and diffusion coefficient, which were either measured or calculated, the radon geological potential of Beijing city was studied using γ-ray spectroscopy or mass spectroscopy and certain models were used to calculate the relation between radon geological potential and lithology and geological structure. The results showed that radon geological potential of Beijing city could be divided into four zones, tend of every zone coincides with the main structure, and the potential values nearly relate with geological factors. (authors)

  3. Comparison of safety equipment between London underground and Beijing subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhao, L. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, R. J.; Hu, C.; Jing, L. S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to improve the safety equipment’s effectiveness through the comparison. Firstly, the history and safety accident of London Underground and Beijing Subway were shown. Secondly, fire equipment between these two cities was compared including station’s hardware installations and carriage’s hardware installations. Thirdly, the relative software installations were also compared such as emergency drills. The results showed that Beijing Subway’s hardware installations were better than London. However, London Underground’s some installations were more effective than Beijing. Both cities would pay more attention on anti-terrorist in tunnel.

  4. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  5. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  6. Beijing Bicycle - Stories from a Transformative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2012-01-01

    Ideas, words, images and stories travel from west to east – and from east to west. Stories are chosen and retold in different settings and images are reproduced and appropriated into new contexts – and in new times. Cinema, in this case the mainland Chinese, becomes both a space of production...... and a production of space that reveals how transnational and translocal mechanisms affect the cinematic language, transforming the images and stories chosen for the cinematic representation. Wang Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle (Shiqi Sui de Danche) (2001) is a result of transnational currents weaving the carpet...... relevant in a new context – that of the Chinese mainland society in the 21st century. Doreen Massey (2005: 9) defines space as “a simultaneity of stories-so-far”, a space that is constantly exploding and imploding with the influx of new and old stories. Within this theoretical framework Wang Xiaoshuai...

  7. Micrometeorological flux measurements of aerosol and gases above Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemitz, Eiko; Langford, Ben; Mullinger, Neil; Cowan, Nicholas; Coyle, Mhairi; Acton, William Joe; Lee, James; Fu, Pingqing

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is estimated to cause 1.6 million premature deaths in China every year and in the winter 2016/17 Beijing had to issue health alerts and put in place ad hoc limitations on industrial and vehicular activity. Much of this pollution is attributed to emissions from industrial processes and in particular coal combustion. By contrast, the diffuse pollutant sources within the city are less well understood. This includes, e.g., emissions from the Beijing traffic fleet, the sewage system, food preparation, solid fuel combustion in the streets and small industrial processes. Within the framework of a major UK-Chinese collaboration to study air pollution and its impact on human health in Beijing, we therefore measured fluxes of a large range of pollutants from a height of 102 m on the 325 m meteorological tower at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics. Several instruments were mounted at 102 m: fluxes of CO2 and H2O were measured with an infrared gas analyser (LiCOR 7500) and fluxes of ozone with a combination of a relative fast-response ozone analyser (ROFI) and a 2B absolute O3 instrument. Total particle number fluxes were measured with a condensation particle counter (TSI CPC 3785), and size-segregated fluxes over the size range 0.06 to 20 μm with a combination of an optical Ultrafine High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer Spectrometer (TSI APS3321). Ammonia (NH3) fluxes were measured for the first time above the urban environment using an Aerodyne compact quantum cascade laser (QCL). In addition, composition resolved aerosol fluxes were measured with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), operated in a measurement container at the bottom of the tower, which subsampled from a 120 m long copper tube (15 mm OD). The analysis so far suggests that, due to often low wind speeds, fluxes were at times de-coupled from the surface. Fluxes normalised by CO2, a tracer for the amount of fossil fuel consumed, should be

  8. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI): Computational Correction of Copy-number Effect in CRISPR-Cas9 Essentiality Screens of Cancer Cells | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screens were performed in 341 cell lines. The results were processed with the CERES algorithm to produce copy-number and guide-efficacy corrected gene knockout effect estimates.

  9. Energy modelling towards low carbon development of Beijing in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jiang, Kejun

    2017-01-01

    Beijing, as the capacity capital of China, is under the pressure of climate change and pollution. Nonrenewable energy generation and consumption is one of the most important sources of CO2 emissions, which cause climate changes. This paper presents a study on the energy system modeling towards...... scenario 2030, (ii) BAU (business as usual) scenario 2030 and (iii) RES (renewable energies) scenario 2030. The results shows that the share of renewables can increase to 100% of electricity and heat production in the RE scenario. The primary fuel consumption is reduced to 155.9 TWh, which is 72 % of fuel...... renewable energy and low carbon development for the city of Beijing. The analysis of energy system modeling is organized in two steps to explore the potential renewable energy alternative in Beijing. Firstly, a reference energy system of Beijing is created based on the available data in 2014. The Energy...

  10. Factors affecting soil erosion in Beijing mountain forestlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Reserves and State/National Forest in Beijing's mountainous area. This study presents .... and bottom, the rectangle cutting rings are 1 cm high at one side and have blade orifices ... vegetation ecosystem. Different diameters ...

  11. Phytozome Comparative Plant Genomics Portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodstein, David; Batra, Sajeev; Carlson, Joseph; Hayes, Richard; Phillips, Jeremy; Shu, Shengqiang; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    The Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Institute is a genomics user facility supporting DOE mission science in the areas of Bioenergy, Carbon Cycling, and Biogeochemistry. The Plant Program at the JGI applies genomic, analytical, computational and informatics platforms and methods to: 1. Understand and accelerate the improvement (domestication) of bioenergy crops 2. Characterize and moderate plant response to climate change 3. Use comparative genomics to identify constrained elements and infer gene function 4. Build high quality genomic resource platforms of JGI Plant Flagship genomes for functional and experimental work 5. Expand functional genomic resources for Plant Flagship genomes

  12. Irradiation preservation study on Beijing roast duck by low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiguo, Wang; Yongbao, Gu; Fengmei, Li [Beijing Normal Univ., BJ (China). Inst. of Low Energy Nuclear Physics; and others

    1989-02-01

    The irradiation technique combined with freezing has been used to control the microorganism in Beijing Roast Duck. Cobal-60 was chosen as {gamma}-ray source. The absorbed dose was 2 kGy on an average. After irrdiation, the microbe counts have reached the tolerable. Compared with untreated ducks, the irradiated ones showed no remarkable change in nutrition, chemistry, vitamin etc. It has been proved through test that the irradiated frozen Beijing Roast Duck is wholesome.

  13. Irradiation preservation study on Beijing roast duck by low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weiguo; Gu Yongbao; Li Fengmei

    1989-01-01

    The irradiation technique combined with freezing has been used to control the microorganism in Beijing Roast Duck. Cobal-60 was chosen as γ-ray source. The absorbed dose was 2 kGy on an average. After irrdiation, the microbe counts have reached the tolerable. Compared with untreated ducks, the irradiated ones showed no remarkable change in nutrition, chemistry, vitamin etc. It has been proved through test that the irradiated frozen Beijing Roast Duck is wholesome

  14. Analysis on Structure of Flower Market in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xi; ZHANG, Yingying

    2015-01-01

    With the socio-economic development and people’s living condition improvement, the requirement for environment is higher and higher and the mental demand is also more and more. For this, Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape and Forestry listed survey programs of consumption demands of flower market in Beijing in 2014, and provided several recommendations in line with current situations, problems and environment of the flower industry, for future reference of flower decision making of Beiji...

  15. Nonurban aerosol composition near Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, J.W.; Darzi, M.; Leslie, A.C.D.; Wang, M.; Ren, L.; Lue, W.; Hansson, H.C.; Lannefors, H.

    1981-01-01

    The urban aerosol plume of Beijing has been sampled as a function of particle size and time at a site 110 km NE of the city, 9-16 March 1980, during the season for space heating by coal combustion. A fine particle mode, contained mostly in the 0.5-2 μm aerodynamic diameter range, could be distinguished from a coarse mode of dust having terrestrial composition by reference to the size distribution of Ca. Elemental composition determined by PIXE analysis for 17 elements, including S and heavy metals, indicates fine mode concentrations higher than background aerosol but with a similarity to cleaner air with respect to both relative elemental abundances and elemental particle size distributions. The results indicate that elements contained in aged coal combustion aerosol occur mainly in 0.5-2 μMAD particles, not smaller, and the aerosol is not substantially different from background aerosol except in overall concentrations. This result may simplify the prediction of the impact of coal combustion on air quality. The results also hint that the background aerosol in more remote continental areas may also be combustion derived. (orig.)

  16. Potassium concentration in bone of Beijing residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing

    1994-01-01

    The author presents the measuring results of K concentration in bone ash samples of 65 residents in Beijing area by atomic absorption spectrum. The results indicate that the K concentrations in bone ash is logarithmic normal distribution, ranging level is 0.75-8.44 g/kg ash, the average and standard deviation is respectively 2.40 and 1.52 g/kg ash. The highest concentration (4.88 g/kg ash) appears in infantile stage (< 1y), the lowest concentration (1.59 g/kg ash) appears in young stage (2-5 y). The lower concentration (1.88 g/kg ash) appears in adolescence (11-20 y). The K concentration in wet bone as a percentage of weight is 0.067%. The specific activities of K-40 in bone is about 22 mBq/g wet bone. The total radioactivity of K-40 in whole bone is 220 Bq. The annual absorbed dose is received in adult bone from K-40 is estimated to be 95 μGy

  17. What does Beijing Plus Five equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A

    2000-01-01

    In June 2000, the UN will conduct a review of the Beijing+5 (B+5) platform for action to assess the progress women have made since the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995. This review is regarded by many women's rights advocates as an opportunity to advance the platform. Following the platform's 1995 recommendations, many countries began initiating new laws and policies addressing women's reproductive and sexual health needs as shown in the case of Brazil, France, Egypt, Japan, Cambodia and even the US. However, the B+5 platform is constantly challenged by concerted opposition and delaying tactics of the Vatican and a small group of Islamic and Catholic countries. Despite the progress made by the B+5 platform in the last 5 years, there are still some areas that need to be addressed particularly on the reproductive health needs of adolescents and young adults. Thus, it is hoped that the B+5 review will inspire women to continue to fight for freedom in exercising their reproductive rights.

  18. Water Quality Management of Beijing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At present, Beijing's water resources are insufficient and will become the limiting factor for sustainable development for the city in the near future. Although efforts have been made to control pollution, water quality degradation has occurred in some of the important surface water supplies, aggravating the water resource shortage. At present, approximately three quarters of the city's wastewater is discharged untreated into the urban river system, resulting in serious pollution and negatively influencing the urban landscape and quality of daily life. To counteract these measures, the city has implemented a comprehensive "Water Quality Management Plan" for the region, encompassing water pollution control, prevention of water body degradation, and improved water quality.The construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants is recognised as fundamental to controlling water pollution, and full secondary treatment is planned to be in place by the year 2015. Significant work is also required to expand the service area of the municipal sewage system and to upgrade and renovate the older sewer systems. The limitation on available water resources has also seen the emphasis shift to low water using industries and improved water conservation. Whilst industrial output has increased steadily over the past 10-15 years at around 10% per annum, industrial water usage has remained relatively constant. Part of the city's water quality management plan has been to introduce a strict discharge permit system, encouraging many industries to install on-site treatment facilities.

  19. Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, Matthias; Blin, Camille; Mona, Stefano; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Lecher, Sophie; Willery, Eve; Blum, Michael G B; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Mokrousov, Igor; Aleksic, Eman; Allix-Béguec, Caroline; Antierens, Annick; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Ballif, Marie; Barletta, Francesca; Beck, Hans Peter; Barry, Clifton E; Bonnet, Maryline; Borroni, Emanuele; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Cirillo, Daniela; Cox, Helen; Crowe, Suzanne; Crudu, Valeriu; Diel, Roland; Drobniewski, Francis; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Gagneux, Sébastien; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Hanekom, Madeleine; Hoffner, Sven; Jiao, Wei-wei; Kalon, Stobdan; Kohl, Thomas A; Kontsevaya, Irina; Lillebæk, Troels; Maeda, Shinji; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Rasmussen, Michael; Rastogi, Nalin; Samper, Sofia; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Savic, Branislava; Shamputa, Isdore Chola; Shen, Adong; Sng, Li-Hwei; Stakenas, Petras; Toit, Kadri; Varaine, Francis; Vukovic, Dragana; Wahl, Céline; Warren, Robin; Supply, Philip; Niemann, Stefan; Wirth, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage are globally distributed and are associated with the massive spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eurasia. Here we reconstructed the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this lineage by genetic analysis of 4,987 isolates from 99 countries and whole-genome sequencing of 110 representative isolates. We show that this lineage initially originated in the Far East, from where it radiated worldwide in several waves. We detected successive increases in population size for this pathogen over the last 200 years, practically coinciding with the Industrial Revolution, the First World War and HIV epidemics. Two MDR clones of this lineage started to spread throughout central Asia and Russia concomitantly with the collapse of the public health system in the former Soviet Union. Mutations identified in genes putatively under positive selection and associated with virulence might have favored the expansion of the most successful branches of the lineage.

  20. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  1. Beijing: Green light for feasibility studies on tau-charm factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Since first collisions were achieved at the Beijing Institute of High Energy Physics BEPC electronpositron collider in October 1989, nine million J/psi and 1.4 million psi primes have been collected, as well as integrated luminosities of five and 23 inverse picobarns collected from respectively the tau threshold and a collision energy of 4.03 GeV. In addition, the BES spectrometer group has obtained several important tau results, including a precise measurement of the tau mass and precision studies of important tau decays. These results were a focus of interest at major meetings last summer. With many physicists across the world interested in the future of the BEPC/BES complex, in October, came the good news that the Chinese leadership had promised to support Beijing's feasibility study project for a Tau-Charm Factory (tauCF) on the BEPC site. BEPC's working energy, in the range 3 - 5.6 GeV, covers a high density region of resonances including charmonium, its excited states and production thresholds of many particles, such as the tau lepton pairs and charmed particles(mesons and baryons). The present experimental statistics and detection resolution at BEPC/ BES are not up to the task of testing the Standard Model to its limit and searching for new physics. The tauCF would be a logical continuation of BEPC/BES. With a hundred times greater luminosity and tenfold detection accuracy, tauCF could play a decisive role in ongoing physics goals. A SLAC (Stanford) workshop last summer on tauCF in the B-Factory Era underlined the importance of tauCF, with conclusion that a Bfactory cannot replace tauCF. Many scientists have observed that Beijing is one of the best places for a taucharm factory

  2. Atmospheric mercury monitoring survey in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shili; Nadim, Farhad; Perkins, Chris; Carley, Robert J; Hoag, George E; Lin, Yuhan; Chen, Letian

    2002-07-01

    With the aid of one industrial, two urban, two suburban, and two rural sampling locations, diurnal patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were monitored in January, February and September of 1998 in Beijing, China. Monitoring was conducted in six (two urban, two suburban, one rural and the industrial sites) of the seven sampling sites during January and February (winter) and in four (two urban, one rural, and the industrial sites) of the sampling locations during September (summer) of 1998. In the three suburban sampling stations, mean TGM concentrations during the winter sampling period were 8.6, 10.7, and 6.2 ng/m3, respectively. In the two urban sampling locations mean TGM concentrations during winter and summer sampling periods were 24.7, 8.3, 10, and 12.7 ng/m3, respectively. In the suburban-industrial and the two rural sampling locations, mean mercury concentrations ranged from 3.1-5.3 ng/m3 in winter to 4.1-7.7 ng/m3 in summer sampling periods. In the Tiananmen Square (urban), and Shijingshan (suburban) sampling locations the mean TGM concentrations during the summer sampling period were higher than winter concentrations, which may have been caused by evaporation of soil-bound mercury in warm periods. Continuous meteorological data were available at one of the suburban sites, which allowed the observation of mercury concentration variations associated with some weather parameters. It was found that there was a moderate negative correlation between the wind speed and the TGM concentration at this suburban sampling location. It was also found that during the sampling period at the same site, the quantity of TGM transported to or from the sampling site was mainly influenced by the duration and frequency of wind occurrence from certain directions.

  3. [On the way to Beijing: Dakar Conference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, S

    1994-10-01

    In November 1994 in Senegal, Dakar will host the regional conference on women. Its purpose is to develop a common action plan that Africa will present in Beijing. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and governments have already been preparing for this meeting. This conference had been organized by a series of meetings continent-wide, where governments and NGOs clarified their positions on the 3 themes: equality, development, and peace. The Ministry of Women and the Family has the task of preparing the Senegalese viewpoint of the operation. Senegalese authorities want to make the meeting in Dakar a success. They have decided to have expositions, cultural displays, a women's business forum, a village restaurant where representatives from each country will get to know the culinary wealth of other countries, and a gala event. Everyone is ready to discuss equality, women's access to decision making structures (especially in the education sector), and better distribution of income between the sexes. NGOs do not intend to sit back and do nothing at the conference, but intend to influence the editing of the action plan. Many women's and health-based NGOs are rising up against the gaps of the action plan which only consider women's biological and physical aspects but not their mental and psychological aspects. Participants should consider the disastrous effects of sexual abuse and early marriages. Are governments ready to reform their laws which tend to discriminate against women and institutionalize their low status? Do they have the political will to check the conservative forces, such as those that spoke out against women in the final report of the forum in Tunisia? The number of women in powerful posts in Africa is growing. They can certainly advance things more rapidly than in the recent past. Women at Dakar should work together to address conflicts in Africa. Women should insist that women participate in all peace negotiations.

  4. After Beijing: emphasis on poverty eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In March 1996, during its first meeting since the Fourth World Conference on Women, the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), called for a gender perspective to be integrated into policies and programs dealing with poverty, child and dependent care, and the media. Three expert panels examined each of these areas through a format which encouraged dialogue and led to the adoption of 17 resolutions, decisions, and agreed conclusions as well as a recommendation that the UN adopt a multi-year work program for the CSW to allow it to review progress in elimination of the 12 main obstacles to women's advancement identified at Beijing. Among the resolutions adopted by the CSW were calls to 1) take a broad and integrated approach to poverty eradication, 2) enhance women's empowerment and autonomy, 3) promote equity and equality in the public domain, 4) promote women's employment, 5) give women social and economic protection when they are unable to work, 6) counteract negative images of women and sex-stereotyping in the media, 7) reduce the representation of violence against women in the media, 8) strengthen the role of women in global communications, 9) encourage the participation of men in child and dependent care, and 10) recognize women's double burden of work. The CSW also agreed to pursue further discussions about drafting an optional protocol to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Among its other actions, the CSW called for mechanisms to protect the rights of women migrant workers, to protect women and children during armed conflicts, to include gender-based human rights violations in UN activities, and to address the root factors which lead to social ills such as trafficking in women and girls. In addition, the CSW submitted a draft resolution demanding that Israel protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families.

  5. In-use vehicle emissions in China: Beijing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims (Energy Technology Innovation Policy Research Group, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, MA (US)); Li, Mengliang; Qin, Kongjian; Zhang, Jianwei (China Automotive Research and Technology Center (CN)); Liu, Huan; He, Kebin (Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Tsinghua Univ. (CN))

    2009-05-01

    China's economic boom in the last three decades has spurred increasing demand for transportation services and personal mobility. Consequently, vehicle population has grown rapidly since the early 1990s, especially in megacities such as Beijing, Guangzhou, and Tianjin. As a result, mobile sources have become more conspicuous contributors to urban air pollution in Chinese cities. Tianjin was our first focus city, and the study there took us about two years to complete. Building upon the experience and partnership generated through the Tianjin study, the research team carried out the Beijing study from fall 2007–fall 2008. Beijing was chosen to be our second focus city for several reasons: it has the largest local fleet and the highest percentage of the population owning vehicles among all Chinese cities, and it has suffered from severe air pollution, partially due to the ever-growing population of on-road vehicles.

  6. The economic impact of SARS in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutels, Philippe; Jia, Na; Zhou, Qing-Yi; Smith, Richard; Cao, Wu-Chun; de Vlas, Sake J

    2009-11-01

    To document the impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Beijing on indicators of social and economic activity. Associations between time series of daily and monthly SARS cases and deaths and volume of public train, airplane and cargo transport, tourism, household consumption patterns and gross domestic product growth in Beijing were investigated using the cross-correlation function. Significant correlation coefficients were found for all indicators except wholesale accounts and expenditures on necessities, with the most significant correlations occurring with a delay of 1 day to 1 month. Especially leisure activities, local and international transport and tourism were affected by SARS particularly in May 2003. Much of this consumption was merely postponed; but irrecoverable losses to the tourist sector alone were estimated at about US$ 1.4 bn, or 300 times the cost of treatment for SARS cases in Beijing.

  7. Realistic Modeling of Seismic Wave Ground Motion in Beijing City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z.; Romanelli, F.; Chen, Y. T.; Panza, G. F.

    Algorithms for the calculation of synthetic seismograms in laterally heterogeneous anelastic media have been applied to model the ground motion in Beijing City. The synthetic signals are compared with the few available seismic recordings (1998, Zhangbei earthquake) and with the distribution of observed macroseismic intensity (1976, Tangshan earthquake). The synthetic three-component seismograms have been computed for the Xiji area and Beijing City. The numerical results show that the thick Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are responsible for the severe amplification of the seismic ground motion. Such a result is well correlated with the abnormally high macroseismic intensity zone in the Xiji area associated with the 1976 Tangshan earthquake as well as with the ground motion recorded in Beijing city in the wake of the 1998 Zhangbei earthquake.

  8. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  9. Realistic modeling of seismic wave ground motion in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Z.; Chen, Y.T.; Romanelli, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2002-05-01

    Advanced algorithms for the calculation of synthetic seismograms in laterally heterogeneous anelastic media have been applied to model the ground motion in Beijing City. The synthetic signals are compared with the few available seismic recordings (1998, Zhangbei earthquake) and with the distribution of the observed macroseismic intensity (1976, Tangshan earthquake). The synthetic 3-component seismograms have been computed in the Xiji area and in Beijing town. The numerical results show that the thick Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are responsible of the severe amplification of the seismic ground motion. Such a result is well correlated with the abnormally high macroseismic intensity zone (Xiji area) associated to the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and with the records in Beijing town, associated to the 1998 Zhangbei earthquake. (author)

  10. [Distribution of virtual water of crops in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Rui; Dong, Yan-Yan; Wang, Jun-Hong; Wang, Yan; Han, Zhao-Xing

    2007-11-01

    Virtual water content of grains and vegetables in Beijing's districts is calculated and analyzed for many years by irrigating water quota method, which is compared with the distribution and exploitation of groundwater in Beijing. The results indicate the virtual water content of grains shows a downward trend in all the districts, but the grain production in Yanqing district brings great pressure to the local groundwater. Secondly, the virtual water content of vegetables shows an upward trend in Shunyi District, Daxing district and Pinggu District and is accounting for more and more gradually. Thirdly, the total virtual water volume of grains is decreasing, and the total virtual water volume of vegetables is increasing and the total virtual water volume of crops in Beijing is reducing in recent years, which corresponds with the structural adjustment of policies.

  11. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.

  12. An assessment of chain management practice within the industrial pork value chain: Beijing Ciity, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzhao, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research assesses the value chain and quality control of the pork industry in Beijing municipality of China. Through interviewing all the actors of pork industrial value chain in Beijing, the roles functions and problems of each of the actor of the pork industrial value chain of Beijing were

  13. The APHH China Research Programme: Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, T.; Shi, Z.; Liu, D.; Harrison, R. M.; Wu, X.; Brean, J.; Fu, P.

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that atmospheric particles have adverse effects on human health due to their high toxic properties. Consequently, atmospheric particles are getting much attention from the public, especially from developing megacities which have a large population and high air pollution levels. Beijing, which is one of largest megacities of the world with more than 20 million inhabitants living under very poor air quality conditions is an ideal metropolitan region to study the processes and sources of atmospheric particles in order to improve strategies for air pollution management. This study is aimed to investigate comprehensively the sources of particles in Beijing by application of a wide range of instruments, techniques and modelling approaches. Two intensive sampling campaigns were carried out during the winter 2016 and the summer 2017 at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP, the urban site) and Pinggu (the rural site) in Beijing. Online instruments including Api-TOF, PSM, and SMPS systems were deployed to investigate the size distribution and chemical composition of particles. Contemporaneously, both fine and coarse particles were collected on PTFE and quartz fibre filters using high and medium volume air samplers. Those filters were then analysed for quantification of inorganic ions by ion chromatography, elemental composition using XRF, PIXE and ICP-MS techniques, and EC/OC using a Sunset OC-EC aerosol analyser, organic markers using GC-MS techniques. The mean daily concentration of PM2.5 at the urban site of Beijing was 92.0±66.4 µg/m3 and 31.2±14.7 µg/m3 for winter and summer campaigns, while those levels measured at the rural site were 86.7±58.9 and 27.6±13.3 µg/m3. The concentration of OC and EC measured during the winter campaign was 22.3 and 3.4 µg/m3 respectively. By using a mass closure model, it was found that secondary inorganic aerosols and soil dust accounted for 32.6% and 9.7% of fine particles at IAP. High

  14. A Population-based Study of Invasive Cervical Cancer Patients in Beijing: 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the incidence of cervical cancer has been rising, particularly in young adults, as the second most common gynecological cancer in China. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence change and the epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer in Beijing over the past 16 years. Methods: All the cases of the study were limited to Beijing residents diagnosed with cervical cancer and registered in Beijing from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2008. A total of 4100 patients with cervical cancer were obtained from the Statistics Database of Beijing Cancer Registry (BJCaR. According to the registered data, we retrospectively reviewed all original cases which we can acquired in reported hospital. Cervical situ cancer, cervical metastatic cancer, non-Beijing residents and repeatedly registered cases were excluded. Totally, 3641 registered cases were verified correctly. Meanwhile, we also collected the following data: Age, occupation, detected methods, histological type, and staging. The trends of incidence and mortality were analyzed by Joinpoint Regression Program 4.1.1.1 produced by National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA. The annual percent change (APC was calculated using the Joinpoint regression model. Results: The crude rates of incidence and mortality were 10.4 and 1.0 per 100,000 women, respectively during 1993 to 2008. The average WHO age-standardized incidence rates were 11.5 per 100,000 women. There was a decrease in incidence annually by 8.0% (P = 0.3 during 1993-1996 and a rapid increase annually by 18.9% after 1999 (P < 0.01. The median age was 67 years in 1993, but the median age decreased to 45 years in 2008. The peak of the age-specific incidence curve was at 40 years in the most recent period (2005-2008, which was 25-30 years earlier than that in previous periods (1993-1996. In the 2224 cases, the numbers of patients with stage I, II, III and IV were 910 (40.9%, 601 (27%, 542 (24.4%, 171 (7

  15. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  16. Beijing's nuclear strategy makes China a major player

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses China's nuclear strategy which is a subject of debate among Asia experts, even as Sino-Soviet relations warm to a point unseen since the 1950s. China lags in the number and sophistication of its weapons. But modernization, national pride and the shrinking U.S. and Soviet arsenals have made Beijing and an increasingly important player. Beijing insists that its arsenal is strictly for defensive purposes; they have signed an agreement to make the South Pacific a nuclear-free zone

  17. Current Situation of Highway Daily Maintenance Management in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Feng Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the industry property, characteristics and management needs of highway maintenance project in Beijing, through investigation and research of the highway daily maintenance management, the present situation of highway repair and maintenance is expounded from the aspects such as the determination of maintenance funds and plan, maintenance management mode, and so on. Then in order to explore the new mechanisms for market management of highway maintenance, the advantages and disadvantages of highway maintenance and minor repairment of Beijing are analyzed.

  18. Vertical gradients of nitrous acid (HONO) measured in Beijing during winter smog events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Louisa; Crilley, Leigh; Thomson, Steven; Bloss, William; Tong, Shengrui

    2017-04-01

    HONO is an important atmospheric constituent, as the photolysis of HONO leads to the formation of OH radicals in the boundary layer, with contributions of up to 60% in urban regions. This is particularly important in mega-cities, such as Beijing, where measured HONO levels can reach parts per billion. Research has shown that direct emissions, homogeneous gas phase reactions and heterogeneous conversion of NO2 on surfaces all contribute to HONO in urban areas. There are, however, still uncertainties regarding the magnitude of these sources, and models are still unable to account for total measured HONO mixing ratios. To assess the sources of HONO, vertical profile measurements were performed up to an altitude of 260 m on the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) Meteorological Tower in Beijing. These measurements were performed as part of the Air Pollution and Human Health (APHH) project, during Nov/Dec 2016. Here we present HONO profile measurements using a long-path absorption photometer (LOPAP), during both clear and hazy days. HONO levels near the ground were very high during smog events with concentrations over 10 ppb observed. The data show a strong negative gradient with altitude, suggesting a source close to the surface. The largest gradients were observed overnight during smog events, with differences in HONO between the ground and the highest level up to 6 ppb.

  19. The Beijing HYFORUM 2004 - a lasting success!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, C.-J.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' HYFORUM 2004 - The International Hydrogen Energy Forum 2004, Clean Energies for the 21st Century was well run. After HYFORUM 2000 in Munich, Germany, it was the second Forum of its kind. Some 600 attendees from all over the world discussed hydrogen and fuel cell matters. The newest R and D results went 'out of the labs, and onto the markets'. The first day, the Chinese Government invited the Forum into the Great Hall of the People and left no doubt on its clear hydrogen and fuel cell commitment for a future cleaner China and an indigenously secured energy supply for the nation via hydrogen and its technologies. 'Olympic Hydrogen', the singular world event in 2008 in Beijing with its outreach to billions of television viewers worldwide, is being planned for serving as an excellent vehicle for the early application of hydrogen supported clean transport, efficient combined heat and power supply via stationary fuel cells, and fuel cells aboard portable electronics such as laptops or television cameras of journalists. The Olympic Games 2008 are going to become a showcase for environmentally and climatically clean national or foreign investments. The HYFORUM 2004 was predominantly devoted to clean fuels in transport. Major European or US automakers served as sponsors and presented their papers. A whole bunch of dissimilar fuel options are still in the R and D pipelines, from pure high pressure or liquefied hydrogen to hydrogen rich compounds made from biomass. The agreement among the automotive industry on THE necessarily one future fuel is not in reach yet. Again, it was emphasized that clean production of hydrogen needs to get much more to the forefront of the agendas of coming HYFORUMs. Clean production either from CO2 sequestered fossil fuels, particularly non-'OPECizable' coal, or from renewable sources. Truly, the hydrogen energy conversion chains back end, utilization of hydrogen, is in good hands. The front end, however, production, storage, and

  20. Students' Experiences with Popular Music: The Case of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the establishment of a socialist market economy has quickened the pace of China's economic development; at the same time, increased modernization and globalization have influenced, to varying degrees, the development of music and music education. With reference to 12 secondary schools in Beijing, this empirical study examines…

  1. Keep on dreaming : Art in a changing Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, L.; de Kloet, J.

    2017-01-01

    President Xi Jinping’s ‘China Dream’, promising prosperity and progress, is by and large mapped onto the city. In the case of Beijing, this dream can primarily be found within the fifth ring road, with its cultural heritage sites and fancy buildings designed by ‘starchitects’. But what about the

  2. Government support, innovation and productivity in the Haidian (Beijing) District

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, C.; Wu, Y.; Mohnen, P.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether the government support in favour of firms located in the Haidian district of Beijing, which includes the Zhongguancun Science Park, was effective in terms of innovation and economic performance. We use a dataset of 500 manufacturing firms that results from a merger of the

  3. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  4. Scholars Convene to Discuss Ethics of Science in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Jointly organized by CAS and the World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST),a conference on ethics of science and technology was held on Oct.31 in Beijing. It is one of the worldwide meeting series "Ethics around the World" sponsored by COMEST, an advisory body to the UNESCO Director-General on issues in the field.

  5. Showcasing Colombia's Native Icons in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJINGDE

    2004-01-01

    THE Object/Colombia Exhibition, the biggest ever held in China, went on display at the Beijing Jintai Art Museum in July of 2003. This exhibition structured as a journey across historic Colombia, featuring five uses of objects as icons: furniture, decorations, containers, clothes, and ritual and games relics, all grouped

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, G.; Hu, W.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( 16PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in 56 topsoil samples around Guanting Reservior (GTR), which is an important water source for Beijing. Low to medium levels of PAH contamination

  7. Beijing: A City in Search of Its Destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Liliana B.

    2015-01-01

    This article on the development of Beijing can introduce students to many topics found in the urban geography section of the AP Human Geography course outline published in 2013. The author provides lesson plans and a PowerPoint presentation as resources for teaching a unit about the city.

  8. Art Casting of China and 2008 Beijing Olympic Sculptures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, a major international multi-sport event, took place in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. It has well shown the Chinese people's dream and passion about the Games. Hosting an Olympic Games has been a century-old dream for the Chinese nation.

  9. Factors affecting soil erosion in Beijing mountain forestlands | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of regions, vegetation types and forest stand density in controlling soil erosion were investigated in Beijing mountain forest, China. The main objective was to develop some models to estimate soil erosion under different forest conditions including regions, vegetation type, and stand density as influenced by artificial ...

  10. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  11. Nursery and nursery products in Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.H.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2003-01-01

    The production and demand of nursery products is growing rapidly in China, particularly in big cities as Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Shanghai. The report describes the development and the prospects of production and demand of nursery products and the structure of the nursery sector in these

  12. Thinking Styles of Primary School Teachers in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on teachers' thinking have usually related to teaching and learning, and concentrated on classroom-level outcomes. In this study, an organizational and administrative perspective was adopted in examining teachers' thinking style. Data collected were from a sample of 268 in-service teachers from 6 primary schools in Beijing, China.…

  13. Energy modelling towards low carbon development of Beijing in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jiang, Kejun

    2017-01-01

    Beijing, as the capital of China, is under the high pressure of climate change and pollution. The consumption of non-renewable energy is one of the most important sources of the CO2 emissions, which cause climate changes. This paper presents a study on the energy system modelling towards renewabl...

  14. Preliminary interpretation of isotopic studies of geothermal waters from the Beijing region (P.R. China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyan, Zheng; Da-Lei, Ma; Changfang, Xie; Shangyao, Huang; Jianghua, Feng; Jingshu, Wu

    1982-01-01

    Isotopic studies of thermal and cold surface waters sampled in Beijing region have shown that the thermal waters are meteoric waters which have been precipitated in the mountainous area lying to the NW of Beijing. ΔD and over distances of more than 150 km in Sinian basement rocks which are 3 to 5 km in the SE sector of the region. Significant 18 O exchange with basement rocks occurs in the Jizhong Depression about 60 km to the SE of Beijing. On a smaller scale, a SE flow of thermal waters in basement rocks in corroborated by Δ 34 S data for the Beijing area and the Beijing geothermal field. The Beijing geothermal field and other geothermal fields in the SE sector of the Beijing region are an example for low temperature systems where the heat is derived from a normal or slightly greater than normal, terrestrial heat flow

  15. The integrated microbial genome resource of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checcucci, Alice; Mengoni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Microbial Genomes and Metagenomes (IMG) is a biocomputational system that allows to provide information and support for annotation and comparative analysis of microbial genomes and metagenomes. IMG has been developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE)-Joint Genome Institute (JGI). IMG platform contains both draft and complete genomes, sequenced by Joint Genome Institute and other public and available genomes. Genomes of strains belonging to Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya domains are present as well as those of viruses and plasmids. Here, we provide some essential features of IMG system and case study for pangenome analysis.

  16. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent

  17. Beijing Star River: An Elegant-Distinguished Pet Stone(International Marketing Masters Make Marketings for Beijing Star River)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang Beilu,Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq. Meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with 2000-more mu.

  18. Beijing Star River: An Elegant-Distinguished Pet Stone(International Marketing Masters Make Marketings for Beijing Star River)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang Beilu,Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq. Meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with 2000-more mu.……

  19. TCGA Workshop: Genomics and Biology of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) held a workshop entitled, “Genomics and Biology of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM),” to review the initial GBM data from the TCGA pilot project.

  20. Beijing Model of Gifted Education and Talent Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Zhongxiong; Zhang, Yi; Du, Xiangyun

    In China, talent development has been one of the key points in national plans for the development of science and technology, education, and other areas over the last three decades and is especially emphasized in the national outline for medium- and long-term educational reform and development....... Beijing is the leading city in educational reform, especially in the area of gifted education in mainland China. Over the past 35 years, through constant exploration and research, a comprehensive gifted education system called the Beijing Model of Gifted Education and Talent Development (BMGETD) has...... gradually been developed. This book is a summary of the educational practices used in and research done on the BMGETD over the decades. These include several patterns for gifted education, such as acceleration in special classes, special classes without acceleration, enrichment within regular classes...

  1. Cautionary tales on air-quality improvement in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyi; Guo, Bin; Dong, Anlan; He, Jing; Xu, Ziping; Chen, Song Xi

    2017-09-01

    The official air-quality statistic reported that Beijing had a 9.9% decline in the annual concentration of PM2.5 in 2016. While this statistic offered some relief for the inhabitants of the capital, we present several analyses based on Beijing's PM2.5 data of the past 4 years at 36 monitoring sites along with meteorological data of the past 7 years. The analyses reveal the air pollution situation in 2016 was not as rosy as the 9.9% decline would convey, and improvement if any was rather uncertain. The paper also provides an assessment on the city's PM2.5 situation in the past 4 years.

  2. Beijing 798 Art Zone: A Maturing Creative Cluster?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waibel, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing 798 Art Zone (北京798艺术区 is certainly the most famous cultural district within China. It is located on a spacious factory site of a former military-industrial project from the 1950s. At that time, it was realized with the support of architects from East Germany, who were responsible for designing many buildings in Bauhaus style. Already during the late 1990s, avant-garde Chinese artists and designers started to move into the mostly derelict area. The site soon became the blossoming epicenter of contemporary art in China. It was finally saved from bulldozing before the Beijing Olympic Games and has turned into a popular urban leisure area not only for the emerging bourgeois bohemians (Bobos, but also for an increasing amount of international tourists. As a pioneering art zone it became a role model for the development and management of many other creative spaces in China.

  3. Analysis on policies text of air pollution control in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Yujuan; WANG, Wen; ZHANG, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and it is also the inevitable result of the extensive economic development mode. The matter of air pollution in Beijing is becoming more and more serious since 2010, which has a great impact on the normal social production, living and human health. These hazards have been highly valued by the whole society. More than 30 years have been pasted since controlling the air pollution and the system of policies was relatively complete. These policies have improved the quality of atmospheric and prevented environment further deterioration. The policies performance is not obvious. It is urgent trouble to improve policy performance. This paper analyzes the 103 policies text of air pollution control in Beijing, and researches status, history and problems, and put forward suggestions on policy improvement and innovation at last.

  4. Revitalization of Cycling in a Former Bicycle Kingdom: Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    This paper scrutinizes and analyses the relevant historical policy documents chronologically - from the 1960s to the present - in order to figure out the potentials of revitalizing the bicycle mode share in Beijing. Firstly, we targeted two top-drawer conflicts of the bicycle use, which are travel......- or commuting distance and motorised vehicle-oriented urban development. Secondly, we analysed how the various related policies resulted in the changing landscape of the bicycle mode share, including increasing in the bicycle mode share, created the conflicts and declined the bicycle mode share. The results...... are revealed by collection and analysis of historical material and interviews with key stakeholders. The historical material is obtained from libraries, online resources, and reports from professionals including urban designers, transportation engineers, research centres and politicians of the Beijing...

  5. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior.

  6. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda's potentially dangerous behavior.

  7. Flash Flood Type Identification within Catchments in Beijing Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Flash flood is a common type of disaster in mountainous area, Flash flood with the feature of large flow rate, strong flushing force, destructive power, has periodically caused loss to life and destruction to infrastructure in mountainous area. Beijing as China's political, economic and cultural center, the disaster prevention and control work in Beijing mountainous area has always been concerned widely. According to the transport mechanism, sediment concentration and density, the flash flood type identification within catchment can provide basis for making the hazards prevention and mitigation policy. Taking Beijing as the study area, this paper extracted parameters related to catchment morphological and topography features respectively. By using Bayes discriminant, Logistic regression and Random forest, the catchments in Beijing mountainous area were divided into water floods process, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flows process. The results found that Logistic regression analysis showed the highest accuracy, with the overall accuracy of 88.2%. Bayes discriminant and Random forest had poor prediction effects. This study confirmed the ability of morphological and topography features to identify flash flood process. The circularity ratio, elongation ratio and roughness index can be used to explain the flash flood types effectively, and the Melton ratio and elevation relief ratio also did a good job during the identification, whereas the drainage density seemed not to be an issue at this level of detail. Based on the analysis of spatial patterns of flash flood types, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flow process were the dominant hazards, while the pure water flood process was much less. The catchments dominated by fluvial sediment transport process were mainly distributed in the Yan Mountain region, where the fault belts were relatively dense. The debris flow process prone to occur in the Taihang Mountain region thanks to the abundant

  8. Relative efficiency and productivity: a preliminary exploration of public hospitals in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Siping; Liu, Tingfang

    2014-04-06

    Third-grade hospitals in Beijing have been rapidly developing in capacity and scale for many years. These hospitals receive a large number of patients, and ensuring their efficient operation is crucial in meeting people's healthcare needs. In this context, a study of their relative efficiency and productivity would be helpful to identify the driving factors and further improve their performance. After a review of literature, the current numbers of open beds and employees were selected as input variables. The number of outpatient and emergency visits and the number of discharged patients were selected as output variables. A total of 12 third-grade Class A general public hospitals in Beijing were selected for a preliminary study. The panel data from 2006-2009 were collected by the National Institute of Hospital Administration, Ministry of Health of P.R. China. Descriptive analysis and data envelopment analysis were used to analyze the data using Stata 10.0 and DEAP(V2.1) software. In the 2006-2009 period, descriptive results show that sample hospitals continuously expanded their capacity and scale, with growth rate of total revenue being the highest among all variables. The DEA results show that the average annual growth rate of productivity was 26.7%, and the rates were 47.3%, 21.3% and 13.8% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technological change was 28.3%, and the rates were 49.4%, 21.5% and 16.4% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technical efficiency change was -1.3%, and the rates were -1.4%, -0.02% and -2.2% respectively for two consecutive years. The sample hospitals in Beijing experienced substantial productivity growth, but annual growth rates were declining. Substantial technological change was the main contributor to the growth. Although some hospitals exhibited improvements in technical efficiency, there was a slight decline in general. To improve overall efficiency and

  9. Relative efficiency and productivity: a preliminary exploration of public hospitals in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Third-grade hospitals in Beijing have been rapidly developing in capacity and scale for many years. These hospitals receive a large number of patients, and ensuring their efficient operation is crucial in meeting people’s healthcare needs. In this context, a study of their relative efficiency and productivity would be helpful to identify the driving factors and further improve their performance. Methods After a review of literature, the current numbers of open beds and employees were selected as input variables. The number of outpatient and emergency visits and the number of discharged patients were selected as output variables. A total of 12 third-grade Class A general public hospitals in Beijing were selected for a preliminary study. The panel data from 2006–2009 were collected by the National Institute of Hospital Administration, Ministry of Health of P.R. China. Descriptive analysis and data envelopment analysis were used to analyze the data using Stata 10.0 and DEAP(V2.1) software. Results In the 2006–2009 period, descriptive results show that sample hospitals continuously expanded their capacity and scale, with growth rate of total revenue being the highest among all variables. The DEA results show that the average annual growth rate of productivity was 26.7%, and the rates were 47.3%, 21.3% and 13.8% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technological change was 28.3%, and the rates were 49.4%, 21.5% and 16.4% respectively for two consecutive years. The average annual growth rate of technical efficiency change was -1.3%, and the rates were -1.4%, -0.02% and -2.2% respectively for two consecutive years. Conclusions The sample hospitals in Beijing experienced substantial productivity growth, but annual growth rates were declining. Substantial technological change was the main contributor to the growth. Although some hospitals exhibited improvements in technical efficiency, there was a slight decline in

  10. Road fugitive dust emission characteristics in Beijing during Olympics Game 2008 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-bin, Fan; Gang, Tian; Gang, Li; Yu-hu, Huang; Jian-ping, Qin; Shui-yuan, Cheng

    2009-12-01

    Eighty road dust-fall (DF) monitoring sites and 14 background monitoring sites were established in the Beijing metropolitan area, and monitoring was conducted from January 2006 to December 2008. The dust-fall attributable to roads (ΔDF) showed a clear decline from 2006 to 2008. Dust-fall levels decreased across different road types from freeway > major arterial roads > minor arterial roads > collector roads > background sites. The ΔDF showed declines of 65%, 55%, 65% and 84% respectively for freeways, major arterial, minor arterial and collector roads from August 2007 to August 2008, and declines of 77%, 76%, 82% and 82% between August 2006 and August 2008. The ΔDF declined by 80%, 79%, 82% and 69% for freeways, major arterial, minor arterial and collector roads respectively between September 2007 and September 2008, and declined by 84%, 88%, 80% and 81% between September 2006 and September 2008. Eighty samples were collected in August 2007 and August 2008 and analyzed for silt loading. PM 10 emission factors and emission strengths were calculated using the AP-42 model. The silt loading reduced by 77%, 35%, 61%, 59% and 75% for freeways, major arterial, minor arterial, collector and local roads respectively. The PM 10 emission factors were reduced by 57%, 15%, 36%, 51% and 61% and the PM 10 emission strength declined by 70%, 40%, 55%, 65% and 72% for freeways, major arterial, minor arterial, collector and local roads respectively between August 2007 and August 2008. The decline is consistent with the reduction in road dust-fall.

  11. Emergency department characteristics and capabilities in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Leana S; Xu, Jun; Steptoe, Anne P; Sullivan, Ashley F; Walline, Joseph H; Yu, Xuezhong; Camargo, Carlos A

    2013-06-01

    Emergency Departments (EDs) are a critical, yet heterogeneous, part of international emergency care. We sought to describe the characteristics, resources, capabilities, and capacity of EDs in Beijing, China. Beijing EDs accessible to the general public 24 h per day/7 days per week were surveyed using the National ED Inventories survey instrument (www.emnet-nedi.org). ED staff were asked about ED characteristics during the calendar year 2008. Thirty-six EDs participated (88% response rate). All were located in hospitals and were independent hospital departments. Participating EDs saw a median of 80,000 patients (interquartile range 40,000-118,508). The vast majority (91%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 78-98%) had a contiguous layout, with medical and surgical care provided in one area. Most EDs (55%) saw only adults; 39% saw both adults and children, and 6% saw only children. Availability of technological and consultant resource in EDs was high. The typical ED length of stay was between 1 and 6 h in 49% of EDs (95% CI 32-67%), whereas in the other half, patients reportedly remained for over 6 h; 36% (95% CI 21-54%) of respondents considered their ED over capacity. Beijing EDs have high volume, long length of stay, and frequent reports of EDs being over capacity. To meet its rapidly growing health needs in urban areas, China should consider improving urban ED capacity and training more Emergency Medicine specialists capable of efficiently staffing its crowded EDs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  13. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.……

  14. Results from unannounced visits to check compliance with smoke-free regulations in three types of indoor places in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Beijing Tobocco control regulation come into force in 2015. According to the regulation, all indoor areas are smoke free. To assess compliance with the Beijing Regulations, identify weaknesses and problems, and provide scientific evidence for policy making by the government and other authorities. Methods on site, unannounced visits. We conducted unannounced visits to a sample of 821 places in three types of places across the sixteen districts of Beijing, including medical and health facilities (including health and family planning commissions, CDCs, health inspection institutes and a variety of hospitals, colleges (including vocational schools and taxis (including Shouqi Group vehicles booked online. Results Among medical and health facilities, all posted smoke-free signage, and no cigarette end or smoking paraphernalia was found indoors, except in private hospitals, community health service centers and few maternal and child care centers. Among colleges, 96.9% of them posted smoke-free signage, cigarette end was found indoors in 9.9% of colleges, smell of smoking was detected indoors in 1.9% of colleges, and ashtray was found indoors in 0.6% of colleges. Among taxies, 6% of drivers of online booked vehicles permit passengers to smoke inside their car, and no smell of smoking, container of cigarette ends/ashes, or driver smoking was detected in these online booked vehicles. Among the conventional cruising taxis, 48.4% of taxi drivers permit passengers to smoke inside their car, smell of smoking was found in 9.6% of taxies, and 1.6% of taxi drivers smoke in their car. Conclusions Smoking in violation of the Regulations is serious in the taxi sector, and targeted stronger supervision and administration are needed.

  15. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  16. Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype and Association with MDR TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Marian T.; de Knegt, Gerjo J.; Kremer, Kristin; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Boeree, Martin J.; Verbrugh, Henri A.; van Soolingen, Dick; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine differences in the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to withstand antituberculosis drug treatment, we compared the activity of antituberculosis drugs against susceptible Beijing and East-African/Indian genotype M. tuberculosis strains. Beijing genotype strains showed high rates of mutation within a wide range of drug concentrations, possibly explaining this genotype’s association with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:22469099

  17. Residents' Perceived Social-Economic Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mark; Chen, Li; Lei, Ouyang; Malone, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether the Olympic Games was a catalyst for changes to Beijing residents' quality of life based on social-economic perspectives and how these changes affected their continuous support for the Games. Residents who lived in Beijing 18 months or longer were invited to participate in this survey research (N = 412)…

  18. School-Based Primary School Sexuality Education for Migrant Children in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…

  19. Financial and economic feasibility of decentralized wastewater reuse systems in Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Liang (Xiao); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMany decentralized wastewater reuse systems have been constructed in Beijing. However their performance is not as good as expected. The total amount of reclaimed water used in Beijing is much less than the designed capacity. In order to understand the reasons causing such

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Beijing genotype strains not associated with radiological presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Martien W.; van Deutekom, Henk; de Haas, Petra E. W.; Kremer, Kristin; van Soolingen, Dick

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype have been involved in various outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Some studies suggest that the infection with the Beijing genotype is associated with a different host immune response. Since this might also lead to a different

  1. Educational Equality in China: Analysing Educational Policies for Migrant Children in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuiyun; Liu, Fuxing; Yu, Yafeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the education of migrant children in Beijing. As of the late 1990s, the Chinese Government has developed several policies to address educational issues among migrant children. The present study analyses data from interviews with key education personnel in Beijing to explore the outcomes of the implementation of such migrant…

  2. Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome among adults in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; de Courten, Maximilian; Jiao, Shufang

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using a large representative sample in Beijing. Data from a total of 16442 adults (6489 men and 9953 women) aged > or =18 years from a survey of behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases in Beijing, in 2005, was a...

  4. Primary and secondary organic aerosols in summer 2016 in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rongzhi; Wu, Zepeng; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yujue; Shang, Dongjie; Xiao, Yao; Li, Mengren; Zeng, Limin; Wu, Zhijun; Hallquist, Mattias; Hu, Min; Guo, Song

    2018-03-01

    To improve air quality, the Beijing government has employed several air pollution control measures since the 2008 Olympics. In order to investigate organic aerosol sources after the implementation of these measures, ambient fine particulate matter was collected at a regional site in Changping (CP) and an urban site at the Peking University Atmosphere Environment Monitoring Station (PKUERS) during the Photochemical Smog in China field campaign in summer 2016. Chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling and the tracer yield method were used to apportion primary and secondary organic sources. Our results showed that the particle concentration decreased significantly during the last few years. The apportioned primary and secondary sources explained 62.8 ± 18.3 and 80.9 ± 27.2 % of the measured OC at CP and PKUERS, respectively. Vehicular emissions served as the dominant source. Except for gasoline engine emissions, the contributions of all the other primary sources decreased. In addition, the anthropogenic SOC, i.e., toluene SOC, also decreased, implying that deducting primary emissions can reduce anthropogenic SOA. In contrast to the SOA from other regions in the world where biogenic SOA was dominant, anthropogenic SOA was the major contributor to SOA, implying that deducting anthropogenic VOC emissions is an efficient way to reduce SOA in Beijing. Back-trajectory cluster analysis results showed that high mass concentrations of OC were observed when the air mass was from the south. However, the contributions of different primary organic sources were similar, suggesting regional particle pollution. The ozone concentration and temperature correlated well with the SOA concentration. Different correlations between day and night samples suggested different SOA formation pathways. Significant enhancement of SOA with increasing particle water content and acidity was observed in our study, suggesting that aqueous-phase acid-catalyzed reactions may be the important SOA formation

  5. Primary and secondary organic aerosols in summer 2016 in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve air quality, the Beijing government has employed several air pollution control measures since the 2008 Olympics. In order to investigate organic aerosol sources after the implementation of these measures, ambient fine particulate matter was collected at a regional site in Changping (CP and an urban site at the Peking University Atmosphere Environment Monitoring Station (PKUERS during the Photochemical Smog in China field campaign in summer 2016. Chemical mass balance (CMB modeling and the tracer yield method were used to apportion primary and secondary organic sources. Our results showed that the particle concentration decreased significantly during the last few years. The apportioned primary and secondary sources explained 62.8 ± 18.3 and 80.9 ± 27.2 % of the measured OC at CP and PKUERS, respectively. Vehicular emissions served as the dominant source. Except for gasoline engine emissions, the contributions of all the other primary sources decreased. In addition, the anthropogenic SOC, i.e., toluene SOC, also decreased, implying that deducting primary emissions can reduce anthropogenic SOA. In contrast to the SOA from other regions in the world where biogenic SOA was dominant, anthropogenic SOA was the major contributor to SOA, implying that deducting anthropogenic VOC emissions is an efficient way to reduce SOA in Beijing. Back-trajectory cluster analysis results showed that high mass concentrations of OC were observed when the air mass was from the south. However, the contributions of different primary organic sources were similar, suggesting regional particle pollution. The ozone concentration and temperature correlated well with the SOA concentration. Different correlations between day and night samples suggested different SOA formation pathways. Significant enhancement of SOA with increasing particle water content and acidity was observed in our study, suggesting that aqueous-phase acid-catalyzed reactions may be

  6. Evidence of Aerosol's Influence on Climate from Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Fu, Q.; Huang, J.; Ge, J.; Su, J.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution is a difficult problem during the process of industrialization in most developing countries. In China, the main air pollutants are inhaled aerosol particles. Because of the extremely high loading and rapid development, Beijing became a heavily polluted city, with a population of more than 16 million. The 2008 Olympic Summer Games provided a unique opportunity for the study of climate effects of aerosols due to many measurements taken to fight pollution caused by industrialization and economic growth.Surface temperature is the most intuitive meteorological factor and easy to get. Therefore, aerosol’s radiative effects on regional climate can be known by studying the relationship between aerosols and surface temperature in Beijing city in August 2008. However, many factors can affect the surface temperature and cloud is considered as a very important meteorological element in radiation balance. In order to remove the impact of clouds on surface temperature, here the ground temperature in clear sky days (when cloud cover is less than 2) are selected. Aerosol data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua shows that aerosol concentration decreased significantly in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008. Meanwhile, the ground-based observation data shows the surface temperature during the day (14LT) and night (02LT) in August 2008 is higher and lower than the mean temperature in August from 2002 to 2008, respectively. It is discovered that the distribution of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical Depth (AOD) in the whole area of Beijing in August of 2003 and 2004 is similar to that in 2008. We chosen four meteorological stations to analyze surface temperature and found that the diurnal changes of surface temperature are consistent with that in August of 2003, 2004 and 2008. Meanwhile, the decrease of AOD in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008 leads to the increase of precipitation

  7. Natural radioactivity of geothermal water in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shufang Wang; Chao Ye; Jiurong Liu; Pei Lin; Kai Liu; Pei Dong; Ying Sun; Yuanzhang Liu; Liya Wang; Guifang Wang

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we collected 101 geothermal water samples to investigate comprehensively the radioactivity of geothermal water in Beijing. The concentrations of gross beta, 226 Ra and 222 Rn were measured and the obtained values were in the range of 0.032-7.060, 0.023-0.363 and 0.470-29.700 Bq/L, respectively. The samples with higher concentration of 222 Rn were found to be located near large faults. The effective dose of 222 Rn in the air for three cases were calculated to be greater than radiation dose limit of 1 mSv/a. (author)

  8. Contrasting VOC Composition in London, UK and Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmore, R.; Hopkins, J. R.; Shaw, M.; Squires, F. A.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Hamilton, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing fraction of the world's population now living in megacities, urban air quality in those locations has the potential to be one of the largest controllable factors for public health. Both London and Beijing are classified as megacities, with the latter almost twice as densely populated. The key drivers and trajectory of air pollution are unique to each location; London has substantially reduced PM10 concentrations over the past two decades but continues to have high urban NO2. Beijing has had well-reported high levels of PM, is now in a phase of gradual decline, and has proportionately low NO2. Both locations however, continue to emit a mix of gas phase pollutants with the potential to form photochemical ozone. Whilst the abundance of NOx in each city is relatively straightforward to quantify, the VOC mixtures that are present differ between these two cities and this has consequential impacts on the downwind ozone formation potential. This work reports a comprehensive assessment of VOC speciation, reactivity and abundance in the two cities using a common set of inter-comparable measurement approaches. Hourly observations of VOCs over the range C2 - C13+ were made using two gas chromatography (GC) instruments; a PLOT column based GC for the most volatile fraction (C2-C7) and a comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC) for VOCs with more than 7 carbons. London has atmospheric VOC concentrations that in mass and reactivity terms are dominated by longer chain VOCs from diesel fuel. The VOC mixture in ambient Beijing air is dominated by short chain VOCs, a mix of both alkenes from incomplete combustion sources and alkanes and aromatics from petrochemical sources. The substantial difference in the fleet proportions of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles between the two cities is clearly reflected in ambient VOCs. In summertime, isoprene was a notable contributor to VOC reactivity in both cities despite both being highly urbanised locations. The absolute

  9. Differential MicroRNA Expression in Human Macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Beijing/W and Non-Beijing/W Strain Types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zheng

    Full Text Available The role of microRNAs in association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infection and the immunology regulated by microRNAs upon MTB infection have not been fully unravelled. We examined the microRNA profiles of THP-1 macrophages upon the MTB infection of Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W clinical strains. We also studied the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI, and from healthy controls.The results revealed that 14 microRNAs differentiated infections of Beijing/W from non-Beijing/W strains (P<0.05. A unique signature of 11 microRNAs in human macrophages was identified to differentiate active MTB disease from LTBI and healthy controls. Pathway analyses of these differentially expressed miRNAs suggest that the immune-regulatory interactions involving TGF-β signalling pathway take part in the dysregulation of critical TB processes in the macrophages, resulting in active expression of both cell communication and signalling transduction systems.We showed for the first time that the Beijing/W TB strains repressed a number of miRNAs expressions which may reflect their virulence characteristics in altering the host response. The unique signatures of 11 microRNAs may deserve further evaluation as candidates for biomarkers in the diagnosis of MTB and Beijing/W infections.

  10. Differential MicroRNA Expression in Human Macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Beijing/W and Non-Beijing/W Strain Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin; Leung, Eric; Lee, Nelson; Lui, Grace; To, Ka-Fai; Chan, Raphael C Y; Ip, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The role of microRNAs in association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and the immunology regulated by microRNAs upon MTB infection have not been fully unravelled. We examined the microRNA profiles of THP-1 macrophages upon the MTB infection of Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W clinical strains. We also studied the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI), and from healthy controls. The results revealed that 14 microRNAs differentiated infections of Beijing/W from non-Beijing/W strains (PmicroRNAs in human macrophages was identified to differentiate active MTB disease from LTBI and healthy controls. Pathway analyses of these differentially expressed miRNAs suggest that the immune-regulatory interactions involving TGF-β signalling pathway take part in the dysregulation of critical TB processes in the macrophages, resulting in active expression of both cell communication and signalling transduction systems. We showed for the first time that the Beijing/W TB strains repressed a number of miRNAs expressions which may reflect their virulence characteristics in altering the host response. The unique signatures of 11 microRNAs may deserve further evaluation as candidates for biomarkers in the diagnosis of MTB and Beijing/W infections.

  11. Plate Waste in School Lunch Programs in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students’ health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches. Our results show that the average amount of food waste generated by school students in Beijing in 2014 was 130 g/cap/meal, accounting for 21% of total food served. Staple food (43% and vegetables (42% were the dominant proportions. Buffet meals resulted in less plate waste than packed meals and set meals. Food supply patterns, the quality of canteen service, and the dietary habit and students’ knowledge of food production were the main influencing factors behind plate waste. To our best knowledge, our pilot study provides a first understanding of the overlooked plate waste in school lunch programs in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.

  12. Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi

    2013-07-01

    Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h.

  13. Feasibility study on a complete system of production, transportation and utilization of about 7 MTa of CWS from Shenmu area and Yellow Sea (China). Results of a Beijing symposium on the subject in Beijing (April 1994) and creation of a World Laboratory research centre ad hoc in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G.; Wang Zuna [ICSC World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland). Project NET-1

    1996-12-31

    The authors had occasion at a coal-water slurry conference in Clearwater to present a preliminary part of a feasibility study, in cooperation with an Italian and a Chinese team, for a complete integrated project of mining, slurryfication, transportation via pipeline, and utilization of 7 millions tons/year of coal. This study started in 1987 and was presented to the Chinese authority on April 1994 in a specific symposium in Beijing with a participation of 60 scientists from Italy and P.R. China. During this long period of cooperation and exchange between the parties, it was possible to organize a complete and advanced Centre of Research in Beijing supplied with modern equipment that is now in full operation and is producing work of very good quality. The goal of this paper is to summarize the above mentioned experience and describe the new Centre, the present status and the future developments. The study and the equipment of the Centre was sponsored by the World Laboratory an International Institution established in Lausanne under the presidency of Prof. A. Zichichi. This organization supported particularly by the Italian government is responsible for several programs of cooperation between N-S-E-W countries in all the critical areas of planetary importance (health, energy, agriculture, food, environment).

  14. Extreme genomes

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Edward F

    2000-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Thermoplasma acidophilum, an acid- and heat-loving archaeon, has recently been reported. Comparative genomic analysis of this 'extremophile' is providing new insights into the metabolic machinery, ecology and evolution of thermophilic archaea.

  15. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  16. Cancer genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Bodil; Guldberg, Per; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner

    2007-01-01

    Almost all cells in the human body contain a complete copy of the genome with an estimated number of 25,000 genes. The sequences of these genes make up about three percent of the genome and comprise the inherited set of genetic information. The genome also contains information that determines whe...

  17. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  18. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  19. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  20. Ozone and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Wuxing; Manning, W.J.; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Hongxing; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Qianqian

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) levels were assessed for the first time with passive samplers at 10 sites in and around Beijing in summer 2012. Average O 3 concentrations were higher at locations around Beijing than in the city center. Levels varied with site locations and ranged from 22.5 to 48.1 ppb and were highest at three locations. Hourly O 3 concentrations exceeded 40 ppb for 128 h and 80 ppb for 17 h from 2 to 9 in August at one site, where it had a real-time O 3 analyzer. Extensive foliar O 3 injury was found on 19 species of native and cultivated trees, shrubs, and herbs at 6 of the 10 study sites and the other 2 sites without passive sampler. This is the first report of O 3 foliar injury in and around Beijing. Our results warrant an extensive program of O 3 monitoring and foliar O 3 injury assessment in and around Beijing. - Highlights: • Plants have been threatened by high O 3 concentration in and around Beijing, China. • 19 plant species are reported as obvious ambient O 3 injury symptoms in Beijing. • The O 3 injury symptoms occur more often where ambient O 3 concentration is higher. • The results warrant more extensive and long-term study of ambient O 3 in China. - First report of ozone incidence and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype are rarely observed in tuberculosis patients in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Viviana; López, Beatriz; Cafrune, Patricia I; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Suffys, Philip N; Candia, Norma; Vásquez, Lucy; Realpe, Teresa; Fernández, Jorge; Lima, Karla V; Zurita, Jeannete; Robledo, Jaime; Rossetti, Maria L; Kritski, Afranio L; Telles, Maria A; Palomino, Juan C; Heersma, Herre; van Soolingen, Dick; Kremer, Kristin; Barrera, Lucía

    2008-08-01

    The frequency of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of tuberculosis (TB) in South America was determined by analyzing genotypes of strains isolated from patients that had been diagnosed with the disease between 1997 and 2003 in seven countries of the subcontinent. In total, 19 of the 1,202 (1.6%) TB cases carried Beijing isolates, including 11 of the 185 patients from Peru (5.9%), five of the 512 patients from Argentina (1.0%), two of the 252 Brazilian cases (0.8%), one of the 166 patients from Paraguay (0.6%) and none of the samples obtained from Chile (35), Colombia (36) and Ecuador (16). Except for two patients that were East Asian immigrants, all cases with Beijing strains were native South Americans. No association was found between carrying a strain with the Beijing genotype and having drug or multi-drug resistant disease. Our data show that presently transmission of M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype is not frequent in Latin America. In addition, the lack of association of drug resistant TB and infection with M. tuberculosis of the Beijing genotype observed presently demands efforts to define better the contribution of the virulence and lack of response to treatment to the growing spread of Beijing strains observed in other parts of the world.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype are rarely observed in tuberculosis patients in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ritacco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of tuberculosis (TB in South America was determined by analyzing genotypes of strains isolated from patients that had been diagnosed with the disease between 1997 and 2003 in seven countries of the subcontinent. In total, 19 of the 1,202 (1.6% TB cases carried Beijing isolates, including 11 of the 185 patients from Peru (5.9%, five of the 512 patients from Argentina (1.0%, two of the 252 Brazilian cases (0.8%, one of the 166 patients from Paraguay (0.6% and none of the samples obtained from Chile (35, Colombia (36 and Ecuador (16. Except for two patients that were East Asian immigrants, all cases with Beijing strains were native South Americans. No association was found between carrying a strain with the Beijing genotype and having drug or multi-drug resistant disease. Our data show that presently transmission of M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype is not frequent in Latin America. In addition, the lack of association of drug resistant TB and infection with M. tuberculosis of the Beijing genotype observed presently demands efforts to define better the contribution of the virulence and lack of response to treatment to the growing spread of Beijing strains observed in other parts of the world.

  3. Consequences of genomic diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscolla, Mireia; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    The causative agent of human tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), comprises seven phylogenetically distinct lineages associated with different geographical regions. Here we review the latest findings on the nature and amount of genomic diversity within and between MTBC lineages. We then review recent evidence for the effect of this genomic diversity on mycobacterial phenotypes measured experimentally and in clinical settings. We conclude that overall, the most geographically widespread Lineage 2 (includes Beijing) and Lineage 4 (also known as Euro-American) are more virulent than other lineages that are more geographically restricted. This increased virulence is associated with delayed or reduced pro-inflammatory host immune responses, greater severity of disease, and enhanced transmission. Future work should focus on the interaction between MTBC and human genetic diversity, as well as on the environmental factors that modulate these interactions. PMID:25453224

  4. Why size really matters when sequencing plant genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kelly, L.J.; Leitch, A.R.; Fay, M. F.; Renny-Byfield, S.; Pellicer, J.; Macas, Jiří; Leitch, I.J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 415-425 ISSN 1755-0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : C-value * genome assembly * genome size evolution * genome sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2012

  5. eGenomics: Cataloguing Our Complete Genome Collection III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Field

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This meeting report summarizes the proceedings of the “eGenomics: Cataloguing our Complete Genome Collection III” workshop held September 11–13, 2006, at the National Institute for Environmental eScience (NIEeS, Cambridge, United Kingdom. This 3rd workshop of the Genomic Standards Consortium was divided into two parts. The first half of the three-day workshop was dedicated to reviewing the genomic diversity of our current and future genome and metagenome collection, and exploring linkages to a series of existing projects through formal presentations. The second half was dedicated to strategic discussions. Outcomes of the workshop include a revised “Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence” (MIGS specification (v1.1, consensus on a variety of features to be added to the Genome Catalogue (GCat, agreement by several researchers to adopt MIGS for imminent genome publications, and an agreement by the EBI and NCBI to input their genome collections into GCat for the purpose of quantifying the amount of optional data already available (e.g., for geographic location coordinates and working towards a single, global list of all public genomes and metagenomes.

  6. Rubella epidemic caused by genotype 1E rubella viruses in Beijing, China, in 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Donglei; Huang, Guohong; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Tiegang; Xu, Wenbo; Pang, Xinghuo

    2013-04-18

    A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented to control rubella and prevent congenital rubella virus infection in Beijing, China. The rubella vaccine was available in 1995 in Beijing, and was introduced into the Beijing immunization program (vaccine recipients at their own expense vaccination) in 2000, and was introduced into the National Expanded Program on Immunization (vaccine recipients free vaccination) in 2006. Rubella virological surveillance started in Beijing in 2007. The reported rubella incidence rate has decreased dramatically due to the introduction of the vaccine in Beijing since 1995. However, rubella epidemics occurred regardless in 2001 and 2007. The incidence rate among the floating population has gradually increased since 2002, reaching 2 or more times that in the permanent resident population. The peak age of rubella cases gradually changed from tree was constructed based on the World Health Organization standard sequence window for rubella virus isolates. All Beijing rubella virus isolates belong to genotype 1E/cluster1 and were clustered interspersed with viruses from other provinces in China. The effective number of infections indicated by a Bayesian skyline plot remained constant from 2007 to 2011. The proportion of rubella cases among the floating population has increased significantly in Beijing since 2002, and the disease burden gradually shifted to the older age group (15- to 39-year olds), which has become a major group with rubella infection since 2006. Genotype 1E rubella virus continuously caused a rubella epidemic in Beijing in 2007-2011 and was the predominant virus, and all Beijing genotype 1E viruses belong to cluster 1, which is also widely circulated throughout the country.

  7. Population growth, deforestation, and fuel substitution in Ming Beijing (Ecology, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C.L. [Academy of Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2003-03-01

    This article investigates why people of Beijing started to burn coal instead of logs after the middle Ming Dynasty. The records of the city's population, illegal logging and the government's fuel policy showed the Beijing's population boom, which resulted in a stronger demand of cooking fuel and construction materials, had led to illegal logging. In the early 16th century, there were hardly any trees on the Yan Mountain north of Beijing. On the other hand, to provide huge amounts of fuel for the palace and offices, the government set up a charcoal works on the northern Tiahang Mountain, which is southwest of Beijing. In 1442, 57,000 tons firewood and charcoal were burned for official purposes. Even though the quantity declined later, it still consumed 30,000 tons firewood and charcoal a year during the middle of the 16th century. After the middle of the 15th century, forests around Beijing disappeared due to extensive logging. The prices of logs also went up. Therefore people started to use easily available coal. Since the late 15th century, written accounts of coal mining in the mountain west of Beijing were increasing. In the early Ming, Beijing's households burned logs. Since then, more and more adopted coal burning especially during the late Ming. The city became so dependent on West Mountain's coal mine that any northern invasion that crossed the Great Wall would cause a coal supply problem. Fuel substitution in Beijing throughout the Ming Dynasty was a good example of environmental change caused by urban development. After the loss of forests and the mass consumption of coal, the city's environment also changed. Ever since the late Ming, coal-burning-caused problems such as earth dumping and air pollution were worsening. Evidently, the city of Beijing was suffering from the decay of its environment since the late 16th century.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Transmission Characteristics of Beijing Family Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Tomotada; Grandjean, Louis; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Caviedes, Luz; Coronel, Jorge; Sheen, Patricia; Wada, Takayuki; Taype, Carmen A.; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Moore, David A. J.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Beijing family strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have attracted worldwide attention because of their wide geographical distribution and global emergence. Peru, which has a historical relationship with East Asia, is considered to be a hotspot for Beijing family strains in South America. We aimed to unveil the genetic diversity and transmission characteristics of the Beijing strains in Peru. A total of 200 Beijing family strains were identified from 2140 M. tuberculosis isolates obtained in Lima, Peru, between December 2008 and January 2010. Of them, 198 strains were classified into sublineages, on the basis of 10 sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). They were also subjected to variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing using an international standard set of 15 loci (15-MIRU-VNTR) plus 9 additional loci optimized for Beijing strains. An additional 70 Beijing family strains, isolated between 1999 and 2006 in Lima, were also analyzed in order to make a longitudinal comparison. The Beijing family was the third largest spoligotyping clade in Peru. Its population structure, by SNP typing, was characterized by a high frequency of Sequence Type 10 (ST10), which belongs to a modern subfamily of Beijing strains (178/198, 89.9%). Twelve strains belonged to the ancient subfamily (ST3 [n = 3], ST25 [n = 1], ST19 [n = 8]). Overall, the polymorphic information content for each of the 24 loci values was low. The 24 loci VNTR showed a high clustering rate (80.3%) and a high recent transmission index (RTIn−1 = 0.707). These strongly suggest the active and on-going transmission of Beijing family strains in the survey area. Notably, 1 VNTR genotype was found to account for 43.9% of the strains. Comparisons with data from East Asia suggested the genotype emerged as a uniquely endemic clone in Peru. A longitudinal comparison revealed the genotype was present in Lima by 1999. PMID:23185395

  9. Characteristics and comparison of colorectal cancer incidence in Beijing with other regions in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongmin; Yang, Lei; Du, Changzheng; Fang, Xuedong; Wang, Ning; Gu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Population-based epidemiologic studies about colorectal cancer are lacking in China. This study aims to provide a basis for colorectal cancer screening and prevention, through analysis and comparisons the characteristics of the trends in colorectal cancer incidence in Beijing and selected representative regions. RESULTS The annual incidence rate in Beijing region increased significantly, from 9.40/100,000 in 1998 to 18.61/100,000 in 2012. The stratified rate showed that the incidence of distal colon adenocarcinoma increased substantially in men, especially in those aged > 75 years and residing in urban areas. Although the incidence rate in Beijing is still lower than in Shanghai, Jiashan, and Hong Kong in China, it is increasing rapidly. Further, the incidence rate in Beijing is lower than in New York, Oxford and Osaka, but higher than in Mumbai and Kyadondo. The incidence trend in Beijing is increasing especially in older groups, while in other regions such as New York, it is decreasing in these age groups. Materials and Methods Colorectal cancer incidence data were obtained from Beijing Cancer Registry and Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Plus database. All incidence rates were age-standardized according to Segi's world population. Incidence trends were characterized by calculating the annual percent changes using the Joinpoint Regression Program. Conclusions Compared with other regions, Beijing has a medium level of colorectal cancer incidence, however, it is increasing significantly. There are obvious differences in the cancer subsite, sex and age distributions between Beijing and other regions. Prevention and screening of colorectal cancer in Beijing should be strengthened. PMID:28445947

  10. Institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....

  11. RadGenomics project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi; Harada, Yoshinobu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Frontier Research Center] [and others

    2002-06-01

    Human health is determined by a complex interplay of factors, predominantly between genetic susceptibility, environmental conditions and aging. The ultimate aim of the RadGenomics (Radiation Genomics) project is to understand the implications of heterogeneity in responses to ionizing radiation arising from genetic variation between individuals in the human population. The rapid progression of the human genome sequencing and the recent development of new technologies in molecular genetics are providing us with new opportunities to understand the genetic basis of individual differences in susceptibility to natural and/or artificial environmental factors, including radiation exposure. The RadGenomics project will inevitably lead to improved protocols for personalized radiotherapy and reductions in the potential side effects of such treatment. The project will contribute to future research into the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in humans and will stimulate the development of new high-throughput technologies for a broader application of biological and medical sciences. The staff members are specialists in a variety of fields, including genome science, radiation biology, medical science, molecular biology, and informatics, and have joined the RadGenomics project from various universities, companies, and research institutes. The project started in April 2001. (author)

  12. RadGenomics project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi; Harada, Yoshinobu

    2002-01-01

    Human health is determined by a complex interplay of factors, predominantly between genetic susceptibility, environmental conditions and aging. The ultimate aim of the RadGenomics (Radiation Genomics) project is to understand the implications of heterogeneity in responses to ionizing radiation arising from genetic variation between individuals in the human population. The rapid progression of the human genome sequencing and the recent development of new technologies in molecular genetics are providing us with new opportunities to understand the genetic basis of individual differences in susceptibility to natural and/or artificial environmental factors, including radiation exposure. The RadGenomics project will inevitably lead to improved protocols for personalized radiotherapy and reductions in the potential side effects of such treatment. The project will contribute to future research into the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in humans and will stimulate the development of new high-throughput technologies for a broader application of biological and medical sciences. The staff members are specialists in a variety of fields, including genome science, radiation biology, medical science, molecular biology, and informatics, and have joined the RadGenomics project from various universities, companies, and research institutes. The project started in April 2001. (author)

  13. Reductions of NO2 detected from space during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Boersma, K. F.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Smedt, I.; Kelder, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    During the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Beijing (from 8 August to 17 September), local authorities enforced strong measures to reduce air pollution during the events. To evaluate the direct effect of these measures, we use the tropospheric NO2 column observations from the satellite instruments GOME-2 and OMI. We interpret these data against simulations from the regional chemistry transport model CHIMERE, based on a 2006 emission inventory, and find a reduction of NO2 concentrations of approximately 60% above Beijing during the Olympic period. The air quality measures were especially effective in the Beijing area, but also noticeable in surrounding cities of Tianjin (30% reduction) and Shijiazhuang (20% reduction).

  14. Bright and Not-So-Bright Prospects for Women in Physics in China-Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-An; Yang, Zhongqin; Ma, Wanyun

    2009-04-01

    Science in China-Beijing is enjoying a healthy increase in funding year by year, so the prospects for physicists are also bright. However, employment discrimination against women, formerly unthinkable, is becoming more and more explicit as the country evolves toward a market economy. Some recruitment notices bluntly state that only men will be considered, or impose restrictions upon potential female candidates. Female associate professors in many institutions are forced to retire at age 55, compared with 60 for men. This double-pinching discrimination against both younger and older women threatens to lead to a "pincer" effect, more serious than the "scissors" effect. Indeed, the ratio of senior-level women physicists in general has dropped significantly in recent years in China. Ironically, the number of female students applying for graduate studies is on the rise, as it is becoming increasingly difficult for them to compete with men in the job market with just an undergraduate degree. The Chinese Physical Society has made certain efforts to promote the image of women physicists, but it will take time and effort to reverse the trend.

  15. The Sixteenth Congress of the Chinese Communist Party and the Beijing Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Story

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of the economic reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping at the end of the 1970s, and with its entry into the World Trade Organisation in 2002, China is on the path to a market economy. The international, or in other words Western, norms regarding good government have already been introduced into the very heart of the Chinese system. The only element lacking in this rapid evolution of the Chinese economy and society is the introduction of political reforms, which are the most dangerous ones due to the challenge they represent for the Chinese Communist Party (CCP itself. In powerfor the last five decades, the CCP has begun a significant transformation, despite attempting to give the impression that it remains verbally anchored to old doctrines. These changes could mean a political suicide, since the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing could be preceded by a great liberation of the Chinese institutions. It remains to be seen whether or not the Party will be able to control all of the consequences.

  16. First description of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Argentina Primera descripción del genotipo Beijing de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Morcillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During a population-based study to genotype isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Buenos Aires Northern suburbs, we found isolates with molecular patterns related to those of the Beijing genotype. Five out of 590 (0.85% patients had isolates with spoligopattern identical to that of the Beijing family. Since two of these isolates showed identical IS6110RFLP pattern, we found only four different patterns containing 11 to 19 bands. The isolates were obtained from young people (including a 7 years-old child who were born in Argentina, and were living in a small area of our region. However, conventional contact tracing did not prove epidemiological linkage among them. These isolates were fully drug-susceptible to the first-line drugs. The comparison of the IS6110RFLP patterns from our isolates against a set of 19 reference Beijing patterns from the RIVM (The Netherlands confirmed that the strains belonged to the Beijing lineage. These findings might be partially explained by the important migration phenomena occurred during the last decade. Further surveillance studies would help in the following of Beijing family strain dissemination in our community.Durante un estudio poblacional para genotipificar aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis de Gran Buenos Aires Norte, se encontraron aislamientos con patrones moleculares relacionados con el genotipo Beijing. Cinco de 590 (0,85% pacientes tuvieron aislamientos con un patrón de spoligotyping idéntico al de la familia Beijing. Dos de esos aislamientos mostraron un patrón de IS6110 RFLP idéntico, por lo que finalmente fueron encontrados cuatro patrones diferentes conteniendo entre 11 y 19 bandas. Las cepas fueron aisladas de personas jóvenes incluyendo un niño de siete años de edad, todos ellos nacidos en Argentina y residentes en un pequeño distrito de nuestra región. Sin embargo, no pudo hallarse ninguna conexión epidemiológica entre ellos. La comparación de los patrones de IS6110

  17. Three-dimensional P velocity structure in Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Wei; Chen, Yun-Tai; Wang, Pei-De

    2003-01-01

    A detail three-dimensional P wave velocity structure of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan area (BTT area) was determined by inverting local earthquake data. In total 16 048 P wave first arrival times from 16048 shallow and mid-depth crustal earthquakes, which occurred in and around the BTT area from 1992 to 1999 were used. The first arrival times are recorded by Northern China United Telemetry Seismic Network and Yanqing-Huailai Digital Seismic Network. Hypocentral parameters of 1 132 earthquakes with magnitude M L=1.7 6.2 and the three-dimensional P wave velocity structure were obtained simultaneously. The inversion result reveals the complicated lateral heterogeneity of P wave velocity structure around BTT area. The tomographic images obtained are also found to explain other seismological observations well.

  18. HEALTH OF URBAN POPULATION IN MOSCOW AND BEIJING AGGLOMERETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Malkhazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained under the joint Russian-Chinese RFBR project № 12-05-91175-ГФЕН_а aimed at assessment of the state of the environment and health of the population in urban areas in Russia and China. The paper presents the authors’ approach to a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of the environment on the populationhealth of urban agglomerations and a method of regional medico-geographical analysis. A series of analytical and synthetic maps was compiled and used for a comparative geographical analysis of medical and environmental situation in Moscow and Beijing – major metropolitan areas with different natural and socio-economic conditions. The paper discusses the influence of the environment on the state of public health and identifies the leading risk factors, both general and specific to each region.

  19. What Lee Raymond actually said in Beijing [15th WPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Lee.

    1997-01-01

    When Lee Raymond, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Exxon Corporation gave this keynote address at the recent World Petroleum Congress in Beijing, he drew attention to the way economic growth alleviates poverty and to the close linkage between economic growth and energy use. He also drew attention to the weakness of the scientific evidence for climate change being caused by fossil fuel burning and his doubts about the wisdom of setting targets for the reduction of CO 2 emissions. At a press conference after the presentation Lee Raymond assented to the suggestion that the European oil companies have been hijacked by the environmentalists. Petroleum Review has reproduced the full text of the speech so that readers can judge for themselves the merits of the arguments and their likely impact on the Kyoto conference. (UK)

  20. OL i Beijing - markedskræfternes sejr over moralen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    to understand. Why did so many governments decide to support China and the Olympics in the end? This is one of the cricial questions to be answered in this article. The strating point of the analysis is the statement that the moral argument were overruled by economic interest and the politics of power. Thus...... the article examines and points out Cinas powerful economic role and the role of some of the most important Olympic sponsors in the world economy with the respect to questions of international politics.......Despite the servere criticism against Beijing as host of the Olympic Games the number of influential state reprsentatives from various countries at the opening ceremony had never been larger. In view of the strong moral criticism of the problems with the human rights in China this is difficult...

  1. [Air Quality Characteristics in Beijing During Spring Festival in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nian-liang; Chen, Tian; Zhang, Da-wei; Li, Yun-ting; Sun, Feng; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Jia-lin; Liu, Bao-xian; Sun, Rui-wen

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the impacts of emissions from fireworks on the air quality, monitoring data of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 chemical compositions of PM2.5 of automatic air quality stations in Beijing during Spring Festival(February 18th-24th) in 2015 were investigated. Moreover, we also estimated the fireworks on the New Year's Eve produced based on the ratio of PM.5 to CO. Analysis results showed that the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 during 2015 Spring Festival was 116. 85, 184.71, 22. 14, and 36. 27 µg.m-3 respectively, which raised 52. 61%, 92. 41%, - 40. 15%, - 0.46% respectively compared to the same period in 2014; the concentration peaks of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 at 1 : 00 am on 19th was 412. 69, 541. 63, 152. 73, 51. 09 µg.m-3, respectively, which was increased 19. 02%, 14. 37%, 76. 57%, 11. 35% compared to that of 2014; the concentration peaks at dense population area were significantly higher than that in other districts; fireworks had great influence on the chemical compositions of PM2.5 especially on the concentrations of chloride ion, potassium ion, magnesian ion, which were 18. 85, 66. 72, and 70. 10 times than that in 2013-2014; fireworks resulted in severe air pollution in a short time and the estimated fireworks on the New Year's Eve was approximately 2. 13 x 10(5) kg of PM2.5. Reduction of pollutants during Spring Festival had a positive significant impact on air quality in Beijing.

  2. An overview of wheat genome sequencing and its implications for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Institute of Plant Genome Research, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India ... Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serves as the staple food for. 30% of the global .... bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid.

  3. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  4. Economic evaluation of health losses from air pollution in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ying; Fan, Chunyang

    2016-06-01

    Aggravated air pollution in Beijing, China has caused serious health concern. This paper comprehensively evaluates the health losses from illness and premature death caused by air pollution in monetary terms. We use the concentration of PM10 as an indicator of the pollution since it constitutes the primary pollutant in Beijing. By our estimation, air pollution in Beijing caused a health loss equivalent to Ұ583.02 million or 0.03 % of its GDP. Most of the losses took the form of depreciation in human capital that resulted from premature death. The losses from premature deaths were most salient for people of either old or young ages, with the former group suffering from the highest mortality rates and the latter group the highest per capital losses of human capitals from premature death. Policies that target on PM10 emission reduction, urban vegetation expansion, and protection of vulnerable groups are all proposed as possible solutions to air pollution risks in Beijing.

  5. Comments on Ge Zhaoguang’s Reading of the "Yŏnhaeng-nok" (Journeys to Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ge Zhaoguang 葛兆光. Xiangxiang yiyu: Du Lichao Chaoxian hanwen Yanxing wenxian zhaji 葛兆光,想象异域:读李朝朝鲜韩文燕行文献札记 [Imagining a foreign place: Notes on Korean Yi-dynasty Beijing journals in classical Chinese]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 2014. 302 pp., including three appendices and a reference bibliography. ISBN: 978-7101099430. Cross-Currents co-editor Wen-hsin Yeh (University of California, Berkeley discusses a contemporary Chinese commentary on the Yŏnhaeng-nok (Ch. Yanxinglu, Journeys to Beijing, a collection of Chosŏn-era travelogues written by Korean envoys to China (specifically, Beijing.

  6. The Temperament of a City: A Postscript to Post-Olympic Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of amazement in art and architecture: one relies on the ingenuity of artifice to arouse a feeling of enchantment, while the other causes an awe-inspiring ecstasy through the shock of the new. Beijing may have won the race in the latter, with spectacles such as the Olympic Games, but does this prove that a new Beijing has been reinvented?This paper examines the two kinds of amazement to examine two pairs of showcase Olympic buildings: 1 Beijing International Airport’s Terminal 3 and the Olympic Tennis Centre and 2 the Olympic Stadium and the CCTV Tower – to ask what they say about Beijing, and its temperament. It also questions whether or not it is possible to reinvent a new city once its temperament has been formed, and in what way this temperament may be related to the creation of public space, or place.

  7. Land use-related chemical composition of street sediments in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Cen; Neumann, Thomas; Norra, Stefan; Stüben, Doris

    2004-01-01

    More than 10 million people are currently living in Beijing. This city faces severe anthropogenic air pollution caused by an intense vehicle increase (11% per year in China), coal combusting power plants, heavy industry, huge numbers of household and restaurant cookers, and domestic heating stoves. Additionally, each year dust storms are carrying particulate matter from the deserts of Gobi and Takla Makan towards Beijing, especially in spring. Other geogenic sources of particulate matter which contribute to the air pollution are bare soils, coal heaps and construction sites occurring in and around Beijing. Streets function as receptor surfaces for atmospheric dusts. Thus, street sediments consist of particles of different chemical compositions from many different sources, such as traffic, road side soils and industry. Distributions and concentrations of various chemical elements in street sediments were investigated along a rural-urban transect in Beijing, China. Chemical elements were determined with X-ray fluorescence analysis. Factor analysis was used to extract most important element sources contributing to particulate pollution along a main arterial route of the Chinese capital. The statistical evaluation of the data by factor analysis identifies three main anthropogenic sources responsible for the contamination of Beijing street sediments. The first source is a steel factory in the western part of Beijing. From this source, Mn, Fe, and Ti were emitted into the atmosphere through chimneys and by wind from coal heaps used as the primary energy source for the factory. The second source is a combination of traffic, domestic heating and some small factories in the center of Beijing discharging Cu, Pb, Zn and Sn. Calcium and Cr characterize a third anthropogenic element source of construction materials such as concrete and mortar. Beside the anthropogenic contamination, some elements like Y, Zr, Nb, Ce, and Rb are mainly derived from natural soils and from the

  8. A modeling analysis of a heavy air pollution episode occurred in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. An

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM and ozone in Beijing often exceed healthful levels in recent years, therefore China is to taking steps to improve Beijing's air quality for the 2008 Olympic Games. In this paper, the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Modeling System was used to investigate a heavy air pollution episode in Beijing during 3–7 April 2005 to obtain the basic information of how heavy air pollution formed and the contributions of local sources and surround emissions. The modeling domain covered from East Asia with four nested grids with 81 to 3 km horizontal resolution focusing on urban Beijing. This was coupled with a regional emissions inventory with a 10 km resolution and a local 1 km Beijing emissions database. The trend of predicted concentrations of various pollutants agreed reasonably well with the observations and captured the main features of this heavy pollution episode. The simulated column concentration distribution of PM was correlated well with the MODIS remote sensing products. Control runs with and without Beijing emissions were conducted to quantify the contributions of non-Beijing sources (NBS to the Beijing local air pollution. The contributions of NBS to each species differed spatially and temporally with the order of PM2.5>PM10>SO2> soil for this episode. The percentage contribution of NBS to fine particle (PM2.5 in Beijing was averaged about 39%, up to 53% at the northwest of urban Beijing and only 15% at southwest. The spatial distribution of NBS contributions for PM10 was similar to that for PM2.5, with a slightly less average percentage of about 30%. The average NBS contributions for SO2 and soil (diameter between 2.5 μm and 10 μm were 18% and 10%. In addition, the pollutant transport flux was calculated and compared at different levels to investigate transport pathway and magnitude. It was found

  9. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  10. A monitor system for end cap shower counter of Beijing spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Man; Xia Xiaomi; Lai Yuanfen; Cheng Baosen; Li Jin

    1993-01-01

    To keep a large-scale detector system running in a correct condition and to obtain some correct parameters, it is necessary to have a monitor system monitoring the detector system operation in real time. In the paper, the structure of End Cap Shower Counter monitor system of Beijing Spectrometer is described. Some properties of this monitor system and the real-time monitoring results during operation of Beijing Spectrometer are given

  11. Letters from Augustin Hallerstein, an eighteenth century Jesuit astronomer in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juznic, Stanislav

    2008-11-01

    Augustin Hallerstein (1703-1774) was the last astronomer sent to Beijing by the Society of Jesus. He left Europe for China in his mid-thirties, and continued to send letters back home until he died thirty-five years later. These letters and reports contained important information on Chinese astronomy, and were read in the courts of Europe; many were also published. Hallerstein was one of the most important European astronomers in Beijing, his European publications surpassing those of his predecessors.

  12. Tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing from 2002–2010: ozonesonde measurements and modeling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Wang; P. Konopka; Y. Liu; H. Chen; R. Müller; F. Plöger; M. Riese; Z. Cai; D. Lü

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of ozonesonde data and numerical simulations of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS), the trend of tropospheric ozone (O3) during 2002–2010 over Beijing was investigated. Tropospheric ozone over Beijing shows a winter minimum and a broad summer maximum with a clear positive trend in the maximum summer ozone concentration over the last decade. The observed significant trend of tropospheric column ozone is mainly caused by photoche...

  13. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  14. The Climatology of Low-Level Jet in Beijing and Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Shuhua; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Gen; Lin, Yanluan; Zhai, Panmao

    2018-03-01

    The important roles of low-level jet (LLJ) in transport of heat, moisture, and pollutants have long been recognized. However, partly due to the lack of long-term observations, the characteristics of LLJs in Beijing and Guangzhou have not been well understood. Using long-term wind profiler observations and numerical simulations, the basic climatological characteristics of LLJ in Beijing and Guangzhou were documented, and their relationships with large- and local-scale forcings were investigated. The occurrence frequencies of LLJ in both megacities approximately exhibit a bimodal distribution during an annual cycle. In terms of the seasonality, the LLJs in Beijing occur more often in spring and winter, and those in Guangzhou appear more frequently from October to December and from February to April. Pronounced diurnal variations of LLJ are found in Beijing, where most LLJs occurred during the nighttime, and the diurnal variations of LLJ in Guangzhou are less prominent. Favorable synoptic conditions for LLJ formations in Beijing are those having a southwest-northeast or southeast-northwest pressure gradient across Beijing. Dominant synoptic patterns associated with LLJs in Guangzhou are those having a low-pressure or high-pressure system to the northwest. Overall, the LLJs are primarily induced by synoptic forcings and modulated by the diurnal evolution of planetary boundary layer. The key findings from this study provide us a better understanding of the LLJs in these highly populated regions.

  15. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jisong; Zhang Yongjie

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO 2 emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO 2 using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy

  16. [Research on the virtual water composition and virtual water trade for agriculture in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jun-hong; Dong, Yan-yan; Han, Zhao-xing

    2007-12-01

    Based on the irrigation norm of typical district and county, and revised by the isoline map of Chinese crops water demand, the change of crops program was analyzed as well as the agricultural water use and its GDP benefits. Then the virtual water was calculated for years. At last, the input-output method was used to calculate the trade of virtual water in Beijing. As the results, the virtual water for cereal crops has been decreasing in Beijing, from 1.832 x 10(9) m3 in 1990 to 4.283 x 10(8) m3 in 2004. Otherwise the virtual water for technical crops has been increasing, which is from 9.06 x 10(8) m3 in 1990 to 1.492 x 10(9) m3 in 2004. On the whole, the virtual water for crops has been decreasing in Beijing. From the angle of primary products Beijing is a virtual water importing area. Virtual water importing of annual average is 2.37 x 10(8) m3, which is about 5.93% of the total water of Beijing. Virtual water has been an important supplement of local real water of Beijing.

  17. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jisong [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: js_wub@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy.

  18. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jisong; Zhang, Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy. (author)

  19. Genome Imprinting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the cell nucleus (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), and. (3) traits governed ... tively good embryonic development but very poor development of membranes and ... Human homologies for the type of situation described above are naturally ..... imprint; (b) New modifications of the paternal genome in germ cells of each ...

  20. Baculovirus Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus genomes are covalently closed circles of double stranded-DNA varying in size between 80 and 180 kilobase-pair. The genomes of more than fourty-one baculoviruses have been sequenced to date. The majority of these (37) are pathogenic to lepidopteran hosts; three infect sawflies

  1. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this database. Top of Page Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP™) In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the EGAPP initiative to establish and test a ... and other applications of genomic technology that are in transition from ...

  2. Ancient genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelzel, A Rus

    2005-01-01

    Ever since its invention, the polymerase chain reaction has been the method of choice for work with ancient DNA. In an application of modern genomic methods to material from the Pleistocene, a recent study has instead undertaken to clone and sequence a portion of the ancient genome of the cave bear.

  3. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....

  4. Capturing prokaryotic dark matter genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasc, Cyrielle; Ribière, Céline; Parisot, Nicolas; Beugnot, Réjane; Defois, Clémence; Petit-Biderre, Corinne; Boucher, Delphine; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Prokaryotes are the most diverse and abundant cellular life forms on Earth. Most of them, identified by indirect molecular approaches, belong to microbial dark matter. The advent of metagenomic and single-cell genomic approaches has highlighted the metabolic capabilities of numerous members of this dark matter through genome reconstruction. Thus, linking functions back to the species has revolutionized our understanding of how ecosystem function is sustained by the microbial world. This review will present discoveries acquired through the illumination of prokaryotic dark matter genomes by these innovative approaches. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing.The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed.The study included 35,745 (99.4% out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years. Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D,≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI:70.5,71.4, 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4, 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9, 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4, and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4, respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0, 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6 and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02, respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6, 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4 and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5, respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D. Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D was correlated (all P<0.001 with older age (OR:1.18, and 1.15, respectively, female gender (OR: 1.44 and 1.40, respectively, higher body mass index (OR: 1.02 and 1.03, respectively, taller body height (OR: 1.03 and 1.02, respectively, urban region of habitation (OR: 1.26 and 1.33, respectively and higher school type (OR:1.57 and 2.22, respectively. Prevalence of severe high myopia (≥-10D was associated only with older age (P<0.001; OR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.31, 1.59 but not with any education-related parameter such as higher school type (P = 0.48, urban region of habitation (P = 0.07 or female gender (P = 0.37.In this most recent survey, prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9% in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia

  6. Hydrochemical and isotopic investigation of atmospheric precipitation in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yuanzheng, E-mail: diszyz@163.com [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Jinsheng, E-mail: wangjs@bnu.edu.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Yang [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Huan, Huan [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Precipitation water samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing in a hydrological cycle (July 2008–July 2009), and analyzed for TDS, total alkalinity, total hardness, free CO{sub 2}, soluble SiO{sub 2}, bromide, sulfide, phosphate, major ions (K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}), trace elements (CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, Mn, Sr{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Al, F{sup −}, NO{sub 2}{sup −}), stable isotopes ({sup 2}H and {sup 18}O), and radioactive isotope ({sup 3}H). In addition, available published hydrochemical and isotopic data of precipitation of Beijing in the past were also collected and conjointly analyzed. Most of the parameters of samples tested varied considerably in the hydrological cycle. In general, HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, and Ca{sup 2+} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} are the dominant anions and cations, respectively. Using Na{sup +} as an indicator of marine origin, and Al for the terrestrial inputs, the proportions of major elements from sea salt and terrestrial sources were estimated by using the combination of statistical analysis methods and analogy method. More than 70.1% of Cl{sup −}, 98.1% of Ca{sup 2+}, and 93.6% of K{sup +} were non-sea-salt origin, while more than 98.4% of Na{sup +} was from marine sources. The LMWL (Local Meteoric Water Line) was obtained with an equation of δ{sup 2}H = 7.0181δ{sup 18}O + 3.5231 (‰, R{sup 2} = 0.86, n = 36), which was similar to GMWL (Global Meteoric Water Line). δ{sup 2}H, δ{sup 18}O and Δ-excess changed radically with month and season, but had no apparent seasonal effect, precipitation amount effect, and temperature effect. The annual mean values of Δ-excess for 1979 (16.5‰) and 1980 (16.3‰) were much bigger than that for 2007 (7.2‰), 2008 (2.1‰) and 2009 (4.5‰). The composition of {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O was probably intrinsically determined by the sources of water

  7. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately....../Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....

  8. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  9. Institutional Assessment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many approaches can and have helped research institutions in the developing .... There are many good texts on project and program evaluation, not to ...... has challenged managers and students of organizational development for decades.

  10. Multi-Index Attribution of Beijing's 2013 "Airpocalypse"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, C.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Horton, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Poor air quality causes 2 to 4 million premature deaths per year globally. Individual high-impact events, like Beijing's January 2013 "airpocalypse," have drawn significant attention, as they have demonstrated that short-lived air quality events can have outsized effects on public health and economic vitality. Poor air quality events are the result of emission of pollutants and the meteorological conditions favorable to their accumulation in the near-surface environment. Accumulation occurs when pollutants are not dispersed or scavenged from the atmosphere. The most important meteorological precursors of these conditions include lack of precipitation, low wind speeds, and vertical temperature inversions. Recent reports of extreme air quality, in conjunction with projected future changes in some meteorological air quality indices, raise the question: have the meteorological conditions that shape air quality changed in frequency, intensity, or duration over the observational era? Here we assess whether anthropogenic climate change has altered meteorological conditions conducive to poor air quality. To gain a more complete picture of the effect of anthropogenic change on air quality, we use three indices that quantify poor air quality: the Pollution Potential Index (Zou et al, 2017), which measures temperature inversions and surface wind speeds, the Haze Weather Index (Cai et al, 2017), which measures temperature inversions and mid-level wind speeds, and the Air Stagnation Index (Horton et al, 2014), which measures precipitation, surface wind speeds, and mid-level wind speeds. Drawing on the attribution methods of Diffenbaugh et al (2017), we assess the contribution of observed meteorological trends to the magnitude of air quality events, the return interval of events in the observational record, historical simulated climate, and pre-industrial simulated climate, and the probability of the observed trend in historical and pre-industrial simulated climates. Particular

  11. Variations of Soil Lead in Different Land Uses Along the Urbanization Gradient in the Beijing Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizheng Mao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg–292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located.

  12. Tropospheric ozone climatology over Beijing: analysis of aircraft data from the MOZAIC program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ding

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 profiles recorded over Beijing from 1995 to 2005 by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC program were analyzed to provide a first climatology of tropospheric O3 over Beijing and the North China Plains (NCPs, one of the most populated and polluted regions in China. A pooled method was adopted in the data analysis to reduce the influence of irregular sampling frequency. The tropospheric O3 over Beijing shows a seasonal and vertical distribution typical of mid-latitude locations in the Northern Hemisphere, but has higher daytime concentrations in the lower troposphere, when compared to New York City, Tokyo, and Paris at similar latitude. The tropospheric O3 over Beijing exhibits a common summer maximum and a winter minimum, with a broad summer maximum in the middle troposphere and a narrower early summer (June peak in the lower troposphere. Examination of meteorological and satellite data suggests that the lower tropospheric O3 maximum in June is a result of strong photochemical production, transport of regional pollution, and possibly also more intense burnings of biomass in Central-Eastern China. Trajectory analysis indicates that in summer the regional pollution from the NCPs, maybe mixed with urban plumes from Beijing, played important roles on the high O3 concentrations in the boundary layer, but had limited impact on the O3 concentrations in the middle troposphere. A comparison of the data recorded before and after 2000 reveals that O3 in the lower troposphere over Beijing had a strong positive trend (approximately 2% per year from 1995 to 2005 in contrast to a flat or a decreasing trend over Tokyo, New York City, and Paris, indicating worsening photochemical pollution in Beijing and the NCPs.

  13. Beijing international welding fair report. Kokusaika ni ugokidashita chugoku yosetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports the affairs at the Beijing International Scientific Conference for Welding and the International Welding Fair held in May 1991, including visitors{prime} comments on their impression. The Scientific Conference was held for three days in eleven sessions, where 135 theses were presented, most of which were related to high-tech areas including robotization, automation, laser welding and cutting, and ceramic bonding. The total attendance numbered 231 members, including 30 from Germany, 20 from Japan, 17 from Soviet, 7 from Korea, and one each from Finland and Switzerland, plus 150 from China. It was the third meeting for the Scientific Conference, which had the number of attendance jumped from the previous one showing the increased interest by the international welding industry toward China. Exhibits from overseas countries were few, a possible effect from the Tiananmen incident, only three from Japan. Welding machines exhibited by China were those made in or licensed by Japan. Strong impression was felt on the spread in use of CO{sub 2} semi-automatic welding machines. 3 figs.

  14. Plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Cheng, Shengkui; Liu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrial...... in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.......School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted...... in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches...

  15. "No place like home": Aging in post-reform Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    This study shows the Western theorization and interpretation of aging, place and health are not well suited to a non-western case. The current generation of older Chinese has experienced the transition from a planned economy to a socialist market economy. Urban changes have taken place in various ways. This study explains the spatio-temporal processes of older people with their changing places by conducting in-depth interviews with 47 older people living at home in Beijing. Their generational consciousness and old place identities are deeply rooted in pre-reform Collectivism and shaped by socialist ideologies of the past. The representation of the old identity among older people is circumscribed by their living situations and selectively manifested. In most cases, there are limited mechanisms formed to recreate positive place meanings and reintegrate older people and place. The processes reflect the growing social inequality and changing cultural values in a society in transition. Growing social inequality and changing cultural values have a great impact on older people's health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Running from Paris to Beijing: biomechanical and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Degache, Francis; Edouard, Pascal; Feasson, Léonard; Verney, Julien; Oullion, Roger

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biomechanical changes occurring in a subject after running 8,500 km in 161 days (i.e. 52.8 km daily). Three weeks before, 3 weeks after (POST) and 5 months after (POST+5) running from Paris to Beijing, energy cost of running (Cr), knee flexor and extensor isokinetic strength and biomechanical parameters (using a treadmill dynamometer) at different velocities were assessed in an experienced ultra-runner. At POST, there was a tendency toward a 'smoother' running pattern, as shown by (a) a higher stride frequency and duty factor, and a reduced aerial time without a change in contact time, (b) a lower maximal vertical force and loading rate at impact and (c) a decrease in both potential and kinetic energy changes at each step. This was associated with a detrimental effect on Cr (+6.2%) and a loss of strength at all angular velocities for both knee flexors and extensors. At POST+5, the subject returned to his original running patterns at low but not at high speeds and maximal strength remained reduced at low angular velocities (i.e. at high levels of force). It is suggested that the running pattern changes observed in the present study were a strategy adopted by the subject to reduce the deleterious effects of long distance running. However, the running pattern changes could partly be linked to the decrease in maximal strength.

  17. Measurements of thoron and radon progeny concentrations in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Liu Cuihong; Guo Qiuju

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that thoron levels in China are above the world average and may therefore make a significant contribution to the natural background radiation dose. We therefore conducted a pilot study of concentrations of both thoron and radon progeny during the spring of 2006 in the Beijing area, China. A new type of portable 24 h integrating monitor with a CR-39 detector was used during the survey. Seventy dwellings and eight outdoor sites were measured during the survey. For country houses built of red bricks and slurry, the average equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC) of thoron and radon were 1.02 ± 0.48 and 16.41 ± 9.02 Bq m -3 , respectively, whereas for city dwellings built of cement blocks and floor slabs, the results were 0.48 ± 0.47 and 11.50 ± 6.99 Bq m -3 for thoron and radon, respectively. For outdoor air, concentrations of thoron and radon progeny were 0.29 ± 0.28 and 7.05 ± 2.68 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radiation exposures from thoron and radon progeny were also evaluated; the ratio of dose contribution from thoron progeny to that of radon progeny was evaluated to be 28% and 17% in country houses and city dwellings, respectively. (note)

  18. Source apportionment of fine organic aerosols in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fine particles (PM2.5, i.e., particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm were collected from the air in August 2005, August–September 2006, and January–February 2007, in Beijing, China. The chemical compositions of particulate organic matter in the ambient samples were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dominant compounds identified in summertime were n-alkanoic acids, followed by dicarboxylic acids and sugars, while sugars became the most abundant species in winter, followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, and n-alkanoic acids. The contributions of seven emission sources (i.e., gasoline/diesel vehicles, coal burning, wood/straw burning, cooking, and vegetative detritus to particulate organic matter in PM2.5 were estimated using a chemical mass balance receptor model. The model results present the seasonal trends of source contributions to organic aerosols. Biomass burning (straw and wood had the highest contribution in winter, followed by coal burning, vehicle exhaust, and cooking. The contribution of cooking was the highest in summer, followed by vehicle exhaust and biomass burning, while coal smoke showed only a minor contribution to ambient organic carbon.

  19. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  20. Carbon dioxide fluxes from an urban area in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi

    2012-03-01

    A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.

  1. Charge Pricing Optimization Model for Private Charging Piles in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingping Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a charge pricing model for private charging piles (PCPs by considering the environmental and economic effects of private electric vehicle (PEV charging energy sources and the impact of PCP charging load on the total load. This model simulates users’ responses to different combinations of peak-valley prices based on the charging power of PCPs and user charging transfer rate. According to the regional power structure, it calculates the real-time coal consumption, carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and power generation costs of PEVs on the power generation side. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed peak-valley time-of-use charging price can not only minimize the peak-valley difference of the total load but also improve the environmental effects of PEVs and the economic income of the power system. The sensitivity analysis shows that the load-shifting effect of PCPs will be more obvious when magnifying the number of PEVs by using the proposed charging price. The case study indicates that the proposed peak, average, and valley price in Beijing should be 1.8, 1, and 0.4 yuan/kWh, which can promote the large-scale adoption of PEVs.

  2. [Emission Characteristics of VOCs from Typical Restaurants in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tong; Cheng, Jing-chen; He, Wan-qing; Ren, Pei-fang; Nie, Lei; Xu, Dong-yao; Pan, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Using the EPA method, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) , sampled from barbecue, Chinese and Western fast-food, Sichuan cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine restaurants in Beijing was investigated. VOCs concentrations and components from different cuisines were studied. The results indicated that based on the calibrated baseline ventilation volume, the VOCs emission level from barbecue was the highest, reaching 12.22 mg · m(-3), while those from fast-food of either Chinese or Western, Sichuan cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine were about 4 mg · m(-3). The components of VOCs from barbecue were different from those in the other cuisines, which were mainly propylene, 1-butene, n-butane, etc. The non-barbecue cuisines consisted of high concentration of alcohols, and Western fast-food contained relatively high proportion of aldehydes and ketones organic compounds. According to emission concentration of baseline ventilation volume, barbecue released more pollutants than the non-barbecue cuisines at the same scale. So, barbecue should be supervised and controlled with the top priority.

  3. Paris to Beijing by bike: they made it!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The challenge, a 12,623 km cycle trip to Beijing for the inauguration of the Olympic Games, was no easy ride, but they made it there on time. "I can do nothing for those who do not ask themselves questions" (Confucius -551-479 BC) CERN’s Raymond Cambarrat and Peter Dreesen arrived in the Chinese capital on 3 August after an incredible human and sporting adventure that began in Paris on 16 March (see Bulletin No. 20 & 21, 8 May 2008). The two cyclists, who set off on their journey with 102 other enthusiasts, rode for a total of 120 days with only ten days’ rest along the way. The greatest distance they covered in a single day was a 192 km leg in Russia, one of 12 countries their expedition took them through. From the arid steppes of Kirghizstan through the fog of Mount Hua to the snowy wind-swept pass of Kampa, the group covered roads of varying quality, some of them untarmacked, notchi...

  4. Genomes to Proteomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panisko, Ellen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Grigoriev, Igor [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Daly, Don S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baker, Scott E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Biologists are awash with genomic sequence data. In large part, this is due to the rapid acceleration in the generation of DNA sequence that occurred as public and private research institutes raced to sequence the human genome. In parallel with the large human genome effort, mostly smaller genomes of other important model organisms were sequenced. Projects following on these initial efforts have made use of technological advances and the DNA sequencing infrastructure that was built for the human and other organism genome projects. As a result, the genome sequences of many organisms are available in high quality draft form. While in many ways this is good news, there are limitations to the biological insights that can be gleaned from DNA sequences alone; genome sequences offer only a bird's eye view of the biological processes endemic to an organism or community. Fortunately, the genome sequences now being produced at such a high rate can serve as the foundation for other global experimental platforms such as proteomics. Proteomic methods offer a snapshot of the proteins present at a point in time for a given biological sample. Current global proteomics methods combine enzymatic digestion, separations, mass spectrometry and database searching for peptide identification. One key aspect of proteomics is the prediction of peptide sequences from mass spectrometry data. Global proteomic analysis uses computational matching of experimental mass spectra with predicted spectra based on databases of gene models that are often generated computationally. Thus, the quality of gene models predicted from a genome sequence is crucial in the generation of high quality peptide identifications. Once peptides are identified they can be assigned to their parent protein. Proteins identified as expressed in a given experiment are most useful when compared to other expressed proteins in a larger biological context or biochemical pathway. In this chapter we will discuss the automatic

  5. Herbarium genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Freek T.; Lei, Di; Yu, Jiaying

    2016-01-01

    Herbarium genomics is proving promising as next-generation sequencing approaches are well suited to deal with the usually fragmented nature of archival DNA. We show that routine assembly of partial plastome sequences from herbarium specimens is feasible, from total DNA extracts and with specimens...... up to 146 years old. We use genome skimming and an automated assembly pipeline, Iterative Organelle Genome Assembly, that assembles paired-end reads into a series of candidate assemblies, the best one of which is selected based on likelihood estimation. We used 93 specimens from 12 different...... correlation between plastome coverage and nuclear genome size (C value) in our samples, but the range of C values included is limited. Finally, we conclude that routine plastome sequencing from herbarium specimens is feasible and cost-effective (compared with Sanger sequencing or plastome...

  6. The Genomic Evolution of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    the proposed project : 1. To continue to acquire a comprehensive understanding of prostate cancer genomics . 2. To develop an understanding of... Genetics I • ECEV 35901 Evolutionary Genomics • Fundamentals of Clinical Research • HGEN 47400 Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Geneticists...Marc Gillard,2 David M. Hatcher,5 Westin R. Tom,5 Walter M. Stadler2 and Kevin P. White1,2,3 1Institute for Genomics and Systems Biology , Departments of

  7. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  8. Helminth genome projects: all or nothing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Julius; Horák, Aleš; Scholz, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2005), s. 265-266 ISSN 1471-4922 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : genome project * helminth * Dracunculus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.526, year: 2005

  9. Aerosol surface area concentration: a governing factor in new particle formation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The predominating role of aerosol Fuchs surface area, AFuchs, in determining the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF events in Beijing was elucidated in this study. The analysis was based on a field campaign from 12 March to 6 April 2016 in Beijing, during which aerosol size distributions down to  ∼  1 nm and sulfuric acid concentrations were simultaneously monitored. The 26 days were classified into 11 typical NPF days, 2 undefined days, and 13 non-event days. A dimensionless factor, LΓ, characterized by the relative ratio of the coagulation scavenging rate over the condensational growth rate (Kuang et al., 2010, was applied in this work to reveal the governing factors for NPF events in Beijing. The three parameters determining LΓ are sulfuric acid concentration, the growth enhancement factor characterized by contribution of other gaseous precursors to particle growth, Γ, and AFuchs. Different from other atmospheric environments, such as in Boulder and Hyytiälä, the daily-maximum sulfuric acid concentration and Γ in Beijing varied in a narrow range with geometric standard deviations of 1.40 and 1.31, respectively. A positive correlation between the estimated new particle formation rate, J1.5, and sulfuric acid concentration was found with a mean fitted exponent of 2.4. However, the maximum sulfuric acid concentrations on NPF days were not significantly higher (even lower, sometimes than those on non-event days, indicating that the abundance of sulfuric acid in Beijing was high enough to initiate nucleation, but may not necessarily lead to NPF events. Instead, AFuchs in Beijing varied greatly among days with a geometric standard deviation of 2.56, whereas the variabilities of AFuchs in Tecamac, Atlanta, and Boulder were reported to be much smaller. In addition, there was a good correlation between AFuchs and LΓ in Beijing (R2 = 0.88. Therefore, it was AFuchs that fundamentally determined the occurrence of NPF events

  10. Bats as the main prey of wintering long-eared owl (Asio otus) in Beijing: Integrating biodiversity protection and urban management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Long; Zhou, Xuwei; Shi, Yang; Guo, Yumin; Bao, Weidong

    2015-03-01

    The loss of biodiversity from urbanized areas is a major environmental problem challenging policy-makers throughout the world. Solutions to this problem are urgently required in China. We carried out a case study of wintering long-eared owls (Asio otus) and their main prey to illustrate the negative effects of urbanization combined with ineffective conservation of biodiversity in Beijing. Field monitoring of owl numbers at two roosting sites from 2004 to 2012 showed that the owl population had fallen rapidly in metropolitan Beijing. Analysis of pellet contents identified only seven individuals of two species of shrew. The majority of mammalian prey comprised four bat and seven rodent species, making up 29.3% and 29.5% of the prey items, respectively. Prey composition varied significantly among years at the two sample sites. At the urban site the consumption of bats and rodents declined gradually over time, while predation on birds increased. In contrast, at the suburban site the prey composition showed an overall decrease in the number of bats, a sharp increase and a subsequent decrease in bird prey, and the number of rodent prey fell to a low point. Rapid development of real estate and inadequate greenfield management in city parks resulted in negative effects on the bird and small mammal habitat of urban areas in Beijing. We suggest that measures to conserve biodiversity should be integrated into future urban planning to maintain China's rich biodiversity while also achieving sustainable economic development. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Socio-Economic Predictors and Distribution of Tuberculosis Incidence in Beijing, China: A Study Using a Combination of Spatial Statistics and GIS Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahara, Gehendra; Yang, Kun; Chen, Sipeng; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiuhua

    2018-03-21

    Evidence shows that multiple factors, such as socio-economic status and access to health care facilities, affect tuberculosis (TB) incidence. However, there is limited literature available with respect to the correlation between socio-economic/health facility factors and tuberculosis incidence. This study aimed to explore the relationship between TB incidence and socio-economic/health service predictors in the study settings. A retrospective spatial regression analysis was carried out based on new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases in Beijing districts. Global Moran's I analysis was adopted to detect the spatial dependency followed by spatial regression models (spatial lag model, and spatial error model) along with the ordinary least square model were applied to examine the correlation between TB incidence and predictors. A high incidence of TB was seen in densely populated districts in Beijing, e.g., Haidian, Mentougou, and Xicheng. After comparing the R², log-likelihood, and Akaike information criterion (AIC) values among three models, the spatial error model (R² = 0.413; Log Likelihood = -591; AIC = 1199.76) identified the best model fit for the spatial regression model. The study showed that the number of beds in health institutes ( p < 0.001) and per capita gross domestic product (GDP) ( p = 0.025) had a positive effect on TB incidence, whereas population density ( p < 0.001) and migrated population ( p < 0.001) had an adverse impact on TB incidence in the study settings. High TB incidence districts were detected in urban and densely populated districts in Beijing. Our findings suggested that socio-economic predictors influence TB incidence. These findings may help to guide TB control programs and promote targeted intervention.

  12. Implementing genomics and pharmacogenomics in the clinic: The National Human Genome Research Institute’s genomic medicine portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolio, Teri A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing knowledge about the influence of genetic variation on human health and growing availability of reliable, cost-effective genetic testing have spurred the implementation of genomic medicine in the clinic. As defined by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), genomic medicine uses an individual’s genetic information in his or her clinical care, and has begun to be applied effectively in areas such as cancer genomics, pharmacogenomics, and rare and undiagnosed diseases. In 2011 NHGRI published its strategic vision for the future of genomic research, including an ambitious research agenda to facilitate and promote the implementation of genomic medicine. To realize this agenda, NHGRI is consulting and facilitating collaborations with the external research community through a series of “Genomic Medicine Meetings,” under the guidance and leadership of the National Advisory Council on Human Genome Research. These meetings have identified and begun to address significant obstacles to implementation, such as lack of evidence of efficacy, limited availability of genomics expertise and testing, lack of standards, and diffficulties in integrating genomic results into electronic medical records. The six research and dissemination initiatives comprising NHGRI’s genomic research portfolio are designed to speed the evaluation and incorporation, where appropriate, of genomic technologies and findings into routine clinical care. Actual adoption of successful approaches in clinical care will depend upon the willingness, interest, and energy of professional societies, practitioners, patients, and payers to promote their responsible use and share their experiences in doing so. PMID:27612677

  13. The response of the Beijing carbon emissions allowance price (BJC) to macroeconomic and energy price indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Shihong; Nan, Xin; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiuying

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, China opened pilot carbon emission trading markets in seven provinces, where carbon emission allowances have now been traded for more than two years. In this paper, we employ a structural VAR model and the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance to study the dynamic relationships among the price of the carbon emission allowance, economic development and the price of energy. This paper's data cover the period from April 2, 2014 to November 6, 2015. This paper provides information that will be helpful to both investors and governmental policy makers. The results show that (1) an increase of one standard deviation in the coal price leads to an initial increase of approximately 0.1% in the Beijing carbon price. After 2 days, there is a decrease of less than 0.1%, and the price gradually increases by approximately 0.1% after 30 days; (2) the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance is mainly affected by its own historical price; (3) the Beijing carbon emission allowance price, crude oil price, natural gas price and economic development have positive – albeit non-significant – correlations. - Highlights: • This paper examines the response of the Beijing carbon emission allowance price. • A rise in coal prices will have different effects in different lag stages. • There are positive correlations between the BJC and economic development.

  14. Occurrence, distribution and risks of antibiotics in urban surface water in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Gao, Lihong; Shi, Yali; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence and distribution of 22 antibiotics, including eight fluoroquinolones, nine sulfonamides and five macrolides, were investigated in the urban surface waters in Beijing, China. A total of 360 surface water samples were collected from the main rivers and lakes in the urban area of Beijing monthly from July 2013 to June 2014 (except the frozen period). Laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely used and extensively distributed in the surface water of Beijing, and sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones were the predominant antibiotics with the average concentrations of 136 and 132 ng L(-1), respectively. A significant difference of antibiotic concentrations from different sampling sites was observed, and the southern and eastern regions of Beijing showed higher concentrations of antibiotics. Seasonal variation of the antibiotics in the urban surface water was also studied, and the highest level of antibiotics was found in November, which may be due to the low temperature and flow of the rivers during the period of cold weather. Risk assessment showed that several antibiotics might pose high ecological risks to aquatic organisms (algae and plants) in surface water, and more attention should be paid to the risk of antibiotics to the aquatic environment in Beijing.

  15. Travelling to china for the beijing 2008 olympic and paralympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marc T M; Leggat, Peter A; Borwein, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    The 29th modern Olympic Summer Games, conducted once every 4 years since 1896, will be held in Beijing, China, from 8 to 24 August 2008. There will be approximately 28 major and 302 minor events in 37 venues in the prominent cities of Beijing, Hong Kong and Shanghai, and also in Qingdao (a coastal town in Shandong Province), Qinhuangdao (northeast of Beijing), Shanghai, Shenyang (an industrial city in Liaoning Province) and in Tianjin (on the coast near Beijing). Following the Olympic Games, the Paralympic Games will be conducted from 6 to 17 September 2008 in Beijing and 20 Paralympic Sports will be represented. This paper focuses on health and safety issues for travellers to China in general, although it makes specific references to advice for visiting Olympic and Paralympic athletes and team staff, who will be travelling to the games. It must be remembered that travel health advice can change, and that travellers should be advised to seek up-to-date travel health advice for China closer to their departure.

  16. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  17. Institution Morphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  18. The Nostoc punctiforme Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Meeks

    2001-12-31

    Nostoc punctiforme is a filamentous cyanobacterium with extensive phenotypic characteristics and a relatively large genome, approaching 10 Mb. The phenotypic characteristics include a photoautotrophic, diazotrophic mode of growth, but N. punctiforme is also facultatively heterotrophic; its vegetative cells have multiple development alternatives, including terminal differentiation into nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and transient differentiation into spore-like akinetes or motile filaments called hormogonia; and N. punctiforme has broad symbiotic competence with fungi and terrestrial plants, including bryophytes, gymnosperms and an angiosperm. The shotgun-sequencing phase of the N. punctiforme strain ATCC 29133 genome has been completed by the Joint Genome Institute. Annotation of an 8.9 Mb database yielded 7432 open reading frames, 45% of which encode proteins with known or probable known function and 29% of which are unique to N. punctiforme. Comparative analysis of the sequence indicates a genome that is highly plastic and in a state of flux, with numerous insertion sequences and multilocus repeats, as well as genes encoding transposases and DNA modification enzymes. The sequence also reveals the presence of genes encoding putative proteins that collectively define almost all characteristics of cyanobacteria as a group. N. punctiforme has an extensive potential to sense and respond to environmental signals as reflected by the presence of more than 400 genes encoding sensor protein kinases, response regulators and other transcriptional factors. The signal transduction systems and any of the large number of unique genes may play essential roles in the cell differentiation and symbiotic interaction properties of N. punctiforme.

  19. The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bowler, Ch.; Allen, A. E.; Badger, J. H.; Grimwood, J.; Jabbari, K.; Kuo, A.; Maheswari, U.; Martens, C.; Maumus, F.; Otillar, R. P.; Rayko, E.; Salamov, A.; Vandepoele, K.; Beszteri, B.; Gruber, A.; Heijde, M.; Katinka, M.; Mock, T.; Valentin, K.; Verret, F.; Berges, J. A.; Brownlee, C.; Cadoret, J.-P.; Chiovitti, A.; Choi, Ch. J.; Coesel, S.; De Martino, A.; Detter, J. Ch.; Durkin, C.; Falciatore, A.; Fournet, J.; Haruta, M.; Huysman, M. J. J.; Jenkins, B. D.; Jiroutová, Kateřina; Jorgensen, R. E.; Joubert, Y.; Kaplan, A.; Kröger, N.; Kroth, P. G.; La Roche, J.; Lindquist, E.; Lommer, M.; Martin–Jézéquel, V.; Lopez, P. J.; Lucas, S.; Mangogna, M.; McGinnis, K.; Medlin, L. K.; Montsant, A.; Oudot–Le Secq, M.-P.; Napoli, C.; Oborník, Miroslav; Schnitzler Parker, M.; Petit, J.-L.; Porcel, B. M.; Poulsen, N.; Robison, M.; Rychlewski, L.; Rynearson, T. A.; Schmutz, J.; Shapiro, H.; Siaut, M.; Stanley, M.; Sussman, M. R.; Taylor, A. R.; Vardi, A.; von Dassow, P.; Vyverman, W.; Willis, A.; Wyrwicz, L. S.; Rokhsar, D. S.; Weissenbach, J.; Armbrust, E. V.; Green, B. R.; Van de Peer, Y.; Grigoriev, I. V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 456, 13-11-2008 (2008), s. 239-244 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Phaeodactylum * genome * evolution * diatom Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 31.434, year: 2008

  20. [Study on tetrodotoxin detection and toxic puffer fish identification of roasted fish fillet at the retail in Beijing and Qingdao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Jiang, Tao; Li, Nan; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Chunhui; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Dongfeng; Li, Fengqin

    2014-11-01

    The roasted fish fillet sample at the retail collected in Beijing and Qingdao were detected for TTX, and the TTX positive samples was analyzed for fish species identification. TTX was tested by EUSA method and the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genome of TTX-positive samples was extracted and identified by DNA barcode. Totally, 90 samples were tested by EUSA and 58 (64.4%) samples were positive for TTX with the levels ranging from 0.10 mg/kg to 63.81 mg/kg. Among the TTX positive samples, 24 (41.3%) were identified containing toxic puffer fish and 21 (87.5%) were Lagocephalus lunaris, the highly toxic puffer fish. Some roasted fish fillet samples obtained from the retail in two cities were positive for TTX and contained toxic puffer fish. Based on these results, we suggest that roasted fish fillet producers should prevent toxic puffer fish from mixing in the raw material and the I regulators should strengthen the TTX surveillance and product labeling supervision of roasted fish fillet.

  1. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pengzhen; Alexander, Becky; Geng, Lei; Chi, Xiyuan; Fan, Shidong; Zhan, Haicong; Kang, Hui; Zheng, Guangjie; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing

    2018-04-01

    Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter) in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m-3 with a mean of (141 ± 88 (1σ)) µg m-3, with SO42- representing 8-25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42-) varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9 ± 0.3) ‰. Δ17O(SO42-) increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5 ≥ 75 µg m-3) of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III-V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet) was estimated to contribute 41-54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48 ± 5) %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV) ( = SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3- + SO32-) oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5-13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42-). Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV) oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21-22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42-), such as S(IV) oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a radical chain mechanism, contributed the remaining 66-73 % of Phet. The assumption about the thermodynamic state of aerosols

  2. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42− collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m−3 with a mean of (141  ±  88 (1σ µg m−3, with SO42− representing 8–25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42− varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9  ±  0.3 ‰. Δ17O(SO42− increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5  ≥  75 µg m−3 of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III–V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet was estimated to contribute 41–54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48  ±  5 %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV ( =  SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3−  +  SO32− oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5–13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42−. Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21–22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42−, such as S(IV oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a

  3. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghong; Luo, Jie; Li, Lijun; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jinqian; Shen, Yingjie; Li, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Yao, Kaihu

    2018-03-15

    Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital. Rubella-specific IgG antibody was determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) kits. International assigned cut-off values of ≥10 IU/ml were used to assess the percentage of pregnant women with protective IgG concentrations. The total rate of protected individuals was 83.3% (95% CI: 78.9%-87.0%). The protective rates of pregnant women in 17-26 years group, 27-36 years group and 37-46 years group were 84.0% (95% CI: 75.3%-90.1%), 81.9% (95% CI: 74.9%-87.4%) and 84.9% (95% CI: 75.8%-90.9%) respectively. No significant difference in protective rates among the three age groups was found (P = 0.83). There were also no statistically significant correlations between protective rates and gravidity (P = 0.84), parity (P = 0.84), birth place (P = 0.16), residence area (P = 0.58), education (P = 0.40) or occupation (P = 0.65). Despite the generally low vaccination coverage for rubella, most of Chinese pregnant women had potent rubella immunity. However, at least 16.7% of pregnant women were susceptible to rubella, which suggested rubella immunization in Chinese women at or before child-bearing age.

  4. Crustal heterogeneity and seismotectonics of the region around Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinli; Zhao, Dapeng

    2004-07-01

    A detailed three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle under the Chinese capital (Beijing) region is determined with a spatial resolution of 25 km in the horizontal direction and 4-17 km in depth. We used 48,750 precise P-wave arrival times from 2973 events of local crustal earthquakes, controlled seismic explosions and quarry blasts. These events were recorded by a new digital seismic network consisting of 101 seismic stations equipped with high-sensitivity seismometers. The data are analyzed by using a 3-D seismic tomography method. Our tomographic model provides new insights into the geological structure and tectonics of the region, such as the lithological variations and large fault zones across the major geological terranes like the North China Basin, the Taihangshan and the Yanshan mountainous areas. The velocity images of the upper crust reflect well the surface geological and topographic features. In the North China Basin, the depression and uplift areas are imaged as slow and fast velocities, respectively. The Taihangshan and Yanshan mountainous regions are generally imaged as broad high-velocity zones, while the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity anomalies. Velocity changes are visible across some of the large fault zones. Large crustal earthquakes, such as the 1976 Tangshan earthquake ( M=7.8) and the 1679 Sanhe earthquake ( M=8.0), generally occurred in high-velocity areas in the upper to middle crust. In the lower crust to the uppermost mantle under the source zones of the large earthquakes, however, low-velocity and high-conductivity anomalies exist, which are considered to be associated with fluids. The fluids in the lower crust may cause the weakening of the seismogenic layer in the upper and middle crust and thus contribute to the initiation of the large crustal earthquakes.

  5. Environmental performance evaluation of Beijing's energy use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Xu Linyu; Song Huimin

    2011-01-01

    In line with rapid economic development, urban energy consumption is increasing rapidly, resulting in environmental problems. After considering several methods to evaluate the environmental performance of energy use, including: energy ecological footprint, input-output analysis, emergy-exergy analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making, an environmental performance evaluation model is proposed, which combines the analytical hierarchy process, fuzzy extent analysis, and membership degree analysis. In the model, 18 sub-indicators of environmental performance from energy use planning are classified into four categories: structure of energy use and industry, technology and efficiency of energy use, environmental impacts caused by energy use, and the socio-economic benefits of energy use. Membership degree analysis is applied to each indicator. Three energy use scenarios which are, respectively, environment-friendly, technology-led, and economic policy-led are evaluated. The results show that the technology-led energy use planning is best. The sustainable energy use policies are proposed from three aspects, including optimizing the energy use and industrial structure, encouraging development of energy-saving and air pollution control technologies, and enhancing legislation on energy use management. The policies are helpful to optimize the trade-offs between economic growth and environmental protection in Beijing. - Highlights: → Our paper establishes a system of indicators according to the structure of urban energy use planning. → We have created a comprehensive environmental performance evaluation model in the research. → The model and results can serve as an important basis for decision-making to guide local government.

  6. Temporal coherence of phenological and climatic rhythmicity in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Weiqi; Ren, Shilong; Lang, Weiguang; Liang, Boyi; Liu, Guohua

    2017-10-01

    Using woody plant phenological data in the Beijing Botanical Garden from 1979 to 2013, we revealed three levels of phenology rhythms and examined their coherence with temperature rhythms. First, the sequential and correlative rhythm shows that occurrence dates of various phenological events obey a certain time sequence within a year and synchronously advance or postpone among years. The positive correlation between spring phenophase dates is much stronger than that between autumn phenophase dates and attenuates as the time interval between two spring phenophases increases. This phenological rhythm can be explained by positive correlation between above 0 °C mean temperatures corresponding to different phenophase dates. Second, the circannual rhythm indicates that recurrence interval of a phenophase in the same species in two adjacent years is about 365 days, which can be explained by the 365-day recurrence interval in the first and last dates of threshold temperatures. Moreover, an earlier phenophase date in the current year may lead to a later phenophase date in the next year through extending recurrence interval. Thus, the plant phenology sequential and correlative rhythm and circannual rhythm are interacted, which mirrors the interaction between seasonal variation and annual periodicity of temperature. Finally, the multi-year rhythm implies that phenophase dates display quasi-periodicity more than 1 year. The same 12-year periodicity in phenophase and threshold temperature dates confirmed temperature controls of the phenology multi-year rhythm. Our findings provide new perspectives for examining phenological response to climate change and developing comprehensive phenology models considering temporal coherence of phenological and climatic rhythmicity.

  7. Genome position and gene amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsová, Pavla; Snijders, A.M.; Kwek, S.; Roydasgupta, R.; Fridlyand, J.; Tokuyasu, T.; Pinkel, D.; Albertson, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2007), r120 ISSN 1474-760X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : gene amplification * array comparative genomic hybridization * oncogene Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.589, year: 2007

  8. Analysis of physical composition and heavy metals pollution of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. B.; Zhang, H. Y.; Wang, G. Q.; Bai, X. J.

    2018-03-01

    By using on-site sampling and physical-chemical analysis, the physical composition and the contents of heavy metals in Beijing MSW were researched. The result showed that the main components of MSW in Beijing are mainly kitchen waste, the average content of kitchen waste are more than 60% and 50% in summer and in winter, respectively. The pollution of Cu, Hg and Cr are all more serious for MSW in Haidian and Dongcheng district. The heavy metal pollution of MSW in summer is higher than that in winter in Beijing. Seasonal impacts should be taken into consideration when dealing with MSW. The content of heavy metals in MSW exceeded the background value of soil in Haidian and Dongcheng districts. In order to reduce heavy metal pollution, the MSW should be separated collection and treated.

  9. Systematic Analysis and Innovation for Development Policies of Beijing Seed Industry at Transformation Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing LIU; Fengjun LU; Guozhi ZHANG; Lijiao XIE

    2015-01-01

    At transformation stage,seed Industry is not only a fundamental and strategic industry during the construction of World City,but also part of urban and modern agriculture in Beijing. Based on the analysis of the theory of industrial economics and system theory,the article constructs the seed industry policy analysis model,systematically analyzes the support points of national level and the city of Beijing seed industry policy,and studies policy input,mechanism,output and effects by way of systematic analysis,as well as proposes polices and suggestions on promotion of development for Beijing seed industry and on construction of new seed industry from talent incentive,platform construction,seed trading and enterprise cultivation.

  10. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lu, Wenjing

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery...... analysis emphasized the importance of efficient source separation of food waste, as well as the electricity recovery in incinerators, in order to obtain an environmentally friendly waste management system in Beijing City....... because of rising amount of waste in Beijing City) are substituted by incinerators with energy recovery, would not result in significant environmental improvement. This is primarily because of the low calorific value of mixed waste, and it is likely that the incinerators would require significant amounts...

  11. Atmospheric concentration of 210Pb at Beijing and Chengdu, the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shin; Sato, Jun; Doi, Taeko

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of 210 Pb were observed in the eastern area of the People's Republic of China with aerosol samples. Observations were carried out intermittently during the period from April, 1989 to December, 1992 at Beijing and Chengdu. The atmospheric concentrations of 210 Pb ranged from 0.9 to 4.6 mBq/m 3 at Beijing and from 1.4 to 7.8 mBq/m 3 at Chengdu, respectively, which were in the similar level to those observed previously in the inland area of the Chinese Continent. Seasonal variations of the 210 Pb concentration show the 'one-peak' variation pattern: the maximum levels were recorded in winter season. Small additional rises in the atmospheric 210 Pb concentrations observed in the period from spring to autumn seasons may be due to complicated meteorology with high pressure systems at Beijing and due to the topographical situation at Chengdu. (author)

  12. Satellite observations of changes in air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Gleason, J. F.; Krotkov, N. A.; Gille, J. C.; Pickering, K. E.; Livesey, N.

    2009-09-01

    For the August-September 2008 Olympic and the Paralympic Games held in Beijing, China, strict controls on pollutant emissions and motor vehicle traffic were imposed on Beijing and neighboring provinces to the South to improve the air quality in and around the city. Satellite measurements over Beijing between July and September showed 43% reductions of tropospheric column nitrogen dioxide, compared to the past three years. When neighboring provinces to the south are included in our analyses, satellite measurements show boundary layer sulfur dioxide reductions of 13% and carbon monoxide reductions of 12% at 700 hPa. Thus, based on satellites observations alone, noticeable reductions in these pollutant tracers were measured during both games.

  13. Physico-chemical study of the anthropic aerosol and of its evolutions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinot, B.

    2006-05-01

    Beijing aerosols are characterised for the 2003-2004 period using an inclusive experimental set up for aerosol mass, chemistry and number, deployed at three sites. Aerosol size segregation in two fractions (fine and coarse) appears appropriated for source identification and investigations about gas-to-particle interactions. Several various sources contribute to air pollution: traffic, coal burning and industrial activities. The present study also shows how summer aerosol is influenced by the photochemical formation of secondary particles, and the significant amount of coarse and fine mineral dust all year long. Coal burning in winter has a lower influence than assessed in the past. The origin and altitude of the air masses entering Beijing are of key interest to understand the ageing of pollutants and their regional redistribution. By its expected effects onto these regional parameters, climate change may strongly affect Beijing air pollution in the coming decades. (author)

  14. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  15. The free vaccination policy of influenza in Beijing, China: The vaccine coverage and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Min; Fang, Renfei; Wu, Jiang; Pang, Xinghuo; Deng, Ying; Lei, Trudy; Xie, Zheng

    2016-04-19

    In order to improve influenza vaccination coverage, the coverage rate and reasons for non-vaccination need to be determined. In 2007, the Beijing Government published a policy providing free influenza vaccinations to elderly people living in Beijing who are older than 60. This study examines the vaccination coverage after the policy was carried out and factors influencing vaccination among the elderly in Beijing. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through the use of questionnaires in 2013. A total of 1673 eligible participants were selected by multistage stratified random sampling in Beijing using anonymous questionnaires in-person. They were surveyed to determine vaccination status and social demographic information. The influenza vaccination coverage was 38.7% among elderly people in Beijing in 2012. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was people thinking they did not need to have a flu shot. After controlling for age, gender, income, self-reported health status, and the acceptance of health promotion, the rate in rural areas was 2.566 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.801-3.655, Pvaccination uptake. Those whom received information through television, community boards, or doctors were more likely to get vaccinated compared to those who did not (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.403, Pvaccine coverage in Beijing is much lower than that of developed countries with similar policies. The rural-urban disparity in coverage rate (64.1% versus 33.5%), may be explained by differing health provision systems and personal attitudes toward free services due to socioeconomic factors. Methods for increasing vaccination levels include increasing the focus on primary care and health education programs, particularly recommendations from doctors, to the distinct target populations, especially with a focus on expanding these efforts in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  17. Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Regional Transportation on the Air Quality in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-04-01

    From October to December 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had experienced several severe haze events. In order to assess the effects of the regional transportation on the air quality in Beijing, the air monitoring data (PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) from that period published by Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) was collected and analyzed with various statistical models. The cities within BTH area were clustered into three groups according to the geographical conditions, while the air pollutant concentrations of cities within a group sharing similar variation trends. The Granger causality test results indicate that significant causal relationships exist between the air pollutant data of Beijing and its surrounding cities (Baoding, Chengde, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou) for the reference period. Then, linear regression models were constructed to capture the interdependency among the multiple time series. It shows that the observed air pollutant concentrations in Beijing were well consistent with the model-fitted results. More importantly, further analysis suggests that the air pollutants in Beijing were strongly affected by regional transportation, as the local sources only contributed 17.88%, 27.12%, 14.63% and 31.36% of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, respectively. And the major foreign source for Beijing was from Southwest (Baoding) direction, account for more than 42% of all these air pollutants. Thus, by combining various statistical models, it may not only be able to quickly predict the air qualities of any cities on a regional scale, but also to evaluate the local and regional source contributions for a particular city. Key words: regional transportation, air pollution, Granger causality test, statistical models

  18. Cephalopod genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertin, Caroline B.; Bonnaud, Laure; Brown, C. Titus

    2012-01-01

    The Cephalopod Sequencing Consortium (CephSeq Consortium) was established at a NESCent Catalysis Group Meeting, ``Paths to Cephalopod Genomics-Strategies, Choices, Organization,'' held in Durham, North Carolina, USA on May 24-27, 2012. Twenty-eight participants representing nine countries (Austria......, Australia, China, Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, Spain and the USA) met to address the pressing need for genome sequencing of cephalopod mollusks. This group, drawn from cephalopod biologists, neuroscientists, developmental and evolutionary biologists, materials scientists, bioinformaticians and researchers...... active in sequencing, assembling and annotating genomes, agreed on a set of cephalopod species of particular importance for initial sequencing and developed strategies and an organization (CephSeq Consortium) to promote this sequencing. The conclusions and recommendations of this meeting are described...

  19. Drug Resistance and Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains Isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozińska, Monika; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    In total, 1095 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from 282 patients with drug-resistant and 813 with drug-sensitive tuberculosis (TB) in Poland during 2007-2011 were analysed. Seventy-one (6.5%) patients were found to have strains of Beijing genotype as defined by spoligotyping. The majority of patients were Polish-born; among foreign-born a large proportion came from Chechnya and Vietnam. Analysis showed strong associations between Beijing genotype infection and MDR, pre-XDR and XDR resistance, with a considerable relative risk among new patients, suggesting that this is due to increased spread of drug-resistant strains rather than acquisition of resistance during treatment.

  20. The Impact of Staging Olympic Games on Real Estate Price in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Xuebing; Yao Yongling

    2012-01-01

    The price of the real estate in many cities of China has been rising up rapidly since a couple of years ago. Particularly, the increasing period is coinciding with the period of economic rising in Beijing. Therefore, many people thank that the higher price is mostly made by holding Olympic Game in 2008. In order to separate Olympic factor and non-Olympic factors, which were supposed to impact the price of real estate in Beijing, Differences-in-Differences (DD) method will be adopted in this p...

  1. System design of the traction power supply for the high-speed line Beijing - Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, Martin; Fischer, Andreas; Tornow, Torsten [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The high-speed line Beijing - Tianjin connecting the Capital Beijing with the harbour city Tianjin is the first high-speed line in China dedicated only to passenger traffic and is operated at 300 km/h. The commercial service started in due time for the Olympic games in 2008. For the system design and a reliable traction power supply the simulation software Sitras {sup registered} Sidytrac was used. The program incorporates all modules necessary for the overall system design and relating detailed investigations. Measurements during system integration test validated the simulation results. (orig.)

  2. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  3. Evaluating public participation in Chinese EIA. An integrated Public Participation Index and its application to the case of the New Beijing Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombal, Daniele [Department of Asian and North African Studies, University Ca' Foscari Venice (Italy); Moriggi, Angela [Department of Asian and North African Studies, University Ca' Foscari Venice (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca' Foscari Venice (Italy); Marcomini, Antonio, E-mail: marcom@unive.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Ca' Foscari Venice (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    In recent years, China's government authorities have devoted increasing attention to the role of public participation processes in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The capacity of these processes to influence decision-making remains widely debated. This paper aims at appraising the institutional rationale informing the implementation of public participation in China's EIA, benchmarking it against three conceptualisations: (1) Normative, based on objectives of empowerment and democratisation; (2) Substantive, where participation is pursued mainly to improve quality of decisions; (3) Instrumental, seeking participation as an instrument to legitimise decision-making processes. The appraisal is carried out by means of a new integrated index (Public Participation Index, PPI), which is applied to a case study representative of latest advancements in EIA public participation practices in China, namely the “New Beijing Airport Project”. Located 46 km south of downtown Beijing, the project was approved in 2014 and it is currently under construction. Results of the PPI application to this case study indicate that, despite progress made in recent years, the implementation of public participation in Chinese EIA still largely responds to an instrumental rationale, with limited capacity for the public to affect decisions. - Highlights: • In recent years China has strengthened EIA public participation (PP) legislation. • Despite progress, implementation of PP remains informed by an instrumental rationale. • A large gap exists between principles enunciated in regulations and implementation. • The Public Participation Index can be used to monitor China's EIA PP development.

  4. Evaluating public participation in Chinese EIA. An integrated Public Participation Index and its application to the case of the New Beijing Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombal, Daniele; Moriggi, Angela; Marcomini, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, China's government authorities have devoted increasing attention to the role of public participation processes in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The capacity of these processes to influence decision-making remains widely debated. This paper aims at appraising the institutional rationale informing the implementation of public participation in China's EIA, benchmarking it against three conceptualisations: (1) Normative, based on objectives of empowerment and democratisation; (2) Substantive, where participation is pursued mainly to improve quality of decisions; (3) Instrumental, seeking participation as an instrument to legitimise decision-making processes. The appraisal is carried out by means of a new integrated index (Public Participation Index, PPI), which is applied to a case study representative of latest advancements in EIA public participation practices in China, namely the “New Beijing Airport Project”. Located 46 km south of downtown Beijing, the project was approved in 2014 and it is currently under construction. Results of the PPI application to this case study indicate that, despite progress made in recent years, the implementation of public participation in Chinese EIA still largely responds to an instrumental rationale, with limited capacity for the public to affect decisions. - Highlights: • In recent years China has strengthened EIA public participation (PP) legislation. • Despite progress, implementation of PP remains informed by an instrumental rationale. • A large gap exists between principles enunciated in regulations and implementation. • The Public Participation Index can be used to monitor China's EIA PP development.

  5. PGSB/MIPS Plant Genome Information Resources and Concepts for the Analysis of Complex Grass Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagl, Manuel; Bader, Kai; Pfeifer, Matthias; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2016-01-01

    PGSB (Plant Genome and Systems Biology; formerly MIPS-Munich Institute for Protein Sequences) has been involved in developing, implementing and maintaining plant genome databases for more than a decade. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable datasets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, e.g., from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and analyzed. In addition, genomes from both model and crop plants form a scaffold for comparative genomics, assisted by specialized tools such as the CrowsNest viewer to explore conserved gene order (synteny) between related species on macro- and micro-levels.The genomes of many economically important Triticeae plants such as wheat, barley, and rye present a great challenge for sequence assembly and bioinformatic analysis due to their enormous complexity and large genome size. Novel concepts and strategies have been developed to deal with these difficulties and have been applied to the genomes of wheat, barley, rye, and other cereals. This includes the GenomeZipper concept, reference-guided exome assembly, and "chromosome genomics" based on flow cytometry sorted chromosomes.

  6. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The study of M&As is dominated by positivist and functionalist world views and the use of quantitative methods. Although extant research also uses qualitative and mixed methods, it can be criticized for viewing its subject matter through an abstract and external lens. The researcher is placed in ......, and point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  7. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  8. Genome Improvement at JGI-HAGSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy J.; Myers, Richard M.

    2012-03-03

    Since the completion of the sequencing of the human genome, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has rapidly expanded its scientific goals in several DOE mission-relevant areas. At the JGI-HAGSC, we have kept pace with this rapid expansion of projects with our focus on assessing, assembling, improving and finishing eukaryotic whole genome shotgun (WGS) projects for which the shotgun sequence is generated at the Production Genomic Facility (JGI-PGF). We follow this by combining the draft WGS with genomic resources generated at JGI-HAGSC or in collaborator laboratories (including BAC end sequences, genetic maps and FLcDNA sequences) to produce an improved draft sequence. For eukaryotic genomes important to the DOE mission, we then add further information from directed experiments to produce reference genomic sequences that are publicly available for any scientific researcher. Also, we have continued our program for producing BAC-based finished sequence, both for adding information to JGI genome projects and for small BAC-based sequencing projects proposed through any of the JGI sequencing programs. We have now built our computational expertise in WGS assembly and analysis and have moved eukaryotic genome assembly from the JGI-PGF to JGI-HAGSC. We have concentrated our assembly development work on large plant genomes and complex fungal and algal genomes.

  9. Comparative Genomics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 8. Comparative Genomics - A Powerful New Tool in Biology. Anand K Bachhawat. General Article Volume 11 Issue 8 August 2006 pp 22-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zengxin; Zhang Wenying; Zheng Rukuan; Wei Shujun; Ding Huiqiu

    1992-01-01

    The authors report the methods and results of investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Beijing. There were 83 measurement points selected, which were located at the vertexes of 1 x 1 km square meshes and uniformly distributed over the urban district. 173 net grid measuring points selected with grid spacing of 10 x 10 km and uniformly distributed over the suburban district. Another 131 more densely distributed points were added over some special areas. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over field is 56.2, 56.4 and 50.1 nGy · h -1 respectively. The γ radiation dose rate is higher in west and north area than in southeast area. (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over roads was 49.3 nGy · h -1 . (3) The point weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose inside buildings was 83.5 and 77.1 nGy · h -1 respectively. (4) The weighted average of air absorbed dose rate from the ionizing components of cosmic rays (except for neutron) over point number and population was respectively 29.0 and 27.5 nGy · h -1 indoors, and 32.3 and 30.8 nGy · h -1 outdoors. (5) The point and population-weighted means of natural penetrating radiation dose rate (the contribution from neutron is not included) are 112.8 and 104.5 nGy · h -1 indoors, respectively; 88.7 and 81.3 nGy · h -1 outdoors, respectively. (6) The annual effective dose equivalent per capital people natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation was 0.43, 0.25 and 0.68 mSv respectively, and the annual collective effective dose equivalent was 4.0, 2.3 and 6.3 x 10 3 man · Sv, respectively

  11. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Joining the team A new member of staff has recently joined the Institute of Physics Education Department (Schools and Colleges) team. (Dr) Steven Chapman will have managerial responsibility for physics education issues in the 11 - 16 age range, particularly on the policy side. He will work closely with Mary Wood, who spends much of her time out and about doing the practical things to support physics education pre-16. Catherine Wilson will be spending more of her time working to support the Post-16 Physics Initiative but retains overall responsibility for the department. Steven graduated in Physics and Astronomy and then went on to do his doctorate at Sussex University. He stayed in the research field for a while, including a period at NPL. Then, having decided to train as a teacher, he taught for the last five years, most recently at a brand new school in Sutton where he was Head of Physics. Physics update Dates for `Physics Update' courses in 2000, intended for practising science teachers, are as follows: 1 - 3 April: Malvern College 9 - 10 June: Stirling University 8 - 10 July: York University 8 - 10 December: Oxford University The deadline for applications for the course to be held on 11 - 13 December 1999 at the School of Physics, Exeter University, is 12 November, so any late enquiries should be sent to Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH (tel: 020 7470 4821) right away. Name that teacher! Late nominations are still welcome for the Teachers of Physics/Teachers of Primary Science awards for the year 2000. Closing date for nominations is `the last week in November'. Further details can be obtained from Catherine Wilson or Barbara Hill in the Institute's Education Department. Forward and back! The Education Group's one-day meeting on 13 November is accepting bookings until almost the last minute, so don't delay your application! The day is entitled `Post-16 physics: Looking forward, learning from the past' and it aims to

  12. New Approaches and Technologies to Sequence de novo Plant reference Genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    Jeremy Schmutz of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology on New approaches and technologies to sequence de novo plant reference genomes at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, CA.

  13. Microbial biomass carbon and enzyme activities of urban soils in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meie; Markert, Bernd; Shen, Wenming; Chen, Weiping; Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2011-07-01

    To promote rational and sustainable use of soil resources and to maintain the urban soil quality, it is essential to assess urban ecosystem health. In this study, the microbiological properties of urban soils in Beijing and their spatial distribution patterns across the city were evaluated based on measurements of microbial biomass carbon and urease and invertase activities of the soils for the purpose of assessing the urban ecosystem health of Beijing. Grid sampling design, normal Kriging technique, and the multiple comparisons among different land use types were used in soil sampling and data treatment. The inherent chemical characteristics of urban soils in Beijing, e.g., soil pH, electronic conductivity, heavy metal contents, total N, P and K contents, and soil organic matter contents were detected. The size and diversity of microbial community and the extent of microbial activity in Beijing urban soils were measured as the microbial biomass carbon content and the ratio of microbial biomass carbon content to total soil organic carbon. The microbial community health measured in terms of microbial biomass carbon, urease, and invertase activities varied with the organic substrate and nutrient contents of the soils and were not adversely affected by the presence of heavy metals at p urban soils influenced the nature and activities of the microbial communities.

  14. Living conditions—The key issue of housing development in Beijing Fengtai District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Good life cannot be achieved without having good living conditions. Living conditions are the most important factor in people’s lives. In the Beijing Fengtai District, the second largest district in Beijing (area: 306 km2; population: 1,360,000, there were three types of housing that had been chosen for the survey: apartment, traditional house and terrace house. The objectives contained in this research are to study residents’ perspectives and preferences of future living conditions in Beijing’s Fengtai District. Also, the study is to know the government’s opinion on living conditions and for future housing development. The close-ended questionnaire with the five-point Likert scale is used as the study methodology. It includes eight attributes of living conditions, residents’ opinion on living conditions now and preferences in the future. A random sample was selected in order to choose the potential respondents for the survey purposes. Additionally, residents’ positive satisfaction can also produce the high return rate to housing development. Based on this research, residents’ in Beijing Fengtai District showed their high aspirations regarding future housing and desired good living conditions. Therefore, to improve the living conditions of their houses, the government, developers and residents should cooperate together to contribute to housing development in the Beijing Fengtai District. Finally, it is hoped that this research could give some suggestions to the other areas in housing development.

  15. The beam energy measurement system for the Beijing electron-positron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Abakumova, E.V.; Achasov, M.N.; Blinov, V.E.; Cai, X.; Dong, H.Y.; Fu, C.D.; Harris, F.A.; Kaminsky, V.V.; Krasnov, A.A.; Liu, Q.; Mo, X.H.; Muchnoi, N.Yu.; Nikolaev, I.B.; Qin, Q.; Qu, H.M.; Olsen, S.L.; Pyata, E.E.; Shamov, A.G.; Shen, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    The beam energy measurement system (BEMS) for the upgraded Beijing electron-positron collider BEPC-II is described. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. The relative systematic uncertainty of the electron and positron beam energy determination is estimated as 2⋅10 -5 .

  16. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Wijk, van M.S.; Cheung, X.; Hu, Y.; Diepen, van C.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Lu, C.H.; Roeter, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews water use and water resource issues in Beijing Municipality, the main trends in the agricultural production systems in and around the city with respect to land use, input use, production and economic role, and the impacts of agricultural activities on water quality. Rapid

  17. The Beijing Olympics: Political Impact and Implications for Soft Power Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    the environment in Beijing and other cities in which events are being conducted. First, all vending machines provided by Coca Cola for the Games...the income created by construction, tourism, and advertising during the Games. The IOC is not responsible for any of the costs incurred by the host

  18. Occurrence of estrogenic effects in sewage and industrial wastewaters in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Mei; Rao Kaifeng; Wang Zijian

    2007-01-01

    Estrogenic potencies of the effluents or water samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), industries and hospitals and some receiving rivers in Beijing city were estimated by using a human estrogen receptor recombinant yeast assay. Estrogenic activity of industrial wastewaters was found to range from 0.1 to 13.3 ng EEQ/L and decreased to the range of 0.03-1.6 ng EEQ/L after treatment. Estrogenic activity in WWTP influent ranged from 0.3 to 1.7 ng EEQ/L and decreased to the range of 0.05-0.5 ng EEQ/L after treatment. In the receiving river waters, the estrogenic effect range was 0.1-4.7 ng EEQ/L. These data suggest that treated industrial effluents and WWTP effluents of concern are not the only source of estrogenic pollution in surface waters in Beijing city. EEQ levels in Beijing river water are likely attributable to untreated municipal and industrial wastewaters discharged directly into the river. - Estrogenic activity in Beijing river water is attributed to direct discharges of untreated municipal and industrial wastewaters

  19. The Initiation of Early Childhood Inclusion in China: A Case Study from Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Hongmei

    2011-01-01

    The national policies of the Chinese government regarding preschool inclusion are emerging to promote the well-being of all children, particularly children with disabilities in natural environments such as regular preschools or in homes. Following the global trend towards inclusive education, preschools in Beijing are gradually implementing both…

  20. Impacts of pollution controls on air quality in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianlin; Tang, Aohan; Liu, Xuejun; Kopsch, Jenny; Fangmeier, Andreas; Goulding, Keith; Zhang, Fusuo

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution has become one of the main environmental concerns in China since the 1980s due to China's rapid economic growth and resultant pollution. However, it is difficult to directly evaluate the anthropogenic contribution to air pollution in China. The 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing provided a unique opportunity for testing the contribution of anthropogenic pollution because of the clean-up controls on air quality in Beijing enforced over the period of the Games. In this case study, we monitored the concentrations of major air pollutants before, during, and after the Olympics at a suburban site in Beijing. Atmospheric concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, NH3, NO2, SO2, and the particulate ions NH4+, NO3-, SO4(2-) Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ all decreased during the Olympic period because of strict emission controls, compared with the same period from 2005 to 2007. For example, the average PM10 concentration (61 microg m(-3)) during the Olympics was only 37% of that (166 microg m(-3)) in the same month (August) from 2005 to 2007. However, just 1 mo and 1 yr after the Games had ended, mean concentrations of these pollutants had increased significantly again. This rapid "recovery' of air pollutant concentrations after the Olympics suggests that China needs to implement long-lasting decreases in its air pollution in Beijing and other major cities.

  1. Perception of the Most Creative Chinese by Undergraduates in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ziao Dong; Rudowicz, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 489 undergraduates in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei, found politicians were nominated by all four samples as being the most creative individuals in the past and at present. Scientists and inventors ranked second in position. Artists, musicians, and businessmen were rarely nominated. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  2. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xilong; Ren, Aiguo; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  3. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Cause Analysis of PM2.5 Concentrations in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjin Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the monthly comprehensive air index ranking in China in 2016, Beijing ranked in the bottom tenth three times, indicating that the air pollution situation is very serious compared to other cities in China. In this study, we chose 23 urban environmental assessment points, which covered all districts and counties in Beijing. We used ArcGIS software to analyze atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5 for each month of 2016 in each district/county of Beijing. Our results showed that PM2.5 concentrations in winter and spring were generally higher than those in summer and autumn. The higher monthly average PM2.5 concentrations were primarily in the southwest and southeast areas. The higher annual average values were distributed in Fangshan, Daxing, and Tongzhou, which were closely related to the high terrain in the northwest and the low-lying terrain in the southeast, the “Beijing Bay” terrain, and local climatic conditions. The temporal and spatial distributions of PM2.5 constitute a warning signal for human life and production during different seasons and regions.

  4. The measurement of the indoor absorbed dose rate in air in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Mingqiang; Pan Ziqiang; Yi Nanchang; Wei Zemin; Zhang Chao; Wang Huamin; Zhu Wencai

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the indoor absorbed dose rate in air in Beijing. The average indoor absorbed dose rate in air is 8.29 μrad/h. The ratio of indoor to outdoor absorbed dose rate for 849 buildings is 1.51

  5. Analysis of Land-Use Emergy Indicators Based on Urban Metabolism: A Case Study for Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of urban metabolism and changes in land use is an important issue in urban ecology, but recent research lacks consideration of the mechanisms and interactions between them. In this research, we did an emergy analysis of the flows of materials, energy, and capital within the socioeconomic system of Beijing. We calculated emergy-based evaluation indices of urban metabolism and land use change, to analyze the relationship between urban metabolism and land use by correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results indicate that the socio-economic activities on built-up land depend on local, non-renewable resource exploitation and external resource inputs. The emergy utilization efficiency of farmland has consistently decreased, but there remains significant utilization potential there. Urban development in Beijing relies on production activities on built-up land, which is subjected to great environmental pressure during extraction of material resources. To keep the economy developing effectively, we suggest that Beijing should commit to development of a circular economy, and change the land-use concept to “Smart Growth”. In this paper, we efficaciously solve the problem of conflicting measurement units, and avoid the disadvantages of subjective assignment. Consequently, this work provides not only a more scientific way to study land problems, but also provides a reliable reference for ecological construction and economic development in Beijing.

  6. Research on the Sustainable Development of Green-Space in Beijing Using the Dynamic Systems Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzheng Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greater contradiction and conflict among urban green space, the development of social economy and the environment have occurred in Beijing. However, few studies have been conducted that consider the three subsystems as a whole. In this study, we defined sustainable development of green space (SDGS as the coordinated development of the urban green system, social economy, and environment. Based on the datasets from 2000 to 2015, we forecast the SDGS in Beijing under multiple scenarios based on real-world policies using a system dynamics model. We found that the historical SDGS value increased to its highest level in 2012, but declined slightly by 2015. Second, the forecasted SDGS values declined over time in all scenarios, but the decline was greater in scenarios placing a high priority on economic development. In these scenarios, the performance of the indices only improved in certain subsystems. The simulation shows the implementation of the four policies proposed by the government failed to improve the overall level of SDGS in Beijing. This study could provide support for decision-making designed to improve the overall condition of urban green space in Beijing through integrated forecast and scenario simulation.

  7. Analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Lan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Food cold chain is very important for ensuring food safety and decreasing the loss in the supply process. It is also benefit for the citizen, because cold chain could promise the food safety and the demand of the special cold food. Beijing, as the capital, the level of food chain is high, compared to other cities, and analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing is necessary, it could direct the scientific and health development of cold chain all over our country. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, in accordance with the investigation, we analysis the demand status of food cold chain from two aspects, then according to the status, we forecast the demand of refrigerated cars and warehouse for food cold chain in Beijing with the multivariate statistics. Findings: From the analysis of the paper, we can see that the need of cold chain logistics grows rapidly, but most consumers are lack of the awareness of the importance of the cold chain and many companies cannot bear the huge investment, it make the gap of the resources of cold chain logistics large and cannot meet the normal need of cold chain logistics in Beijing. Originality/value: The result of this paper could support the relative enterprise to run business in terms of the refrigerated car and warehouse. 

  8. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates...

  9. Stigma in the workplace: employer attitudes about people with HIV in Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa; Angell, Beth; Lam, Chow; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Studies of HIV stigma in China are becoming more prevalent, but these studies have seldom involved direct cross-cultural comparisons. Moreover, although researchers consider employers to be a key power group whose practices can significantly impact the adjustment and recovery of people with HIV, the attitudes of employers in China towards people with HIV have rarely been studied. The present study sought to investigate employers' attitudes and hiring practices towards people with HIV across three culturally and linguistically distinct cities: Chicago, Beijing, and Hong Kong. One hundred employers from a broad spectrum of firm types were interviewed across the three cities, and their qualitative data were analyzed for information about the processes behind employer practices in hiring people with HIV. Employers from all three cities showed reluctance to hire people with HIV, but this trend was most pronounced with employers from Beijing and Hong Kong. Concerns about biological contagion were apparent in all three cities. Social contagion, or the belief that people with HIV could morally corrupt those around them, was a particular concern of employers from Beijing and Hong Kong. The concerns about hiring people with HIV in Hong Kong and Beijing may be related to specific cultural dynamics related to loss of 'face', level of contact and knowledge about people with HIV, and the psychological interconnectedness between people in society. In sum, employers in all three cities showed concerns about hiring people with HIV, but at the same time, their attitudes about discriminating against people with HIV differed widely across the cities.

  10. Design features of Beijing Shijingshan 3 x 200 MW cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.X.; Ou, Y.Z.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design feature of Beijing Shijingshan 3 x 200 MW Cogeneration Plant. The design optimized the scheme and system of 200 MW units for heating. The cogeneration plant has achieved comprehensive economic benefit in energy saving and environmental pollution reduction

  11. Imaging Land Subsidence Induced by Groundwater Extraction in Beijing (China Using Satellite Radar Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beijing is one of the most water-stressed cities in the world. Due to over-exploitation of groundwater, the Beijing region has been suffering from land subsidence since 1935. In this study, the Small Baseline InSAR technique has been employed to process Envisat ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2010 and TerraSAR-X stripmap images collected from 2010 to 2011 to investigate land subsidence in the Beijing region. The maximum subsidence is seen in the eastern part of Beijing with a rate greater than 100 mm/year. Comparisons between InSAR and GPS derived subsidence rates show an RMS difference of 2.94 mm/year with a mean of 2.41 ± 1.84 mm/year. In addition, a high correlation was observed between InSAR subsidence rate maps derived from two different datasets (i.e., Envisat and TerraSAR-X. These demonstrate once again that InSAR is a powerful tool for monitoring land subsidence. InSAR derived subsidence rate maps have allowed for a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis to identify the main triggering factors of land subsidence. Some interesting relationships in terms of land subsidence were found with groundwater level, active faults, accumulated soft soil thickness and different aquifer types. Furthermore, a relationship with the distances to pumping wells was also recognized in this work.

  12. Interannual variation of annual precipitation and urban effect on precipitation in the Beijing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The large scale character of the interannual variation of precipitation and the urban effect on local annual precipitation anomaly are investigated in this paper based on the 1960-2000 annual precipitation observations at 20 stations in the Beijing region. The results show that: the annual precipitation in the Beijing region possesses the large scale variation character with the linear trend of - 1.197/10 yr, which corresponds to a total reduction of 27.82 mm in annual precipitation in the 41 years; the local annual precipitation anomalies (percent of the normal 1960-2000) show a positive center near the urban area, i.e. urban precipitation island (UPI), whose intensity increases with the linear trend of 0. 6621%/10 yr, opposite to the interannual trend of large scale precipitation over the Beijing region; changes in the UPI are also associated with the intensity of synoptic processes of precipitation, and when the synoptic processes are strong (wet years), the intensity of UPI strengthens, while the synoptic processes are weak (dry years), and the UPI disappears in the Beijing region.

  13. Die Olympischen Spiele 2008 in Beijing und die Kunst der Aufrechterhaltung des Nationalstaates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, J.; Chong, G.P.L.; Liu, W.

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing Olympics and the art of nation-state maintenance This article maps out how different actors are involved in the promotion and mediation of the Olympics. It looks at the roles of, first, the nation-state, through an analysis of the promotional materials; second, the art world and global

  14. Beijing In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Hannu; Xu, Jiacheng

    2012-01-01

    Four-hundred-and-fifty-one in-service teachers from the Beijing municipality filled in a questionnaire containing a Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) scale. The aim was to examine the factor structure of the TEIP scale among mainland Chinese in-service teachers, and to investigate the relationship between self-efficacy for inclusive…

  15. Beijing Lineage of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bulgaria, 2007-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panaiotov, Stefan; Bachiyska, Elizabeta; Yordanova, Stanislava; Atanasova, Yuliana; Brankova, Nadia; Levterova, Viktoria; Sengstake, Sarah; Anthony, Richard; Bergval, Indra; Sola, Christophe; Kantardjiev, Todor

    2014-01-01

    To assess the spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype among patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively resistant tuberculosis in Bulgaria, we genotyped 188 (72%) of 261 microbiologically confirmed resistant isolates obtained during 2007-2011. The estimated prevalence of the

  16. Did the CP audits promote the enterprises' CP? A case study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Chen, Qing

    2002-03-09

    Seven enterprises that have had recent Cleaner Production (CP) audits in Beijing were interviewed to identify whether these enterprises implemented the audit recommendations. If enterprises did implement the recommendations, their reasons and the results were analyzed. Finally, some suggestions on how to promote enterprise-wide CP were given.

  17. Meeting Report of the Fifth International Cancer Epigenetics Conference in Beijing, China, October 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dan; Herman, James G; Cui, Hengmi; Jen, Jin; Fuks, Francois; Brock, Malcolm V; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Croce, Carlo; Akiyama, Yoshimitsu; Guo, Mingzhou

    2017-07-01

    Fifth International Cancer Epigenetics Conference, Beijing, China, 21-23 October 2016 This meeting reported many new findings in the field of cancer epigenetics, including basic science, translational and clinical studies. In this report, we summarize some of the main advancements and prospects in cancer epigenetics presented at this meeting.

  18. [Ability of typical greenery shrubs of Beijing to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yun-qi; Zhang, Hui-lan; Yang, Song-nan; Li, Ang

    2014-09-01

    Four typical types of green shrubs of Beijing (Euonymus japonicus, Buxus microphylla, Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea, Taxus cuspidate cv. nana) were selected to study their capacities in adsorbing and arresting PM2.5 using both field observations and air chamber simulations. Concurrently, in order to analyze the pollution characteristics of Beijing in winter and spring, the PM2.5 concentrations of December 2012 to May 2013 were collected. Experimental results showed that: From the gas chamber experiments, the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was in the order of Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Buxus microphylla > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus, mainly due to the differences in leaf characteristics; Outside measurement results showed that the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was ranked as Buxus microphylla > Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus. Chamber simulation and outdoor observation showed that Buxus microphylla and Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea had strong ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5; Meanwhile, the slight differences between the chamber simulation and outdoor observation results might be related to plant structure. Compared to tree species, the planting condition of shrub species was loose, and it greened quickly; By analyzing the Beijing PM2.5 concentration values in winter and spring, it was found that the PM2.5 concentration was particularly high in the winter of Beijing, and evergreen shrubs maintained the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5.

  19. A Comparison of Traffic Operations among Beijing and Several International Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhou Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-Efficient traffic system is very important for economy and society of cities. Previous studies on the traffic comparison mostly took a city as a whole, but ignored the differences among areas inside the city. But in fact, the traffic congestion in different areas with a city is mostly different. Taking typical mega cities like Beijing, London, New York, and Tokyo as objects, this paper makes cross-comparison in the traffic operation and performance based on intelligent algorithm. Transportation infrastructure and travel demand data are discussed and unbalanced transport system is found in Beijing because of the conflict between too much traffic demand and defect road networks. From the aspects of traffic load, operational efficiency and safety, indexes including traffic v/c ratio, average vehicle speed and accident rate are selected to assess the performance of road traffic. It is concluded that road networks of Beijing have the worst performance compared with other three mega-cities and the primary reasons are the inappropriate distribution of utilization rate among the freeways, arterials, and local streets, and the high traffic concentration in urban area. So, several measures are recommended to improve the operation efficiency of traffic in Beijing especially for the green intelligent traffic system. Keywords: Traffic operation; Operational efficiency; Intelligent traffic system (ITS; Traffic load; traffic safety; Intelligent algorithm.

  20. An economic benefit analysis on the cobalt-60 irradiation facility of Beijing Radiation Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Binlin

    1995-01-01

    The peculiarity, the investment and annual operating cost of the 3.7 x 10 16 Bq (MCi) cobalt-60 irradiation facility at Beijing Radiation Application Research Centre are described. Its economic benefits each year are analyzed according to several year operating practice. Some related questions on carrying out radiation processing are raised and discussed. (author)

  1. Evaluating the Interests of Different Stakeholders in Beijing Wastewater Reuse Systems for Sustainable Urban Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whether water systems can be operated successfully and sustainably is influenced by the attitudes and willingness of stakeholders involved in the management of such systems. This study quantitatively evaluates the interests of different stakeholders in wastewater reuse systems in Beijing. Such interests comprise economic, environmental, and social effects induced by the wastewater reuse systems. The study considers four main stakeholders in Beijing, namely the Municipal Administration Committee (MAC, Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (MEPB, plant managers, and users. Cost benefit analysis is conducted to determine the aforementioned interests separately from the perspectives of the various stakeholders. The results reveal that not all stakeholders’ interests in the wastewater reuse systems in Beijing are satisfied. From the perspectives of both the MAC and MEPB, the evaluation results indicate that both decentralized and centralized wastewater reuse systems are economically feasible. However, from the viewpoints of plant managers and users, the results reveal that only the centralized wastewater reuse systems are economically feasible, whereas the decentralized systems are not. The failure to satisfy the interests of plant managers and users may be a major reason for the interrupted operation of the decentralized systems in Beijing. The study demonstrates that successful and sustainable development of a new water project necessitates satisfying the interests of all stakeholders.

  2. Economic transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region : Is it undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Lichun; Yu, Chang; de Jong, W.M.; Wang, Fengting; Cheng, Baodong

    2017-01-01

    The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the people's

  3. Economic transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: Is it undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, L. (Lichun); Yu, C. (Chang); M. de Jong (Martin); Wang, F. (Fengting); Cheng, B. (Baodong)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the

  4. Tuberculosis relapse in Vietnam is significantly associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Buu, Tran N.; Tiemersma, Edine; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Dung, Nguyen H.; Kremer, Kristin; Soolingen, Dick V.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.

    2013-01-01

    In Vietnam, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is associated with multi-drug resistance and is emerging. A possible explanation for this genotype's success is an increased rate of relapse. In a prospective cohort study, isolates from patients with smear-positive tuberculosis were

  5. Study on characteristics of water resources in Beijing in recent 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, L. M.; Zheng, H. G.; Zhao, J. J.; Wang, A. L.; Zhang, X. J.

    2018-02-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of water supply and water usage in Beijing in recent 15 years, a variety of statistical datasets were collected and field investigations were carried out, to analyze the total water resource, the characteristics and trends of water resource supply, utilization and distribution during 2000-2014. The results showed that the total amount of water resources in Beijing is maintained at 1.61~3.95 billion m3, and the surface water accounts for about 1/3, and the groundwater accounts for 2/3. Agricultural water and living water were the dominated consumption in the past 15 years in Beijing, accounted for 35.3% and 38.9% of the total amount, followed by industrial water, which accounting for 17.9% of total water consumption, and water used in environment is relatively small, only accounting for 7.8% of the total amount. This study can provide theoretical support for the establishment and management of water conservation policies and the rational utilization of water resources in Beijing.

  6. The beam energy measurement system for the Beijing electron-positron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumova, E.V.; Achasov, M.N.; Blinov, V.E.; Cai, X.; Dong, H.Y.; Fu, C.D.; Harris, F.A.; Kaminsky, V.V.; Krasnov, A.A.; Liu, Q.; Mo, X.H.; Muchnoi, N.Yu.; Nikolaev, I.B.; Qin, Q.; Qu, H.M.; Olsen, S.L.; Pyata, E.E.; Shamov, A.G.; Shen, C.P.; Todyshev, K.Yu.

    2011-01-01

    The beam energy measurement system (BEMS) for the upgraded Beijing electron-positron collider BEPC-II is described. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. The relative systematic uncertainty of the electron and positron beam energy determination is estimated as 2×10 -5 . The relative uncertainty of the beam's energy spread is about 6%.

  7. Personal genomics services: whose genomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwitz, David; Bregman-Eschet, Yael

    2009-07-01

    New companies offering personal whole-genome information services over the internet are dynamic and highly visible players in the personal genomics field. For fees currently ranging from US$399 to US$2500 and a vial of saliva, individuals can now purchase online access to their individual genetic information regarding susceptibility to a range of chronic diseases and phenotypic traits based on a genome-wide SNP scan. Most of the companies offering such services are based in the United States, but their clients may come from nearly anywhere in the world. Although the scientific validity, clinical utility and potential future implications of such services are being hotly debated, several ethical and regulatory questions related to direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing strategies of genetic tests have not yet received sufficient attention. For example, how can we minimize the risk of unauthorized third parties from submitting other people's DNA for testing? Another pressing question concerns the ownership of (genotypic and phenotypic) information, as well as the unclear legal status of customers regarding their own personal information. Current legislation in the US and Europe falls short of providing clear answers to these questions. Until the regulation of personal genomics services catches up with the technology, we call upon commercial providers to self-regulate and coordinate their activities to minimize potential risks to individual privacy. We also point out some specific steps, along the trustee model, that providers of DTC personal genomics services as well as regulators and policy makers could consider for addressing some of the concerns raised below.

  8. Phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains constructed from polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Olga; Luo, Tao; Dos Vultos, Tiago; Kremer, Kristin; Murray, Alan; Namouchi, Amine; Jackson, Céline; Rauzier, Jean; Bifani, Pablo; Warren, Rob; Rasolofo, Voahangy; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2011-01-20

    The Beijing family is a successful group of M. tuberculosis strains, often associated with drug resistance and widely distributed throughout the world. Polymorphic genetic markers have been used to type particular M. tuberculosis strains. We recently identified a group of polymorphic DNA repair replication and recombination (3R) genes. It was shown that evolution of M. tuberculosis complex strains can be studied using 3R SNPs and a high-resolution tool for strain discrimination was developed. Here we investigated the genetic diversity and propose a phylogeny for Beijing strains by analyzing polymorphisms in 3R genes. A group of 3R genes was sequenced in a collection of Beijing strains from different geographic origins. Sequence analysis and comparison with the ones of non-Beijing strains identified several SNPs. These SNPs were used to type a larger collection of Beijing strains and allowed identification of 26 different sequence types for which a phylogeny was constructed. Phylogenetic relationships established by sequence types were in agreement with evolutionary pathways suggested by other genetic markers, such as Large Sequence Polymorphisms (LSPs). A recent Beijing genotype (Bmyc10), which included 60% of strains from distinct parts of the world, appeared to be predominant. We found SNPs in 3R genes associated with the Beijing family, which enabled discrimination of different groups and the proposal of a phylogeny. The Beijing family can be divided into different groups characterized by particular genetic polymorphisms that may reflect pathogenic features. These SNPs are new, potential genetic markers that may contribute to better understand the success of the Beijing family.

  9. Phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains constructed from polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mestre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing family is a successful group of M. tuberculosis strains, often associated with drug resistance and widely distributed throughout the world. Polymorphic genetic markers have been used to type particular M. tuberculosis strains. We recently identified a group of polymorphic DNA repair replication and recombination (3R genes. It was shown that evolution of M. tuberculosis complex strains can be studied using 3R SNPs and a high-resolution tool for strain discrimination was developed. Here we investigated the genetic diversity and propose a phylogeny for Beijing strains by analyzing polymorphisms in 3R genes.A group of 3R genes was sequenced in a collection of Beijing strains from different geographic origins. Sequence analysis and comparison with the ones of non-Beijing strains identified several SNPs. These SNPs were used to type a larger collection of Beijing strains and allowed identification of 26 different sequence types for which a phylogeny was constructed. Phylogenetic relationships established by sequence types were in agreement with evolutionary pathways suggested by other genetic markers, such as Large Sequence Polymorphisms (LSPs. A recent Beijing genotype (Bmyc10, which included 60% of strains from distinct parts of the world, appeared to be predominant.We found SNPs in 3R genes associated with the Beijing family, which enabled discrimination of different groups and the proposal of a phylogeny. The Beijing family can be divided into different groups characterized by particular genetic polymorphisms that may reflect pathogenic features. These SNPs are new, potential genetic markers that may contribute to better understand the success of the Beijing family.

  10. Groundwater-pumping optimization for land-subsidence control in Beijing plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huanhuan; Andrews, Charles B.; Tian, Fang; Cao, Guoliang; Luo, Yong; Liu, Jiurong; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2018-01-01

    Beijing, in the North China plain, is one of the few megacities that uses groundwater as its main source of water supply. Groundwater accounts for about two-thirds of the city's water supply, and during the past 50 years the storage depletion from the unconsolidated aquifers underlying the city has been >10.4 billion m3. By 2010, groundwater pumping in the city had resulted in a cumulative subsidence of greater than 100 mm in an area of about 3,900 km2, with a maximum cumulative subsidence of >1,200 mm. This subsidence has caused significant social and economic losses in Beijing, including significant damage to underground utilities. This study was undertaken to evaluate various future pumping scenarios to assist in selecting an optimal pumping scenario to minimize overall subsidence, meet the requirements of the Beijing Land Subsidence Prevention Plan (BLSPP 2013-2020), and be consistent with continued sustainable economic development. A numerical groundwater and land-subsidence model was developed for the aquifer system of the Beijing plain to evaluate land subsidence rates under the possible future pumping scenarios. The optimal pumping scenario consistent with the evaluation constraints is a reduction in groundwater pumping from three major pumping centers by 100, 50 and 20%, respectively, while maintaining an annual pumping rate of 1.9 billion m3. This scenario's land-subsidence rates satisfy the BLSPP 2013-2020 and the pumping scenario is consistent with continued economic development. It is recommended that this pumping scenario be adopted for future land-subsidence management in Beijing.

  11. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Female Sexual Dysfunction in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wen-Jia; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Lan; Han, Shao-Mei; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jing-He; Zhang, Lei

    2017-06-20

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a highly prevalent and often underestimated problem. However, large-scale, population-based epidemiological surveys of FSD are scarce in China. The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and the potential risk factors of FSD across a selection of social groups in Beijing, China, based on the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). A cross-sectional study based on the multiple-stage cluster sampling was performed with adult women throughout the Dongcheng and Shunyi districts of Beijing. The Chinese version of FSFI was used, as well as questions on demographic characteristics, the disease-related context, and social relationships. A total of 6000 consecutive women entered this study, with an actual response from 5024 women, corresponding to a response rate of 83.7%. A total of 4697 (78.3%) questionnaires were effective. The prevalence of adult FSD in Beijing was 2973 (63.3%) using a score of 26.55 as the boundary value, whereas the total mean FSFI score was 23.92 ± 6.37. However, 1423 (30.3%) women did not seek help. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, the possible potential risk factors included age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.051), dissatisfaction with the spouse's sexual ability (OR = 3.520), poor marital affection (OR = 2.087), spouse sexual difficulties (OR = 1.720), dissatisfaction with married life (OR = 1.476), living in a rural area (OR = 1.292), chronic pelvic pain (OR = 1.261), chronic disease (OR = 1.534), previous pelvic surgery (OR = 1.605), vaginal delivery (OR = 2.285), lower education (OR = 3.449) and postmenopausal (OR = 3.183). As suggested by the FSFI scores, female sexual problems are highly prevalent in Beijing. Dissatisfaction with the spouse's sexual ability, poor marital affection, sexual difficulties of the spouse, dissatisfaction with the marriage, rural life, CPP, and postmenopausal were conceivable risk factors for FSD in Beijing women.

  12. Three-dimensional P velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle under Beijing region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, A.; Liu, F.; Sun, Y.

    1980-04-01

    By use of the teleseismic P arrival times at 15 stations of the Beijing network for 120 events distributed over various azimuths, we studied the three-dimensional P velocity structure under the Beijing region. In calculating the theoretic travel time, we adopted the source parameters given in BISC, and used the J-B model as the standard model of earth. On inversion, we adopted singular value decomposition as a generalized inversion package, which can be used for solving very large over-determined systems of equations Gm = t without resorting to normal equations G/sup T/Gm = G/sup T/t. The results are that within the crust and upper mantle under the Beijing region there are clear lateral differences. In the results obtained by use of data from 1972 to 1975, it can be seen that there are three different zones of P-velocity. In the southeast Beijing region, P velocity is lower than that of the normal model by 10 to 14% within the crust, and by 8 to 9% within the upper mantle. The northwest Beijing region is a higher-velocity zone, within which the average P-velocity is faster than that of the normal model by about 9%. It disappears after entering into the upper mantle. The central part of this region is a normal zone. On the surface, the distribution of these P velocity variations corresponds approximately to the distribution of the over-burden. But in the deeper region, the distribution of velocity variation agrees with the distribution of seismicity. It is interesting to note that the hypocenters of several major earthquakes in this region, e.g., the Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake (1679, M = 8), the Shacheng earthquake (1730, M = 6-3/4) and the Tangshan earthquake (1976, M = 7.8), are all located very close to this boundary of these P-velocity variation zones.

  13. A Full-Wave Seismic Tomography for the Crustal Structure in the Metropolitan Beijing Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Q.

    2008-12-01

    The greater Beijing metropolitan region is located in an old cratonic block in northeast China with complex geology and several large historic earthquakes, such as the Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake (~M8.0) in 1679, the Xingtai earthquake (M7.2) in 1966, and the Tangshan earthquake (M7.8) in 1976. To enhance our understanding of the crustal structure and the seismotectonics under this region, we conduct a full-wave three-dimensional (3D) tomographic study of this region using the waveforms recorded by the newly established Beijing metropolitan digital seismic network. Since the Beijing network was put into operation in October 2001, there have been 89 local earthquakes of magnitude 3.0 and above. From these, we selected 23 events of magnitude 3.2 and above and obtained their waveform records at 50 stations within our area of interest. The types of instruments at these stations include broadband, short-period and very broadband. First-motion focal mechanisms were determined for these events. We used a regional 3D model obtained by seismic reflection surveys as the reference model and calculated the synthetic seismograms by the finite-difference method. In this first attempt at finite- frequency tomography for the Beijing region, we focus on the variation of the P-wave speed using the first- arriving P waves. We measure the frequency-dependent traveltime anomalies of the P waves by the cross- correlation between observed and synthetic P waveforms within several discrete frequency bands between 20-sec and 5-sec periods. The sensitivity or Frechet kernels of these measurements for the perturbations in P-wave speed were computed by the same finite-difference method. We will present the preliminary result in our full-wave seismic tomography for the Beijing region.

  14. Effect of urbanization on the winter precipitation distribution in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the urbanization extent of Beijing area, and with 1980 as a turning point, the duration from 1961 to 2000 is divided into two periods: one is defined as the slow urbanization period from 1961 to 1980, and other one as the fast urbanization period from 1981 to 2000. Based on the 40-year’s precipi-tation data of 14 standard weather stations in Beijing area, the effect of urbanization on precipitation distribution is studied. It is found that there has been a noticeable and systematic change of winter precipitation distribution pattern between these two periods in Beijing area: in the slow urbanization period, the precipitation in the southern part of Beijing is more than that in the northern part; but in the fast urbanization period, the precipitation distribution pattern is reverse, i.e. the precipitation in the southern part is less than that in the northern part; But in other seasons, the precipitation distribution pattern did not change remarkably in general. The possible cause resulting in the change of winter precipitation distribution pattern, might be that with urban area extension, the effects of "urban heat island" and "urban dry island" become more and more intensified, and increase hydrometeors evapo-ration below precipitable cloud, and then cause less precipitation received on the ground surface in the downtown and the southern part. It is also noteworthy to further research why the precipitation distri-bution pattern does not change systematically in other seasons except winter after intense urbaniza-tion in Beijing area.

  15. Long term PM2.5 estimation and its impact on human health in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Pozzer, Andrea; Cao, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    Due to the economic growth and urbanization, the emissions of pollutants have increased significantly in the North China Plain (NCP). Beijing, the capital of China, is located at the northern tip of NCP, and it is considered one of the most densely populated cities with the poorest air quality. This is of major concerns, because of the impact of high pollutants concentration on human health. The present study analyses the characteristics of AOD and the particulate matter with diameter health in the central Beijing areas. We acquire AOD from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) in Beijing from 2001 to 2012. The AOD data are fitted with a lognormal distribution, and the 95% of the cumulative probability is used as the threshold for episodes of high AOD. Most episodes occur in summer, mostly in June, though this is combined with high precipitation. Episodes of high AOD caused by coarse pollutants occur only in March and April, and they are mostly caused by dust from the north. According to wind direction, wind speed, boundary layer height (BLH) and pollutant emission distribution, episodes of high AOD are due to the anthropogenic pollutants from the south (Hebei province). Based on ground PM2.5 observation from the US embassy in Beijing from 2010 to 2011, we establish a relationship between PM2.5and AERONET AOD, including BLH and relative humidity (RH) correction. Thanks to this method, 12 years of PM2.5 are estimated for the Beijing central area, allowing the estimation of long term concentrations of this pollutant. Since there is no obvious difference among the daily PM2.5 of six stations lying in Chaoyang, Dongcheng, and Xicheng district, we use the daily PM2.5 from US embassy station to represent the PM2.5 concentration in these three districts, and calculate yearly premature mortality due to long term exposure to PM2.5among the population with an age of ≥ 30 yr in these three districts.

  16. Satellite Air Quality Monitoring Before, During and After the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Streets, D. G.; Gleason, J. F.; Gille, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In 2001, Beijing, China was awarded the hosting rights to the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Since then, the government has gradually implemented pollution emission control strategies to improve Beijing's air quality in preparation for both games. Long-term industrial and short-term vehicle emission controls have also been enforced upwind of Beijing's neighboring provinces to the south and west. This region is characterized by numerous heavy-polluting industries whose emissions are typically transported towards Beijing, significantly impacting the city's air quality. We examine the efficacy of these emission control measures on tropospheric NO2, SO2, and CO pollution using satellite data from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra's Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) from 2004 to the present. During both games, held in August and September 2008, OMI and MOPITT measured significant decreases in all three tracer gases compared to the past three years: NO2 (-43%), SO2 (-13%), and CO (-12%). This decrease in CO and SO2 over northeastern China continues through 2009, reflecting the longer-term nature of emission controls on heavily polluting industries. The global recession is also a likely contributor, as factories have shut down or slowed production due to the decrease in demand for manufactured goods. The tropospheric NO2 column over Beijing returned to typical monthly mean values when controls on vehicle emissions were lifted by the end of September 2008. However, we observe a slight NO2 decrease at the beginning of 2009 relative to 2008 suggesting a decrease in the contribution of industrial emissions of NOx to the overall NO2 column.

  17. Air quality in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games observed by satellites and ground monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Liu, Y.; He, K.; Chen, L.; Wang, Z.; Koutrakis, P.; Christiani, D.

    2008-12-01

    Beijing's severe air pollution has been a major concern for hosting the 29th Olympic Games and Special Olympic Games from August 8 to August 24, 2008. It was generally expected that its air quality in 2008, at least around the period of Olympic Games, would be significantly improved through aggressive government control measures However, it is also expected that the improvement of air quality will not be sustainable due to high economic costs. Thus, the massive temporary improvement of air quality in Beijing metropolitan area induced by direct government intervention will serve as an extremely rare "natural experiment", generating a great contrast in air pollution levels in a short period of time. A ground measurement campaign was conducted to evaluate the variation of airborne particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) levels in Beijing from late July to early September of 2008. Satellite aerosol remote sensing data from MISR, MODIS, and OMI during this period were also analyzed to evaluate the spatial distribution of particles in Beijing and surrounding areas. Preliminary analysis indicated that city-wide ground PM10 level in August was 30% lower than that in 2007. During the Olympic Games, PM10 level was nearly 50% lower than the same period in 2007. There are a total of 14 days with daily PM10 concentrations below 50 micrograms per cubic meter, longest since the ground monitoring network was established in 2001. PM2.5 concentrations measured from three research sites showed a similar reduction. Satellite remote sensing data are limited during the Games due to extensive cloud cover. However, existing data in August and September show a substantial regional reduction of aerosol optical depth. In conclusion, the pollution control measures effectively improved the air quality in Beijing and provided insight on how the Chinese government may mitigate air pollution in many of its large cities.

  18. Groundwater-pumping optimization for land-subsidence control in Beijing plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huanhuan; Andrews, Charles B.; Tian, Fang; Cao, Guoliang; Luo, Yong; Liu, Jiurong; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2018-06-01

    Beijing, in the North China plain, is one of the few megacities that uses groundwater as its main source of water supply. Groundwater accounts for about two-thirds of the city's water supply, and during the past 50 years the storage depletion from the unconsolidated aquifers underlying the city has been >10.4 billion m3. By 2010, groundwater pumping in the city had resulted in a cumulative subsidence of greater than 100 mm in an area of about 3,900 km2, with a maximum cumulative subsidence of >1,200 mm. This subsidence has caused significant social and economic losses in Beijing, including significant damage to underground utilities. This study was undertaken to evaluate various future pumping scenarios to assist in selecting an optimal pumping scenario to minimize overall subsidence, meet the requirements of the Beijing Land Subsidence Prevention Plan (BLSPP 2013-2020), and be consistent with continued sustainable economic development. A numerical groundwater and land-subsidence model was developed for the aquifer system of the Beijing plain to evaluate land subsidence rates under the possible future pumping scenarios. The optimal pumping scenario consistent with the evaluation constraints is a reduction in groundwater pumping from three major pumping centers by 100, 50 and 20%, respectively, while maintaining an annual pumping rate of 1.9 billion m3. This scenario's land-subsidence rates satisfy the BLSPP 2013-2020 and the pumping scenario is consistent with continued economic development. It is recommended that this pumping scenario be adopted for future land-subsidence management in Beijing.

  19. Modeling the feedback between aerosol and boundary layer processes: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Rapid development has led to frequent haze in Beijing. With mountains and sea surrounding Beijing, the pollution is found to be influenced by the mountain-plain breeze and sea-land breeze in complex ways. Meanwhile, the presence of aerosols may affect the surface energy balance and impact these boundary layer (BL) processes. The effects of BL processes on aerosol pollution and the feedback between aerosol and BL processes are not yet clearly understood. Thus, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the possible effects and feedbacks during a haze episode on 23 September 2011. Influenced by the onshore prevailing wind, sea-breeze, and upslope breeze, about 45% of surface particulate matter (PM)2.5 in Beijing are found to be contributed by its neighbor cities through regional transport. In the afternoon, the development of upslope breeze suppresses the growth of BL in Beijing by imposing a relatively low thermal stable layer above the BL, which exacerbates the pollution. Two kinds of feedback during the daytime are revealed as follows: (1) as the aerosols absorb and scatter the solar radiation, the surface net radiation and sensible heat flux are decreased, while BL temperature is increased, resulting in a more stable and shallower BL, which leads to a higher surface PM2.5 concentration in the morning and (2) in the afternoon, as the presence of aerosols increases the BL temperature over plains, the upslope breeze is weakened, and the boundary layer height (BLH) over Beijing is heightened, resulting in the decrease of the surface PM2.5 concentration there.

  20. Medium-Range Air Quality Forecast During the Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, J.; Wang, Z.; Luo, L.; Wu, Q.

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, air quality was a major concern for many athletes and visitors to the Games. In response to the need for enhanced air quality forecasts, we explored and tested the capability of medium-range air quality forecasting in a multimodel ensemble system. The system consists of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry module (WRF-Chem), the Fifth-Generation NCAR/PennState Mesoscale Model (MM5), and the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP). Both MM5 and NAQPMS have been in operational use to produce short-term air quality forecasts. WRFChem is the major addition to the multimodel system. Forced with the forecast from the NCEP Global Ensemble Forecast System (GENS) at the lateral boundary, the multimodel system makes ensemble air quality forecasts out to 16 days with emission scenarios that reflect measures for the Olympics, including the closing down of factories around the city and beyond, a traffic control program that reduced the number of automobiles around the city by about half and elimination of all construction activities. Analyses of two forecasts are presented in this study. They were made on 5 August 2008 and 8 August 2008, both covering the entire Olympic period. Each forecast consists of three ensemble members that were produced with the same regional model but were forced by the control and two 'extremes' of the GENS forecast. The two extreme members were hand-picked to represent the best and worst case scenarios. The forecasts are evaluated with observations taken during the Olympic Games that include satellite observations, in-situ meteorological stations, LIDAR and air quality observations at the IAP tower site, 1 km away from the 'Bird Nest'. The analyses show good model skill in the first 3 days and generally satisfactory after 96 hours, with a successful forecast of potential pollution episode on 20 August 2008. The challenge

  1. Visualization for genomics: the Microbial Genome Viewer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, R.; Enckevort, F.H.J. van; Boekhorst, J.; Molenaar, D; Siezen, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY: A Web-based visualization tool, the Microbial Genome Viewer, is presented that allows the user to combine complex genomic data in a highly interactive way. This Web tool enables the interactive generation of chromosome wheels and linear genome maps from genome annotation data stored in a

  2. "Beautiful garden made of garbage" – Beijing Garden Expo Park as an example of a modern approach to creating public botanical gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Kirill

    2016-12-01

    A new park in Beijing is a unique project implemented at a former city waste area. The project was started in 2010. In 2013, the park was opened for its first visitors. Today, it has 69 gardens representing different Chinese provinces and major cities, as well as other countries whose designers wanted to demonstrate their class. The created gardens of 1-2 to 10-12 hectares represent both traditional styles of Chinese gardens and the latest trends in the field of garden art. The Museum of Chinese Gardens and Landscape Architecture (MCGALA is a part of the park’s vast territory of 513 hectares. The park also has the necessary infrastructure for its visitors with disabilities. Today, it has become a home for many educational institutions training specialists in the field of landscape design, as well as for the employees of the country’s parks, agronomists and gardeners.

  3. The China Institute of Atomic Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Mingwu

    2001-01-01

    The China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), established in 1950, carries out multidisciplinary research in nuclear science, technology and engineering. It has three research reactors and ten low energy accelerators. The focus of its nuclear energy related R and D is on reactor engineering and technology. In the area of nuclear techniques for applications, R and D is carried out on accelerators, isotope production, nuclear electronics and utilization of radioisotopes and radiation. There is also a strong programme in basic nuclear physics and radiochemistry. New major facilities under construction in CIAE include China Advanced Research Reactor (flux 8x10 14 n/cm 2 /sec) and China Experimental Fast Reactor. China has been successfully using the products of its R and D for a variety of applications in medicine, industry, materials science etc. A dynamic research programme is tuned to attract young talent to CIEA and there is good collaboration with the Beijing University. CIEA has been an active participant of RCA programmes of the IAEA and has been a resource for many developing countries. The management expects the Institute to be a leading multidisciplinary institute in the field of nuclear science, technology and engineering. (author)

  4. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained...... by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans...

  5. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  6. Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-positive tuberculosis patients in North-West and West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Sahebi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Finally, the prevalence of Beijing strains in Western Iran was greater than expected. Our results therefore indicate that regional and cross-border tracing may be necessary to control spread of this organism.

  7. Observational analyses of dramatic developments of a severe air pollution event in the Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ju; Sun, Jielun; Zhou, Mingyu; Cheng, Zhigang; Li, Qingchun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jingjiang

    2018-03-01

    A rapid development of a severe air pollution event in Beijing, China, at the end of November 2015 was investigated with unprecedented observations collected during the field campaign of the Study of Urban Rainfall and Fog/Haze (SURF-15). Different from previous statistical analyses of air pollution events and their correlations with meteorological environmental conditions in the area, the role of turbulent mixing in the pollutant transfer was investigated in detail. The analyses indicate that the major pollution source associated with high particulate matter of diameter 2.5 µm (PM2.5) was from south of Beijing. Before the day of the dramatic PM2.5 increase, the nighttime downslope flow from the mountains to the west and north of Beijing reduced the surface PM2.5 concentration northwest of Beijing. The nighttime surface stable boundary layer (SBL) not only kept the relatively less-polluted air near the surface, it also shielded the rough surface from the pollutant transfer by southwesterly winds above the SBL, leading to the fast transport of pollutants over the Beijing area at night. As the daytime convective turbulent mixing developed in the morning, turbulent mixing transported the elevated polluted air downward even though the weak surface wind was from northeast, leading to the dramatic increase of the surface PM2.5 concentration in the urban area. As a result of both turbulent mixing and advection processes with possible aerosol growth from secondary aerosol formation under the low-wind and high-humidity conditions, the PM2.5 concentration reached over 700 µg m-3 in the Beijing area by the end of the day. Contributions of the two transporting processes to the PM2.5 oscillations prior to this dramatic event were also analyzed. The study demonstrates the important role of large-eddy convective turbulent mixing in vertical transfer of pollutants and the role of the SBL in not only decoupling vertical transport of trace gases and aerosols but also in

  8. Aerosol Properties under Air Quality Control Measures of APEC 2014 in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Xu, H.; Lv, Y.; Xie, Y.; Li, K.; Li, Z.; Li, D.; Ma, Y.; Mei, X.

    2015-12-01

    Because the economic and society were developing fast in the middle of last century, Los Angeles and London both were polluted by photochemical smog, which massacred thousands of people. Now, many regions are often covered by heavy haze in those large developing countries, especially in China and India. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was held in Beijing during 5-11 November 2014. Beijing, Hebei, Tianjin, Shandong, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia reduced air pollution emissions for the APEC 2014 meeting held in Beijing. Only in Hebei province, there were 1028 factories stopped or restricted and 881 construction sites stopped. Half of the cars were prohibited driving even in the Zibo city which is 400 km far from Beijing. For scientific aims, these control measures were indeed a huge and uncommon atmospheric experiment led by the government. During the experiment, what did the "APEC Blue" mean? We analyzed aerosol properties with the data of an AERONET site in Beijing which is located 500m far from the main reception hall of APEC 2014. The Cimel solar photometers can give a series parameters of aerosol and water vapor. In this paper, we used CE318 solar photometer which is the main instrument of NASA AERONET. The CE318 of RADI belongs to the Chinese SONET (Sun-sky radiometer Observation NETwork) too. We analyzed the total, coarse and fine Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Fine-Mode Fraction (FMF) and Ångström exponent, Size Distribution and Real Refractive Index. In conclusion, the aerosol properties were analysed with the measurements of a sun photometer. During the APEC 2014, AOD decreased obviously with a 0.27 mean value compared with the annual mean 0.7. Around Beijing, the southern is polluted emission area including the cross part of Shandong, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan four provinces, and the northern is clean for less fine mode particles emission in the large Inner Mongolia province. In fact, during the APEC 2014, the weather condition was not good for the

  9. [Time-series analysis of ambient PM₁₀ pollution on residential mortality in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiang-li; Wang, Qi; Cai, Yue; Zhou, Mai-geng

    2012-05-01

    To explore the short-term impact of ambient PM(10) on daily non-accidental death, cardiovascular and respiratory death of residents in Beijing. Mortality data of residents in Beijing during 2006 to 2009 were obtained from public health surveillance and information service center of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, contemporaneous data of average daily air concentration of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2) were obtained from Beijing Environment Protection Bureau (year 2005 - 2006) and public website of Beijing environmental protection (year 2007 - 2009), respectively, contemporaneous meteorological data were obtained from china meteorological data sharing service system. Generalized addictive model (GAM) of time serial analysis was applied. In additional to the control of confounding factors such as long-term trend, day of the week effect, meteorological factors, lag effect and the effects of other atmospheric pollutants were also analyzed. During year 2006 to 2009, the number of average daily non-accidental death, respiratory disease caused death, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases caused death among Beijing residents were 140.1, 15.0, 65.8, respectively;contemporaneous medians of average daily air concentration of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2) were 123.0, 26.0, 58.0 µg/m(3), respectively;contemporaneous average atmosphere pressure, temperature and relative humidity were 10.1 kPa, 13.5°C and 51.9%, respectively. An exposure-response relationship between exposure to ambient PM(10) and increased daily death number was found as every 10 µg/m(3) increase in daily average concentration of PM(10), there was a 0.1267% (95%CI: 0.0824% - 0.1710%) increase in daily non-accidental death of residents, 0.1365% (95%CI: 0.0010% - 0.2720%) increase in respiratory death and 0.1239% (95%CI: 0.0589% - 0.1889%) increase in cardiovascular death. Ambient PM(10) had greatest influence on daily non-accidental and cardiovascular death of the same day, while its greatest influence

  10. A Case Study of Construction of Special Database on Urban Agriculture in Library of Beijing University of Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qianning

    2013-01-01

    With the development of urban agriculture and digital library, the theoretical research and exploitation of special database on urban agriculture has become an inevitable trend. On the basis of analyzing the advantages of the special database on urban agriculture constructed by the library of Beijing University of Agriculture, the author has analyzed the status and the problems of the special database on urban agriculture developed by Beijing University of Agriculture and proposed the develop...

  11. Interannual Variations of the Carbon Footprint and Carbon Eco-efficiency in Agro-ecosystem of Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    TIAN Zhi-hui; MA Xiao-yan; LIU Rui-han

    2015-01-01

    Suburban farmland ecosystems are known to be affected by intensive land use/cover change (LUCC) during the process of urbanization in Beijing. We investigated inter-annual changes in carbon sequestration, source, footprint, and eco-efficiency from 2004 to 2012 in the agro-ecosystem of suburban Beijing. Our findings indicated that: (1) Carbon sink increased 2.8 percent annually and the average annual carbon storage amount was 1 058 200 t, with food crops constituting the highest proportion at ...

  12. THE LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE ANALYSIS IN BEIJING HUAIROU IN LAST TEN YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With eCognition software, the sample-based object-oriented classification method is used. Remote sensing images in Huairou district of Beijing had been classified using remote sensing images of last ten years. According to the results of image processing, the land use types in Huairou district of Beijing were analyzed in the past ten years, and the changes of land use types in Huairou district were obtained, and the reasons for its occurrence were analyzed.

  13. The Land-Use and Land-Cover Change Analysis in Beijing Huairou in Last Ten Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Liu, G.; Tu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2018-04-01

    With eCognition software, the sample-based object-oriented classification method is used. Remote sensing images in Huairou district of Beijing had been classified using remote sensing images of last ten years. According to the results of image processing, the land use types in Huairou district of Beijing were analyzed in the past ten years, and the changes of land use types in Huairou district were obtained, and the reasons for its occurrence were analyzed.

  14. Preliminary study of 7Be, 137Cs and 131I activity concentration distribution rule in Beijing aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yuanqing; Wang Shilian; Zhang Xinjun; Li Qi; Jia Huaimao; Zhao Yungang; Chen Zhanying; Chang Yinzhong; Liu Shujiang; Li Huijuan

    2013-01-01

    The process of aerosol sampling and measuring of Beijing Radionuclide Station and Beijing Radionuclide Laboratory of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) was described. Long time aerosol monitoring data of the station and the laboratory were analyzed through statistic method and the characteristic and rule of the concentration distribution of nuclides 7 Be, 137 Cs and 131 I were obtained. The foundation was formed for further studying the rule of the radionuclide distribution in atmosphere. (authors)

  15. A case of indoor air pollution of ammonia emitted from concrete in a newly built office in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Torsten [Department of Medical Sciences/Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    A case of suspected indoor ammonia contamination from concrete was investigated in an airline company office in Beijing. A standardized questionnaire on indoor environment perceptions, medical symptoms and psychosocial work environment was distributed to all staff, and compared with a reference group of office workers from the same company in Stockholm. Temperature, relative humidity, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOC), ammonia, and carbon dioxide were measured both in Beijing and Stockholm. In Beijing mould and bacteria were also measured. Totally 95% (N = 14) participated. The Beijing staff reported a higher rate of complaints regarding poor work satisfaction, and work stress as compared to the Stockholm reference group. In the total material (N = 203) the psychosocial environment was related to general symptoms (headache and tiredness) but not odour perception or mucous membrane symptoms. Controlling for age, smoking habits, and psychosocial work environment the Beijing staff had more complaints on unpleasant odour and mucous membrane symptoms. An increased indoor concentration of ammonia (3-6 ppm) and benzene (26.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) was measured in the indoor air in the Beijing office, as compared to the office in Stockholm (<0.1 ppm ammonia and 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} benzene). The ammonia contamination in the Beijing office was confirmed, the probable source being additives in the concrete. The ammonia level was well below the Swedish threshold limit values (TLV) (25 ppm). In addition the exposure to benzene, an indicator of traffic exhaust pollution was high both indoors and outdoors in Beijing, possible related to increased levels of odour complaints and mucous membrane irritation. (author)

  16. [Spatial evaluation on ecological and aesthetic quality of Beijing agricultural landscape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Xiao, He; Yu, Zhen-Rong

    2009-10-01

    A total of ten single indices mainly reflecting the ecological and aesthetic quality of agricultural landscape, including ecosystem function, naturalness, openness and diversity, contamination probability, and orderliness were selected, their different weights were given based on field survey and expert system, and an integrated evaluation index system of agricultural landscape quality was constructed. In the meantime, the land use data provided by GIS and the remote sensing data of vegetation index were used to evaluate the Beijing agricultural landscape quality and its spatial variation. There was a great spatial variation in the agricultural landscape quality of Beijing, being worse at the edges of urban area and towns, but better in suburbs. The agricultural landscape quality was mainly related to topography and human activity. To construct a large-scale integrated index system based on remote sensing data and landscape indices would have significance in evaluating the spatial variation of agricultural landscape quality.

  17. Between morphology and function: How syntactic centers of the Beijing city are defined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of big data provides a new angle of view on investigating whether, and if so, how to define the urban center through analyzing urban spatial morphology intrinsically interacts with its functions. This article, using empirical research of the Beijing city, first seeking to explore spatial configuration-the complex relation between any pair of individual spaces regarding other contextual spaces – of urban network collected from Baidu. And then, focusing on conducting a statistical correlation between the configurational patterns of urban network and the aggregation patterns of functions. Based on the different patterns of aggregation or dispersion of those functions we discussed, as well as the multi-scale syntactic location choice underlying those patterns, it then can be identified four types of centers in the Beijing city, which may be called active center, ordinary center, brand centers and specified center, as well as the extent to which spatial layout influences functional distribution.

  18. Study on the path selection of sustainable development in the mountainous area of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Malin; Zhou, Zhujun; Zhang, Huizhi; Chen, Ci; Chen, Junhong; Zhou, Zhongren

    2018-02-01

    The mountainous area of Beijing is the broad region with weak economic features, ecologically fragile and special ecological functions. The ecological conditions, sustainability and regional economic development are intercorrelated in the region. It is arduous to enhance the regional competitive advantage and improve the economic development level through the environmental protection and ecological conservation. This study elaborates the relationship between ecology and economic development from the perspectives of ecology, productivity and life style in mountainous areas of Beijing. Then this paper discusses how to increase sustainable development of mountain areas from several aspects, including key regional developments, industrial development, and ecological compensation mechanism, considering the strategic goals of accelerating economic transformation, coordinating urban and rural development, and promoting new-type urbanization.

  19. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Yin; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO2 and NOx. Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society....... The aim of this study is to assess health impacts and external costs related to PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China with different baseline concentrations and valuation methods. The idea is to provide a reasonable estimate of the total health impacts and external cost due to PM2.5 pollution, as well...... as a quantification of the relevant uncertainty. PM2.5 concentrations were retrieved for the entire 2012 period in 16 districts of Beijing. The various PM2.5 related health impacts were identified and classified to avoid double counting. Exposure-response coefficients were then obtained from literature. Both...

  20. The System Dynamics Research on the Private Cars' Amount in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Yan, Guang-Le

    The thesis analyzes the development problem of private cars’ amount in Beijing from the perspective of system dynamics. With the flow chart illustrating the relationships of relevant elements, the SD model is established by VENSIM to simulate the growth trend of private autos’ amount in the future on the background of “Public Transportation First” policy based on the original data in Beijing. Then the article discusses the forecasting impacts of “Single-and-double license plate number limit” on the number of city vehicles and private cars under the assumption that this policy implemented for long after the 2008 Olympic Games. Finally, some recommendations are put forward for proper control over this problem.

  1. Observation of regional air pollutant transport between the megacity Beijing and the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Megacities have strong interactions with the surrounding regions through transport of air pollutants. It has been frequently addressed that the air quality of Beijing is influenced by the influx of air pollutants from the North China Plain (NCP. Estimations of air pollutant cross-boundary transport between Beijing and the NCP are important for air quality management. However, evaluation of cross-boundary transport using long-term observations is very limited. Using the observational results of the gaseous pollutants SO2, NO, NO2, O3, and CO from August 2006 to October 2008 at the Yufa site, a cross-boundary site between the megacity Beijing and the NCP, together with meteorological parameters, we explored a method for evaluating the transport flux intensities at Yufa, as part of the “Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006–2008” (CAREBeijing 2006–2008. The hourly mean ± SD (median concentration of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 15 ± 16 (9 ppb, 12 ± 25 (3 ppb, 24 ± 19 (20 ppb, 36 ± 39 (23 ppb, 28 ± 27 (21 ppb, 52 ± 24 (45 ppb, and 1.6 ± 1.4 (1.2 ppm during the observation period, respectively. The bivariate polar plots showed the dependence of pollutant concentrations on both wind speed and wind direction, and thus inferred their dominant transport directions. Surface flux intensity calculations further demonstrated the regional transport influence of Beijing and the NCP on Yufa. The net surface transport flux intensity (mean ± SD of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 6.2 ± 89.5, −4.3 ± 29.5, −0.6 ± 72.3, −4.9 ± 93.0, 14.7 ± 187.8, 14.8 ± 234.9, and 70 ± 2830 µg s−1 m−2 during the observation period, respectively. For SO2, CO, O3, and Ox the surface flux intensities from the NCP to Yufa surpassed those from Beijing to Yufa in all seasons except winter, with the strongest net fluxes largely

  2. Air Quality Measurements from Satellites during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M.; Douglass, A.; Gleason, J.; Krotkov, N.; Gille, J.; Pickering, K.; Livesey, N.

    2009-05-01

    In preparation for the Olympic and Paralympic games in August and September 2008 in Beijing, China, the Chinese government imposed strict controls on industrial emissions and motor vehicle traffic in and around the city and vicinity before and during the events to improve the air quality for the competitors and visitors. To test the efficacy of these measures, we used satellite data from NASA's Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra/Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) over Beijing and surrounding areas during the Olympic and Paralympic period. The satellite instruments recorded significant reductions in nitrogen dioxide of up to 50%, up to 10% in tropospheric column ozone, 20-40% in boundary layer sulfur dioxide, and 10-20% reductions in carbon monoxide concentrations below 700 hPa.

  3. Major reactive species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their sources in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; FU; Linlin; LIU; Ying; LU; Sihua; ZHANG; Yuanhan

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of atmospheric chemical processes. As a whole mixture, the ambient VOCs show very strong chemical reactivity. Based on OH radical loss rates in the air, the chemical reactivity of VOCs in Beijing was calculated. The results revealed that alkenes, accounting for only about 15% in the mixing ratio of VOCs, provide nearly 75% of the reactivity of ambient VOCs and the C4 to C5 alkenes were the major reactive species among the alkenes. The study of emission characteristics of various VOCs sources indicated that these alkenes are mainly from vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation. The reduction of alkene species in these two sources will be effective in photochemical pollution control in Beijing.

  4. Understanding the preconditions for revitalizing bicycle transport in Beijing, with a reference study from Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli

    of transport and planning research by strengthening the knowledge base on the conditions that affect the use of bicycles in the megacities of developing world as well as by exploring the factors governing the populations’ attitudes towards their future mobility. Furthermore, the study contributes...... for accelerating the identification of effective solutions in specific cities and in specific planning cultures. For Beijing residents, the bicycle is currently a mode of transport for those with limited education and limited financial resources. The young Beijingers are least likely to cycle. This age difference...... is likely to be partly due to a cohort difference and, thus, indicates a growing problem for cycling in Beijing. On the other hand, clear associations with density and other urban form variables indicate that the proximity environment and urban development policies can also affect cycling. The effect...

  5. Emerging markets for imported beef in China: Results from a consumer choice experiment in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, David L; Hong, Soo Jeong; Wang, H Holly; Wu, Laping

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore emerging markets for imported beef in China by assessing Beijing consumer demand for quality attributes. This study utilizes data from an in-store choice experiment to evaluate consumer willingness-to-pay for select food quality attributes (food safety, animal welfare, Green Food and Organic certification) taking into account country-of-origin information. Our results show that Beijing consumers value food safety information the most, and are willing to pay more for Australian beef products than for US or domestic (Chinese) beef. We explore the various relationships between the quality attributes, find evidence of preference heterogeneity and discuss agribusiness and marketing implications of our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 54159 - National Institute on Aging; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...: National Institute on Aging Special Emphasis Panel, Stem Cells and Genomic Integrity Through Senescense.... 93.866, Aging Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: August 26, 2010. Jennifer S...

  7. State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics (LNM, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arousian Arshak

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current state-of-the-art methods of measuring pH levels that are based on polymer materials. These include polymer-coated fibre optic sensors, devices with electrodes modified with pH-sensitive polymers, fluorescent pH indicators, potentiometric pH sensors as well as sensors that use combinatory approach for ion concentration monitoring.

  8. Explore consumer’s attitudes and consumption of Norwegian salmon in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, China has developed to be the fastest growth market of consumption of Norwegian Salmon in Asia. In addition, Beijing that is the capital of China with over 15 million populations provides great demand in seafood consumption. Understanding consumer’s attitude is the first step to explain the consumption. Meanwhile, some factors (e.g. norms, availability, and knowledge) have been confirmed to influence on the consumption. Therefore, the study applies the theory of plane...

  9. Experiments recently carried out on the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurash Ibrahim; Wu Ziyu; Qian Haijie; Zhang Jing; Abbas, M.I.; Chen Zhigang; Su Run; Liu Fengqin

    2003-01-01

    With a sustained and steady operation of the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, users from different research fields have carried out their investigation on the electronic structure of metal surface-interface, metal doped fullerene as well as colossal magneto-resistance materials utilizing different experimental modes provided by the photoemission station. In this paper authors would present some representative experimental results obtained on the station

  10. Assessment of inter-city transport of particulate matter in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xing; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Bin; Cai, Siyi; Hao, Jiming

    2018-04-01

    The regional transport of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) plays an important role in the air pollution of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in China. However, previous studies on regional transport of PM2.5 mainly aim at province level, which is insufficient for the development of an optimal joint PM2.5 control strategy. In this study, we calculate PM2.5 inflows and outflows through the administrative boundaries of three major cities in the BTH region, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model)-CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) modeling system. The monthly average inflow fluxes indicate the major directions of PM2.5 transport. For Beijing, the PM2.5 inflow fluxes from Zhangjiakou (in the northwest) and Baoding (in the southwest) constitute 57 % of the total in winter, and Langfang (in the southeast) and Baoding constitute 73 % in summer. Based on the net PM2.5 fluxes and their vertical distributions, we find there are three major transport pathways in the BTH region: the northwest-southeast pathway in winter (at all levels below 1000 m), the northwest-southeast pathway in summer (at all levels below 1000 m), and the southwest-northeast pathway in both winter and in summer (mainly at 300-1000 m). In winter, even if surface wind speeds are low, the transport at above 300 m can still be strong. Among the three pathways, the southwest-northeast happens along with PM2.5 concentrations 30 and 55 % higher than the monthly average in winter and summer, respectively. Analysis of two heavy pollution episodes in January and July in Beijing show a much (8-16 times) stronger transport than the monthly average, emphasizing the joint air pollution control of the cities located on the transport pathways, especially during heavy pollution episodes.

  11. Assessment of land degradation and its spatial and temporal variation in Beijing surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Dong, Suocheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhiqiang, Gao

    2005-08-01

    The indulgence in willful persecution of sandstorm had made great attention of many countries around the world. Chinese government and the Chinese academy of science going with some other countries have devoted a large amount of vigor to study the crucial environment problem. Due to the main source areas of sandstorm all located in the arid and semi-arid regions where there have great area, hard natural condition and bad traffic condition, it's very difficult to accomplish source area and the reason of sandstorm. For this destination, a international cooperation organization has been established to clarify the occur mechanism, transfer process and the following environment impact of sandstorm. The organization includes many researchers come form USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. Beijing surrounding area is one of the main sandstorm sources in recent years. In order to understand fully of the sandstorm form and development, we analyzed the land use degradation of Beijing surrounding area during the last ten years. 71 scenes Landsat TM/ETM, 611 scenes DRG and DEM data had been processed in our study. This paper made a detail describe of using Landsat image data and high resolution DEM data to construe the soil erosion and vegetation degenerate. The result shows that the irrational human activities and land use style are the main factors of land use degradation. In case of Beijing surrounding area, the land degradation directly impacted the frequency and intensity of sand & dust storm in Northern China. The case study region of Beijing surrounding area includes 51 counties that belong to three provinces and autonomous regions.

  12. Long-Term Land Subsidence Monitoring of Beijing (China Using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced techniques of multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR represent a valuable tool in ground subsidence studies allowing remote investigation of the behavior of mass movements in long time intervals by using large datasets of SAR images covering the same area and acquired at different epochs. Beijing is susceptible to subsidence, producing undesirable environmental impacts and affecting dense population. Excessive groundwater withdrawal is thought to be the primary cause of land subsidence, and rapid urbanization and economic development, mass construction of skyscrapers, highways and underground engineering facilities (e.g., subway are also contributing factors. In this paper, a spatial–temporal analysis of the land subsidence in Beijing was performed using one of the MT-InSAR techniques, referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS. This technique allows monitoring the temporal evolution of a deformation phenomenon, via the generation of mean deformation velocity maps and displacement time series from a data set of acquired SAR images. 52 C-band ENVISAT ASAR images acquired from June 2003 to August 2010 were used to produce a linear deformation rate map and to derive time series of ground deformation. The results show that there are three large subsidence funnels within this study area, which separately located in Balizhuang-Dajiaoting in Chaoyang district, Wangjing-Laiguangying Chaoyang district, Gaoliying Shunyi district. The maximum settlement center is Wangsiying-Tongzhou along the Beijing express; the subsidence velocity exceeds 110 mm/y in the LOS direction. In particular, we compared the achieved results with leveling measurements that are assumed as reference. The estimated long-term subsidence results obtained by SBAS approach agree well with the development of the over-exploitation of ground water, indicating that SBAS techniques is adequate for the retrieval of land subsidence in Beijing from multi-temporal SAR data.

  13. [Investigation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in street dusts in urban Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Ying-Xia; Shi, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Jing-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the contamination levels of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dusts in different functional areas in urban Beijing. Results show that the mean concentrations of Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in street dusts in Beijing are 710 ng/g, 307 ng/g, 85.0 microg/g, 78.3 microg/g, 41.1 microg/g, 69.6 microg/g and 248.5 microg/g, respectively, which are significantly lower than those in most cities around the world and Shenyang, Shanghai in China. The mean concentration of Sigma 16PAHs in street dusts in Beijing is 0.398 microg/g, which is also lower than those of Handan, Tianjin and Shanghai. Non-parametric Friedman test demonstrates significant differences of heavy metal contents on street dusts from different functional zones. Street dusts in residential area and parks have lower heavy metal and PAHs concentrations than the street dusts from areas of high traffic density. The concentrations of heavy metals follow the order Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg, which is consistent with the situation in other cities around the world. The geoaccumulation index analysis shows that street dust in urban Beijing is moderately polluted by Cd, Zn and Cu, little polluted by Cr and Pb and practically unpolluted by Ni. The contamination levels of Sigma 16PAHs on street dusts vary greatly in different functional zones with parks little polluted, residential areas moderately to strongly polluted and traffic related areas strongly polluted to extremely polluted. Mass loading of heavy metals and PAHs is largely associated with street dusts of size range < 300 microm. Therefore, the urban sweeping vehicles should update the dust sweeping devices to remove not only the fine particle but also the coarser particles.

  14. Crustal structure beneath Beijing and its surrounding regions derived from gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenliang; Zhang, Jingfa; Lu, Xiaocui; Lu, Jing

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we use gravity data to study fine crustal structure and seismogenic environment beneath Beijing and its surrounding regions. Multi-scale wavelet analysis method is applied to separating gravity fields. Logarithmic power spectrum method is also used to calculate depth of gravity field source. The results show that the crustal structure is very complicated beneath Beijing and its surrounding areas. The crustal density exhibits laterally inhomogeneous. There are three large scale tectonic zones in North China, i.e., WNW-striking Zhangjiakou-Bohai tectonic zone (ZBTZ), NE-striking Taihang piedmont tectonic zone (TPTZ) and Cangxian tectonic zone (CTZ). ZBTZ and TPTZ intersect with each other beneath Beijing area and both of them cut through the lithosphere. The upper and middle crusts consist of many small-scale faults, uplifts and depressions. In the lower crust, these small-scale tectonic units disappear gradually, and they are replaced by large-scale tectonic units. In surrounding regions of Beijing, ZBTZ intersects with several other NE-striking tectonic units, such as Cangxian uplift, Jizhong depression and Shanxi Graben System (SGS). In west of Taihangshan uplift, gravity anomalies in upper and middle crusts are correlated with geological and topographic features on the surface. Compared with the crust, the structure is comparatively simple in uppermost mantle. Earthquakes mainly occurred in upper and middle crusts, especially in transitional regions between high gravity anomaly and low gravity anomaly. Occurrence of large earthquakes may be related to the upwelling of upper mantle and asthenosphere heat flow materials, such as Sanhe earthquake ( M S8.0) and Tangshan earthquake ( M S7.8).

  15. Travel Daily China Travel Innovation Summit to Be Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Guangzhou,China,April 7th- TravelDaily (www.traveldaily.cn), China’s leading online publisher and event organizer with emphasis on trends in the distribution,marketing and technology of the travel and tourism industries,today announced it will partner with PhoCusWright to host the 2009 China Travel Innovation Summit in Beijing from May 12 to 13,2009.

  16. Negative Perceptions of Urban Tourism Community in Beijing: Based on Online Comments

    OpenAIRE

    Ping, Li; Kaiyong, Wang; Tian, Chen; Fuyuan, Wang

    2017-01-01

    The development of urban tourism community (UTC) will bring new vigor and vitality into the urban sustainable development. There are abundant tourists’ comments about personal experience in UTC in online travel communities, which provide good access to the knowledge of negative perceptions of urban tourism community. Based on online comments, this paper used content analysis method to research tourists’ negative perceptions about five typical tourism communities in Beijing, whereby the common...

  17. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions and SOA-forming potentials in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghirardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees can significantly impact the urban air chemistry by the uptake and emission of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, which are involved in ozone and particle formation. Here we present the emission potentials of "constitutive" (cBVOCs and "stress-induced" BVOCs (sBVOCs from the dominant broadleaf woody plant species in the megacity of Beijing. Based on the municipal tree census and cuvette BVOC measurements on leaf level, we built an inventory of BVOC emissions, and assessed the potential impact of BVOCs on secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in 2005 and 2010, i.e., before and after realizing the large tree-planting program for the 2008 Olympic Games. We found that sBVOCs, such as fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids, and sesquiterpenes, constituted a significant fraction ( ∼  40 % of the total annual BVOC emissions, and we estimated that the overall annual BVOC budget may have doubled from  ∼  4.8  ×  109 g C year−1 in 2005 to  ∼  10.3  ×  109 g C year−1 in 2010 due to the increase in urban greening, while at the same time the emission of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs decreased by 24 %. Based on the BVOC emission assessment, we estimated the biological impact on SOA mass formation potential in Beijing. Constitutive and stress-induced BVOCs might produce similar amounts of secondary aerosol in Beijing. However, the main contributors of SOA-mass formations originated from anthropogenic sources (> 90 %. This study demonstrates the general importance to include sBVOCs when studying BVOC emissions. Although the main problems regarding air quality in Beijing still originate from anthropogenic activities, the present survey suggests that in urban plantation programs, the selection of low-emitting plant species has some potential beneficial effects on urban air quality.

  18. Loess deposits in Beijing and their paleoclimatic implications during the last interglacial-glacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shengchen; Sun, Jimin; Gong, Zhijun

    2017-12-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences are important terrestrial paleoclimatic archives in the semi-arid region of north-central China. Compared with the numerous studies on the loess of the Chinese Loess Plateau, the eolian deposits, near Beijing, have not been well studied. A new loess section in the northeast suburb of Beijing provides an opportunity for reconstructing paleoenvironmental changes in this region. An optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) chronology yields ages of 145.1 to 20.5 ka, demonstrating that the loess deposits accumulated during the last interglacial-glacial cycle. High-resolution climatic proxies, including color-index, particle size and magnetic parameters, reveal orbital-scale climatic cycles, corresponding to marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 6 to MIS 2. In contrast to the loess deposits of the central Loess Plateau, loess near Beijing is a mixture of distal dust materials from gobi and sand deserts in the arid part of northwestern China and proximal, local alluvial sediments. Climatic change in Beijing during the last interglacial-glacial cycle was controlled primarily by the changing strength of the East Asian monsoon. Paleosols developed during the last interglacial complex (between 144.0 and 73.0 ka) and the interstadial of the last glaciation (between 44.6 and 36.2 ka), being associated with an enhanced summer monsoon in response to increased low-latitude insolation and a weakened Siberia High. Loess accumulation occurred during cold-dry stages of the last glaciation, in response to the intensified winter monsoon driven by the strengthened Siberia High and its longer residence time.

  19. Influence of Social-economic Activities on Air Pollutants in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolu; Zheng, Wenfeng; Yin, Lirong; Yin, Zhengtong; Song, Lihong; Tian, Xia

    2017-08-01

    With the rapid economic development, the serious air pollution in Beijing attracts increasing attention in the last decade. Seen as one whole complex and grey system, the causal relationship between the social development and the air pollution in Beijing has been quantitatively analyzed in this paper. By using the grey relational model, the aim of this study is to explore how the socio-economic and human activities affect on the air pollution in the city of Beijing, China. Four air pollutants, as the particulate matter with size 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5), particulate matter with size 10 micrometers or less (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NOx), are selected as the indicators of air pollution. Additionally, fifteen socio-economic indicators are selected to account for the regional socio-economic characteristics (economy variables, energy consumption variables, pollution emissions variables, environment and construction activity variables). The results highlight that all variables are associated with the concentrations of the four selected air pollutants, but with notable differences between the air pollutants. Most of the socio-economic indicators, such as industrial output, total energy consumption are highly correlated with PM2.5, while PM10, SO2, and NOx present in general moderate correlations with most of the socio-economic variables. Contrary to other studies and reports this study reveals that vehicles and life energy do not have the strongest effect on air pollution in Beijing. This study provides useful information to reduce air pollution and support decision-making for sustainable development.

  20. Recent progresses in ion beam analysis of aerosol at tandetron laboratory of Beijing Normal University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangfu; Lu Yongfang; Zhu Guanghua

    2007-01-01

    PIXE analysis of aerosol samples for measuring concentrations of elements with Z>12 is one of major applications at the GIC4117 Tandetron in Beijing Normal University. In order to measure H, C, N and O concentration in aerosol samples, proton non-Rutherford back scattering spectrometry (PNBS) and proton elastic scattering analysis(PESA) were employed with two Au(Si) surface barrier detectors at angles of 160 degree and 40 degree in the PIXE chamber. (authors)

  1. Perceptions of Different Stakeholders on Reclaimed Water Reuse: The Case of Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiping Chen; Yanying Bai; Weiling Zhang; Sidan Lyu; Wentao Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Public involvement is critical to the successful implementation of reclaimed water reuse programs. Based on the participatory research method, we studied the attitudes of the stakeholders who are involved in reclaimed water reuse in Beijing, China. Results showed that the general public’s knowledge on water resources was poor, while their awareness on reclaimed water reuse was high. The general public showed a strong acceptance of non-contact and non-potable reclaimed water reuse, but their a...

  2. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-01-01

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of...

  3. Achievements and Challenges 20 Years after Beijing: A View from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Derungs, Flurina Andrea; Keller, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Despite being one of the world’s wealthiest countries and most modern economies, in Switzerland gender equality remains an elusive challenge. Paid maternity leave, legal abortion and an increase in women’s educational attainment are some of the milestones achieved since 1995, when the country was one of 189 states to adopt the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action at the Fourth World Conference on Women. But while legal gender equality may be nearly achieved, much remains to be done to ...

  4. Characteristics and classification of PM2.5 pollution episodes in Beijing from 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqi; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Jianbing; Zhang, Hanyu; Lv, Zhe

    2018-01-15

    During the period of 2013-2015, a total of 34 PM 2.5 pollution episodes occurred in Beijing, each of which remained for at least 2days. Among that, 28 times occurred in winter half year with the average concentration of 243.1μg/m 3 and summer half year with the average concentration of 194.1μg/m 3 . These episodes were mainly associated with lower wind speed and lower visibility as well as higher relative humidity, indicating that they belonged to heavy pollution under static stability. The PM 2.5 pollution was classified into two categories according to the back trajectory analysis and meteorological background field. Category I, accounting for 22 times among all the pollution episodes, was due to air mass transport from Beijing's southern regions with north-south direction pressure gradient and sparse isopiestic. And category II was mainly led by northwestern air masses accompanied with a large area of uniform pressure field. Then, a typical case study was conducted for each category to recognize the sub-region contribution to Beijing's PM 2.5 pollution based on WRF-CAMx modeling system, and the simulation results indicated that local emission source contribution decreased significantly during the accumulation phase for category I, but increased during that of category II, with an average contribution of 47.3% and 77.1% during the entire pollution period of each category, respectively. Two red alerts of air pollution occurred in December 2015 were also analyzed based on the episode classification. It was found that the second red alert pollution episode belonged to category II. The emission control measures in Beijing worked more obviously with the reduction effect ratio of 15.4% compared to the first red alert period (9.7%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Social-economic Activities on Air Pollutants in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaolu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic development, the serious air pollution in Beijing attracts increasing attention in the last decade. Seen as one whole complex and grey system, the causal relationship between the social development and the air pollution in Beijing has been quantitatively analyzed in this paper. By using the grey relational model, the aim of this study is to explore how the socio-economic and human activities affect on the air pollution in the city of Beijing, China. Four air pollutants, as the particulate matter with size 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5, particulate matter with size 10 micrometers or less (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NOx, are selected as the indicators of air pollution. Additionally, fifteen socio-economic indicators are selected to account for the regional socio-economic characteristics (economy variables, energy consumption variables, pollution emissions variables, environment and construction activity variables. The results highlight that all variables are associated with the concentrations of the four selected air pollutants, but with notable differences between the air pollutants. Most of the socio-economic indicators, such as industrial output, total energy consumption are highly correlated with PM2.5, while PM10, SO2, and NOx present in general moderate correlations with most of the socio-economic variables. Contrary to other studies and reports this study reveals that vehicles and life energy do not have the strongest effect on air pollution in Beijing. This study provides useful information to reduce air pollution and support decision-making for sustainable development.

  6. The Monitoring and Spatial-Temporal Evolution Characteristic Analysis for Land Subsidence in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Zhao, W.; Yu, J.

    2018-05-01

    At present the land subsidence has been the main geological disaster in the plain area of China, and became one of the most serious disaster that restrict the social and economic sustainable development, it also is an important content in the project of national geographic conditions monitoring. With the development of economy and society, Beijing as the capital of China has experienced significant population growth in the last few decades which led to over-exploitation of the ground water to meet the water demand of more than 20 million inhabitants, especially in the urban region with high population density. However, the rainfall and surface runoff can't satisfy the need of aquifer recharge that product the land subsidence. As China's political center and a metropolis, there are a lot of large constructions, underground traffic projects and complicated municipal pipeline network, and Beijing is also an important traffic hub for national railway and highway network, all of them would be threatened by the land subsidence disaster. In this article the author used twenty ENVISAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired in 2008 June-2010 August and ten TerraSAR images acquired in 2011 June-2012 September were processed with Small Baseline Subset SAR Interferometry (SBAS-InSAR) techniques, to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the urban area of Beijing.

  7. Urban food-energy-water nexus: a case study of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Shao, L.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between the food, energy and water sectors are of great importance to urban sustainable development. This work presents a framework to analyze food-energy-water (FEW) nexus of a city. The method of multi-scale input-output analysis is applied to calculate consumption-based energy and water use that is driven by urban final demand. It is also capable of accounting virtual energy and water flows that is embodied in trade. Some performance indicators are accordingly devised for a comprehensive understanding of the urban FEW nexus. A case study is carried out for the Beijing city. The embodied energy and water use of foods, embodied water of energy industry and embodied energy of water industry are analyzed. As a key node of economic network, Beijing exchanges a lot of materials and products with external economic systems, especially other Chinese provinces, which involves massive embodied energy and water flows. As a result, Beijing relies heavily on outsourcing energy and water to meet local people's consumption. It is revealed that besides the apparent supply-demand linkages, the underlying interconnections among food, water and energy sectors are critical to create sustainable urban areas.

  8. Molecular composition and seasonal variation of amino acids in urban aerosols from Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lujie; Bai, Huahua; Yu, Xi; Wu, Fengchang; Yue, Siyao; Ren, Hong; Li, Linjie; Lai, Senchao; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-05-01

    Fifteen hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA) were quantified in urban aerosols (TSP samples) collected during April 2012 to May 2013 in Beijing, China using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after their derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), to investigate their molecular distributions and seasonal variation. Total concentrations of amino acids ranged from 1.73-25.7 nmol m- 3 with a peak in spring (13.7 nmol m- 3), followed by winter (11.5 nmol m- 3), fall (9.51 nmol m- 3) and summer (7.45 nmol m- 3). Glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala) and valine (Val) are found to be the most abundant species, which account for 46% of the total THAA. Compared with those recorded in previous studies, the atmospheric levels of amino acids in Beijing were higher than those from other regions. Enhanced amounts of methionine, tyrosine, histidine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were found during the rainfall events. The factor analysis further suggests that amino acids in urban Beijing originated from multiple sources including biological emission, biomass burning, as well as anthropogenic activities.

  9. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  10. Intercomparison between aerosol optical properties by a PREDE skyradiometer and CIMEL sunphotometer over Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Che

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the aerosol optical and physical properties simultaneously measured by a SKYNET PREDE skyradiometer and AERONET/PHOTONS CIMEL sunphotometer at a location in Beijing, China. Aerosol optical properties (AOP including the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, Angstrom exponent (α, volume size distribution, single scattering albedo (ω and the complex refractive index were compared. The difference between the two types of instruments was less than 1.3% for the AOD and less than 4% for the single scattering albedo below the wavelength of 670 nm. There is a difference between the volume size distribution patterns derived from two instruments, which is probably due to difference of measurement protocols and inversion algorithms for the respective instruments.

    AOP under three distinct weather conditions (background, haze, and dust days over Beijing were compared by using the retrieved skyradiometer and sunphotometer data combined with MODIS satellite results, pyranometer measurements, PM10 measurements, and backtrajectory analysis. The results show that the significant difference of AOP under background, haze, and dust days over Beijing is probably due to different aerosol components under distinct weather conditions.

  11. Source profiles of volatile organic compounds associated with solvent use in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Wang, Bin

    2010-05-01

    Compositions of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from painting applications and printing processes were sampled and measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC-MS/FID) in Beijing. Toluene and C8 aromatics were the most abundant species, accounting for 76% of the total VOCs emitted from paint applications. The major species in printing emissions included heavier alkanes and aromatics, such as n-nonane, n-decane, n-undecane, toluene, and m/p-xylene. Measurements of VOCs obtained from furniture paint emissions in 2003 and 2007 suggest a quick decline in benzene levels associated with formulation changes in furniture paints during these years. A comparison of VOC source profiles for painting and printing between Beijing and other parts of the world showed significant region-specific discrepancies, probably because of different market demands and environmental standards. We conducted the evaluation of the source reactivities for various VOC emission sources. The ozone formation potential (OFP) for unit mass of VOCs source emissions is the highest for paint applications. Substituting solvent-based paints by water-based in Beijing will lead to an OFP reduction of 152,000 tons per year, which is more than 1/4 of the OFPs for VOCs emissions from vehicle exhaust in the city.

  12. Beijing Experimental Electronic Musicians on the Phenomenon of Commercialization and Tourism in the Contemporary Chinese Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Urbanija

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides opinions of some Beijing experimental electronic musicians about the situation of contemporary art in China and in the world, primarily about the background of the so called Christmas performance in Art District 798's gallery UCCA in Beijing. This was a sort of protest against destroying art with commercialization as the only measure of art gallery's success. The article first describes the situation of contemporary art in the world at the beginning of 21st century as it is described in Julian Stallabrass' book Art Incorporated. It can be deduced from the words of experimental electronic musicians in Beijing that the situation is similar in China. During the debate about the Christmas performance in UCCA gallery, a problem with galleries was emphasize. These became more similar to tourist venues than places for enriching one's thoughts and awareness about the world surrounding us, through artwork. Therefore, the Christmas performance tried to express this sentiment. It offered visitors a tourist show brought to the point of absurd. The employees and the leader of UCCA couldn't comprehend the symbolic meaning of this happening, which, symbolically, took place on Christmas, the most commercialized holiday in the West as well as in China.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yan; Christensen, Thomas H.; Lu Wenjing; Wu Huayong; Wang Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery. The current system, mainly involving the use of landfills, has manifested significant adverse environmental impacts caused by methane emissions from landfills and many other emissions from transfer stations. A short-term future scenario, where some of the landfills (which soon will reach their capacity because of rising amount of waste in Beijing City) are substituted by incinerators with energy recovery, would not result in significant environmental improvement. This is primarily because of the low calorific value of mixed waste, and it is likely that the incinerators would require significant amounts of auxiliary fuels to support combustion of wet waste. As for the long-term future scenario, efficient source separation of food waste could result in significant environmental improvements, primarily because of increase in calorific value of remaining waste incinerated with energy recovery. Sensitivity analysis emphasized the importance of efficient source separation of food waste, as well as the electricity recovery in incinerators, in order to obtain an environmentally friendly waste management system in Beijing City.

  14. Economic Transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region: Is It Undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the people’s health while also causing economic loss. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the pattern of its environmental and economic development. Panel data in the period 2004–2014 are used to establish an advanced model of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The results indicate that the economic growth and environmental pollution of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region do not completely meet the Environment Kuznets Curve assumptions. The discharge volume of industrial wastewater and economic growth reflect a wave-type relation. The sulfur dioxide discharge volume and economic growth reflect a U-shaped relation; the generated volume of industrial solid wastes and economic growth reflect a reversed N-shaped relation, which is in accordance with the Environmental Kuznets Curve characteristics at the second inflection point. The variables added value of the secondary industry, population size and raw coal consumption volume have a significant positive influence on the discharge of various environmental pollutants in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The analysis provides policy recommendations for the government to develop regional economic and environmental protection policies.

  15. The influence of housing characteristics on rural migrants’ living condition in Beijing Fengtai District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the influence of housing characteristics on rural migrants’ living condition in Beijing Fengtai District, China. The researcher will identify rural migrants in Beijing, examine their housing characteristics (housing crowding, housing privacy and housing facility and the influence on their living condition. Also, some suggestions are given to improve their housing characteristics and living condition. The government should revise the migrant housing policy and hukou management. Also, the rural migrants should try to increase their education level and social skills. For the occupation, the local government should give the rural migrants more job opportunity. These issues are analyzed in relation to local government attitudes toward the rural migrants. The analysis is based on data collected from two types of interviews: rural migrants and management interviews which examine the rural migrants’ housing and managerial aspects of this research, respectively. It is also supported by the utilization of secondary data. The findings of the study indicate that the rural migrants’ housing characteristics (housing crowding, housing privacy and housing facility highly influence their living condition in Beijing Fengtai District. Therefore, the local government should give some assistance to this group people in the big cities. This paper reports on the findings of a study to seek acknowledged definitions of the terms Project and Project Management. The study was based on a conventional review and analysis of the definitions from a series of texts.

  16. [Optical properties of aerosol during haze-fog episodes in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xing-Na; Li, Xin-Mei; Deng, Zen-Grandeng; De, Qing-Yangzong; Yuan, Shuai

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the optical properties of aerosol during haze-fog episodes in Beijing. The aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent (alpha), size distribution and single scattering albedo (omega) during haze-fog episodes were analyzed between 2002 and 2008 using AERONENT data. During haze-fog episodes, the aerosol optical depth showed a decreasing trend with wavelengths, and showed high values with an average 1.34 at 440 nm. The magnitude of Angstrom exponent was relatively high during haze-fog episodes and the mean values reached 1.11. The frequency distribution of alpha was up to 94% when alpha > 0.9, indicating the predominance of fine particles during haze-fog episodes in Beijing. The aerosol volume size distributions presented a bimodal structure (fine and coarse modes). The maxima (peaks) radius of fine mode showed an increasing trend with AOD, however, those of coarse mode showed a decreasing trend with AOD. The size distribution showed a distinct difference in dominant mode for the different AOD. The single scattering albedo showed an increasing trend with AOD during haze-fog episodes in Beijing. The mean value of omega was 0.89 at the four wavelengths and the omega exhibited a low sensitivity to wavelengths.

  17. Remote sensing monitoring on soil erosion based on LUCC in Beijing mountain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiying, Chen

    2014-01-01

    The eco-environmental problems caused by land use and land cover change have been a severe block to regional sustainable development in the Beijing mountain areas. In this study, two temporal Landsat TM images in 2002 and 2009 were used, the soil erosion factors included vegetation coverage, slope and land use were calculated. The soil erosion degree was divided into six levels, micro, mild, moderate, strong, intensive and severe. The raster data with 30 m × 30 m pixels small-class of the soil erosion map was used to extract soil erosion information. This thesis evaluated soil erosion dynamic in Beijing mountain areas based on land use and land cover change with the combination of technologies and methodologies of multi-temporal satellite remote sensing, GIS and field investigation. The soil erosion change and their driving forces were analysed. The results showed micro and mild soil erosion mainly existed in the Beijing mountain areas. The moderate erosion emerged in the areas with both slope and poor vegetation cover. The strong, intensive and severe soil erosion were rare but distributed in mountainous areas in Huairou, Miyun, and Mentougou. The soil erosion situation has improved markedly due to environment management from 2002 to 2009

  18. THE MONITORING AND SPATIAL-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS FOR LAND SUBSIDENCE IN BEIJING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available At present the land subsidence has been the main geological disaster in the plain area of China, and became one of the most serious disaster that restrict the social and economic sustainable development, it also is an important content in the project of national geographic conditions monitoring. With the development of economy and society, Beijing as the capital of China has experienced significant population growth in the last few decades which led to over-exploitation of the ground water to meet the water demand of more than 20 million inhabitants, especially in the urban region with high population density. However, the rainfall and surface runoff can’t satisfy the need of aquifer recharge that product the land subsidence. As China’s political center and a metropolis, there are a lot of large constructions, underground traffic projects and complicated municipal pipeline network, and Beijing is also an important traffic hub for national railway and highway network, all of them would be threatened by the land subsidence disaster. In this article the author used twenty ENVISAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images acquired in 2008 June–2010 August and ten TerraSAR images acquired in 2011 June–2012 September were processed with Small Baseline Subset SAR Interferometry (SBAS-InSAR techniques, to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the urban area of Beijing.

  19. [PM₂.₅ Background Concentration at Different Directions in Beijing in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-ting; Cheng, Niam-liang; Zhang, Da-wei; Sun, Rui-wen; Dong, Xin; Sun, Nai-di; Chen, Chen

    2015-12-01

    PM₂.₅, background concentration at different directions in 2013 in Beijing was analyzed combining the techniques of mathematical statistics, physical identification and numerical simulation (CMAQ4.7.1) as well as using monitoring data of six PM₂.₅ auto-monitoring sites and five meteorological sites in 2013. Results showed that background concentrations of PM₂.₅ at northwest, northeast, eastern, southeast, southern and southwest boundary sites were between 40.3 and 85.3 µg · m⁻³ in Beijing. From the lowest to the highest, PMPM₂.₅ background concentrations at different sites were: Miyun reservoir, Badaling, Donggaocun, Yufa, Yongledian and Liulihe. Background concentration of PM₂.₅ was the lowest under north wind, then under west wind, and significantly higher under south and east wind. Calculated PM₂.₅ background average concentrations were 6.5-27.9, 22.4-73.4, 67.2-91.7, 40.7-116.1 µg · m⁻³ respectively in different wind directions. Simulated PM₂.₅ background concentration showed a clear north-south gradient distribution and the surrounding area had a notable effect on the spatial distribution of PM₂.₅ background concentration in 2013 in Beijing.

  20. Ecological relationship analysis of the urban metabolic system of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengsheng; Zhang Yan; Yang Zhifeng; Liu Hong; Zhang Jinyun

    2012-01-01

    Cities can be modelled as giant organisms, with their own metabolic processes, and can therefore be studied using the same tools used for biological metabolic systems. The complicated distribution of compartments within these systems and the functional relationships among them define the system's network structure. Taking Beijing as an example, we divided the city's internal system into metabolic compartments, then used ecological network analysis to calculate a comprehensive utility matrix for the flows between compartments within Beijing's metabolic system from 1998 to 2007 and to identify the corresponding functional relationships among the system's compartments. Our results show how ecological network analysis, utility analysis, and relationship analysis can be used to discover the implied ecological relationships within a metabolic system, thereby providing insights into the system's internal metabolic processes. Such analyses provide scientific support for urban ecological management. - Highlights: ► Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by treating cities as superorganisms. ► We developed an ecological network model for an urban system. ► We studied the system's network relationships using ecological network analysis. ► We developed indices for judging the system's synergism and degree of stability. - Using Beijing as an example of an urban superorganism, we used ecological network analysis to describe the ecological relationships among the urban metabolic system's compartments.