WorldWideScience

Sample records for behcet disease imaging

  1. Behcet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another Institute of the National Institutes of Health, conducts research into the genomic basis of Behcet's disease. This research is aimed at discovering the causes of these disorders and finding ways to treat, ...

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in neuro-Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki; Fukutake, Toshio; Hirayama, Keizo; Iwamoto, Itsuo

    1987-01-01

    In four patients with neuro-Behcet's disease, the findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated in comparison with the results of X-ray computed tomography (CT), especially for brainstem lesions. MRI was able to reveal brainstem lesions in three patients, in addition to lesions of basal ganglia, internal capsule and thalamus in the same patients. In contrast, X-ray CT demonstrated lesions of basal ganglia and internal capsule in only one patient, and it did not detect any brainstem lesions. Non-specific findings, including cerebral and brainstem atrophy, were revealed more clearly in inversion recovery images than in X-ray CT. Spin echo images were superior to inversion recovery images for detecting the lesions of demyelination, necrosis, gliosis and so on in neuro-Behcet's disease. The brainstem lesions visualized by MRI were situated in the regions of the basis pontis, cerebral peduncle and tectum of the midbrain. In neuro-Behcet's disease, the main pathological lesions are known occur in the ventral parts of the brainstem, but X-ray CT cannot always reveale these brainstem lesions because it produces bone artifacts. For this reason, the X-ray CT findings of neuro-Behcet's disease reported previously have been nonspecific cerebral or brainstem atrophy and decreased attenuations in the basal ganglia or subcortical white matter. Thus it is generally difficult to differentiate neuro-Behcet's disease from other intracranial lesions on the basis of the supratentorial X-ray CT findings. However, the above mentioned brainstem lesions visualized by MRI are consistent with the pathologically preferential site in neuro-Behcet's disease, and MRI can assist in the clinical diagnosis of neuro-Behcet's disease by demonstrating the brainstem lesions clearly, even when neurological involvement precedes the typical dermatologic and ophthalmologic manifestations. (author)

  3. Musculoskeletal Findings in Behcet's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bicer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, relapsing uveitis, mucocutaneous, articular, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and vascular manifestations. Rheumatologic manifestations may also occur in Behcet's disease, and arthritis and arthralgia are the most common musculoskeletal findings followed by enthesopathy, avascular necrosis, myalgia, and myositis. Although the main pathology of Behcet's disease has been known to be the underlying vasculitis, the etiology and exact pathogenesis of the disease are still unclear. Musculoskeletal findings of Behcet's disease, the relationship between Behcet's disease and spondyloarthropathy disease complex, and the status of bone metabolism in patients with Behcet's disease were discussed in this paper.

  4. Behcet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to distinguish from inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn’s disease). What causes Behcet’s Disease? Behcet’s is one of the few forms of vasculitis in which there is a known genetic predisposition. The presence of the gene HLA–B51 is a risk factor for this disease. However, it must be emphasized ...

  5. MRI in neuro-Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, E.T.; Atilla, S.; Keskin, T.; Simonson, T.; Isik, S.; Yuh, W.T.C.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterise specific MRI findings and to determine their value in neuro-Behcet's disease. We examined 17 patients (14 men, 3 women) with neuro-Behcet's disease using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and contrast-enhanced images at 0.5 T. There were 13 patients (76.5 %) who had single or multiple lesions. Most of these were in the basal ganglia, brain stem or deep white matter region, giving high signal on T2-weighted images and isointense or low signal on T1-weighted images. In 3 cases (17.6 %) there was linear high signal along the posterior limb of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. This was considered as a potential differentiating feature of neuro-Behcet's disease. Contrast-enhancement was seen in 17 lesions in 7 patients. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Symptom management in Behcets disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Filiz; Tureyen, Aynur Esen; Aykar, Fisun Senuzun

    2018-01-01

    To determine the symptoms experienced by patients diagnosed with Behcet's Disease and how they cope with them. The qualitative study was conducted from September 2013 to March 2014 at Ege University Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey, comprising patients having all symptoms of Behcet's Disease. Data was collected through semi-structured focus-group interview form. The findings were assessed using Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms and Symptom Management Theory. SPSS 20 and Nvivo 10 were used for data analysis. Of the 35 patients, 16(45.8%) were female and 19(54.2%) were male. The symptoms affected patients' lives, and the patients used either positive or negative symptom management strategies, leading to either positive or negative results during symptom management. Behcet's Disease patients needed effective symptom management.

  7. Behcet's disease involving the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleto, Maria Jesus; Marcos, Lourdes

    2002-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown origin that was traditionally defined by oral and genital ulcers and uveitis. We describe a case of a patient with a diagnosis of Behcet's syndrome who presented a palpable lesion in the right breast with inflammatory signs. X-ray findings posed a differential diagnosis between tumoral and inflammatory pathology. The pathological findings confirmed a small-vessel vasculitis. We found two reports of breast involvement by this disease in the literature. Our patient was studied by mammogram and sonogram which together with clinical history are important to prevent delay in diagnosis and unnecessary therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  8. Behcet's disease with cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardamaglia, L.; Desmond, P.M.; Gonzales, M.F.; Bendrups, A.; Brodtmann, A.

    2001-01-01

    The case presented illustrates the diagnostic dilemma off neurological involvement in Behcet's disease and other inflammatory diseases. 'Psychiatric' symptoms were present for 2 years without abnormalities on SPECT or MRI and without CSF pleocytosis. Even at the time of fitting, no CSF abnormalities were observed. The preceding psychiatric presentations may have been due to cerebral vasculitis that was exacerbated by withdrawal of steroids. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most sensitive imaging modality. Lesions are usually in the brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia region or periventricular white matter, and the pons and the mesencephalon are commonly affected. In our patient there was no diencephalic or brainstem involvement. The inflammatory process can appear as a very large lesion, with gadolinium enhancement and significant mass effect, as in our patient. Brain magnetic resonance imaging. Postgadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, axial image shows two large lesions in the right frontal lobe, with the larger, posterior lesion demonstrating vivid ring enhancement. A central nodule is isodense, with the cerebral white matter within the larger lesion. Surrounding low T 1 signal involves the hemispheric white matter without cortical extension and is consistent with vasogenic oedema. Minor mass effect is demonstrated with bowing of the anterior falx cerebri to the left. Biopsy shows prominent fibrinoid necrosis in small calibre postcapillary venules and cerebral white matter. There are surrounding acute and chronic inflammatory cells and nuclear debris, consistent with vasculitis

  9. Meningeal involvement in Behcet`s disease: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guma, A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Llobregat (Spain); Aguilera, C.; Pons, L. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Centre de Bellvitge, Llobregat (Spain); Acebes, J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Universitaria de Bellvitge, Llobregat (Spain); Arruga, J. [Department of Ophthalmology, Universitaria de Bellvitge, Llobregat (Spain)

    1998-08-01

    Behcet`s disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.) With 4 figs., 11 refs.

  10. Radiologically- detectable sacroiliac involvement in behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadji, A.; Shabani, M.; Jamshidi, A.; Shahram, F.; Davatchi, F.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The association of Behcet's disease and ankylosing spondylitis is still a matter of debate. Objective: As the presence of sacroiliac joint involvement is an essential criterion in diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis . We decided to determined the prevalence of sacroiliac joint involvement in Behcet's disease and compare it with that of a control group. Patients and Methods: We randomly selected two groups of 199 Behcet's disease patients and 168 non- Behcet's disease cases (the controls). All cases were over 20 years of ages. Standard anteroposterior radiographs of the sacroiliac joint were obtained and interpreted by two rheumatologists and a radiologists blinded to the diagnosis. To determined the severity of the condition, the following 5-point scale was employed: Normal (O), pseudo-widening (1), sclerosis (2), erosion (3), and bony fusion (4). The eliminate any doubt, only grades 3 and 4 were considered as sacroiliitis. Both group were separately evaluated for age (≤ 30, and ≥ 30), and gender. Results were compared using Chi square test. Results: The groups were matched for age and sex: There were 98 (49.2%) females in Behcet's disease vs. 91 (54.2%) in the control group (p=O.35). The mean ±SD age was 35±8.3 years in Behcet's disease and 35 ±10 in control group (p=1). The sacroiliac joint was involved in 9 (4.6%) patients in Behcet's disease and 7 (4.2%) patients in control group (p=O.93). Comparisons between the results of the unisexual cohorts revealed to significance either (p=O.68 for males, and p=O.64 for females). The age subdivisions (under- and over-30) again showed no significant difference (p=O.96 and p=O.69 for under- and over -30 patients, respectively). Conclusion: The presence of radiographic signs of sacroiliac joint involvement is not mandatory for the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis

  11. Colonic localization of indium-111 labeled leukocytes in active Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harre, R.G.; Conrad, G.R.; Seabold, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A patient with known Behcet's disease demonstrated intense colonic localization of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Gastrointestinal involvement had not been previously manifested, but extensive colonic inflammation was documented by endoscopy. This case illustrates the utility of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging for detecting active bowel disease in a debilitated patient with documented Behcet's vasculitis

  12. Brain MRI in 17 patients with ocular Behcet`s disease; Risonanza Magnetica dell`encefalo in 17 pazienti affetti da malattia di Behcet oculare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accorinti, Massimo; Pivetti Pezzi, Paola [Rome, Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Oftalmologia; Di Biasi, Claudio; Trasimeni, Guido; Melone, Antonio; Gualdi, Gianfranco [Rome, Univ. (Italy). Unita` TC-RM I Clinica Medica

    1997-04-01

    Behcet`s disease is a chronic relapsing disorder of unknown etiology characterized by oral aphthous ulcerations, uveitis, genital ulcerations and bone lesions. A variety of other signs including polyarthritis, vascular conditions (blood vessel occlusions and aneurysms), epididymitis, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and heart lesions may also occur. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is reported in 10-49 % of cases and it is the first symptom of the disease in 5 % of subjects. The neuro-Behcet`s syndrome may appear as a brainstem syndrome, and an organic confusional syndrome or dementia. cranial hypertension, mostly related to cerebral venus thrombosis, is also present in neuro-Behcet`s disease and its incidence is reported in up to 10 % of Behcet`s patients. MRI is reportedly the most sensitive neuroradiological approach to detect the focal lesions related to neuro-Behcet disease and several single cases or series of Behcet`s patients with neurologic sings have been examined with MRI. They used MRI to investigate CNS involvement in Behcet`s disease patients with and without previous neurologic sings. MRI was carried out on 17 patients with ocular Behcet`s disease without neurological symptoms to assess the possible subclinical involvement of the CNS. PD and T2-weighted hypersignal foci were demonstrated in parietal, frontal, subcortical and periventricular white matter in 6 subjects. Neuroradiological abnormalities were found only in patients with complete disease and with the disease diagnosed more than 10 years earlier. Even though the pathogenesis of these neuroradiological abnormalities and their correlation with Behcet`s disease remain to be clarified, their study suggests the possibility of subclinical CNS involvement in these patients, which may affect the therapeutic approach and their prognosis.

  13. Vitamin D deficiency in patients with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faezi, Seyedeh Tahereh; Ansari, Narges; Paragomi, Pedram; Akhlaghi, Maassoumeh; Ghanavat, Majid; Davatchi, Fereydoun

    2014-01-22

    Behcet's disease is an autoimmune, recurrent and multisystem disease. Vitamin D has immunomodulator role in immune system. So that vitamin D deficiency was reported in some autoimmune diseases. Behcet's disease as a Silk Road disease is common in Iran. The aim of this study was to detect the serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D in Behcet's patients and control group. In this case-control study, 112 Behcet's patients as cases group and 112 healthy individuals as controls group were enrolled. Any subject on vitamin D supplement, steroid, and immunosuppressors during the last 6 months were excluded. The serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D was measured in the two groups by ELISA method. The findings were compared via SPSS software. About 57% and 17% of Behcet's patients had vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common in controls than cases group (P Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in controls (P B5, and HLA-B51 with vitamin D level in Behcet's patients. Vitamin D deficiency is common among Behcet's patients. However, our results revealed vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common in healthy controls in comparison with Behcet's cases.

  14. Meningeal involvement in Behcet's disease: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guma, A.; Aguilera, C.; Pons, L.; Acebes, J.; Arruga, J.

    1998-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.)

  15. Behcet's disease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beenish Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS patients often present with orogenital ulcers. In the immunocompromised patient diagnosis of these ulcers pose a challenge, as there is a myriad of etiologies. We present a case of an HIV/AIDS patient with recurrent orogenital aphthosis that was confirmed to have concomitant diagnosis of Behcet's disease. Proper awareness of the causes of these ulcers is essential for prompt and effective treatment. While rare causes may be at the bottom of a differential list in an immunocompetent host, when HIV/AIDS is involved these rare causes often percolate to the top.

  16. Behcet's disease: epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatchi, Fereydoun; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda; Shams, Hormoz; Shahram, Farhad; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Akhlaghi, Massoomeh; Faezi, Tahreh; Ghodsi, Zahra; Sadeghi Abdollahi, Bahar; Ashofteh, Farimah; Mohtasham, Negin; Kavosi, Hoda; Masoumi, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Behcet's Disease (BD) is classified among vasculitides. The aim of this review was to put together different known reports in order to help the reader to better understand the disease, to avoid the frequent misdiagnosis, and to decide the best treatment. Areas covered: a) Epidemiology: BD is rare, and is seen along the Silk Road, from 20 to 420/100,000 in Turkey and 80/100,000 in Iran, to 0.64/100,000 in the UK. b) Clinical manifestations: oral aphthosis is seen in more than 95% of patients, genital aphthosis (60-90%), skin (pseudofolliculitis/erythema nodosum, 40-90%), eyes (uveitis/retinal vasculitis, 45-90%), gastrointestinal (diarrhea/hemorrhage/perforation/pain, 4-38%), vascular (venous/arterial thrombosis, aneurysm, 2.2-50%), neurological (all kinds, especially meningo-encephalitis, 2.3-38.5%), and articular (arthralgia/arthritis/ankylosing spondylitis, 11.6-93%). c) Pathergy test is positive in some patients: 8.6% (in India) to 70.7% (in China). This data was extracted from the five nationwide surveys and the largest case series from BD conference reports and a Pubmed search. Expert commentary: Diagnosis is clinical but classification/diagnosis criteria may help. The best criteria for BD is the International Criteria for Behcet's Disease (ICBD). BD is a multisystem disease progressing by attacks and remissions. Each attack may resemble the preceding or it may be different in duration, severity, and the systems involved.

  17. Brain MRI in 17 patients with ocular Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accorinti, Massimo; Pivetti Pezzi, Paola; Di Biasi, Claudio; Trasimeni, Guido; Melone, Antonio; Gualdi, Gianfranco

    1997-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a chronic relapsing disorder of unknown etiology characterized by oral aphthous ulcerations, uveitis, genital ulcerations and bone lesions. A variety of other signs including polyarthritis, vascular conditions (blood vessel occlusions and aneurysms), epididymitis, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and heart lesions may also occur. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is reported in 10-49 % of cases and it is the first symptom of the disease in 5 % of subjects. The neuro-Behcet's syndrome may appear as a brainstem syndrome, and an organic confusional syndrome or dementia. cranial hypertension, mostly related to cerebral venus thrombosis, is also present in neuro-Behcet's disease and its incidence is reported in up to 10 % of Behcet's patients. MRI is reportedly the most sensitive neuroradiological approach to detect the focal lesions related to neuro-Behcet disease and several single cases or series of Behcet's patients with neurologic sings have been examined with MRI. They used MRI to investigate CNS involvement in Behcet's disease patients with and without previous neurologic sings. MRI was carried out on 17 patients with ocular Behcet's disease without neurological symptoms to assess the possible subclinical involvement of the CNS. PD and T2-weighted hypersignal foci were demonstrated in parietal, frontal, subcortical and periventricular white matter in 6 subjects. Neuroradiological abnormalities were found only in patients with complete disease and with the disease diagnosed more than 10 years earlier. Even though the pathogenesis of these neuroradiological abnormalities and their correlation with Behcet's disease remain to be clarified, their study suggests the possibility of subclinical CNS involvement in these patients, which may affect the therapeutic approach and their prognosis

  18. Progressive atlanto-axial subluxation in Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-hyuk; Eoh, Whan

    2010-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition involving several organs, such as the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, joints, intestines, lungs and central nervous system. It rarely affects the spinal column. We describe a case of progressive atlanto-axial subluxation in a 44-year-old woman with Behcet's disease. The patient started complaining of posterior neck pain 10 years after the diagnosis of her Behcet's disease. Initial radiographs showed no abnormal finding, but follow-up radiographs 6 month later demonstrated atlanto-axial subluxation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case in the worldwide literature of an atlanto-axial instability in a patient with Behcet's disease. (orig.)

  19. Magnetization transfer ratio in neuro-Behcet disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anik, Yonca; Demirci, Ali; Akansel, Guer [University of Kocaeli, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kural, Zekiye [American Hospital, Department of Neurology, Istanbul (Turkey); Aksu, Sibel; Vural, Metin [American Hospital, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) in detecting disease in normal-appearing brain regions of patients with neuro-Behcet (NB) disease. Thirty-two patients with NB disease were assessed. Fifteen healthy volunteers were examined as the control group. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the head was performed without and with magnetization transfer (MT) contrast. Signal intensity measurements were obtained from ten anatomical regions (centrum semiovale, corona radiata, internal capsule, forceps major, forceps minor, thalamus, substantia nigra pars compacta, substantia nigra pars grisea, inferior pons and middle cerebellar peduncle) in both groups. Also measured in the NB group were parenchymal lesions in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral deep white matter. MTR was calculated for each measurement. Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U and independent t-tests with computer-based SPSS 11.0 for Windows software. A Pvalue below 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean MTR of the parenchymal lesions in the NB group was lower than the mean MTR of the normal-appearing parenchyma in both the NB patients and the normal group. For the normal-appearing parenchyma the mean MTR in the NB group was higher than that for the controls for all regions except the corona radiata; however, the difference was statistically significant only for the thalamus. The MRI-visible parenchymal involvement of Behcet's disease causes a decrease in MTR. For the normal-appearing brain, although lacking statistical significance for the most regions studied, the tendency for higher MTR in NB patients compared with controls may offer an insight into the pathophysiology of Behcet's disease. (orig.)

  20. Magnetization transfer ratio in neuro-Behcet disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anik, Yonca; Demirci, Ali; Akansel, Guer; Kural, Zekiye; Aksu, Sibel; Vural, Metin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) in detecting disease in normal-appearing brain regions of patients with neuro-Behcet (NB) disease. Thirty-two patients with NB disease were assessed. Fifteen healthy volunteers were examined as the control group. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the head was performed without and with magnetization transfer (MT) contrast. Signal intensity measurements were obtained from ten anatomical regions (centrum semiovale, corona radiata, internal capsule, forceps major, forceps minor, thalamus, substantia nigra pars compacta, substantia nigra pars grisea, inferior pons and middle cerebellar peduncle) in both groups. Also measured in the NB group were parenchymal lesions in the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebral deep white matter. MTR was calculated for each measurement. Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U and independent t-tests with computer-based SPSS 11.0 for Windows software. A Pvalue below 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean MTR of the parenchymal lesions in the NB group was lower than the mean MTR of the normal-appearing parenchyma in both the NB patients and the normal group. For the normal-appearing parenchyma the mean MTR in the NB group was higher than that for the controls for all regions except the corona radiata; however, the difference was statistically significant only for the thalamus. The MRI-visible parenchymal involvement of Behcet's disease causes a decrease in MTR. For the normal-appearing brain, although lacking statistical significance for the most regions studied, the tendency for higher MTR in NB patients compared with controls may offer an insight into the pathophysiology of Behcet's disease. (orig.)

  1. A brain mass in a patient with Behcet's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfedaghi, Ahmad S; Masters, Y; Mourou, M; Eshak, O

    2015-09-30

    This case report describes an uncommon presentation of Behcet's disease which manifested as neuro-Behcet's disease. Although it is not the first reported case in the medical literature, it is a possible differential in a patient presenting with a brain tumor. Since the diagnosis of neuro-Behcet's disease depends largely on the clinical picture and medical history, it should be considered prior to opting for invasive diagnostic methods. Our patient is a 36-year-old white man from Kuwait. He presented with acute onset of headache, vomiting, and right-sided weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed a mass in the brain stem. He then revealed that he had a history of recurrent painful oral and genital ulcers for the past 10 years, which suggested a diagnosis of Behcet's disease. A brain biopsy was recommended by a neurosurgeon at the time, but the patient refused the procedure. After initiating steroid therapy, the mass began to regress and, eventually, was undetectable on subsequent imaging of his brain. This case of neuro-Behcet's disease reflects the need to consider this diagnosis in a patient of less than 40 years of age presenting with a suspected brain tumor. This may delay the need for invasive diagnostic methods, especially if such methods are not desired by the patient. In the management of suspected neuro-Behcet's disease, initiating steroid therapy and measuring the response is a reasonable option before seeking a definitive diagnosis via brain biopsy. If the response to steroids is minimal then a brain biopsy should be performed.

  2. Proton MRS in Behcet's disease with and without neurological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysal, T.; Sarac, K.; Dusak, A.; Ozisik, H.I.; Ozcan, C.; Karlidag, R.; Baysal, O.; Hazneci, E.

    2003-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether neurological impairment in Behcet's disease (BD) can be assessed by means of proton MRS and whether it can assist in prognosis. We used single-voxel MRS to measure metabolites in regions of normal-appearing pons, basal ganglia and periventricular white matter (PWM) in 32 patients with chronic BD patients with and without neurological deficits and 29 control subjects. Patients had significantly higher N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios in the basal ganglia than the controls. The Cho/Cr ratio in the PWM was also significantly higher in the patients. MRS enabled clear discrimination of patients and controls and also revealed spectral differences between non-neuro-Behcet's disease and neuro-Behcet's disease in the basal ganglia. MRS can be used to assess brain involvement in BD even if structural changes are absent. (orig.)

  3. Behcet's disease involving the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleto, Maria Jesus; Marcos, Lourdes [Department of Radiology, Hospital de la Princesa, Universidad Autonoma, Diego de Leon 62, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Behcet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown origin that was traditionally defined by oral and genital ulcers and uveitis. We describe a case of a patient with a diagnosis of Behcet's syndrome who presented a palpable lesion in the right breast with inflammatory signs. X-ray findings posed a differential diagnosis between tumoral and inflammatory pathology. The pathological findings confirmed a small-vessel vasculitis. We found two reports of breast involvement by this disease in the literature. Our patient was studied by mammogram and sonogram which together with clinical history are important to prevent delay in diagnosis and unnecessary therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  4. Radiological aspects in pulmonary involvement of Behcet disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Im, Jung Gi; Kim, Hyung Jin; Park, Jae Hyung

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the pulmonary manifestations of Behcet disease, authors reviewed the chest radiographs of 130 cases of Behcet disease diagnosed at Seoul National University Hospital from January 1980 to December 1987 retrospectively. Of the 130 cases, 6 cases (4.6%) showed pulmonary abnormalities that were considered as a manifestation of Behcet disease. Two cases showed round masses near the hila on chest radiographs which were confirmed as pulmonary artery aneurysms on angiographies. Two cases showed pulmonary infiltrates due to pulmonary infarcts. Others were a case of unilateral pulmonary edema due to compression og the contralateral pulmonary artery by aortic aneurysm and a case of lung abscess due to esophagobronchial fistula as a compulmonary artery by aortic aneurysm and a case of lung abscess due to esophagobronchial fistula as a complication of esophageal ulcer. Though its occurrence is rare, nodular and/or infiltrative pulmonary lesions in patients with Behcet disease should be suspected as a vascular involvement of the disease itself until proven otherwise.

  5. Exudative pleural effusion associated with Behcet's disease | Ikuabe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Behcet's disease is a rare immune mediated small vessel systemic vasculitis in which diagnosis is mainly clinical and requires the presence of recurrent oral ulcers and at least two additional criteria that includes recurrent mouth and genital ulcers, skin lesions, eye inflammation (uveitis) and a positive pathergy ...

  6. Neurological Manifestation of Behcet's Disease: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behcet's disease causes inflammation of blood vessels but it is of unknown aetiology. When it involves the nervous system, it may present with benign headaches, aseptic meningitis, meningoencephalitis, cranial nerve palsies, seizures, personality changes, and cerebral venous thrombosis. We present the case of A.G is a ...

  7. Sequential gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI studies in neuro-Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazui, S.; Naritomi, H.; Ogawa, M.; Sawada, T.; Imakita, S.; Yamada, N.

    1991-01-01

    Sequential gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced MR images were obtained before and after steroid therapy in a case of neuro-Behcet's disease. Multiple scattered lesions, which could not be detected on pre- and post-contrast CT, were demonstrated mainly in the white matter of the pons and/or the cerebrum with both T1- and T2-weighted images. Some of these lesions, however, were not enhanced at all by infusion of Gd-DTPA. The Gd-DTPA infusion study demonstrated marked enhancement in the white matter of the pons and cerebrum. Some lesions not seen with T2-weighted images were also strongly enhanced by Gd-DTPA infusion at the acute stage. After steroid therapy, the symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings were resolved. The pontine and cerebral lesions on plain MR images remained unchanged even after resolution of the symptoms, suggesting that they were inactive old foci. On the other hand, the lesions detected in the enhancement study before steroid therapy disappeared with the repeat Gd-DTPA enhanced MR images which were performed after resolution of the symptoms. Some active inflammatory lesions in neuro-Behcet's disease may be demonstrated only on Gd-DTPA enhanced MR images. Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging appears to be potentially useful for detecting active inflammatory lesions in neuro-Behcet's disease and for evaluating the efficacy of treatment. (orig.)

  8. Vitamin D status in patients with Behcet's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Karatay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of patients with Behcet's Disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients with Behcet's Disease and 31 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium (Ca, phosphate (P, and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured in both groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic data. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of patients and controls were 13.76 (range: 4.00-35.79 and 18.97 (range: 12.05-36.94 ng/ml, respectively. In patients with Behcet's Disease, 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were significantly lower than those of the healthy controls (p<0.001. Serum Ca, P, and ALP levels were similar in both groups. Serum ESR and CRP levels were significantly higher in patients than controls (p<0.05. There was no correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and age, body mass index (BMI, disease duration, ESR, or CRP levels. Multivariate regression analysis parameters showed that smoking, alcohol intake, and use of colchicine were the main predictors of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Of the parameters studied, the largest impact was due to colchicine therapy (p<0.001. We did not find a significant relationship between the use of corticosteroids and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are decreased in patients with Behcet's Disease. Smoking, alcohol intake, and use of colchicine appear to affect vitamin D levels.

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging in chronic Behcet patients with and without neurological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, T.; Dogan, M.; Bulut, T.; Sarac, K. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Karlidag, R. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Malatya (Turkey); Ozisik, H.I. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Malatya (Turkey); Baysal, O. [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Malatya (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether neurological impairment in chronic Behcet's disease (BD) patients with normal appearing brain can be assessed by means of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The averaged apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in 22 different radiologically normal appearing brain regions in 32 patients with and without neurological findings and 20 control subjects. The ADC values in bilateral frontal, temporal and occipital normal appearing white matter were significantly higher in the patient groups compared with the control subjects (p<0.05). In these brain regions, DWI revealed differences in the ADC values between patients with neurological findings (including symptomatic and neuro-Behcet patients) and the asymptomatic patient group. The similarity of the ADC values of patients without symptoms to those of the control group allowed clear discrimination between patients with and without neurological findings. DWI may serve to assess subclinical neurological involvement in BD, even when structural changes are absent. (orig.)

  10. Diffusion-weighted imaging in chronic Behcet patients with and without neurological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysal, T.; Dogan, M.; Bulut, T.; Sarac, K.; Karlidag, R.; Ozisik, H.I.; Baysal, O.

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether neurological impairment in chronic Behcet's disease (BD) patients with normal appearing brain can be assessed by means of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The averaged apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in 22 different radiologically normal appearing brain regions in 32 patients with and without neurological findings and 20 control subjects. The ADC values in bilateral frontal, temporal and occipital normal appearing white matter were significantly higher in the patient groups compared with the control subjects (p<0.05). In these brain regions, DWI revealed differences in the ADC values between patients with neurological findings (including symptomatic and neuro-Behcet patients) and the asymptomatic patient group. The similarity of the ADC values of patients without symptoms to those of the control group allowed clear discrimination between patients with and without neurological findings. DWI may serve to assess subclinical neurological involvement in BD, even when structural changes are absent. (orig.)

  11. A controlled study of reliability and validity of MRI findings in neuro-Behcet`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, O. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, 34390 Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Bahar, S. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, 34390 Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Akman-Demir, G. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, 34390 Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Serdaroglu, P. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, 34390 Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Baykan-Kurt, B. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, 34390 Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Tolun, R. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, 34390 Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Yurdakul, S. [Department of Internal Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Yazici, H. [Department of Internal Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1996-05-01

    Our aim was to test the reliability of interpreting MRI studies in neuro-Behcet`s disease (NBD) and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of different MRI findings. We prospectively studied 50 patients: 24 had chronic NBD, 12 multiple sclerosis, 5 vasculitis other than Behcet`s disease (BD) and 9 patients had BD without neurological involvement. MRI studies were performed according to a standard protocol with a 0.2 T imager. Two neuroradiologists, blinded to the diagnosis, age and sex of the subjects, reviewed the films independently, twice. Separate assessments were made for a set of items: dural sinus pathology, widening of ventricles and sulci, brain stem atrophy, lesions of the cerebral cortex, discrete lesions of deep white matter, basal ganglia, brain stem and cerebellum and the presence of smooth periventricular high-signal foci. Intraobserver agreement was substantial or better, and interobserver agreement moderate to substantial for most items. In these patients with chronic NBD we found low sensitivity on all assessed items. Dural sinus pathology or brain stem atrophy were highly specific, but parenchymal lesions in different sites had uniformly low specificity. (orig.). With 3 tabs.

  12. Colitis of Behcet's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, D.J.; Courtney, J.V.; Riddell, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Three patients with Behcet's syndrome and colitis are described. The radiologic and histologic appearances of the colitis are discussed. The similarities of Behcet's colitis to Crohn's disease are outlined. The cases demonstrate the necessity to consider Behcet's syndrome in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. (orig.) [de

  13. Progressive atlanto-axial subluxation in Behcet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-hyuk [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Jeonju City, Jeonbuk (Korea); Eoh, Whan [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-03-15

    Behcet's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition involving several organs, such as the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, joints, intestines, lungs and central nervous system. It rarely affects the spinal column. We describe a case of progressive atlanto-axial subluxation in a 44-year-old woman with Behcet's disease. The patient started complaining of posterior neck pain 10 years after the diagnosis of her Behcet's disease. Initial radiographs showed no abnormal finding, but follow-up radiographs 6 month later demonstrated atlanto-axial subluxation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case in the worldwide literature of an atlanto-axial instability in a patient with Behcet's disease. (orig.)

  14. Anakinra treatment in drug-resistant Behcet's disease: a case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantarini, L.; Vitale, A.; Scalini, P.; Dinarello, C.A.; Rigante, D.; Franceschini, R.; Simonini, G.; Borsari, G.; Caso, F.; Lucherini, O.M.; Frediani, B.; Bertoldi, I.; Punzi, L.; Galeazzi, M.; Cimaz, R.

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to report treatment with an interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, in patients with multiorgan Behcet's disease (BD). Comparison of clinical manifestations, previous treatments, markers of inflammation, concomitant medications, treatment regimen modifications,

  15. Efficacy of infliximab in refractory posterior uveitis in Behcet's disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman K. El Garf; Amira A. Shahin; Sherif A. Shawky; Mohammed A. Azim; Dina A. Effat; Sherry K. Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the work: Ocular manifestations are the main cause of morbidity in Behcet's disease (BD). Infliximab (IFX), a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor-alpha, may be efficient in refractory uveitis due to BD. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of IFX in the treatment of patients with BD-associated refractory posterior uveitis (PU). Patient and Methods: Twenty patients with refractory Behcet's PU received IFX therapy as intravenous infu...

  16. Association of sleep quality in Behcet disease with disease activity, depression, and quality of life in Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Son, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ji-Min; Cho, Yong-Won; Kim, Sang-Hyon

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disturbance is prime concern in patients with Behcet disease. The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of sleep quality, in Korean patients suffering from Behcet disease. We further investigated the relationship between depression, quality of life and the clinical findings of Behcet disease. The study was performed by the cross-sectional design. Sleep quality was assessed by the Korean version of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Disease activity of Behcet disease was evaluated by Behcet disease current activity form (BDCAF). Depression was assessed by the Korean version of Beck depression inventory second edition (BDI-2). Quality of life was assessed by the Korean version of the Leeds Behcet disease quality of life measure (BDQoL). Among the 100 patients studied, 42% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI ≥ 9). These patients have a higher BDI-2, total BDCAF and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score ( p sleep quality is directly associated with disease activity, depression, and quality of life in Korean patients with Behcet disease.

  17. MR findings of neuro-Behcet's disease: initial and follow-up changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Beom; Chang, Ki Hyun; Kim, Hong Dae [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee; Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo; Yu, In Kyu [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Su Ok [Cheonju St. Mary' s Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Seok [Cheju Medical Center, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of neuro{sub B}ehcet's disease, and changes occurring during follow up. Brain MR imaging was performed in 19 patients in whom neuro-Behcet's disease had been clinically diagnosed. After treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, 23 follow-up MR images were obtained in 12 patients, and a total of 42 MR images were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. Of the 19 patients, 17 (89%) had parenchymal lesions, and the other two had dural venous sinus thrombosis. Among the 17 patients with parenchymal lesions, three showed leptomeningeal enhancement. A total of 72 parenchymal lesions were detected on initial MR images; 55 (76%) were patchy or nodular in shape and the lesion of the internal capsule appeared linear. Seventeen lesions (24%) in 12 patients were confluent. In order of frequency, the involved sites were the pons, midbrain, thalamus, basal ganglia, internal capsule, and frontal lobe. Thirteen lesions of 39 lesions detected on postcontrast images were enhanced, and a mass effect was seen in the area of 16 parenchymal lesions. Associated findings were microhemorrhage of the brain in two patients and spinal cord involvement in one. On short-term follow-up images obtained 1 week to 2 months after intensive treatment during the acute stage of the illness, the leptomeningeal enhancement seen in three patients had decreased and most parenchymal lesions showed improvement. Long-term follow-up images obtained 3 months to 3 years late showed that parenchymal lesions had relapsed in five patients, and brainstem atrophy had developed or progressed in five others. The most characteristic MR finding of neuro-Behcet's disease is multiple non-hemorrhagic lesions involving the brainstem. Leptomeningeal enhancement and dural venous sinus thrombosis may also be noted. On follow-up MR, the lesions may show either improvement or aggravation, and brainstem atrophy is not uncommon. (author)

  18. Behcet's disease: demographic and genetic aspects (a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ismailovna Izmailova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature focused on Behcet's disease (BD is presented. BD is systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. BD is endemic in the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean coast and the areas of Central and East Asia. We report the data on BD prevalence in different regions and the effect of population migration on BD incidence rate. Patients were found to be younger at the onset of the disease in Arab countries, Turkey, and Israel (19.9; 25.6; and 26 years, respectively than those in East Asia countries (31.7 years. We summarized the data attesting to the genetic susceptibility in BD patients: HLA B51-positive individuals, family aggregation observed when studying twins, etc. The clinical polymorphism in BD patients was shown to depend on their region of residence and ethnicity. The data of a series of large cohort studies are reported; the frequencies of the international criteria of BD in the US and Japanese patients are compared in these studies. The question regarding the need for cross-sectional population-based and case-control studies using the standard criteria and clear definition of ethnicity is brought up in some publications.

  19. Behcet's disease: demographic and genetic aspects (a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ismailovna Izmailova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature focused on Behcet's disease (BD is presented. BD is systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. BD is endemic in the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean coast and the areas of Central and East Asia. We report the data on BD prevalence in different regions and the effect of population migration on BD incidence rate. Patients were found to be younger at the onset of the disease in Arab countries, Turkey, and Israel (19.9; 25.6; and 26 years, respectively than those in East Asia countries (31.7 years. We summarized the data attesting to the genetic susceptibility in BD patients: HLA B51-positive individuals, family aggregation observed when studying twins, etc. The clinical polymorphism in BD patients was shown to depend on their region of residence and ethnicity. The data of a series of large cohort studies are reported; the frequencies of the international criteria of BD in the US and Japanese patients are compared in these studies. The question regarding the need for cross-sectional population-based and case-control studies using the standard criteria and clear definition of ethnicity is brought up in some publications.

  20. The Effect of Colchicine on Mean Platelet Volume in Behcet's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Hatice; Cemil, Bengü Cevirgen; Canpolat, Filiz; Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Behcet's Disease are recognized to be at an increased risk for venous and/or arterial thrombosis. Colchicine reduces the initiation and amplification of inflammation and is believed to suppress secretion of cytokines and chemokines and in vitro platelet aggregation. To evaluate the effect of colchicine on levels of mean platelets volume, platelets, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein in patients with Behcet's Disease. Patients with Behcet's Disease were evaluated for mean platelets volume before colchicine therapy (Group 1) and after 6-month from beginning of colchicine treatment (Group 2). Fifty-two subjects were evaluated. The mean age was 38.3 years and the female/male ratio was 28/24=1.16. Laboratory tests were evaluated in Group 1 and Group 2. The median level of mean platelets volume was 9.2±0.8 fl in Group 1 and 8.9±0.9 fl in Group 2. Levels of mean platelets volume was found as significant between Group 1 and 2 (p=0.001). Given the proposed relationship between MPV and platelet activity, MPV may serve as a surrogate essay for Behcet's response to colchicine. Colchicine might suppress platelet function and be used in vascular involvement together with immunosuppressant agents in Behcet's Disease. Further studies in large population are needed to evaluate the role of colchicine in platelet function and the effect of colchicine on thrombosis in BD. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  1. Genetic Association of , and - with Behcet's Disease in Saudi Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahda Al-Okaily

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background HLA-B*51 has been universally associated with Behcet's disease (BD susceptibility, while different alleles of HLA-A have also been identified as independent BD susceptibility loci in various ethnic populations. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of HLA-A and - B alleles with BD in Saudi patients. Materials and Methods Genotyping for HLA-A and HLA-B was performed using HLA genotyping kit (Lab type (R SSO in 120 Saudi subjects, including 60 BD patients and 60 matched healthy controls. Results Our results revealed that frequencies of HLA-A*26, -A*31 , and - B*51 were significantly higher in BD patients than in controls, suggesting that HLA-A*26, -A*31 , and - B*51 are associated with BD. The frequency of HLA-B*15 was significantly lower in BD patients than in controls. Stratification of genotyping results into active and nonactive forms of BD revealed that the frequency of HLA-A*31 was significantly higher in the nonactive form than in the active form of BD, while there was no significant difference in the distribution of other alleles between the two forms of BD. Conclusion This study suggests that HLA-A*26, -A*31 , and - B*51 are associated with susceptibility risk to BD, while HLA-B*15 may be protective in Saudi patients. However, larger scale studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Proton MRS in Behcet's disease with and without neurological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysal, T.; Sarac, K.; Dusak, A. [Department of Radiology, Inonu University School of Medicine, 44069, Malatya (Turkey); Ozisik, H.I.; Ozcan, C. [Department of Neurology, Inonu University School of Medicine, 44069, Malatya (Turkey); Karlidag, R. [Department of Psychiatry, Inonu University School of Medicine, 44069, Malatya (Turkey); Baysal, O. [Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Inonu University School of Medicine, 44069, Malayta (Turkey); Hazneci, E. [Department of Dermatology, Inonu University School of Medicine, 44069, Malatya (Turkey)

    2003-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether neurological impairment in Behcet's disease (BD) can be assessed by means of proton MRS and whether it can assist in prognosis. We used single-voxel MRS to measure metabolites in regions of normal-appearing pons, basal ganglia and periventricular white matter (PWM) in 32 patients with chronic BD patients with and without neurological deficits and 29 control subjects. Patients had significantly higher N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios in the basal ganglia than the controls. The Cho/Cr ratio in the PWM was also significantly higher in the patients. MRS enabled clear discrimination of patients and controls and also revealed spectral differences between non-neuro-Behcet's disease and neuro-Behcet's disease in the basal ganglia. MRS can be used to assess brain involvement in BD even if structural changes are absent. (orig.)

  3. Chronicle of a death foretold: a case of catastrophic vascular Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planer, David; Leibowitz, David; Elitzur, Yair; Korach, Amit; Hiller, Nurith; Chajek-Shaul, Tova

    2007-03-01

    A 20-year-old man with Behcet's disease characterized by recurrent arterial aneurysms presented with a new aortic root aneurysm. This patient previously had aneurysms of the coronary arteries and vein, as well as ruptured renal artery aneurysm. Chronic maintenance immunosuppressive therapy was recommended due to the catastrophic nature of the disease, which the patient refused to take. The patient died shortly after admission. This case demonstrates the unique catastrophic natural history of vascular Behcet's disease with recurrent life-threatening arterial events, and this case stresses the therapeutic dilemma of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy in selected patients.

  4. Non-dipping blood pressure patterns and arterial stiffness parameters in patients with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gulperi; Yilmaz, Sema; Ergulu Esmen, Serpil

    2015-12-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystemic vasculitis involving veins and arteries of various sizes. Non-dipping status, augmentation index and pulse wave velocity are important determinants of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated the non-dipping status and arterial stiffness in patients with Behcet's disease. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the vascular parameters of 96 patients with Behcet's disease (53% female) and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The non-dipping status and arterial distensibility were assessed using a Mobil-O-Graph Arteriograph, an automatic oscillometric device. In total, 65.6% of 96 patients were systolic non-dippers, and 34.4% exhibited high augmentation indices. Ten percent of the control subjects were systolic non-dippers, and 11.7% exhibited high augmentation indices. Nocturnal decreases in systolic blood pressure correlated with central systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, as well as nocturnal decreases in diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, non-dipper patients with Behcet's disease exhibited higher nocturnal cardiac outputs than did dipper patients with Behcet's disease. Augmentation index correlated negatively with C-reactive protein and correlated positively with both 24 h and nocturnal peripheral resistance, as well as 24 h pulse wave velocity. The patients with high augmentation indices exhibited lower creatinine clearance, as well as lower nocturnal cardiac outputs, higher 24 h peripheral resistance and higher 24 h pulse wave velocities. Non-dipping status and arterial stiffness may exacerbate the harmful cardiovascular effects of the other. In addition to conventional risk factors, non-dipping status and arterial stiffness should be examined during the follow-up evaluations of patients with Behcet's disease.

  5. Fibrosing mediastinitis and thrombosis of superior vena cava associated with Behcet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Mustafa E-mail: drmharman@hotmail.com; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet; Arslan, Halil; Ayakta, Hayati; Harman, Ece

    2003-11-01

    We present CT, MRI and venography findings in 13-year boy with mediastinal fibrosis and superior vena cava (SVC) thrombosis associated with Behcet's disease. Fibrosing mediastinitis is an excessive fibrotic reaction that occurs in the mediastinum and may lead to compression of mediastinal structures (especially vascular). This condition is usually idiopathic, though many (and perhaps most) cases in the USA are thought to be caused by an abnormal immunologic response to Histoplasma capsulatum infection. SVC syndrome secondary to extrinsic compression by mediastinal fibrosis combined with Behcet's disease has rarely been described. Radiological investigations of this syndrome are necessary to avoid a useless anticoagulant therapy.

  6. Maldi-Tof /Tof-MS Reveals Elevated Serum Haptoglobin and Amyloid A in Behcet's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, L.; Dong, H.; Yang, P.; Zhou, H.; Huang, X.; Lin, X.; Kijlstra, A.

    2008-01-01

    Behcet¿s disease (BD) is a multisystemic autoimmune disease with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. To screen aberrant serum proteins in BD, serum samples were obtained from eight male BD patients with active uveitis and eight male healthy volunteers with informed consent. The serum samples from

  7. Could be serum uric acid a risk factor for thrombosis and/or uveitis in Behcet's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atıl, Avcı; Deniz, Avcı

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Serum uric acid level increases in many inflammatory conditions. Uric acid triggers the vascular inflammation and artery damage, which causes to an increased risk of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. It is not clear in the literature whether uric acid contributes to uveitis by similar mechanisms. We investigated whether uric acid level increases in Behcet's disease patients with thrombosis or anterior uveitis. Patients and methods We reviewed the medical records of 914 Behcet's disease. After screening for exclusion criteria, there were 50 Behcet's disease patients with thrombotic complication and as the control group 202 BD patients without any vascular complication were included to the study. In the Anterior uveitis group, there were 53 Behcet's disease patients. The Control group consisted of 39 Behçet's disease patients without eye findings. Results Mean uric acid value was 4.96 ± 1.06 mg/dl in Behcet's disease patients with thrombosis whereas 4.08 ± 0.94 mg/dl in controls, indicating a significant difference ( p uric acid level was greater in Behcet's disease patients that have a thrombotic complication compared to those without thrombotic complication. Uric acid seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. It is concluded that the elevation of serum uric acid level in patients with anterior uveitis with Behcet's disease is not statistically significant.

  8. Severe neuro-Behcet's disease treated with a combination of immunosuppressives and a TNF-inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Fatma Nur; Ozen, Gulsen; Ünal, Ali Uğur; Kahraman Koytak, Pınar; Tuncer, Nese; Direskeneli, Haner

    2016-01-01

    Abstract/ Resumo Behcet's disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions and uveitis. The nervous system involvement of BD, neuro-Behcet's disease (NBD), is one of the important causes of mortality of the disease. Herein, we present a 29-year-old male with parenchymal NBD who has progressed rapidly and was managed with an uncommon aggressive immunosuppresive combination therapy. The patient first presented six years ago with vertigo and difficulty in talking and walking. On examination, he had oral ulcers, acneiform lesions on the torso, genital ulcer scar, dysartria, and ataxia. Along with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, the patient was diagnosed as NBD. After pulse methylprednisolone (1g/day, 3 days) and 8 courses of 1g/month iv cylophosphamide therapy, he was put on azathioprine and oral methlyprednisolone. On the 4th year of the maintenance therapy, he was admitted with NBD relapse which was treated with 3 days of iv 1g pulse methlyprednisolone. One year after the last relapse, the patient voluntarily stopped medications and presented with global aphasia, right hemihypoesthesia and quadriparesis. MRI findings were suggestive of NBD relapse. After exclusion of infection, pulse methylprednisolone was started but no improvement was observed. Considering the severity of the NBD, the patient was put on methylprednisolone (1mg/kg/day), iv cylophosphamide (1g) and adalimumab 40 mg/14 days subcutaneously with appropriate tuberculosis prophylaxis. Neurological examination and MRI findings after 4 weeks showed dramatic improvement however patient developed pulmonary tuberculosis. Methylprednisolone dose was decreased (0.5mg/kg/day) and quadruple antituberculosis therapy was started. Patient was discharged with 5/5 muscle strength in extremities without any respiratory symptoms 2 months after first presentation. Prompt introduction of immunosuppressive therapy is crucial in NBD. Although

  9. Radiologic study on differential diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis and intestinal Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Goo; Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Jae Hyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiologic findings in 30 patients with intestinal tuberculosis and 10 patients with intestinal Behcet's disease, who had been diagnosed at Seoul National University Hospital during the recent 5 years, were analysed retrospectively to evaluate the radiologic differential diagnosis of the two diseases. Intestinal tuberculosis severely involved the cecum, the ileocecal valve, the distal ileum and colons, but Behcet's disease mainly involved the distal ileum and infrequently the ileocecal valve and the cecum. The ulcers in tuberculosis were usually multiple small barium collected areas among pseudopolyps, on the contrary, those in Behcet's disease were multiple, discrete, well marinated, geographic, ring-like deep penetrating or collar-button shaped. Intestinal tuberculosis tended to involved long segments of intestines, with severer mucosal irregularity and deformity of the ileocecal valve and the ascending colon in comparison with Behcet's disease. Mesenteric and/or peritoneal involvement were accompanied in 1/3 cases of intestinal tuberculosis, and active pulmonary tuberculosis or pleural effusion also in 1/3 cases of intestinal tuberculosis.

  10. Hepatic artery aneurysm in a patient with Behcet's disease and segmental pancreatitis developing after its embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oto, A.; Cekirge, S.; Guelsuen, M.; Balkanci, F.; Besim, A.

    2000-01-01

    Segmental pancreatitis is an unusual form of acute pancreatitis mostly seen in the head of pancreas. We present the CT findings of a segmental pancreatitis in the body and tail of the pancreas developed following endovascular embolization of a giant hepatic artery aneurysm and arterioportal fistula in a patient with Behcet's disease. (orig.)

  11. Rate of cardiovascular system involvement and gender distribution in Behcets disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Bas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Behcets disease is a systemic vasculitis affecting arteries and veins. According to the International Working Group on diagnostic criteria, a clinical description of other non-recurrent oral ulceration, at least two of findings of their examinations; genital ulceration, eye lesions, skin lesions and pathergy test positivity to be accompanied. Vascular involvement is very important symptom in determining the prognosis of the disease that is commonly observed. In this study, 581 Behcets patients who were treated between 1993-2009 were reviewed. 52 patients with cardiovascular involvement retrospectively reviewed. Total cardiovascular system involvements were found to be 9% in Behcets disease patients. 41 thrombophlebit, 11 deep venous thrombosis, 4 aneurysm cases were found. Pulmonary artery aneurysms in 2 of them, 1 in the abdominal aorta, 1 of which was found in the femoral artery. All of aneurysm and deep vein thrombosis and 77% of thrombophlebitis were male. As a result, together with common skin and mucosal involvement severe systemic symptoms such as the cardiovascular system involvement were significantly found in Behcets disease. Moreover, a high percentage of these findings is seen in men have been identified. [J Contemp Med 2011; 1(2.000: 46-49

  12. Cranial MRI in Behcet's disease: 134 examinations of 98 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akman-Demir, G.; Bahar, S.; Coban, O.; Tasci, B.; Serdaroglu, P. [Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Capa, 34390, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2003-12-01

    Two observers, blinded to the patient's neurological status, reviewed 134 MRI studies of 98 consecutive patients with Behcet's disease (BD), to define imaging patterns and to look for any relationship between the MRI findings and the timing of the examination in patients with differing courses of disease. There were 43 patients with overt parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) involvement, 22 with attacks and remissions, 15 with secondary progressive and six with primary progressive disease; 14 had raised intracranial pressure (RICP). Of the remaining 41 patients without specific neurological complaints, 16 had abnormalities on examination (silent CNS involvement) and 25 did not. During an acute CNS attack, the most common finding was a large lesion in the brain-stem or basal ganglia, extending to the diencephalon. On MRI performed after remission of an acute attack or during secondary progression, the same sites were affected, but the lesions were smaller or scattered, with less clearly defined margins. In primary progressive disease or silent CNS involvement, the cerebral white matter was most commonly involved, but almost half the MRI studies were normal. The brain parenchyma was abnormal in only one of the patients with RICP. MRI was normal in all but three patients without clinical CNS involvement, in whom it showed a few millimetric white-matter lesions. Brain-stem atrophy was seen in 15 patients examined >1 year after an initial parenchymal CNS episode, with secondary progressive cases predominating. (orig.)

  13. Case of Neuro-Behcet's disease with an interesting CT scan picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, J.; Kamitani, H.; Masuzawa, H. (Kantoh Teishin Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)); Matsui, T.; Mizobe, M.

    1981-12-01

    A Case of Neuro-Behcet's disease with an interesting CT scan picture was reported. A 31-year-old man with a known history of Behcet's disease was transferred to the Kantoh-Teishin Hospital upon suspicion of a brain tumor in the basal ganglia. Right hemiparesis and mild dysarthria of three weeks' duration and long-standing bilateral blindness were noted. Computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated an enhanced mass in the basal ganglia and surrounding irregular, low-density area in the white matter of the left frotoparietal lobe. The ventricles were shifted to the right. Left carotid angiography revealed a shift of the anterior cerebral artery to the right and a mild deformity of the Sylvian triangle. No tumor stain or abnormal vessels were seen. After high doses of prednisolone, his condition gradually improved. A CT scan two weeks later revealed a decrease in the low-density area and the mass effect, but an unchanged pathological contrast enhancement in the basal ganglia. The contrast enhancement lasted for two months. The CT scan of Neuro-Behcet's disease was discussed.

  14. Emergency Endovascular Management of Pulmonary Artery Aneurysms In Behcet's Disease: Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantasdemir, Murat; Kantarci, Fatih; Mihmanli, Ismail; Akman, Canan; Numan, Furuzan; Islak, Civan; Bozkurt, A. Kursat

    2002-01-01

    his report describes two patients with a known history of Behcet's disease in whom massive hemoptysis developed from rupture of pulmonary artery aneurysms. The high recurrence rate of complications related to pulmonary artery aneurysms and even the aneurysms themselves due to inadequacy of medical therapy and the disadvantages of surgical treatment make these aneurysms candidates for endovascular management.The pulmonary artery aneurysms reported here were successfully treated with endovascular embolization using n-butylcyanoacrylate. Pulmonary artery aneurysm embolization in Behcet's disease has been reviewed in the light of relevant literature

  15. A case of Behcet's disease with aneurysms of common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Myung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Sung Jae

    1984-01-01

    One case of Behcet's disease with multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta is presented with brief review of the literatures. A 26-year-old woman had slowly enlarging pulsatile masses in both sides of neck and recurrent ulcerations in oral cavity and genitalia. One day prior to admission, aphasia, right facial nerve palsy and right hemiplegia suddenly developed. Brain CT showed acute infarction in left basal ganglia. Both Carotid Angiography and abdominal Aortography demonstrated multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta with organizing thrombi and thromboembolism of internal carotid artery

  16. Pseudoaneurysm of the Superficial Femoral Artery in Behcet's Disease with Spontaneous Thrombosis Followed by CT Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoru; Akiba, Hidenari; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Takeda, Miki; Yama, Naoya; Hareyama, Masato; Morita, Kazuo; Masuda, Atsushi; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    1998-01-01

    A 25-year-old man developed sudden pain and a pulsating mass in the left thigh. A diagnosis of Behcet's disease was made because of four major symptoms. Laboratory data indicated active inflammation. Emergency spiral computed tomographic angiography (CTA) showed an aneurysm of the left superficial femoral artery (SFA). Under steroid therapy, follow-up spiral CTA showed spontaneous occlusion of the aneurysm. In the active phase of arteritis, spiral CTA is useful for the diagnosis of arterial lesions to avoid the arterial puncture of conventional arteriography

  17. Recurrent Iliofemoral Venous Thrombosis in the Setting of May-Thurner Syndrome as the Presenting Symptom of Behcet's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakha, Sameer; Png, Chien Yi Maximilian; Chun, Kevin; Ting, Windsor

    2018-02-23

    Vascular manifestations including pulmonary artery aneurysms and venous thrombosis are seen in up to 14% of patients with Behcet's disease. We report a patient who had recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) as the presenting symptom of Behcet's Disease. A 19-year-old male who presented with acute iliofemoral DVT, confirmed by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and venogram. May-Thurner syndrome was also observed. Repeated catheter-based pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, thrombectomy, and subsequent iliac vein stenting were performed. The patient was then discharged on rivaroxaban and aspirin. Five months later, the patient experienced left calf pain. In the interim, he had been diagnosed with Behcet's disease by a rheumatologist who was consulted due to oral ulcers and skin lesions and accordingly started on prednisone, colchicine, and azathioprine. At this time, IVUS and venogram revealed thrombotic occlusion of the previously placed stent. Tissue plasminogen activator was infused into the stent, and pharmacomechanical thrombectomy restored flow through the left iliac veins. Follow-up laboratory workup revealed that subtherapeutic azathioprine dosing, and after appropriate adjustment, the patient has been asymptomatic for 12 months. Acute refractory DVT is a possible presenting symptom of Behcet's disease, which may be complicated by May-Thurner syndrome. Such patients should receive therapeutic immunosuppression in addition to anticoagulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatic artery aneurysm in a patient with Behcet's disease and segmental pancreatitis developing after its embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, A.; Cekirge, S.; Guelsuen, M.; Balkanci, F.; Besim, A. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-08-01

    Segmental pancreatitis is an unusual form of acute pancreatitis mostly seen in the head of pancreas. We present the CT findings of a segmental pancreatitis in the body and tail of the pancreas developed following endovascular embolization of a giant hepatic artery aneurysm and arterioportal fistula in a patient with Behcet's disease. (orig.)

  19. Leukopenia predicts remission in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and Behcet's disease on thiopurine maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Sung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Duk Hwan; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    The thiopurine drugs, azathioprine (AZA), and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are well-established drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although leukopenia is a well-recognized side effect of AZA/6-MP treatment, its association with therapeutic effects has yet to be determined. We therefore evaluated the influences of thiopurine-induced leukopenia on the long-term prognosis of IBD. We included 196 IBD patients [45 with ulcerative colitis (UC), 68 with Crohn's disease (CD), and 83 with intestinal Behçet's disease (BD)] who were treated with AZA/6-MP and achieved remission between January 2006 and December 2012. We retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics, AZA/6-MP maintenance dose (mg/kg), the lowest white blood cell (WBC) count during AZA/6-MP treatment, duration of remission, and the occurrence of relapse. We compared the clinical variables between leukopenic (n = 120, WBC count leukopenia were negatively associated with relapse (odds ratios 0.975, 0.988, 0.563, and 0.390, respectively). On subgroup analysis, the cumulative relapse-free survival rate was significantly higher in the leukopenic group than in the nonleukopenic group for all types of IBDs, including UC, CD, and intestinal BD (log-rank test, P = 0.032, 0.047, and 0.002, respectively). Leukopenia during thiopurine maintenance therapy was associated with prolonged remission in patients with IBD and Behcet's disease.

  20. Paraoxonase and Arylesterase Levels in Behcet's Disease and Their Relations with the Disease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Ayhan; Uzkeser, Hulya; Ozturk, Nurinnisa

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) enzyme activity levels in Behcet's disease (BD) and to investigate whether they are associated with the disease activity. Twenty-six patients (study group) with active BD and 28 healthy controls (control group) were included in this study. While the patients who had at least one of the symptoms related to genital ulcer, skin lesions, active uveitis, arthritis, thrombophlebitis, or central nervous system involvement in addition to oral ulcers were considered as the active group, the patients who did not show clinical symptoms in the last one month due to the medical treatment were considered as the inactive group in the clinical evaluation of patients with BD. The PON and ARE levels were found to be significantly lower in the study group than the control group (p  0.05). The activities of the antioxidant PON and ARE enzymes are reduced in BD. Therefore, it may be useful to add antioxidant therapy to the conventional treatment of the disease.

  1. Pulmonary artery aneurysm in Bechcet's disease: helical computed tomography study; Aneurisma de la arteria pulmonar en la enfermedad de Behcet. Estudio con tomografia computarizada helicoidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, J.; Caballero, P.; Olivera, M. J.; Cajal, M. L.; Caniego, J. L. [Hospital de la Princesa. Iniversidad Autonoma. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Behcet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown etiology that affects arteries and veins of different sizes and can be associated with pulmonary artery aneurysms. We report the case of a patient with Behcet's disease and a pulmonary artery aneurysm who was studied by means of plain chest X ray, helical computed tomography and pulmonary arteriography. Helical computed tomography is a reliable technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (Author) 9 refs.

  2. A panel of oxidative stress assays does not provide supplementary diagnostic information in Behcet's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcay Yasemin D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings suggest a role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Behcet's disease (BD, but the utility of oxidative stress-associated assays in offering diagnostic information or in the monitoring of disease activity is largely unassessed. Objective and methods We aimed to measure oxidative and inflammatory markers, along with the markers of reactive nitrogen species, S-nitrosothiols and 3-nitrotyrosine, in BD patients (n = 100 and healthy volunteers (n = 50. These markers were evaluated in regard to their role in the pathogenesis of BD as well as their relation to clinical presentation, disease activity and duration. Results Median values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein, leukocyte count, and IL-18 levels, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, were statistically higher in the patient group compared to controls. Some inflammation markers (ESR, neutrophil and leukocyte counts were statistically higher (p 0.05 in all statistical comparisons, nor was there any difference in median levels of these oxidative stress markers in active disease versus disease remission. S-nitrosothiols and 3-nitrotyrosine were undetectable in BD plasma. Conclusions The application of oxidative stress-associated measures to BD blood samples offered no supplemental diagnostic or disease activity information to that provided by standard laboratory measures of inflammation. S-nitrosothiols and 3-nitrotyrosine appeared not to be markers for active BD; thus the search for biochemical markers that will indicate the active period should be continued with larger studies.

  3. Behcet's disease associated with malignancy in Korea: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joong Kyong; Oh, Ji Min; Lee, Jaejoon; Koh, Eun-Mi; Cha, Hoon-Suk

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of Behcet's disease (BD) complicated with malignancy in Korea. Of 1,769 patients with BD in our hospital, 32 patients (1.8%, 21 in solid cancer, 11 in hematologic malignancy) developed cancer. In 10 of the 32 subjects (31.3%), malignancy was diagnosed before or concomitantly with BD. Twelve cases (37.5%) occurred within the first 2 years of disease and 9 cases (28.1%) occurred 5 years after the diagnosis of BD. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) was the most common disease (n = 7) followed by thyroid cancer (n = 4), breast cancer, cervix cancer, stomach cancer, rectal cancer, hepatoma, aplastic anemia (n = 3, each), renal cell cancer, endometrial cancer, lymphoma (n = 1, each). There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristic between patients with or without malignancy. Intestinal involvement were more frequent in patients with malignancy than those without, but was not statistically significant (p = 0.083). Our results demonstrate that MDS and thyroid cancer are the most common hematologic disease and solid cancer associated with BD, respectively. Further studies will be required to ascertain the pathogenic link between BD and malignancy and the prevalence of malignancy in BD.

  4. Inspiratory and expiratory HRCT findings in Behcet's disease and correlation with pulmonary function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezer, Caner [Department of Radiology, Mersin University, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey)]. E-mail: cozer@mersin.edu.tr; Duce, Meltem Nass [Department of Radiology, Mersin University, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Ulubas, Bahar [Department of Respiratory Disease, Mersin University, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Bicer, Ali [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mersin University, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Tuersen, Uemit [Department of Dermatology, Mersin University, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Apaydin, F. Demir [Department of Radiology, Mersin University, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Yildiz, Altan [Department of Radiology, Mersin University, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Camdeviren, Handan [Department of Biostatistics, Mersin University, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey)

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to describe the pulmonary parenchymal changes of Behcet's disease using high-resolution computed tomography and to correlate them with pulmonary function tests. Materials and methods: Thirty-four patients with Behcet's disease (18 men, 16 women), 3 of whom were symptomatic, were included as the study group. Four of 34 patients were smokers. Twenty asymptomatic volunteers (12 men, 8 women), 4 of whom were smokers, constituted the control group. The pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography were performed for both groups. Results: Inspiratory high-resolution computed tomography findings were abnormal in nine patients (26.5%) of the study group. In eight patients, there were multiple abnormalities, whereas one patient had only one abnormality. Pleural thickening and irregularities, major fissure thickening, emphysematous changes, bronchiectasis, parenchymal bands, and irregular densities, and parenchymal nodules were the encountered abnormalities. Inspiratory high-resolution computed tomography scans were normal in the control group. On expiratory scans, there was statistically significant difference between study group and control group when air trapping, especially grades 3 and 4, was compared (P < 0.01). Pulmonary function tests of both the study and the control groups were in normal ranges, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups according to pulmonary function tests (P > 0.05). Discussion and conclusion: High-resolution computed tomography is sensitive in the demonstration of pulmonary changes in patients with Behcet's disease. End-expiratory high-resolution computed tomography examination is very useful and necessary to show the presence of air trapping, thus the presence of small airway disease, even if the patient is asymptomatic or has normal pulmonary function tests.

  5. Putative Role of Serum Amyloid-A and Proinflammatory Cytokines as Biomarkers for Behcet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Vitale, Antonio; Talarico, Rosaria; Lopalco, Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro; Lapadula, Giovanni; Cantarini, Luca; Iannone, Florenzo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Behcet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology characterized by relapsing oral–genital ulcers, uveitis, and involvement of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurological, and musculoskeletal system. Although disease pathogenesis is still unclear, both innate and adaptive immunity have shown to play a pivotal role, and multiple proinflammatory cytokines seem to be involved in different pathogenic pathways that eventually lead to tissue damage. The aims of our study were to evaluate serum cytokines levels of IL-8, IL-18, IFN-α2a, IL-6, IFN-γ, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL9, and SAA levels in patients with BD, in comparison to healthy controls (HC), and to correlate their levels to disease activity. We included 78 serum samples obtained from 58 BD patients and analyzed a set of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-8, IL-18, IFN-α2a, IL-6, IFN-γ, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL9 by multiplex bead analysis as well as SAA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to HC, BD patients showed elevated cytokine levels of IL-8, IL-18, IFN-α2a, and IL-6, and low levels of CXCL11. BD patients with SAA serum levels >20 mg/L showed higher levels of proinflammatory markers than HC or group with SAA ≤20 mg/L. IL-18, IFN-α2a, and IL-6 were higher in BD group with SAA >20 mg/L than HC, while IL-8 and CXCL9 levels were higher than in patients with SAA ≤20 mg/L and HC. Active BD patients with SAA >20 mg/L exhibited elevated levels of inflammatory mediators, suggesting that may exist a relationship between SAA and proinflammatory cytokines in the intricate scenario of BD pathogenesis. PMID:26496336

  6. Putative Role of Serum Amyloid-A and Proinflammatory Cytokines as Biomarkers for Behcet's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Vitale, Antonio; Talarico, Rosaria; Lopalco, Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro; Lapadula, Giovanni; Cantarini, Luca; Iannone, Florenzo

    2015-10-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic disorder of unknown etiology characterized by relapsing oral-genital ulcers, uveitis, and involvement of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurological, and musculoskeletal system. Although disease pathogenesis is still unclear, both innate and adaptive immunity have shown to play a pivotal role, and multiple proinflammatory cytokines seem to be involved in different pathogenic pathways that eventually lead to tissue damage.The aims of our study were to evaluate serum cytokines levels of IL-8, IL-18, IFN-α2a, IL-6, IFN-γ, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL9, and SAA levels in patients with BD, in comparison to healthy controls (HC), and to correlate their levels to disease activity.We included 78 serum samples obtained from 58 BD patients and analyzed a set of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-8, IL-18, IFN-α2a, IL-6, IFN-γ, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL9 by multiplex bead analysis as well as SAA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Compared to HC, BD patients showed elevated cytokine levels of IL-8, IL-18, IFN-α2a, and IL-6, and low levels of CXCL11. BD patients with SAA serum levels >20 mg/L showed higher levels of proinflammatory markers than HC or group with SAA ≤20 mg/L. IL-18, IFN-α2a, and IL-6 were higher in BD group with SAA >20 mg/L than HC, while IL-8 and CXCL9 levels were higher than in patients with SAA ≤20 mg/L and HC.Active BD patients with SAA >20 mg/L exhibited elevated levels of inflammatory mediators, suggesting that may exist a relationship between SAA and proinflammatory cytokines in the intricate scenario of BD pathogenesis.

  7. Efficacy of TNF-α antagonist and other immunomodulators in the treatment of patients with ophthalmologic manifestations of Behcet's disease and HLA B51 positive vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Behcet's disease is genetically conditioned, immune-mediated multisystem occlusive vasculitis of small blood vessels, espesially venules, of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features, disease activity and therapy of the patients with ophthalmologic manifestation of Behcet's disease. Methods. In this study symptoms and signs of the disease were analyzed both prospectively and retrospectively during the active manifestation of the disease. The diagnosis was reached according to the International Criteria for Behcet's Disease (2006. The treatment effects were evaluated based on the presence of the best corrected visual acuity and the inflammation of the vitreous humour before and after the application of our therapeutic method. The applied therapeutic modality consisted of the primary application of corticosteroid therapy in the active stage of the disease complemented with the choice of drugs from the immunosuppressive group. In this study there drugs were cyclosporine or methotrexate. A treatment refractory patients with poor vision prognosis were treated with a third drug, the biological preparation infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α antagonist. Results. The mean age of 11 patients with ophthalmologic manifestation of Behcet's disease was 50.6 years. HLA B-5(51 was positive in 81% of the patients while 36% of the patients had positive pathergy test. Changes in affected eyes included vitritis (100%, posterior uveitis (45%, panuveitis (54%, retinal vasculitis (54%, cystoid macular edema (54%, and cystoid degeneration (18%. Increased intraocular pressure was observed in 27% of the patients. There was no statistically significant variation in disease activity parameters in any of the patients (p > 0.05. A statistically significant improvement in visual acuity (p < 0.05 and a high statistically significant decrease of inflammation of the worst affected eyes (p = 0.001 were detected

  8. Decreased B and T lymphocyte attenuator in Behcet's disease may trigger abnormal Th17 and Th1 immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi; Deng, Bolin; Wang, Chaokui; Zhang, Dike; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2016-02-04

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic, systemic and recurrent inflammatory disease associated with hyperactive Th17 and Th1 immune responses. Recent studies have shown that B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) negatively regulates the immune response. In this study, we investigated whether BTLA activation could be exploited to inhibit the development of abnormal immune responses in BD patients. BTLA expression in PBMCs and CD4(+) T cells was significantly decreased in active BD patients. Decreased BTLA level was associated with increased Th17 and Th1 responses. Activation of BTLA inhibited the abnormal Th17 and Th1 responses and IL-22 expression in both patients and controls. Addition of an agonistic anti-BTLA antibody remarkably inhibited DC-induced Th17 and Th1 cell responses, resulted in decreased production of the Th17 and Th1-related cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-23 and IL-12p70 and reduced CD40 expression in DCs. In conclusion, decreased BTLA expression in ocular BD may lead to inappropriate control of the Th17 and Th1 immune responses and DC functions. Therefore, BTLA may be involved in the development and recurrence of this disease. Agonistic agents of BTLA may represent a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of BD and other inflammatory diseases mediated by abnormal Th17 and Th1 immune responses.

  9. Neuro-Behcet: about a clinical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Perez, R.; Satriano, R.; Rotondo, M.

    2007-01-01

    The case of a 7-year-old Uruguayan boy with recurrent episodes of fever, oral aphthas lesions and meningoencephalitis with elevated protein levels and lymphocytic pleocytosis is presented. Other diagnoses were excluded. MRI showed in acute stages CNS involvement in iso- or hipointense in T1- weighted images and hyperintense in T2-weighted or fluid- attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in mesodiencephalic junction, cerebellar peduncles, pons, corpus callosum, basal ganglia and internal capsule, and cerebral hemispheres. In the evolution skin lesions appeared, fulfilling the International Study Group Criteria for the Diagnosis of Behcet' Disease. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressant treatment was done.The main difficulty in children is having all the criteria for diagnosis; especially when recurrent genital ulceration and eye lesion rarely appear at this age. (author) [es

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and variations of homocysteine concentrations in patients with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messedi, M; Frigui, M; Chaabouni, Kh; Turki, M; Neifer, M; Lahiyani, A; Messaouad, M; Bahloul, Z; Ayedi, F; Jamoussi, K

    2013-09-15

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, multi-systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown causes. This disease is mainly characterized by mucocutaneous, ocular, vascular, and central nervous system manifestations. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the plasma homocysteine (Hcy), folate, and B12 levels in a relatively large cohort of Tunisian patients with BD. The study included 142 patients with BD and 172 healthy controls. The C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. Serum Hcy level was determined using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Serum folate and vitamin B12 levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Genotype and allele frequencies of the two studied MTHFR polymorphisms did not show any significant differences among BD patients compared to controls. Patient carriers of the 677TT variant and the 677T allele displayed significantly higher Hcy concentration. Moreover, no significant association was found between neither A1298C polymorphism nor the C allele and Hcy, folate, and B12 levels. In multivariate analyses, we reported that 677T allele, male gender, and creatinine level were independent risk factors for hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC). In the present study, we report the absence of any significant differences between genotype and allele frequencies for both studied polymorphisms among BD patients compared to healthy controls. Besides, we showed that the T allele of MTHFR C677T polymorphism influenced the Hcy level which is an independent risk factor for HHC in Tunisian BD patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Masked assessment of MRI findings: is it possible to differentiate neuro-Behcet`s disease from other central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, O.; Bahar, S.; Akman-Demir, G.; Tasci, B.; Serdaroglu, P. [Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Neurology; Yurdakul, S.; Yazici, H. [Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Internal Medicine

    1999-04-01

    Two neuroradiologists reviewed MRI studies of 34 patients with neuro-Behcet`s disease (NBD), 22 with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with central nervous system involvement, masked to the clinical diagnosis, age and sex of the patients. Of the patients with NBD 12 were in an acute attack; the others had chronic disease. MRI was assessed using a set of criteria, looking at atrophy, the site of discrete parenchymal lesions, regions of predominant involvement and the extent of the lesion(s). The observers also made a guess at the clinical diagnosis. The brain stem and/or basal ganglia were the most predominantly involved sites in all patients with acute NBD; 75 % of these lesions were large and confluent, mainly extending from the brain stem to the diencephalon and basal ganglia. However, in chronic cases, the predominant involvement was in the brain stem and/or basal ganglia in only 36 %, and in cerebral hemisphere white matter in another 36 %; 27 % of these patients showed no parenchymal lesion. Hemisphere white-matter lesions were equally distributed between periventricular and other areas in NBD, while in MS more were periventricular, and in SLE more were nonperiventricular. Brain-stem atrophy was seen in 21 % of patients with NBD, with a specificity of 96.5 %. In the absence of cortical atrophy, its specificity was 100 %. The attempt at making a radiological diagnosis was successful in all cases of acute NBD and 95.5 % of patients with MS, but in only 40 % of patients with chronic NBD. Most of this latter groups MRI studies were interpreted as MS. An extensive lesion involving the brain stem and basal ganglia seemed to be diagnostic of acute NBD. However, hemisphere white-matter lesions could not be differentiated from those in MS. (orig.) With 3 figs., 6 tabs., 18 refs.

  12. Potential metabolomic biomarkers for reliable diagnosis of Behcet's disease using gas chromatography/ time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joong Kyong; Kim, Jungyeon; Hwang, Jiwon; Song, Juhwan; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Cha, Hoon-Suk

    2017-05-24

    Although many diagnostic criteria of Behcet's disease (BD) have been developed and revised by experts, diagnosing BD is still complicated and challenging. No metabolomic studies on serum have been attempted to improve the diagnosis and to identify potential biomarkers of BD. The purposes of this study were to investigate distinctive metabolic changes in serum samples of BD patients and to identify metabolic candidate biomarkers for reliable diagnosis of BD using the metabolomics platform. Metabolomic profiling of 90 serum samples from 45 BD patients and 45 healthy controls (HCs) were performed via gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS) with multivariate statistical analyses. A total of 104 metabolites were identified from samples. The serum metabolite profiles obtained from GC/TOF-MS analysis can distinguish BD patients from HC group in discovery set. The variation values of the partial least squared-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) model are R 2 X of 0.246, R 2 Y of 0.913 and Q 2 of 0.852, respectively, indicating strong explanation and prediction capabilities of the model. A panel of five metabolic biomarkers, namely, decanoic acid, fructose, tagatose, linoleic acid and oleic acid were selected and adequately validated as putative biomarkers of BD (sensitivity 100%, specificity 97.1%, area under the curve 0.998) in the discovery set and independent set. The PLS_DA model showed clear discrimination of BD and HC groups by the five metabolic biomarkers in independent set. This is the first report on characteristic metabolic profiles and potential metabolite biomarkers in serum for reliable diagnosis of BD using GC/TOF-MS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Tratamento endovascular de aneurismas da aorta em pacientes com doença de Behçet: relato de dois casos Endovascular treatment of aortic aneurysms in patients with Behcet's disease: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Quilici Belczak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Behçet, uma vasculite sistêmica de causa desconhecida, pode ser causa de doença aneurismática da aorta em alguns portadores dessa patologia. Nós apresentamos nossa experiência com dois casos de aneurismas aórticos em pacientes com doença de Behçet submetidos à terapêutica endovascular, descrevendo seus respectivos seguimentos. A terapêutica atual, a patofisiologia e os critérios diagnósticos vigentes foram revisados. Concluímos que a técnica endovascular é uma excelente opção terapêutica para certos pacientes com doença de Behçet e que esta deve ser acompanhada de tratamento imunossupressivo adequado.Behcet's disease, a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, may be the cause of aortic aneurysmal diseases in some patients. We report our experience with two Behcet's disease patients who presented with aortic aneurysms and were submitted to endovascular therapy, and describe their respective follow-ups. Current pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment approaches were reviewed. Our experience suggests that the endovascular approach, combined with adequate immunosuppressive treatment, is an excellent therapeutic option for some patients with Behcet's disease suffering from aneurysms.

  14. Headache Could Be Finding of Sinus Vein Thrombosis in Behcets Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Sen

    2014-01-01

    Globally Behcet%u2019s disease (BD) is most frequently seen in Turkey and takes its name from the Turkish dermatologist Hulusi Behcet. Basic findings of the disease are the triad of genital ulcers, oral ulcers and uveitis. Neurological involvement in BD appears an average of 5 years after the beginning of disease, or the first appearance of the disease may be neurological findings. Sinus vein thrombosis (SVT) is among neurological involvements observed in BD. However diagnosis of SVT is diffi...

  15. Urinary Metabolomic Profiling to Identify Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Behcet's Disease by Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joong Kyong; Kim, Jungyeon; Hwang, Jiwon; Song, Juhwan; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Cha, Hoon-Suk

    2017-11-02

    Diagnosing Behcet's disease (BD) is challenging because of the lack of a diagnostic biomarker. The purposes of this study were to investigate distinctive metabolic changes in urine samples of BD patients and to identify urinary metabolic biomarkers for diagnosis of BD using gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). Metabolomic profiling of urine samples from 44 BD patients and 41 healthy controls (HC) were assessed using GC/TOF-MS, in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 110 urinary metabolites were identified. The urine metabolite profiles obtained from GC/TOF-MS analysis could distinguish BD patients from the HC group in the discovery set. The parameter values of the orthogonal partial least squared-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) model were R ² X of 0.231, R ² Y of 0.804, and Q ² of 0.598. A biomarker panel composed of guanine, pyrrole-2-carboxylate, 3-hydroxypyridine, mannose, l-citrulline, galactonate, isothreonate, sedoheptuloses, hypoxanthine, and gluconic acid lactone were selected and adequately validated as putative biomarkers of BD (sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 93.3%, area under the curve 0.974). OPLS-DA showed clear discrimination of BD and HC groups by a biomarker panel of ten metabolites in the independent set (accuracy 88%). We demonstrated characteristic urinary metabolic profiles and potential urinary metabolite biomarkers that have clinical value in the diagnosis of BD using GC/TOF-MS.

  16. Use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET for the study of cerebral blood flow reactivity after acetazolamide infusion in patients with Behcet's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupi, A.; Sestini, S.; Cristofaro, M.T.R. de; Meldolesi, U. [Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Nuclear Medicine Section, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Emmi, L.; Marchione, T.; Salvati, G.; Li Gobbi, F. [Department of Clinical Immuno-allergology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Massacesi, L. [Departments of Neurological and Psychiatrical Science, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise the nature of the baseline perfusion defects found in patients with Behcet's disease using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography in conjunction with acetazolamide test (Acz SPET). Eleven patients underwent both baseline and Acz SPET. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the areas with decreased perfusion (D-ROI) and, in the same section, on areas with normal perfusion (N-ROI). The ROIs were then repositioned on the corresponding section on Acz SPET. The mean ROI counts were then transformed into a perfusion index value (PIV) with reference to the global brain counts. In total we found 24 D-ROIs (17 in the cortical and 7 in subcortical grey matter). The influence of Acz infusion was selectively registered in the D-ROIs, where PIVs changed from 1.23{+-}0.17 (baseline SPET) to 1.63{+-}0.23 (Acz SPET) (P<0.001). No significant difference was seen in the N-ROIs (1.46{+-}0.21 and 1.40{+-}0.17, respectively, on baseline SPET and Acz SPET). Our results demonstrate that Acz infusion increases the regional cerebral blood flow within baseline grey matter perfusion defects. This finding suggests that baseline perfusion abnormalities could reflect a disconnection rather than local vasculitic involvement. (orig.)

  17. Infliximab associated with life-threatening lung infection in a patient with Behcet disease with intestinal and hematopoietic system involvement: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Shen, Yan; Ma, Hai-Fen; Cai, Jian-Fei; Hua, Yan-Qin; Zou, Jun; Guan, Jian-Long

    2017-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) participates in the pathophysiology of Behcet's disease (BD) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Infliximab is recommaned for the most severe type of BD, however, there is little evidence for its effectiveness in BD associated MDS. A 46-year-old female, initially diagnosed with intestinal BD and leukopenia was later diagnosed as MDS. Treatement with infliximab and other immunoregulators lead to life-threatening pneumonia. Intestinal BD associated with MDS involving trisomy 8. The patient initially treated with methylprednisolone, thalidomide, cyclosporine A, and infliximab, which lead to severe lung infection. Therefore, the patient was transferred to Intensive Care Unit for life supportive, anti-infection and immune improving therapy. The patient survived from the lung infection. With combination of methylprednisolone, thalidomide and cyclosporine A, the patient recovered from her intestinal ulceration and MDS manifestations. Infliximab treatment may not benefit a patient with BD associated with MDS but place the patient at risk of infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain stem type neuro-Behcet's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Satoshi; Hirose, Genjiro; Kosoegawa, Hiroshi; Oda, Rokuhei; Yoshioka, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of brain stem type Neuro-Behcet's syndrome were evaluated by brain CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Super-conducting type, 0.5 tesla) to correlate with the neurological findings. In the acute phase, low density area with peripheral enhancement effect and mass effect were seen at the brain stem in brain CT. MRI revealed a extensive high intensity signal area mainly involving the corticospinal tract in the meso-diencephalon as well as pons by T 2 weighted images (spin echo, TR = 1, 600 msec, TE = 90 msec) and the value of T 1 , T 2 , at the brain stem lesion were prolonged moderately. After high dose steroid treatment, the low density area in brain CT and high signal area in MRI were gradually reduced in its size. Peripheral enhancement effect in brain CT disappeared within 10 months in case 1, one month in the other case. In the chronic stage, the reduction of low density area and atrophy of brain stem were noted in brain CT. The lesion in chronic stage had low intensity in T 1 , T 2 weighted images and the T 1 , T 2 values at the lesion were mildly prolonged in MRI. Sequentially CT with enhancement and MRI examinations with T 1 , T 2 weighted images were useful to detect the lesion and to evaluate the activity, evolution of brain stem type Neuro-Behcet's syndrome. (author)

  19. A case of neuro-Behcet's disease: comparison of neurological symptoms with PET, SPECT, and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Wook; An, Min; Kim, So Yon; Kim, Young Jung; Cho, Min Koo; Lee, Gwon Jun; Lim, Sang Mun; Hong, Sung Woon; Choi, Chang Woon [Korea Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We describe a 27-year-old man who developed gait disturbance and dysarthria 2 years after the onset of cardinal symptoms of Behect's disease. Position emission tomography with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose revealed severe hypometabolism in the cerebellum, in accordance with cerebellar symptoms and signs of the patients. However, single-photon emission tomography with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD did not disclose significant perfusion abnormalities in the brain. Routine brain magnetic resonance imaging did not show signal abnormalities. The findings of imaging studies compared with neurological manifestations of the patient are discussed.

  20. Genetic Variation in the REL Gene Increases Risk of Behcet's Disease in a Chinese Han Population but That of PRKCQ Does Not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilan Chen

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS and candidate gene studies have identified the REL and PRKCQ genes as risk loci for various autoimmune diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of the REL and PRKCQ genes with Behcet's disease (BD in a Chinese Han population. A case-control study was conducted on three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs13031237, rs702873, and rs842647 of the REL gene and three SNPs (rs4750316, rs11258747, and rs947474 of the PRKCQ gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP in a total of 623 BD patients and 1,074 healthy controls. Multiple variables were assessed, including age, sex distribution, and extra-ocular findings. In the present study, the frequencies of rs842647 GG genotypes and rs842647 G alleles were significantly higher in patients than in controls and those of the rs842647 AG genotypes were lower in patients than in controls [GG genotype: Bonferroni corrected P-value for gender adjustment (Pc(a = 0.0074, odds ratio (OR = 1.63; G allele: Pc(a = 0.0072, OR = 1.57; AG genotype: Pc(a = 0.024, OR = 0.63, respectively]. No statistically significant differences in the frequencies of rs702873, rs13031237, rs4750316, rs11258747, and rs947474 between BD patients and controls were observed. Stratification analysis indicated that the REL rs842647 polymorphism was associated with BD patients with skin lesions. No significant association of the other five SNPs between BD patients with other extra-ocular findings, including genital ulcer, arthritis, and positive pathergy test results was found. The REL rs842647 polymorphism may be a susceptibility factor for BD pathogenesis and skin lesions, which indicate that c-Rel may be involved in the pathogenesis and skin lesions of BD through the NF-κB pathway.

  1. Behcet's syndrome involving the gastrointestinal tract - a diagnostic dilemma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, D.A.; Daneman, A.; Cleghorn, G.J.; Durie, P.R.; Hamilton, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Behcet's syndrome is very rare in children, especially those under 10 years of age. Clinical and radiological features are described in 4 children, including 2 under the age of 5 years, with the syndrome. As in other pediatric cases reported, the incomplete form of Behcet's syndrome was present in each case. All 4 patients had oral and genital mucosal effects, arthritis and gastrointestinal and dermatological manifestations. Ophthalmological symptoms occurred in only 1 patient. Radiologically, the 4 cases demonstrated the spectrum of gastrointestinal involvement, from minimal irregularity and thickening of the terminal ileum to gross irregularity and deformity of the terminal ileum and cecum. Because of the difficulty in differentiating Behcet's syndrome from other forms of inflammatory bowel disease it is suggested that in children with gastrointestinal involvement, 3 major criteria be present before the diagnosis of Behcet's syndrome is made. (orig.)

  2. Polymorphism of interleukin 6 -174 G/C in Behcet disease: case series and review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Hamzaoui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess the association between polymorphisms of the IL-6 -174 G/C and Behçet's disease (BD in Tunisian patients. DNA was extracted from blood samples taken from 43 Tunisian patients and 43 healthy controls. The polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR with the PCR-RFLP. No significant association was found between patients and controls concerning polymorphism of IL6 -174 G/C between the (allelic frequency: C (17.44 vs 8, 13%; P=0.17 et G (82,55 vs 91,86%; P= 0.21. Neither age of onset of BD nor sex appears to be influenced by allelic variation of SNP-174 G / C of IL6. Disease duration of BD was longer in patients having the form 174 G-allele. SNP -174G/C was more frequent in patients without significant association (32.5 vs 16,26% ; P=0.07. SNP -174 G/C was not associated with the HLA B51. Neither age of onset of BD nor sex appears to be influenced by SNP-174 G / C of IL6. Disease duration of BD was longer in the absence of the SNP-174 G/C IL6, with no significant difference (79.2 + / -45.095 vs.70.28 + / - 47.034 months, P=0.59. The polymorphism of IL6 -174 G/C does not modulate clinical expression of BD. The single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IL-6 do not appear to be associated with BD reconstruction.

  3. Neurological manifestations of Batch s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Ashjazadeh, Nahid; Nikseresht, Alireza; Shariat, Abdolhamid; Yousefipour, Gholamali; Samangooie, Shahdokht; Safari, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and laboratory features of Neuro-Behcets disease. This prospective study was carried out in the Behcets Research Clinic in Shiraz (south-west Iran) and included the patients referred from 1990-1999. The patients' clinical records, images, CSF analyses, and electrodiagnostic studies were reviewed. Eighteen (15 males and 3 females) out of 690 Behcet s patients (2.6%, 95% CI = 1.4-3.8%) were found to have neurological involvement. The mean +/- standard deviation age of these patients was 34.7 +/- 8.6 years. All fulfilled the criteria of the International Study Group of Behcet s Disease. Central nervous system involvement was more common than peripheral nervous system manifestations. Headache, weakness, tingling, and numbness were the most common symptoms. Hyperreflexia, upward plantar reflex, and somatosensory findings were the most frequent signs. Hemispheral and brainstem stroke-like syndromes and cerebral venous thrombosis were the major neurologic presentations. There were also cases of myelitic, pure meningoencephalitic, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like, multiple sclerosis-like, and Guillain Barre syndromes. Neuro-Behcets disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of stroke in young adults, chronic meningitis, intracranial hypertension, multiple sclerosis, myelopathies, and peripheral neuropathies. (author)

  4. Pregnancy complicated by superior vena cava thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a patient with Behcet disease and the use of heparin for treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, A.; Akdeniz, N.A.; Akyildiz, L.; Kale, E.

    2006-01-01

    Batch disease is a multi systemic vasculitis of unknown origin. Vascular involvement has been considered to result from systemic vasculitis, occurs in 5-10% of these patients. We report a 34-year-old pregnant woman complicated by superior vena ca va thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism in a patient with Batch disease. (author)

  5. Computed tomography diagnosis of cardiovascular involvement in behcet syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Aihua; Dai Ruping; Jiang Shiliang; Lu Bin; Zhang Pei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) characteristics of cardiovascular involvement in Behcet syndrome. Methods: Eleven patients with clinically diagnosed Behcet syndrome were studied retrospectively from July 1995 to December 2007. Electron beam CT or 64-slice helical CT scanner was used and CT characteristics were reviewed. Results: Eleven patients were diagnosed according to the criteria reported by the international study group for Behcet syndrome. Of them, 4 patients presented with aortic valve prolapse (2 patients with mitral valve prolapse), false aneurysm of right coronary artery was demonstrated in 2 patients, false aneurysm of left subclavian artery, aortic aneurysm and penetrating ulcers, aortic arch false aneurysm, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and interatrial septum aneurysm in 1 case, respectively. Conclusion: CT is a very useful method for the diagnosis and follow-up of Behcet syndrome. (authors)

  6. Asymptomatic giant coronary aneurysm in an adolescent with Behcet's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Behcet's is an idiopathic multi-organ syndrome, which may have onset during childhood. Vascular involvement is uncommon, with rarely reported coronary aneurysm formation. We present a case report of a teenager girl who developed recalcitrant life-threatening Behcet's vasculitis, involving both small and large venous and arterial systems including a giant coronary aneurysm. Case report De-identified data were collected retrospectively in case report format. Although our sixteen year old female with Behcet's vasculitis had resolution of many arterial aneurysms, she had persistent venous thrombosis of large vessels, as well as persistent, giant arterial aneurysms requiring intra-arterial coiling of a lumbar artery and coronary bypass grafting despite intensive immunosuppression including glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide, infliximab, methotrexate, azathioprine and intravenous immunoglobulin. Conclusions Vascular manifestations may be seen in Behcet's syndrome, including asymptomatic coronary aneurysm, which may be refractory to immunosuppression and ultimately require surgical intervention. Increased awareness is essential for prompt diagnosis and management.

  7. Imaging in hepatobiliary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book covers the diagnostic and interventional use of imaging techniques in hepatobiliary disease. The first of the book's two sections describes the role of imaging in the diagnostic work up of common clinical syndromes. The second part is concerned with therapy and reviews interventional techniques for hepatobiliary disease

  8. Headache Could Be Finding of Sinus Vein Thrombosis in Behcets Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Sen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally Behcet%u2019s disease (BD is most frequently seen in Turkey and takes its name from the Turkish dermatologist Hulusi Behcet. Basic findings of the disease are the triad of genital ulcers, oral ulcers and uveitis. Neurological involvement in BD appears an average of 5 years after the beginning of disease, or the first appearance of the disease may be neurological findings. Sinus vein thrombosis (SVT is among neurological involvements observed in BD. However diagnosis of SVT is difficult and it is a situation that may cause disability or mortality. Our case was a 24-year old female patient with diagnosed SVT who had a diagnosis of BD from 5 years. In spite of the patient frequently applying to health services, SVT diagnosis was delayed until 15 days after the initial symptoms. BD can cause SVT and SVT may cause disability or mortality but SVT may be diagnosed late, just as in our case. Therefore we present this case to increase awareness of this disease.

  9. Moyamoya disease: Diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kułakowska, Alina; Łukasiewicz, Adam; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Korneluk-Sadzyńska, Alicja; Brzozowska, Joanna; Drozdowski, Wiesław

    2011-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease. Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease. The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures. Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients

  10. Imaging of Spinal Metastatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubdha M. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the spine can involve the bone, epidural space, leptomeninges, and spinal cord. The spine is the third most common site for metastatic disease, following the lung and the liver. Approximately 60–70% of patients with systemic cancer will have spinal metastasis. Materials/Methods. This is a review of the imaging techniques and typical imaging appearances of spinal metastatic disease. Conclusions. Awareness of the different manifestations of spinal metastatic disease is essential as the spine is the most common site of osseous metastatic disease. Imaging modalities have complimentary roles in the evaluation of spinal metastatic disease. CT best delineates osseous integrity, while MRI is better at assessing soft tissue involvement. Physiologic properties, particularly in treated disease, can be evaluated with other imaging modalities such as FDG PET and advanced MRI sequences. Imaging plays a fundamental role in not only diagnosis but also treatment planning of spinal metastatic disease.

  11. Lyme disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a ...

  12. Clinical application of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (resistive type) on cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Katsuya; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki; Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tateno, Yukio.

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging in diagnosing cardiovascular disease, 27 subjects were examined using a 0.1-Tesla resistive type (ASAHI MARK-J). In 10 normal subjects, four cardiac chambers, interventricular septum, aorta, pulmonary vessels and vena cava were clearly identified in NMR imaging. In two patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction, anteroseptal wall thinning and left ventricular aneurysm with mural thrombi were demonstrated. In two cases of antrolateral and posterolateral myocardial infarction, however, infarcted areas were not identified in NMR imaging. In one patient with congestive cardiomyopathy, enlarged left ventricle without hypertrophy was recognized. In two patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, NMR imaging disclosed thickened left ventricular wall associated with its narrowed cavity. A mural thrombus in the right ventricle was distinctly visualized in one patient with cardio-vascular Behcet's disease. In two patients with mitral valve stenosis, enlarged left atrium with a mural thrombus was clearly demonstrated in both cross and longitudinal sections. In three patients with thoratic aortic aneurysm, local dilatation of aorta and mural thrombi were recognized. In four patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm, double channels with an intimal flap in the aorta were visualized in NMR imaging. Mean T 1 values and standard deviations of left ventricle, left ventricular wall, and thrombi were 593+-89, 341+-20, 316+-84 msec, respectively. Mean T 1 values of thrombi were ordinally shorter than those of left ventricule. But some thrombi which might be expected fresh had longer T 1 values. (J.P.N.)

  13. Functional imaging in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, Martin; Eidelberg, David

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging has been increasingly used in the study of neurodegenerative diseases as such techniques can elucidate neurochemical and functional changes that cannot be captured with structural imaging. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in Huntington disease (HD) genetic testing allows for diagnostic certainty. Thus, the focus has been on understanding the pathophysiogic processes underlying the development of the disease, as well as the identification of potential biomarkers to monitor disease progression, particularly during the presymptomatic stage. These imaging methods have expanded our understanding of HD beyond dopaminergic deficits and striatal cell loss, and have described alteration in widespread networks relating to motor and cognitive symptoms. In this chapter, we review the current literature on radiotracer and functional magnetic resonance imaging relating to HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain Imaging in Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Keith A.; Fox, Nick C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Klunk, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging has played a variety of roles in the study of Alzheimer disease (AD) over the past four decades. Initially, computed tomography (CT) and then magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used diagnostically to rule out other causes of dementia. More recently, a variety of imaging modalities including structural and functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral metabolism with fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and amyloid tracers such as Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) have shown characteristic changes in the brains of patients with AD, and in prodromal and even presymptomatic states that can help rule-in the AD pathophysiological process. No one imaging modality can serve all purposes as each have unique strengths and weaknesses. These modalities and their particular utilities are discussed in this article. The challenge for the future will be to combine imaging biomarkers to most efficiently facilitate diagnosis, disease staging, and, most importantly, development of effective disease-modifying therapies. PMID:22474610

  15. Metal imaging in neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Megan W.

    2014-01-01

    Metal ions are known to play an important role in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and prion diseases. In these diseases, aberrant metal binding or improper regulation of redox active metal ions can induce oxidative stress by producing cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altered metal homeostasis is also frequently seen in the diseased state. As a result, the imaging of metals in intact biological cells and tissues has been very important for understanding the role of metals in neurodegenerative diseases. A wide range of imaging techniques have been utilized, including X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), all of which allow for the imaging of metals in biological specimens with high spatial resolution and detection sensitivity. These techniques represent unique tools for advancing the understanding of the disease mechanisms and for identifying possible targets for developing treatments. In this review, we will highlight the advances in neurodegenerative disease research facilitated by metal imaging techniques. PMID:22797194

  16. Coronary artery disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

  17. Imaging of sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, J.J. [Department of Pediatric Imaging, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit (United States); Sarnaik, S. [Sickle Cell Center, Children`s Hospital of Michigan, Detroit (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Sickle cell disease is an important health care issue in the United States and in certain areas in Africa, the Middle East and India. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the disease at the molecular and pathophysiologic level, specific treatment which is safe and accessible for most patients is still elusive. Going into the next millennium, the management of this disease is still largely dependent on early diagnosis and the treatment of complications with supportive care. Thus, diagnosis and evaluation of the complications of the disease are crucial in directing clinical care at the bedside. Modern imaging modalities have greatly improved, and their application in the patient with the sickling disorders has enhanced the decision - making process. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical aspects of common complications of the disease and to discuss imaging approaches which are useful in their evaluation. (orig.) With 15 figs., 102 refs.

  18. Imaging of sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.J.; Sarnaik, S.

    1999-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an important health care issue in the United States and in certain areas in Africa, the Middle East and India. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the disease at the molecular and pathophysiologic level, specific treatment which is safe and accessible for most patients is still elusive. Going into the next millennium, the management of this disease is still largely dependent on early diagnosis and the treatment of complications with supportive care. Thus, diagnosis and evaluation of the complications of the disease are crucial in directing clinical care at the bedside. Modern imaging modalities have greatly improved, and their application in the patient with the sickling disorders has enhanced the decision - making process. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical aspects of common complications of the disease and to discuss imaging approaches which are useful in their evaluation. (orig.)

  19. MR imaging in Peyronie's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Yoel; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Yong; Kim, Chong Soo; Park, Jong Kwan

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of magnetic resonance (MR) images in Peyronie's disease and to assess the usefulness of post-erection penile MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of seven patients in whom Peyronie's disease was clinically suspected. All seven underwent pre-and post-erectile MRI. After the acquisition of erectile MRI, three patients also underwent contrast-enhanced MRI. We compared image quality and the rate of detection of penile plaque between pre-erectile and post-erectile images. In three patients who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI, we assessed correlation between the contrast enhancement pattern, as seen on MRI, of the plaque and corpus cavernosa and clinical inflammatory signs such as painful erection. In the seven patients, all post-erectile MRI images showed localized thickening and irregularities of the tunica albuginea and the septum penis, suggesting penile plaque. On pre-erectile MRI, however, plaque was detected in five cases. In six of seven cases, plaque as seen on T2-weighted images (T2WI) showed low signal intensity similar to that of the tunica albuginea, and as seen on T1-weighted images (T1W1), a signal intensity of signal intensity similar to or similar to or slightly higher than that of the tunica albuginea. In one case, plaque showed high signal intensity on both T1WI and T2WI. On T1WI, the corpus cavernosa showed homogeneous medium-signal intensity on all pre- and post-erectile MR images. On pre-erectile T2WI, the corpus cavernosa of six patients showed heterogeneous high signal intensity, whereas on post-erectile T2WI the corpus cavernosa of all patients showed homogeneous high signal intensity. Due to the enlarged penis and homogeneous signal intensity of the corpus cavernosa, the image quality of post-erectile images was superior to that of pre-erectile images. The images of two of three patients who underwent contrast enhanced MRI showed strong enhancement of the plaque and adjacent corpus cavernosa, while in

  20. MR imaging of pancreatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Katsuyoshi E-mail: itokatsu@po.cc.yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Koike, Shinji; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2001-05-01

    This article presents current MR imaging techniques for the pancreas, and review a spectrum of MR imaging features of various pancreatic diseases. These include: 1) congenital anomalies such as anomalous union of pancreatobiliary ducts, divisum, and annular pancreas, 2) inflammatory diseases, including acute or chronic pancreatitis with complications, groove pancreatitis, and autoimmune pancreatitis, tumor-forming pancreatitis, 3) pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinoma, islet cell tumors, and cystic neoplasms (microcystic adenoma, mucinous cystic neoplasms, and intraductal mucin-producing pancreatic tumor). Particular attention is paid to technical advances in MR imaging of the pancreas such as fat-suppression, MR pancreatography (single- or multi-slice HASTE), and thin-section 3D multiphasic contrast-enhanced dynamic sequences. Imaging characteristics that may lead to a specific diagnosis or narrow the differential diagnosis are also discussed.

  1. Metabolic Imaging in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meles, Sanne K; Teune, Laura K; de Jong, Bauke M; Dierckx, Rudi A; Leenders, Klaus L

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on recent human 18 F-FDG PET studies in Parkinson disease. First, an overview is given of the current analytic approaches to metabolic brain imaging data. Next, we discuss how 18 F-FDG PET studies have advanced understanding of the relation between distinct brain regions and associated symptoms in Parkinson disease, including cognitive decline. In addition, the value of 18 F-FDG PET studies in differential diagnosis, identifying prodromal patients, and the evaluation of treatment effects are reviewed. Finally, anticipated developments in the field are addressed. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  2. MR imaging of muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.A.; Zeitler, E.; Schalke, B.C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Because of high soft-tissue contrast, MR imaging is especially suitable for the investigation of muscle diseases. Between March 1984 and March 1986, 76 patients with different types of muscle diseases were examined using a 1-T superconductive magnet (Siemens Magnetom). Studied were 14 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (including carriers), 32 patients with myositis, four patients with myotonic dystrophy, six patients with spinal muscular atrophy, and 20 patients with other muscle diseases, including metabolic disorders. MR imaging showed typical signal patterns in affected muscle groups. These patterns can be used in the differential diagnosis, in biopsy planning, or in evaluation of response to therapy. The T1/T2 ratio especially seems to indicate very early stages of muscle disease

  3. Cerebral imaging revealing Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral imaging is the only non-invasive means of examining the brain and is essential in studying Alzheimer's disease. As a tool for early diagnosis, evaluation and treatment monitoring, this technology is at the heart of the research being done to further improve its reliability and sensitivity. (authors)

  4. FLAIR images of brain diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao; Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the usefulness of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in diagnosing brain diseases. The subjects were 20 patients with multiple cerebral infarction, multiple sclerosis, temporal epilepsy, or brain trauma, and 20 other healthy adults. FLAIR images, with a long repetitive time of 6000 msec and a long inversion time of 1400-1600 msec, showed low signal intensity in the cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral ventricles and the cerebral sulci, and high signal intensity in brain tissues. Signal intensity on FLAIR images correlated well with T2 relaxation times under 100 msec. For multiple sclerosis and cerebral infarction, cystic lesions, which were shown on T2-weighted images with long relaxation times over 100 msec, appeared as low-signal areas; and the lesions surrounding the cystic lesions appeared as high-signal areas. For temporal lobe epilepsy, the hippocampus was visualized as a high-signal area. Hippocampal lesions were demonstrated better with FLAIR images than with conventional T2-weighted and proton-density images. In a patient with cerebral trauma, FLAIR images revealed the lobulated structure with the residual cortex shown as a high signal area. The lesions surrounding the cystic change were imaged as high signal areas. These structural changes were demonstrated better with FLAIR images than with conventional T2-weighted sequences. FLAIR images were useful in detecting white matter lesions surrounding the lateral ventricles and cortical and subcortical lesions near the brain surface, which were unclear on conventional T2-weighted and proton-density images. (N.K.)

  5. Imaging Diagnostic in Coats' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losowska-Kaniwska, D.; Bieganski, T.; Stefanczyk, L.

    2005-01-01

    Coats' disease is a rare congenital vascular abnormality of the retina consisting of multiple telangiectasis, breakdown of the retina-blood barrier, and formation of subretinal lipoproteinaceous exudate, leading to retinal detachment. Globe imaging in Coats' disease precisely shows retinal abnormalities and typical subretinal exudates. These lesions are nonspecific and differentiation from other causes of exudative retinal detachment should be performed. Globe imaging using US, CT, and MR was performed in five patients with decreased visual acuity (4 boys and 1 girl), aged 1-16 years, with a diagnosis or suspicion of Coats' disease etinal thickening in the temporal quadrant was observed in one child. In the other four children, V-shaped retinal detachments with exudate accumulated beneath the detached retina were observed. All affected globes showed decreased anterior-posterior diameters compared with the contralateral eye. Calcifications of the retinal regions were not present. (author)

  6. Induction of Regulatory t Cells by Low Dose il2 in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-10

    Rheumatoid Arthritis; Ankylosing Spondylitis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Psoriasis; Behcet's Disease; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Takayasu's Disease; Crohn's Disease; Ulcerative Colitis; Autoimmune Hepatitis; Sclerosing Cholangitis; Gougerot-sjögren; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Systemic Sclerosis

  7. Tau imaging in neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dani, M.; Edison, P. [Imperial College London, Neurology Imaging Unit, Division of Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); Brooks, D.J. [Imperial College London, Neurology Imaging Unit, Division of Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); Aarhus University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    Aggregated tau protein is a major neuropathological substrate central to the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In AD, it has been shown that the density of hyperphosphorylated tau tangles correlates closely with neuronal dysfunction and cell death, unlike β-amyloid. Until now, diagnostic and pathologic information about tau deposition has only been available from invasive techniques such as brain biopsy or autopsy. The recent development of selective in-vivo tau PET imaging ligands including [{sup 18}F]THK523, [{sup 18}F]THK5117, [{sup 18}F]THK5105 and [{sup 18}F]THK5351, [{sup 18}F]AV1451(T807) and [{sup 11}C]PBB3 has provided information about the role of tau in the early phases of neurodegenerative diseases, and provided support for diagnosis, prognosis, and imaging biomarkers to track disease progression. Moreover, the spatial and longitudinal relationship of tau distribution compared with β - amyloid and other pathologies in these diseases can be mapped. In this review, we discuss the role of aggregated tau in tauopathies, the challenges posed in developing selective tau ligands as biomarkers, the state of development in tau tracers, and the new clinical information that has been uncovered, as well as the opportunities for improving diagnosis and designing clinical trials in the future. (orig.)

  8. Radiological imaging of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imaging studies are playing an increasingly role in the evaluation of endocrine diseases; accordingly, familiarity with the specific indications for the various modalities, and with the characteristic findings, is essential. This multi-author work, which is intended for both radiologists and endocrinologists, considers the role of all the recent imaging techniques, including ultrasound (particular color Doppler), computed tomography, MRI, and scintigraphy. Following an extensive introduction on the pituitary, subsequent chapters discuss in detail the normal anatomy and pathology of the female and male reproductive systems. Remaining chapters provide state-of-the-art data on the thyroid, parathyroids, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adrenal glands, hormonal tumors (carcinoids and MEN), and imaging of the complications of hormone therapy. (orig.)

  9. Imaging of ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Martin J.; Reba, Richard C.; Bogaert, Jan; Boxt, Larry M.

    2002-01-01

    Despite advances in the understanding and treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy, characterized by extensive coronary artery disease and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, the prognosis remains poor with only a 50-60% 5-year survival rate. The composition of atherosclerotic lesions is currently regarded as being more important than the degree of stenosis in determining acute events. If imaging techniques could distinguish vulnerable from stable plaques, then high-risk patient subgroups could be identified. Another important concept is that LV dysfunction may be the result of either scarring due to necrosis or to the presence of myocardial hibernation, in which there is sufficient blood flow to sustain viable myocytes, but insufficient to maintain systolic contraction. This concept of myocardial viability is critical for making optimal clinical management decisions. This review describes how noninvasive imaging methods can be used to distinguish regions of irreversibly injured myocardium from viable but hibernating segments. Technical advances in CT and MR have made imaging of the beating heart possible. Considerable clinical progress has already been made and further cardiac applications are expected. Radiologists therefore have new opportunities for involvement in cardiac imaging but must recognize the political implications as well as the diagnostic potential of these modalities not only for the heart, but also for the whole vascular system. This review focuses on imaging myocardial injury. It compares state-of-the-art CT and MR with more established yet contemporary echocardiography and nuclear scintigraphy. (orig.)

  10. Lung imaging in pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, G.V.; Chopra, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Although it has been recognized for several years that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can cause lung perfusion defects which may simulate pulmonary embolism, relatively little use has been made of either the radioxenon or the radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging procedures until the last few years as a means of distinguishing pulmonary embolism (P.E.) from COPD is reported. Recent experience is reported with the use of both of these procedures in comparison with pulmonary function tests for the early detection of COPD in population studies and also in P.E. suspects. Equal emphasis is given to simultaneous aerosol ventilation-perfusion (V/P) imaging in the differential diagnosis of P.E. Finally, this paper is concerned with new developments in regional lung diffusion imaging following the inhalation of radioactive gases and rapidly absorbed radioaerosols. Their experimental basis is presented and their potential clinical applications in pulmonary embolism are discussed. As a result of these investigations, a functional (V/P) diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in patients may be possible in the near future with a sequential radioaerosol inhalation procedure alone

  11. Pulmonary artery aneurysm in Bechcet's disease: helical computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, J.; Caballero, P.; Olivera, M. J.; Cajal, M. L.; Caniego, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown etiology that affects arteries and veins of different sizes and can be associated with pulmonary artery aneurysms. We report the case of a patient with Behcet's disease and a pulmonary artery aneurysm who was studied by means of plain chest X ray, helical computed tomography and pulmonary arteriography. Helical computed tomography is a reliable technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (Author) 9 refs

  12. Pituitary gland imaging in Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Bonneville, F.; Schillo, F.; Jacquet, G.

    2003-01-01

    Specific MR techniques are r-required for optimal detection of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenomas responsible for Cushing's disease. Adequate MR sequences, high resolution coronal T1 and T2 - weighted images, dynamic MR imaging, post-gadolinium delayed images, dose of gadolinium adjusted for each sequence can routinely demonstrate pituitary adenomas less than 3 mm in Cushing's disease. (authors)

  13. Molecular imaging: Moving towards infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hongxiu; Ingraham, Christopher R.; Yang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging has been advanced into the field of infectious diseases, which provides not only new insights for basic science, but also new strategies for the effective management of infectious diseases in clinical practice.

  14. Tobacco and vascular disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco use and exposure may cause an acceleration of coronary artery disease and peptic ulcer disease. It is also linked to reproductive disturbances, esophageal reflux, hypertension, fetal illness ...

  15. Imaging Systemic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghammer, Per; Knudsen, Karoline; Brooks, David J

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is now widely recognized to be a multisystem disorder affecting the brain and peripheral autonomic nerves. Extensive pathology is present in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and the intrinsic gastrointestinal plexuses in patients. Autonomic pathology and symptoms such as constipation can predate the clinical diagnosis by years or decades. Imaging studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of Parkinson's disease but focused primarily on imaging cerebral pathology. However, given the importance of understanding the nature, chronology, and functional consequences of peripheral pathology, there has been renewed interest in imaging peripheral organs in Parkinson's disease. Suitable imaging tools can be divided into two types: radiotracer studies that directly estimate loss of sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve terminals, and imaging modalities to quantitate dysphagia, gastric emptying, esophageal and intestinal transit times, and anorectal dyssynergia. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about peripheral imaging in Parkinson's disease.

  16. PET/MR Imaging in Vascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Kjær, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    For imaging of atherosclerotic disease, lumenography using computed tomography, ultrasonography, or invasive angiography is still the backbone of evaluation. However, these methods are less effective to predict the likelihood of future thromboembolic events caused by vulnerability of plaques. PET...... through data and arguments that support increased use of PET/MR imaging in atherosclerotic imaging....

  17. Clinical and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Lower-extremity Vein Thrombosis in Behcet Syndrome: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyahi, Emire; Cakmak, Osman Serdal; Tutar, Burcin; Arslan, Caner; Dikici, Atilla Suleyman; Sut, Necdet; Kantarci, Fatih; Tuzun, Hasan; Melikoglu, Melike; Yazici, Hasan

    2015-11-01

    Vascular involvement can be seen in up to 40% of patients with Behcet syndrome (BS), the lower-extremity vein thrombosis (LEVT) being the most common type. The aim of the current study was to compare venous Doppler findings and clinical features between BS patients with LEVT and control patients diagnosed as having LEVT due to other causes.All consecutive 78 patients (71 men, 7 women; mean age 38.6 ± 10.3 years) with LEVT due to BS and 50 control patients (29 men, 21 women; mean age 42.0 ± 12.5 years) who had LEVT due to other causes, or idiopathic, were studied with the help of a Doppler ultrasonography after a detailed clinical examination. Patterns of venous disease were identified by cluster analyses. Clinical features of chronic venous disease were assessed using 2 classification systems. Venous claudication was also assessed.Patients with BS were more likely to be men, had significantly earlier age of onset of thrombosis, and were treated mainly with immunosuppressives and less frequently with anticoagulants. Furthermore, they had significantly more bilateral involvement, less complete recanalization, and more frequent collateral formation. While control patients had a disorganized pattern of venous involvement, BS patients had a contiguous and symmetric pattern, involving all deep and superficial veins of the lower extremities, with less affinity for crural veins. Clinical assessment, as measured by the 2 classification systems, also indicated a more severe disease among the BS patients. In line, 51% of the BS patients suffered from severe post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and 32% from venous claudication, whereas these were present in 8% and 12%, respectively, among the controls. Among BS patients, a longer duration of thrombosis, bilateral femoral vein involvement, and using no anticoagulation along with immunosuppressive treatment when first diagnosed were found to be associated independently with severe PTS.Lower-extremity vein thrombosis

  18. Clinical and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Lower-extremity Vein Thrombosis in Behcet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyahi, Emire; Cakmak, Osman Serdal; Tutar, Burcin; Arslan, Caner; Dikici, Atilla Suleyman; Sut, Necdet; Kantarci, Fatih; Tuzun, Hasan; Melikoglu, Melike; Yazici, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vascular involvement can be seen in up to 40% of patients with Behcet syndrome (BS), the lower-extremity vein thrombosis (LEVT) being the most common type. The aim of the current study was to compare venous Doppler findings and clinical features between BS patients with LEVT and control patients diagnosed as having LEVT due to other causes. All consecutive 78 patients (71 men, 7 women; mean age 38.6 ± 10.3 years) with LEVT due to BS and 50 control patients (29 men, 21 women; mean age 42.0 ± 12.5 years) who had LEVT due to other causes, or idiopathic, were studied with the help of a Doppler ultrasonography after a detailed clinical examination. Patterns of venous disease were identified by cluster analyses. Clinical features of chronic venous disease were assessed using 2 classification systems. Venous claudication was also assessed. Patients with BS were more likely to be men, had significantly earlier age of onset of thrombosis, and were treated mainly with immunosuppressives and less frequently with anticoagulants. Furthermore, they had significantly more bilateral involvement, less complete recanalization, and more frequent collateral formation. While control patients had a disorganized pattern of venous involvement, BS patients had a contiguous and symmetric pattern, involving all deep and superficial veins of the lower extremities, with less affinity for crural veins. Clinical assessment, as measured by the 2 classification systems, also indicated a more severe disease among the BS patients. In line, 51% of the BS patients suffered from severe post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and 32% from venous claudication, whereas these were present in 8% and 12%, respectively, among the controls. Among BS patients, a longer duration of thrombosis, bilateral femoral vein involvement, and using no anticoagulation along with immunosuppressive treatment when first diagnosed were found to be associated independently with severe PTS. Lower-extremity vein

  19. Myocardial imaging in patients with Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yasuo; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Kijima, Yoshitami; Kohata, Tohru; Suzuki, Atsuko

    1982-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial imaging was performed in 80 children with coronary arterial lesions due to Kawasaki disease in order to assess the value of serial and exercise myocardial imagings. In eight of these children, abnormalities of the image were noted. Twenty children had serial thallium studies with an interval of three to 18 months, and five of these showed changes in the image including appearance of a new perfusion defect in one patient and improvement of perfusion defects in four. These changes of the myocardial image were correlated well with coronary angiographic findings obtained within a few days of the isotope studies. It was noted that the changes of the myocardial image were more frequently observed at relatively recent period recovered from Kawasaki disease. Exercise myocardial imaging using a bicycle ergometer was performed in eight children with coronary arterial lesions. In three an evidence of improvement of the myocardial perfusion was noted immediately after exercise as well as on the delayed image. In one patient, a decrease of the perfusion in the apex and inferior wall was noted immediately after exercise. On the observed image, image of the apex improved but that of the inferior wall remained hypoperfused. Thus thallium-201 myocardial imaging was considered to permit the best noninvasive documentation imaging was found to be useful in differentiating the viable from nonviable myocardium. It was to be emphasized that quantitative evaluation by computer-assisted analysis was particularly valuable in detecting small areas and in a comparison of the myocardial images. (author)

  20. Enfermedad de Behcet: estudio clínico y tratamiento en el Hospital Arzobispo Loayza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Alzamora Barrios

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de presentación, así como, las manifestaciones clínicas, tratamiento y evolución de la Enfermedad de Behcet en el Hospital Arzobispo Loayza (HAL durante el periodo 1992 - 2001. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo en el HAL durante el periodo de 1992 a 2001. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes que estuvieron hospitalizados y que acudieron a consultorios externos de los servicios de Oftalmología y Medicina y, tuvieron como diagnóstico final Enfermedad de Behcet. Resultados: Se presentaron 9 pacientes con Enfermedad de Behcet durante el periodo 1992 - 2001, 6 mujeres y 3 hombres, con edades entre los 19 y 55 años; los cuales presentaron como manifestaciones clínicas: úlceras orales, úlceras en genitales, uveítis y otras lesiones oculares, lesiones en piel, dolor articular, compromiso gastrointestinal, etc. Conclusiones: Se encuentra que la prevalencia de esta enfermedad, en nuestra población es baja, al igual que en el resto del mundo y; se confirma además que, el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad, a pesar de ser clínico, es difícil, porque es una entidad poco reconocida. (Rev Med Hered 2001; 12:58-64 .

  1. Radiological imaging in pediatric rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszewska, Genowefa; Zaniewicz-Kaniewska, Katarzyna; Włodkowska-Korytkowska, Monika; Smorawińska, Patrycja; Saied, Fadhil; Kunisz, Wojciech; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Radiological imaging plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis and monitoring of rheumatic diseases. The basic method of imaging is a classic X-ray picture, which for many years has been used as a single method for the recognition and evaluation of the effects of disease management. In today’s modern day treatment of rheumatic diseases, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance are more commonly performed for early detection of inflammatory changes in the region of soft tissue, subchondral bone and bone marrow. In spite of their usefulness and fundamental role in the diagnosis, X-ray still remains an essential tool in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in children and is complementary to today’s methods of imaging diagnostics. In clinical practice, X-ray imaging is still an important examination performed not only to recognize the disorders, but also to provide a differential diagnosis. It helps estimate disease progression and is used to monitor the effects of treatment and the development of possible complications. Differential diagnosis of rheumatic diseases is performed on the basis of localization and type of radiographic changes. The surrounding periarticular soft tissues, bone structures, joint space, with special attention to articular bone surfaces and epiphyses, are analyzed. The aim of this work is to describe characteristic inflammatory changes present on X-ray imaging typical for the most commonly diagnosed rheumatic diseases in children, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, mixed connective tissue disease, juvenile dermatomyositis, juvenile spondyloarthropathy and systemic vascular disease

  2. Caroli's disease: magnetic resonance imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, France; Cognet, Francois; Dranssart, Marie; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Conciatori, Laurent; Krause, Denis

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to describe the main aspects of MR imaging in Caroli's disease. Magnetic resonance cholangiography with a dynamic contrast-enhanced study was performed in nine patients with Caroli's disease. Bile duct abnormalities, lithiasis, dot signs, hepatic enhancement, renal abnormalities, and evidence of portal hypertension were evaluated. Three MR imaging patterns of Caroli's disease were found. In all but two patients, MR imaging findings were sufficient to confirm the diagnosis. Moreover, MR imaging provided information about the severity, location, and extent of liver involvement. This information was useful in planning the best therapeutic strategy. Magnetic resonance cholangiography with a dynamic contrast-enhanced study is a good screening tool for Caroli's disease. Direct cholangiography should be reserved for confirming doubtful cases. (orig.)

  3. Holography for imaging in structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckheimer, Elchanan; Rotschild, Carmel

    2016-05-17

    Three-dimensional imaging modalities for structural heart disease interventions have become a common feature in the procedural workflow. The images acquired are usually presented on 2D displays, thereby restricting their usefulness and the ability to interact with them. Holographic images created in real time from the volumetric data which float in the air during the procedure, in front of the operator and above the patient, could provide an intuitive and interactive display for the interventionalist and improve procedure outcomes.

  4. Recent advances in imaging in Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Toru; Takeda, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent knowledge on the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease, the precise and early diagnosis of this condition remains difficult. Advances in imaging techniques have enabled the assessment of in vivo structural, neurometabolic, and neurochemical changes in Parkinson disease, and their role as biomarkers have assumed greater importance in recent years. We presently review the various approaches with these imaging techniques for the study of Parkinson disease. Voxel-based morphometry studies with structural MRI showed a characteristic pattern of gray matter loss, and fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies have indicated latent network abnormalities in Parkinson disease. Moreover, radiotracer imaging with dopaminergic markers facilitates the assessment of pre- and postsynaptic nigro-striatal integrity, and other radiotracers have been used in the studies of nondopaminergic neurotransmitter systems, such as the cholinergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems. These imaging techniques can be used to detect presymptomatic disease and to monitor disease progression. Thus, imaging data provide meaningful insights into the pathological process in Parkinson disease. (author)

  5. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called a prion. Loss of brain function resembles Alzheimer's disease, but is very rapid in progression. Complete dementia usually occurs by the sixth month, death follows quickly. There is no known cure.

  6. Blount's disease: magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducou le Pointe, H.; Mousselard, H.; Rudelli, A.; Montagne, J.P.; Filipe, G.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the information obtained by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the radiographic and MR investigations of nine patients treated for idiopathic tibia vara were reviewed in retrospect. There were six unilateral and three bilateral cases (12 tibiae). Initial radiographs of each patient were assigned a stage according to Catonne's classification. MR imaging was performed with a 0.5- or 1.5-T apparatus. Bony epiphyses were poorly developed in all cases. The cartilaginous component of the epiphyses compensated partially (6/12 cases) or completely (6/12 cases) for the collapse of the physes. In two cases an abnormal area was found between the medial meniscus and the cartilaginous portion of the epiphysis. An abnormally large medial meniscus was noted in four cases; an abnormal signal in the medial meniscus was seen in two cases. MR imaging has several advantages over plain film: it uses no ionizing radiation, it shows the shape of the ossified and cartilaginous epiphysis, and it demonstrates meniscal and physeal abnormalities. MR imaging may influence the choice of treatment. (orig.)

  7. Imaging and translational research: neuro degenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantraye, P.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging of neuro-degenerative diseases over the past two decades are the product of breakthroughs in imaging technology, more powerful computers, image-processing software, and expanding knowledge in basic and clinical neuro-science. In addition to the insights into normal brain structure and function that such methods provide, and the information that can be gained from disease-related changes in structure and function, functional imaging offers the promise of monitoring brain lesions and quantifying the therapeutic efficacy of innovative treatments for these largely incurable disorders. (author)

  8. Imaging of iliopsoas compartment disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, L.; Saint Maurice, J.P.; Le Quen, O.; Bazille, A.; Miquel, A.; Frouge, C.; Blery, M.

    1997-01-01

    Infection, neoplastic involvement, and hemorrhage, are the most frequent pathologies that involve the ilio-psoas compartment. The extension from contiguous pathological structures and particularly digestive and urological organs, are often the origin of abscess formation or malignant tumours. The radiological findings including ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging, show a low specificity, which improves if the clinical history is known. The final diagnosis is confirmed by puncture or biopsy. (author)

  9. Imaging Parkinson's disease below the neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Knudsen, Karoline; Fedorova, Tatyana D

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a systemic disorder with widespread and early α-synuclein pathology in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, which is present throughout the gastrointestinal canal prior to diagnosis. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary autonomic symptoms often predate clinical diagnosis......, the hypothesis remains unproven and in vivo imaging methods of peripheral organs may be essential to study this important research field. The loss of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminal function in Parkinson's disease has been demonstrated using radiotracers such as (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidin, (18......-isotope and radiological modalities for imaging peripheral pathology in Parkinson's disease....

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appenzeller, Simone; Kobayashi, Eliane; Costallat, Lilian T.L.; Zanardi, Veronica de Araujo; Ribeiro Neto, Jose Menezes; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis. Method: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. Results: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weight images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. Meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behcet's disease or systemic lupus erythematosus). After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. Conclusion: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appenzeller, Simone; Kobayashi, Eliane; Costallat, Lilian T.L.; Zanardi, Veronica de Araujo; Ribeiro Neto, Jose Menezes; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2000-03-01

    To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis. Method: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. Results: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weight images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. Meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behcet's disease or systemic lupus erythematosus). After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. Conclusion: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  12. INTRACRANIAL HYDATID DISEASE: IMAGING FINDINGS OF A RARE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    idil Gunes Tatar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. It is mainly endemic in North African and Mediterranean countries. The disease usually manifests in liver and lungs although involvement of other organs are also seen. In this rare case intracranial hydatid disease in a 9-year-old female patient is presented with Magnetic Resonance Imaging findings. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 103-105

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in neurologic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Wan, Chu Wan; Myung, Ho Jin; Choi, Kil Soo; Ahn, Chang Beom; Oh, Chang Hyun; Cho, Zang Hee

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with 0.15 Tesla resistive magnet developed by Korea Advanced Institute of Science were performed in 27 patients with various neurologic diseases and compared with x-ray computed tomography (CT). The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the image quality, the diagnostic value and limitation, and the optimal pulse sequence of MR imagings with a resistive magnet. The MR images were obtained by using a variety of pulse sequence with spin echo technique including saturation recovery. T2-weighted spin echo, and/or inversion recovery with various pulse repetition (TR) and echo delay (TE) times. The MR imaging demonstrated the capability of detecting the lesions shown on CT in al cases and also detected an additional finding in one case (multiple sclerosis) which was not seen on CT. The MR imaging appeared to be more useful than CT in the evaluation of syringomyelia of spinal cord and white matter disease, while it failed to demonstrated small calcific lesion or inflammatory nodule (less than 1 cm) shown on CT and has shown somewhat poor contrast resolution in the case of meingloma. The spatial resolution of saturation recovery images was similar or superior to CT, whereas the contrast resolution of saturation recovery was inferior to CT. While the saturation recovery images have shown false negative findings in 5 patients (19%), the inversion recovery and T2-weighted spin echo have shown consistently positive findings. The inversive recovery and T2-weighted spin echo images demonstrated better contrast discrimination between normal and pathologic conditions than the saturation recovery images, but somewhat poorer spatial resolution. Authors suggest that the MR images of both the saturation recovery with 300/30 and T2-weighted spin echo with 1000/90 be used as a routine procedure and additional inversion recovery of 1300/300/30 sequence as a option if white matter disease is suspected

  14. Neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattjes, Mike P.; Kley, Rudolf A.; Fischer, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Driven by increasing numbers of newly identified genetic defects and new insights into the field of inherited muscle diseases, neuromuscular imaging in general and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular are increasingly being used to characterise the severity and pattern of muscle involvement. Although muscle biopsy is still the gold standard for the establishment of the definitive diagnosis, muscular imaging is an important diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of dystrophic changes during the clinical workup of patients with hereditary muscle diseases. MRI is frequently used to describe muscle involvement patterns, which aids in narrowing of the differential diagnosis and distinguishing between dystrophic and non-dystrophic diseases. Recent work has demonstrated the usefulness of muscle imaging for the detection of specific congenital myopathies, mainly for the identification of the underlying genetic defect in core and centronuclear myopathies. Muscle imaging demonstrates characteristic patterns, which can be helpful for the differentiation of individual limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of current methods and applications as well as future perspectives in the field of neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases. We also provide diagnostic algorithms that might guide us through the differential diagnosis in hereditary myopathies. (orig.)

  15. Neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattjes, Mike P. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1117, HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kley, Rudolf A. [Klinken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University, Department of Neurology, Neuromuscular Centre Ruhrgebiet, Bochum (Germany); Fischer, Dirk [University Hospital of Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Basel, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    Driven by increasing numbers of newly identified genetic defects and new insights into the field of inherited muscle diseases, neuromuscular imaging in general and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular are increasingly being used to characterise the severity and pattern of muscle involvement. Although muscle biopsy is still the gold standard for the establishment of the definitive diagnosis, muscular imaging is an important diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of dystrophic changes during the clinical workup of patients with hereditary muscle diseases. MRI is frequently used to describe muscle involvement patterns, which aids in narrowing of the differential diagnosis and distinguishing between dystrophic and non-dystrophic diseases. Recent work has demonstrated the usefulness of muscle imaging for the detection of specific congenital myopathies, mainly for the identification of the underlying genetic defect in core and centronuclear myopathies. Muscle imaging demonstrates characteristic patterns, which can be helpful for the differentiation of individual limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of current methods and applications as well as future perspectives in the field of neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases. We also provide diagnostic algorithms that might guide us through the differential diagnosis in hereditary myopathies. (orig.)

  16. New imaging techniques for liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beers, Bernard E; Daire, Jean-Luc; Garteiser, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Newly developed or advanced methods of ultrasonography and MR imaging provide combined anatomical and quantitative functional information about diffuse and focal liver diseases. Ultrasound elastography has a central role for staging liver fibrosis and an increasing role in grading portal hypertension; dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography may improve tumor characterization. In clinical practice, MR imaging examinations currently include diffusion-weighted and dynamic MR imaging, enhanced with extracellular or hepatobiliary contrast agents. Moreover, quantitative parameters obtained with diffusion-weighted MR imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and MR elastography have the potential to characterize further diffuse and focal liver diseases, by adding information about tissue cellularity, perfusion, hepatocyte transport function and visco-elasticity. The multiparametric capability of ultrasonography and more markedly of MR imaging gives the opportunity for high diagnostic performance by combining imaging biomarkers. However, image acquisition and post-processing methods should be further standardized and validated in multicenter trials. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Mariko; Sekiya, Toru; Harada, Junta; Kawakami, Kenji; Tada, Shimpei

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two patients were examined to determine the clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the spinal disease. Using different pulse sequences T 1 value was obtained from 38 spines; the result showed that increased T 1 value indicated spinal marrow abnormalities. A comparative study of MRI and bone scintigraphy was performed in 18 patients. Although it was not feasible to evaluate effect of therapy in metastatic disease by MRI, diffuse bone marrow disease, such as diffuse bone marrow metastases and blood dyscrasia could be detected by MRI. This limited study will suggest applicability of MRI in the spinal disease. (author)

  18. MR imaging of degenerative disc disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A., E-mail: nadja.farshad@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Farshad, Mazda [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Balgrist University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Winklehner, Anna; Andreisek, Gustav [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • This systematic literature review summarizes the current knowledge on MR imaging in degenerative disc disease. • Different classification systems for segmental spine degeneration are summarized. • It outlines the diagnostic limitations of MR imaging. - Abstract: Magnet resonance imaging (MRI) is the most commonly used imaging modality for diagnosis of degenerative disc disease (DDD). Lack of precise observations and documentation of aspects within the complex entity of DDD might partially be the cause of poor correlation of radiographic findings to clinical symptoms. This literature review summarizes the current knowledge on MRI in DDD and outlines the diagnostic limitations. The review further sensitizes the reader toward awareness of potentially untended aspects of DDD and the interaction of DDD and endplate changes. A summary of the available classifications for DDD is provided.

  19. MR imaging of adult glomerulocystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, K.; Nakata, H.; Hashimoto, O.; Kaizu, K.; University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Kitakyushu

    1991-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with hypertension and severe renal dysfunction was diagnosed as having adult glomerulocystic kidney disease. MR imaging of the kidney showed a diffuse reduction of the intensity of the renal cortex with a loss of normal cortico-medullary differentiation of T1-weighted images. Numerous small cortical cysts were also demonstrated. These MR findings complemented the results of the biopsy and were useful for making a definitive diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of Heart Disease in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Tina D; Kicska, Gregory A; Jacobs, Jill E; Pampaloni, Miguel H; Litmanovich, Diana E; Reddy, Gautham P

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the number one cause of death of women in the United States, accounting for over a quarter of a million annual female deaths. Evidence within the last several decades supports sex-specific differences in the prevalence, symptoms, and prognosis of ischemic heart disease between men and women. Despite women having a lower burden of obstructive coronary artery disease compared with men, the prevalence of angina and mortality from ischemic heart disease is higher for women than men. In addition to ischemic heart disease, certain nonischemic conditions may also have sex-specific differences in clinical presentation and occurrence. With the rising utilization of noninvasive modalities for the diagnosis and management of ischemic heart disease, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the unique considerations for imaging women with heart disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss challenges for detection of heart disease in women, examine performance of noninvasive modalities in the detection of ischemic heart disease, and discuss nonischemic cardiomyopathies unique to or prevalent in women. Considerations for cardiac imaging in pregnancy are also discussed. © RSNA, 2017.

  1. Unusual imaging characteristics of complicated hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: ahmettuncayturgut@yahoo.com; Altin, Levent [Department of Radiology, Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Topcu, Salih [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey); Kilicoglu, Buelent [Department of 4th General Surgery, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Altinok, Tamer [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Kaptanoglu, Erkan [Department of Neurosurgery, Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Karademir, Alp [Department of Radiology, Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Kosar, Ugur [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although the liver and the lungs are the most frequently involved organs in the body, hydatid cysts of other organs are unusual. Radiologically, they usually demonstrate typical imaging findings, but unusual imaging characteristics of complicated cyst of hydatid disease, associated with high morbidity and mortality, are rarely described in the literature. The purpose of this study is to review the general features of hydatidosis and to discuss atypical imaging characteristics of the complicated hydatid disease in the human, with an emphasis on structure and rupture of the cystic lesion as well as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the disease. In our study, the available literature and images of the cases with complicated hydatidosis involving liver, lung, brain, spine and orbit were reviewed retrospectively. In hydatid disease, there are many potential local and systemic complications due to secondary involvement in almost any anatomic location in humans. Radiologically, in addition to the presence of atypical findings such as perifocal edema, non-homogenous contrast enhancement, multiplicity or septations and calcification, various unusual manifestations due to rupture or infection of the cyst have been observed in our cases with complicated hydatid disease. To prevent subsequent acute catastrophic results and the development of recurrences in various organs, it should be kept in mind that complicated hydatid cysts can cause unusual USG, CT, and MRI findings, in addition to typical ones, in endemic areas. Therefore, familiarity with atypical radiological appearances of complicated hydatid disease may be valuable in making a correct diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Skeletal MR imaging in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effmann, E.L.; Kinney, T.R.; Utz, J.A.; Merten, D.F.; Herfkens, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors evaluated eight patients with sickle cell disease (mean age, 15.75 years; range 5-19 years) using MR imaging performed 24-72 hours after hospital admission for crisis. Coronal images of the lower extremities were obtained with a General Electric 1.5-T system and pulse sequences of TR/TE = 500/25 msec and 2,000/40, 80 msec. In three patients a mild decrease in signal intensity was seen on both T1- and T2-weighted images, probably secondary to marrow hyperplasia. In two patients a marked decrease in signal intensity was seen on both T1- and T2-weighted images, probably secondary to the diamagnetic effects of marrow iron. Six patients had bone infarct(s) which appeared as well-defined areas with prolonged T2 relaxation times. MR imaging appears promising for the evaluation of bone marrow in sickle cell anemia

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of valvular heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C

    1999-01-01

    The optimum management of patients with valvular heart diseases requires accurate and reproducible assessment of the valvular lesion and its hemodynamic consequences. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as volume measurements, signal-void phenomena, and velocity mapping, can be used...... in an integrated approach to gain qualitative and quantitative information on valvular heart disease as well as ventricular dimensions and functions. Thus, MRI may be advantageous to the established diagnostic tools in assessing the severity of valvular heart disease as well as monitoring the lesion and predicting...... the optimal timing for valvular surgery. This paper reviews the validation of these MRI techniques in assessing valvular heart disease and discusses some typical pitfalls of the techniques, including suggestions for solutions.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1999;10:627-638....

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaka, Fumio; Tashiro, Kunio; Itoh, Kazunori; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Hamada, Takeshi.

    1992-01-01

    The width of substantia nigra (SN) in 59 cases of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as well as 21 normal controls was analyzed by T2 weighted image (T2WI) of 1.5 Tesla high-field magnetic resonance image (MRI). All patients and controls underwent MRI with the spin-echo sequences used TR/TE: 3000/30 (short TE), and TR/TE: 3000/80 (long TE), in 5-mm-thick volumes. The width between the red nucleus and the cerebral peduncle showing low signal intensity areas was measured as that of SN and its ratio to the distance from the aqueduct to the midline of the cerebral peduncle was also measured. The calculated values of the width of SN and its ratio were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. The significant reduction in the width of SN and its ratio in Parkinson's disease were disclosed below: the mean calculated values of the width of SN were 2.95±0.51 mm in controls, 2.68±0.99 mm in Parkinson's disase on long TE images (P<0.01), and the mean ratio of the width of SN were 13.58±4.21% in controls, 10.52±3.07% in Parkinson's disease on long TE images (P=0.0002). The narrowing of SN in Parkinson's disease was more prominent in men, and advanced cases with Yahr stage III and IV. Considering that the pars reticulata, which is normally containing iron, shows low signal intensity on long TE images, the width of pars compacta could be measured more precisely on this sequences. The evaluation of the ratio of SN in midbrain on long TE images seemed to be more sensitive than the calculated values in detecting the narrowing of SN and pars compacta in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  5. Endoluminal MR imaging of anorectal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, J.; Rociu, E.

    1999-01-01

    Endoluminal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important technique in the diagnostic work-up of patients with anorectal diseases. The high spatial resolution of endoluminal MRI gives a detailed demonstration of the anal and rectal anatomy and pathology. This technique has been

  6. Alzheimer's Disease and Glaucoma: Imaging the Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise A. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging through the visual system in Alzheimer's disease, with the technology currently in widespread use for the diagnosis and management of eye disease such as glaucoma and macular degeneration, is proving to be promising. In vivo cross-section imaging during an annual comprehensive eye exam has been available for a decade for glaucoma and macular degeneration, and this same imaging, using Optical Coherence Tomography, has been demonstrated to show deficits specific to AD and mild cognitive impairment. These deficits are in the form of nerve fiber layer tissue drop out in the retina and optic nerve. The retrograde loss of nerve fiber layer tissue in the retina and optic nerve may be an early biomarker of AD, and these deficits in the nerve fiber layer of the retina and optic nerve may be the earliest sign of AD, even prior to damage to the hippocampal region that impacts memory.

  7. Imaging in the diagnosis of rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    A disease is considered rare if it affects no more than 5 in 10,000 people. More than six thousand rare diseases have been detected so far and they affect 6-8% of the population which equals 2.3-3 million people in Poland. Some of the rare diseases are already diagnosed in utero, e.g. skeletal dysplasias on ultrasonography or central nervous system diseases on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many cases are finally diagnosed after radiologist's suggestion in a radiological report. Although diagnostic imaging cannot be considered as a basis for diagnosis of most of rare diseases, these studies represent an important element in the diagnostic chain. The complicated and long process of diagnosis may be significantly shortened by suggestions of the radiologist, based on the observation of these elements of radiological appearance of the lesions that are characteristic for a particular group of diseases, or even for a particular disease entity. However, the absolute condition for success is the close clinical-radiological cooperation, with clinicians providing the radiologists with their knowledge of patient's history, clinical manifestations, and the results of other investigations.

  8. Infrared thermal imaging in connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnowski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (IRT) is a non-invasive, non-contact technique which allows one to measure and visualize infrared radiation. In medicine, thermal imaging has been used for more than 50 years in various clinical settings, including Raynaud's phenomenon and systemic sclerosis. Imaging and quantification of surface body temperature provides an indirect measure of the microcirculation's overall performance. As such, IRT is capable of confirming the diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon, and, with additional cold or heat challenge, of differentiating between the primary and secondary condition. In systemic sclerosis IRT has a potential role in assessing disease activity and monitoring treatment response. Despite certain limitations, thermal imaging can find a place in clinical practice, and with the introduction of small, low-cost infrared cameras, possibly become a part of routine rheumatological evaluation.

  9. Neonatal Behçet's disease with Raynaud phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fructuoso, J R; Gil-Sánchez, S; Gómez-Santos, E; Lloreda-García, J M; Sevilla-Denia, S; Leante-Castellanos, J L

    2016-01-01

    We report a new clinical manifestation of neonatal Behcet's disease. A newborn from a mother with active Behcet's disease during pregnancy, who develops vasomotor phenomena (Raynaud) with oral ulcerations in the second day of life. Neonatal mucocutaneous lesions have been reported previously in few newborns of pregnant women with active Behçet disease. Although neonatal disease is a very infrequent situation, with a mostly transient and favorable course, clinicians should be aware of serious potential complications associated with this entity.

  10. Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    2001-01-01

    A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  11. Multimodality Imaging of Heart Valve Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajani, Ronak, E-mail: Dr.R.Rajani@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Khattar, Rajdeep [Department of Cardiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Chiribiri, Amedeo [Divisions of Imaging Sciences, The Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Victor, Kelly; Chambers, John [Department of Cardiology, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Unidentified heart valve disease is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. It has therefore become important to accurately identify, assess and monitor patients with this condition in order that appropriate and timely intervention can occur. Although echocardiography has emerged as the predominant imaging modality for this purpose, recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography indicate that they may have an important contribution to make. The current review describes the assessment of regurgitant and stenotic heart valves by multimodality imaging (echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance) and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  12. Disease Detection of Cotton Leaves Using Advanced Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Chaudhari; C. Y. Patil

    2014-01-01

    In this research, identification and classification of cotton diseases is done. The pattern of disease is important part where some features like the colour of actual infected image are extracted from image. There are so many diseases occurred on cotton leaf so the leaf color is different for different diseases. This paper uses k-mean clustering with Discrete Wavelet Transform for efficient plant leaf image segmentation and classification between normal & diseased images using neural network ...

  13. Multimodal Imaging in Hereditary Retinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pichi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this retrospective study we evaluated the multimodal visualization of retinal genetic diseases to better understand their natural course. Material and Methods. We reviewed the charts of 70 consecutive patients with different genetic retinal pathologies who had previously undergone multimodal imaging analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and genotyped at the known locus for the different diseases. Results. The medical records of 3 families of a 4-generation pedigree affected by North Carolina macular dystrophy were reviewed. A total of 8 patients with Stargardt disease were evaluated for their two main defining clinical characteristics, yellow subretinal flecks and central atrophy. Nine male patients with a previous diagnosis of choroideremia and eleven female carriers were evaluated. Fourteen patients with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy and 6 family members with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy were included. Seven patients with enhanced s-cone syndrome were ascertained. Lastly, we included 3 unrelated patients with fundus albipunctatus. Conclusions. In hereditary retinal diseases, clinical examination is often not sufficient for evaluating the patient’s condition. Retinal imaging then becomes important in making the diagnosis, in monitoring the progression of disease, and as a surrogate outcome measure of the efficacy of an intervention.

  14. Diagnostic imaging in pediatric renal inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Schroeder, B.A.; Starshak, R.J.

    1986-08-15

    Some form of imaging procedure should be used to document the presence of infection of the upper urinary tract in troublesome cases in children. During the past several years, sonography, nuclear radiology, and computed tomography (CT) have had a significant influence on renal imaging. The purpose of this article is to reevaluate the noninvasive imaging procedures that can be used to diagnose pediatric renal inflammatory disease and to assess the relative value of each modality in the various types of renal infection. The authors will not discuss the radiologic evaluation of the child who has had a previous renal infection, in whom cortical scarring or reflux nephropathy is a possibility; these are different clinical problems and require different diagnostic evaluation.

  15. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Beatriz; Cillero-Pastor, Berta; Blanco, Francisco J; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina

    2017-07-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a technique used to visualize the spatial distribution of biomolecules such as peptides, proteins, lipids or other organic compounds by their molecular masses. Among the different MSI strategies, MALDI-MSI provides a sensitive and label-free approach for imaging of a wide variety of protein or peptide biomarkers from the surface of tissue sections, being currently used in an increasing number of biomedical applications such as biomarker discovery and tissue classification. In the field of rheumatology, MALDI-MSI has been applied to date for the analysis of joint tissues such as synovial membrane or cartilage. This review summarizes the studies and key achievements obtained using MALDI-MSI to increase understanding on rheumatic pathologies and to describe potential diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of these diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Potts disease: Diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursey, Jacqueline; Stewart, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The eponymously named Potts disease is a relatively rare form of Tuberculosis (TB) which affects the spine. TB of the spine is one of the earliest diseases known to man and in the 20th century was thought to be a disease which had been defeated by the advent of antitubercular drugs. Over the last two decades there have been several reports which indicate a revival of TB in both the developing and developed world. Factors which may be contributing to this are the spread of the HIV virus, increased immigration and the emergence of drug resistant strains of the TB bacteria. Potts disease has an insidious onset and often the radiographic findings are far advanced when a diagnosis is finally reached. MRI is able to detect changes to the vertebrae in Potts disease earlier than radiographs. This case report outlines the clinical presentation of a young male with Potts disease who was HIV negative, and the important role that MRI plays in diagnosis and therefore in appropriate and timely intervention. The typical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and the radiographic hallmarks of the disease will also be discussed.

  17. Imaging congenital heart disease in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, P J

    2011-12-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line modality for cardiovascular imaging in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). The windows of access that are possible with transthoracic echocardiography are, however, rarely adequate for all regions of interest. The choice of further imaging depends on the clinical questions that remain to be addressed. The strengths of MRI include comprehensive access and coverage, providing imaging of all parts of the right ventricle, the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins and aorta. Cine images and velocity maps are acquired in specifically aligned planes, with stacks of cines or dynamic contrast angiography providing more comprehensive coverage. Tissues can be characterised if necessary, and MRI provides relatively accurate measurements of biventricular function and volume flow. These parameters are important in the assessment and follow-up of adults after repairs for tetralogy of Fallot or transposition of the great arteries and after Fontan operations. The superior spatial resolution and rapid acquisition of CT are invaluable in selected situations, including the visualisation of anomalous coronary or aortopulmonary collateral arteries, the assessment of luminal patency after stenting and imaging in patients with pacemakers. Ionising radiation is, however, a concern in younger patients who may need repeated investigation. Adults with relatively complex conditions should ideally be imaged in a specialist ACHD centre, where dedicated echocardiographic and cardiovascular MRI services are a necessary facility. General radiologists should be aware of the nature and pathophysiology of congenital heart disease, and should be alert for previously undiagnosed cases presenting in adulthood, including cases of atrial septal defect, aortic coarctation, patent ductus arteriosus, double-chambered right ventricle and congenitally corrected transposition.

  18. Imaging B lymphocytes in autoimmune inflammatory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodice, V.; Lauri, C.; Capriotti, G.; Lagana', B.; Germano, V.; D’Amelio, R.; Picchianti Diamanti, A.

    2014-01-01

    B cells arise from stem cells precursor and develop through a tightly regulated and selective process that lead to the generation of different B cell populations such as transitional, mature, memory and plasma cells. These B cell subsets can be identified using flow cytometry by the expression of specific surface antigens. The growing knowledge of the pivotal role played by B cells in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases combined with the advances in monoclonal antibody technology, led in the last years to the generation of different biological agents targeting B cells. In this context, nuclear medicine can offer the possibility to use a panel of biologic radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging of inflammatory diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals bind to their targets with high affinity and specificity and have an excellent imaging diagnostic potential for the evaluation of disease activity, selection and monitoring of immune therapies. Several molecules have been radiolabelled for the imaging of T lymphocytes whereas, by now, the anti CD20 rituximab is the only biological therapy targeting B cells that demonstrated to be efficiently radiolabelled and used to detect inflammation in autoimmune patients

  19. In vitro imaging techniques in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Långström, Bengt; Andrén, Per E; Lindhe, Orjan; Svedberg, Marie; Hall, Håkan

    2007-01-01

    Neurodegeneration induces various changes in the brain, changes that may be investigated using neuroimaging techniques. The in vivo techniques are useful for the visualization of major changes, and the progressing abnormalities may also be followed longitudinally. However, to study and quantify minor abnormalities, neuroimaging of postmortem brain tissue is used. These in vitro methods are complementary to the in vivo techniques and contribute to the knowledge of pathophysiology and etiology of the neurodegenerative diseases. In vitro radioligand autoradiography has given great insight in the involvement of different neuronal receptor systems in these diseases. Data on the dopamine and cholinergic systems in neurodegeneration are discussed in this review. Also, the amyloid plaques are studied using in vitro radioligand autoradiography. Using one of the newer methods, imaging matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, the distribution of a large number of peptides and proteins may be detected in vitro on brain cryosections. In this overview, we describe in vitro imaging techniques in the neurodegenerative diseases as a complement to in vivo positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography imaging.

  20. Imaging diagnosis of bronchial asthma and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Fumikazu; Fujimura, Mikihiko; Kimura, Fumiko; Fujimura, Kaori; Hayano, Toshio; Nishii, Noriko; Machida, Haruhiko; Toda, Jo; Saito, Naoko [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We describe imaging features of bronchial asthma and related diseases. The practical roles of imaging diagnosis are the evaluation of severity and complications of bronchial asthma and differential diagnosis of diseases showing asthmatic symptoms other than bronchial asthma. (author)

  1. Detection of Plant Diseases Using Image Processing Tools -A Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Asha R. Patil Varsha I.Pati; B.S.Panchbhai

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of plants disease is main goal for increase productivity of grain, fruits, vegetable. Detection of proper disease of plants using image processing is possible by different steps of it. Like image Acquisition, image enhancement, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification.RGB image is acquire and translate for processing and diagnosis of plant disease by CR-Network. Segmentation is used for which and how many areas are affected by disease using k-clustering. Future extraction...

  2. Imaging findings in renal hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Serrano, B.; Ferreiro-Argueelles, C.; Rodriguez-Romero, R.; Marcos del Rio, N.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the image findings of renal hydatid disease, especially on MR. Four cases of echinococcal involvement of the kidney were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had intravenous urography (IVU) and US performed. Computed tomography examination was available in three patients and MR in two cases. Intravenous urography demonstrated communication of the cyst to the collecting system in one case. Ultrasound revealed multicystic appearance in three cases and unilocular in one case. Computed tomography demonstrated unilocular thick-walled or multilocular cysts with well-defined walls, calcified in one case. In multilocular cysts the CT densities of the fluid of daughter cysts was significantly lower than the fluid of mother cysts. This typical appearance was present in three of our cases. The presence of a hypointense rim and a multicystic appearance were distinctive in MR imaging. The combined findings of these different imaging modalities aid greatly in establishing the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is of value in determining the presence of a characteristic rim and enables the evaluation of anatomical relationships. (orig.)

  3. Scheimpflug imaging for keratoconus and ectatic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Belin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheimpflug cross-sectioning anterior segment imaging offers significant advantages over traditional placido based curvature analysis and ultrasound pachymetry. The accurate measurement of both the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces and the anterior and posterior lens allows for the creation of a three-dimensional reconstruction of the anterior segment. Changes on both the posterior cornea and/or corneal thickness map are earlier indicators of ectatic change than would otherwise be identifiable with only anterior curvature and ultrasonic pachymetry. Scheimpflug imaging also covers significantly more of the cornea than was possible with placido based devices. This added coverage is critical in the proper diagnosis of peripheral diseases such as pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of glenohumeral joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, G.J.; Bloem, J.L.; Obermann, W.R.; Rozing, P.; Doornbos, J.

    1987-01-01

    Through the application of oblique planes and flexible surface coil techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) promises to be of great clinical value in the evaluation of a variety of pathologic conditions affecting the shoulder. In patients with joint effusions, the tendinous portion of the rotator cuff, glenoid labrum, and bicipital tendon can be readily visualized. This capability has particular relevance in patients with inflammatory disease and traumatic conditions. Rotator cuff atrophy and impingement of the coracoacromial arc upon the supraspinatus muscle and tendon can also be demonstrated. MRI is also useful in the evaluation of shoulder instability. (orig.)

  5. Crohn's disease lymphadenopathy: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourtsoyianni, Sofia; Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Amanakis, Emmanouil; Bourikas, Leonidas; Roussomoustakaki, Maria; Grammatikakis, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess mesenteric lymph nodes in patients with different Crohn's disease subtypes identified on MR Enteroclysis. Materials and methods: Thirty-four patients, categorized into three different Crohn's disease subgroups, underwent MR Enteroclysis. A high resolution coronal true FISP sequence with fat saturation was applied to assess mesenteric lymph node anatomic distribution, size and shape. Their enhancement ratio (ER) was calculated by dividing signal intensity of each node to signal intensity of nearby vessel on T1 weighted FLASH images, acquired 75 s after intravenous administration of gadolinium. A one-way analysis of variance statistical test was applied to investigate any significant differences regarding mean ER among different disease subgroups. Results: Two hundred and eighty-three mesenteric lymph nodes were assessed, 231 in patients with active inflammatory (AI) disease, 36 in patients with fibrostenotic (FS) and 16 in patients with fistulizing/perforating (FP) disease. Maximum and minimum diameters were 3.2 and 0.3 cm, respectively. 75% of the lymph nodes presented with an oval shape. The majority were identified as being ileocolic (34%) and paracolic (31%). AI subgroup lymph nodes presented with the highest mean ER (0.783 ± 0.17) followed by FP (0.706 ± 0.1) and FS subgroup (0.652 ± 0.17) lymph nodes. The differences in mean values of ER of mesenteric lymph nodes between AI and FS subtypes were statistically significant (p < 0.0001), while mean ER between nodes of FP and the other two subtypes did not present statistically significant differences. Conclusion: ER of mesenteric lymph nodes identified on MR Enteroclysis may vary across different subtypes of Crohn's disease. Such differences may be valuable in clinical practice.

  6. Imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodnett, Philip A

    2012-02-03

    Imaging of the abdomen for suspected gastrointestinal and hepatic disease during pregnancy is assuming greater importance. Like clinical evaluation, imaging of the abdomen and pelvis is challenging but is vitally important to prevent delayed diagnosis or unnecessary interventions. Also choice of imaging modality is influenced by factors which could impact on fetal safety such as the use of ionising radiation and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses important issues in imaging of gastrointestinal and hepatic disease in pregnancy and the puerperium.

  7. SPECT and PET imaging in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruecke, T.

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's dementia (AD) with a prevalence of 2/1000 in the whole population. This number increases to 2/100 in the aging population and the total number of patients will rise further with increasing life expectancy. Modern imaging techniques such as SPECT (single photon emission tomography) and PET(positron emission tomography) can visualize function and molecular structures in the living human brain and are important clinical and research tools in the evaluation of FP. Because the brain dopamine (DA) system plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of PD and related disorders most SPECT and PET studies in PD deal with different aspects of DA-ergic function. However, PD also affects noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5HT) producing neurons which contribute to non-motor symptoms. Recent SPECT and PET studies also address this issue. SPECT is a technique which is widely available and is increasingly used in the clinical evaluation of PF patients. With SPECT and specific 123 I labelled ligands pre- and postsynaptic structures of the nigrostriatal DA-ergic system can be labelled and visualized. Thus, it is possible to detect and to quantify lesions of the DA-ergic system on the one hand and lesions of the striatal output neurons on the other. This technique also enables studies of pharmacological interactions at the receptor level. With the help of β-CIT, a cocaine derivative, and other similar ligands DA transporters (DATs) can be labelled on DA-ergic nerve terminals. DAT imaging clearly differentiates between normal controls and PD patients even in early stages of the disease. Patients with subcortical vascular encephalopathy presenting with symptoms resembling PD ('lower body Parkinson') can be distinguished with high specificity and sensitivity. PET has the advantage of a better resolution and quantification and a larger number of tracers have mainly been used as a research tool

  8. Early and delayed indium 111 leukocyte imaging in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Subramani, R.; Chan, C.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with Crohn's disease were studied for the presence and location of activity by both early (4 h) and delayed (18-24 h) indium 111 leukocyte imaging. The results were compared with other parameters of disease activity including Crohn's disease activity index, barium studies, and endoscopy. There was a correlation between early images and Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.78) and between delayed images and index (r = 0.82). Based upon the corresponding Crohn's disease activity index, the sensitivity of early and delayed imaging was 81.0% and 95.2%, respectively. Specificity of early and delayed imaging was 75.0% and 87.0%, respectively. Presence of activity on the early and delayed imaging agreed with activity on barium studies and colonoscopy in approximately 80% of cases. Correlation of location of disease by leukocyte imaging and x-ray was observed in 58.9% of early scans and 55.0% of delayed scans. Correlation of the location of disease by imaging and endoscopy was observed in 71.4% of early and 75.0% of delayed studies. Because of the possibility of occurrence of false-negative results in early images, delayed imaging should always be included in evaluation of disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease who are suspected of having mild activity. Delayed imaging is not required if the early imaging study clearly shows activity

  9. [Diverticular disease of the large bowel - imaging methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sečkařová, D; Bočanová-Mlejnková, J; Votrubová, J

    2013-07-01

    Imaging methods are fundamental for diagnosis in patients suffering from diverticular disease of the large bowel. In case of complications, radiological intervention can be helpful for treatment. The authors aim to summarize current possibilities of imaging methods, both in diagnosis and treatment of diverticular disease. Review of the literature and recent findings in the diagnosis of diverticular disease. The article presents the importance of imaging methods in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with diverticular disease.

  10. The Role of Image Enhancement in Citrus Canker Disease Detection

    OpenAIRE

    K. Padmavathi; K. Thangadurai

    2016-01-01

    Digital image processing is employed in numerous areas of biology to identify and analyse problems. This approach aims to use image processing techniques for citrus canker disease detection through leaf inspection. Citrus canker is a severe bacterium-based citrus plant disease. The symptoms of citrus canker disease typically occur in the leaves, branches, fruits and thorns. The leaf images show the health status of the plant and facilitate the observation and detection of the disease level at...

  11. OCT imaging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, K.; Lopez Lisbona, R. M.; Lee, A. M. D.; Hyun, C.; Shaipanich, T.; McWilliams, A.; Lane, P.; Coxson, H. O.; MacAulay, C.; Lam, S.

    2013-03-01

    Introduction: A recent ex-vivo study using micro-CT in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) showed that narrowing and disappearance of small conducting airways precedes the onset of emphysematous destruction in COPD. Until recently, the airway remodeling process could not be studied in detail in-vivo. In this study, we investigated the repeatability of navigating an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) catheter to image the same airways in smokers with and without COPD. Method: OCT imaging was performed by inserting the catheter through a sub-segmental airway to a small bronchiole. Three-dimensional OCT imaging of 5 cm of airway segments was obtained. The catheter was removed and reinsertion into the same airway was attempted. The number of airway generations and quantitative measurements of the airway wall area were investigated. Results: Sixty-three airways in 30 subjects were analyzed. Repeated insertion into the same airway was observed at 53.8 %, 92.3% and 70.8% of the time in the upper, middle and lower lobes respectively. The percentage differences of paired measurements of airway wall area between matched and unmatched airways in bronchioles were 5.8 +/- 4.6 % and 7.3 +/- 5.4 % respectively Conclusions: Repeated OCT imaging of airways is possible in the majority of cases except in the upper lobes. For airways that are not completely matched, some of the airway segments can still be used for comparison by careful alignment of the airway. OCT may be a useful method to study the remodeling process in small airways and the effect of therapeutic intervention.

  12. Rheumatic diseases of the spine: imaging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, J A; Hernández-Gañán, J; Isern, J; Sánchez-Fernández, J J

    2016-04-01

    Spinal involvement is common both in the spondyloarthritides and in rheumatoid arthritis, in which the cervical segment is selectively affected. Rheumatoid involvement of the cervical spine has characteristic radiologic manifestations, fundamentally different patterns of atlantoaxial instability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for evaluating the possible repercussions of atlantoaxial instability on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as for evaluating parameters indicative of active inflammation, such as bone edema and synovitis. Axial involvement is characteristic in the spondyloarthritides and has distinctive manifestations on plain-film X-rays, which reflect destructive and reparative phenomena. The use of MRI has changed the conception of spondyloarthritis because it is able to directly detect the inflammatory changes that form part of the disease, making it possible to establish the diagnosis early in the disease process, when plain-film X-ray findings are normal (non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis), to assess the prognosis of the disease, and to contribute to treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Multimodality molecular imaging of disease progression in living ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    endogenous Raman signatures from tissues, photo acoustic imaging, a hybrid biomedical imaging modality ... The definition of molecular imaging, as provided by the. Society of Nuclear Medicine, is 'the visualization, ... ties targeted to endogenous molecules of diseased tissue. On the other hand, indirect imaging utilizes ...

  14. Cardiovascular Imaging Techniques in Systemic Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Atzeni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The risk of cardiovascular (CV events and mortality is significantly higher in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases than in the general population. Although CV involvement in such patients is highly heterogeneous and may affect various structures of the heart, it can now be diagnosed earlier and promptly treated. Various types of assessments are employed for the evaluation of CV risk such as transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and computed tomography (CT to investigate valve abnormalities, pericardial disease, and ventricular wall motion defects. The diameter of coronary arteries can be assessed using invasive quantitative coronarography or intravascular ultrasound, and coronary flow reserve can be assessed using non-invasive transesophageal or transthoracic ultrasonography (US, MRI, CT, or positron emission tomography (PET after endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Finally, peripheral circulation can be measured invasively using strain-gauge plethysmography in an arm after the arterial infusion of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator or non-invasively by means of US or MRI measurements of flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery. All of the above are reliable methods of investigating CV involvement, but more recently, introduced use of speckle tracking echocardiography and 3-dimensional US are diagnostically more accurate.

  15. Medical image of the week: moyamoya disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 52-year-old, right-handed, Caucasian woman with a history of hypertension and morbid obesity presented with acute onset of word-finding difficulty and slurred speech. Her medical and family history was negative for cerebral vascular event, coronary artery disease or smoking. Computed tomography of the patient's brain showed narrow caliber middle cerebral artery vasculature bilaterally. This abnormal finding prompted further investigation with cerebral angiogram. The angiogram showed bilateral high-grade stenosis of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries, worse on the left (Figure 1. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple left sided punctate infarcts in the frontal and parietal lobes (Figure 2. Diagnosis of ischemic stroke secondary to moyamoya disease was established. This patient was not a candidate for fibrinolytic therapy since it had been more than 4 hours from initial presentation. She was treated with aspirin, clopidogrel, and atorvastatin for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Two months after her discharge date, the patient …

  16. Medical image of the week: Pott's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao C

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 22 year-old man with a history of asthma presented with a two-month history of progressive right upper extremity weakness with back pain, weight loss, and night sweats. CT scan of the chest revealed mass-like infiltrative mass in the right lung apex with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy (Figure 1. An MRI cervical spine showed a large infiltrating process at the right medial lung apex with vertebral body compression (Figure 2. A CT-guided lung biopsy was performed and it showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation (Figure 3. Pott’s disease was diagnosed and the patient started on anti-tuberculous treatment with a good recovery. Pott’s disease is a common cause of spinal infection and its clinical presentations are nonspecific. Early findings on imaging may reveal loss of vertebral body height, bone sequestration, sclerosis, and paraspinal mass with calcification (1. A diagnosis of this condition must be made early as prompt treatment may reduce significant morbidity ...

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of myoedema in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schedel, H.; Vogel, T.; Lissner, J.; Reimers, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was done in 100 patients suffering from various generalized neuromuscular diseases. 30 (30%) showed higher signal intensities on T2-weighted images compared to T1-weighted images without contrast medium, indicating muscle edema. In inflammatory myopathies diffuse and severe muscle edema were found, whereas local and slight or moderate muscle edema were unspecific findings. In 10 patients also contrast enhanced T1-weighted images were done, showing no more sensitivity than T2-weighted images. In conclusion, we think that magnetic resonance imaging may contribute to differential diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. (orig.) [de

  18. Ultrasonographic imaging of inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorean, Liliana; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Braden, Barbara; Cui, Xin-Wu; Buchhorn, Reiner; Chang, Jian-Min; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the most common chronic gastrointestinal diseases in pediatric patients. Choosing the optimal imaging modality for the assessment of gastrointestinal disease in pediatric patients can be challenging. The invasiveness and patient acceptance, the radiation exposure and the quality performance of the diagnostic test need to be considered. By reviewing the literature regarding imaging in inflammatory bowel disease the value of ultrasound in the clinical management of pediatric patients is highlighted. Transabdominal ultrasound is a useful, noninvasive method for the initial diagnosis of IBD in children; it also provides guidance for therapeutic decisions and helps to characterize and predict the course of the disease in individual patients. Ultrasound techniques including color Doppler imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound are promising imaging tools to determine disease activity and complications. Comparative studies between different imaging methods are needed. PMID:25954096

  19. Diffusion weighted imaging in cystic fibrosis disease: beyond morphological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciet, Pierluigi [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland (Netherlands); Ca' Foncello - General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Treviso (Italy); Serra, Goffredo; Catalano, Carlo [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Andrinopoulou, Eleni Rosalina [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bertolo, Silvia; Morana, Giovanni [Ca' Foncello - General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Treviso (Italy); Ros, Mirco [Ca' Foncello Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Treviso (Italy); Colagrande, Stefano [University of Florence - Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Radiodiagnostic Unit n. 2, Florence (Italy); Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    To explore the feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to assess inflammatory lung changes in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) CF patients referred for their annual check-up had spirometry, chest-CT and MRI on the same day. MRI was performed in a 1.5 T scanner with BLADE and EPI-DWI sequences (b = 0-600 s/mm{sup 2}). End-inspiratory and end-expiratory scans were acquired in multi-row scanners. DWI was scored with an established semi-quantitative scoring system. DWI score was correlated to CT sub-scores for bronchiectasis (CF-CT{sub BE}), mucus (CF-CT{sub mucus}), total score (CF-CT{sub total-score}), FEV{sub 1}, and BMI. T-test was used to assess differences between patients with and without DWI-hotspots. Thirty-three CF patients were enrolled (mean 21 years, range 6-51, 19 female). 4 % (SD 2.6, range 1.5-12.9) of total CF-CT alterations presented DWI-hotspots. DWI-hotspots coincided with mucus plugging (60 %), consolidation (30 %) and bronchiectasis (10 %). DWI{sub total-score} correlated (all p < 0.0001) positively to CF-CT{sub BE} (r = 0.757), CF-CT{sub mucus} (r = 0.759) and CF-CT{sub total-score} (r = 0.79); and negatively to FEV{sub 1} (r = 0.688). FEV{sub 1} was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in patients without DWI-hotspots. DWI-hotspots strongly correlated with radiological and clinical parameters of lung disease severity. Future validation studies are needed to establish the exact nature of DWI-hotspots in CF patients. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of tuberculous disease involving breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K.K.; Kim, J.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kook, S.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Foundation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate radiologic findings of the tuberculosis involving breast. We evaluated the radiologic features of 17 patients (18 lesions) with tuberculous disease involving the breast. The radiologic examinations, including mammography (16 patients), ultrasonography (12 patients), and Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI (6 patients), were analyzed. Mammographic findings included mass (12 of 17 lesions), calcification (3 of 17 lesions), asymmetric density with spiculated margin (5 of 17 lesions), and axillary lymph node enlargement (8 of 17 lesions). On ultrasonography, a smooth bordered mass (7 of 13 lesions) with thin boundary (7 of 13 lesions) and heterogeneous, intermediate internal echoes (9 of 13 lesions) were most commonly demonstrated. On Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI, 3 lesions showed significant enhancement at the first minute after injection (3 of 7 lesions). The maximun enhancing amount was greater than 500 normalized units, and the enhancing pattern was smooth or irregular ring appearance. Breast involvement with tuberculosis is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a woman living in an endemic area or when extramammary foci of tuberculosis are present. A multimodality imaging approach with clinical evaluation will help to establish the diagnosis of tuberculosis involving breast. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 28 refs.

  1. MRI findings of the brainstem of the neuro-Behcet syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Naoto; Tashiro, Kunio; Yamada, Takayoshi; Ito, Kazunori; Honma, Sanae; Doi, Shizuki; Moriwaka, Fumio

    1987-10-01

    We reported three cases of neuro-Behcet's syndrome which showed brainstem lesions on MRI compatible with the clinical symptoms. In Case 1, MRI showed a large, abnormal signal-intensity area in the pons and small, abnormal signal-intensity areas at the right cerebral peduncle, the bilateral basal ganglia, and the left thalamus. These lesions disappeared on MRI, in accordance with the remission of clinical symptoms. On the other hand, CT showed no positive findings. In Case 2, an abnormal signal-intensity area was disclosed at the left cerebral peduncle on MRI. This lesion was also identified on the CT scan. In Case 3, an abnormal signal-intensity area was present in the pons on MRI. In this case, CT showed no positive findings. In Cases 2 and 3, these lesions seemed to represent inflammatory or necrotic areas attributable to vasculitis;however, the extensive brainstem lesion seen on the MRI of Case 1 was a quite unique finding, for which no exact pathophysiological explanation is possible at the present time.

  2. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, Diane S.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  3. Serial MR imaging in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Hata, H.; Ohno, M. (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Radiology); Yoshinaga, M.; Shiokawa, O. (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan). Stroke Care Unit)

    1991-08-01

    Serial magnetic resonance (MR) imagings of two autopsied patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are presented. Both patients showed a dramatic progression of brain atrophy. The initial MR imagings were, however, interpreted as normal except for localized mild cortical atrophy in one patient. When a normal MR image is obtained in a demented middle-aged or aged patient, CJD may still need to be ruled out: follow up MR imaging may be useful. (orig.).

  4. Serial MR imaging in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, A.; Hata, H.; Ohno, M.; Yoshinaga, M.; Shiokawa, O.

    1991-01-01

    Serial magnetic resonance (MR) imagings of two autopsied patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are presented. Both patients showed a dramatic progression of brain atrophy. The initial MR imagings were, however, interpreted as normal except for localized mild cortical atrophy in one patient. When a normal MR image is obtained in a demented middle-aged or aged patient, CJD may still need to be ruled out: follow up MR imaging may be useful. (orig.)

  5. BehÇet's disease in Libya | Basma | African Journal of Rheumatology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Behcet's Disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent oral aphthous ulcers and numerous potential systemic manifestations. In Libya, no previous studies were done on BD. Objective: To study the different clinical manifestations of BD in Libyan patients and compare ...

  6. Imaging in inflammatory disease of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehouse, H.T.; Weiner, S.N.; Hoffman, J.C.

    1984-07-01

    The evaluation and management of patients with severe persistent urinary tract infection after appropriate antibiotic therapy can be difficult. The first radiologic examination is usually excretory urography, but the findings often are nonspecific. A group of 40 patients was studied to assess the contribution of cross-sectional imaging and included patients with diffuse and focal pyelonephritis, renal abscess, pyonephrosis, and pararenal abscess. Indications for cross-sectional imaging include persistent symptoms despite antibiotics, predisposing risk factors, suspicion of flank mass on other imaging methods, and no excretion on urography. Percutaneous aspiration and/or drainage for diagnosis and/or treatment can be guided by the cross-sectional imaging methods.

  7. Cine MR imaging of valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, S.R.; Firmin, D.N.; Mohiaddin, R.H.; Klipstein, R.H.; Bogren, H.G.; Rees, R.S.O.; Longmore, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Cine MR imaging shows details of cardiac valve motion and the turbulence caused by regurgitation and stenosis. In 30 patients, the area of turbulence proximal to regurgitant valves correlated well with the regurgitant fraction measured from right and left ventricular stroke volumes. Turbulence distal to stenotic valves did not correlate with the pressure gradient because abnormal valves that were not stenosed produced turbulence. Valve motion and the presence of thrombus were easier to assess than in conventional images. Cine MR imaging provides an important addition to conventional imaging in valvular regurgitation, but pressure gradients cannot be assessed in valvular stenosis

  8. Imaging in inflammatory disease of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morehouse, H.T.; Weiner, S.N.; Hoffman, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation and management of patients with severe persistent urinary tract infection after appropriate antibiotic therapy can be difficult. The first radiologic examination is usually excretory urography, but the findings often are nonspecific. A group of 40 patients was studied to assess the contribution of cross-sectional imaging and included patients with diffuse and focal pyelonephritis, renal abscess, pyonephrosis, and pararenal abscess. Indications for cross-sectional imaging include persistent symptoms despite antibiotics, predisposing risk factors, suspicion of flank mass on other imaging methods, and no excretion on urography. Percutaneous aspiration and/or drainage for diagnosis and/or treatment can be guided by the cross-sectional imaging methods

  9. Imaging and quantifying skeletal involvement in Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Poll, L. W.; Terk, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    Radiological imaging is used in patients with Gaucher disease to estimate the disease burden, to evaluate the presence of specific skeletal complications and to track response to therapy. MRI is currently the best technique for assessing bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease. Gaucher cell

  10. Imaging of lumbar degenerative disk disease: history and current state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emch, Todd M.; Modic, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most common indications for performing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the lumbar spine is the symptom complex thought to originate as a result of degenerative disk disease. MR imaging, which has emerged as perhaps the modality of choice for imaging degenerative disk disease, can readily demonstrate disk pathology, degenerative endplate changes, facet and ligamentous hypertrophic changes, and the sequelae of instability. Its role in terms of predicting natural history of low back pain, identifying causality, or offering prognostic information is unclear. As available modalities for imaging the spine have progressed from radiography, myelography, and computed tomography to MR imaging, there have also been advances in spine surgery for degenerative disk disease. These advances are described in a temporal context for historical purposes with a focus on MR imaging's history and current state. (orig.)

  11. ECG gated magnetic resonance imaging in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Im, Chung Kie; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Using KAIS 0.15 Tesla resistive magnetic imaging system, ECG gated magnetic resonance (MR) image of various cardiovascular disease was obtained in 10 patients. The findings of MR image of the cardiovascular disease were analysed and the results were as follows: 1. In 6 cases of acquired and congenital cardiac diseases, there were 2 cases of myocardial infarction, 1 case of mitral stenosis and 3 cases of corrected transportation of great vessels. The others were 3 cases of aortic disease and 1 case of pericardial effusion with lymphoma. 2. Myocardial thinning and left ventricular aneurysm were detected in MR images of myocardial infarction. The left atrium was well delineated and enlarged in the case of mitral stenosis. And segmental analysis was possible in the cases of corrected transposition since all cardiac structures were well delineated anatomically. 3. In aortic diseases, the findings of MR image were enlarged lumen, compressed cardiac chambers in ascending aortic aneurysm, intimal flap, enhanced false lumen in dissecting aneurysm and irregular narrowing of aorta with arterial obstruction in Takayasu's arteritis. 4. Pericardial effusion revealed a conspicuous contrast with neighboring mediastinal fat and cardiac wall due to it low signal encircling cardiac wall. 5. ECG gated MR image is an accurate non-invasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease and better results of its clinical application are expected in the future with further development in the imaging system and more clinical experiences

  12. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  13. [Magnetic resonance imaging of cardiovascular thrombi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, H; Sakakibara, M; Yoshida, K; Watanabe, S; Masuda, Y; Inagaki, Y; Ikehira, H; Fukuda, N; Tateno, Y

    1985-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed for 10 patients with cardiovascular thrombi using a 0.1-Tesla resistive type apparatus (ASAHI MARK-J). In all cases thrombi were clearly imaged by NMR and their shapes closely resembled those imaged by X-ray CT. Mural thrombi located within left ventricular aneurysms of two patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction were semilunar in form. A mural thrombus in the right ventricle of a patient with cardiovascular Behcet's disease was also clearly imaged. Mural thrombi within the enlarged left atrium of two patients with mitral valve stenosis and insufficiency were clearly demonstrated in both cross- and longitudinal sections. In three patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, mural thrombi were recognized within the local dilatations of the aorta. In two patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm, mural thrombi were visualized within false lumen using MRI. Mean T1 values and standard deviations for the left ventricular cavity, the left ventricular wall, and the thrombi were 639 +/- 49, 349 +/- 17 and 316 +/- 84 msec, respectively. Mean T1 values of the thrombi were usually shorter than those of the left ventricular wall. Some supposedly fresh thrombi had longer T1 values, however.

  14. Local complications of hydatid disease involving thoracic cavity: Imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, A.T. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmettuncayturgut@yahoo.com; Altinok, T. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Topcu, S. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey); Kosar, U. [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Hydatid disease, a worldwide zoonosis, is caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm. Although it can involve almost every organ of the body, lung involvement follows in frequency the hepatic infestation in adults and is the predominating site in children. Radiologically, hydatidosis usually demonstrates typical findings, but many patients are at risk of developing various complications of hydatid disease with atypical imaging findings and these are rarely described in the literature. In this pictorial review, the imaging features of local complications of hydatid disease involving the thorax including intrapulmonary or pleural rupture, infection of the ruptured cysts, reactions of the adjacent tissues, thoracic wall invasion and iatrogenic involvement of pleura are described. Additionally, imaging characteristics of transdiaphragmatic thoracic involvement of hepatic hydatid disease are presented. To prevent the development of subsequent catastrophic results, all radiologists need to be aware of the atypical imaging appearances of complications of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  15. Imaging Spectrum of Hydatid Disease: Usual and Unusual Locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, Maskal Revanna; Deepashri, Basavalingu; Lakshmeesha, Mogenahalli Thimmaiah

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. It is common in endemic regions and can demonstrate a variety of imaging features that differ according to the affected organ and the stage of the disease. Liver and lungs are the most commonly affected organs. The classic features of hepatic hydatid disease are well known. However, diagnosing hydatid disease at unusual locations may be challenging because of myriad imaging features in each of these locations. Knowledge of the imaging spectrum in systemic hydatidoses in various organs is very valuable in improving the accuracy of radiological interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of hydatid disease at its varied locations

  16. Significance of MR imaging in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, H.; Globits, S.; Frank, H.; Glogar, D.; Nouhold, A.; Imhof, H.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic impact of MR imaging in congenital heart disease, the authors used a 0.5- or 1.5-T magnet to examine 85 patients. Multisection spin-echo images were obtained in three planes. Diagnoses included atrial septal defect, trilogy and tetralogy of Fallot, ventricular septal defect, transposition (seven), single ventricle, and other complex disorders. Compared with other noninvasive techniques, MR imaging allowed a much better visualization of anatomic structures and the relationship of great vessels to shunt lesions in complex congenital heart disease. In 53 (63%) of 85 patients, MR imaging made a major contribution to establishing or modifying diagnoses

  17. Acute colonic disease: How to image in emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stefania; Lombardo, Patrizia; Cinque, Teresa; Tortora, Giovanni; Romano, Luigia

    2007-01-01

    The diseases affecting the large intestine represent a diagnostic problem in adult patients with acute abdomen, especially when clinical symptoms are not specific. The role of the diagnostic imaging is to help clinicians and surgeons in differential diagnosis for an efficient early and prompt therapy to perform. This review article summarizes the imaging spectrum of findings of colonic acute disease, from mechanical obstruction to inflammatory diseases and perforation, offering keys to problem solving in doubtful cases as well as discussing regarding the more indicated imaging method to use in emergency, particularly MDCT

  18. Acute colonic disease: How to image in emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Viale Cardarelli 9, 80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Lombardo, Patrizia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Viale Cardarelli 9, 80131 Naples (Italy); Cinque, Teresa [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Viale Cardarelli 9, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Viale Cardarelli 9, 80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Viale Cardarelli 9, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    The diseases affecting the large intestine represent a diagnostic problem in adult patients with acute abdomen, especially when clinical symptoms are not specific. The role of the diagnostic imaging is to help clinicians and surgeons in differential diagnosis for an efficient early and prompt therapy to perform. This review article summarizes the imaging spectrum of findings of colonic acute disease, from mechanical obstruction to inflammatory diseases and perforation, offering keys to problem solving in doubtful cases as well as discussing regarding the more indicated imaging method to use in emergency, particularly MDCT.

  19. Quantitative 7T phase imaging in premanifest Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, A C; Possin, K L; Satris, G; Johnson, E; Lupo, J M; Jakary, A; Wong, K; Kelley, D A C; Kang, G A; Sha, S J; Kramer, J H; Geschwind, M D; Nelson, S J; Hess, C P

    2014-09-01

    In vivo MR imaging and postmortem neuropathologic studies have demonstrated elevated iron concentration and atrophy within the striatum of patients with Huntington disease, implicating neuronal loss and iron accumulation in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder. We used 7T MR imaging to determine whether quantitative phase, a measurement that reflects both iron content and tissue microstructure, is altered in subjects with premanifest Huntington disease. Local field shift, calculated from 7T MR phase images, was quantified in 13 subjects with premanifest Huntington disease and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. All participants underwent 3T and 7T MR imaging, including volumetric T1 and 7T gradient recalled-echo sequences. Local field shift maps were created from 7T phase data and registered to caudate ROIs automatically parcellated from the 3T T1 images. Huntington disease-specific disease burden and neurocognitive and motor evaluations were also performed and compared with local field shift. Subjects with premanifest Huntington disease had smaller caudate volume and higher local field shift than controls. A significant correlation between these measurements was not detected, and prediction accuracy for disease state improved with inclusion of both variables. A positive correlation between local field shift and genetic disease burden was also found, and there was a trend toward significant correlations between local field shift and neurocognitive tests of working memory and executive function. Subjects with premanifest Huntington disease exhibit differences in 7T MR imaging phase within the caudate nuclei that correlate with genetic disease burden and trend with neurocognitive assessments. Ultra-high-field MR imaging of quantitative phase may be a useful approach for monitoring neurodegeneration in premanifest Huntington disease. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2011-01-01

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  1. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  2. The imaging of HIV-related brain disease : clinical: imaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    age to its integrity. DTI provides us with information about the large-scale networks that are made up of long tracts connecting distant relay stations in the brain (Fig. ... guage, praxis, social behaviour and emotion. ... disorders, or who will respond to treatment.4,5 New approaches in neuro-imaging have the potential to detect.

  3. Image diagnostic of colonic diseases - controversial questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Rizov, A.; Stancheva, I.

    2013-01-01

    In the system of colonic diseases' diagnostic algorithm, fibrocolonoscopy (FCS) is defined as 'Golden Standard'. By this reason some X-ray diagnostic methods - irrigography, etc. are currently not being used in a number of health institutions. The aim of this study is a comparative analysis of FCS and irrigography diagnostic efficacy in various colonic diseases. For 10-years period, in cooperation with a gastroenterologist-gastroscopist, 2151 patients with various colonic diseases were evaluated by FCS and irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics/when necessary. Advantage of FCS was established in diagnosing diseases with patho-morfologic changes on the inner surface of the colon - benign and malignant neoplastic processes, chronic inflammatory diseases, etc. At the same time functional changes - irritated colon syndrome, changes in defecation act, etc., are not an object of diagnosis through FCS. Correction in colonic diseases diagnostic algorithm is necessary. FCS should be mandatory. If result is negative - irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics should be done. (authors)

  4. CT and MR imaging of gynecological emergency disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Shinya; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Tahara, Takatoshi; Matsusue, Eiji; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2004-01-01

    We describe the CT and MRI findings of gynecologic emergency diseases: pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, ovarian hemorrhage, ovarian torsion, rupture of ovarian tumor, eclampsia, and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. Diagnostic keys to these diseases are presented in this review. CT and MRI play a complementary role to sonography in accurately diagnosing these diseases. In situations that require an exact, immediate diagnosis, radiologists should be familiar with the key imaging findings. (author)

  5. MR imaging and spectroscopy in juvenile Huntington disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapiro, Mark; Doescher, Jason [Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Cecil, Kim M.; Kiefer, Alaina M. [Imaging Research Center, Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Juvenile Huntington disease manifests differently from adult Huntington disease and has more variability in presentation. We describe a child with cognitive decline and adventitial movements in whom Huntington disease was confirmed with genetic testing. MR imaging showed abnormal T2 prolongation in the putamina and progressive caudate atrophy, and MR spectroscopy revealed elevated myoinositol and diminished N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, and phosphocreatine. Imaging findings of caudate atrophy and abnormal T2 prolongation in the putamina with MR spectroscopy findings consistent with dense gliosis can be helpful indicators of juvenile Huntington disease. (orig.)

  6. Emerging diagnostic and therapeutic molecular imaging applications in vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraso, Luis H; Reilly, Muredach P; Sehgal, Chandra; Mohler, Emile R

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of vascular disease has evolved from mere indirect and direct measurements of luminal stenosis to sophisticated imaging methods to depict millimeter structural changes of the vasculature. In the near future, the emergence of multimodal molecular imaging strategies may enable robust therapeutic and diagnostic (‘theragnostic’) approaches to vascular diseases that comprehensively consider structural, functional, biological and genomic characteristics of the disease in individualized risk assessment, early diagnosis and delivery of targeted interventions. This review presents a summary of recent preclinical and clinical developments in molecular imaging and theragnostic applications covering diverse atherosclerosis events such as endothelial activation, macrophage infammatory activity, plaque neovascularization and arterial thrombosis. The main focus is on molecular targets designed for imaging platforms commonly used in clinical medicine including magnetic resonance, computed tomography and positron emission tomography. A special emphasis is given to vascular ultrasound applications, considering the important role this imaging platform plays in the clinical and research practice of the vascular medicine specialty. PMID:21310769

  7. Caroli's disease: magnetic resonance imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, France; Cognet, Francois; Dranssart, Marie; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Conciatori, Laurent; Krause, Denis [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Dijon Le Bocage University Hospital, 2 Blvd. Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 1542, 21034 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2002-11-01

    Our objective was to describe the main aspects of MR imaging in Caroli's disease. Magnetic resonance cholangiography with a dynamic contrast-enhanced study was performed in nine patients with Caroli's disease. Bile duct abnormalities, lithiasis, dot signs, hepatic enhancement, renal abnormalities, and evidence of portal hypertension were evaluated. Three MR imaging patterns of Caroli's disease were found. In all but two patients, MR imaging findings were sufficient to confirm the diagnosis. Moreover, MR imaging provided information about the severity, location, and extent of liver involvement. This information was useful in planning the best therapeutic strategy. Magnetic resonance cholangiography with a dynamic contrast-enhanced study is a good screening tool for Caroli's disease. Direct cholangiography should be reserved for confirming doubtful cases. (orig.)

  8. Amyloid imaging in prodromal Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkoppele, R.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Prins, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment are at an increased risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease. However, not all patients with mild cognitive impairment progress, and it is difficult to accurately identify those patients who are in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease. In a recent

  9. Human gene therapy and imaging in neurological diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Andreas H.; Winkler, Alexandra; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to assess non-invasively disease-specific biological and molecular processes in animal models and humans in vivo. Apart from precise anatomical localisation and quantification, the most intriguing advantage of such imaging is the opportunity it provides to investigate the time course (dynamics) of disease-specific molecular events in the intact organism. Further, molecular imaging can be used to address basic scientific questions, e.g. transcriptional regulation, signal transduction or protein/protein interaction, and will be essential in developing treatment strategies based on gene therapy. Most importantly, molecular imaging is a key technology in translational research, helping to develop experimental protocols which may later be applied to human patients. Over the past 20 years, imaging based on positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been employed for the assessment and “phenotyping” of various neurological diseases, including cerebral ischaemia, neurodegeneration and brain gliomas. While in the past neuro-anatomical studies had to be performed post mortem, molecular imaging has ushered in the era of in vivo functional neuro-anatomy by allowing neuroscience to image structure, function, metabolism and molecular processes of the central nervous system in vivo in both health and disease. Recently, PET and MRI have been successfully utilised together in the non-invasive assessment of gene transfer and gene therapy in humans. To assess the efficiency of gene transfer, the same markers are being used in animals and humans, and have been applied for phenotyping human disease. Here, we review the imaging hallmarks of focal and disseminated neurological diseases, such as cerebral ischaemia, neurodegeneration and glioblastoma multiforme, as well as the attempts to translate gene therapy’s experimental knowledge into clinical applications and the way in which this process is being promoted through the use

  10. Advances in imaging to allow personalized medicine in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, Markus F

    2015-08-01

    Crohn's disease is a destructive inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin that may lead to various complications such as strictures, stenosis, fistulas and colitis-associated neoplasias. However, the course of the disease varies substantially among patients and disease behaviour may also change with time. At diagnosis behaviour is inflammatory in the majority of patients, while penetrating or structuring behaviour become more prominent at later time points. Thus, medication in Crohn's disease needs frequent optimization over time. Therefore, new strategies for prediction of response to therapy are urgently needed. Here, recent advantages in imaging techniques for personalized medicine in Crohn's disease are reviewed. Such advantages include ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and new endoscopic approaches such as molecular endoscopy. It is expected that these novel techniques will lead to marked improvements in the assessment of disease behaviour and the prediction of response to clinical therapy with biologicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic resonance in hematological diseases. Imaging of bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly sensitive alternative to plain radiography, CT, and radionuclide studies for the imaging of normal and abnormal bone marrow. The cellularity and the corresponding fat/water ratio within the bone marrow show clear changes in haematological diseases. Thi...

  12. Multimodality molecular imaging of disease progression in living ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The enormous advances in our understanding of the progression of diseases at the molecular level have been supplemented by the new field of 'molecular imaging', which provides for in vivo visualization of molecular events at the cellular level in living organisms. Molecular imaging is a noninvasive assessment of gene ...

  13. Using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Xueguan; Meng, Zhijun; Zou, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the process of tomato plants growth, due to the effect of plants genetic factors, poor environment factors, or disoperation of parasites, there will generate a series of unusual symptoms on tomato plants from physiology, organization structure and external form, as a result, they cannot grow normally, and further to influence the tomato yield and economic benefits. Hyperspectral image usually has high spectral resolution, not only contains spectral information, but also contains the image information, so this study adopted hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves, and developed a simple hyperspectral imaging system, including a halogen lamp light source unit, a hyperspectral image acquisition unit and a data processing unit. Spectrometer detection wavelength ranged from 400nm to 1000nm. After hyperspectral images of tomato leaves being captured, it was needed to calibrate hyperspectral images. This research used spectrum angle matching method and spectral red edge parameters discriminant method respectively to identify diseased tomato leaves. Using spectral red edge parameters discriminant method produced higher recognition accuracy, the accuracy was higher than 90%. Research results have shown that using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves is feasible, and provides the discriminant basis for subsequent disease control of tomato plants.

  14. Multimodality imaging of Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Ilya M; Wolk, David A

    2014-12-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, result in cognitive decline and dementia and are a leading cause of mortality in the growing elderly population. These progressive diseases typically have an insidious onset, with overlapping clinical features early in the disease course that make diagnosis challenging. The neurodegenerative diseases are associated with characteristic, although not completely understood, changes in the brain: abnormal protein deposition, synaptic dysfunction, neuronal injury, and neuronal death. Neuroimaging biomarkers-principally regional atrophy on structural MR imaging, patterns of hypometabolism on (18)F-FDG PET, and detection of cerebral amyloid plaque on amyloid PET--are able to evaluate the patterns of these abnormalities in the brain to improve early diagnosis and help predict the disease course. These techniques have unique strengths and synergies in multimodality evaluation of the patient with cognitive decline or dementia. This review discusses the key imaging biomarkers from MR imaging, (18)F-FDG PET, and amyloid PET; the imaging features of the most common neurodegenerative dementias; the role of various neuroimaging studies in differential diagnosis and prognosis; and some promising imaging techniques under development. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  15. Detection of high risk coronary artery disease by thallium imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, M J; Lahiri, A; Whittington, J R; Crawley, J C; Raftery, E B

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and three patients who underwent coronary arteriography were studied by thallium imaging and the results analysed by Bayesian principles to assess the usefulness of semiquantitative stress thallium imaging for predicting the presence or absence of multivessel coronary disease. Significant disease was found in 80 patients, of whom 77 had abnormal thallium scans (sensitivity 96%). Thallium images were normal in 15 of 23 patients with no significant disease (specificity 65%). Multiple thallium segmental defects were found to be 90% sensitive and 65% specific for multivessel coronary artery disease and were present in 80% of patients with left main stem disease and in 93% of patients with triple vessel disease. A single thallium defect or normal scan excluded multivessel, left main, and triple vessel disease with 81%, 94%, and 91% predictive accuracy respectively. By Bayesian analysis the predictive accuracy for excluding multivessel disease was greater than 90% in patients with a pretest probability of multivessel disease of less than or equal to 40%. Coronary arteriography to exclude multivessel disease is therefore unnecessary in a high proportion of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:4005084

  16. Imaging insights into basal ganglia function, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessl, A Jon; Lehericy, Stephane; Strafella, Antonio P

    2014-08-09

    Recent advances in structural and functional imaging have greatly improved our ability to assess normal functions of the basal ganglia, diagnose parkinsonian syndromes, understand the pathophysiology of parkinsonism and other movement disorders, and detect and monitor disease progression. Radionuclide imaging is the best way to detect and monitor dopamine deficiency, and will probably continue to be the best biomarker for assessment of the effects of disease-modifying therapies. However, advances in magnetic resonance enable the separation of patients with Parkinson's disease from healthy controls, and show great promise for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and other akinetic-rigid syndromes. Radionuclide imaging is useful to show the dopaminergic basis for both motor and behavioural complications of Parkinson's disease and its treatment, and alterations in non-dopaminergic systems. Both PET and MRI can be used to study patterns of functional connectivity in the brain, which is disrupted in Parkinson's disease and in association with its complications, and in other basal-ganglia disorders such as dystonia, in which an anatomical substrate is not otherwise apparent. Functional imaging is increasingly used to assess underlying pathological processes such as neuroinflammation and abnormal protein deposition. This imaging is another promising approach to assess the effects of treatments designed to slow disease progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MR imaging of von Hippel-Lindau disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Waziri, M.H.; Smith, W.L.; Frey, E.E.; Franken, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Sixteen patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease (VH-L) and 11 asymptomatic family members underwent a total of 29 central nervous system (CNS) and 23 body MR imaging evaluations during a 2-year study period. Nineteen CNS and spinal lesions and nine abdominal visceral lesions were identified on MR imaging and were confirmed at surgery or by other imaging modalities. MR imaging is superior to CT in the evaluation of intraocular vitreous abnormalities and cerebellar and spinal hemangioblastomas because of superior tissue characterization and lack of bone artifacts. MR imaging adequately demonstrated the abdominal visceral lesions. MR imaging is a sensitive and reliable imaging modality for the various lesions of VH-L

  18. Imaging malignant and apparent malignant transformation of benign gynaecological disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.Y.; Poder, L.; Qayyum, A.; Wang, Z.J.; Yeh, B.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Coakley, F.V., E-mail: Fergus.Coakley@radiology.ucsf.ed [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Common benign gynaecological diseases, such as leiomyoma, adenomyosis, endometriosis, and mature teratoma, rarely undergo malignant transformation. Benign transformations that may mimic malignancy include benign metastasizing leiomyoma, massive ovarian oedema, decidualization of endometrioma, and rupture of mature teratoma. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of imaging findings in malignant and apparent malignant transformation of benign gynaecological disease.

  19. Deep Learning for Image-Based Cassava Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramcharan, Amanda; Baranowski, Kelsee; McCloskey, Peter; Ahmed, Babuali; Legg, James; Hughes, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is the third largest source of carbohydrates for human food in the world but is vulnerable to virus diseases, which threaten to destabilize food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Novel methods of cassava disease detection are needed to support improved control which will prevent this crisis. Image recognition offers both a cost effective and scalable technology for disease detection. New deep learning models offer an avenue for this technology to be easily deployed on mobile devices. Using a dataset of cassava disease images taken in the field in Tanzania, we applied transfer learning to train a deep convolutional neural network to identify three diseases and two types of pest damage (or lack thereof). The best trained model accuracies were 98% for brown leaf spot (BLS), 96% for red mite damage (RMD), 95% for green mite damage (GMD), 98% for cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), and 96% for cassava mosaic disease (CMD). The best model achieved an overall accuracy of 93% for data not used in the training process. Our results show that the transfer learning approach for image recognition of field images offers a fast, affordable, and easily deployable strategy for digital plant disease detection. PMID:29163582

  20. Deep Learning for Image-Based Cassava Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ramcharan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is the third largest source of carbohydrates for human food in the world but is vulnerable to virus diseases, which threaten to destabilize food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Novel methods of cassava disease detection are needed to support improved control which will prevent this crisis. Image recognition offers both a cost effective and scalable technology for disease detection. New deep learning models offer an avenue for this technology to be easily deployed on mobile devices. Using a dataset of cassava disease images taken in the field in Tanzania, we applied transfer learning to train a deep convolutional neural network to identify three diseases and two types of pest damage (or lack thereof. The best trained model accuracies were 98% for brown leaf spot (BLS, 96% for red mite damage (RMD, 95% for green mite damage (GMD, 98% for cassava brown streak disease (CBSD, and 96% for cassava mosaic disease (CMD. The best model achieved an overall accuracy of 93% for data not used in the training process. Our results show that the transfer learning approach for image recognition of field images offers a fast, affordable, and easily deployable strategy for digital plant disease detection.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki; Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Keizo; Arimizu, Noboru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tateno, Yukio.

    1986-01-01

    NMR imaging of the brainstem region from 12 asymptomatic individuals were reviewed in addition to these of 12 patients with various symptoms of small brainstem lesions. Abnormalities consisted of 3 cases of multiple sclerosis, 1 case of neuro-Behcet disease, 5 cases of infarction and hematoma and 3 cases of degenerative disease. NMR transverse imaging using inversion recovery sequence was able to locate many of the normal intra-axial brainstem nuclei, the red nucleus, the substantia nigra, the pontine nuclei, the pontine reticular nuclei, the facial nerve nucleus and so on in an about half of 12 asymptomatic individuals. The remarkable gray-white matter differentiation was obtained on NMR imaging using inversion recovery sequence and enabled the internal structures to be visualized within the brainstem. In addition, the midsagittal imaging provided an excellent demonstration of anatomical relationships of the brainstem and surrounding structures. In the diencephalic region, the mamillary body, the anterior commissure and the optic chiasma were also demonstrated on the midsagittal imaging. The lesions within the brainstem were vaguely shown on X-ray computed tomography in 6 of 12 patients but NMR imaging using inversion recovery or spin echo sequence provided more detailed data and revealed clear small lesions, such as the demyelinated plaques of multiple sclerosis and lacunar infarcts in 9 of 12 patients. Especially, in 2 of 3 multiple sclerosis patients, the plaques of the brainstem were definitely identified on NMR imaging only and the accurate localized lesion which was responsible for the facial myokymia or the Foville syndrome was identified. These studies results show that on NMR imaging using several pulse sequences, it is possible to examine the atrophic or hypertrophic findings of the brainstem internal structures and compare the localization of the lesions with clinical symptoms accurately. (J.P.N.)

  2. Imaging of cystic fibrosis lung disease and clinical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielpuetz, M.O.; Eichinger, M.; Kauczor, H.U. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC) (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine; Biederer, J. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC) (Germany); Gross-Gerau Community Hospital (Germany). Radiologie Darmstadt; Wege, S. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine; Stahl, M.; Sommerburg, O. [Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC) (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Div. of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergy and Cystic Fibrosis Center; Mall, M.A. [Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC) (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Div. of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergy and Cystic Fibrosis Center; Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Translational Pulmonology; Puderbach, M. [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC) (Germany); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine; Hufeland Hospital, Bad Langensalza (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2016-09-15

    Progressive lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is the life-limiting factor of this autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Increasing implementation of CF newborn screening allows for a diagnosis even in pre-symptomatic stages. Improvements in therapy have led to a significant improvement in survival, the majority now being of adult age. Imaging provides detailed information on the regional distribution of CF lung disease, hence longitudinal imaging is recommended for disease monitoring in the clinical routine. Chest X-ray (CXR), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are now available as routine modalities, each with individual strengths and drawbacks, which need to be considered when choosing the optimal modality adapted to the clinical situation of the patient. CT stands out with the highest morphological detail and has often been a substitute for CXR for regular severity monitoring at specialized centers. Multidetector CT data can be post-processed with dedicated software for a detailed measurement of airway dimensions and bronchiectasis and potentially a more objective and precise grading of disease severity. However, changing to CT was inseparably accompanied by an increase in radiation exposure of CF patients, a young population with high sensitivity to ionizing radiation and lifetime accumulation of dose. MRI as a cross-sectional imaging modality free of ionizing radiation can depict morphological hallmarks of CF lung disease at lower spatial resolution but excels with comprehensive functional lung imaging, with time-resolved perfusion imaging currently being most valuable.

  3. CT images of diffuse hepatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Suguru; Kido, Choichiro; Satoh, Shigeki; Ashizawa, Tatsuhito (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan). Hospital)

    1982-12-01

    During three years, 198 cases of diffuse hepatic disease were computer tomographed. Of these, 52 cases of fatty liver showed CT values lower than the 62.3 +- 56 HU for normal liver. Cases with iso-density included 76 cases of liver cirrhosis (including 19 cases of liver cancer), 34 cases of chronic hepatitis, 3 cases of malignant lymphomatous infiltration, and 1 case each of amyloidosis and leukemia. Those cases with high-density included 28 cases of Thorotrast deposit (including 4 cases of liver cancer) and 1 case of Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis, and hemosiderosis. After careful investigation, it was demonstrated that CT has broad application and efficacy in diffuse hepatic diseases.

  4. Muscle edema in MR imaging of neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schedel, H.; Reimers, C.D.; Vogl, T.; Witt, T.N.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of muscle edema and the diagnostic usefulness of Gd-DTPA in neuromuscular diseases. 144 consecutive patients with various generalized neuromuscular diseases were examined by MR imaging. Areas of high signal intensity, relative to normal muscle, were seen in 36% of T2-weighted images, whereas the corresponding T1-weighted images showed normal or lower signal intensities. These edema-like abnormalities -enlargement of the extracellular fluid space-were found more often in inflammatory and metabolic myopathies, but were also seen in degenerative myopathies. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images in 25 patients were not more sensitive than plain T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  5. Imaging Manifestations of Peptic Ulcer Disease on Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdanian, Arthur H; Baghdanian, Armonde A; Puppala, Shilpa; Tana, Michele; Ohliger, Michael A

    2018-04-01

    Although the overall prevalence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has decreased in modern times, its actual incidence may be underestimated owing to the nonspecific clinical presentations patients' manifest. The potential lethal complications that can result from PUD include life-threatening abdominal hemorrhage and bowel perforation that result in significant morbidity and mortality. Computed tomography (CT) imaging historically lacks specificity in detecting PUD-related pathology in the stomach and proximal small bowel segments. Therefore, these are potential pitfalls in the radiologist's search pattern on abdominopelvic CT imaging. This article highlights imaging features of uncomplicated PUD on CT imaging in order to allow for early detection of this disease process on imaging and the prevention of potential high-grade complications by recommending esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Transfer Learning for Image-Based Cassava Disease Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ramcharan, Amanda; Baranowski, Kelsee; McCloskey, Peter; Ahmed, Babuali; Legg, James; Hughes, David

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is the third largest source of carbohydrates for human food in the world but is vulnerable to virus diseases, which threaten to destabilize food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Novel methods of cassava disease detection are needed to support improved control which will prevent this crisis. Image recognition offers both a cost effective and scalable technology for disease detection. New transfer learning methods offer an avenue for this technology to be easily deployed on mobile device...

  7. Population Imaging of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.F. Poels (Mariëlle)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAs we grow older, our brain tends to shrink. We become increasingly vul nerable to dementia and stroke, two common disorders in the elderly that have great impact on brain functioning and the way people live their lives. The burden of these diseases will rapidly grow over the coming

  8. MACD - an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strong...

  9. Severe neuro-Behcet’s disease treated with a combination of immunosuppressives and a TNF-inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Nur Korkmaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract/ Resumo Behcet's disease (BD is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions and uveitis. The nervous system involvement of BD, neuro-Behcet's disease (NBD, is one of the important causes of mortality of the disease. Herein, we present a 29-year-old male with parenchymal NBD who has progressed rapidly and was managed with an uncommon aggressive immunosuppresive combination therapy. The patient first presented six years ago with vertigo and difficulty in talking and walking. On examination, he had oral ulcers, acneiform lesions on the torso, genital ulcer scar, dysartria, and ataxia. Along with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, the patient was diagnosed as NBD. After pulse methylprednisolone (1g/day, 3 days and 8 courses of 1g/month iv cylophosphamide therapy, he was put on azathioprine and oral methlyprednisolone. On the 4th year of the maintenance therapy, he was admitted with NBD relapse which was treated with 3 days of iv 1g pulse methlyprednisolone. One year after the last relapse, the patient voluntarily stopped medications and presented with global aphasia, right hemihypoesthesia and quadriparesis. MRI findings were suggestive of NBD relapse. After exclusion of infection, pulse methylprednisolone was started but no improvement was observed. Considering the severity of the NBD, the patient was put on methylprednisolone (1mg/kg/day, iv cylophosphamide (1g and adalimumab 40 mg/14 days subcutaneously with appropriate tuberculosis prophylaxis. Neurological examination and MRI findings after 4 weeks showed dramatic improvement however patient developed pulmonary tuberculosis. Methylprednisolone dose was decreased (0.5mg/kg/day and quadruple antituberculosis therapy was started. Patient was discharged with 5/5 muscle strength in extremities without any respiratory symptoms 2 months after first presentation. Prompt introduction of immunosuppressive therapy is crucial in

  10. Enhancement and denoising of mammographic images for breast disease detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdani, S.; Yusof, R.; Karimian, A.; Hematian, A.; Yousefi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In these two decades breast cancer is one of the leading cause of death among women. In breast cancer research, Mammographic Image is being assessed as a potential tool for detecting breast disease and investigating response to chemotherapy. In first stage of breast disease discovery, the density measurement of the breast in mammographic images provides very useful information. Because of the importance of the role of mammographic images the need for accurate and robust automated image enhancement techniques is becoming clear. Mammographic images have some disadvantages such as, the high dependence of contrast upon the way the image is acquired, weak distinction in splitting cyst from tumor, intensity non uniformity, the existence of noise, etc. These limitations make problem to detect the typical signs such as masses and microcalcifications. For this reason, denoising and enhancing the quality of mammographic images is very important. The method which is used in this paper is in spatial domain which its input includes high, intermediate and even very low contrast mammographic images based on specialist physician's view, while its output is processed images that show the input images with higher quality, more contrast and more details. In this research, 38 mammographic images have been used. The result of purposed method shows details of abnormal zones and the areas with defects so that specialist could explore these zones more accurately and it could be deemed as an index for cancer diagnosis. In this study, mammographic images are initially converted into digital images and then to increase spatial resolution power, their noise is reduced and consequently their contrast is improved. The results demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods. (authors)

  11. Imaging hypertrophic heart diseases with cardiovascular MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, Robin D.; Shambrook, James S.; McParland, Paula; Peebles, Charles R.; Brown, Ivan W. [Department of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom); Harden, Stephen P., E-mail: stephen.harden@suht.swest.nhs.u [Department of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The assessment of ventricular hypertrophy is an increasingly common indication for cardiac MR (CMR) in every day clinical practice. CMR is useful to confirm the presence of hypertrophy and to help to define the underlying cause through a combination of a detailed assessment of ventricular function and tissue characterising sequences. As well as being a useful diagnostic tool, some CMR imaging features are of prognostic significance. In this article, we review the typical appearances of common forms of ventricular hypertrophy, focussing principally on left ventricular hypertrophy, and demonstrate the techniques that can be used to differentiate one form of hypertrophy from another.

  12. Identification of Alfalfa Leaf Diseases Using Image Recognition Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qin

    Full Text Available Common leaf spot (caused by Pseudopeziza medicaginis, rust (caused by Uromyces striatus, Leptosphaerulina leaf spot (caused by Leptosphaerulina briosiana and Cercospora leaf spot (caused by Cercospora medicaginis are the four common types of alfalfa leaf diseases. Timely and accurate diagnoses of these diseases are critical for disease management, alfalfa quality control and the healthy development of the alfalfa industry. In this study, the identification and diagnosis of the four types of alfalfa leaf diseases were investigated using pattern recognition algorithms based on image-processing technology. A sub-image with one or multiple typical lesions was obtained by artificial cutting from each acquired digital disease image. Then the sub-images were segmented using twelve lesion segmentation methods integrated with clustering algorithms (including K_means clustering, fuzzy C-means clustering and K_median clustering and supervised classification algorithms (including logistic regression analysis, Naive Bayes algorithm, classification and regression tree, and linear discriminant analysis. After a comprehensive comparison, the segmentation method integrating the K_median clustering algorithm and linear discriminant analysis was chosen to obtain lesion images. After the lesion segmentation using this method, a total of 129 texture, color and shape features were extracted from the lesion images. Based on the features selected using three methods (ReliefF, 1R and correlation-based feature selection, disease recognition models were built using three supervised learning methods, including the random forest, support vector machine (SVM and K-nearest neighbor methods. A comparison of the recognition results of the models was conducted. The results showed that when the ReliefF method was used for feature selection, the SVM model built with the most important 45 features (selected from a total of 129 features was the optimal model. For this SVM model, the

  13. Identification of Alfalfa Leaf Diseases Using Image Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Liu, Dongxia; Sun, Bingda; Ruan, Liu; Ma, Zhanhong; Wang, Haiguang

    2016-01-01

    Common leaf spot (caused by Pseudopeziza medicaginis), rust (caused by Uromyces striatus), Leptosphaerulina leaf spot (caused by Leptosphaerulina briosiana) and Cercospora leaf spot (caused by Cercospora medicaginis) are the four common types of alfalfa leaf diseases. Timely and accurate diagnoses of these diseases are critical for disease management, alfalfa quality control and the healthy development of the alfalfa industry. In this study, the identification and diagnosis of the four types of alfalfa leaf diseases were investigated using pattern recognition algorithms based on image-processing technology. A sub-image with one or multiple typical lesions was obtained by artificial cutting from each acquired digital disease image. Then the sub-images were segmented using twelve lesion segmentation methods integrated with clustering algorithms (including K_means clustering, fuzzy C-means clustering and K_median clustering) and supervised classification algorithms (including logistic regression analysis, Naive Bayes algorithm, classification and regression tree, and linear discriminant analysis). After a comprehensive comparison, the segmentation method integrating the K_median clustering algorithm and linear discriminant analysis was chosen to obtain lesion images. After the lesion segmentation using this method, a total of 129 texture, color and shape features were extracted from the lesion images. Based on the features selected using three methods (ReliefF, 1R and correlation-based feature selection), disease recognition models were built using three supervised learning methods, including the random forest, support vector machine (SVM) and K-nearest neighbor methods. A comparison of the recognition results of the models was conducted. The results showed that when the ReliefF method was used for feature selection, the SVM model built with the most important 45 features (selected from a total of 129 features) was the optimal model. For this SVM model, the

  14. Vascular targeting of nanoparticles for molecular imaging of diseased endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atukorale, Prabhani U; Covarrubias, Gil; Bauer, Lisa; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2017-04-01

    This review seeks to highlight the enormous potential of targeted nanoparticles for molecular imaging applications. Being the closest point-of-contact, circulating nanoparticles can gain direct access to targetable molecular markers of disease that appear on the endothelium. Further, nanoparticles are ideally suitable to vascular targeting due to geometrically enhanced multivalent attachment on the vascular target. This natural synergy between nanoparticles, vascular targeting and molecular imaging can provide new avenues for diagnosis and prognosis of disease with quantitative precision. In addition to the obvious applications of targeting molecular signatures of vascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis), deep-tissue diseases often manifest themselves by continuously altering and remodeling their neighboring blood vessels (e.g., cancer). Thus, the remodeled endothelium provides a wide range of targets for nanoparticles and molecular imaging. To demonstrate the potential of molecular imaging, we present a variety of nanoparticles designed for molecular imaging of cancer or atherosclerosis using different imaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperspectral imaging system for disease scanning on banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Cevallos, Juan; Vargas, German; Criollo, Ronald; Romero, Dennis; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2016-05-01

    Black Sigatoka (BS) is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis. BS symptoms can be observed at late infection stages. By that time, BS has probably spread to other plants. In this paper, we present our current work on building an hyper-spectral (HS) imaging system aimed at in-vivo detection of BS pre-symptomatic responses in banana leaves. The proposed imaging system comprises a motorized stage, a high-sensitivity VIS-NIR camera and an optical spectrograph. To capture images of the banana leaf, the stage's speed and camera's frame rate must be computed to reduce motion blur and to obtain the same resolution along both spatial dimensions of the resulting HS cube. Our continuous leaf scanning approach allows imaging leaves of arbitrary length with minimum frame loss. Once the images are captured, a denoising step is performed to improve HS image quality and spectral profile extraction.

  16. Using Deep Learning for Image-Based Plant Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sharada P.; Hughes, David P.; Salathé, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Crop diseases are a major threat to food security, but their rapid identification remains difficult in many parts of the world due to the lack of the necessary infrastructure. The combination of increasing global smartphone penetration and recent advances in computer vision made possible by deep learning has paved the way for smartphone-assisted disease diagnosis. Using a public dataset of 54,306 images of diseased and healthy plant leaves collected under controlled conditions, we train a deep convolutional neural network to identify 14 crop species and 26 diseases (or absence thereof). The trained model achieves an accuracy of 99.35% on a held-out test set, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the approach of training deep learning models on increasingly large and publicly available image datasets presents a clear path toward smartphone-assisted crop disease diagnosis on a massive global scale. PMID:27713752

  17. Using Deep Learning for Image-Based Plant Disease Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada P. Mohanty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop diseases are a major threat to food security, but their rapid identification remains difficult in many parts of the world due to the lack of the necessary infrastructure. The combination of increasing global smartphone penetration and recent advances in computer vision made possible by deep learning has paved the way for smartphone-assisted disease diagnosis. Using a public dataset of 54,306 images of diseased and healthy plant leaves collected under controlled conditions, we train a deep convolutional neural network to identify 14 crop species and 26 diseases (or absence thereof. The trained model achieves an accuracy of 99.35% on a held-out test set, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. Overall, the approach of training deep learning models on increasingly large and publicly available image datasets presents a clear path toward smartphone-assisted crop disease diagnosis on a massive global scale.

  18. MR imaging in Peyronie's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Yoel; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Yong; Kim, Chong Soo; Park, Jong Kwan [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of magnetic resonance (MR) images in Peyronie's disease and to assess the usefulness of post-erection penile MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of seven patients in whom Peyronie's disease was clinically suspected. All seven underwent pre-and post-erectile MRI. After the acquisition of erectile MRI, three patients also underwent contrast-enhanced MRI. We compared image quality and the rate of detection of penile plaque between pre-erectile and post-erectile images. In three patients who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI, we assessed correlation between the contrast enhancement pattern, as seen on MRI, of the plaque and corpus cavernosa and clinical inflammatory signs such as painful erection. In the seven patients, all post-erectile MRI images showed localized thickening and irregularities of the tunica albuginea and the septum penis, suggesting penile plaque. On pre-erectile MRI, however, plaque was detected in five cases. In six of seven cases, plaque as seen on T2-weighted images (T2WI) showed low signal intensity similar to that of the tunica albuginea, and as seen on T1-weighted images (T1W1), a signal intensity of signal intensity similar to or similar to or slightly higher than that of the tunica albuginea. In one case, plaque showed high signal intensity on both T1WI and T2WI. On T1WI, the corpus cavernosa showed homogeneous medium-signal intensity on all pre- and post-erectile MR images. On pre-erectile T2WI, the corpus cavernosa of six patients showed heterogeneous high signal intensity, whereas on post-erectile T2WI the corpus cavernosa of all patients showed homogeneous high signal intensity. Due to the enlarged penis and homogeneous signal intensity of the corpus cavernosa, the image quality of post-erectile images was superior to that of pre-erectile images. The images of two of three patients who underwent contrast enhanced MRI showed strong enhancement of the plaque and adjacent corpus cavernosa

  19. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc [Hopital Cochin, Service de Radiologie B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Liote, Frederic [Hopital Lariboisiere, Federation de Rhumatologie, Paris (France); Carlier, Robert [Hopital Raymond Poincare, Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2006-02-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of generalised musculo-skeletal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.A.; Schalke, B.C.G.

    1989-01-01

    The results presented are drawn from 320 examinations by NMR imaging of patients with various systemic muscle diseases (dystrophies, myositides, metabolic disorders), and are interpreted so as to explain the relevant characteristic distribution patterns of the degenerative processes in the femoral musculature as shown by the NMR images. Four basic patterns are presented according to the criteria homogeneous-heterogeneous and symmetric-asymmetric, and the diseases identified by the differential diagnostic evaluation are discussed. The optimum measuring conditions for magnetic resonance imaging of the musculature are given, and the specific magnetic resonance criteria of myositides, neurogenic myopathies, myofonous dystrophies, c.n. polio, morbus Pompe, familial hypokalemic paralysis, centronuclear mypathy, morbus Duchenne are explained. The significance of NMR imaging with regard to biopsy or therapy planning is discussed, and magnetic resonance examination is recommended to be applied prior to biopsy. (orig.) [de

  1. Computer-assisted instruction; MR imaging of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hi; Yu, Pil Mun; Lee, Sang Hoon; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Yang Min

    1996-01-01

    To develop a software program for computer-assisted instruction on MR imaging of congenital heart disease for medical students and residents to achieve repetitive and effective self-learning. We used a film scanner(Scan Maker 35t) and IBM-PC(486 DX-2, 60 MHz) for acquisition and storage of image data. The accessories attached to the main processor were CD-ROM drive(Sony), sound card(Soundblaster-Pro), and speaker. We used software of Adobe Photoshop(v 3.0) and paint shop-pro(v 3.0) for preprocessing image data, and paintbrush from microsoft windows 3.1 for labelling. The language used for programming was visual basic(v 3.0) from microsoft corporation. We developed a software program for computer-assisted instruction on MR imaging of congenital heart disease as an effective educational tool

  2. Abnormal I-123 HIPDM images in various disease entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.J.; Magoun, S.; Coupal, J.J.; Clark, D.B.; Dekosky, S.T.; Kung, H.F.; Beihn, R.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Eighty patients who were referred from neurology service for evaluation of stroke, Alzheimer disease (AD), and/or other neurologic diseases underwent the study. Four views of planar images were obtained following the intravenous injection of 3-5 mCi of I-123 HIPDM. SPECT images were then obtained using a camera interfaced to a PDP-11 computer. Forty of the 80 patients had scintigraphic findings of stroke, which correlated well with head CT/cerebral angiogram. Sixteen patients with AD had good correlation between the degree of temporoparietal abnormality in the images. Severe AD and severe stroke patients almost always had a positive planar image. Normal I-123 HIPDM localization in the brain requires intact cerebral flow and cerebral neuronal function. A focal area of decreased I-123 HIPDM localization may represent either interruption of blood flow or neurochemical dysfunction

  3. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 μm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studied......, as have many diseases. The method can provide accurate measures of epidermal and nail changes in normal tissue. Skin cancer and other tumors, as well as inflammatory diseases, have been studied and good agreement found between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT also allows noninvasive...... monitoring of morphologic changes in skin diseases and may have a particular role in the monitoring of medical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The technology is however still evolving and continued technological development will necessitate an ongoing evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy. Several...

  4. MR imaging of metabolic white matter diseases: Therapeutic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebarski, S.S.; Allen, R.

    1987-01-01

    In metabolic diseases affecting the brain, MR imaging abnormalities include white-matter signal aberrations suggesting myelination delay, dysmyelination and demyelination, pathologic iron storage, and finally, loss of substance usually in a nonspecific pattern. The authors suggest that MR imaging may have therapeutic implications: (1) classic galactosemia - white-matter signal aberration became normal after dietary therapy; (2) phenylketonuria - age- and sex-matched treated and nontreated adolescents showed marked differences in brain volume, with the treated patient's volume nearly normal; (3) maple syrup urine disease - gross white-matter signal aberration became nearly normal after dietary therapy; and (4) hyperglycinemia - relentless progression of white-matter signal aberration and loss of brain substance despite therapy. These data suggest that brain MR imaging may provide a therapeutic index in certain metabolic diseases

  5. Automated rice leaf disease detection using color image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugoy, Reinald Adrian D. L.; Mariano, Vladimir Y.

    2011-06-01

    In rice-related institutions such as the International Rice Research Institute, assessing the health condition of a rice plant through its leaves, which is usually done as a manual eyeball exercise, is important to come up with good nutrient and disease management strategies. In this paper, an automated system that can detect diseases present in a rice leaf using color image analysis is presented. In the system, the outlier region is first obtained from a rice leaf image to be tested using histogram intersection between the test and healthy rice leaf images. Upon obtaining the outlier, it is then subjected to a threshold-based K-means clustering algorithm to group related regions into clusters. Then, these clusters are subjected to further analysis to finally determine the suspected diseases of the rice leaf.

  6. Dissociation of Down Syndrome and Alzheimers Disease Effects With Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Imaging Behav 2012;6:551–67. [23] Pinter JD, Eliez S, Schmitt JE, Capone GT, Reiss AL . Neuroanatomy of Down’s...open access article under the CC BY-NC- D.C. Matthews et al . / Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions 2 (2016) 69...overall variance across groups of image data. Importantly, NPAIRS uses an iterative resampling process D.C. Matthews et al . / Alzheimer’s & Dementia

  7. Cerebral imaging for Wilson disease; Zerebrale Bildgebung bei Morbus Wilson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K.; Saleh, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Suedmeyer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurologie

    2007-03-15

    Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive inherited copper metabolic disorder that is characterized by diminished biliary excretion of copper and a raised serum level of free copper. This leads to a toxic copper accumulation, particularly in the liver and the brain. Therefore, clinical symptoms are dominated by hepatic and extrapyramidal symptoms. Untreated Wilson disease has an unfavorable outcome. Cerebral changes are depicted most sensitively by magnetic resonance tomography. Pathological findings mainly focus on the basal ganglia, the midbrain and the brainstem. Depending on the therapy and the severity of the neurological symptoms, signal increase as well as signal decrease may be observed in T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) images and can be reversible when using an appropriate therapy. Hyperintense areas in T2-weighted images are induced by edema, gliosis, demyelinisation or cystic degeneration. Signal increase in T1-weighted images are found in patients with hepatic insufficiency and are probably due to manganese deposits. Signal decrease in T2-weighted images is probably caused by the paramagnetic effect of the copper accumulation. Furthermore, recent studies show a correlation between the clinical severity and changes in diffusion-weighted sequences. Although cross-section imaging plays a rather subordinate role in the primary diagnostics of Wilson disease, the described cerebral changes in patients with extrapyramidal disturbances should include Wilson disease in the differential. Persistent or progressive hyperintense lesions in T2-weighted images reflect therapy failure, and clinical recovery correlates to an improvement in MR images. Therefore, repeat MR imaging can be used to monitor medical therapy.

  8. Pathophysiology and imaging in inflammatory and blastomatous synovial diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, H.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.-M.; Gahleitner, A.; Kainberger, F.; Krestan, C.; Trattnig, S. [Osteology, Universitaets Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, AKH Vienna (Austria); Sulzbacher, I. [Klinisches Institut fuer klinische Pathologie, AKH Vienna (Austria)

    2002-06-01

    Variable pathologies are subsumed under the term ''synovial disease'', including common pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis. While formerly radiologists had to rely on conventional radiographs and bone scintigraphy with their inherent problems in visualizing soft tissue, noninvasive imaging of the synovium has recently improved substantially with the technical development of MRI and (Doppler) ultrasound. These imaging modalities allow differentiation of characteristic pathologic features based on a profound knowledge of normal anatomy and pathophysiology. (orig.)

  9. Image-based phenotyping of plant disease symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMutka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases cause significant reductions in agricultural productivity worldwide. Disease symptoms have deleterious effects on the growth and development of crop plants, limiting yields and making agricultural products unfit for consumption. For many plant-pathogen systems, we lack knowledge of the physiological mechanisms that link pathogen infection and the production of disease symptoms in the host. A variety of quantitative high-throughput image-based methods for phenotyping plant growth and development are currently being developed. These methods range from detailed analysis of a single plant over time to broad assessment of the crop canopy for thousands of plants in a field and employ a wide variety of imaging technologies. Application of these methods to the study of plant disease offers the ability to study quantitatively how host physiology is altered by pathogen infection. These approaches have the potential to provide insight into the physiological mechanisms underlying disease symptom development. Furthermore, imaging techniques that detect the electromagnetic spectrum outside of visible light allow us to quantify disease symptoms that are not visible by eye, increasing the range of symptoms we can observe and potentially allowing for earlier and more thorough symptom detection. In this review, we summarize current progress in plant disease phenotyping and suggest future directions that will accelerate the development of resistant crop varieties.

  10. Image-based phenotyping of plant disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutka, Andrew M; Bart, Rebecca S

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases cause significant reductions in agricultural productivity worldwide. Disease symptoms have deleterious effects on the growth and development of crop plants, limiting yields and making agricultural products unfit for consumption. For many plant-pathogen systems, we lack knowledge of the physiological mechanisms that link pathogen infection and the production of disease symptoms in the host. A variety of quantitative high-throughput image-based methods for phenotyping plant growth and development are currently being developed. These methods range from detailed analysis of a single plant over time to broad assessment of the crop canopy for thousands of plants in a field and employ a wide variety of imaging technologies. Application of these methods to the study of plant disease offers the ability to study quantitatively how host physiology is altered by pathogen infection. These approaches have the potential to provide insight into the physiological mechanisms underlying disease symptom development. Furthermore, imaging techniques that detect the electromagnetic spectrum outside of visible light allow us to quantify disease symptoms that are not visible by eye, increasing the range of symptoms we can observe and potentially allowing for earlier and more thorough symptom detection. In this review, we summarize current progress in plant disease phenotyping and suggest future directions that will accelerate the development of resistant crop varieties.

  11. In vivo PET imaging of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Julien; Sarazin, Marie; Bottlaender, Michel

    2018-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that neuroinflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecular imaging by PET may be a useful tool to assess neuroinflammation in vivo, thus helping to decipher the complex role of inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and providing a potential means of monitoring the effect of new therapeutic approaches. For this objective, the main target of PET studies is the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), as it is overexpressed by activated microglia. In the present review, we describe the most widely used PET tracers targeting the TSPO, the methodological issues in tracer quantification and summarize the results obtained by TSPO PET imaging in AD, as well as in neurodegenerative disorders associated with AD, in psychiatric disorders and ageing. We also briefly describe alternative PET targets and imaging modalities to study neuroinflammation. Lastly, we question the meaning of PET imaging data in the context of a highly complex and multifaceted role of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. This overview leads to the conclusion that PET imaging of neuroinflammation is a promising way of deciphering the enigma of the pathophysiology of AD and of monitoring the effect of new therapies.

  12. Diffusion MR imaging in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Cakir Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare dementing disease and is thought to caused by a prion. It is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, ataxia, myoclonus, akinetic mutism and eventual death. Brain biopsy or autopsy is required for a definitive diagnosis of CJD. Diffusion-weighted imaging became an important tool for early diagnosis of CJD because of the high sensitivity. We present 59-year-old female patient diagnosed as sporadic CJD with typical MR imagings. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 880-883

  13. Molecular imaging and the neuropathologies of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, Paul; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are linked to degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) fibers, especially those innervating the putamen. This degeneration can be assessed in molecular imaging studies with presynaptic tracers such as [(18)F]-fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA...... with denervation upregulation, but there is an accelerated rate of DA receptor loss as the disease advances. Animal studies and post mortem investigations reveal changes in brain opioid peptide systems, but these are poorly documented in imaging studies of PD. Relatively minor changes in the binding sites for GABA...

  14. Pattern analysis in MR imaging of muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.A.; Schalke, B.C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Between March 1984 and March 1987, 161 patients with muscle diseases underwent MR imaging performed with a 1.0-T superconductive magnet. Forty-four had progressive muscular dystrophies, 25 had different types of myositis, 19 had spinal or neural muscular atrophies, 16 had myotonic dystrophy, 22 had metabolic disorders, and 35 had other muscle disease, including muscle tumors, posttraumatic muscular atrophies, and postradiation effects. The advantages of MR imaging are the high sensitivity and soft-tissue contrast, as well as the depiction of typical distribution patterns of affected muscle groups, which can be used in diagnosis, biopsy planning, and design of therapy

  15. OCT imaging of skin cancer and other dermatological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides clinicians and researchers with micrometer-resolution, in vivo, cross-sectional images of human skin up to several millimeter depth. This review of OCT imaging applied within dermatology covers the application of OCT to normal skin, and reports on a lar...... number of applications in the fields of non-melanoma skin cancer, malignant melanomas, psoriasis and dermatitis, infestations, bullous skin diseases, tattoos, nails, haemangiomas, and other skin diseases. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  16. Behcet’s Disease: Current Aspects in the Etiopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Akman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Behcet's disease (BD is a chronic, relapsing, systemic vasculitis. The aetiology of BD remains unknown, but the most widely held hypothesis of the disease pathogenesis is that an altered immune response triggered by an infectious agent or by an otoantigen in a genetically susceptible host. In this paper, we aimed to overview the main aetiopathogenetic hypotheses for the disease including genetic factors, infectious agents and immunologic abnormalities.

  17. Veno-occlusive disease of the colon - CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademaker, J.

    1998-01-01

    Venous occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic bowel disease and is usually brought about by thrombosis that may occur as a complication of systemic disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus, Behcet disease or Churg-Strauss syndrome. This report describes a patient with veno-occlusive disease of the colon caused by lymphocytic phlebitis. Typical CT findings included homogeneous bowel wall thickening and vascular engorgement. (orig.) (orig.)

  18. MR imaging of the knee in patients with rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, B.N.; Winalski, C.S.; Aliabadi, P.; Kikinis, R.; Shortkroff, S.; Sledge, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the MR appearances of the knees in patients with rheumatic diseases, including the grading of changes, quantification of changes, and the role of intravenous gadolinium. MR imaging of the knee was performed in 19 patients with arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis (n = 11), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (n = 2), Reiter syndrome (n = 2), Crohn arthritis (n = 1), and psoriatic arthritis (n = 3). Spin-echo images (T1, T2, and proton density weighted) were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. T1-weighted axial images were obtained before and after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA

  19. Image dissimilarity-based quantification of lung disease from CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Loog, Marco; Lo, Pechin

    2010-01-01

    in computed tomography (CT) images, achieving an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.817. This is significantly better compared to combining individual region classifications into an overall image classification, and compared to common computerized quantitative measures in pulmonary CT.......In this paper, we propose to classify medical images using dissimilarities computed between collections of regions of interest. The images are mapped into a dissimilarity space using an image dissimilarity measure, and a standard vector space-based classifier is applied in this space....... The classification output of this approach can be used in computer aided-diagnosis problems where the goal is to detect the presence of abnormal regions or to quantify the extent or severity of abnormalities in these regions. The proposed approach is applied to quantify chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...

  20. In vivo calcium imaging of the aging and diseased brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhoff, Gerhard; Busche, Marc A.; Garaschuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, in vivo calcium imaging became a powerful tool for studying brain function. With the use of two-photon microscopy and modern labelling techniques, it allows functional studies of individual living cells, their processes and their interactions within neuronal networks. In vivo calcium imaging is even more important for studying the aged brain, which is hard to investigate in situ due to the fragility of neuronal tissue. In this article, we give a brief overview of the techniques applicable to image aged rodent brain at cellular resolution. We use multicolor imaging to visualize specific cell types (neurons, astrocytes, microglia) as well as the autofluorescence of the ''aging pigment'' lipofuscin. Further, we illustrate an approach for simultaneous imaging of cortical cells and senile plaques in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. (orig.)

  1. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranzinger, Enno; DiPietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Teitelbaum, Daniel H. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  2. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, Enno; DiPietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  3. Mouse models of neurodegenerative disease: preclinical imaging and neurovascular component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Sandra; Greco, Adelaide; Auletta, Luigi; Mancini, Marcello

    2017-10-26

    Neurodegenerative diseases represent great challenges for basic science and clinical medicine because of their prevalence, pathologies, lack of mechanism-based treatments, and impacts on individuals. Translational research might contribute to the study of neurodegenerative diseases. The mouse has become a key model for studying disease mechanisms that might recapitulate in part some aspects of the corresponding human diseases. Neurodegenerative disorders are very complicated and multifactorial. This has to be taken in account when testing drugs. Most of the drugs screening in mice are very difficult to be interpretated and often useless. Mouse models could be condiderated a 'pathway models', rather than as models for the whole complicated construct that makes a human disease. Non-invasive in vivo imaging in mice has gained increasing interest in preclinical research in the last years thanks to the availability of high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), high field Magnetic resonance, Optical Imaging scanners and of highly specific contrast agents. Behavioral test are useful tool to characterize different animal models of neurodegenerative pathology. Furthermore, many authors have observed vascular pathological features associated to the different neurodegenerative disorders. Aim of this review is to focus on the different existing animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, describe behavioral tests and preclinical imaging techniques used for diagnose and describe the vascular pathological features associated to these diseases.

  4. Aortic valve disease : novel imaging insights from diagnosis to therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewe, See Hooi

    2016-01-01

    The general introduction of this thesis outlines the epidemiology and the impact of aortic valve disease in the western world. The thesis further discusses the current and future role of advanced cardiac imaging modalities, using 3D echocardiography and speckle tracking echocardiography strain

  5. The imaging diagnosis of kidney diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Hong; Zhu Ming

    2008-01-01

    Imaging studies provide important information for the diagnosis and treatment of children's kidney disease. Different methods have their own advantages, ultrasonography is convenient, no ionizing radiation, less expensive and appropriate for following-up. Radionuclide scan is characterized by providing renal function and urine excretion. Magnetic resonance urography could get clear anatomical structure and kidney function simultaneously at one examination. (authors)

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of peripheral joints in rheumatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Møller, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    The need for better methods than the conventional clinical, biochemical and radiographical examinations in the management of inflammatory joint diseases is evident, since these methods are not sensitive or specific to early pathologies and subtle changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers...

  7. Machine Learning for Quantification of Small Vessel Disease Imaging Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafoorian, M.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to developing fully automated methods for quantification of small vessel disease imaging bio-markers, namely WMHs and lacunes, using vari- ous machine learning/deep learning and computer vision techniques. The rest of the thesis is organized as follows: Chapter 2 describes

  8. Imaging of respiratory muscles in neuromuscular disease: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, L; Ciet, P; van der Ploeg, A T; Brusse, E; van der Beek, N A M E; Wielopolski, P A; de Bruijne, M; Tiddens, H A W M; van Doorn, P A

    2018-03-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness frequently occurs in patients with neuromuscular disease. Measuring respiratory function with standard pulmonary function tests provides information about the contribution of all respiratory muscles, the lungs and airways. Imaging potentially enables the study of different respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm, separately. In this review, we provide an overview of imaging techniques used to study respiratory muscles in neuromuscular disease. We identified 26 studies which included a total of 573 patients with neuromuscular disease. Imaging of respiratory muscles was divided into static and dynamic techniques. Static techniques comprise chest radiography, B-mode (brightness mode) ultrasound, CT and MRI, and are used to assess the position and thickness of the diaphragm and the other respiratory muscles. Dynamic techniques include fluoroscopy, M-mode (motion mode) ultrasound and MRI, used to assess diaphragm motion in one or more directions. We discuss how these imaging techniques relate with spirometric values and whether these can be used to study the contribution of the different respiratory muscles in patients with neuromuscular disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Automatic segmentation and disease classification using cardiac cine MR images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, Jelmer M.; Leiner, Tim; Viergever, Max A.; Išgum, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Segmentation of the heart in cardiac cine MR is clinically used to quantify cardiac function. We propose a fully automatic method for segmentation and disease classification using cardiac cine MR images. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was designed to simultaneously segment the left ventricle

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of peripheral joints in rheumatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Duer, Anne; Møller, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    The need for better methods than the conventional clinical, biochemical and radiographical examinations in the management of inflammatory joint diseases is evident, since these methods are not sensitive or specific to early pathologies and subtle changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers i...

  11. Exercise radionuclide imaging approaches to coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Exercise thallium-201 myocardial imaging and exercise radionuclide angiography are the two techniques of nuclear cardiology most widly used for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Each of these tests provides information of diagnostic and functional value. The diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of these two tests for the detection of coronary artery disease are compared. The strengths and weakness of each approach are discussed. A clinical approach to the detection and evaluation of coronary artery disease using these radionuclide exercise techniques is presented

  12. Inflammatory chronic disease of the colon: How to image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, Roberta; Barchiesi, Annalisa; Di Mizio, Veronica; Di Terlizzi, Marco; Leo, Luca; Filippone, Antonella; Canalis, Luigi; Fossaceca, Rita; Carriero, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and UC, is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The inflammatory process in UC is confined to the mucosa and submucosa and it involves only the colon. In contrast, in Crohn's disease the inflammation process extends through the bowel wall layers and it can involve any part of gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, inflammatory bowel disease of the colon may be associated with complications, such as toxic megacolon, fulminant colitis, acute bleeding, fistulas and abscesses. Radiographic imaging studies are useful for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, and may be used to assess the extent and severity of disease, rule out complications, and monitor the response to therapy. The double-contrast barium study is a valuable technique for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease colonic alterations, even in patients with early mucosal abnormalities. The earliest finding of UC is characterized by a fine granular appeareance of the colonic mucosa, usually involving the rectosigmoid junction. In chronic UC double-contrast enema may reveal marked colonic shortening with tubular narrowing of the bowel and loss of haustration. The earliest radiographics findings of Crohn's disease are represented by aphthous ulcers. As disease progresses, aphthous ulcers may enlarge and coalesce to form stellate or linear areas of ulceration. In advanced Crohn's disease, transmural ulceration may lead to the development of fissures, sinus tracts, fistulas, and abscesses. Cross sectional studies such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and sometimes ultrasound, are useful alternative tools not only in the assessment of bowel wall abnormalities, but also for the assessment of extraluminal alterations in patients with advanced disease

  13. Inflammatory chronic disease of the colon: How to image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Roberta [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A. Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara (Italy)]. E-mail: rambrosini@sirm.org; Barchiesi, Annalisa [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A. Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara (Italy); Di Mizio, Veronica [Department of Radiology, ' S. Massimo' Hospital, Via Battaglione degli Alpini, 65017 Penne (PE) (Italy); Di Terlizzi, Marco [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A. Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara (Italy); Leo, Luca [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A. Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara (Italy); Filippone, Antonella [Department of Radiological Sciences and Bioimages, ' SS. Annunziata' University Hospital, ' G. d' Annunzio' University, Via dei Vestini, 66013 Chieti (Italy); Canalis, Luigi [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A. Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara (Italy); Fossaceca, Rita [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A. Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara (Italy); Carriero, Alessandro [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A. Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and UC, is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The inflammatory process in UC is confined to the mucosa and submucosa and it involves only the colon. In contrast, in Crohn's disease the inflammation process extends through the bowel wall layers and it can involve any part of gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, inflammatory bowel disease of the colon may be associated with complications, such as toxic megacolon, fulminant colitis, acute bleeding, fistulas and abscesses. Radiographic imaging studies are useful for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, and may be used to assess the extent and severity of disease, rule out complications, and monitor the response to therapy. The double-contrast barium study is a valuable technique for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease colonic alterations, even in patients with early mucosal abnormalities. The earliest finding of UC is characterized by a fine granular appeareance of the colonic mucosa, usually involving the rectosigmoid junction. In chronic UC double-contrast enema may reveal marked colonic shortening with tubular narrowing of the bowel and loss of haustration. The earliest radiographics findings of Crohn's disease are represented by aphthous ulcers. As disease progresses, aphthous ulcers may enlarge and coalesce to form stellate or linear areas of ulceration. In advanced Crohn's disease, transmural ulceration may lead to the development of fissures, sinus tracts, fistulas, and abscesses. Cross sectional studies such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and sometimes ultrasound, are useful alternative tools not only in the assessment of bowel wall abnormalities, but also for the assessment of extraluminal alterations in patients with advanced disease.

  14. Imaging of demyelinating and degenerative diseases of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drayer, B.P.

    1987-01-01

    The emergence of cross-sectional brain imaging in the past decade has greatly expanded the role of imaging as a primary diagnostic modality for demyelinating and degenerative brain disorders. To remain an effective neurologic consultant, the radiologist must better understand the neuropathology and functional significance of these disorders. MR imaging has become the dominant imaging modality for multiple sclerosis and all demyelinating and dysmyelinating disorders. Detection is most sensitive with intermediate and T2-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences. Although increased signal intensity in the white matter is a sensitive but nonspecific finding, a knowledge of the patient's history and disease pathoanatomy greatly improves diagnostic specificity. Since an increasing proportion of the population is over 65 years of age, the distinction of normal versus pathologic aging becomes critical. The role of imaging in dementing illness is to distinguish primary degenerative dementia from normal aging changes, vascular medullary artery distribution disease, microangiopathic leukoencephalopathy, communicating hydrocephalus, and mass lesions. The role of MR imaging, including brain iron mapping, is analyzed in bradykinetic, choreiform, and dystonic disorders. The complications of chronic ethanol abuse, including vermian atrophy, central pontine myelinolysis, and Wernicke encephalopathy, are also reviewed

  15. Hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease: imaging aspects and biological behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquino, Danilo Olavarria; Pinto, Alexandre de Lavra; Costa, Mauro Jose Brandao da; Fanelli, Vania A.; Abud, Lucas Giansante

    2005-01-01

    Objective: to demonstrate, using imaging methods (x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US), the phases of hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease in joints, particularly in the shoulder, from the silent phase to the intra-osseous migration of calcifications and radiologic follow-up examinations showing complete remission after physical therapy. Material and method: we evaluated 27 joints (25 shoulders, one hip and one elbow) of patients followed-up with radiographs. Patients extremely symptomatic and refractory to treatment were referred to MRI or US. Results: total remission of calcifications was observed in 15 joints after treatment - 14 shoulders and one elbow. In two joint, migration of the calcification to bone was observed: one to the bursa subdeltoidea, one to biceps tendon, one to subcoracoid recess and one to the interior of the infra spinal muscle. In two cases MRI and CT scans showed a high inflammatory process triggered by the disease. Conclusion: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease affects multiple joints and can vary from asymptomatic to extremely symptomatic. Imaging methods show all phases of the disease, including the migratory phase. In general, the use of x-ray is enough for the diagnosis and follow-up. MRI and CT provide a more accurate diagnosis in the active phase of the disease. In this paper, remission was seen with physiotherapy (iontophoresis) in 55% of the cases. (author)

  16. Multimodal imaging in health, disease, and man-made disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papineni, Rao V.L.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in the fields of molecular and functional imaging are rapidly emerging as potential advance research tools in health, Disease and drug discovery. Notable are the approaches utilizing multi-modal imaging strategies in preclinical studies that are becoming extremely useful in assessing the efficacy of the novel target molecules. This talk will focus on our efforts in bringing the multimodality to preclinical research with Optical, X-ray, and noninvasive nuclear imaging. The concepts and methods in molecular imaging to support drug targeting and drug discovery will be discussed along with a focus on its utilization in radiation induced changes in the bone physiology. Also, will discuss how such approaches can be employed in future as a biodosimetry for radiation disasters or in radiation threat. (author)

  17. The imaging of coeliac disease and its complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, O.; Brien, J.O.; Ward, E.; Doody, O.; Govender, P. [Adelaide and Meath Incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Adelaide and Meath Incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)], E-mail: William.torreggiani@amnch.ie

    2008-03-15

    Coeliac disease is a malabsorption syndrome in which dietary gluten damages the small bowel mucosa. Gluten contains gliadin, the primary toxic component that is primarily found in wheat, barley and rye products. The initial diagnosis of coeliac disease is usually made by endoscopic biopsy of the jejunum although sometimes imaging features can suggest the diagnosis. Once a diagnosis is made, patients need to be diet compliant and monitored for potential complications. Many complications are more common when dietary compliance is poor. Complications include intussusception (usually intermittent), ulcerative jejunitis, osteomalacia, cavitating lymph node syndrome and an increased risk of malignancies such as lymphoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Radiological evaluation is central in the evaluation of these complications. Imaging may assist both in the diagnosis and staging of complications as well as enabling radiological guided percutaneous biopsy for complications of coeliac disease such as lymphoma. As coeliac disease is a relatively common disorder, it is likely that most radiologists will encounter the disease and its potential complications. The aim of this review article is to discuss and illustrate the role of modern radiology in evaluating the many presentations of this complex disease.

  18. An image processing technique for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Massoud; Ebrahimi, Soltan Ahmed; Kiani, Zahra

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) reportedly exhibit hypersensitivity to much diluted tropicamide solution (0.005%), a M4 muscarinic receptor antagonist. Therefore intraocular application of 0.005% tropicamide may be useful for screening dementia. The aim of this study was to simplify the pupil response test by using a new image analyzing system, which consists of a cheap, simple, and easy to use web-camera and a computer. METHODS: Intraocular tropicamide of 0.005% concentration was administered in 3 groups: Alzheimer's disease patients (n = 8, average age = 76 ± 5), non-Alzheimer's disease elderly (n = 6, average age = 65 ± 7), and young subjects (n = 8, average age = 28 ± 5). Every 5 minutes for 60 minutes, image of the eye's shape were taken, and the diameter of the pupils was measured. RESULTS: The results showed that differences in pupil dilation rate between Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's disease subjects were statistically significant. ROC analysis showed that after 35 minutes the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, we concluded that this recording system might be an appropriate and reliable tool for pupil response diagnosis test of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21772885

  19. The imaging of coeliac disease and its complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, O.; Brien, J.O.; Ward, E.; Doody, O.; Govender, P.; Torreggiani, W.C.

    2008-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a malabsorption syndrome in which dietary gluten damages the small bowel mucosa. Gluten contains gliadin, the primary toxic component that is primarily found in wheat, barley and rye products. The initial diagnosis of coeliac disease is usually made by endoscopic biopsy of the jejunum although sometimes imaging features can suggest the diagnosis. Once a diagnosis is made, patients need to be diet compliant and monitored for potential complications. Many complications are more common when dietary compliance is poor. Complications include intussusception (usually intermittent), ulcerative jejunitis, osteomalacia, cavitating lymph node syndrome and an increased risk of malignancies such as lymphoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Radiological evaluation is central in the evaluation of these complications. Imaging may assist both in the diagnosis and staging of complications as well as enabling radiological guided percutaneous biopsy for complications of coeliac disease such as lymphoma. As coeliac disease is a relatively common disorder, it is likely that most radiologists will encounter the disease and its potential complications. The aim of this review article is to discuss and illustrate the role of modern radiology in evaluating the many presentations of this complex disease

  20. Mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MR imaging of pancreatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boraschi, Piero; Donati, Francescamaria; Gigoni, Roberto; Falaschi, Fabio [Pisa University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Caramella, Davide; Bartolozzi, Carlo [University of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology of the Department of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Boggi, Ugo [University of Pisa, General and Transplantation Surgery of the Department of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Pisa (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    Our study aimed to assess the diagnostic capabilities of mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MRI for the evaluation of pancreatic disease. Sixty-three patients suspected of having pancreatic disease underwent MRI with a 1.5-T device. After the acquisition of axial and coronal T2-weighted sequences, the MR protocol included T1-weighted fat-suppressed breath-hold SPGR images obtained before and 30 min after the infusion of Mn-DPDP (Teslascan). The detection of a focal pancreatic lesion and its intensity were evaluated in consensus by two observers, who also attempted to characterize each lesion as benign or malignant. The reviewers were blinded to patient identification and all clinical, laboratory and previous imaging findings. MR imaging results were correlated with surgery (n=37), laparoscopy (n=1), biopsy (n=2) and imaging follow-up (n=22). Sixty-two subjects were effectively included in our analysis because one patient was lost to follow-up; final malignant and benign diagnoses were determined in 22 (35%) and 29 (47%) of the patients, respectively. The level of confidence in the diagnosis of the pancreatic lesion was significantly increased by the administration of Mn-DPDP as demonstrated by ROC analysis of unenhanced and post-contrast image sets (P=0.009). Overall, on the basis of observers' readings, MR assessment of pancreatic disease resulted in 57 correct diagnoses (accuracy, 92%) and five (8%) incorrect diagnoses. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the reviewers for the detection of pancreatic lesions and for the differentiation between benign and malignant masses were 91% (95% CI: 84 and 98%), 93% (95% CI: 86 and 99%), 87% (95% CI: 79 and 95%) and 95% (95% CI: 89 and 100%), respectively. Mn-DPDP-enhanced MRI is an effective diagnostic tool for evaluating pancreatic disease. (orig.)

  1. Parkinson's disease: diagnostic utility of volumetric imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wei-Che; Chen, Meng-Hsiang [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chou, Kun-Hsien [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); Lee, Pei-Lin [National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Hsiu-Ling [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Hsu, Ai-Ling [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Huang, Yung-Cheng [Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Ching-Po [National Yang-Ming University, Brain Research Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China)

    2017-04-15

    This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of structural imaging as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). High-resolution T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 72 patients with idiopathic PD (mean age, 61.08 years) and 73 healthy subjects (mean age, 58.96 years). The whole brain was parcellated into 95 regions of interest using composite anatomical atlases, and region volumes were calculated. Three diagnostic classifiers were constructed using binary multiple logistic regression modeling: the (i) basal ganglion prior classifier, (ii) data-driven classifier, and (iii) basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to unbiasedly evaluate the predictive accuracy of imaging features. Pearson's correlation analysis was further performed to correlate outcome measurement using the best PD classifier with disease severity. Smaller volume in susceptible regions is diagnostic for Parkinson's disease. Compared with the other two classifiers, the basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier had the highest diagnostic reliability with a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 75%, and accuracy of 74%. Furthermore, outcome measurement using this classifier was associated with disease severity. Brain structural volumetric analysis with multiple logistic regression modeling can be a complementary tool for diagnosing PD. (orig.)

  2. New frontiers in CT imaging of airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Philippe A.; Beigelman-Aubry, Catherine; Fetita, Catalin; Preteux, Francoise; Brauner, Michel W.; Lenoir, Stephane

    2002-01-01

    Combining helical volumetric CT acquisition and thin-slice thickness during breath hold provides an accurate assessment of both focal and diffuse airway diseases. With multiple detector rows, compared with single-slice helical CT, multislice CT can cover a greater volume, during a simple breath hold, and with better longitudinal and in-plane spatial resolution and improved temporal resolution. The result in data set allows the generation of superior multiplanar and 3D images of the airways, including those obtained from techniques developed specifically for airway imaging, such as virtual bronchography and virtual bronchoscopy. Complementary CT evaluation at suspended or continuous full expiration is mandatory to detect air trapping that is a key finding for depicting an obstruction on the small airways. Indications for CT evaluation of the airways include: (a) detection of endobronchial lesions in patients with an unexplained hemoptysis; (b) evaluation of extent of tracheobronchial stenosis for planning treatment and follow-up; (c) detection of congenital airway anomalies revealed by hemoptysis or recurrent infection; (d) detection of postinfectious or postoperative airway fistula or dehiscence; and (e) diagnosis and assessment of extent of bronchiectasis and small airway disease. Improvement in image analysis technique and the use of spirometrically control of lung volume acquisition have made possible accurate and reproducible quantitative assessment of airway wall and lumen areas and lung density. This contributes to better insights in physiopathology of obstructive lung disease, particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. (orig.)

  3. Imaging plus X: multimodal models of neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxtoby, Neil P; Alexander, Daniel C

    2017-08-01

    mechanism to integrate different kinds of information, for example from imaging, serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers and cognitive tests, to obtain new insights into progressive diseases. Such insights include fine-grained longitudinal patterns of neurodegeneration, from early stages, and the heterogeneity of these trajectories over the population. More pragmatically, such models enable finer precision in patient staging and stratification, prediction of progression rates and earlier and better identification of at-risk individuals. We argue that this will make disease progression modelling invaluable for recruitment and end-points in future clinical trials, potentially ameliorating the high failure rate in trials of, e.g., Alzheimer's disease therapies. We review the state of the art in these techniques and discuss the future steps required to translate the ideas to front-line application.

  4. Diagnostic Imaging of Dental Disease in Pet Rabbits and Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques are of paramount importance for dentistry and oral disorders of rabbits, rodents, and other exotic companion mammals. Aside from standard radiography, stomatoscopy is a complementary tool allowing a thorough and detailed inspection of the oral cavity. Computed tomography (CT) generates multiple 2-dimensional views and 3-dimensional reconstructions providing superior diagnostic accuracy also useful for prognosis and treatment of advanced dental disease and its related complications. MRI is a diagnostic imaging technique additional to CT used primarily to enhance soft tissues, including complex odontogenic abscesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Results and indications of imaging techniques in musculoskeletal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamouda, Mohamed; Bergaoui, Naceur; Douik, Mongi; Ladeb, Fethi

    2002-08-01

    Imaging is necessary in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases and X rays is the first step of this morphological exploration. Ultrasonography is cost effectiveness, without radiation and have to constitute the second step of the exploration of the smooth tissue (tendon, muscle, sheath, synovium and superficial ligaments). Computed tomography with its new technological progress is very effective in the study of the cortical bone. Magnetic resonance imaging, a non irradiating but costly technique, becomes inevitable in several osteo-articular affections. It often makes the examination of last intention to compensate for the inadequacy of ultrasonography and computed tomography.

  6. [Inflammatory spinal diseases: axial spondyloarthritis : Central importance of imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliakos, X; Fruth, M; Kiltz, U; Braun, J

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) includes classical ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as earlier stages and abortive courses of the disease, in which structural alterations have not yet occurred. These are classified as non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpa). Inflammatory changes in the entire axial skeleton are characteristic for axSpA and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in most patients structural alterations, such as new bone formation with syndesmophytes and ankylosis develop in the later course of the disease. These bony alterations can best be visualized by conventional radiography and by computed tomography. Certain MRI sequences are nowadays considered as the standard method for depiction of inflammatory changes in axSpA. The introduction of MRI has led to a paradigm shift for this disease because the inflammatory lesions characteristic for the disease can be visualized at an early stage using appropriate MRI sequences.

  7. Chagas disease study using satellite image processing: A Bolivian case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Cuentas, Natalia I.; Roman-Gonzalez, Avid; Mantari, Alicia Alva; Muñoz, Luis AnthonyAucapuma

    2018-03-01

    Remote sensing is the technology that has enabled us to obtain information about the Earth's surface without directly contacting it. For this reason, currently, the Bolivian state has considered a list of interesting applications of remote sensing in the country, including the following: biodiversity and environment monitoring, mining and geology, epidemiology, agriculture, water resources and land use planning. The use of satellite images has become a great tool for epidemiology because with this technological advance we can determine the environment in which transmission occurs, the distribution of the disease and its evolution over time. In that context, one of the important diseases related to public health in Bolivia is Chagas disease, also known as South American Trypanosomiasis. Chagas is caused by a blood-sucking bug or Vinchuca, which causes serious intestinal and heart long term problems and affects 33.4% of the Bolivian population. This disease affects mostly humble people, so the Bolivian state invests millions of dollars to acquire medicine and distribute it for free. Due to the above reasons, the present research aims to analyze some areas of Bolivia using satellite images for developing an epidemiology study. The primary objective is to understand the environment in which the transmission of the disease happens, and the climatic conditions under which occurs, observe the behavior of the blood-sucking bug, identify in which months occur higher outbreaks, in which months the bug leaves its eggs, and under which weather conditions this happens. All this information would be contrasted with information extracted from the satellite images and data from the Ministry of Health, and the Institute of Meteorology in Bolivia. All this data will allow us to have a more integrated understanding of this disease and promote new possibilities to prevent and control it.

  8. New SPECT and PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebola O. Sogbein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear cardiology has experienced exponential growth within the past four decades with converging capacity to diagnose and influence management of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI with technetium-99m radiotracers or thallium-201 has dominated the field; however new hardware and software designs that optimize image quality with reduced radiation exposure are fuelling a resurgence of interest at the preclinical and clinical levels to expand beyond MPI. Other imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI continue to emerge as powerful players with an expanded capacity to diagnose a variety of cardiac conditions. At the forefront of this resurgence is the development of novel target vectors based on an enhanced understanding of the underlying pathophysiological process in the subcellular domain. Molecular imaging with novel radiopharmaceuticals engineered to target a specific subcellular process has the capacity to improve diagnostic accuracy and deliver enhanced prognostic information to alter management. This paper, while not comprehensive, will review the recent advancements in radiotracer development for SPECT and PET MPI, autonomic dysfunction, apoptosis, atherosclerotic plaques, metabolism, and viability. The relevant radiochemistry and preclinical and clinical development in addition to molecular imaging with emerging modalities such as cardiac MRI and PET-MR will be discussed.

  9. Exercise testing and stress imaging in valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Christine; Piérard, Luc A; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe; Basmadjian, Arsène J

    2014-09-01

    The role of exercise testing and stress imaging in the management of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) is reviewed in this article. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology/European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery have recently put emphasis on the role of exercise testing to clarify symptom status and the use of stress imaging to assess the dynamic component of valvular abnormalities and unmask subclinical myocardial dysfunction that could be missed at rest. Recent studies have demonstrated the incremental prognostic value of exercise echocardiography for asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, moderate-severe mitral stenosis, and severe primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis, dobutamine stress echocardiography is recommended to differentiate true severe from pseudosevere aortic stenosis. Data on the prognostic value of stress echocardiography in aortic regurgitation and functional mitral regurgitation are less robust. Data are sparse on the use of stress imaging in right-sided VHD, however recent studies using stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging offer some prognostic information. Although the strongest recommendations for surgical treatment continue to be based on symptom status and resting left ventricular repercussions, stress imaging can be useful to optimize risk stratification and timing of surgery in VHD. Randomized clinical trials are required to confirm that clinical decision-making based on stress imaging can lead to improved outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauwens, Matthias; Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn; Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter; Bucerius, Jan; Mottaghy, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, 18 F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to 18 F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc-sestamibi, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 18 F-fluorodopa and 18 F-14(R,S)-[ 18 F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  11. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauwens, Matthias [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Research School NUTRIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University, Research School CARIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to {sup 18}F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 18}F-fluorodopa and {sup 18}F-14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalke, B.C.G.; Rohkamm, R.; Kaiser, W.

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years imaging procedures became also important in the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. We examined more than 150 patients with different neuromuscular diseases with MRI. Conventional diagnostic procedures like EMG, muscle biopsy can not be replaced by imaging procedures. MRI gives the chance to get additional diagnostic informations. It is possible to determine exact distribution and intensity of pathological changes in the muscle. Inflammatory muscle diseases can be differrentiated by T1/T2 values from atrophic/dystrophic diseases. The resolving power is very high and allows the exact detection of affected areas even in a single muscle. This can help to reduce false negative muscle biopsies. This is very useful in children and young adults. MRI can be used for the early detection of genetic myopathies and neuropathies. MRI allows to examine all muscles, including the heart, bone artefacts are absent. Heart muscle involvement in neuromuscular diseases can directly be shown by this method without any risk for the patient. In addition P-spectroscopy can be done for better understanding of pathogenesis, especially if the exact distribution of pathological changes is known. (author)

  13. Perfusion and metabolism imaging studies in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are important tools in the evaluation of brain blood flow and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, conflicting results are reported in the literature depending on the type of imaging data....... It is concluded that PD most likely is characterized by widespread cortical hypometabolism, probably even at early disease stages. Widespread subcortical hypermetabolism is probably not a feature of PD, although certain small basal ganglia structures, such as the external pallidum, may display true...

  14. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Sorantin, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) is around 10 per 1000 live births in Germany. More than 90 % of these patients will survive into adulthood due to improvements in therapy. The classification of CHD may be based according to the anatomic structures involved, to the presence of an intracardiac shunt, the presence of a cyanosis and the intensity of therapy and complexity of the disease. Nearly half of all patients with CHD suffer from an intracardiac shunt, whereas complex cases such as patients with a tetralogy of Fallot or transposition of the great arteries are much more rare. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in the work-up and follow-up of patients with CHD, especially after infancy and childhood. Depending on the abnormality in question, a multiparametric examination protocol is mandatory. Knowledge of operative procedures and findings of other imaging modalities help to optimize examination and time needed for it.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter diseases of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary A.; Supramaniam, Veena; Ederies, Ashraf; Chew, Andrew; Anjari, Mustafa; Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Ramenghi, Luca A. [University of Milan, NICU, Institute of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and parenchymal venous infarction complicating germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage have long been recognised as the two significant white matter diseases responsible for the majority of cases of cerebral palsy in survivors of preterm birth. However, more recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging to assess the preterm brain have documented two new appearances, adding to the spectrum of white matter disease of prematurity: punctate white matter lesions, and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). These appear to be more common than PVL but less significant in terms of their impact on individual neurodevelopment. They may, however, be associated with later cognitive and behavioural disorders known to be common following preterm birth. It remains unclear whether PVL, punctate lesions, and DEHSI represent a continuum of disorders occurring as a result of a similar injurious process to the developing white matter. This review discusses the role of MR imaging in investigating these three disorders in terms of aetiology, pathology, and outcome. (orig.)

  16. Soft tissue manifestations of early rheumatic disease. Imaging with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treitl, M.; Panteleon, A.; Koerner, M.; Becker-Gaab, C.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in early rheumatic diseases manifesting at the soft tissues of the hand using a retrospective analysis. A total of 186 MRI examinations of patients with clinical suspicion of a rheumatic disease were evaluated in a consensus reading by two experienced radiologists. All imaging patterns were assessed with respect to their type and localization. Under blinded and non-blinded conditions diagnoses were correlated with final clinical diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 45.7%) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA, 15.6%). The mean correlation between clinical and MRI diagnosis (r) was 0.75 in blinded and 0.853 in non-blinded reading (p [de

  17. Three-dimensional MR imaging of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laschinger, J.C.; Vannier, M.W.; Knapp, R.H.; Gutierrez, F.R.; Cox, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Contiguous 5-mm thick ECG-gated MR images of the thorax were edited using surface reconstruction techniques to produce three-dimensional (3D) images of the heart and great vessels in four healthy individuals and 25 patients with congenital heart disease (aged 3 months-30 years). Anomalies studied include atrial and ventricular septal defects, aortic coarctation, AV canal defects, double outlet ventricles, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and a wide spectrum of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. The results were correlated with echocardiographic and cineradiographic studies, and with surgical findings or pathologic specimens. Three-dimensional reconstructions accurately localized the dimensions and locations of all cardiac and great vessel anomalies and often displayed anatomic findings not diagnosed or visualized with other forms of diagnostic imaging

  18. MR imaging of the spine: trauma and degenerative disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmink, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the capabilities and drawbacks of MR imaging in patients with trauma to the spine and degenerative spinal conditions. In spinal trauma MR imaging is secondary to plain X-ray films and CT because of the greater availability and ease of performance of these techniques and their superior capability for detecting vertebral fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting ligamentous ruptures and intraspinal mass lesions such as hematoma, and for assessing the state of the spinal cord and prognosis of a cord injury. In degenerative spinal disease the necessity is emphasized of critically evaluating the clinical relevance of any abnormal feature detected, as findings of degenerative pathology are common in individuals without symptoms. Magnetic resonance myelography permits rapid and accurate assessment of the state of the lumbar nerve roots (compressed or not). In the cervical region the quality of the myelographic picture is often degraded in patients with a narrow spinal canal. (orig.)

  19. Neurochemical imaging of Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, K.A.; Minoshima, S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    A wide variety of neurochemical and functional imaging approaches have been applied to the study of progressive dementias, particularly Alzheimer's disease (Ad) and related disorders. Despite considerable progress in the past decade, the cause((s) of most cases of Ad remain undetermined and preventive or protective therapies are lacking. Specifically-designed imaging procedures have permitted the testing of pathophysiological hypotheses of the etiology and progression of Ad, and have yielded important insights in several areas including the potential roles of cerebral cortical cholinergic lesions, cellular inflammation, and losses of cortical synapses. From the perspective of clinical diagnosis, PET glucose metabolism imaging with use of ( 18 F)2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality yet identified. The overall performance of PET FDG is favorable for routine clinical evaluation of suspected Ad, and will likely gain increasing utilization in the near future. Assessments of glucose metabolism and other, specific aspects of neurochemistry in Ad will provide direct measures of therapeutic drug actions and may permit distinction of symptomatic versus disease-modifying therapies as they are developed and introduced in clinical trials

  20. Noninvasive imaging in acute coronary disease. A clinical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersh, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous highly complex and sensitive noninvasive imaging techniques have enhanced the care of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Optimum use requires specific objectives to be defined in advance, including a review of the potential impact of the test on subsequent decisions. An additional issue that is subject to scrutiny in the current climate of cost containment relates to the incremental value of a specific examination. The imaging modality to be used will partially depend on other issues, including accessibility, cost, and interindividual or institutional expertise with a particular technique. Major applications in noninvasive imaging in the acute coronary syndromes include the following: (1) diagnosis, including identification of associated diseases and contraindications for acute reperfusion; (2) evaluation and management of complications; (3) determination of prognosis (both early and late); (4) estimation of myocardial viability; (5) assessment of therapeutic efficacy; (6) investigational approaches, including 99mTc-sestamibi tomographic imaging, ultrafast cine computed tomographic scanning, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Previous studies in the prethrombolytic era have documented the powerful impact of radionuclide stress testing on prognosis, but this needs to be reevaluated in the light of the changing current population undergoing stress testing. Preliminary data imply that the prognostic accuracy of stress testing after thrombolytic therapy is diminished. Moreover, the role of the open infarct-related artery in traditional estimates of prognosis requires further study. Noninvasive imaging has multiple applications in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary disease, but the decision to use a specific technology in a particular circumstance mandates good clinical judgment and selectivity. 82 references

  1. MR image texture in Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiö, Minna; Holli-Helenius, Kirsi K; Harrison, Lara C V; Ryymin, Pertti; Ruottinen, Hanna; Saunamäki, Tiia; Eskola, Hannu J; Elovaara, Irina; Dastidar, Prasun

    2015-01-01

    Few of the structural changes caused by Parkinson's disease (PD) are visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with visual inspection but there is a need for a method capable of observing the changes beyond the human eye. Texture analysis offers a technique that enables the quantification of the image gray-level patterns. To investigate the value of quantitative image texture analysis method in diagnosis and follow-up of PD patients. Twenty-six PD patients underwent MRI at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Four co-occurrence matrix-based texture parameters, describing the image homogeneity and complexity, were calculated within clinically interesting areas of the brain. In addition, correlations with clinical characteristics (Unified Parkinson's Disease Ranking Scales I-III and Mini-Mental State Examination score) along with a comparison to healthy controls were evaluated. Patients at baseline and healthy volunteers differed in their brain MR image textures mostly in the areas of substantia nigra pars compacta, dentate nucleus, and basilar pons. During the 2-year follow-up of the patients, textural differences appeared mainly in thalamus and corona radiata. Texture parameters in all the above mentioned areas were also found to be significantly related to clinical scores describing the severity of PD. Texture analysis offers a quantitative method for detecting structural changes in brain MR images. However, the protocol and repeatability of the method must be enhanced before possible clinical use. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. MR imaging of congenital heart diseases in adolescents and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kang, I Seok; Park, Seung Woo; Lee, Heung Jae

    2001-01-01

    Echocardiography and catheterization angiography suffer certain limitations in the evaluation of congenital heart diseases in adults, though these are overcome by MRI, in which a wide field-of view, unlimited multiplanar imaging capability and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography techniques are used. In adults, recently introduced fast imaging techniques provide cardiac MR images of sufficient quality and with less artifacts. Ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and vascular flow measurements, including pressure gradients and pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio, can be calculated or obtained using fast cine MRI, phase-contrast MR flow-velocity mapping, and semiautomatic analysis software. MRI is superior to echocardiography in diagnosing partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection, unroofed coronary sinus, anomalies of the pulmonary arteries, aorta and systemic veins, complex heart diseases, and postsurgical sequelae. Biventricular function is reliably evaluated with cine MRI after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, and Senning's and Mustard's operations. MRI has an important and growing role in the morphologic and functional assessment of congenital heart diseases in adolescents and adults

  3. MR imaging of congenital heart diseases in adolescents and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kang, I Seok; Park, Seung Woo; Lee, Heung Jae [Sungkwunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    Echocardiography and catheterization angiography suffer certain limitations in the evaluation of congenital heart diseases in adults, though these are overcome by MRI, in which a wide field-of view, unlimited multiplanar imaging capability and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography techniques are used. In adults, recently introduced fast imaging techniques provide cardiac MR images of sufficient quality and with less artifacts. Ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and vascular flow measurements, including pressure gradients and pulmonary-to-systemic flow ratio, can be calculated or obtained using fast cine MRI, phase-contrast MR flow-velocity mapping, and semiautomatic analysis software. MRI is superior to echocardiography in diagnosing partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection, unroofed coronary sinus, anomalies of the pulmonary arteries, aorta and systemic veins, complex heart diseases, and postsurgical sequelae. Biventricular function is reliably evaluated with cine MRI after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, and Senning's and Mustard's operations. MRI has an important and growing role in the morphologic and functional assessment of congenital heart diseases in adolescents and adults.

  4. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases; Molekulare kardiovaskulaere MRT-Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botnar, R.M. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Imaging Sciences; St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ebersberger, H. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine; Noerenberg, D. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Radiology; and others

    2015-02-15

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.

  5. Imaging for the prognosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyongtae T; Grantham, Jared J

    2010-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the unrelenting enlargement of innumerable cysts derived from renal tubules. This cystic growth often leads to a grotesque renal enlargement. Relatively early in life, the cysts trigger secondary complications including pain, hypertension and gross hematuria; renal insufficiency is usually not detected until the fifth or sixth decade of life. Therapies targeted to molecular and pathophysiological abnormalities slow cyst growth and protect renal function in animal models of the disease. Unfortunately, the translation of these treatments into clinical trials is hampered since glomerular filtration rate, the usual biomarker of renal disease progression, does not decrease substantially until extensive and irreversible damage to noncystic parenchyma occurs. Ultrasonography, CT and MRI have been used for many years to quantify the increase in renal volume in patients with ADPKD. Imaging with these techniques has also been used to accurately quantify the rate of increased kidney and total cyst volume in patients. In this Review we discuss the overwhelming evidence in support of the view that imaging is an invaluable tool to monitor the onset and progression of ADPKD and is well-suited to gauge the response of this disease to targeted therapy before renal function begins to decline.

  6. Evaluation of Parkinson's disease using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedolin, Leonardo; Marchiori, Edson; Rieder, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with Parkinson's disease. In the period from October 1999 to October 2002, 42 patients with parkinsonism were investigated using a 1.5 T MR equipment. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 26) and patients with atypical Parkinsonian syndrome (n = 16). The results were compared with a control group (n = 18). The following variables were evaluated: thickness of the mesencephalon compact pars, hypointense signal in the putamen, degree of brain atrophy, lesions in the mesencephalon, lesions in the white matter, and the presence of lesions in the posterior-lateral edge of the putamen. Statistical data analysis was carried out using the SPSS program. Results: The mean age was 58.2 years for the Parkinson's disease and control groups, and 60.5 years for the atypical Parkinsonian syndrome group. Patients with Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonian syndromes presented decreased thickness of the compact pars and a higher degree of signal hypointensity in the putamen. Cerebral atrophy was more prominent in the patients with atypical Parkinsonian syndrome. Lesions in mesencephalon and white matter were similar in both groups. The frequency of hyperintense signal in the posterior-lateral edge of the putamen was low within the studied population, although that could suggest multiple-system atrophy. Magnetic resonance imaging allows the detection of brain morphological changes that may help in the diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndromes. (author)

  7. Advances in endoscopic ultrasound imaging of colorectal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cârțână, Elena Tatiana; Gheonea, Dan Ionuț; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2016-02-07

    The development of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has had a significant impact for patients with digestive diseases, enabling enhanced diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, with most of the available evidence focusing on upper gastrointestinal (GI) and pancreatico-biliary diseases. For the lower GI tract the main application of EUS has been in staging rectal cancer, as a complementary technique to other cross-sectional imaging methods. EUS can provide highly accurate in-depth assessments of tumour infiltration, performing best in the diagnosis of early rectal tumours. In the light of recent developments other EUS applications for colorectal diseases have been also envisaged and are currently under investigation, including beyond-rectum tumour staging by means of the newly developed forward-viewing radial array echoendoscope. Due to its high resolution, EUS might be also regarded as an ideal method for the evaluation of subepithelial lesions. Their differential diagnosis is possible by imaging the originating wall layer and the associated echostructure, and cytological and histological confirmation can be obtained through EUS-guided fine needle aspiration or trucut biopsy. However, reports on the use of EUS in colorectal subepithelial lesions are currently limited. EUS allows detailed examination of perirectal and perianal complications in Crohn's disease and, as a safe and less expensive investigation, can be used to monitor therapeutic response of fistulae, which seems to improve outcomes and reduce the need for additional surgery. Furthermore, EUS image enhancement techniques, such as the use of contrast agents or elastography, have recently been evaluated for colorectal indications as well. Possible applications of contrast enhancement include the assessment of tumour angiogenesis in colorectal cancer, the monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease based on quantification of bowel wall vascularization, and differentiating between benign and

  8. Pathways of extrapelvic spread of pelvic disease: imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Heng; Vikram, Raghunandan; Boonsirikamchai, Piyaporn; Faria, Silvana C; Charnsangavej, Chusilp; Bhosale, Priya R

    2011-01-01

    The complex extraperitoneal anatomy of the pelvis includes various outlets for the transit of organs and neurovascular structures to the rest of the body. These outlets include the greater sciatic foramen, lesser sciatic foramen, inguinal canal, femoral triangle, obturator canal, anal and genitourinary hiatuses of the pelvic floor, prevesical space, and iliopsoas compartment. All of these structures serve as conduits for the dissemination of malignant and benign inflammatory diseases from the pelvic cavity and into the soft-tissue structures of the abdominal wall, buttocks, and upper thigh. Knowledge of the pelvic anatomy is crucial to understand these patterns of disease spread. Cross-sectional imaging provides important anatomic information and depicts the extent of disease and its involvement of surrounding extrapelvic structures, information that is important for planning surgery and radiation therapy. RSNA, 2011

  9. Imaging Spectrums of the Male Breast Diseases: A Pictorial Essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Ahn, Hye Kyung; Chung, Soo Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Scred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang Ik [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ah young [Dept. of Pathology, Kangnam Scred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Most described male breast lesions, such as gynecomastia, are benign. The overall incidence of male breast cancer is less than 3%. Like women, common presentations of male breast diseases are palpable lumps or tenderness. Physical examination, mammography and ultrasound are generally used for work-up of breast diseases in both women and men. However, men do not undergo screening mammograms; all male patients are examined in symptomatic cases only. Therefore, all male breast examinations are diagnostic, whereas the majority of the examinations for women are for screening purpose. The differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions is important, especially for men, because the reported prognosis of male breast cancer is poor due to delayed diagnosis. In this article, we review the spectrum of male breast diseases, from benign to malignant, and illustrate their ultrasonographic and mammographic imaging features.

  10. Bimelic Hirayama Disease: Clinical Dilemma Solved by Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalabh Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirayama disease (juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity is a cervical myelopathy predominantly affecting adolescent males. It is characterized by progressive muscular weakness and atrophy of unilateral or asymmetrically bilateral distal upper limbs. We report a case of an 18-year-male painter, who presented with gradually progressive, symmetrical bilateral weakness of hands and forearm for the last two years. On the basis of clinical examination, a provisional diagnosis of lower motor neuron type of symmetrical distal weakness due to heavy metal intoxication was kept. However, imaging studies helped in making a definitive diagnosis of Hirayama disease. The patient was advised cervical collar, and there was no progression in symptoms after six months of followup. Due to the rarity of bilateral symmetrical involvement in Hirayama disease, it remains obscured or unsuspected clinically, and MRI plays a pivotal role in diagnosis.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuomas, K A; Aquilonius, S M; Bergström, K; Westermark, K

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen patients with Wilson's disease were examined, using spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GE) sequences with 0.5 T and 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) imagers. They fell into three groups: groups 1 and 2 were examined retrospectively after 3-18 years of treatment, while group 3 was examined prospectively from the start of treatment, after recommencement of treatment, or inadequate treatment. MRI was sensitive to changes in the basal ganglia at sites typical of Wilson's disease and was useful for documenting the effects of treatment. It was found necessary to estimate the relaxation times T1 and T2, to better assess improvement or transient worsening of the disease in the prospective group. Residual cavitation and gliosis could be distinguished in the retrospective group using a subtraction technique.

  12. Molecular imaging in neurological diseases; Molekulare Bildgebung bei neurologischen Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimold, M.; Fougere, C. la [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abteilung Nuklearmedizin und Klinische Molekulare Bildgebung, Department Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    In neurodegeneration and in neuro-oncology, the standard imaging procedure, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), shows limited sensitivity and specificity. Molecular imaging with specific positron-emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers allows various molecular targets and metabolic processes to be assessed and is thus a valuable adjunct to MRI. Two important examples are referred to here: amino acid transport for neuro-oncological issues, and the recently approved PET tracers for detecting amyloid depositions during the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses the clinical relevance and indications for the following nuclear medicine imaging procedures: amyloid PET, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and dopamine transporter (DaT)-SPECT for the diagnosis of dementia and the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, in addition to amino acid PET for the diagnosis of brain tumors and somatostatin receptor imaging in meningioma. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) weist als Standardverfahren bei neurodegenerativen und neuroonkologischen Fragestellungen eine eingeschraenkte Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet auf. Die nuklearmedizinische molekulare Bildgebung mit spezifischen Positronenemissionstomographie(PET)- und single-photon-emission-computed-tomography(SPECT)-Tracern ermoeglicht die Darstellung verschiedener molekularer Targets bzw. Stoffwechselprozesse und stellt damit eine wichtige Ergaenzung zur MRT dar. Hier sei exemplarisch auf die Darstellung des Aminosaeuretransports im Rahmen neuroonkologischer Fragestellungen verwiesen, sowie auf die bereits im praeklinischen Stadium der Alzheimer-Demenz nachweisbaren Amyloidablagerungen mit hierfuer seit Kurzem zugelassenen PET-Tracern. Dieser Uebersichtsbeitrag bespricht die klinische Bedeutung bzw. die Indikationen der folgenden nuklearmedizinischen Untersuchungsverfahren: der Amyloid-PET, der {sup 18}F

  13. MR imaging in adults with Gaucher disease type I: evulation of marrow involvement and disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, G.; Shaprio, R.S.; Abdelwahab, I.F.; Grabowski, G.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of bone marrow involvement in patients with Gaucher disease type I. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained of the lower extremities of 29 adult patients. Patients were classified into one of three groups based on marrow signal patterns on T1- and T2-weighted images as well as change in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images. An increase in signal intensity from T1- to T2-weighted images was the criterion for an 'active process' within the bone marrow. Classification of the 29 patients produced the following results: Group A: Normal, 4 patients; group B: Marrow infiltration, 16 patients; group C: Marrow infiltration plus active marrow process, 9 patients. Correlation with clinical findings revealed that all nine patients with evidence of an active marrow process on MRI (group C) had acute bone pain. Conversely, only one of the remaining 20 patients (groups A and B) had bone pain. There was no correlation between disease activity and findings on conventional radiographs. We conclude the MRI provides an excellent noninvasive assessment of the extent and activity of marrow involvement in type I Gaucher disease. (orig.)

  14. MR imaging of Minamata disease. Qualitative and quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korogi, Yukunori; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Sumi, Minako; Hirai, Toshinori; Okuda, Tomoko; Shinzato, Jintetsu; Okajima, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    Minamata disease (MD), a result of methylmercury poisoning, is a neurological illness caused by ingestion of contaminated seafood. We evaluated MR findings of patients with MD qualitatively and quantitatively. Magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla was performed in seven patients with MD and in eight control subjects. All of our patients showed typical neurological findings like sensory disturbance, constriction of the visual fields, and ataxia. In the quantitative image analysis, inferior and middle parts of the cerebellar vermis and cerebellar hemispheres were significantly atrophic in comparison with the normal controls. There were no significant differences in measurements of the basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles, corpus callosum, or cerebral hemispheres between MD and the normal controls. The calcarine sulci and central sulci were significantly dilated, reflecting atrophy of the visual cortex and postcentral cortex, respectively. The lesions located in the calcarine area, cerebellum, and postcentral gyri were related to three characteristic manifestations of this disease, constriction of the visual fields, ataxia, and sensory disturbance, respectively. MR imaging has proved to be useful in evaluating the CNS abnormalities of methylmercury poisoning. (author)

  15. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerenberg, Dominik [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Munich - Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebersberger, Hans U. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  16. Lung function imaging methods in Cystic Fibrosis pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Magdalena; de Veer, Michael J; Cholewa, Marian; Egan, Gary F; Thompson, Bruce R

    2017-05-17

    Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. HRCT provides excellent morphological information, however, the X-ray radiation dose can become significant if multiple scans are required to monitor chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis. X-ray phase-contrast imaging is another emerging X-ray based methodology for Cystic Fibrosis lung assessment which provides dynamic morphological and functional information, albeit with even higher X-ray doses than HRCT. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-ionising radiation imaging method that is garnering growing interest among researchers and clinicians working with Cystic Fibrosis patients. Recent advances in MRI have opened up the possibilities to observe lung function in real time to potentially allow sensitive and accurate assessment of disease progression. The use of hyperpolarized gas or non-contrast enhanced MRI can be tailored to clinical needs. While MRI offers significant promise it still suffers from poor spatial resolution and the development of an objective scoring system especially for ventilation assessment.

  17. Imaging and machine learning techniques for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Golrokh; Adeli, Anahita; Adeli, Hojjat

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common health problem in elderly people. There has been considerable research toward the diagnosis and early detection of this disease in the past decade. The sensitivity of biomarkers and the accuracy of the detection techniques have been defined to be the key to an accurate diagnosis. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of the research performed on the diagnosis of AD based on imaging and machine learning techniques. Different segmentation and machine learning techniques used for the diagnosis of AD are reviewed including thresholding, supervised and unsupervised learning, probabilistic techniques, Atlas-based approaches, and fusion of different image modalities. More recent and powerful classification techniques such as the enhanced probabilistic neural network of Ahmadlou and Adeli should be investigated with the goal of improving the diagnosis accuracy. A combination of different image modalities can help improve the diagnosis accuracy rate. Research is needed on the combination of modalities to discover multi-modal biomarkers.

  18. Imaging noradrenergic influence on amyloid pathology in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkeler, A.; Waerzeggers, Y.; Klose, A.; Monfared, P.; Thomas, A.V.; Jacobs, A.H.; Schubert, M.; Heneka, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims towards the non-invasive characterization of disease-specific molecular alterations in the living organism in vivo. In that, molecular imaging opens a new dimension in our understanding of disease pathogenesis, as it allows the non-invasive determination of the dynamics of changes on the molecular level. The imaging technology being employed includes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging as well as optical-based imaging technologies. These imaging modalities are employed together or alone for disease phenotyping, development of imaging-guided therapeutic strategies and in basic and translational research. In this study, we review recent investigations employing positron emission tomography and MRI for phenotyping mouse models of Alzheimers' disease by imaging. We demonstrate that imaging has an important role in the characterization of mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases. (orig.)

  19. Diagnostic imaging of aortic diseases; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Aortenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nienaber, C.A. [Abteilung Innere Medizin, Kardiologie, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kodolitsch, Y. von [Abteilung Innere Medizin, Kardiologie, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this overview is the comparison between noninvasive tomographic imaging modalities such as surface echochardiography, transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with the previous gold standard angiography in the setting of acute and chronic aortic diseases. Methods: The groundwork for the comparison between various noninvasive modalities is the validation of findings with angiography or intraoperative and histopathological results. Results and conclusions: Nonivasive modalities such as transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are suitable methods for reliable diagnosis or exclusion of aortic dissection both in the ascending and descending segment of the thoracic aorta. Ohter more rare pathologies of the aorta such as intramural hemorrhage as a precursor of dissection, aortic ulcers, aneurysms as well as congenital and posttraumatic lesions may also be subjected to transesophageal echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging with excellent sensitivity and specificity; both techniques have also proven to be safe procedures in critically ill patients and have, in our view, replaced angiography for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes. Thus, in acute aortic diseases invasive angiographic procedures should be relegated to a complementary role, while transesophageal echocardiography, X-ray computed tomography (especially helical CT) in acute, and magnetic resonance imaging in chronic cases represent prefered diagnostic options. In addition to primary diagnostics the noninvasive approaches using transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are superbly suitable for serial follow-up imaging in all forms of aortic pathology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fragestellung: Ziel der Uebersicht ist der Vergleich nichtinvasiver diagnostischer Schnittbildverfahren wie Echokardiographie, transoesophageale Echokardiographie, Computertomographie und

  20. Gender and images of heart disease in Scandinavian drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riska, Elianne; Heikell, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the construction of the "heart disease candidate" in advertisements for cardiovascular drugs in Scandinavian medical journals. All advertisements for cardiovascular drugs (n = 603) in Scandinavian medical journals (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden) in 2005 were collected. Only advertisements that portray users (n = 289, 48% of the advertisements) were analyzed. The results show that coronary candidacy is constructed as a male condition in half of the advertisements for cardiovascular drugs. The advertisements suggest a gendering of heart disease: men are the major victims of heart failure and cardiac insufficiency, and women are in need of cholesterol-lowering drugs. The cardiovascular drug advertisements portray a restoration of men's hyperactive agency, valorized by means of sporty images, by drawing on masculinity as a fixed trait and behavior. Hypercholesterolemia as a woman's disease reproduces the tyranny of slimness for women: Only women's stoutness is medicalized, and there are no pictures of heavy men. The findings point to the public health implications of gendered images of coronary candidacy in medical advertising.

  1. Imaging Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Croca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem, autoimmune disease known to be one of the strongest risk factors for atherosclerosis. Patients with SLE have an excess cardiovascular risk compared with the general population, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the precise explanation for this is yet to be established, it seems to be associated with the presence of an accelerated atherosclerotic process, arising from the combination of traditional and lupus-specific risk factors. Moreover, cardiovascular-disease associated mortality in patients with SLE has not improved over time. One of the main reasons for this is the poor performance of standard risk stratification tools on assessing the cardiovascular risk of patients with SLE. Therefore, establishing alternative ways to identify patients at increased risk efficiently is essential. With recent developments in several imaging techniques, the ultimate goal of cardiovascular assessment will shift from assessing symptomatic patients to diagnosing early cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic patients which will hopefully help us to prevent its progression. This review will focus on the current status of the imaging tools available to assess cardiac and vascular function in patients with SLE.

  2. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: immunocytochemical studies and image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nailon, W H; Ironside, J W

    2000-07-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a recently identified human prion disease that appears to arise from exposure to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent. The clinical features and neuropathology of vCJD are distinctive, particularly the patterns of PrP(sc) accumulation in the brain. PrP immunocytochemistry has also demonstrated the accumulation of PrP(sc) in tissues outside the central nervous system, including sensory ganglia and lymphoid tissues. These observations have allowed the use of tonsillar biopsy as an investigation to aid the diagnosis of vCJD, since accumulation of PrP(sc) in lymphoid tissues does not occur in other forms of human prion disease. The patterns of PrP(sc) accumulation in vCJD can be studied by image analysis techniques, using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Preliminary results of textural analysis are presented, which indicate that this approach can be used to discriminate and study the unique features of PrP(sc) accumulation in the brain in vCJD. This technique has major potential as a research tool in human prion diseases, particularly for the characterisation of disease phenotype in large series of cases. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Imaging in cell-based therapy for neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirik, Deniz; Breysse, Nathalie; Bjoerklund, Tomas; Besret, Laurent; Hantraye, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Fetal cell transplantation for the treatment of Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases has been developed over the past two decades and is now in early clinical testing phase. Direct assessment of the graft's survival, integration into the host brain and impact on neuronal functions requires advanced in vivo neuroimaging techniques. Owing to its high sensitivity, positron emission tomography is today the most widely used tool to evaluate the viability and function of the transplanted tissue in the brain. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are opening new possibilities for imaging neurochemical events in the brain. The ultimate goal will be to use the combination of multiple imaging modalities for complete functional monitoring of the repair processes in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  4. UAV Based Imaging for Crop, Weed and Disease Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose

    provides evidence, through real applications, of the potential for UAV based remote sensing for improved weed and disease detection in agriculture. It showed that it was possible to discriminate between sugar beet and thistle based on their field spectral signature captured with a field portable...... the physiological status of the vegetation. UAV imagery may be divided into three steps (1) spectral characterization of the targets of interest, (2) flight and image acquisition and (3) image processing and interpretation. The overall aims of this study were to improve knowledge in all three steps associated......Summary Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) equipped with cameras have become a powerful technology to collect high resolution remote sensing data from agricultural crops. When equipped with multispectral cameras, light invisible for the human eye may be captured and used to characterize...

  5. Functional imaging in pre-motor Parkinson’s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaldi, D.; Picco, A.; Ferrara, M.; Nobili, F.; Famà, F.; Buschiazzo, A.; Morbelli, S.; De Carli, F.

    2014-01-01

    Several non motor symptoms (NMS) can precede the onset of the classical motor Parkinson’s disease (PD) syndrome. The existence of pre-motor and even pre-clinical PD stages has been proposed but the best target population to be screened to disclose PD patients in a pre-clinical, thus asymptomatic, stage is still matter of debate. The REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) often affects PD patients at different stages of the disease and could precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years. However, RBD could also precede other synucleinopathies (namely, dementia with Lewy bodies and multisystem atrophy), and less frequently could be related to other neurological conditions or remain idiopathic. Moreover, not all PD patients exhibit RBD. Despite these caveats, RBD probably represents the best feature to disclose pre-motor PD patients given its high-risk of developing a full motor syndrome. Other clinical clues in the premotor stages of PD undergoing active investigation include hyposmia, depression, and autonomic dysfunction. Effective biomarkers are needed in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy in the pre-motor stage of PD, to monitor disease progression and to plan both pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention. Functional imaging, in particular radionuclide methodologies, has been often used to investigate dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic features as well as cortical functioning in patients with RBD in its idiopathic form (iRBD) and/or associated with PD. Recently, new tracers to image α-synuclein pathologies are under development. Functional imaging in pre-motor PD, and in particular in iRBD, could improve our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms and the neurodegenerative progress of PD

  6. Functional Brain Imaging Synthesis Based on Image Decomposition and Kernel Modeling: Application to Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Murcia, Francisco J.; Górriz, Juan M.; Ramírez, Javier; Illán, Ignacio A.; Segovia, Fermín; Castillo-Barnes, Diego; Salas-Gonzalez, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The rise of neuroimaging in research and clinical practice, together with the development of new machine learning techniques has strongly encouraged the Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) of different diseases and disorders. However, these algorithms are often tested in proprietary datasets to which the access is limited and, therefore, a direct comparison between CAD procedures is not possible. Furthermore, the sample size is often small for developing accurate machine learning methods. Multi-center initiatives are currently a very useful, although limited, tool in the recruitment of large populations and standardization of CAD evaluation. Conversely, we propose a brain image synthesis procedure intended to generate a new image set that share characteristics with an original one. Our system focuses on nuclear imaging modalities such as PET or SPECT brain images. We analyze the dataset by applying PCA to the original dataset, and then model the distribution of samples in the projected eigenbrain space using a Probability Density Function (PDF) estimator. Once the model has been built, we can generate new coordinates on the eigenbrain space belonging to the same class, which can be then projected back to the image space. The system has been evaluated on different functional neuroimaging datasets assessing the: resemblance of the synthetic images with the original ones, the differences between them, their generalization ability and the independence of the synthetic dataset with respect to the original. The synthetic images maintain the differences between groups found at the original dataset, with no significant differences when comparing them to real-world samples. Furthermore, they featured a similar performance and generalization capability to that of the original dataset. These results prove that these images are suitable for standardizing the evaluation of CAD pipelines, and providing data augmentation in machine learning systems -e.g. in deep learning-, or even to

  7. Functional Brain Imaging Synthesis Based on Image Decomposition and Kernel Modeling: Application to Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Martinez-Murcia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rise of neuroimaging in research and clinical practice, together with the development of new machine learning techniques has strongly encouraged the Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD of different diseases and disorders. However, these algorithms are often tested in proprietary datasets to which the access is limited and, therefore, a direct comparison between CAD procedures is not possible. Furthermore, the sample size is often small for developing accurate machine learning methods. Multi-center initiatives are currently a very useful, although limited, tool in the recruitment of large populations and standardization of CAD evaluation. Conversely, we propose a brain image synthesis procedure intended to generate a new image set that share characteristics with an original one. Our system focuses on nuclear imaging modalities such as PET or SPECT brain images. We analyze the dataset by applying PCA to the original dataset, and then model the distribution of samples in the projected eigenbrain space using a Probability Density Function (PDF estimator. Once the model has been built, we can generate new coordinates on the eigenbrain space belonging to the same class, which can be then projected back to the image space. The system has been evaluated on different functional neuroimaging datasets assessing the: resemblance of the synthetic images with the original ones, the differences between them, their generalization ability and the independence of the synthetic dataset with respect to the original. The synthetic images maintain the differences between groups found at the original dataset, with no significant differences when comparing them to real-world samples. Furthermore, they featured a similar performance and generalization capability to that of the original dataset. These results prove that these images are suitable for standardizing the evaluation of CAD pipelines, and providing data augmentation in machine learning systems -e.g. in deep

  8. Imaging and clinical characteristics of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Shun-chang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD presented rapidly progressive dementia which were subacute onset from 1 to 4 months. Among these cases, periodic synchronous discharge (PSD of electroencephalography (EEG was seen in 2 patients. Besides, 4 patients obtained positive results in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis for 14-3-3 protein. The cranial MRI examination showed symmetrical or asymmetrical colored-ribbon-shaped high signals in cerebral cortex or basal ganglia by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, suggesting that DWI had high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of sCJD as a preferred method in the clinical examination of sCJD.

  9. Early detection of Freiberg's disease by radionuclide bone imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jingjing

    1993-01-01

    56 hallux valgus deformities of 28 patients were studied with radionuclide bone imaging (RNBI). Among them, 24 feet(42.85%) revealed increased uptake of radioactivity in second or third metatarsal. The ratio of radioactivity in lesion and contralateral normal site (D/N) was increased, the difference between the patient and normal groups was significant (P<0.01). The histologic study showed that there have been degenerative changes and bone cell necrosis in increased uptake area. It was concluded that RNBI was more sensitive than X ray and can be used for the early diagnosis of Freiberg's Disease

  10. Perfusion and metabolism imaging studies in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are important tools in the evaluation of brain blood flow and glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, conflicting results are reported in the literature depending on the type of imaging data...... analysis employed. The present review gives a comprehensive summary of the perfusion and metabolism literature in the field of PD research, including quantitative PET studies, normalized PET and SPECT studies, autoradiography studies in animal models of PD, and simulation studies of PD data....... It is concluded that PD most likely is characterized by widespread cortical hypometabolism, probably even at early disease stages. Widespread subcortical hypermetabolism is probably not a feature of PD, although certain small basal ganglia structures, such as the external pallidum, may display true...

  11. Clinical image: Hydatid disease of the chest wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.J.; Berlin, J.W.; Ghahremani, G.G. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Hydatid disease is rarely encountered among the population of the United States, but it affects several million people in sheep-raising regions of the world. Human infestation with Echinococcus granulosus begins following ingestion of its ova, which are excreted into the contaminated water during the usual dog-sheep cycle. Hydatid cysts will then develop most frequently in the liver (75% of cases) and lungs (15%) of the human host. Skeletal involvement has been reported to occur in only 0.5-4.0% of patients in the endemic areas. Because of the rarity and perplexing imaging features of hydatid disease involving the chest wall, we wish herein to present a case evaluated recently at our institution. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Chronic granulomatous disease: Value of the newer imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricof, D.D.; Glazer, M.; Amendola, A.

    1984-01-01

    The contribution of computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and nuclear medicine studies in the evaluation and management of seven patients with chronic granulatous disease was retrospectively reviewed. These modalities proved valuable in detecting sites of infection, particularly in the abdomen. Three patients had liver abscesses, two had suppurative retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, one had empyema, and one hand a scrotal abscess. Furthermore, CT or US-guided percutaneous aspiration and/or drainage of infected material was successfully performed on three separate occasions in a single patient, obviating the need for surgery. The newer imaging modalities are useful in the prompt diagnosis and in some instances non-operative therapy of complications of chronic granulomatous disease. (orig.)

  13. [Imaging of pleural diseases: evaluation of imaging methods based on chest radiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyraz, Necdet; Kalkan, Havva; Ödev, Kemal; Ceran, Sami

    2017-03-01

    The most commonly employed radiologic method in diagnosis of pleural diseases is conventional chest radiograph. The commonest chest- X-Ray findings are the presence of pleural effusion and thickening. Small pleural effusions are not readily identified on posteroanterior chest radiograph. However, lateral decubitus chest radiograph and chest ultrasonography may show small pleural effusions. These are more efficient methods than posteroanterior chest radiograph in the erect position for demonstrating small amounts of free pleural effusions. Chest ultrasonograph may be able to help in distinguishing the pleural pathologies from parenchymal lesions. On chest radiograph pleural effusions or pleural thickening may obscure the visibility of the underlying disease or parenchymal abnormality. Thus, computed tomography (CT) may provide additional information of determining the extent and severity of pleural disease and may help to differentiate malign pleural lesions from the benign ones. Moreover, CT may provide the differentiation of parenchmal abnormalities from pleural pathologies. CT (coronal and sagittal reformatted images) that also show invasion of chest wall, mediastinum and diaphragm, as well as enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes. Standart non-invasive imaging techniques may be supplemented with magnetic resonans imaging (MRI).

  14. Imaging neuroreceptors in the human brain in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Dannals, R.F.; Frost, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    For nearly a century it has been known that chemical activity accompanies mental activity, but only recently has it been possible to begin to examine its exact nature. Positron-emitting radioactive tracers have made it possible to study the chemistry of the human brain in health and disease, using chiefly cyclotron-produced radionuclides, carbon-11, fluorine-18 and oxygen-15. It is now well established that measurable increases in regional cerebral blood flow, and glucose and oxygen metabolism accompany the mental functions of perception, cognition, emotion and motion. On 25 May 1983 the first imaging of a neuroreceptor in the human brain was accomplished with carbon-11 N-methyl spiperone, a ligand that binds preferentially to dopamine-2 receptors, 80% of which are located in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Quantitative imaging of serotonin-2, opiate, benzodiazapine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors has subsequently been accomplished. In studies of normal men and women, it has been found that dopamine and serotonin receptor activity decreases dramatically with age, such a decrease being more pronounced in men than in women and greater in the case of dopamine-2 receptors than in serotonin-2 receptors. Preliminary studies of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders suggest that dopamine-2 receptor activity is diminished in the caudate nucleus of patients with Huntington's disease. Positron tomography permits a quantitative assay of picomolar quantities of neuroreceptors within the living human brain. Studies of patients with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, acute and chronic pain states and drug addiction are now in progress. (author)

  15. Cine-MR imaging of valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Jin; Kim, Woo Sung; Park, Hyun Wuk; Cho, Zang Hee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-04-15

    Cine-MR imaging was done in 2 normal persons and 9 patients of valvular heart disease with 2.0 T superconducting MR system (Spectro-2000; GoldStar, Korea). The MRI was undertaken using gradient echo technique with small flip angle. Repetition time (TR) was 34 msec, and echo time (TE), 18 msec. In most cases, 20 to 30 frames could be obtained during one cardiac cycle. With normal heart, high signal intensity was identified in the blood filled cardiac chambers. Transient signal void was observed near tricuspid, mitral and aortic valves due to the turbulences induced by valve opening or closure. In 6 cases of mitral valvular disease, mitral valve was identified in all cases. The valvular motion was limited revealing doming toward cardiac apex during diastole. Signal void was evident in pansystolic phase of left ventricle in all cases. Evidence of combined aortic or tricuspid valve disease were also demonstrated, revealing signal void in the corresponding cardiac chambers. Cine-MRI seemed to be not only a good non-invasive diagnostic modality for the valvular heart disease, but also an accurate modality for cardiac functional evaluation.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in congenital heart disease in newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, B.; Zollner, G.; Wackenheim, A.; Livolsi, A.; Willard, D.; Germain, P.

    1990-01-01

    Until now little attention has been paid to the potential of MR imaging in congenital heart disease of the newborn. ECG-gated MRI was therefore performed at 0.5 tesla in 23 newborns with suspected congenital heart disease. Two newborns were controlled after surgery. All had undergone prior evaluation by two-dimensional Doppler echocardiogrpahy. MR imaging was of a satisfying quality in all but one newborn. The aim of this study was to assess complementary information provided by MRI in comparison to 2-D DE. Pre-operatively MRI missed some abnormalities shown by 2-D DE: one coartaction, one ductus arteriosus and one ulmonary atresia. MRI demonstrated lesions that echocardiography had either failed to visualize or found inconclusive, inlcuding double aortic arch, muscular ventricular septum defect and severe ductus arteriosus. In one of the two patients with a ventricular septum defect, angiography was avoided and in the other patient is merely confirmed the MRI results. Post-operatively, MRI demonstrated information complementary to that obtained from to 2-D DE: (1) clearly visualizing the reinsertion of the coronary arteries in the 'switched' transposition of the great vessels, (2) appreciating the diameter and patency of the palliative shunt in the Blalock-Taussig procedure. (author). 25 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  17. PET Imaging of Epigenetic Influences on Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise role of environment-gene interactions (epigenetics in the development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is unclear. This review focuses on the premise that radiotracer-specific PET imaging allows clinicians to visualize epigenetically influenced events and that such imaging may provide new, valuable insights for preventing, diagnosing, and treating AD. Current understanding of the role of epigenetics in AD and the principles underlying the use of PET radiotracers for in vivo diagnosis are reviewed. The relative efficacies of various PET radiotracers for visualizing the epigenetic influences on AD and their use for diagnosis are discussed. For example, [18F]FAHA demonstrates sites of differential HDAC activity, [18F]FDG indirectly illuminates sites of neuronal hypomethylation, and the carbon-11 isotope-containing Pittsburgh compound B ([11C]PiB images amyloid-beta plaque deposits. A definitive AD diagnosis is currently achievable only by postmortem histological observation of amyloid-beta plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles. Therefore, reliable in vivo neuroimaging techniques could provide opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  18. MR imaging of the spine: trauma and degenerative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, J.T. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands)

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the capabilities and drawbacks of MR imaging in patients with trauma to the spine and degenerative spinal conditions. In spinal trauma MR imaging is secondary to plain X-ray films and CT because of the greater availability and ease of performance of these techniques and their superior capability for detecting vertebral fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for detecting ligamentous ruptures and intraspinal mass lesions such as hematoma, and for assessing the state of the spinal cord and prognosis of a cord injury. In degenerative spinal disease the necessity is emphasized of critically evaluating the clinical relevance of any abnormal feature detected, as findings of degenerative pathology are common in individuals without symptoms. Magnetic resonance myelography permits rapid and accurate assessment of the state of the lumbar nerve roots (compressed or not). In the cervical region the quality of the myelographic picture is often degraded in patients with a narrow spinal canal. (orig.) With 10 figs., 14 refs.

  19. CT imaging of splenic sequestration in sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, S.; Piomelli, S. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Ruzal-Shapiro, C.; Berdon, W.E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Div. of Pediatric Radiology

    2000-12-01

    Pooling of blood in the spleen is a frequent occurrence in children with sickle cell diseases, particularly in the first few years of life, resulting in what is termed ''splenic sequestration crisis.'' The spectrum of severity in this syndrome is wide, ranging from mild splenomegaly to massive enlargement, circulatory collapse, and even death. The diagnosis is usually clinical, based on the enlargement of the spleen with a drop in hemoglobin level by >2 g/dl, and it is rare that imaging studies are ordered. However, in the patient who presents to the emergency department with non-specific findings of an acute abdomen, it is important to recognize the appearance of sequestration on imaging studies. We studied seven patients utilizing contrast-enhanced CT scans and found two distinct patterns - multiple, peripheral, non-enhancing low-density areas or large, diffuse areas of low density in the majority of the splenic tissue. Although radiological imaging is not always necessary to diagnose splenic sequestration, in those situations where this diagnosis is not immediately obvious, it makes an important clarifying contribution. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C B; Byrd, B F; Farmer, D W; Osaki, L; Silverman, N H; Cheitlin, M D

    1984-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted with use of the spin-echo technique (0.35 Tesla) in 22 patients with a variety of congenital and cardiovascular anomalies and in 16 normal volunteers. Electrocardiographic (ECG) synchronization of the data acquisition produced transverse, parasagittal, and coronal tomograms that were used to define size and relationship of the great vessels and internal cardiac structures. MRI findings were corroborated by angiography and sector-scan echocardiography. In most patients the diagnosis had been established before the MRI study. MRI detected all of 11 abnormalities at the level of the great vessels, all of six atrial septal abnormalities, and 10 of 11 ventricular septal defects. Images of poor quality resulting from patient motion were obtained in the one instance in which a small ventricular septal defect was not imaged. Of two patients with Ebstein's anomaly, the displacement of the tricuspid leaflets was shown in one patient but was not evident in another. Complex anomalies such as double-outlet right ventricle, uncorrected L-transposition, single atrioventricular valve, single ventricle, and common ventricle were clearly shown by MRI. Initial experience with MRI has indicated the effectiveness of this technique for defining great vessel and internal cardiac anatomy in patients with congenital heart disease. This is accomplished without the use of contrast media and is thus a completely noninvasive technique for cardiovascular diagnosis.

  1. CT imaging of splenic sequestration in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, S.; Piomelli, S.; Ruzal-Shapiro, C.; Berdon, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    Pooling of blood in the spleen is a frequent occurrence in children with sickle cell diseases, particularly in the first few years of life, resulting in what is termed ''splenic sequestration crisis.'' The spectrum of severity in this syndrome is wide, ranging from mild splenomegaly to massive enlargement, circulatory collapse, and even death. The diagnosis is usually clinical, based on the enlargement of the spleen with a drop in hemoglobin level by >2 g/dl, and it is rare that imaging studies are ordered. However, in the patient who presents to the emergency department with non-specific findings of an acute abdomen, it is important to recognize the appearance of sequestration on imaging studies. We studied seven patients utilizing contrast-enhanced CT scans and found two distinct patterns - multiple, peripheral, non-enhancing low-density areas or large, diffuse areas of low density in the majority of the splenic tissue. Although radiological imaging is not always necessary to diagnose splenic sequestration, in those situations where this diagnosis is not immediately obvious, it makes an important clarifying contribution. (orig.)

  2. Utility of imaging for nutritional intervention studies in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Martijn C; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H; Sijben, John W C; Scheltens, Phillip

    2011-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder and the leading cause of dementia, wherein synapse loss is the strongest structural correlate with cognitive impairment. Basic research has shown that dietary supply of precursors and co-factors for synthesis of neuronal membranes enhances the formation of synapses. Daily intake of a medical food containing a mix of these nutrients for 12 weeks in humans improved memory, measured as immediate and delayed verbal recall by the Wechsler Memory Scale-revised, in patients with very mild AD (MMSE 24-26). An improvement of immediate verbal recall was noted following 24 weeks of intervention in an exploratory extension of the study. These data suggest that the intervention may improve synaptic formation and function in early AD. Here we review emerging technologies that help identify changes in pathological hallmarks in AD, including synaptic function and loss of connectivity in the early stages of AD, before cognitive and behavioural symptoms are observable. These techniques include the detection of specific biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid, as well as imaging procedures such as fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), amyloid PET, structural/functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). Such techniques can provide new insights into the functional and structural changes in the brain over time, and may therefore help to develop more effective AD therapies. In particular, nutritional intervention studies that target synapse formation and function may benefit from these techniques, especially FDG-PET and EEG/MEG employed in the preclinical or early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Body image satisfaction and anxiety of a Turkish sample of university students with skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, Yeşim; Ulutaş, Ilkay; Taner, Ender; Bakir, Bilal; Simşek, Isil

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate perception of body image and anxiety of 221 university students presenting to the dermatology outpatient clinic with a skin disease and 205 students without skin disease. Analysis of anxiety and body image scores yielded differences by sex and age in both groups. The group with skin disease had lower scores on body image. Acne vulgaris seems to be the most disturbing among the skin diseases, and this was more prominent in younger patients.

  4. Collaborative Initiative in Biomedical Imaging to Study Complex Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Weili [The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Fiddy, Michael A. [The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

    2012-03-31

    The work reported addressed these topics: Fluorescence imaging; Optical coherence tomography; X-ray interferometer/phase imaging system; Quantitative imaging from scattered fields, Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy; and Multiphoton and Raman microscopy.

  5. Unicuspid aortic valve disease: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debl, K.; Buchner, S.; Heinicke, N.; Riegger, G.; Luchner, A. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Innere Medizin II, Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany); Djavidani, B.; Poschenrieder, F.; Feuerbach, S. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany); Schmid, C.; Kobuch, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und herznahe Gefaesschirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: congenitally malformed aortic valves are a common finding in adults with aortic valve disease. Most of these patients have bicuspid aortic valve disease. Unicuspid aortic valve disease (UAV) is rare. The aim of our study was to describe valve morphology and the dimensions of the proximal aorta in a cohort of 12 patients with UAV in comparison to tricuspid aortic valve disease (TAV) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods/results: MRI studies were performed on a 1.5 T scanner in a total of 288 consecutive patients with aortic valve disease. 12 aortic valves were retrospectively classified as UAV. Annulus areas and dimensions of the thoracic aorta were retrospectively compared to a cohort of 103 patients with TAV. In UAV, valve morphology was unicuspid unicommissural with a posterior commissure in all patients. Mean annulus areas and mean diameters of the ascending aorta were significantly greater in UAV compared to TAV (12.6 {+-} 4.7 cm{sup 2} vs. 8.7 {+-} 2.3 cm{sup 2}, p < 0.01 and 4.6 {+-} 0.7 cm vs. 3.6 {+-} 0.5 cm, p < 0.0001, respectively), while no differences were observed in the mean diameters of the aortic arch (2.3 {+-} 0.6 cm vs. 2.3 {+-} 0.4 cm, p = 0.69). The diameters of the descending aorta were slightly smaller in UAV compared to TAV (2.2 {+-} 0.5 cm vs. 2.6 {+-} 0.3 cm, p < 0.05). (orig.)

  6. A preliminary diffusional kurtosis imaging study of Parkinson disease: comparison with conventional diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamagata, Koji; Kamiya, Kouhei; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Yoshida, Mariko; Aoki, Shigeki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Taku; Motoi, Yumiko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Abe, Osamu; Shimoji, Keigo

    2014-01-01

    Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a more sensitive technique than conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessing tissue microstructure. In particular, it quantifies the microstructural integrity of white matter, even in the presence of crossing fibers. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare how DKI and DTI show white matter alterations in Parkinson disease (PD). DKI scans were obtained with a 3-T magnetic resonance imager from 12 patients with PD and 10 healthy controls matched by age and sex. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to compare the mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) maps of the PD patient group and the control group. In addition, a region-of-interest analysis was performed for the area of the posterior corona radiata and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber crossing. FA values in the frontal white matter were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls. Reductions in MK occurred more extensively throughout the brain: in addition to frontal white matter, MK was lower in the parietal, occipital, and right temporal white matter. The MK value of the area of the posterior corona radiata and SLF fiber crossing was also lower in the PD group. DKI detects changes in the cerebral white matter of PD patients more sensitively than conventional DTI. In addition, DKI is useful for evaluating crossing fibers. By providing a sensitive index of brain pathology in PD, DKI may enable improved monitoring of disease progression. (orig.)

  7. Bioluminescence in vivo imaging of autoimmune encephalomyelitis predicts disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinman Lawrence

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a widely used animal model to understand not only multiple sclerosis but also basic principles of immunity. The disease is scored typically by observing signs of paralysis, which do not always correspond with pathological changes. Methods Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced in transgenic mice expressing an injury responsive luciferase reporter in astrocytes (GFAP-luc. Bioluminescence in the brain and spinal cord was measured non-invasively in living mice. Mice were sacrificed at different time points to evaluate clinical and pathological changes. The correlation between bioluminescence and clinical and pathological EAE was statistically analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Results Bioluminescence from the brain and spinal cord correlates strongly with severity of clinical disease and a number of pathological changes in the brain in EAE. Bioluminescence at early time points also predicts severity of disease. Conclusion These results highlight the potential use of bioluminescence imaging to monitor neuroinflammation for rapid drug screening and immunological studies in EAE and suggest that similar approaches could be applied to other animal models of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Taketo; Ebara, Masaaki; Saisho, Hiromitsu

    1987-01-01

    Fifty patients with various pancreatic diseases and 22 without pancreatic disease were studied by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare its diagnostic capability with that by an X-ray CT scan. To differentiate pancreas clearly from the bowel, an iron solution was orally administered as contrast medium, resulting in a usefullness, especially to differentiate the head of the pancreas from the bowel. The head of the pancreas could be identified in 89 % after iron solution but only in 62 % without it. MRI was inferior to CT in terms of visualization of the pancreatic duct and pancreatic stones, but was superior in a visualization of vessels around the pancreas. MRI was considered to be useful for a detection of carcinoma infiltrating to vessels. Pancreatic carcinoma was differentiated from chronic pancreatitis in terms of a local enlargement and disappearance of fat around the pancreas shown on MRI findings. The present results also showed statistically significant differences in T 1 relaxation times among normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, suggesting a useful marker in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. (author)

  9. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with Fabry's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małek, Lukasz A; Chojnowska, Lidia; Spiewak, Mateusz; Kłopotowski, Mariusz; Miśko, Jolanta; Petryka, Joanna; Miłosz, Barbara; Ruzyłło, Witold

    2010-08-01

    Fabry's disease (FD) is a rare hereditary disorder caused by the loss of alpha galactosidase A activity leading to accumulation of glycosphingolipids in various organs including hypertrophy of the heart. Most reports on cardiac involvement in FD focus on the left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and its relation to diastolic function. However, recent studies demonstrated large subset of patients with FD and right ventricle (RV) hypertophy. The accurate depiction of RV volumes, function and mass is possible with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The CMR study can be also used to identify typically localised regions of intramyocardial fibrosis (infero-lateral segments of the LV), which have been shown to be a marker of inefficacious response to enzyme replacement therapy. We present series of 8 patients with genetically confirmed FD who underwent CMR study. We demonstrated a typical concentric and diffuse pattern of LVH with RV involvement in patients with the most severe LVH without significant impact on RV function and volumes. We showed that myocardial fibrosis can be observed not only in LV but also in RV. In 2 patients FD coexisted with symptomatic coronary artery disease with evidence of subendocardial myocardial fibrosis typical for ischaemic origin in one patient. The CMR confirmation of the presence of FD in one patient at an early stage of the disease, before the onset of advanced hypertrophy or failure of other organs, supports the value of this imaging technique in differential diagnosis of concentric and diffuse LVH.

  10. Minimum training requirement in ultrasound imaging of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiberg, J P; Hansen, M A; Grønvall Rasmussen, J B; Schroeder, T V

    2008-09-01

    To demonstrate the minimum training requirement when performing ultrasound of peripheral arterial disease. Prospective and blinded comparative study. 100 limbs in 100 consecutive patients suffering from peripheral arterial disease, 74% suffering critical limb ischemia, were enrolled during a 9 months period. One physician with limited ultrasound experience performed all the ultrasound examinations of the arteries of the most symptomatic limb. Before enrolling any patients 15 duplex ultrasound examinations were performed supervised by an experienced vascular technologist. All patients had a digital subtraction arteriography performed by an experienced vascular radiologist, unaware of the ultrasound result. The number of insufficiently insonated segments (non-diagnostic segments) was significantly reduced during the study; from 9% among the initial 50 limbs to 2% among the last 50 limbs (Pultrasound and arteriography from the initial 50 patients (overall Kappa=0.66, (95%-CI: 0.60-0.72); supragenicular Kappa=0.73 (95%-CI: 0.64-0.82); infragenicular Kappa=0.61 (95%-CI: 0.54-0.69)) to the last 50 patients (overall Kappa=0.66 (95%-CI: 0.60-0.72), supragenicular Kappa=0.67 (95%-CI: 0.57-0.76); infragenicular Kappa=0.66 (95%-CI: 0.58-0.73)). The minimum training requirement in ultrasound imaging of peripheral arterial disease appears to be less than 50 ultrasound examinations (probably only 15 examinations) for the supragenicular segments and 100 examinations for the infragenicular segments.

  11. The fornix in health and disease: an imaging review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adam G; Koumellis, Panos; Dineen, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    The fornix is a discrete white matter tract bundle that is critical for normal cognitive functioning. Although clearly visualized at magnetic resonance imaging, its involvement in pathologic processes is often overlooked. Certain disease processes show a predilection for involvement of the fornix; in other pathologic conditions, its involvement is a rare but recognized finding. As part of the Papez circuit, it is critical in formation of memory, with damage or disease resulting in anterograde amnesia. Many different pathologic conditions can affect the fornix. Midline tumors such as gliomas or lymphoma can infiltrate it. As part of the limbic system, it may be affected by herpes simplex encephalitis. Involvement by inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis may illustrate its importance in global cognitive function. An appreciation of forniceal atrophy may aid in assessment of mesial temporal sclerosis. Metabolic conditions such as Wernicke encephalopathy have been reported to involve it. The original discoveries of its role in memory arose from surgical trauma, but as a midline structure, it is susceptible to the shearing forces of diffuse axonal injury. Infarction of the fornix is rare but can result in acute amnesic syndromes. Its role in degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer disease and psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia is a topic of research interest. Recognition of involvement of the fornix by various pathologic processes may aid in explaining the troubling clinical symptoms of amnesia.

  12. Whole heart cine MR imaging of pulmonary veins in patients with congenital heart disease. Comparison with Spin Echo MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, Hideaki [Yamagata City Hospital Saiseikan (Japan); Saito, Haruo; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shoki; Zuguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Shogo

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of Whole Heart Cine (WHC) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the depiction of pulmonary veins (PVs) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) compared to that of spin echo (SE) MR imaging. Among our 35 patients, 4 patients had anomalous PV return. Detectability of four PVs on each MR examination images were evaluated. MR imaging is an effective modality for the clarification of PVs, and WHC MR imaging is more useful in delineating PV anomalies than SE MR imaging. (author)

  13. Imaging Multimodalities for Dissecting Alzheimer's Disease: Advanced Technologies of Positron Emission Tomography and Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojo, Masafumi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Sahara, Naruhiko

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in advanced imaging technologies has expanded our toolbox for monitoring a variety of biological aspects in living subjects including human. In vivo radiological imaging using small chemical tracers, such as with positron emission tomography, represents an especially vital breakthrough in the efforts to improve our understanding of the complicated cascade of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it has provided the most reliable visible biomarkers for enabling clinical diagnosis. At the same time, in combination with genetically modified animal model systems, the most recent innovation of fluorescence imaging is helping establish diverse applications in basic neuroscience research, from single-molecule analysis to animal behavior manipulation, suggesting the potential utility of fluorescence technology for dissecting the detailed molecular-based consequence of AD pathophysiology. In this review, our primary focus is on a current update of PET radiotracers and fluorescence indicators beneficial for understanding the AD cascade, and discussion of the utility and pitfalls of those imaging modalities for future translational research applications. We will also highlight current cutting-edge genetic approaches and discuss how to integrate individual technologies for further potential innovations.

  14. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in carotid artery disease: does automated image registration improve image quality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, Jan; Larsen, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a noninvasive imaging alternative to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for patients with carotid artery disease. In DSA, image quality can be improved by shifting the mask image if the patient has moved during angiography. This study investigated whether such image registration may also help to improve the image quality of carotid MRA. Data from 370 carotid MRA examinations of patients likely to have carotid artery disease were prospectively collected. The standard nonregistered MRAs were compared to automatically linear, affine and warp registered MRA by using three image quality parameters: the vessel detection probability (VDP) in maximum intensity projection (MIP) images, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in MIP images, and contrast-to-noise ratio in three-dimensional image volumes. A body shift of less than 1 mm occurred in 96.2% of cases. Analysis of variance revealed no significant influence of image registration and body shift on image quality (p > 0.05). In conclusion, standard contrast-enhanced carotid MRA usually requires no image registration to improve image quality and is generally robust against any naturally occurring body shift. (orig.)

  15. Clinical application of MR susceptibility weighted imaging in cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Wenzhen; Qi Jianpin; Shen Hao; Wang Chengyuan; Xia Liming; Hu Junwu; Feng Dingyi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess clinical application value of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in cerebrovascular diseases. Method: Twenty-three patients with cerebrovascular disease were investigated, including 7 cases of cavernoma, 4 of venous hemangioma, 3 of small AVM, 1 of Sturge-Weber Syndrome, 2 of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and 6 of chronic cerebral infarction. All patients underwent standard Mill and SWI, and most of them also underwent enhanced T 1 WI and MRA. The corrected phase (CP) values were obtained at the lesions and control areas. Results: The average CP values of the lesions and the control areas were -0.112±0.032 and -0.013±0.004, respectively (t=2.167, P 2 WI. The cavemoma could be differentiated from the hemorrhage within lesions. Moreover, multiple microcavernomas were detected on SWI. In 4 cases of venous hemangioma, SWI detected spider-like lesions with more hair-thin pulp veins adjacent to the dilated draining vein than contrast MRI. In 3 cases of small AVM, SWI was more advantageous than MRA in clearly detecting the small feeding artery. In 1 case of Sturge-Weber Syndrome, SWI demonstrated large areas of calcification and the abnormal vessels on the cerebral surface and the deep part of the cerebrum at the same time. In 2 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the deep draining veins and superficial venous rete were generally dilated and winding, and the hemorrhagic lesions could be detected earlier than conventional MR images in one case. In 6 eases of cerebral infarction, old hemorrhage was clearly displayed within the lesions. Conclusion: SWI has more predominant advantages than conventional MRI and MRA in detecting the low-flow cerebral vascular malformations, identifying microbleeds and cerebral infarction accompanying hemorrhage, and the dilation of cerebral deep or superficial veins in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Moreover, SWI can show the phase contrast between the lesions and the control areas. (authors)

  16. Super-Resolution of Plant Disease Images for the Acceleration of Image-based Phenotyping and Vigor Diagnosis in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Togami, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Norio

    2017-11-06

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones) are a very promising branch of technology, and they have been utilized in agriculture-in cooperation with image processing technologies-for phenotyping and vigor diagnosis. One of the problems in the utilization of UAVs for agricultural purposes is the limitation in flight time. It is necessary to fly at a high altitude to capture the maximum number of plants in the limited time available, but this reduces the spatial resolution of the captured images. In this study, we applied a super-resolution method to the low-resolution images of tomato diseases to recover detailed appearances, such as lesions on plant organs. We also conducted disease classification using high-resolution, low-resolution, and super-resolution images to evaluate the effectiveness of super-resolution methods in disease classification. Our results indicated that the super-resolution method outperformed conventional image scaling methods in spatial resolution enhancement of tomato disease images. The results of disease classification showed that the accuracy attained was also better by a large margin with super-resolution images than with low-resolution images. These results indicated that our approach not only recovered the information lost in low-resolution images, but also exerted a beneficial influence on further image analysis. The proposed approach will accelerate image-based phenotyping and vigor diagnosis in the field, because it not only saves time to capture images of a crop in a cultivation field but also secures the accuracy of these images for further analysis.

  17. Super-Resolution of Plant Disease Images for the Acceleration of Image-based Phenotyping and Vigor Diagnosis in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones are a very promising branch of technology, and they have been utilized in agriculture—in cooperation with image processing technologies—for phenotyping and vigor diagnosis. One of the problems in the utilization of UAVs for agricultural purposes is the limitation in flight time. It is necessary to fly at a high altitude to capture the maximum number of plants in the limited time available, but this reduces the spatial resolution of the captured images. In this study, we applied a super-resolution method to the low-resolution images of tomato diseases to recover detailed appearances, such as lesions on plant organs. We also conducted disease classification using high-resolution, low-resolution, and super-resolution images to evaluate the effectiveness of super-resolution methods in disease classification. Our results indicated that the super-resolution method outperformed conventional image scaling methods in spatial resolution enhancement of tomato disease images. The results of disease classification showed that the accuracy attained was also better by a large margin with super-resolution images than with low-resolution images. These results indicated that our approach not only recovered the information lost in low-resolution images, but also exerted a beneficial influence on further image analysis. The proposed approach will accelerate image-based phenotyping and vigor diagnosis in the field, because it not only saves time to capture images of a crop in a cultivation field but also secures the accuracy of these images for further analysis.

  18. Cardiac imaging in systemic diseases: what the clinician should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cesar J; Santana, Pamela Pina; Martinez, Jorge; Garcia, Mario J

    2018-04-05

    Systemic diseases that affect the cardiovascular system constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for all specialists involved; imaging tools along with clinical suspicion play an essential role in their evaluation. These entities share neurological, immunological, renal, hematologic, oncologic, infectious and endocrine processes, all of which may have associated cardiac involvement. Recent advances in cardiac ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear scintigraphy have impacted the management of these conditions when involving the heart since they provide valuable anatomical and functional information while avoiding the use of invasive techniques. For this review, bibliographic sources were gathered from diverse databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO and Google Scholar, concentrating on English language publications dealing with the clinical use of these tools. Clinical suspicion should always guide the use of imaging since in many instances these techniques only play a supportive role rather than representing a diagnostic gold standard. Early diagnosis is critical due to the fact that cardiac manifestations are commonly a late phenomenon. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Imaging of Hydatid Disease with a Focus on Extrahepatic Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaquett, Eugenio; Menias, Christine; Garrido, Francisco; Vargas, Matías; Olivares, José Francisco; Campos, Daniel; Pinochet, Natalia; Luna, Antonio; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Huete, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid disease (HD) is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of a tapeworm that is endemic to many regions around the world-South America, Africa, and Asia, in particular. Humans are infected as intermediate hosts in the parasite's life cycle; thus, HD can be seen in persons living in areas where animal husbandry is practiced. However, owing to the varied patterns of migration and immigration during the past several decades, HD can be diagnosed in individuals living anywhere. The liver is the most common organ involved, with hepatic HD accounting for the majority of published cases. However, HD can affect multiple organs and tissues other than the liver, including the spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, peritoneum, muscles, and brain. Knowledge of the route of spread, clinical findings at presentation, and possible complications involving each extrahepatic location can be useful for the radiologist when evaluating imaging findings in patients suspected of having HD. The ultrasonographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of extrahepatic hydatid lesions frequently simulate those of hepatic HD, as long as rupture, bleeding, and/or superimposed bacterial infection has not occurred. Specific features of HD seen at different extrahepatic sites can help tailor the diagnosis. The differential diagnoses that can mimic HD at every nonhepatic location should be considered, as many of these entities are common, especially in nonendemic areas. © RSNA, 2017.

  20. Diffusion tensor imaging of the nigrostriatal fibers in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wu, I-Wei; Buckley, Shannon; Coffey, Christopher S; Foster, Eric; Mendick, Susan; Seibyl, John; Schuff, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is histopathologically characterized by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The depletion of these neurons is thought to reduce the dopaminergic function of the nigrostriatal pathway, as well as the neural fibers that link the substantia nigra to the striatum (putamen and caudate), causing a dysregulation in striatal activity that ultimately leads to lack of movement control. Based on diffusion tensor imaging, visualizing this pathway and measuring alterations of the fiber integrity remain challenging. The objectives were to 1) develop a diffusion tensor tractography protocol for reliably tracking the nigrostriatal fibers on multicenter data; 2) test whether the integrities measured by diffusion tensor imaging of the nigrostriatal fibers are abnormal in PD; and 3) test whether abnormal integrities of the nigrostriatal fibers in PD patients are associated with the severity of motor disability and putaminal dopamine binding ratios. Diffusion tensor tractography was performed on 50 drug-naïve PD patients and 27 healthy control subjects from the international multicenter Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative. Tractography consistently detected the nigrostriatal fibers, yielding reliable diffusion measures. Fractional anisotropy, along with radial and axial diffusivity of the nigrostriatal tract, showed systematic abnormalities in patients. In addition, variations in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity of the nigrostriatal tract were associated with the degree of motor deficits in PD patients. Taken together, the findings imply that the diffusion tensor imaging characteristic of the nigrostriatal tract is potentially an index for detecting and staging of early PD. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Parkinson's disease: interhemispheric textural differences in MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiö, Minna; Holli, Kirsi K; Harrison, Lara C V; Ruottinen, Hanna; Rossi, Maija; Helminen, Mika T; Ryymin, Pertti; Paalavuo, Raija; Soimakallio, Seppo; Eskola, Hannu J; Elovaara, Irina; Dastidar, Prasun

    2011-10-01

    Early-stage diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essential in making decisions related to treatment and prognosis. However, there is no specific diagnostic test for the diagnosis of PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of texture analysis (TA) of magnetic resonance images in detecting subtle changes between the hemispheres in various brain structures in patients with early symptoms of parkinsonism. In addition, functional TA parameters for detecting textural changes are presented. Fifty-one patients with symptoms of PD and 20 healthy controls were imaged using a 3-T magnetic resonance device. Co-occurrence matrix-based TA was applied to detect changes in textures between the hemispheres in the following clinically interesting areas: dentate nucleus, basilar pons, substantia nigra, globus pallidus, thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus, corona radiata, and centrum semiovale. The TA results were statistically evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed interhemispheric textural differences among the patients, especially in the area of basilar pons and midbrain. Concentrating on this clinically interesting area, the four most discriminant parameters were defined: co-occurrence matrix correlation, contrast, difference variance, and sum variance. With these parameters, differences were also detected in the dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, and corona radiata. On the basis of this study, interhemispheric differences in the magnetic resonance images of patients with PD can be identified by the means of co-occurrence matrix-based TA. The detected areas correlate with the current pathophysiologic and neuroanatomic knowledge of PD. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in early preclinical Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassenko, Andrei G.; McCue, Lena; Jasielec, Mateusz S; Su, Yi; Gordon, Brian A.; Xiong, Chengjie; Holtzman, David M; Benzinger, Tammie LS; Morris, John C; Fagan, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Objective Deposition of Aβ-containing plaques as evidenced by amyloid imaging and CSF Aβ42 is an early indicator of preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD). To better understand their relationship during the earliest preclinical stages, we investigated baseline CSF markers in cognitively normal individuals at different stages of amyloid deposition defined by longitudinal amyloid imaging with Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB): 1) PIB-negative at baseline and follow-up (PIB−, normal); 2) PIB− at baseline but PIB-positive at follow-up (PIB converters, early preclinical AD); and 3) PIB-positive at baseline and follow-up (PIB+, preclinical AD). Methods Cognitively normal individuals (n=164) who had undergone baseline PIB scan and CSF collection within one year of each other and at least one additional PIB follow-up were included. Amyloid status was defined dichotomously using an a priori mean cortical cut-off. Results PIB converters (n=20) at baseline exhibited significantly lower CSF Aβ42 compared to those who remained PIB− (n=123), but higher compared to PIB+ group (n=21). A robust negative correlation (r=−0.879, p=0.0001) between CSF Aβ42 and absolute (but sub-threshold) PIB binding was observed during this early preclinical stage. The negative correlation was not as strong once individuals were PIB+ (r=−0.456, p=0.038), and there was no correlation in the stable PIB− group (p=0.905) or in the group (n=10) with early symptomatic AD (p=0.537). Interpretation CSF Ab42 levels are tightly coupled with cortical amyloid load in the earliest stages of preclinical AD, and began to decrease dramatically prior to the point when an abnormal threshold of cortical accumulation is detected with amyloid imaging. PMID:27398953

  3. Vascular imaging: the evolving role of the multidisciplinary team meeting in peripheral vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew; Roditi, Giles

    2014-12-01

    This article reviews the importance of preinterventional cross-sectional imaging in the evaluation of peripheral arterial disease, as well as discussing the pros and cons of each imaging modality. The importance of a multidisciplinary team approach is emphasized.

  4. Imaging of chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Xuhui; Chen Zhong; Ye Wenqin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging findings of the chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse. Methods: Twenty-five cases of clinically confirmed chest disease due to intravenous heroin abuse were retrospectively analyzed. 25 cases had conventional X-ray film, 6 cases had CT scanning, and 6 cases had echocardiography scanning. Results: On X-ray and CT, the following signs were found: lung making manifold (n = 5), small patchy shadow (n = 15), pneumatocele (n = 16), small cavity (n = 16), small node (n = 7), pleural effusion (n = 8 ), pneumothorax (n = 2), hydropneumothorax (n = 6), pulmonary edema (n = 2), megacardia (n = 11), multiple-shaped lesion (n = 20). On echocardiography, tricuspid vegetation (n = 4) and tricuspid insufficiency (n = 4) were found. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT manifestations of chest inflammation due to intravenous heroin abuse are multiple. The multiple small cavities and pneumatoceles sign are of some value in the diagnosis of lung inflammation due to intravenous heroin abuse among young patients

  5. Monitoring of the periodontal disease using digital image analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taba Junior, Mario.

    1995-01-01

    The radiographs play an important role in the diagnosis and management of periodontal disease although the most appropriate form of assessment vary. The great technologic advance and the easily accessible systems of digital image analyses, specify digitized radiographs, improve the diagnostic power. The studied group was 29 adults (14 female and 15 male) ranging in age from 18 to 45 years. They all had evidence of alveolar bone loss and established periodontitis. They were studied, without treatment, over a six month period with four posterior standardized vertical bite wings radiographs, electronic probing of attachment loss, and bacteriological and temperature analysis of periodontal pocket. The aim of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the loss of radiographic crestal bone height and probing attachment loss in digitized radiographs and show a standardization method for periodontal radiographs. Radiographic and probing attachment change at all sites, dichotomously classified as to not changing or loosing indicated 20.42% of sites were loosing by measurement of radiographic change and 5.29% were loosing by measurement of attachment change. There was concordance between the presence or absence of probing attachment loss and bone loss in 72% to 86% depending on the area. The results, admitting methodological limitations, indicate that when these two methods for the assessment of progressive periodontitis were used they represents measure degrees of different features of periodontitis and that the period of periodontal disease activity was detected in the either the soft tissue attachment or bone. (author)

  6. Dental diseases and radionuclide imaging of the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Jose A; Pardo, Carlos; Olmos, Antonio; Cuadrado, Maria L; Ruibal, Alvaro

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of radionuclide bone scans of the jaws with data obtained at the nuclear medicine department from a brief and feasible dental history, taking special account of cases with a positive scan and no recent dental events. Ninety-eight patients undergoing radionuclide bone scan as part of their diagnosis in non-dental, oncological and non-oncological diseases were imaged with 99mTc-labelled oxidronate. Superior and inferior halves of the mandible and maxilla (392 quadrants) were regarded as normal or having an abnormally high uptake. A recent (1 year) dental history was also obtained through a brief questionnaire and data were referred to each quadrant of the jaws. The association between the bone scan and dental disease was assessed by means of the chi-squared test. The overall results of scintigraphy and history coincided in 66 patients (46 with abnormal and 20 with normal findings; P = 0.002). Twenty-five patients had a positive scintigram without any known dental disorder. Results of scintigraphy and history coincided in 254 quadrants (78 with abnormal and 176 with normal findings; P < 0.001). Eighty-three quadrants had hot spots in the scintigram without any known dental lesion. It can be concluded that abnormal jaw scintigrams are frequent in patients without known dental disease, and this may indicate silent osteoblastic activity. These observations should be reported to the dentist for several reasons. First, they may reveal asymptomatic dental lesions. Second, the use of oral prostheses and implants is increasing and they require the support of healthy alveolar bone.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of ocular and orbital disease in 5 dogs and a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.V.; Ring, R.D.; Ward, D.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired in five dogs and one cat with ocular and orbital disease. MR images were obtained in the dorsal or oblique dorsal, and oblique sagittal planes. Pathologic changes identified in MR images included inflammatory lesions, cystic structures, and neoplasms. All abnormalities were readily apparent in TI-weighted images. MR findings in affected animals were often similar in signal intensity, location, and growth pattern to those found in people with comparable diseases. Although no MR changes were considered pathognomonic for a given disease, MR imaging provided detailed information on the homogeneity, extent and invasiveness of the lesions

  8. Multimodal PET Imaging of Amyloid and Tau Pathology in Alzheimer Disease and Non-Alzheimer Disease Dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenjie; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-07-01

    Biomarkers of the molecular pathology underpinning dementia syndromes are increasingly recognized as crucial for diagnosis and development of disease-modifying treatments. Amyloid PET imaging is an integral part of the diagnostic assessment of Alzheimer disease. Its use has also deepened understanding of the role of amyloid pathology in Lewy body disorders and aging. Tau PET imaging is an imaging biomarker that will likely play an important role in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment in dementias. Using tau PET imaging to examine how tau pathology relates to amyloid and other markers of neurodegeneration will serve to better understand the pathophysiologic cascade that leads to dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rosai-Dorfman Disease with Epidural and Spinal Bone Marrow Involvement: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oner, A.Y.; Akpek, S.; Tali, T.

    2007-01-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), or Rosai-Dorfman disease, is a rare histiocytic disorder that typically presents with chronic, self-limiting cervical lymphadenopathy. Although this disease mainly affects histiocytes, there are a few reports of bone marrow infiltration. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a promising technology in differentiating between various bone marrow pathologies. We here present conventional magnetic resonance imaging and DWI features of a patient with SHML and bone marrow involvement

  10. Rosai-Dorfman Disease with Epidural and Spinal Bone Marrow Involvement: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oner, A.Y.; Akpek, S.; Tali, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Gazi Univ. School of Medicine. Besevler-Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), or Rosai-Dorfman disease, is a rare histiocytic disorder that typically presents with chronic, self-limiting cervical lymphadenopathy. Although this disease mainly affects histiocytes, there are a few reports of bone marrow infiltration. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a promising technology in differentiating between various bone marrow pathologies. We here present conventional magnetic resonance imaging and DWI features of a patient with SHML and bone marrow involvement.

  11. White matter injury in newborns with congenital heart disease: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkey, Sarah B; Ou, Xiawei; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H; Glasier, Charles M; Swearingen, Christopher J; Melguizo, Maria S; Yap, Vivien L; Schmitz, Michael L; Bhutta, Adnan T

    2014-09-01

    Brain injury is observed on cranial magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively in up to 50% of newborns with congenital heart disease. Newer imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging provide sensitive measures of the white matter integrity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diffusion tensor imaging analysis technique of tract-based spatial statistics in newborns with congenital heart disease. Term newborns with congenital heart disease who would require surgery at less than 1 month of age were prospectively enrolled (n = 19). Infants underwent preoperative and postoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging. Tract-based spatial statistics, an objective whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging analysis technique, was used to determine differences in white matter fractional anisotropy between infant groups. Term control infants were also compared with congenital heart disease infants. Postmenstrual age was equivalent between congenital heart disease infant groups and between congenital heart disease and control infants. Ten infants had preoperative brain injury, either infarct or white matter injury, by conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging. The technique of tract-based spatial statistics showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (P tensor imaging analysis technique that may have better sensitivity in detecting white matter injury compared with conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging in term newborns with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiparametric Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging in Assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Perlman, Alan; Kalache, Safa; Berman, Nathaniel; Seshan, Surya; Salvatore, Steven; Smith, Lindsey; Wehrli, Natasha; Waldron, Levi; Kodali, Hanish; Chevalier, James

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the value of multiparametric quantitative ultrasound imaging in assessing chronic kidney disease (CKD) using kidney biopsy pathologic findings as reference standards. We prospectively measured multiparametric quantitative ultrasound markers with grayscale, spectral Doppler, and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in 25 patients with CKD before kidney biopsy and 10 healthy volunteers. Based on all pathologic (glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, arteriosclerosis, and edema) scores, the patients with CKD were classified into mild (no grade 3 and quantitative ultrasound parameters included kidney length, cortical thickness, pixel intensity, parenchymal shear wave velocity, intrarenal artery peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistive index. We tested the difference in quantitative ultrasound parameters among mild CKD, moderate to severe CKD, and healthy controls using analysis of variance, analyzed correlations of quantitative ultrasound parameters with pathologic scores and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using Pearson correlation coefficients, and examined the diagnostic performance of quantitative ultrasound parameters in determining moderate CKD and an estimated GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. There were significant differences in cortical thickness, pixel intensity, PSV, and EDV among the 3 groups (all P quantitative ultrasound parameters, the top areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for PSV and EDV were 0.88 and 0.97, respectively, for determining pathologic moderate to severe CKD, and 0.76 and 0.86 for estimated GFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Moderate to good correlations were found for PSV, EDV, and pixel intensity with pathologic scores and estimated GFR. The PSV, EDV, and pixel intensity are valuable in determining moderate to severe CKD. The value of shear wave velocity in

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of Osgood-Schlatter disease: the course of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Atsushi; Fukubayashi, Toru; Ishii, Tomoo; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the nature of Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) using MR images. Thirty boys (40 knees) with OSD diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs were investigated with MRI. Longitudinal evaluation was undertaken in 22 patients and the mean follow-up was 1.5+/-0.9 years. MR examinations were performed at least every 6 months in most cases. When a patient's symptoms changed, MRI was repeated and in cases where the initial MR examination showed an early or progressive stage of OSD, MRI was undertaken every month where possible. All MR examinations were performed in the sagittal plane with a 0.2 T imager. MR images were classified into five stages as follows: normal, early, progressive, terminal and healing. The stage of 11 knees (28%) did not change during the course of the study and 21 knees (53%) showed a change of at least one stage. Eight knees (20%) did not have follow-up MR studies. The initial MR examination was normal in nine knees. Eight knees were at the early stage at presentation. MR images showed edema-like changes around the tibial tuberosity. Ten knees were classified as in the progressive stage at the initial presentation and six knees were classified in this group during progression on follow-up MRI. MR images showed partial avulsion of the secondary ossification center, which was seen to be being pulled proximally. Eleven knees were at the terminal stage on presentation, where the avulsed parts of the secondary ossification center had become completely separated. Two knees were classified as in the healing stage at presentation and 19 knees progressed to the healing stage from the normal, early and progressive stages. The MR images showed the separated part that did not create the ossicle had recovered by osseous healing. On the other hand, radiographs of the early stage appeared almost normal, and in the progressive stage could not show the avulsed parts. We clarified the progress of OSD with MRI. The process of OSD

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of Osgood-Schlatter disease: the course of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Atsushi; Ishii, Tomoo; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2002-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to clarify the nature of Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) using MR images.Design. Thirty boys (40 knees) with OSD diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs were investigated with MRI. Longitudinal evaluation was undertaken in 22 patients and the mean follow-up was 1.5±0.9 years. MR examinations were performed at least every 6 months in most cases. When a patient's symptoms changed, MRI was repeated and in cases where the initial MR examination showed an early or progressive stage of OSD, MRI was undertaken every month where possible. All MR examinations were performed in the sagittal plane with a 0.2 T imager.Results. MR images were classified into five stages as follows: normal, early, progressive, terminal and healing. The stage of 11 knees (28%) did not change during the course of the study and 21 knees (53%) showed a change of at least one stage. Eight knees (20%) did not have follow-up MR studies. The initial MR examination was normal in nine knees. Eight knees were at the early stage at presentation. MR images showed edema-like changes around the tibial tuberosity. Ten knees were classified as in the progressive stage at the initial presentation and six knees were classified in this group during progression on follow-up MRI. MR images showed partial avulsion of the secondary ossification center, which was seen to be being pulled proximally. Eleven knees were at the terminal stage on presentation, where the avulsed parts of the secondary ossification center had become completely separated. Two knees were classified as in the healing stage at presentation and 19 knees progressed to the healing stage from the normal, early and progressive stages. The MR images showed the separated part that did not create the ossicle had recovered by osseous healing. On the other hand, radiographs of the early stage appeared almost normal, and in the progressive stage could not show the avulsed parts.Conclusions. We clarified the progress

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of Osgood-Schlatter disease: the course of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Atsushi; Ishii, Tomoo; Ochiai, Naoyuki [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Fukubayashi, Toru [Department of Life Sciences, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to clarify the nature of Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) using MR images.Design. Thirty boys (40 knees) with OSD diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs were investigated with MRI. Longitudinal evaluation was undertaken in 22 patients and the mean follow-up was 1.5{+-}0.9 years. MR examinations were performed at least every 6 months in most cases. When a patient's symptoms changed, MRI was repeated and in cases where the initial MR examination showed an early or progressive stage of OSD, MRI was undertaken every month where possible. All MR examinations were performed in the sagittal plane with a 0.2 T imager.Results. MR images were classified into five stages as follows: normal, early, progressive, terminal and healing. The stage of 11 knees (28%) did not change during the course of the study and 21 knees (53%) showed a change of at least one stage. Eight knees (20%) did not have follow-up MR studies. The initial MR examination was normal in nine knees. Eight knees were at the early stage at presentation. MR images showed edema-like changes around the tibial tuberosity. Ten knees were classified as in the progressive stage at the initial presentation and six knees were classified in this group during progression on follow-up MRI. MR images showed partial avulsion of the secondary ossification center, which was seen to be being pulled proximally. Eleven knees were at the terminal stage on presentation, where the avulsed parts of the secondary ossification center had become completely separated. Two knees were classified as in the healing stage at presentation and 19 knees progressed to the healing stage from the normal, early and progressive stages. The MR images showed the separated part that did not create the ossicle had recovered by osseous healing. On the other hand, radiographs of the early stage appeared almost normal, and in the progressive stage could not show the avulsed parts.Conclusions. We clarified the

  16. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in Crohn's disease: a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthast, S.; Rieber, A.; Wruk, D.; Brambs, H.-J.; Tirpitz, C. von; Adler, G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to compare MRI of the abdomen with ultrasound of the abdomen and gastrointestinal tract in patients with Crohn's disease. Forty-six patients were included in the study. We analyzed the localization of Crohn's lesions, the number of affected bowel segments, the number of stenoses, and the presence of abscesses, fistulae, and any additional findings. Findings were verified by means of one or more of the following: enteroclysis; surgical findings; and colonoscopy. The results show that MRI is superior to ultrasound in the localization of affected bowel segments (sensitivity: MRI 97.5%; US 76%) and in recognizing fistulae (sensitivity: MRI 87%; US 31%), stenoses (sensitivity: MRI 100%; US 58%) and abscesses (sensitivity: MRI 100%; US 89%). Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen should be obtained to clarify discrepant clinical and sonographic findings. In addition, despite its higher cost, MRI of the abdomen is justified in patients in whom Crohn's lesions are known or suspected in anatomic areas proximal to the terminal or neoterminal ileum and in cases with suspicion of fistulae and abscesses. (orig.)

  17. Progress of PET imaging in the study of neural stem cell transplantation treating Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Haibo; Liu Xingdang

    2004-01-01

    PET imaging has important value in the study of neural stem cell transplantation treating Parkinson's disease, especial in the evaluation of the effect, the study of treating mechanisms and the comparation of effect in different transplantation places. PET imaging as a non-invasive method plays a more and more important role in the study of neural stem cell transplantation treating Parkinson's disease. (authors)

  18. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Systems for Brain Diseases in Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Yamashita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the basics and recent researches of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems for assisting neuroradiologists in detection of brain diseases, e.g., asymptomatic unruptured aneurysms, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and multiple sclerosis (MS, in magnetic resonance (MR images. The CAD systems consist of image feature extraction based on image processing techniques and machine learning classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines. We introduce useful examples of the CAD systems in the neuroradiology, and conclude with possibilities in the future of the CAD systems for brain diseases in MR images.

  19. Can the extent of coronary artery disease be predicted from thallium-201 myocardial images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKillop, J.H.; Murray, R.G.; Turner, J.G.; Bessent, R.G.; Lorimer, A.R.; Greig, W.R.

    1979-07-01

    The accuracy with which the extent of coronary artery disease can be predicted from stress thallium-201 myocardial images has been assessed in 81 patients with chest pain. Whereas the appearance of the myocaridal images was both a sensitive means of detecting coronary artery disease (images abnormal in 43 of 47 patients with abnormal coronary arteriograms) and specific in excluding it (images normal in 31 of 34 patients with normal arteriograms), there was poor correlation between the extent of disease predicted from the Tl-201 images and the findings at arteriography. It is concluded that although stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging is a useful method for the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease, it cannot be relied upon to predict the number of abnormal vessels.

  20. Can the extent of coronary artery disease be predicted from thallium-201 myocardial images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy with which the extent of coronary artery disease can be predicted from stress thallium-201 myocardial images has been assessed in 81 patients with chest pain. Whereas the appearance of the myocaridal images was both a sensitive means of detecting coronary artery disease (images abnormal in 43 of 47 patients with abnormal coronary arteriograms) and specific in excluding it (images normal in 31 of 34 patients with normal arteriograms), there was poor correlation between the extent of disease predicted from the Tl-201 images and the findings at arteriography. It is concluded that although stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging is a useful method for the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease, it cannot be relied upon to predict the number of abnormal vessels

  1. Perspective of inline control of latent defects and diseases on french fries with multispectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, J.C.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Buydens, L.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility is investigated to improve discrimination between different defect and diseases on raw French fries with multispectral imaging. Four different potato cultivars are selected from which French Fries are cut. Both multispectral images and RGB color images are classified

  2. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging with single photon emission CT in Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Syuhei

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-five patients with Kawasaki disease underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and planar imaging with thallium-201 after dipyridamole in order to evaluate the usefulness of detecting the complication of coronary artery disease (CAD). The results of SPECT with a three reconstruction imaging study (short axis, vertical long axis, horizontal long axis) and of planar imaging study with thallium-201 were compared with coronary angiography. The overall sensitivity of detecting CAD was 86.7% with SPECT and 66.7% with planar imaging. The sensitivity in identifying individual vessels was 76.0% with SPECT and 44.0% with planar imaging. SPECT was especially superior to planar imaging in detecting localized stenosis. (53.8% vs 15.4%) The specificity of SPECT did not differ from the planar imaging study. Dipyridamole thallium-201 SPECT is a useful non-invasive method to detect CAD due to Kawasaki disease. (author)

  3. A pilot study of three dimensional color CT images of brain diseases to improve informed consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanizaki, Yoshio; Akiyama, Takenori; Hiraga, Kenji; Akaji, Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    We have described brain diseases to patients and their family using monochrome CT images. It is thought that patients have difficulties in giving their consent to our conventional explanation because their understanding of brain diseases is based on three dimensional and color images, however, standard CT images are two dimensional and gray scale images. We have been trying to use three dimensional color CT images to improve the typical patient's comprehension of brain diseases. We also try to simulate surgery using these images. Multi-slice CT accumulates precise isotropic voxel data within a half minute. These two dimensional and monochrome data are converted to three dimensional color CT images by 3D workstation. Three dimensional color CT images of each brain structures (e.g. scalp, skull, brain, ventricles and lesions) are created separately. Then, selected structures are fused together for different purposes. These images are able to rotate around any axis. Because the methods to generate three-dimensional color images have not established, we neurosurgeons must create these images. In particular, when an operation is required, the surgeon should create the images. In this paper, we demonstrate how three-dimensional color CT images can improve informed consent. (author)

  4. Perianal Crohn Disease: Evaluation of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging as an Indicator of Disease Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsthuis, Karin; Lavini, Cristina; Bipat, Shandra; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Stoker, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively determine clinical value of dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the evaluation of disease activity in perianal Crohn disease (CD). Materials and Methods: Patients provided written informed consent. Study approval was waived by an

  5. Comparison of Ga-67 planar imaging and single photon emission computed tomography in malignant chest disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumeh, S.S.; Rosenthal, D.; Kaplan, W.D.; English, R.E.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the value of Ga-67 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients (pts) with malignant chest disease, the authors compared Ga-67 planar scans (ps) and SPECT with the medical records in twenty-five consecutive patients. Twenty-three examinations were performed on 17 pts with Hodgkin's disease (HD) and three pts with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Five examinations were performed on 5 pts with bronchogenic carcinoma (BC). The two modalities were evaluated for (1) presence or absence of disease, (2) number of foci of abnormal uptake and (3) extent of disease. In pts with lymphoma, SPECT defined the extent of disease better than planar imaging in eight examinations; it demonstrated para-cardial involvement in one pt, separated hilar from mediastinal disease in 4, and demonstrated posterior mediastinal disease in 3. SPECT clarified suspicious foci on planar images in seven examinations, correctly ruled out disease in two pts with equivocal planar images and did not exchange planar image findings in six examinations. In pts with bronchogenic carcinoma, both medalities correctly ruled out mediastinal involvement in three pts. SPECT detected mediastinal lymph node involvement in one pt with equivocal planar images. Both SPECT and planar imaging missed direct tumor extension to the mediastinum in one pt. They conclude that Ga-67 with SPECT is better than planar images for staging of chest lymphoma and BC. Since it defines different lymph node groups it carries a good potential for staging as well as follow up of those pts

  6. Three-dimensional surface reconstruction imaging for evaluation of congenital heart disease from ECG-triggered MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannier, M.W.; Laschinger, J.; Knapp, R.H.; Gutierrez, F.R.; Gronnemeyer, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional surface reconstruction images of the heart and great vessels were produced from contiguous sequences of electrocardiographically triggered MR images in 25 patients with congenital heart disease and in three healthy subjects. The imaging data were semiautomatically processed to separate the epicardial and endocardial surfaces and to define the outline of the enclosed blood volumes on a section by section basis. Images were obtained at 5-mm intervals in patients aged 3 months to 30 years with anomalies of the great vessels, tetralogy of Fallot, septal defects, pulmonary atresia, and other congenital heart malformations. The results were used to facilitate the surgical treatment of these patients and were compared with echocardiographic and cineradiographic studies, and with surgical findings or pathologic specimens. These surface reconstruction images were useful for communicating the results of diagnostic examinations to cardiac surgeons, for sizing and location of intracardiac defects, for imaging the pulmonary venous drainage, and for assessing regional and global function

  7. Kinematic MR imaging in surgical management of cervical disc disease, spondylosis and spondylotic myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, C.; Metzner, J.; Brinkmann, G.; Heller, M. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Weinert, D.; Schoen, R.; Rautenberg, E.; Mehdorn, H.M. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Falliner, A. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Orthopedics; Resnick, D. [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-03-01

    Purpose: To estimate the clinical value and influence of kinematic MR imaging in patients with degenerative diseases of the cervical spine. Material and methods: Eighty-one patients were examined with a 1.5 T whole body magnet using a positioning device. Cervical disc disease was classified according to clinical and radiographic findings into 4 stages: stage I=cervical disc disease (n=13); stage II=spondylosis (n=42); stage III=spondylosis with restricted motion (n=11); and stage IV-cervical spondylotic myelopathy (n=15). Findings on kinematic MR images were compared to those on flexion and extension radiographs, myelography, CT-myelography and static MR imaging. Furthermore, the influence of kinematic MR imaging on surgical management and intra-operative patient positioning was determined. Results: Additional information obtained by kinematic MR imaging changed the therapeutic management in 7 of 11 (64%) patients with stage III disease, and in 13 of 15 (87%) patients with stage IV disease. Instead of an anterior approach, a posterior surgical approach was chosen in 3 of 11 patients (27%) with stage III disease and in 6 of 15 patients (40%) with stage IV disease. Hyperextension of the neck was avoided intra-operatively in 4 patients (27%) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and in 1 patient with stage II (2%) and in 1 patient with stage III (9%) disease. Kinematic MR imaging provided additional information in all patients with stages III and IV disease except in 1 patient with stage III disease, when compared to flexion and extension radiographs, myelography, CT-myelography and static MR examination. Conclusion: Kinematic MR imaging adds additional information when compared to conventional imaging methods in patients with advanced stages of degenerative disease of the cervical spine. (orig.)

  8. Kinematic MR imaging in surgical management of cervical disc disease, spondylosis and spondylotic myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhle, C.; Metzner, J.; Brinkmann, G.; Heller, M.; Weinert, D.; Schoen, R.; Rautenberg, E.; Mehdorn, H.M.; Falliner, A.; Resnick, D.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the clinical value and influence of kinematic MR imaging in patients with degenerative diseases of the cervical spine. Material and methods: Eighty-one patients were examined with a 1.5 T whole body magnet using a positioning device. Cervical disc disease was classified according to clinical and radiographic findings into 4 stages: stage I=cervical disc disease (n=13); stage II=spondylosis (n=42); stage III=spondylosis with restricted motion (n=11); and stage IV-cervical spondylotic myelopathy (n=15). Findings on kinematic MR images were compared to those on flexion and extension radiographs, myelography, CT-myelography and static MR imaging. Furthermore, the influence of kinematic MR imaging on surgical management and intra-operative patient positioning was determined. Results: Additional information obtained by kinematic MR imaging changed the therapeutic management in 7 of 11 (64%) patients with stage III disease, and in 13 of 15 (87%) patients with stage IV disease. Instead of an anterior approach, a posterior surgical approach was chosen in 3 of 11 patients (27%) with stage III disease and in 6 of 15 patients (40%) with stage IV disease. Hyperextension of the neck was avoided intra-operatively in 4 patients (27%) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and in 1 patient with stage II (2%) and in 1 patient with stage III (9%) disease. Kinematic MR imaging provided additional information in all patients with stages III and IV disease except in 1 patient with stage III disease, when compared to flexion and extension radiographs, myelography, CT-myelography and static MR examination. Conclusion: Kinematic MR imaging adds additional information when compared to conventional imaging methods in patients with advanced stages of degenerative disease of the cervical spine. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine disc diseases. Frequency of false negatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelot, J.M.; Maugars, Y.; Delecrin, Y.; Caillon, F.; Prost, A.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had an impressive impact on evaluation of degenerative diseases of the spine. Nevertheless, false negatives can occur on images involving lumbar discs. Degenerative disc diseases documented on discography and/or pathology examination of the discs can go unrecognized. Likewise sensitivity for the detection of protruding disc hernias is not totally satisfactory (20% false negatives). Finally, a magnetic resonance image visualizing displacement of the disc is not specific (10 to 15% false positives); images showing protrusion or hernia can be seen in 30% of asymptomatic patients. Although MRI gives slightly more information than other imaging techniques, false images do exist. Moreover, the usefulness of MRI to demonstrate disc disease in case of a negative CT-scan remains to be demonstrated. (authors). 26 refs

  10. Prediction of neurodegenerative diseases from functional brain imaging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mudali, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a challenge, especially in the developed society where life expectancy is high. Since these diseases progress slowly, they are not easy to diagnose at an early stage. Moreover, they portray similar disease features, which makes them hard to differentiate. In this

  11. Image registration for assessment of Crohn's disease severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects millions of people in Europe alone. It is important to accurately assess the disease severity in a safe and non-invasive manner in order to improve the treatment of patients with CD. Furthermore, the ideal assessment

  12. Combining Image and Non-Image Data for Automatic Detection of Retina Disease in a Telemedicine Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aykac, Deniz [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fox, Karen [Delta Health Alliance; Garg, Seema [University of North Carolina; Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Trent L [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A telemedicine network with retina cameras and automated quality control, physiological feature location, and lesion/anomaly detection is a low-cost way of achieving broad-based screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and other eye diseases. In the process of a routine eye-screening examination, other non-image data is often available which may be useful in automated diagnosis of disease. In this work, we report on the results of combining this non-image data with image data, using the protocol and processing steps of a prototype system for automated disease diagnosis of retina examinations from a telemedicine network. The system includes quality assessments, automated physiology detection, and automated lesion detection to create an archive of known cases. Non-image data such as diabetes onset date and hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c) for each patient examination are included as well, and the system is used to create a content-based image retrieval engine capable of automated diagnosis of disease into 'normal' and 'abnormal' categories. The system achieves a sensitivity and specificity of 91.2% and 71.6% using hold-one-out validation testing.

  13. Is there a role for scintigraphic imaging of bone manifestations in Gaucher disease? A review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, PET Center]|[State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria). Dept. of Internal Medicine II; Kohlfuerst, S.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P. [State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, PET Center; Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Academic Haematology

    2008-07-01

    Gaucher disease is the most prevalent inherited, lysosomal storage disease and is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme {beta}-glucocerebrosidase. Bone and bone marrow alterations are frequent in the most prevalent non-neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease. Imaging of bone manifestations in Gaucher disease is performed by a variety of imaging methods, conventional X-ray and MRI as the most frequently and most important ones. However, different modalities of scintigraphic imaging have also been used. This article gives an overview on scintigraphic imaging with respect to bone manifestations in Gaucher disease discussing the advantages and limitations of scintigraphic imaging in comparison to other imaging methods. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear medicine imaging and therapy: gender biases in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Valeria M; Aarsvold, John N; Alazraki, Naomi P

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based medicine is medical research and care conducted with conscious consideration of the sex and gender differences of subjects and patients. This issue of Seminars is focused on diseases for which nuclear medicine is part of routine management and for which the diseases have sex- or gender-based differences that affect incidence or pathophysiology and that thus have differences that can potentially affect the results of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. In this first article, we discuss neurologic diseases, certain gastrointestinal conditions, and thyroid conditions. The discussion is in the context of those sex- or gender-based aspects of these diseases that should be considered in the performance, interpretation, and reporting of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. Cardiovascular diseases, gynecologic diseases, bone conditions such as osteoporosis, pediatric occurrences of some diseases, human immunodeficiency virus-related conditions, and the radiation dose considerations of nuclear medicine studies are discussed in the other articles in this issue.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel in children with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation of disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Loggitsi, Dimitra; Economopoulos, Nikos; Papakonstantinou, Olympia; Kelekis, Nikolaos L. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, General University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Roma, Eleftheria; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Pahoula, Ioanna [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aghia Sofia Children' s Hospital, First Department of Paediatrics, Athens (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Examinations using ionizing radiation are frequently used in the evaluation of disease activity in children affected by idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To develop an MR imaging protocol without the need for fluoroscopic insertion of an enteral tube and to assess the disease activity in children with IBD. Included in the study were 37 children (22 girls and 15 boys; age range 7-15 years, mean 11.67 years) with IBD who underwent MR imaging of the small bowel. Of these 37 children, 32 had Crohn disease and 5 had indeterminate colitis. A water solution containing herbal fibres was administered orally or through a nasogastric tube. Patients were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner with T1-weighted and {tau}2-weighted sequences followed by a dynamic study using 3-D T1-W images after intravenous administration of gadolinium. The percentage enhancement of the bowel wall was significantly increased in patients with abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) values compared to patients with CRP values in the normal range (P<0.001). A relatively weak but significant correlation between percentage enhancement of the bowel wall and CRP values was noted during all phases of enhancement. This MR imaging protocol is a safe and well-tolerated method for evaluating disease activity and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD in children. (orig.)

  16. Imaging modalities in the treatment of congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwen, H. van; Vorstenbosch, E. van [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Approximately one child in a hundred is born with some form of heart defect. Many of these conditions can now be treated, either by surgery or by less invasive interventional procedures. In almost every case, successful treatment depends on diagnostic imaging, in order to determine the nature, location and severity of the condition. Nowadays, diagnosis and sometimes treatment may start even before birth. This article describes the roles of the various imaging modalities in diagnosis and treatment, including echocardiography, X-ray angiography, MRI and multislice CT. Particular attention is paid to the importance of radiation safety in pediatric imaging. (orig.)

  17. Neurological Involvement in Behcet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Akman-Demir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most dreaded organ involvement in Behcet’s disease is neurological involvement. The majority of the cases present with parenchymal CNS involvement characterized as a brainstem meningoencephalitis; a rarer presentation is dural sinus thrombosis. Both situations very rarely occur in the same patient. Since parenchymal neurological involvement in Behcet’s disease is associated with severe sequelae or mortality, it is a poor prognostic organ involvement. In contrast, dural sinus thrombosis in Behcet’s disease has a much better prognosis as compared to the parenchymal involvement, as well as dural sinus thromboses due to other etiologies. There are no randomized controlled treatment trials carried out in neuro-Behcet disease. Mostly accepted approach is to give high dose intravenous steroids at the atack, with a very slow tapering of steroid dose, and adding a long term immunosuppresant. One of the most critical points in neuro-Behcet treatment is not to stop steroids prematurely, and abruptly. It is notable that with the present treatment options, prognosis of neurological involvement in Behcet’s disease is not as grave as it was in the previous years.

  18. God image and happiness in chronic pain patients: the mediating role of disease interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezutter, Jessie; Luyckx, Koen; Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke; Büssing, Arndt; Corveleyn, Jozef; Hutsebaut, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    The present study explored the role of the emotional experience of God (i.e., positive and negative God images) in the happiness of chronic pain (CP) patients. Framed in the transactional model of stress, we tested a model in which God images would influence happiness partially through its influence on disease interpretation as a mediating mechanism. We expected God images to have both a direct and an indirect (through the interpretation of disease) effect on happiness. A cross-sectional questionnaire design was adopted in order to measure demographics, pain condition, God images, disease interpretation, and happiness. One hundred thirty-six CP patients, all members of a national patients' association, completed the questionnaires. Correlational analyses showed meaningful associations among God images, disease interpretation, and happiness. Path analyses from a structural equation modeling approach indicated that positive God images seemed to influence happiness, both directly and indirectly through the pathway of positive interpretation of the disease. Ancillary analyses showed that the negative influence of angry God images on happiness disappeared after controlling for pain severity. The results indicated that one's emotional experience of God has an influence on happiness in CP patients, both directly and indirectly through the pathway of positive disease interpretation. These findings can be framed within the transactional theory of stress and can stimulate further pain research investigating the possible effects of religion in the adaptation to CP.

  19. FOOT ROT DISEASE IDENTIFICATION FOR VELLAIKODI VARIETY OF BETELVINE PLANTS USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vijayakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Betelvine plants are infected variety of diseases in the complete plantation without any premature warning of the diseases. The aim of this paper is to detection of foot rot disease in the vellaikodi variety of betelvine plants using digital image processing techniques. The digital images of the uninfected or normal betelvine leaves and the digital images of the infected in foot rot diseased betelvine leaves at different stages are collected from different Betelvine plants using a high resolution digital camera and collected betelvine images are stored with JPEG format. The digital images of the betelvine leaves analyses are done using the image processing toolbox in MATLAB which gives the normal patterns of the digital images. Using RGB encoding process, the RGB components of the betelvine leaves are separated. The mean and median values for all sample leaves are computed and calculated values are stored in the system. The mean and median values of test leaves are computed and compared with the stored values. As the result of this comparison, it is identified whether test leaves are affected by foot rot disease or not. Finally this analysis helps to recognize the foot rot disease can be identified before it spreads to entire crop.

  20. Discrimination of skin diseases using the multimodal imaging approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, N.; Heuke, S.; Akimov, D.; Latka, I.; Kluschke, F.; Röwert-Huber, H.-J.; Lademann, J.; Dietzek, B.; Popp, J.

    2012-06-01

    Optical microspectroscopic tools reveal great potential for dermatologic diagnostics in the clinical day-to-day routine. To enhance the diagnostic value of individual nonlinear optical imaging modalities such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG) or two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), the approach of multimodal imaging has recently been developed. Here, we present an application of nonlinear optical multimodal imaging with Raman-scattering microscopy to study sizable human-tissue cross-sections. The samples investigated contain both healthy tissue and various skin tumors. This contribution details the rich information content, which can be obtained from the multimodal approach: While CARS microscopy, which - in contrast to spontaneous Raman-scattering microscopy - is not hampered by single-photon excited fluorescence, is used to monitor the lipid and protein distribution in the samples, SHG imaging selectively highlights the distribution of collagen structures within the tissue. This is due to the fact, that SHG is only generated in structures which lack inversion geometry. Finally, TPF reveals the distribution of autofluorophores in tissue. The combination of these techniques, i.e. multimodal imaging, allows for recording chemical images of large area samples and is - as this contribution will highlight - of high clinically diagnostic value.

  1. Diagnosis of Plummer's disease by 99mTc-MIBI thyroid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fang; Zhou Qian

    1996-01-01

    The visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue in Plummer's disease was studied by 99m Tc-MIBI thyroid imaging. 20 patients of Plummer's disease with totally or partially suppressed normal thyroid tissue were studied firstly by 99m TcO 4 - and then by 99m Tc-MIBI thyroid imaging. The suppressed tissue was clearly visualized in 8 out of 9 cases with totally suppressed normal thyroid tissue, while in 11 cases with partially suppressed normal thyroid tissue. The suppressed tissue became clearer in 8 and no change in 3 as compared with their 99m TcO 4 - imaging. The results suggested that 99m Tc-MIBI thyroid imaging may be used as a substitute for post-TSH stimulation imaging in the diagnosis of Plummer's disease. The method is relatively simple and has no TSH-related allergic reaction

  2. Imaging fusion (SPECT/CT) in degenerative disease of spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, P.; Ucros, G.; Bermudez, S.; Ocampo, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To determine the utility of Fusion Imaging SPECT/CT in degenerative pathology of the spine and to establish the impact of the use of fusion imaging in spinal pain due to degenerative changes of the spine. Materials and methods: 44 Patients (M=21, F=23) average age of 63 years and with degenerative pathology of spine were sent to Diagnosis Imaging department in FSFB. Bone scintigraphy (SPECT), CT of spine (cervical: 30%, Lumbar 70%) and fusion imaging were performed in all of them. Bone scintigraphy was carried out in a gamma camera Siemens Diacam double head attached to ESOFT computer. The images were acquired in matrix 128 x 128, 20 seg/imag, 64 images. CT of spine was performed same day or two days after in Helycoidal Siemens somatom emotion CT. The fusion was done in a Dicom workstation in sagital, axial and coronal reconstruction. The findings were evaluated by 2 Nuclear Medicine physicians and 2 radiologists of the staff of FSFB in an independent way. Results: Bone scan (SPECT) and CT of 44 patients were evaluated. CT showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 27 (61.3%) patients, uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 7 (15.9%), bulging disc in 9(20.4%), spinal nucleus lesion in 7(15.9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%), spinal foraminal stenosis in 7 (15.9%), spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis in 4 (9%). Bone scan showed facet joint osteoarthrities in 29 (65.9%), uncovertebral joint arthrosis in 4 (9%), osteophytes in 9 (20.4%) and normal 3 (6.8%). The imaging fusion showed coincidence findings (main lesion in CT with high uptake in scintigraphy) in 34 patients (77.2%) and no coincidence in 10 (22.8%). In 15 (34.09%) patients the fusion provided additional information. The analysis of the findings of CT and SPECT showed similar results in most of the cases and the fusion didn't provide additional information but it allowed to confirm the findings but when the findings didn't match where the CT showed several findings and SPECT only one area with high uptake

  3. Microvascular glycocalyx dimension estimated by automated SDF imaging is not related to cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amraoui, Fouad; Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; van Gorp, Jacqueline; Ramdani, Amal; Vogt, Liffert; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.

    2014-01-01

    The EG regulates vascular homeostasis and has anti-atherogenic properties. SDF imaging allows for noninvasive visualization of microvessels and automated estimation of EG dimensions. We aimed to assess whether microcirculatory EG dimension is related to cardiovascular disease. Sublingual EG

  4. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lol, Pechin; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan compared with intensities in the deformed baseline image indicate local loss of lung tissue that is associated with progression of emphysema. To account for differences in lung intensity owing to differences in the inspiration level in the two scans rather than disease progression, we propose to adjust the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans and may result in a more sensitive measure of disease progression than standard quantitative CT measures.

  5. Neuromuscular Imaging and Phenotypical Variation in Pompe Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.A. Wens (Stephan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractPompe disease is a progressive metabolic myopathy. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid α-glucosidase and leads to glycogen accumulation, predominantly in skeletal muscle. All Dutch patients diagnosed with Pompe disease are referred to the ‘Center of Lysosomal and

  6. Advances in endoscopic ultrasound imaging of colorectal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cârțână, Elena Tatiana; Gheonea, Dan Ionuț; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The development of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has had a significant impact for patients with digestive diseases, enabling enhanced diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, with most of the available evidence focusing on upper gastrointestinal (GI) and pancreatico-biliary diseases. For the lower GI...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease at 0.3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmgren, N.

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the potential of static MR imaging in congenital heart disease. The diagnosis of vascular rings, causing significant respiratory morbidity, previously required invasive methods for diagnosis. In aberrant left pulmonary artery, an uncommon anomaly, MR imaging at 0.3 T provided complete anatomic information. Complex congenital heart malformation is a diagnostic challenge. MR imaging at 0.3 T was efficient in defining most of the components of complex disease. It is especially valuable for imaging of extracardiac structures, which can be difficult to evaluate using echocardiography. MR imaging is an important complement to echocardiography. Improved equipment with sophisticated dynamic applications using high magnetic field strength is now available. The anatomical evaluation of congenital heart anomalies is however still based on static images, and low field magnets will certainly be used even in the future. 141 refs, 11 figs, 8 tabs.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease at 0.3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmgren, N.

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the potential of static MR imaging in congenital heart disease. The diagnosis of vascular rings, causing significant respiratory morbidity, previously required invasive methods for diagnosis. In aberrant left pulmonary artery, an uncommon anomaly, MR imaging at 0.3 T provided complete anatomic information. Complex congenital heart malformation is a diagnostic challenge. MR imaging at 0.3 T was efficient in defining most of the components of complex disease. It is especially valuable for imaging of extracardiac structures, which can be difficult to evaluate using echocardiography. MR imaging is an important complement to echocardiography. Improved equipment with sophisticated dynamic applications using high magnetic field strength is now available. The anatomical evaluation of congenital heart anomalies is however still based on static images, and low field magnets will certainly be used even in the future. 141 refs, 11 figs, 8 tabs

  9. Imaging insights into basal ganglia function, Parkinson’s disease, and dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stoessl, A. Jon; Lehericy, Stephane; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in structural and functional imaging have greatly improved our ability to assess normal functions of the basal ganglia, diagnose parkinsonian syndromes, understand the pathophysiology of parkinsonism and other movement disorders, and detect and monitor disease progression. Radionuclide imaging is the best way to detect and monitor dopamine deficiency, and will probably continue to be the best biomarker for assessment of the effects of disease-modifying therapies. However, adva...

  10. Detection and classification of latent defects and diseases on raw French fries with multispectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, J.C.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Buydens, L.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an application of both multispectral imaging and red/green/blue (RGB) colour imaging for the discrimination between different defect and diseases on raw French fries. Four different potato cultivars generally used for French fries production are selected from which fries are

  11. Usefulness of CT based SPECT Fusion Image in the lung Disease : Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Kim, Tae Hyung; Shin, Ji Yun

    2012-01-01

    Recently, SPECT/CT system has been applied to many diseases, however, the application is not extensively applied at pulmonary disease. Especially, in case that, the pulmonary embolisms suspect at the CT images, SPECT is performed. For the accurate diagnosis, SPECT/CT tests are subsequently undergoing. However, without SPECT/CT, there are some limitations to apply these procedures. With SPECT/CT, although, most of the examination performed after CT. Moreover, such a test procedures generate unnecessary dual irradiation problem to the patient. In this study, we evaluated the amount of unnecessary irradiation, and the usefulness of fusion images of pulmonary disease, which independently acquired from SPECT and CT. Using NEMA PhantomTM (NU2-2001), SPECT and CT scan were performed for fusion images. From June 2011 to September 2010, 10 patients who didn't have other personal history, except lung disease were selected (male: 7, female: 3, mean age: 65.3±12.7). In both clinical patient and phantom data, the fusion images scored higher than SPECT and CT images. The fusion images, which is combined with pulmonary vessel images from CT and functional images from SPECT, can increase the detection possibility in detecting pulmonary embolism in the resin of lung parenchyma. It is sure that performing SPECT and CT in integral SPECT/CT system were better. However, we believe this protocol can give more informative data to have more accurate diagnosis in the hospital without integral SPECT/CT system.

  12. Diagnosis of temporal bone diseases using three-dimensional images with multislice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Yoshihiro; Togami, Taro; Murota, Makiko; Fukunaga, Kotaro; Hino, Ichiro; Sato, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of three-dimensional images with multislice CT in the temporal bone diseases. Fifty-nine cases (26 with medial otitis, 8 choresteatoma, 10 congenital malformation, 3 high jugular bulb, 2 otosclerosis, and 10 others) were included in this study. In the ossicular and inner ear lesions, oblique multiplanar images of the long axis of each ossicle was useful the detection of abnormality. Structural deformity of ossicles and bony labyrinth were clearly delineated by surface rendering images. (author)

  13. Insights into Parkinson's disease models and neurotoxicity using non-invasive imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Isacson, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Loss of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system causes a severe impairment in motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease and in experimental neurotoxic models of the disease. We have used non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate in vivo the changes in the dopamine system in neurotoxic models of Parkinson's disease. In addition to classic neurotransmitter studies, in these models, it is also possible to characterize associated and perhaps pathogenic factors, such as the contribution of microglia activation and inflammatory responses to neuronal damage. Functional imaging techniques are instrumental to our understanding and modeling of disease mechanisms, which should in turn lead to development of new therapies for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders

  14. Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma: spectrum of disease and imaging presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Yablon, Corrie M.; Morag, Yoav [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lucas, David R. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Pathology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To describe the imaging findings of a series of myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcomas (MFSs) from our institution, including a case of dedifferentiated MFS and two cases with areas of high-grade tumor, in addition to typical cases of low-grade tumor. To correlate the imaging findings with the pathologic features of these tumors. IRB approval was obtained. Retrospective search of the pathology database at our institution from 2000 to 2015 identified seven cases of MFS with available imaging. Imaging, pathology, and clinical data were reviewed. Unlike the majority of well-differentiated tumors in our series (four cases), one tumor showed dedifferentiation and two cases had areas of high-grade tumor. The dedifferentiated tumor showed peripheral post-contrast enhancement. One case with a substantial high-grade component showed osseous destruction and peripheral enhancement in the high-grade area, while the low-grade component enhanced diffusely. The second case had a small high-grade area and showed diffuse enhancement. All three of these cases had non-acral locations and lacked association with a tendon. The four cases of low-grade MFS demonstrated diffuse enhancement, were located in the distal extremities, and were associated with a tendon. The imaging findings of dedifferentiated and high-grade MFS differ from the more typical low-grade tumors in that they have nonenhancing areas, a non-acral location, lack association with a tendon, and may involve bone. The radiologist should be aware that MFS represents a spectrum that includes low-grade tumors, tumors with high-grade areas, and tumors with dedifferentiation and that this spectrum presents with differing imaging features. (orig.)

  15. Value of medical imaging in the complications of hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsot-Dupuch, K.; Noblinski, B.; Tubiana, J.M.; Hannoun, L.

    1987-12-03

    The aim of this study is to analyse the experience of Hopital St-Antoine in the field of abdominal hydatid disease due to Echinococcus granulosus over the last seven years. 9 cases of rare complications of this disease, revealed by this retrospective study, are analysed and presented. The authors discuss the value of ultrasonography and computed tomography in this serious disease. The importance of routine ultrasonographic detection of these complications has been recently emphasized. The authors also present a review of the literature.

  16. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in biopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chang, Kee Hyun; Song In Chan; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Bae Ju; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Sang Yun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To compare conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in terms of their depiction of the abnormalities occurring in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We retrospectively analyzed the findings of conventional (T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in four patients with biopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The signal intensity of the lesion was classified by visual assessment as markedly high, slightly high, or isointense, relative to normal brain parenchyma. Both conventional and diffusion-weighted MR images demonstrated bilateral high signal intensity in the basal ganglia in all four patients. Cortical lesions were observed on diffusion-weighted MR images in all four, and on fluidattenuated inversion recovery MR images in one, but in no patient on T2-weighted images. Conventional MR images showed slightly high signal intensity in all lesions, while diffusion-weighted images showed markedly high signal intensity in most. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is more sensitive than its conventional counterpart in the depiction of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and permits better detection of the lesion in both the cerebral cortices and basal ganglia.

  17. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in biopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chang, Kee Hyun; Song In Chan; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Bae Ju; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Sang Yun

    2001-01-01

    To compare conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in terms of their depiction of the abnormalities occurring in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We retrospectively analyzed the findings of conventional (T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in four patients with biopsy-proven Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The signal intensity of the lesion was classified by visual assessment as markedly high, slightly high, or isointense, relative to normal brain parenchyma. Both conventional and diffusion-weighted MR images demonstrated bilateral high signal intensity in the basal ganglia in all four patients. Cortical lesions were observed on diffusion-weighted MR images in all four, and on fluidattenuated inversion recovery MR images in one, but in no patient on T2-weighted images. Conventional MR images showed slightly high signal intensity in all lesions, while diffusion-weighted images showed markedly high signal intensity in most. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is more sensitive than its conventional counterpart in the depiction of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and permits better detection of the lesion in both the cerebral cortices and basal ganglia

  18. A study of intraluminal flow in patients with aortic disease by cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Shusaku; Fukui, Sugao; Kusuoka, Hideo; Kitabatake, Akira; Kamada, Takenobu.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of aortic disease, we applied cine MR sequences with conventional spin echo (SE) sequence to 15 patients with aortic aneurysm and 5 patients with aortic dissection. ECG gated multi slice SE images (single echo) were obtained in transverse plane and the planes along the long axis of aorta. TE of SE sequence ranged from 15 to 32 msec. Cine MR images were obtained in 17 frames, where TR ranged from 30 to 60 msec and TE from 10 to 22 msec. We got these results as follows. For aortic aneurysm, SE images showed aneurysmal dilatation in thoracic aorta in 9 cases, and in abdominal aorta in 6 cases. Cine MR images showed us the intraluminal flow with high signal intensity. We could differentiate the slow flow image from mural thrombus using SE and cine MR sequences in the same plane. We could evaluate the dynamic flow image within a cavity of aneurysm and in in-flow and out-flow portions of aorta by cine MR imaging. For aortic dissection, SE images delineated the intimal tear and two separated lumens in all cases. We could obtain flow images within true and false lumen by cine MR imaging. The signal intensity within true lumen was higher than that within false lumen. It seemed to be due to the difference of flow velocity and the turbulence within false lumen. Entry to false lumen was seen as the interruption of dissected intima on SE images. Cine MR images clearly depicted the blood flow communication between two lumens through the entry. In 3 of 5 cases the blood flow through the entry was seen in both directions, from true to false lumen in systole and inversely in diastole. Thus, cine MR imaging will add the useful hemodynamic information in the diagnosis of aortic disease by conventional MR imaging. (author)

  19. Imaging insights into basal ganglia function, Parkinson’s disease, and dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessl, A. Jon; Lehericy, Stephane; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in structural and functional imaging have greatly improved our ability to assess normal functions of the basal ganglia, diagnose parkinsonian syndromes, understand the pathophysiology of parkinsonism and other movement disorders, and detect and monitor disease progression. Radionuclide imaging is the best way to detect and monitor dopamine deficiency, and will probably continue to be the best biomarker for assessment of the effects of disease-modifying therapies. However, advances in magnetic resonance enable the separation of patients with Parkinson’s disease from healthy controls, and show great promise for differentiation between Parkinson’s disease and other akinetic-rigid syndromes. Radionuclide imaging is useful to show the dopaminergic basis for both motor and behavioural complications of Parkinson’s disease and its treatment, and alterations in non-dopaminergic systems. Both PET and MRI can be used to study patterns of functional connectivity in the brain, which is disrupted in Parkinson’s disease and in association with its complications, and in other basal-ganglia disorders such as dystonia, in which an anatomical substrate is not otherwise apparent. Functional imaging is increasingly used to assess underlying pathological processes such as neuroinflammation and abnormal protein deposition. This imaging is another promising approach to assess the effects of treatments designed to slow disease progression. PMID:24954673

  20. Hand, foot, and mouth disease on the soles (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is cause by a coxsackie virus. It produces mouth ulcers and small blisters (vesicles) on the hands and feet. The vesicles often have a reddish border with a white or lighter colored area in ...

  1. Multidetector computed tomographic imaging of Erdheim-Chester disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuceler, Zeyneb; Kantarci, Mecit; Karabulut, Nevzat; Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Akman, Canan

    2014-06-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rarely reported disease that can affect nearly every organ and chiefly infiltrates the connective, perivascular, and adipose tissue. The disease is a form of non-Langerhans-cell histiocytosis characterized by the proliferation of foamy histiocytes; its cardiovascular complications carry a severe prognosis. We present the case of a 29-year-old woman who was admitted for analysis of her angina. Our evaluation with use of cardiac multidetector computed tomographic angiography revealed large mediastinal soft tissue that compressed the patient's left anterior descending coronary artery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of low-dose, dual-source, 256-slice multidetector computed tomography to characterize Erdheim-Chester disease that exclusively caused angina and stenosis of a coronary artery in a young adult.

  2. Imaging of fetal thymus in pregnant women with rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warby, Ann-Christin; Amler, Susanne; Jacobi, Annett M; Hammer, Kerstin; Möllmann, Ute; Falkenberg, Maria K; Möllers, Mareike; Kiesel, Ludwig; Klockenbusch, Walter; Schmitz, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether certain rheumatic diseases will affect the fetal thymus diameter when compared to uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Additionally, we created a reference chart for fetal thymus size in healthy singleton pregnancies from 19 to 37 weeks of gestation. Sonographic fetal thymus size was retrospectively evaluated in 190 healthy pregnant women, and 84 pregnancies of mothers suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), or Sjögren's syndrome between 19 and 37 weeks of gestation. These fetuses were matched one-to-one for gestational age with control fetuses. The thymic-thoracic ratio (TT-ratio) was defined as the quotient of the anteroposterior thymic and the intrathoracic mediastinal diameter. Rheumatic diseases often affect pregnancy outcome, especially in case of primary APS. The TT ratio of fetuses of mothers suffering from rheumatic disease was equal to controls (P=0.807). Ours is the first study to assess the correlation of fetal thymus size in high-risk pregnancies with rheumatic diseases in comparison to controls. Women with rheumatic diseases deal with pregnancy complications more frequently than controls. Our data suggest that maternal rheumatic diseases do not affect the fetal thymus size.

  3. Imaging of disease progression in a case of idiopathic moyamoya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison is also made with conventional angiography at the last visit. Characteristic imaging appearances of asymmetric narrowing of the internal carotid arteries (especially the supraclinoid portion) with numerous collateral vessels around the brainstem, especially within the ambient and quadrigeminal plate cisterns, ...

  4. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Jim; Easty, Marina [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    At Great Ormond Street Hospital we have the highest number of paediatric renal transplant patients in Europe, taking cases from across the United Kingdom and abroad. Our caseload includes many children with rare complicating medical problems and chronic renal failure related morbidity. This review aims to provide an overview of our experience of imaging children with chronic renal failure and transplants. (orig.)

  5. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Jim; Easty, Marina

    2010-01-01

    At Great Ormond Street Hospital we have the highest number of paediatric renal transplant patients in Europe, taking cases from across the United Kingdom and abroad. Our caseload includes many children with rare complicating medical problems and chronic renal failure related morbidity. This review aims to provide an overview of our experience of imaging children with chronic renal failure and transplants. (orig.)

  6. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, F.; Gandon, Y.; Heautot, J.F.; Montagne, C.; Michelet, C.; Carsin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined [fr

  7. The Future of Medical Imaging in the Detection of Early Markers of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Y. Croft

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques are a combination of a contrast mechanism, exogenous or endogenous, and an instrument to exploit that contrast. This final chapter of these two special issues of this journal points to possible ways to improve the ability of imaging systems to exploit markers of cancer in the early detection of that disease. The aim not only is to find cancer at an earlier, more treatable stage, but to determine whether the disease discovered is dangerous and to indicate the possibilities for successful treatment. These topics are explored for each imaging system, with an emphasis on directions for future improvements.

  8. Use of Imaging Techniques in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases That Minimize Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitelli, Fortunata; Casciani, Emanuele; Maccioni, Francesca; Oliva, Salvatore; Al Ansari, Naiwa; Bonocore, Valeria; Cucchiara, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    The use of imaging in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has grown exponentially in the last few years. This has raised concerns about the risk of high cumulative level of radiation exposure from medical imaging in IBD patients during their lifetime, especially when the disease begins in pediatric age. Physicians caring for IBD children should be aware of the malignant potential of ionizing radiation and of the availability of alternative radiation-free techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US), in order to use them whenever possible. This review will focus on the value of US and MRI in pediatric IBD.

  9. Pulmonary MR imaging with ultra-short TEs: Utility for disease severity assessment of connective tissue disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Nishio, Mizuho; Koyama, Hisanobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Masaya; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Obara, Makoto; Cauteren, Marc van; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of pulmonary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with ultra-short echo times (UTEs) at a 3.0 T MR system for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessments of connective tissue disease (CTD) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from 18 CTD patients (eight men and ten women) and eight normal subjects with suspected chest disease (three men and five women). All subjects underwent thin-section MDCT, pulmonary MR imaging with UTEs, pulmonary function test and serum KL-6. Regional T2* maps were generated from each MR data set, and mean T2* values were determined from ROI measurements. From each thin-section MDCT data set, CT-based disease severity was evaluated with a visual scoring system. Mean T2* values for normal and CTD subjects were statistically compared by using Student's t-test. To assess capability for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessments, mean T2* values were statistically correlated with pulmonary functional parameters, serum KL-6 and CT-based disease severity. Results: Mean T2* values for normal and CTD subjects were significantly different (p = 0.0019) and showed significant correlations with %VC, %DL CO , serum KL-6 and CT-based disease severity of CTD patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Pulmonary MR imaging with UTEs is useful for pulmonary functional loss and disease severity assessments of CTD patients with ILD

  10. Fast and robust extraction of hippocampus from MR images for diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lötjönen, Jyrki; Wolz, Robin; Koikkalainen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of temporal lobe atrophy from magnetic resonance images is a part of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis of prodromal Alzheimer's disease. As hippocampus is known to be among the first areas affected by the disease, fast and robust definition of hippocampus volume would be of great...

  11. Pulmonary vascular complications of chronic liver disease: Pathophysiology, imaging, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To review the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular complications of liver disease, we discuss their clinical implications, and therapeutic considerations, with emphasis on potential reversibility of the hepatopulmonary syndrome after liver transplantation. In this review, we also discuss the role of imaging in pulmonary vascular complications associated with liver disease.

  12. Role of imaging in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease: How much is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Kelly; Rubesova, Erika; Bass, Dorsey

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong condition with waxing and waning disease course that requires reassessment of disease status as well as screening for complications throughout a patient’s lifetime. Laboratory testing, endoscopic assessment, and fecal biomarkers are often used in the initial diagnosis and ongoing monitoring of a patient with IBD. Imaging plays an integral role in the diagnosis and evaluation of IBD. Different imaging modalities can be used over the course of a patient’s lifetime, from the initial screening and diagnosis of IBD, to determining the extent of intestinal involvement, monitoring for disease activity, and evaluating for complications of uncontrolled IBD. The various imaging modalities available to the provider each have a unique set of risks and benefits when considering cost, radiation exposure, need for anesthesia, and image quality. In this article we review the imaging techniques available for the evaluation of IBD including fluoroscopic small bowel follow-through, computed tomography enterography, magnetic resonance enterography, and transabdominal ultrasound with particular focus on the judicious use of imaging and the risks and benefits of each option. We also review the risks of ionizing radiation, strategies to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation, and current imaging guidelines among pediatric and adult patient with IBD. PMID:26981221

  13. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease: pictorial essay focused on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febronio, Eduardo Miguel; Rosas, George de Queiroz; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPMUnifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The present study was aimed at describing key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain derived from pelvic inflammatory disease. Two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed between January 2010 and December 2011 in patients with proven pelvic inflammatory disease leading to presentation of acute abdomen. Main findings included presence of intracavitary fluid collections, anomalous enhancement of the pelvic excavation and densification of adnexal fat planes. Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of the leading causes of abdominal pain in women of childbearing age and it has been increasingly been diagnosed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging supplementing the role of ultrasonography. It is crucial that radiologists become familiar with the main sectional imaging findings in the diagnosis of this common cause of acute abdomen (author)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging for extramammary Paget's disease: radiological and pathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaike, Gensuke; Nozaki, Taiki; Matsusako, Masaki; Saida, Yukihisa [St. Luke' s International Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Matsui, Mizuko; Ohtake, Naoyuki [St. Luke' s International Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Eto, Hikaru [St. Luke' s International Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Koyu [St. Luke' s International Hospital, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare cutaneous neoplasm that is thought to represent intraepithelial adenocarcinoma developing in an area rich in apocrine glands. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for this disease are not well established. We report three cases of pathologically confirmed EMPD in which MRI was performed before surgery. The lesions were widespread in the epidermis and the dermis. Lesions were sharply well enhanced on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging and appeared hyperintense on diffusion-weighted imaging in all cases. Areas with enhancement in depth corresponded well with the pathological lesion. In addition, different malignant legions were found on the same images from MRI in two cases, indicating potential associations with other malignancies. We describe the MRI findings and their pathological correlation. MRI could be useful for preoperative evaluation of disease spread and detection of associated malignancies. (orig.)

  15. Automated Detection of Healthy and Diseased Aortae from Images Obtained by Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gayhart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We developed the next stage of our computer assisted diagnosis (CAD system to aid radiologists in evaluating CT images for aortic disease by removing innocuous images and highlighting signs of aortic disease. Materials and Methods. Segmented data of patient’s contrast-enhanced CT scan was analyzed for aortic dissection and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU. Aortic dissection was detected by checking for an abnormal shape of the aorta using edge oriented methods. PAU was recognized through abnormally high intensities with interest point operators. Results. The aortic dissection detection process had a sensitivity of 0.8218 and a specificity of 0.9907. The PAU detection process scored a sensitivity of 0.7587 and a specificity of 0.9700. Conclusion. The aortic dissection detection process and the PAU detection process were successful in removing innocuous images, but additional methods are necessary for improving recognition of images with aortic disease.

  16. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Haseem, Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    compared with intensities in the deformed baseline image indicate local loss of lung tissue that is associated with progression of emphysema. To account for differences in lung intensity owing to differences in the inspiration level in the two scans rather than disease progression, we propose to adjust......We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan...... the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans...

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of the liver diseases; From CT to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Ohmoto, Kenji; Takatori, Keiko; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Ideguchi, Seiji; Ohumi, Tsuneyo; Hino, Kazunari; Hirano, Yutaka (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of liver diseases, MR imaging was performed in 20 patients with liver diseases. MR imaging was carried out with a 0.5-Tesla superconducting magnet by a spin-echo technique, from which T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}-weighted images were obtained. Based on our more than ten years experience with CT diagnosis, the essentials and limits of CT diagnosis were summarized and compared with those of MR. CT and MR were almost equally effective in the diagnosis of liver diseases, but MR was especially useful in determining the extent of necrosis in liver cancer after TAE (transcatheter arterial embolization) or PEIT (percutaneous ethanol injection therapy). The diagnosis of hemangiomas and hemosiderosis, as well as the differentiation of small liver cancer and liver cyst, was superior to that using conventional X-ray CT. (author).

  18. Variable complementary combined radiologic imaging methods for breast diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Lee, Kyong Sik; Sohn, Seing Kook

    1985-01-01

    Radiographic examination of the breast has been so improved that it became a routine complement to physical examination. From November 1, 1983 through September 30, 1984, 684 patients with complains of various breast problem were examined by low-dose film mammography at Yong Dong Hospital, Yonsei University. Among them, a comparative studies, independently conducted physical examination, 97 cases of film mammography, 35 cases of ultrasound mammography, 16 cases of aspiration cytology, and 3 cases of galactography were performed for our pathologically proven 98 cases of breast diseases. Combined and complementary studies for breast diseases were analyzed in 37 proven cases and authors found that specificity of those combined immediate complementary study techniques for breast diseases were 94% under close cooperation with surgeon in Yong Dong Hospital, Yonsei University

  19. Cardiac imaging in patients with chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Signe; Hove, Jens D; Møller, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) is characterized by an impaired contractile response to stress, diastolic dysfunction and the presence of electrophysiological abnormalities, and it may be diagnosed at rest in some patients or demasked by physiological or pharmacological stress. CCM seems...... circulatory stress has been used to assess systolic dysfunction. Whereas echocardiography with tissue Doppler is by far the most preferred method to detect diastolic dysfunction with measurement of E/A- and E/E'-ratio. In addition, echocardiography may also possess the potential to evaluate systolic...... dysfunction at rest by application of new myocardial strain techniques. Experience with other modalities such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomography is limited. Future studies exploring these imaging modalities are necessary to characterize and monitor the cardiac changes...

  20. Early detection of plant disease using infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    By using imaging techniques, plant physiological parameters can be assessed without contact with the plant and in a non-destructive way. During plant-pathogen infection, the physiological state of the infected tissue is altered, such as changes in photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, accumulation of Salicylic acid (SA) and even cell death. In this study, the different temperature distribution between the leaves infected by tobacco mosaic virus strain-TMV-U1 and the noninfected leaves was visualized by digital infrared thermal imaging with the microscopic observations of the different structure within different species tomatoes. Results show a presymptomatic decrease in leaf temperature about 0.5-1.3 °C lower than the healthy leaves. The temperature difference allowed the discrimination between the infected and healthy leaves before the appearance of visible necrosis on leaves.

  1. Detection of plant leaf diseases using image segmentation and soft computing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity is something on which economy highly depends. This is the one of the reasons that disease detection in plants plays an important role in agriculture field, as having disease in plants are quite natural. If proper care is not taken in this area then it causes serious effects on plants and due to which respective product quality, quantity or productivity is affected. For instance a disease named little leaf disease is a hazardous disease found in pine trees in United States. Detection of plant disease through some automatic technique is beneficial as it reduces a large work of monitoring in big farms of crops, and at very early stage itself it detects the symptoms of diseases i.e. when they appear on plant leaves. This paper presents an algorithm for image segmentation technique which is used for automatic detection and classification of plant leaf diseases. It also covers survey on different diseases classification techniques that can be used for plant leaf disease detection. Image segmentation, which is an important aspect for disease detection in plant leaf disease, is done by using genetic algorithm.

  2. Gaucher disease in the liver on hepatocyte specific contrast agent enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyala, Rama S. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Teot, Lisa A. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Perez Rossello, Jeanette M. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Gaucher disease is a hereditary lipid storage disorder that affects the enzyme beta glucocerebrosidase, causing accumulation of glucocerebroside in macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Accumulation can occur in the liver and spleen, manifesting as hepatosplenomegaly, as well as within the bone marrow. Hepatic involvement is usually diffuse but can occasionally manifest as focal liver lesions. We present a case of a 2-year-old boy with Gaucher disease and an infiltrating liver lesion detected on imaging, which was pathologically shown to be focal changes related to the disease. Imaging characteristics of this lesion using hepatocyte specific contrast agent enhanced MRI, which have not been previously discussed in the literature, are described. (orig.)

  3. Gaucher disease in the liver on hepatocyte specific contrast agent enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyala, Rama S.; Teot, Lisa A.; Perez Rossello, Jeanette M.

    2017-01-01

    Gaucher disease is a hereditary lipid storage disorder that affects the enzyme beta glucocerebrosidase, causing accumulation of glucocerebroside in macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Accumulation can occur in the liver and spleen, manifesting as hepatosplenomegaly, as well as within the bone marrow. Hepatic involvement is usually diffuse but can occasionally manifest as focal liver lesions. We present a case of a 2-year-old boy with Gaucher disease and an infiltrating liver lesion detected on imaging, which was pathologically shown to be focal changes related to the disease. Imaging characteristics of this lesion using hepatocyte specific contrast agent enhanced MRI, which have not been previously discussed in the literature, are described. (orig.)

  4. Increased brain tissue sodium concentration in Huntington's Disease - a sodium imaging study at 4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Romanzetti, Sandro; Dogan, Imis; Saß, Christian; Werner, Cornelius J; Schiefer, Johannes; Schulz, Jörg B; Shah, N Jon

    2012-10-15

    The neuropathological hallmark of the autosomal dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease is progressive striatal loss starting several years prior to symptom manifestation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used to detect altered structure in premanifest and early Huntington's disease. Given that neurodegeneration is likely preceded by substantial neuronal dysfunction, we used in vivo sodium MR imaging, which has been shown to be sensitive to cell death and viability, to investigate cellular and metabolic integrity of Huntington's disease brain tissue. We studied a total of thirteen healthy controls and thirteen Huntington's disease gene carriers (11 manifest and 2 premanifest). The manifest Huntington's disease group was subdivided into stages 1 and 2 according to their Total Functional Capacity scores. Clinical total motor and cognitive scores, as well as calibrated sodium and T1-weighted MR images were obtained with a 4 T Siemens MR scanner. Sodium images were acquired by means of a constant time imaging technique with an ultra-short "echo time". T1-weighted MR images were further analysed with voxel-based morphometry. The absolute total sodium concentration and grey matter values were measured in several Huntington's disease-specific and also non-specific areas. Statistical analysis of variance and Pearson correlation were applied. In Huntington's disease subjects, we found an increase of total sodium concentration of the entire brain compared to controls. Increased total sodium concentration values were found in structurally affected, but also in some non-affected, regions. The highest total sodium concentration values were found in the bilateral caudate, which was associated with caudate grey matter atrophy and CAG repeat length. In all Huntington's disease subjects we further found a profound increase of total sodium concentration in the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, hippocampus, insula, precuneus and occipital

  5. MR imaging of Crohn's disease: the experience at the Royal Melbourne Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had little to offer the physician or surgeon in the area of small bowel gastro-intestinal (GI) imaging. Long scan times leading to motion artifacts and poor image quality as well as a lack of good quality imaging coils have all contributed to this fact. However, in the last 5-10 years, these problems have been overcome by the creation of very fast sequences enabling breath-hold scan times, as well as increases in surface coil technology (phased-array abdominal coils) to increase signal-to-noise ratio and image quality. In the light of these new advances, MRI is being used increasingly to aid in the diagnosis of certain GI tract diseases. This paper looks at the ability of MRI to diagnose the chronic inflammatory bowel condition known as Crohn's disease, with a discussion on the experience of our department to date. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Radiography

  6. Mapping preclinical compensation in Parkinson's disease: an imaging genomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Nuenen, Bart F L; van Eimeren, Thilo; van der Vegt, Joyce P M

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the Parkin (PARK2) and PINK1 gene (PARK 6) can cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). The presence of a single Parkin or PINK1 mutation is associated with a dopaminergic nigrostriatal dysfunction and conveys an increased risk to develop PD throughout lifetime. Therefore...... development of overt disease. In two separate experiments, Parkin mutation carriers displayed stronger activation of rostral supplementary motor area (SMA) and right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) during a simple motor sequence task and anterior cingulate motor area and left rostral PMd during internal movement...

  7. Imaging the impact of genes on Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Vegt, J P M; van Nuenen, B F L; Bloem, B R

    2009-01-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) has traditionally been considered to be a non-genetic disorder, recent progress in the neurogenetics of PD provided converging evidence that genetic factors play a relevant role in the etiology of PD. The strongest case for a genetic contribution to PD was made...... of individuals carrying a mutation in one of the PD genes has offered a unique avenue of research into the pathogenesis of PD. In symptomatic mutation carriers (i.e. those with overt disease), brain mapping can help to link the molecular pathogenesis of PD more directly with functional and structural changes...

  8. Automatic detection of diseased tomato plants using thermal and stereo visible light images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-e-Ahmed Raza

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely detection of plant diseases can help mitigate the worldwide losses experienced by the horticulture and agriculture industries each year. Thermal imaging provides a fast and non-destructive way of scanning plants for diseased regions and has been used by various researchers to study the effect of disease on the thermal profile of a plant. However, thermal image of a plant affected by disease has been known to be affected by environmental conditions which include leaf angles and depth of the canopy areas accessible to the thermal imaging camera. In this paper, we combine thermal and visible light image data with depth information and develop a machine learning system to remotely detect plants infected with the tomato powdery mildew fungus Oidium neolycopersici. We extract a novel feature set from the image data using local and global statistics and show that by combining these with the depth information, we can considerably improve the accuracy of detection of the diseased plants. In addition, we show that our novel feature set is capable of identifying plants which were not originally inoculated with the fungus at the start of the experiment but which subsequently developed disease through natural transmission.

  9. Canavan disease - unusual imaging features in a child with mild clinical presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ho V.; Ishak, Gisele E. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Canavan disease is a rare hereditary leukodystrophy that manifests in early childhood. Associated with rapidly progressive clinical deterioration, it usually results in death by the third year of life. The predominant MRI appearance is diffuse and symmetrical white matter disease. We discuss an atypical, late presentation of Canavan disease with a benign clinical course and uncharacteristic imaging features. This case introduces a previously unreported pattern of diffuse cortical abnormality without significant white matter involvement. (orig.)

  10. Fuzzy clustering methods application for Alzheimer’s diseases diagnosis based on PET images

    OpenAIRE

    Krashenyi, Ihor Eduardovych; Popov, Anton Oleksandrovych; Ramirez, Haver; Gorriz, Huan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This work was dedicated to clustering methods application in fuzzy inference system for Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis using PET-images. Three methods (Subtractive Clustering, C-means and Fuzzy Grid Partition) of clustering were discussed and their performance in Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis were measured. Recommendation of the future use of Subtractive Clustering algorithm in the computeraided diagnosis system for Alzheimer’s disease are given. The performance of this algorithm is AUC=0,8791...

  11. CT perfusion imaging for childhood moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Ohba, Shinji; Shibukawa, Masaaki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2006-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a progressive occlusive disease of the circle of Willis with prominent collateral arterial formation. We report on a 12-year-old girl with moyamoya disease presenting with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Surgical indirect revascularization was performed. The patient did not suffer further TIAs at 12 month follow-up. Pre and postoperative cerebral perfusion were studied in quantitative single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) and CT perfusion imaging. CT pe...

  12. The progress of research on myocardial perfusion imaging in diabetic coronary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qian; Li Juan

    2007-01-01

    The morbidity of diabetes mellitus is gradually increasing. It's most important complication is cardiovascular disease. The coronary disease is the main cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. The stress myocardial perfusion imaging help diagnose diabetic coronary disease and prognosis judgement and risk assessment. So it can improve the living standard of patients with diabetes mellitus, and decrease the mortality of diabetes mellitus. (authors)

  13. Towards spatial frequency domain optical imaging of neurovascular coupling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alexander J.; Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler B.; Green, Kim N.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    Early neurovascular coupling (NVC) changes in Alzheimer's disease can potentially provide imaging biomarkers to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Previous efforts to quantify NVC with intrinsic signal imaging have required assumptions of baseline optical pathlength to calculate changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during evoked stimuli. In this work, we present an economical spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) platform utilizing a commercially available LED projector, camera, and off-the-shelf optical components suitable for imaging dynamic optical properties. The fast acquisition platform described in this work is validated on silicone phantoms and demonstrated in neuroimaging of a mouse model.

  14. MRI of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Imaging features and recommended MRI protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collie, D.A.; Sellar, R.J.; Zeidler, M.; Colchester, A.C.F.; Knight, R.; Will, R.G

    2001-09-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is a rare, progressive and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by specific histopathological features. Of the four subtypes of CJD described, the commonest is sporadic CJD (sCJD). More recently, a new clinically distinct form of the disease affecting younger patients, known as variant CJD (vCJD), has been identified, and this has been causally linked to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent in cattle. Characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been identified in several forms of CJD; sCJD may be associated with high signal changes in the putamen and caudate head and vCJD is usually associated with hyperintensity of the pulvinar (posterior nuclei) of the thalamus. These appearances and other imaging features are described in this article. Using appropriate clinical and radiological criteria and tailored imaging protocols, MRI plays an important part in the in vivodiagnosis of this disease. Collie, D.A. et al. (2001)

  15. MRI of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Imaging features and recommended MRI protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collie, D.A.; Sellar, R.J.; Zeidler, M.; Colchester, A.C.F.; Knight, R.; Will, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is a rare, progressive and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by specific histopathological features. Of the four subtypes of CJD described, the commonest is sporadic CJD (sCJD). More recently, a new clinically distinct form of the disease affecting younger patients, known as variant CJD (vCJD), has been identified, and this has been causally linked to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent in cattle. Characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been identified in several forms of CJD; sCJD may be associated with high signal changes in the putamen and caudate head and vCJD is usually associated with hyperintensity of the pulvinar (posterior nuclei) of the thalamus. These appearances and other imaging features are described in this article. Using appropriate clinical and radiological criteria and tailored imaging protocols, MRI plays an important part in the in vivodiagnosis of this disease. Collie, D.A. et al. (2001)

  16. Quantifying disease activity and damage by imaging in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubassova, Olga; Boesen, Mikael; Peloschek, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Traditional imaging, represented by radiographs, provides a very concise description of anatomical pathology of bony structures. Both degenerative and inflammatory joint diseases are characterized by progressive joint destruction, and valid, reproducible measures of disease impact are available....... Much effort has been expended to develop scoring systems for joint destruction in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, and the most common internationally accepted semiobjective scores are presented. The anatomical pathology mirrors the past activity of the disease, and advanced imaging gives...... an impression of the actual disease processes, which subsequently lead to the damage. Such information is required to facilitate the development of efficient therapy against arthritis. Newer technology, exemplified by MRI and ultrasound Doppler, supplements images of structural change with functional data...

  17. MRI of degenerative lumbar spine disease: comparison of non-accelerated and parallel imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noelte, Ingo; Gerigk, Lars; Brockmann, Marc A.; Kemmling, Andre; Groden, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Parallel imaging techniques such as GRAPPA have been introduced to optimize image quality and acquisition time. For spinal imaging in a clinical setting no data exist on the equivalency of conventional and parallel imaging techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine whether T1- and T2-weighted GRAPPA sequences are equivalent to conventional sequences for the evaluation of degenerative lumbar spine disease in terms of image quality and artefacts. In patients with clinically suspected degenerative lumbar spine disease two neuroradiologists independently compared sagittal GRAPPA (acceleration factor 2, time reduction approximately 50%) and non-GRAPPA images (25 patients) and transverse GRAPPA (acceleration factor 2, time reduction approximately 50%) and non-GRAPPA images (23 lumbar segments in six patients). Comparative analyses included the minimal diameter of the spinal canal, disc abnormalities, foraminal stenosis, facet joint degeneration, lateral recess, nerve root compression and osteochondrotic vertebral and endplate changes. Image inhomogeneity was evaluated by comparing the nonuniformity in the two techniques. Image quality was assessed by grading the delineation of pathoanatomical structures. Motion and aliasing artefacts were classified from grade 1 (severe) to grade 5 (absent). There was no significant difference between GRAPPA and non-accelerated MRI in the evaluation of degenerative lumbar spine disease (P > 0.05), and there was no difference in the delineation of pathoanatomical structures. For inhomogeneity there was a trend in favour of the conventional sequences. No significant artefacts were observed with either technique. The GRAPPA technique can be used effectively to reduce scanning time in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease while preserving image quality. (orig.)

  18. Imaging The Complications Of Paget's Disease Of Bones In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in physicians to this relatively rare bone disease. Classical features were illustrated on plain skull radiograph and CT Scan. Echocardiography revealed left ventricular hypertrophy and paradoxical septal motion suggestive of pulmonary hypertension. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol.9, No.3 (1999) pp.

  19. Utility of imaging for nutritional intervention studies in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, M.C.; Kamphuis, P.J.G.H.; Sijben, J.W.C.; Scheltens, P.

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder and the leading cause of dementia, wherein synapse loss is the strongest structural correlate with cognitive impairment. Basic research has shown that dietary supply of precursors and co-factors for synthesis of neuronal

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of peritoneal pseudocyst associated with Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, S.R.; De Lange, E.E.; Frierson, H.F. Jr

    1991-01-01

    Clinically and intraoperative nonpancreatic pseudocysts of the abdomen are often confused with other cystic masses occurring within the mesentary and the omentum. The authors report their findings of MRI of peritoneal pseudocysts associated with Crohn's disease. (author). 6 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: A Multimodality Imaging Approach with Impact on Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Dhanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic disease is a condition of uncertain etiology, comprised of hydatiform mole (complete and partial, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, and placental site trophoblastic tumor. It arises from abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue. Early diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease and its potential complications is important for timely and successful management of the condition with preservation of fertility. Initial diagnosis is based on a multimodality approach: encompassing clinical features, serial quantitative β-hCG titers, and pelvic ultrasonography. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is sometimes used as a problem-solving tool to assess the depth of myometrial invasion and extrauterine disease spread in equivocal and complicated cases. Chest radiography, body computed tomography (CT, and brain MRI have been recommended as investigative tools for overall disease staging. Angiography has a role in management of disease complications and metastases. Efficacy of PET (positron emission tomography and PET/CT in the evaluation of recurrent or metastatic disease has not been adequately investigated yet. This paper discusses the imaging features of gestational trophoblastic disease on various imaging modalities and the role of different imaging techniques in the diagnosis and management of this entity.

  2. Multimodality imaging evaluation of Chagas disease: an expert consensus of Brazilian Cardiovascular Imaging Department (DIC) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Badano, Luigi Paolo; Marin-Neto, J Antonio; Edvardsen, Thor; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Popescu, Bogdan A; Underwood, Richard; Habib, Gilbert; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Botoni, Fernando A; Barbosa, Márcia Melo; Barros, Marcio Vinicius L; Falqueto, Eduardo; Simões, Marcus Vinicius; Schmidt, André; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Rocha, Manoel Otávio Costa; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2018-04-01

    To develop a document by Brazilian Cardiovascular Imaging Department (DIC) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) to review and summarize the most recent evidences about the non-invasive assessment of patients with Chagas disease, with the intent to set up a framework for standardized cardiovascular imaging to assess cardiovascular morphologic and functional disturbances, as well as to guide the subsequent process of clinical decision-making. Chagas disease remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in Latin America, and has become a health problem in non-endemic countries. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most severe manifestation of Chagas disease, which causes substantial disability and early mortality in the socially most productive population leading to a significant economical burden. Prompt and correct diagnosis of Chagas disease requires specialized clinical expertise to recognize the unique features of this disease. The appropriate and efficient use of cardiac imaging is pivotal for diagnosing the cardiac involvement in Chagas disease, to stage the disease, assess patients' prognosis and address management. Echocardiography is the most common imaging modality used to assess, and follow-up patients with Chagas disease. The presence of echocardiographic abnormalities is of utmost importance, since it allows to stage patients according to disease progression. In early stages of cardiac involvement, echocardiography may demonstrate segmental left ventricuar wall motion abnormalities, mainly in the basal segments of inferior, inferolateral walls, and the apex, which cannot be attributed to obstructive coronary artery arteries. The prevalence of segmental wall motion abnormalities varies according to the stage of the disease, reaching about 50% in patients with left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. Speckle tracking echocardiography allows a more precise and quantitative measurement of the regional myocardial function. Since

  3. [Pain and disease in figurative arts: casual and didactic images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Danielle

    2002-01-01

    Speaking of representations of diseases and pain, which are more efficient and emotionally striking, those which have depicted intentionally or those drawn by chance? Using the book she wrote with Mirko Grmek, Les maladies dans l'art antique, Paris, Fayard, 1998, and comparing with some publications by Duchenne de Boulogne in Paris in the mid-XIXth century, the author gives her own answer.

  4. Diffuse phalangeal signal abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging: phalangeal microgeodic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Emery, Kathleen H.; Merrow, Arnold C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Phalangeal microgeodic disease is a rare and benign self-limited condition involving the phalanges, often in the setting of cold exposure, with characteristic MR imaging abnormalities. Radiographic case descriptions are predominantly from Asia and Europe, with only seven cases using MR to characterize phalangeal microgeodic disease. In this study we describe the MR imaging appearance of unusual and striking phalangeal signal abnormality compatible with phalangeal microgeodic disease at our institution in North America. We retrospectively reviewed cases presenting at our institution with unusual or unexplained phalangeal signal abnormalities between 2001 and 2014. We reviewed the MR imaging appearances in conjunction with radiographs and any other available imaging investigations. Of 189 examinations reviewed during the study period, 8 imaging studies in 6 patients met the study inclusion criteria. Signal abnormality was present in 57 of 112 phalanges (51%), frequently involving the distal phalanges (70%, 28 of 40), followed by the middle phalanges (56%, 18 of 32) and the proximal phalanges (28%, 11 of 40). The pattern of involvement was most commonly diaphysis (38%), followed by metaphysis (32%) and epiphysis (30%). The extent of MR signal abnormality was greater than that suspected based on clinical presentation or on radiographs. The presence of unexplained diffuse characteristic marrow involvement of multiple painful phalanges on MR images, often in the setting of cold exposure, should raise the possibility of phalangeal microgeodic disease. Consideration of this diagnosis based on MR findings would lead to a more conservative management and avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. (orig.)

  5. The role of organic anion transporters in diagnosing liver diseases by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Catherine M; Müllhaupt, Beat; Stieger, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    The expression and transport functions of organic anion transporters are modified in liver diseases, and therefore the vascular clearances of endogenous and exogenous organic anions that are taken up by these transporters have been used to assess liver diseases in patients. More recently, liver imaging with hepatobiliary contrast agents, tracers, and dyes that cross hepatocytes through the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs)-multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) pathway were developed to detect and characterize focal lesions and to assess the severity of diffuse liver diseases. This review focuses mainly on magnetic resonance imaging and highlights the growing interest in imaging the OATPs-MRP2 pathway to better understand liver diseases. Imaging provides noninvasive measurements of tissue concentrations that result from the interplay between influx and efflux membrane transport systems in normal or injured hepatocytes. Imaging with magnetic resonance hepatobiliary contrast agents improves the detection and the characterization of hepatic focal lesions. New developments of imaging to assess liver function and understand the hepatocellular concentrations of contrast agents are discussed.

  6. Update on the Role of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Tandon, Animesh; Greil, Gerald F; Abbara, Suhny

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is an important imaging modality in the evaluation of congenital heart diseases (CHD). CMR has several strengths including good spatial and temporal resolutions, wide field-of-view, and multi-planar imaging capabilities. CMR provides significant advantages for imaging in CHD through its ability to measure function, flow and vessel sizes, create three-dimensional reconstructions, and perform tissue characterization, all in a single imaging study. Thus, CMR is the most comprehensive imaging modality available today for the evaluation of CHD. Newer MRI sequences and post-processing tools will allow further development of quantitative methods of analysis, and opens the door for risk stratification in CHD. CMR also can interface with computer modeling, 3D printing, and other methods of understanding the complex anatomic and physiologic relationships in CHD.

  7. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging analysis of dental pulp inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, E; Sabbatini, S; Conti, C; Rubini, C; Rocchetti, R; Fioroni, M; Memè, L; Orilisi, G

    2017-05-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy let characterize the macromolecular composition and distribution of tissues and cells, by studying the interaction between infrared radiation and matter. Therefore, we hypothesize to exploit this analytical tool in the analysis of inflamed pulps, to detect the different biochemical features related to various degrees of inflammation. IR maps of 13 irreversible and 12 hyperplastic pulpitis, together with 10 normal pulps, were acquired, compared with histological findings and submitted to multivariate (HCA, PCA, SIMCA) and statistical (one-way ANOVA) analysis. The fit of convoluted bands let calculate meaningful band area ratios (means ± s.d., P infrared imaging analysis pin-pointed higher amounts of water and lower quantities of type I collagen in all inflamed pulps. Specific vibrational markers were defined for irreversible pulpitis (Lipids/Total Biomass, PhII/Total Biomass, CH 2 /CH 3 , and Ty/AII) and hyperplastic ones (OH/Total Biomass, Collagen/Total Biomass, and CH 3 Collagen/Total Biomass). The study confirmed that FTIR microspectroscopy let discriminate tissues' biological features. The infrared imaging analysis evidenced, in inflamed pulps, alterations in tissues' structure and composition. Changes in lipid metabolism, increasing amounts of tyrosine, and the occurrence of phosphorylative processes were highlighted in irreversible pulpitis, while high amounts of water and low quantities of type I collagen were detected in hyperplastic samples. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny B. Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a broad disorder encompassing multiple forms of arterial disease outside of the heart. As such, PAD development is a multifactorial process with a variety of manifestations. For example, aneurysms are pathological expansions of an artery that can lead to rupture, while ischemic atherosclerosis reduces blood flow, increasing the risk of claudication, poor wound healing, limb amputation, and stroke. Current PAD treatment is often ineffective or associated with serious risks, largely because these disorders are commonly undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Active areas of research are focused on detecting and characterizing deleterious arterial changes at early stages using non-invasive imaging strategies, such as ultrasound, as well as emerging technologies like photoacoustic imaging. Earlier disease detection and characterization could improve interventional strategies, leading to better prognosis in PAD patients. While rodents are being used to investigate PAD pathophysiology, imaging of these animal models has been underutilized. This review focuses on structural and molecular information and disease progression revealed by recent imaging efforts of aortic, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease models in mice, rats, and rabbits. Effective translation to humans involves better understanding of underlying PAD pathophysiology to develop novel therapeutics and apply non-invasive imaging techniques in the clinic.

  9. Non-invasive assessment of coronary artery disease with stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Hirose, Yoshiaki; Hamada, Seiki; Maeno, Masakazu; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Hayashida, Kohei; Takamiya, Makoto; Miyazaki, Shun-ich; Nonogi, Hiroshi [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    Recent studies have reported a low specificity of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Thus this study was undertaken to reassess the ability of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging to detect deseased coronary vessels. The subjects were 469 patients, who consisted of 397 with a significant {>=}75% stenosis and the other 72 with normal coronary vessels on coronary arteriography done within 6 months before and after thallium imaging. Using the coronary arteriogram as the arbiter, the sensitivity and specificity of stress thallium imaging were 91% and 43%, respectively. Forty-one patients with no angiographic evidence of coronary stenosis were assessed as having coronary stenosis on thallium imaging (false-positive cases). All the 41 patients had cardiovascular diseases or symptoms, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, complete left bundle branch block, chest pain of unknown etiology, and abnormalities on stress ECG. This suggested the possibility that dysfunctional segments may be manifested by exercise stress even though these are not shown on coronary arteriography at rest. Thus the low specificity of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease may not contribute to the essential disadvantage of thallium imaging, but may reflect dysfunctional segments that are not shown by morphological manifestation of coronary arteriography. (N.K.).

  10. Imaging of primary muscular diseases. What do neurologists expect from radiologists?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattjes, M.P.; Fischmann, A.; Fischer, D.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has in recent years increasingly become a crucial tool for the diagnostics of inherited and acquired muscular diseases. The aim of imaging in neuromuscular disorders goes beyond the detection and quantification of degenerative muscular changes, such as fatty degeneration and includes recognition of very early signs of muscular pathologies presenting as muscular edema. Therefore, imaging is a valuable diagnostic method to support the clinical diagnosis and to narrow down the differential diagnoses, leading to specific additional diagnostic tests in order to establish the correct diagnosis. Although advances in MRI hardware and technology have led to a faster, more accurate and advanced image acquisition allowing whole body examination in a feasible fashion, the standardization of image acquisition and interpretation remains a challenge. The aim of this review article is to address the important and clinically relevant issues concerning the role of imaging of neuromuscular diseases in order to facilitate a good interdisciplinary management for the diagnostics and monitoring of neuromuscular diseases. (orig.) [de

  11. Non-invasive assessment of coronary artery disease with stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Hirose, Yoshiaki; Hamada, Seiki; Maeno, Masakazu; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Hayashida, Kohei; Takamiya, Makoto; Miyazaki, Shun-ich; Nonogi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a low specificity of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Thus this study was undertaken to reassess the ability of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging to detect deseased coronary vessels. The subjects were 469 patients, who consisted of 397 with a significant ≥75% stenosis and the other 72 with normal coronary vessels on coronary arteriography done within 6 months before and after thallium imaging. Using the coronary arteriogram as the arbiter, the sensitivity and specificity of stress thallium imaging were 91% and 43%, respectively. Forty-one patients with no angiographic evidence of coronary stenosis were assessed as having coronary stenosis on thallium imaging (false-positive cases). All the 41 patients had cardiovascular diseases or symptoms, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, complete left bundle branch block, chest pain of unknown etiology, and abnormalities on stress ECG. This suggested the possibility that dysfunctional segments may be manifested by exercise stress even though these are not shown on coronary arteriography at rest. Thus the low specificity of stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease may not contribute to the essential disadvantage of thallium imaging, but may reflect dysfunctional segments that are not shown by morphological manifestation of coronary arteriography. (N.K.)

  12. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and multiple infarct dementia by tomographic imaging of iodine-123 IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.B.; Graham, L.S.; Lake, R.

    1986-01-01

    Tomographic imaging of the brain was performed using a rotating slant hole collimator and [ 123 I]N-isopropyl p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in normal subjects (n = 6) and patients with either Alzheimer's disease (n = 5) or multiple infarct dementia (n = 3). Four blinded observers were asked to make a diagnosis from the images. Normal subjects and patients with multiple infarct dementia were correctly identified. Alzheimer's disease was diagnosed in three of the five patients with this disease. One patient with early Alzheimer's disease was classified as normal by two of the four observers. Another patient with Alzheimer's disease had an asymmetric distribution of IMP and was incorrectly diagnosed as multiple infarct dementia by all four observers. Limited angle tomography of the cerebral distribution of 123 I appears to be a useful technique for the evaluation of demented patients

  13. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important fungal disease in rice which infects the plant during the rice growing season from the nursery period up to farm growth stage and productivity phase. The later the disease is diagnosed the higher the amount of chemicals is needed for treatment. Due to high costs and harmful environmental impacts of chemical toxins, the accurate early detection and treatment of plant disease is seemed to be necessary. In general, observation with the naked eye is used for disease detection. However, the results are indeed depend on the intelligence of the person performing the operation. So usually the accurate determination of the severity and progression of the disease can’t be achieved. On the other side, the use of experts for continuous monitoring of large farms might be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Thus, investigating the new approaches for rapid, automated, inexpensive and accurate plant disease diagnosis is very important. Machine vision and image processing is a new technique which can capture images from a scene of interest, analyze the images and accurately extract the desired information. Studies show that image processing techniques have been successfully used for plant disease detection. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of image processing techniques for diagnosing the rice blast and rice brown spot. Materials and Methods: The samples of rice leaf infected by brown spot and rice blast diseases were collected from rice fields and

  14. Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Kirsten L.; Sbarboro, James; Sureka, Ruchi; de, Mrinmoy; Bicca, Maíra A.; Wang, Jane; Vasavada, Shaleen; Satpathy, Sreyesh; Wu, Summer; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Macrenaris, Keith; Waters, E. Alex; Lu, Chang; Phan, Joseph; Lacor, Pascale; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    One way to image the molecular pathology in Alzheimer's disease is by positron emission tomography using probes that target amyloid fibrils. However, these fibrils are not closely linked to the development of the disease. It is now thought that early-stage biomarkers that instigate memory loss are composed of Aβ oligomers. Here, we report a sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast probe that is specific for Aβ oligomers. We attach oligomer-specific antibodies onto magnetic nanostructures and show that the complex is stable and binds to Aβ oligomers on cells and brain tissues to give a magnetic resonance imaging signal. When intranasally administered to an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, the probe readily reached hippocampal Aβ oligomers. In isolated samples of human brain tissue, we observed a magnetic resonance imaging signal that distinguished Alzheimer's disease from controls. Such nanostructures that target neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are potentially useful for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs and ultimately for early-stage Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and disease management.

  15. Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of Unusual White Matter Lesion in a Patient with Menkes Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Shin; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Shin, Hee Suk

    2007-01-01

    We report here on the diffusion-weighted imaging of unusual white matter lesions in a case of Menkes disease. On the initial MR imaging, the white matter lesions were localized in the deep periventricular white matter in the absence of diffuse cortical atrophy. The lesion showed diffuse high signal on the diffusion weighted images and diffuse progression and persistent hyperintensity on the follow up imaging. Our case suggests that the white matter lesion may precede diffuse cortical atrophy in a patient with Menkes disease. Menkes disease is an X-linked disorder that's caused by impaired intracellular transport of copper. We describe here the DWI findings of unusual and progressive white matter lesions in a case of Menkes disease. Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder, and it is due to an inborn error of copper metabolism. The cause of Menkes disease has been isolated to a genetic defect in copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase, and this results in low levels of intracellular copper. It is characterized clinically by failure to thrive, retarded mental and motor development, clonic seizure and peculiarly coarse, sparse and colorless scalp hair. These clinical findings can be explained by a dysfunction of the copper-dependent enzymes

  16. Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer Bone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Raquel; Nava Rodrigues, Daniel; Figueiredo, Ines; Mateo, Joaquin; Collins, David J.; Koh, Dow-Mu; de Bono, Johann S.; Tunariu, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) bone metastases with histological and molecular features of bone metastases. Materials and Methods Forty-three bone marrow biopsies from 33 metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients with multiparametric MRI and documented bone metastases were evaluated. A second cohort included 10 CRPC patients with no bone metastases. Associations of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), normalized b900 diffusion-weighted imaging (nDWI) signal, and signal-weighted fat fraction (swFF) with bone marrow biopsy histological parameters were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were analyzed. Results Median ADC and nDWI signal was significantly higher, and median swFF was significantly lower, in bone metastases than nonmetastatic bone (P < 0.001). In the metastatic cohort, 31 (72.1%) of 43 biopsies had detectable cancer cells. Median ADC and swFF were significantly lower and median nDWI signal was significantly higher in biopsies with tumor cells versus nondetectable tumor cells (898 × 10−6 mm2/s vs 1617 × 10−6 mm2/s; 11.5% vs 62%; 5.3 vs 2.3, respectively; P < 0.001). Tumor cellularity inversely correlated with ADC and swFF, and positively correlated with nDWI signal (P < 0.001). In serial biopsies, taken before and after treatment, changes in multiparametric MRI parameters paralleled histological changes. Conclusions Multiparametric MRI provides valuable information about mCRPC bone metastases. These data further clinically qualify DWI as a response biomarker in mCRPC. PMID:28906339

  17. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puvaneswary, M.; Floate, D. [John Hunter Hospital, NewCastle, NSW (Australia). Departments of Medical Imaging and Neurology; Harper, C. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Neuropathology

    1999-02-01

    Rapidly progressive dementia in an adult with findings of bilateral, symmetric high signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences and normal findings on T1-weighted sequences predominantly in the deep grey matter is suggestive of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The peripheral cortex may be involved, as it was in the present case. The absence of subcortical periventricular white matter high signal intensity suggests that symmetric high signal intensities within the basal ganglia and cortical grey matter are more likely to be due to a degenerative process rather than due to ischaemia, infection or tumour. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 17 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puvaneswary, M.; Floate, D.; Harper, C.

    1999-01-01

    Rapidly progressive dementia in an adult with findings of bilateral, symmetric high signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences and normal findings on T1-weighted sequences predominantly in the deep grey matter is suggestive of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The peripheral cortex may be involved, as it was in the present case. The absence of subcortical periventricular white matter high signal intensity suggests that symmetric high signal intensities within the basal ganglia and cortical grey matter are more likely to be due to a degenerative process rather than due to ischaemia, infection or tumour. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. Imaging alterations of cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eFroese

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is an important second messenger which regulates heart function by acting in distinct subcellular microdomains. Recent years have provided deeper mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP signaling and its link to cardiac disease. In this mini review, we summarize newest developments in this field achieved by cutting-edge biochemical and biophysical techniques. We further compile the data from different studies into a bigger picture of so far uncovered alterations in cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains which occur in compensated cardiac hypertrophy and chronic heart failure. Finally, future research directions and translational perspectives are briefly discussed.

  20. Direct myocardial perfusion imaging in valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R.C.; Durante, M.L.; Villacorta, E.V.; Torres, J.F.; Monzon, O.P.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty two patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease - 21 having a history of heart failure - were studied using direct coronary injection of sup(99m)Tc labelled MAA particles during the course of hemodynamic and arteriographic studies. Myocardial perfusion deficit patterns have been shown to be consistent or indicative of either patchy, regional or gross ischemia. In patients with history of documented heart failure 90% (18 cases) had ischemic perfusion deficit in the involved ventricle. We conclude that diminished myocardial blood flow is an important mechanism contributing to the development of heart failure. (orig.) [de

  1. The value of retinal imaging with infrared scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in patients with stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Robert; Fishman, Gerald A; Collison, Frederick T; Stone, Edwin M; Zernant, Jana; Allikmets, Rando

    2014-07-01

    To demonstrate the value of infrared scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) for determining structural retinal and choroidal changes in patients with Stargardt disease and its comparison to findings on short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (SW-AF) imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and microperimetry measurements. Forty-four eyes of 22 patients with Stargardt disease were studied using infrared-SLO, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, macular microperimetry, SW-AF, electroretinography, and fundus photography. Although SW-AF imaging outlined the regions of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) atrophy (hypofluorescence) and enhanced the visibility of more funduscopically apparent flecks (hyperfluorescence), infrared-SLO imaging outlined the regions of choroidal, and RPE, atrophic changes. Degenerative changes in photoreceptor and RPE cell layers, evident on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging, were associated with either hyporeflective or hyperreflective images on infrared-SLO imaging, depending on whether both RPE and choroidal atrophy (hyperreflectance) or solely RPE atrophy (hyporeflectance) was present. Threshold elevations on microperimetry testing corresponded to both RPE and choroidal atrophy on infrared-SLO imaging and RPE atrophy on SW-AF. Although SW-AF identifies regions of RPE atrophy, infrared-SLO also identifies the involvement of the choroid that has important implications for the potential improvement in visual function from treatment. Thus, infrared-SLO imaging offers an additional advantage beyond that obtained with SW-AF.

  2. Detecting culprit vessel of coronary artery disease with SPECT 99Tcm-MIBI myocardial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Zhaosheng; Zhou Wen; Peng Yong; Su Yuwen; Tian Jianhe; Gai lue; Sun Zhijun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of detecting culprit vessel of coronary artery disease (CAD) with SPECT 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial imaging. Methods: Forty-six patients with CAD were studied. Every patients had multiple-vessel lesion showed by coronary arteriography and was treated by revascularization as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or laser holing. Exercise (EX), rest (RE) and intravenous infusion of nitroglycerine (NTG) SPECT 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial imagings were performed before revascularization. Exercise and rest images revealed the myocardial ischemia. NTG images revealed myocardial viability. Culprit vessels were detected according to the defects showed by above mentioned images. The veracity of detected culprit vessels was tested with the outcome of the reperfusion therapy. Results: In this group, the coronary arteriography revealed 107 lesioned coronary arteries. Myocardial imaging detected 46 culprit vessels including 23 left anterior descending (LAD), 19 left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) and 4 right coronary artery (RCA). All 46 culprit vessels underwent revascularization and had nice outcome. The veracity of 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial imaging detected culprit vessels was high according to patients' outcome. Conclusion: Exercise, rest and NTG 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial imaging is a great method for detecting culprit vessels in multivessel coronary disease

  3. The value of thyroid blood flow and static imaging for diagnosis of hashimotos disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Bangkun; Yang Jishen; Shen Dawei; Liu Bin; Xue Yuanming; Shi Jue

    1995-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the combination of thyroid blood flow and static imaging for Hashimotos disease are evaluated. Both thyroid blood flow and static imaging with 99m Tc was carried out in 108 Hashimotos disease proved by fine needle biopsy. 87% of them had markedly or slightly increased thyroid blood flow. On static imaging 89.8% showed active nonuniformity, among them, 16.7% was cold nodules. The 99m Tc uptake was normal in 66 (58.3%), decreased in 26 (26.9%), but only increased in 16, in them 4 accompanying hyperthyroidism. Thyroid blood flow and static imaging, a simple and convenient approach, combining with radioimmunoassay and clinical manifestation, can be used as routine diagnostic model

  4. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a Potential Biomarker for Parkinson's Disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Paul

    2017-06-16

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to serve as a biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the type or types of biomarker it could provide remain to be determined. At this time there is not sufficient sensitivity or specificity for MRI to serve as an early diagnostic biomarker, i.e., it is unproven in its ability to determine if a single individual is normal, has mild PD, or has some other forms of degenerative parkinsonism. However there is accumulating evidence that MRI may be useful in staging and monitoring disease progression (staging biomarker), and also possibly as a means to monitor pathophysiological aspects of disease and associated response to treatments, i.e., theranostic marker. As there are increasing numbers of manuscripts that are dedicated to diffusion- and neuromelanin-based imaging methods, this review will focus on these topics cursorily and will delve into pharmacodynamic imaging as a means to get at theranostic aspects of PD.

  5. Diagnostic imaging of digestive tract involvement in cystic fibrosis. Part 1: hepatobiliary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralles, M.; Gonzalez, G.; Serrano, C.; Manzanares, J.; Berrocal, T.

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a severe hereditary disease characterized by epithelial chloride channel dysfunction, leading to the production of abnormally thick secretions. The abnormal gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Hepatobiliary involvement derives from ductal obstruction causing cholestasis, steatosis, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Biliary sludge, cholelithiasis and gallbladder sclerosis and atrophy are common findings. As the correlation between the hepatobiliary changes and their clinical and analytical impact is very limited, imaging techniques are essential in this disease. Ultrasound is the basic imaging tool, both for initial evaluation and follow-up of the hepatic and biliary involvement, although other techniques such as radionuclide imaging, magnetic resonance and computed tomography can be highly useful. Given the long-term, chronic nature of this disease, the use of aggressive techniques or irradiation should be carefully weighed. (Author) 38 refs

  6. Comparative Effectiveness Trials of Imaging-Guided Strategies in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leslee J; Phillips, Lawrence M; Nagel, Eike; Newby, David E; Narula, Jagat; Douglas, Pamela S

    2017-03-01

    The evaluation of patients with suspected stable ischemic heart disease is among the most common diagnostic evaluations with nearly 20 million imaging and exercise stress tests performed annually in the United States. Over the past decade, there has been an evolution in imaging research with an ever-increasing focus on larger registries and randomized trials comparing the effectiveness of varying diagnostic algorithms. The current review highlights recent randomized trial evidence with a particular focus comparing the effectiveness of cardiac imaging procedures within the stable ischemic heart disease evaluation for coronary artery disease detection, angina, and other quality of life measures, and major clinical outcomes. Also highlighted are secondary analyses from these trials on the economic findings related to comparative cost differences across diagnostic testing strategies. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Appropriateness criteria for the use of cardiovascular imaging in heart valve disease in adults: A European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging report of literature review and current practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, J.B. (John B.); M. Garbi (Madalina); K. Nieman (Koen); Myerson, S. (Saul); L. Pié rard (Luc); G. Habib (Gilbert); J.L. Zamorano (Jose); H. Edvardsen (Hege); P. Lancellotti (Patrizio); V. Delgado (Victoria); J. Cosyns; E. Donal (Erwan); R. Dulgheru (Raluca); M. Galderisi (Maurizio); Lombardi, M. (Massimo); Muraru, D. (Denisa); Kauffmann, P. (Philipp); N. Cardim (Nuno); Haugaa, K. (Kristina); R. Rosenhek (Raphael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHeart valve disease is common and a major indication for imaging. Echocardiography is the first-line imaging technique for diagnosis, assessment, and serial surveillance. However, other modalities, notably cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography, are used if

  8. Molecular Imaging Approaches to the Evaluation of Infectious Diseases- A Prospective Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    distribution and drug biodistribution Fundamental processes following viral infection are amenable to evaluation by molecular imaging. Upon...used to correlate brain pathology with measures of cognitive decline [22] and to track the progression of disease in genetically engineered mice [23... bacterial infections and in development of countermeasures to BSL3/4 pathogens. Mol Imaging Biol 17(1):4-17. doi. 10.1007/s11307-014-0759-7 2. Bowen

  9. Flattened facial colliculus on magnetic resonance imaging in Machado-Joseph disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshitsugu; Ito, Shoichi; Makino, Takahiro; Kanai, Kazuaki; Arai, Kimihito; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2012-07-01

    Atrophy of the pontine tegmentum and facial colliculus is a characteristic pathological feature of Machado-Joseph disease. We assessed whether this finding can be detected by conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 17 patients with genetically confirmed Machado-Joseph disease, 15 disease controls (spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy), and 17 normal subjects were examined using a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. The widths of the facial colliculus, pontine tegmentum, and pontine base and the area of the fourth ventricle were measured on axial T2-weighted imaging. Pathological examination was performed in 9 Machado-Joseph disease patients. In addition, visual inspection of the facial colliculus was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The width of the facial colliculus was significantly smaller in Machado-Joseph disease patients (0.37 ± 0.16 mm; mean ± standard deviation) than in normal subjects (0.73 ± 0.30 mm; P Machado-Joseph disease (4.85 ± 0.58 mm) and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (4.72 ± 0.59) patients than in normal subjects (6.35 ± 0.74 mm; P Machado-Joseph disease from dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (0.78) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (0.87). Pathological evaluation showed significant atrophy of the facial colliculus in all Machado-Joseph disease patients. Atrophy of the facial colliculus is a feasible magnetic resonance imaging finding for diagnosing Machado-Joseph disease, and it is easily found as a flattening of the fourth ventricular floor. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Automated Segmentation of Kidneys from MR Images in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwoo; Ge, Yinghui; Tao, Cheng; Zhu, Jianbing; Chapman, Arlene B; Torres, Vicente E; Yu, Alan S L; Mrug, Michal; Bennett, William M; Flessner, Michael F; Landsittel, Doug P; Bae, Kyongtae T

    2016-04-07

    Our study developed a fully automated method for segmentation and volumetric measurements of kidneys from magnetic resonance images in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and assessed the performance of the automated method with the reference manual segmentation method. Study patients were selected from the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease. At the enrollment of the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease Study in 2000, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease were between 15 and 46 years of age with relatively preserved GFRs. Our fully automated segmentation method was on the basis of a spatial prior probability map of the location of kidneys in abdominal magnetic resonance images and regional mapping with total variation regularization and propagated shape constraints that were formulated into a level set framework. T2-weighted magnetic resonance image sets of 120 kidneys were selected from 60 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and divided into the training and test datasets. The performance of the automated method in reference to the manual method was assessed by means of two metrics: Dice similarity coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient of segmented kidney volume. The training and test sets were swapped for crossvalidation and reanalyzed. Successful segmentation of kidneys was performed with the automated method in all test patients. The segmented kidney volumes ranged from 177.2 to 2634 ml (mean, 885.4±569.7 ml). The mean Dice similarity coefficient ±SD between the automated and manual methods was 0.88±0.08. The mean correlation coefficient between the two segmentation methods for the segmented volume measurements was 0.97 (Pkidneys from abdominal magnetic resonance images in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with varying kidney volumes. The performance of the automated method was in good

  11. Adult onset glycogen storage disease type II (adult onset Pompe disease): report and magnetic resonance images of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Gaizo, Andrew [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology Resident, Atlanta, GA (United States); Banerjee, Sima [Emory University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology Department, Atlanta, GA (United States); Terk, Michael [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII), also referred to as Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency, is a rare inherited condition caused by a deficiency in acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity. The condition is often classified by age of presentation, with infantile and late onset variants (Laforet et al. J Neurology 55:1122-8, 2000). Late onset tends to present with progressive proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency (Winkel et al. J Neurology 252:875-84, 2005). We report two cases of biopsy confirmed adult onset GSDII, along with key Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. (orig.)

  12. Adult onset glycogen storage disease type II (adult onset Pompe disease): report and magnetic resonance images of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Gaizo, Andrew; Banerjee, Sima; Terk, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII), also referred to as Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency, is a rare inherited condition caused by a deficiency in acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity. The condition is often classified by age of presentation, with infantile and late onset variants (Laforet et al. J Neurology 55:1122-8, 2000). Late onset tends to present with progressive proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency (Winkel et al. J Neurology 252:875-84, 2005). We report two cases of biopsy confirmed adult onset GSDII, along with key Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. (orig.)

  13. Imaging techniques in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    1997-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Coronary angiography makes it possible to visualize coronary artery stenosis and can be used for angioplasty and stent implantation; however, it does not allow the assessment of changes in myocardial microcirculation. The severity of an angiographically evaluated coronary stenosis does not always correspond to the extent of myocardial ischemia. Nonivasive techniques are needed to reexamine our reliance on coronary angiography and to explore the clinical value fo the physiological assessment of coronary artery stenoses. Such noninvasive techniques might become important tools in the future following an overal evaluation of coronary morphology, myocardial function and perfusion ascertained by all available methods. (orig.) [de

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging applied to motor neuron disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Villarroal, Gonzalo M.; Giavitto, Enrique; Nagel, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Differentiate Motor Neuron Disease by MRI. Material and Methods: 10 patients were studied, 7 patients had a diagnosis of definite ALS by the El Escorial criteria, 2 patients had lower motor neuron signs (LMN) and hyperreflexia and one patient had LMN signs without pain. MRI was performed: slices brain: Sagittal T1-weighted, sagittal and axial FSE T2, axial and coronal FLAIR, diffusion, singlevoxel spectroscopy in protuberances. Functional MRI with motor test; slices in cervical spine: Sagittal T1-weighted, sagittal and axial FSE T2, sagittal FSIR. Results: The 7 patients with definite ALS by El Escorial criteria and 2 patients with LMN signs and hyperreflexia: hyperintensity signal in FSE T2 and FLAIR extending from the motor cortex down to the corona radiate, posterior limb of internal capsules, cerebral peduncles and protuberance base; FSE T2: hypointensity sign in motor cortex; elevation in diffusivity and hyperintensity signal in ADC in posterior limb of internal capsule; reduction of NAA, high levels of Glutamine-Glutamate and of Colina. One of these 9 patients showed disc hernia in C4-5, and other patient in C3-C4, C4-C5 without cord lesion. The patient with LMN signs without pain showed normal brain and disc hernia C5-C6, hypertrophy yellow ligament, anterior-posterior diminution of medullar canal, hyperintensity signal in spine cord in the same level in sagittal FSIR. fMRI: increase signal in contralateral, ipsilateral motor area, and areas involved in initiation and planning movement. Conclusion: MRI allow differentiation between ALS and myelopathy cervical spondylitis and others motor neuron disease. (author) [es

  15. Imaging of cerebrovascular reserve and oxygenation in Moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wendy W; Christen, Thomas; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Zun, Zungho; Moseley, Michael E; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine whether measurements of cerebrovascular reserve and oxygenation, assessed with spin relaxation rate R2', yield similar information about pathology in pre-operative Moyamoya disease patients, and to assess whether R2' is a better measure of oxygenation than other proposed markers, such as R2* and R2. Twenty-five pre-operative Moyamoya disease patients were scanned at 3.0T with acetazolamide challenge. Cerebral blood flow mapping with multi-delay arterial spin labeling, and R2*, R2, and R2' mapping with Gradient-Echo Sampling of Free Induction Decay and Echo were performed. No baseline cerebral blood flow difference was found between angiographically abnormal and normal regions (49 ± 12 vs. 48 ± 11 mL/100 g/min, p = 0.44). However, baseline R2' differed between these regions (3.2 ± 0.7 vs. 2.9 ± 0.6 s -1 , p Cerebrovascular reserve was lower in angiographically abnormal regions (21 ± 38 vs. 41 ± 26%, p = 0.001). All regions showed trend toward significantly improved oxygenation post-acetazolamide. Regions with poorer cerebrovascular reserve had lower baseline oxygenation (Kendall's τ = -0.24, p = 0.003). A number of angiographically abnormal regions demonstrated preserved cerebrovascular reserve, likely due to the presence of collaterals. Finally, of the concurrently measured relaxation rates, R2' was superior for oxygenation assessment.

  16. Hyperspectral imaging and ankle: brachial indices in peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari-Saraf, Lida; Gordon, Ian L

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the correlation between ankle:brachial indices (ABI) and visible light reflectance spectroscopy hyperspectral imaging (HSI) determinations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHgb and deoxyHgb) levels in the skin of the distal lower extremity. This is a prospective, open, comparator trial which took place at the Vascular laboratory of a Veterans Administration Hospital in Long Beach, USA. Fifty-eight patients (85 limbs) were referred for routine vascular laboratory studies including ABI had concomitant HSI. Limbs with noncompressible pedal signals were excluded from the analysis. ABI was determined with continuous wave Doppler ultrasound and leg blood pressure cuffs. A commercial HSI system (Oxu-Vu(R), Hypermed, Inc.) was used to measure oxyHgb, deoxyHgb, and percent oxygenated hemoglobin (%oxyHgb) in the dorsum of the foot and ankle. HSI measurements of volar forearm skin were also obtained to normalize the lower extremity HSI measurements in a manner comparable with ABI. For purposes of comparison, data sets were divided into 3 groups: ABI > 0.9 (n = 53), 0.45 failed to show a clinically useful correlation between HSI measurements of oxyHgb levels, further evaluation of this novel technology is warranted. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Benefits of optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utz S.R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: working out the methods of visualization of information obtained during optical coherent tomography in normal skin and in series of inflammatory disorders. Materials and Methods. OCS1300SS (made in Thorlabs, USA was used in which the source of emission of radiation was a super-luminiscent diode with mean wavelength of 1325 nm. 12 patients with different skin conditions and 5 virtually healthy volunteers were examined with ОСТ procedure in OPD and IPD settings. High resolution USG numerical system DUB (TPM GmbH, Germany was used for comparative USG assessment. Results. ОСТ demonstrated considerably more detailed picture of the objects scanned compared to USG investigation. Image obtained with the help of ОСТ contains vital information about sizes of macro-morphological elements, status of vascular elements and their density in different depths of the skin. Conclusion. Additional results obtained from ОСТ of the skin lesions in plane section improves attraction for ОСТ in practical dermatology.

  18. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease. The emerging role of cardiovascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie, E-mail: soma13@otenet.gr; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. • CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. • Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques. • CT can assess periarteritis and coronary artery aneurysms, while 18FDG-PET shows FDG uptake at the area of the lesion. • CMR offers an integrated imaging of CV system, including assessment of disease acuity, extent of fibrosis and can guide further treatment. - Abstract: Immunoglobulin 4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) is a systemic inflammatory disease that presents with increases of serum IgG4. It may affect various systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. IgG4-related disease is characterized by fibrosclerosis, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The disease usually responds to treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive medication. CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders can severely affect patient prognosis. Various imaging techniques, including echocardiography, Computed Tomography (CT), 18FDG-PET, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterisation, have been successfully used for early disease detection and follow-up. Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques for the evaluation of IgG4-related CV disease. Periaortitis/periarteritis can be also assessed by CT, showing a soft tissue thickening around arteries. Coronary artery aneurysms can be easily diagnosed by coronary CT. In case of active periarterial or coronary artery inflammation, 18

  19. Lesions by tissue specific imaging characterize multiple sclerosis patients with more advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Francesca; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N; van Gelderen, Peter; Auh, Sungyoung; Hanafy, Jailan; Cantor, Fredric K; Ohayon, Joan; Richert, Nancy; Duyn, Jeff

    2011-12-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid tissue specific imaging (CSF-TSI), a newly implemented magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, allows visualization of a subset of chronic black holes (cBHs) with MRI characteristics suggestive of the presence of CSF-like fluid, and representing lesions with extensive tissue destruction. To investigate the relationship between lesions in CSF-TSI and disease measures in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Twenty-six patients with MS were imaged at 3.0 T, obtaining T(1)-weighted (T(1)-w) and T(2)-w spin echo (SE), T(1) volumetric images and CSF-TSI images. We measured: (i) lesion volume (LV) in T(1)-w (cBH-LV) and T(2)-w SE images, and in CSF-TSI; (ii) brain parenchyma fraction (BPF). Differences between patients with and without CSF-TSI lesions were analyzed and association between clinical and MRI metrics were investigated. cBHs were seen in 92% of the patients while lesions in CSF-TSI were seen in 40%. Patients with CSF-TSI lesions were older, with longer disease duration, higher disability scores, larger cBH-LV and T(2)-LV, and lower BPF than patients without CSF-TSI lesions (≤0.047). Partial correlation analysis correcting for T(2)-LV, cBH-LV and BPF showed an association (p TSI LV and disability score. CSF-TSI lesions characterize patients with more advanced disease and probably contribute to the progress of disability.

  20. Image-based diagnostic aid for interstitial lung disease with secondary data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Müller, Henning; Hidki, Asmâa; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2007-03-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a relatively heterogeneous group of around 150 illnesses with often very unspecific symptoms. The most complete imaging method for the characterisation of ILDs is the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest but a correct interpretation of these images is difficult even for specialists as many diseases are rare and thus little experience exists. Moreover, interpreting HRCT images requires knowledge of the context defined by clinical data of the studied case. A computerised diagnostic aid tool based on HRCT images with associated medical data to retrieve similar cases of ILDs from a dedicated database can bring quick and precious information for example for emergency radiologists. The experience from a pilot project highlighted the need for detailed database containing high-quality annotations in addition to clinical data. The state of the art is studied to identify requirements for image-based diagnostic aid for interstitial lung disease with secondary data integration. The data acquisition steps are detailed. The selection of the most relevant clinical parameters is done in collaboration with lung specialists from current literature, along with knowledge bases of computer-based diagnostic decision support systems. In order to perform high-quality annotations of the interstitial lung tissue in the HRCT images an annotation software and its own file format is implemented for DICOM images. A multimedia database is implemented to store ILD cases with clinical data and annotated image series. Cases from the University & University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG) are retrospectively and prospectively collected to populate the database. Currently, 59 cases with certified diagnosis and their clinical parameters are stored in the database as well as 254 image series of which 26 have their regions of interest annotated. The available data was used to test primary visual features for the classification of lung tissue patterns