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Sample records for behavioural strategies morphology

  1. Morphology and behaviour : functional links in development and evolution Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are kno

  2. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonson, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  3. Information behaviour and the search strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Verlič

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with theories about information seeking behaviour. The process of obtaining information is described. Special attention goes to information search strategies and tactics or skills. Models and search strategies according to the organization of information are described. In the end, the necessity of integration of a modern school library into the education process is emphasized with consideration to its users' needs.

  4. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  5. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUKLEAR MALAYSIA) Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  6. Beach Profile Behaviour in Tidal Environments: A Morphological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, A. M.; Medina, R.; Vidal, C.

    2004-05-01

    Tourism is an important economical activity in Spain that represents 10% of its GDP and provides a million jobs. Spain is the world's second more visited country, receiving 7% of world tourists. Eighty per cent of these visitors choose their destination somewhere along the 2500 km of beaches. Consequently, many efforts are currently addressed to their maintenance and conservation. However, the coastal management policies must be sustained by the deep knowledge of the beach behaviour and the physical processes implied. A morphological model, with certain predictive capacities, to describe the beach profile behaviour is proposed, integrating the wave and tide influence. It is based on the concept of the two-section (surf and shoaling) equilibrium beach profile, and has been validated with field and laboratory data. The model is described by means of two parameters: the modal tidal range and the dimensionless fall velocity (Ω ). Tide is considered a local variable whose principal effect is the lengthening of the intertidal or surf profile. The greater the tidal range, the wider the intertidal profile. The dimensionless fall velocity defines the transition from dissipative to reflective situations in beaches of any given tidal range. The morphological changes predicted by the proposed model in the surf and shoaling sections occur in the opposite direction. Whilst in the surf profile the slope close to the high tidal level becomes steeper and the concavity of whole section increases; in the shoaling profile, the upper part flattens resulting in a less concave section related to the decrease of Ω . In this transition, the slope break between surf and shoaling profiles becomes smoother and difficult to identify. This work was funded by projects REN2003-02822 MAR, REN2003-03233 MAR, VEM2003-20093-C03-03 of the Spanish MCYT and PGDIT03RMA30101PR of the Galician Government (XUGA). Contribution No 304 of XM2 group.

  7. Morphology and thermal behaviour of SAN/EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Blends of styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN with ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM with and without high impact polystyrene (HIPS as a compatibilizer were studied. One series of blends was prepared in composition 95/5, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20 and 60/40; and the second series of blends was prepared with addition of 5 wt % of HIPS. Their morphology and thermal behaviour were inspected by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM and dynamic mechanic analysis (DMA, respectively. Further on, blends were separated to their components by Soxlet extraction in selective solvent and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC, respectively. The results of morphological observations revealed that the addition of a small percentage of compatibilizer decreases the domain size of the dispersed phase and the compatibility of the blends was enhanced. The shifts of values of glass temperatures (Tg in the examined blends also indicate that with addition of compatibilizer HIPS miscibility between SAN and EPDM is improved.

  8. The spinning apparatus of webspinners – functional-morphology, morphometrics and spinning behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Büsse, Sebastian; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Hohu, Kyle; McMillan, David; Edgerly, Janice S.

    2015-01-01

    Webspinners (Insecta: Embioptera) have a distinctly unique behaviour with related morphological characteristics. Producing silk with the basitarsomeres of their forelegs plays a crucial role in the lives of these insects – providing shelter and protection. The correlation between body size, morphology and morphometrics of the spinning apparatus and the spinning behaviour of Embioptera was investigated for seven species using state-of-the-art methodology for behavioural as well as for morpholo...

  9. Morphology and mechanical behaviour of concretes reinforced by amorphous cast fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addresses the characterization of the morphology and mechanical behaviour of concretes reinforced by amorphous cast fibres. It first gathers some general characteristics and observations related to the amorphous cast fibre: roughness, failure mode, amorphous structure, X-ray analysis, fire resistance. Experimental methods and techniques developed for morphological analysis and mechanical tests are presented (sample preparation, tensile test, and compression sample) and the use of image automatic analysis techniques is then addressed (void morphology and granulometry analysis, inter-void distance measurement, fibre spatial distribution). The next part reports the study of the mechanical behaviour under axial compression

  10. Professional Teachers’ Strategies for Promoting Positive Behaviour in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Mahzan Awang; Abdul Razaq Ahmad; Manisah Mohd Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to obtain descriptive information on strategies used to promote positive behaviour in the school context from professional teachers’ perspectives based on background information. The professional teachers, who play important roles in schools, include principals, class teachers, physical education teachers, discipline teachers, and counselors. The study design employed the survey approach using questionnaire with close-ended questions involving 319 respondents who were selected...

  11. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, B; Smith, L.; Lorencatto, F.; Hamer, M.; Biddle, S J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘qui...

  12. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, B; Smith, L.; Lorencatto, F.; Hamer, M.; Biddle, S J H

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘qui...

  13. Morphology and Rheological Behaviour of Ag-SBS Nanocomposite Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peponi, Laura; Torre, Luigi; Kenny, Josè M.; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2008-08-01

    Block copolymers are of both theoretical and practical importance because of their ability to self-assemble in nano-ordered structures. The self-assembly processes in these materials, are a consequence of the intermolecular micro phase separation between the dissimilar chains covalently linked together. Another important property of block copolymers is that, in solution with a selective solvent, they aggregate to form physical gels. Their technological importance is due to their ability to form elastic solids via self-assembly, with midblocks bridging aggregated end-block micelles. In our study poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS), form, by its dissolution in a mid-block-selective solvent (THF) physical gels. So the morphology and the rheological behavior of the thermoreversible gels have been studied and characterized. Moreover, the gel behavior was also studied when Ag nanoparticles were added to the SBS matrix. The results of this study show that the gel stability is not affected by the presence of Ag nanoparticles.

  14. Behaviour and physiology: the thermal strategy of leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Bostrom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea exhibit thermal gradients between their bodies and the environment of ≥8°C in sub-polar waters and ≤4°C in the tropics. There has been no direct evidence for thermoregulation in leatherbacks although modelling and morphological studies have given an indication of how thermoregulation may be achieved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show for the first time that leatherbacks are indeed capable of thermoregulation from studies on juvenile leatherbacks of 16 and 37 kg. In cold water (< 25°C, flipper stroke frequency increased, heat loss through the plastron, carapace and flippers was minimized, and a positive thermal gradient of up to 2.3°C was maintained between body and environment. In warm water (25 - 31°C, turtles were inactive and heat loss through their plastron, carapace and flippers increased. The thermal gradient was minimized (0.5°C. Using a scaling model, we estimate that a 300 kg adult leatherback is able to maintain a maximum thermal gradient of 18.2°C in cold sub-polar waters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In juvenile leatherbacks, heat gain is controlled behaviourally by increasing activity while heat flux is regulated physiologically, presumably by regulation of blood flow distribution. Hence, harnessing physiology and behaviour allows leatherbacks to keep warm while foraging in cold sub-polar waters and to prevent overheating in a tropical environment.

  15. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    OpenAIRE

    Huis Anita; van Achterberg Theo; de Bruin Marijn; Grol Richard; Schoonhoven Lisette; Hulscher Marlies

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour change that prompt good HH behaviour to provide a better overview of the choice and content of such strategies. Methods Systematic searches of experimental and quasi-experimental research on HH...

  16. Vertical distribution, flight behaviour and evolution of wing morphology in Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, P J; Penz, Carla M; Hill, Ryan I

    2010-09-01

    1. Flight is a key innovation in the evolution of insects that is crucial to their dispersal, migration, territoriality, courtship and predator avoidance. Male butterflies have characteristic territoriality and courtship flight behaviours, and females use a characteristic flight behaviour when searching for host plants. This implies that selection acts on wing morphology to maximize flight performance for conducting important behaviours among sexes. 2. Butterflies in the genus Morpho are obvious components of neotropical forests, and many observations indicate that they show two broad categories of flight behaviour and flight height. Although species can be categorized as using gliding or flapping flight, and flying at either canopy or understorey height, the association of flight behaviour and flight height with wing shape evolution has never been explored. 3. Two clades within Morpho differ in flight behaviour and height. Males and females of one clade inhabit the forest understorey and use flapping flight, whereas in the other clade, males use gliding flight at canopy level and females use flapping flight in both canopy and understorey. 4. We used independent contrasts to answer whether wing shape is associated with flight behaviour and height. Given a single switch to canopy habitation and gliding flight, we compared contrasts for the node at which the switch to canopy flight occurred with the distribution of values in the two focal clades. We found significant changes in wing shape at the transition to canopy flight only in males, and no change in size for either sex. A second node within the canopy clade suggests that other factors may also be involved in wing shape evolution. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that natural selection acts differently on male and female butterfly wing shape and indicate that the transition to canopy flight cannot explain all wing shape diversity in Morpho. 5. This study provides a starting point for characterizing evolution

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of Student Teachers' Behaviour Management Strategies throughout Their Training Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Stuart; Reupert, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of behaviour management, many student teachers report being inadequately trained in this area. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies, confidence and reported levels of success in regard to various behaviour management strategies, across 509 first, second, third and fourth year student teachers training to be…

  18. Mechanical, thermal, rheological and morphological behaviour of irradiated PP/HA composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites are being developed as bone graft materials. In this research, the effect of γ irradiation on mechanical, rheological, thermal and morphological behaviour of PP-HA composites was studied. The melt flow index of polymer increased markedly when it was exposed to radiation. This is indicative of chain scission reaction as the predominant process. During the tensile testing, the composites exhibited brittle behaviour, showing no fluency point. Elongation at break showed a tendency to decrease with the increase in radiation dose while stress at break did not show significant variation with radiation dose. High HA content (>20%) and radiation dose (25 kGy) had significant influence on thermal stability

  19. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart Jh

    2016-03-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  20. Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ben B; Hulthén, Kaj; Brönmark, Christer; Nilsson, P Anders; Skov, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare body shape between populations that differ in migratory opportunity (open vs. closed lakes), and between individuals from a single population that vary in migratory propensity (migrants and residents from a partially migratory population). Following hydrodynamic theory, we posit that migrants should have a more shallow body depth, to reduce the costs associated with migrating into streams with higher flow conditions than the lakes the residents occupy all year round. 3. We find evidence both across and within populations to support our prediction, with individuals from open lakes and migrants from the partially migratory population having a more slender, shallow-bodied morphology than fish from closed lakes and all-year residents. 4. Our data suggest that a shallow body morphology is beneficial to migratory individuals and our study is one of the first to link migratory strategy and intraspecific variation in body shape. PMID:25823702

  1. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.; Achterberg, van T.; Bruin, de M.; Grol, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour chan

  2. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Huis; T. van Achterberg; M. de Bruin; R. Grol; L. Schoonhoven; M. Hulscher

    2012-01-01

    Background Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour chang

  3. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huis Anita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour change that prompt good HH behaviour to provide a better overview of the choice and content of such strategies. Methods Systematic searches of experimental and quasi-experimental research on HH improvement strategies were conducted in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to November 2009. First, we extracted the study characteristics using the EPOC Data Collection Checklist, including study objectives, setting, study design, target population, outcome measures, description of the intervention, analysis, and results. Second, we used the Taxonomy of Behavioural Change Techniques to identify targeted determinants. Results We reviewed 41 studies. The most frequently addressed determinants were knowledge, awareness, action control, and facilitation of behaviour. Fewer studies addressed social influence, attitude, self-efficacy, and intention. Thirteen studies used a controlled design to measure the effects of HH improvement strategies on HH behaviour. The effectiveness of the strategies varied substantially, but most controlled studies showed positive results. The median effect size of these strategies increased from 17.6 (relative difference addressing one determinant to 49.5 for the studies that addressed five determinants. Conclusions By focussing on determinants of behaviour change, we found hidden and valuable components in HH improvement strategies. Addressing only determinants such as knowledge, awareness, action control, and facilitation is not enough to change HH behaviour. Addressing combinations of different determinants showed better results. This indicates that we should be more creative in the application of

  4. Exploring self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nureeva, Liliya; Brunsø, Karen; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Healthy eating behaviour in adolescence may be negatively affected by lack of self-regulation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies for regulating eating behaviour as formulated by adolescents themselves. Design/methodology/approach – Self-regulatory strategies were elicited...... balance and regularity of food intake, awareness: remember to eat healthy, thinking of consequences, good advice for shopping and cooking, seeking help from parents, influencing family and others, avoiding temptations, replacing unhealthy food with a healthier option and reducing the amounts of unhealthy...... food in diet. Practical implications – Focusing on improving adolescents’ self-regulatory skills in the domain of eating behaviour is a promising approach in developing future interventions. Originality/value – The present article explores self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in adolescence...

  5. Echinoderms display morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity in response to their trophic environment.

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    Adam D Hughes

    Full Text Available The trophic interactions of sea urchins are known to be the agents of phase shifts in benthic marine habitats such as tropical and temperate reefs. In temperate reefs, the grazing activity of sea urchins has been responsible for the destruction of kelp forests and the formation of 'urchin barrens', a rocky habitat dominated by crustose algae and encrusting invertebrates. Once formed, these urchin barrens can persist for decades. Trophic plasticity in the sea urchin may contribute to the stability and resilience of this alternate stable state by increasing diet breadth in sea urchins. This plasticity promotes ecological connectivity and weakens species interactions and so increases ecosystem stability. We test the hypothesis that sea urchins exhibit trophic plasticity using an approach that controls for other typically confounding environmental and genetic factors. To do this, we exposed a genetically homogenous population of sea urchins to two very different trophic environments over a period of two years. The sea urchins exhibited a wide degree of phenotypic trophic plasticity when exposed to contrasting trophic environments. The two populations developed differences in their gross morphology and the test microstructure. In addition, when challenged with unfamiliar prey, the response of each group was different. We show that sea urchins exhibit significant morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity independent of their environment or their nutritional status.

  6. Association between shell morphology of micro-land snails (genus Plectostoma) and their predator's predatory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2014-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions are among the main ecological interactions that shape the diversity of biological form. In many cases, the evolution of the mollusc shell form is presumably driven by predation. However, the adaptive significance of several uncommon, yet striking, shell traits of land snails are still poorly known. These include the distorted coiled "tuba" and the protruded radial ribs that can be found in micro-landsnails of the genus Plectostoma. Here, we experimentally tested whether these shell traits may act as defensive adaptations against predators. We characterised and quantified the possible anti-predation behaviour and shell traits of Plectostoma snails both in terms of their properties and efficiencies in defending against the Atopos slug predatory strategies, namely, shell-apertural entry and shell-drilling. The results showed that Atopos slugs would first attack the snail by shell-apertural entry, and, should this fail, shift to the energetically more costly shell-drilling strategy. We found that the shell tuba of Plectostoma snails is an effective defensive trait against shell-apertural entry attack. None of the snail traits, such as resting behaviour, shell thickness, shell tuba shape, shell rib density and intensity can fully protect the snail from the slug's shell-drilling attack. However, these traits could increase the predation costs to the slug. Further analysis on the shell traits revealed that the lack of effectiveness in these anti-predation shell traits may be caused by a functional trade-off between shell traits under selection of two different predatory strategies. PMID:24749008

  7. Predictors of Restrictive Reactive Strategy Use in People with Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Lowe, Kathy; Brophy, Sam; Moore, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intrusive reactive strategies (physical restraint, emergency medication and seclusion) are frequently used procedures in the management of challenging behaviour. The present study identifies predictors for reactive strategy use in an attempt to more clearly delineate at risk service users. Method: Eight hundred and thirty-nine agencies…

  8. Behaviour and Physiology: The Thermal Strategy of Leatherback Turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Bostrom, Brian L.; Jones, T. Todd; Hastings, Mervin; Jones, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background Adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) exhibit thermal gradients between their bodies and the environment of ≥8°C in sub-polar waters and ≤4°C in the tropics. There has been no direct evidence for thermoregulation in leatherbacks although modelling and morphological studies have given an indication of how thermoregulation may be achieved. Methodology/Principal Findings We show for the first time that leatherbacks are indeed capable of thermoregulation from studies on juve...

  9. SHAREHOLDER VALUE ENHANCING STRATEGIES - EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea IOSUB-DOBRICA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The shareholder value maximization objective function of Anglo-Saxon publicly quoted corpora-tions over the last three decades gave raise to contrasted reactions. The controversy raised by the implementation of this new form of capitalism goes beyond the simple interactions between corporate governance and its achievements. The means allowing corporations to maximize shareholders’ wealth are nowadays fuelling the debate, especially when considering the eventual generalization of the An-glo-Saxon corporate governance model to other countries. Excessive corporate debt, massive job cuts, considerable assets reductions etc. are the most recurrent corporate strategies denounced as harmful by shareholder value maximization detractors. While these strategies are often retained in descriptive studies or in the Medias as a byproduct of the shareholder value maximization policy, empirical sup-port in this direction is lacking. The econometric study conducted herein allows us to put into perspective the role of the above mentioned strategies in the shareholder value creation process.

  10. Strategies for managing behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type: a systematic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic overview was to summarize research findings on strategies for managing the behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type. A search of the published and unpublished literature resulted in 265 articles, 45 of which were judged to be relevant. Using validity criteria, 1 article was judged to be strong, 6 moderate, 20 weak, and 18 poor. Strategies such as planned walking, pet therapy, an attention-focusing program, functional skills training, music, and visual barriers demonstrated promising results in improving: (a) aggressive, agitated, and disruptive behaviours, (b) social interaction, (c) self-care ability, (d) day-night disturbances, or (e) wandering. The findings indicate that there is existing research, although in its infancy, to support the use of strategies for managing the behavioural symptomatology associated with dementia of the Alzheimer type. PMID:9807289

  11. Parents anticipating misbehaviour: an observational study of strategies parents use to prevent conflict with behaviour problem children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, F E; Sonuga-Barke, E J; Sayal, K

    1999-11-01

    Research on the role of parenting styles in the development of disruptive behaviour problems has focused primarily on how parents handle conflict once it has occurred. This home observational study examined strategies used by 52 mothers to prevent conflict with 3-year-olds. It was predicted that mothers of children with behaviour problems would use fewer "positive" strategies to resolve conflict, and would use reactive rather than pre-emptive strategies. Results showed frequency of positive strategies did not differ between the groups. Mothers of children with behaviour problems were less likely to use pre-emptive, and more likely to use reactive, strategies. Further analysis showed child conduct problems, rather than other characteristics, best discriminated pre-emptive from reactive strategy users. Follow-up of a subsample found that reactive strategies at age 3 predicted age 5 behaviour problems, even after controlling for age 3 behaviour problems. PMID:10604397

  12. Pricing and Timing Strategies for New Product Using Agent-Based Simulation of Behavioural Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Keeheon Lee; Hoyeop Lee; Chang Ouk Kim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we are interested in the problem of determining the pricing and timing strategies of a new product by developing an agent-based product diffusion simulation. In the proposed simulation model, agents imitate behavioural consumers, who are reference dependent and risk averse in the evaluation of new products and whose interactions create word-of-mouth regarding new products. Pricing and timing strategies involve the timing of a new product release, the timing of providing a disco...

  13. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Benus, R. F.; Bohus, B; Koolhaas, J.M.; van Oortmerssen, G.A

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way active shock avoidance paradigm. Overall, aggressive mice were found to be better active shock avoiders than non-aggressive animals, a finding that is consistent with our hypothesis. However, within ...

  14. Strategies of human spatial cognition: cognitive and behavioural trade-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Makány, Tamás

    2009-01-01

    Human spatial strategies are heuristics that allocate cognitive and behavioural resources for navigation tasks. These spatial strategies help the individual optimize its interactions with the surrounding space through functional trade-offs between the memory costs of planning routes and the cost involved in actually travelling that distance. These trade-offs result in visitation patterns of initial exploration of the space and subsequently determine navigation efficiency. The purpose of...

  15. Bridging the physical activity intention-behaviour gap: contemporary strategies for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of regular moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) are numerous, yet most Canadians are inactive. Behavioural researchers have amassed considerable literature on theories-models of PA and many postulate that intention is the proximal antecedent. While intentions are clearly necessary, they are often not sufficient. In this brief overview, I summarize some of the contemporary areas of research aimed at overcoming the intention-behaviour gap in the behavioural science of PA. These are followed by suggestions for how PA practitioners may wish to employ strategies to help their clients translate good intentions into actual behaviour. The topics include the promotion of affect, organization, automaticity, and social responsibility. These areas of research are not meant to be exhaustive in breadth, but they highlight complementary additions to the typical approaches of changing PA through increases in self-efficacy-capability and personal outcome expectations and attitudes. PMID:24383514

  16. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. PMID:23043440

  17. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management. PMID:27241441

  18. Morphological Processing Strategies: An Intervention for Spelling Difficulties in English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Griva, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a descriptive account of a Morphological Processing Spelling Approach (MPSA), which substitutes a more conventional spelling instruction, proposed for developing primary school students' metamorphological knowledge and strategies in English as a foreign language. For the application of the MPSA, seven dictation texts were…

  19. A distributed and morphology-independent strategy for adaptive locomotion in self-reconfigurable modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stoy, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed reinforcement learning strategy for morphology-independent lifelong gait learning for modular robots. All modules run identical controllers that locally and independently optimize their action selection based on the robot’s velocity as a global, shared reward...... physical robots with a comparable performance, (iii) can be applied to learn simple gait control tables for both M-TRAN and ATRON robots, (iv) enables an 8-module robot to adapt to faults and changes in its morphology, and (v) can learn gaits for up to 60 module robots but a divergence effect becomes...... substantial from 20–30 modules. These experiments demonstrate the advantages of a distributed learning strategy for modular robots, such as simplicity in implementation, low resource requirements, morphology independence, reconfigurability, and fault tolerance....

  20. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Willich, Stefan N.; Vauth, Christoph; Bockelbrink, Angelina; Rasch, Andrej; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Background: The hazardous health effects of smoking and second hand smoke have been confirmed in numerous studies. For Germany, the mortality attributable to smoking is estimated at 110,000 to 140,000 deaths per year, associated with annual smoking-related costs of 17 to 21 billion euro. Because the majority of smokers initiate this habit early in life, behavioural preventive strategies usually tried to prevent the uptake of smoking among children and youths. Objectives: The goal of this HTA ...

  1. Decreased reelin expression and organophosphate pesticide exposure alters mouse behaviour and brain morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. Ghiani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASDs (autism spectrum disorders. In this study, we examined the combinatorial effect of two factors thought to be involved in autism – reduction in the expression of the extracellular matrix protein reelin and prenatal exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, CPO (chlorpyrifos oxon. Mice with reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to CPO exhibited subtle changes in ultrasound vocalization, open field behaviour, social interaction and repetitive behaviour. Paradoxically, mice exposed to both variables often exhibited a mitigation of abnormal behaviours, rather than increased behavioural abnormalities as expected. We identified specific differences in males and females in response to both of these variables. In addition to behavioural abnormalities, we identified anatomical alterations in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. As with our behavioural studies, anatomical alterations appeared to be ameliorated in the presence of both variables. While these observations support an interaction between loss of reelin expression and CPO exposure, our results suggest a complexity to this interaction beyond an additive effect of individual phenotypes.

  2. Strategies in behaviour modification: theoretical background : an introductory literature study for the OECD-Expert Group on "Enforcement and Rewarding: Strategies and effects"

    OpenAIRE

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the domain of traffic safety, attempts in the past to modify the behaviour of individuals through punishment and rewards have been carried out in a largely ad hoc and unsystematic manner, despite the fact that behaviour modification has been a central topic in psychology for nearly a century. In recent times, however, the application of psychological theories in traffic safety has markedly improved the progress made in strategies for changing the behaviour of individuals and governing bodi...

  3. Classroom behaviour management strategies in response to problematic behaviours of primary school children with special educational needs: views of special educational needs coordinators

    OpenAIRE

    Nye, E.; Gardner, F.; Hansford, L; Edwards, V.; Hayes, R; Ford, T.

    2015-01-01

    Children identified with special educational needs (SEN) and behavioural difficulties present extra challenges to educators and require additional supports in school. This paper presents views from special educational needs coordinators (SENCos) on various strategies used by educators to support children identified with SEN and problematic behaviours. The data were collected from telephone interviews with six SENCos from the UK’s South West Peninsula. The SENCos were invited to participate be...

  4. Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekár, S.; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 7 (2011), s. 593-603. ISSN 0028-1042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prey specificity * stenophagy * predatory behaviour * trophic niche * spider Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2011

  5. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hazardous health effects of smoking and second hand smoke have been confirmed in numerous studies. For Germany, the mortality attributable to smoking is estimated at 110,000 to 140,000 deaths per year, associated with annual smoking-related costs of 17 to 21 billion euro. Because the majority of smokers initiate this habit early in life, behavioural preventive strategies usually tried to prevent the uptake of smoking among children and youths. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to summarise the current literature on behavioural strategies for smoking prevention and to evaluate their medical effectiveness/efficacy and cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of smoking prevention programs. In addition, this report aims to compare the effectiveness and efficacy of different intervention components and to evaluate the reliability of results in the German context. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI. In addition a manual search of identified reference lists was conducted. The present report includes German and English literature published between August 2001 and August 2006 targeting youths up to 18 years old. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to pre-defined quality criteria, based on the criteria of evidence-based medicine. Results: Among 3,580 publications 37 medical studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall study quality was satisfactory but only half the studies reported smoking uptake as an outcome, while the remaining studies reported alternative outcome parameters. The follow-up duration varied between twelve and 120 months. Although overall effectiveness of prevention programs showed considerable heterogeneity, there was evidence for the long-term effectiveness of behavioural smoking prevention programs. However, the

  6. Testing a participatory strategy to change hygiene behaviour: face washing in central Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M; West, S K; Muñoz, B; Kayongoya, A; Taylor, H R; Mmbaga, B B

    1994-01-01

    A participatory strategy to increase face washing was designed and tested in central Tanzania. Changing children's face-washing behaviour is postulated to be important in preventing the transmission of eye disease, particularly blinding trachoma. The strategy used non-formal adult education techniques at neighbourhood level meetings to build a community consensus to keep children's faces clean for the prevention of eye disease. Men, women, schoolchildren, traditional healers and village social groups participated in the intervention. The strategy was evaluated by observing changes in numbers of clean faces of a sample of preschool children in the village. Clean faces increased from 9% to 33% over the course of a year. Factors which were related to sustained change in children's clean faces included distance to water, age of the child, and presence of a corrugated metal roof. Owning cattle was associated with lack of sustainable change in this population. PMID:7992324

  7. Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different resource levels in two different parts of the study area (rabbit-rich vs. rabbit-poor areas). Our analyses revealed (1) that rabbit abundance positively affected male reproductive output; (2) that age, size and rabbit abundance (during winter) positively affected different components of female reproductive output; (3) that foraging movements were inversely affected by rabbit abundance for both sexes (for females, this may mainly have reflected poor provisioning by males in the rabbit-poor area); (4) that younger breeders (both in males and females) tended to move over larger distances than older individuals (which may have reflected both a lack of hunting experience and mate searching); and (5) that male body size (wing length) showed some covariation with resource conditions (suggesting possible adaptations to hunting agile avian prey in the rabbit-poor area). Although we are unable to establish firm causal relationships with our observational data set, our results provide an example of how territory quality (here, food abundance) and individual features (here, age and morphology) may combine to shape a predator's foraging behaviour and, ultimately, its breeding performance.

  8. Hybrid Simulation Strategy for Simulating Self-Assembled Morphologies at the Atomistic Length Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan; Ganesan, Venkat

    In the context of Lithium-ion batteries, an enhancement in both ionic conductivity and mechanical properties, were observed for block copolymer electrolytes with increasing MW. On the contrary, when homopolymers were used as electrolytes, the ionic conductivity decreased with increasing MW. However, the origins of such increase in conductivity are unclear and are speculated to be tied to both the morphology and the atomistic details of the copolymer themselves. Motivated by such issues, we present a strategy to create ordered morphologies of block copolymers at the atomistic level using a combination of coarse-graining and inverse coarse-graining techniques. A mapping which is developed using the long-ranged structural mapping in the disordered phases will be utilized to generate self-assembled morphologies. In particular we focus on generating self-assembled morphologies of PS-PEO at the atomistic length scales. Statics and dynamics of such self-assembled morphologies will be presented and the effect of self assembly on the transport properties of ions will also be explored. Funded by NSF.

  9. Morphological, physiological and behavioural evaluation of a 'Mice in Space' housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blottner, Dieter; Serradj, Najet; Salanova, Michele; Touma, Chadi; Palme, Rupert; Silva, Mitchell; Aerts, Jean Marie; Berckmans, Daniel; Vico, Laurence; Liu, Yi; Giuliani, Alessandra; Rustichelli, Franco; Cancedda, Ranieri; Jamon, Marc

    2009-05-01

    Environmental conditions likely affect physiology and behaviour of mice used for life sciences research on Earth or in Space. Here, we analysed the effects of cage confinement on the weightbearing musculoskeletal system, behaviour and stress of wild-type mice (C57BL/6JRj, 30 g b.wt., total n = 24) housed for 25 days in a prototypical ground-based and fully automated life support habitat device called "Mice in Space" (MIS). Compared with control housing (individually ventilated cages) the MIS mice revealed no significant changes in soleus muscle size and myofiber distribution (type I vs. II) and quality of bone (3-D microarchitecture and mineralisation of calvaria, spine and femur) determined by confocal and micro-computed tomography. Corticosterone metabolism measured non-invasively (faeces) monitored elevated adrenocortical activity at only start of the MIS cage confinement (day 1). Behavioural tests (i.e., grip strength, rotarod, L/D box, elevated plus-maze, open field, aggressiveness) performed subsequently revealed only minor changes in motor performance (MIS vs. controls). The MIS habitat will not, on its own, produce major effects that could confound interpretation of data induced by microgravity exposure during spaceflight. Our results may be even more helpful in developing multidisciplinary protocols with adequate scenarios addressing molecular to systems levels using mice of various genetic phenotypes in many laboratories. PMID:19130060

  10. Subtypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Associated with Behaviour and Neurofacial Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinderberry, Brooke; Brown, Scott; Hammond, Peter; Stevens, Angela F.; Schall, Ulrich; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Campbell, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) has a complex phenotype with more than 180 characteristics, including cardiac anomalies, cleft palate, intellectual disabilities, a typical facial morphology, and mental health problems. However, the variable phenotype makes it difficult to predict clinical outcome, such as the high prevalence of psychosis among…

  11. Morphological shifts of the external flight apparatus across the range of a passerine (Northern Wheatear with diverging migratory behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc I Förschler

    Full Text Available We studied morphological differentiation in the flight apparatus of the four currently recognised sub-species of Northern Wheatears, Oenanthe oenanthe. Considering all measured birds without assigning them a priori to any sub-species we found a clinal morphological shift. Relative wing length, wing pointedness, and the degree of tail forking were positively correlated with migratory distance, whereas tail length (relative to wing length was negatively correlated. The large-sized, long-distance migrant "Greenland" Wheatear, O. o. leucorhoa, is characterized by relatively longer, broader and more pointed wings and more forked tails, similar to the smaller-sized nominate Northern Wheatear, O. o. oenanthe, from North Europe, Siberia and Russia. In contrast, the short distance migrant "Seebohm's" Wheatear, O. o. seebohmi, from northwest Africa, possesses much rounder wings, and the tail is relatively longer and less forked. Sub-species with intermediate migratory habits (different populations of nominate Northern Wheatear, O. o. oenanthe, and "Mediterranean" Northern Wheatear, O. o. libanotica show, as expected, intermediate features according to their intermediate migratory behaviour. Our results are congruent with other inter- and intraspecific studies finding similar adaptations for energy-effective flight in relation to migration distance (morphological migratory syndrome.

  12. Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies in Response to Problematic Behaviours of Primary School Children with Special Educational Needs: Views of Special Educational Needs Coordinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Elizabeth; Gardner, Frances; Hansford, Lorraine; Edwards, Vanessa; Hayes, Rachel; Ford, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Children identified with special educational needs (SEN) and behavioural difficulties present extra challenges to educators and require additional supports in school. This paper presents views from special educational needs coordinators (SENCos) on various strategies used by educators to support children identified with SEN and problematic…

  13. Trait-based diet selection: prey behaviour and morphology predict vulnerability to predation in reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephanie J; Côté, Isabelle M

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how predators select their prey can provide important insights into community structure and dynamics. However, the suite of prey species available to a predator is often spatially and temporally variable. As a result, species-specific selectivity data are of limited use for predicting novel predator-prey interactions because they are assemblage specific. We present a method for predicting diet selection that is applicable across prey assemblages, based on identifying general morphological and behavioural traits of prey that confer vulnerability to predation independent of species identity. We apply this trait-based approach to examining prey selection by Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles), invasive predators that prey upon species-rich reef fish communities and are rapidly spreading across the western Atlantic. We first generate hypotheses about morphological and behavioural traits recurring across fish species that could facilitate or deter predation by lionfish. Constructing generalized linear mixed-effects models that account for relatedness among prey taxa, we test whether these traits predict patterns of diet selection by lionfish within two independent data sets collected at different spatial scales: (i) in situ visual observations of prey consumption and availability for individual lionfish and (ii) comparisons of prey abundance in lionfish stomach contents to availability on invaded reefs at large. Both analyses reveal that a number of traits predicted to affect vulnerability to predation, including body size, body shape, position in the water column and aggregation behaviour, are important determinants of diet selection by lionfish. Small, shallow-bodied, solitary fishes found resting on or just above reefs are the most vulnerable. Fishes that exhibit parasite cleaning behaviour experience a significantly lower risk of predation than non-cleaning fishes, and fishes that are nocturnally active are at significantly

  14. Shape up or ship out: Migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brönmark, C.;

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body...... (open vs. closed lakes), and between individuals from a single population that vary in migratory propensity (migrants and residents from a partially migratory population). Following hydrodynamic theory, we posit that migrants should have a more shallow body depth, to reduce the costs associated with...

  15. Coordination of Multiple Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Using Strategies Based on the Schooling Behaviour of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan McColgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (BAUVs are Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs that employ similar propulsion and steering principles as real fish. While the real life applicability of these vehicles has yet to be fully investigated, laboratory investigations have demonstrated that at low speeds, the propulsive mechanism of these vehicles is more efficient when compared with propeller based AUVs. Furthermore, these vehicles have also demonstrated superior manoeuvrability characteristics when compared with conventional AUVs and Underwater Glider Systems (UGSs. Further performance benefits can be achieved through coordination of multiple BAUVs swimming in formation. In this study, the coordination strategy is based on the schooling behaviour of fish, which is a decentralized approach that allows multiple AUVs to be self-organizing. Such a strategy can be effectively utilized for large spatiotemporal data collection for oceanic monitoring and surveillance purposes. A validated mathematical model of the BAUV developed at the University of Glasgow, RoboSalmon, is used to represent the agents within a school formation. The performance of the coordination algorithm is assessed through simulation where system identification techniques are employed to improve simulation run time while ensuring accuracy is maintained. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of implementing coordination algorithms based on the behavioural mechanisms of fish to allow a group of BAUVs to be considered self-organizing.

  16. Association between shell morphology of micro-land snails (genus Plectostoma and their predator’s predatory behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor-Seng Liew

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Predator–prey interactions are among the main ecological interactions that shape the diversity of biological form. In many cases, the evolution of the mollusc shell form is presumably driven by predation. However, the adaptive significance of several uncommon, yet striking, shell traits of land snails are still poorly known. These include the distorted coiled “tuba” and the protruded radial ribs that can be found in micro-landsnails of the genus Plectostoma. Here, we experimentally tested whether these shell traits may act as defensive adaptations against predators. We characterised and quantified the possible anti-predation behaviour and shell traits of Plectostoma snails both in terms of their properties and efficiencies in defending against the Atopos slug predatory strategies, namely, shell-apertural entry and shell-drilling. The results showed that Atopos slugs would first attack the snail by shell-apertural entry, and, should this fail, shift to the energetically more costly shell-drilling strategy. We found that the shell tuba of Plectostoma snails is an effective defensive trait against shell-apertural entry attack. None of the snail traits, such as resting behaviour, shell thickness, shell tuba shape, shell rib density and intensity can fully protect the snail from the slug’s shell-drilling attack. However, these traits could increase the predation costs to the slug. Further analysis on the shell traits revealed that the lack of effectiveness in these anti-predation shell traits may be caused by a functional trade-off between shell traits under selection of two different predatory strategies.

  17. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, E. Leigh; Wildgruber, Andreas; Kreichauf, Susanne; Vögele, Claus; Nixon, Catherine A.; Douthwaite, Wayne; Moore, Helen J; Manios, Yannis; Summerbell, Carolyn D; on behalf of the Toybox-study group

    2012-01-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children’s eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, ‘enjoyment of food’ and ‘satiety responsiveness’. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and expe...

  18. Understanding NTNU's students' and employees' recycling behaviour based on intervention strategies by applying a comprehensive psychological model

    OpenAIRE

    Tobolova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    One of the solutions for the environmental problem of waste is proper waste separation by individuals. This Master’s Thesis discusses the psychological variables of individuals’ waste separation behaviour. Building on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Norm-activation Model, Habits and the Comprehensive Action Determination Model, a questionnaire was created paying close attention to the intervention strategies implemented by the project group ‘Klimafot Avfall’ at The Norwegian University of Sc...

  19. Linear unsaturated polyester + poly(ε-caprolactone) blends: Calorimetric behaviour and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blends of a linear unsaturated polyester (LUP, commercially named Al100) with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) of different molecular weights have been studied. The miscibility and crystallinity have been analyzed through FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM). All the blends were subjected to the same heat treatment consisting of crystallizing during 45 min at constant temperature (10, 20, 30 or 40 deg. C). The glass transition temperature, T g, and fusion temperature, T fus, have been determined in the whole composition range for each blend. The T g-composition dependence and the high deg.ree of crystallinity detected at intermediate blend compositions denote an anomalous behaviour that could indicate the lack of homogeneity (phase separation) in the different blends studied. The ESEM measurements confirm the lack of homogeneity of the amorphous region in blends with high content of LUP. The results have been discussed as a function of the crystallization temperature and the molecular weight of PCL

  20. Stage fright in orchestral musicians: a study of cognitive and behavioural strategies in performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Fidler, H

    1987-05-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out with three groups of musicians: experienced professional orchestral players (n=65), music students (n=41), and members of an amateur orchestra (n=40). Musical performance anxiety was assessed together with neuroticism, everyday fears, self-statements and behavioural coping strategies. Performance anxiety was lowest in the professional group and highest among students. In all three groups, performance anxiety was related to neuroticism and everyday fears, notably fear of crowds and social situations. A negative association between age, performing experience and stage fright was observed in professional musicians but not other groups. Six clusters of self-statements were identified. Catastrophizing was positively linked with performance anxiety in all groups, while realistic appraisal of the performance situation was used most commonly by those with moderate levels of stage fright. Implications for the conceptualization and management of stage fright are discussed. PMID:3594093

  1. TEMAS: fleet-based bio-economic simulation software to evaluate management strategies accounting for fleet behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Sparre, Per Johan;

    2007-01-01

    TEMAS (technical management measures) is a fleet-based bio-economic software for evaluating management strategies accounting for technical measures and fleet behaviour. It focuses on mixed fisheries in which several fleets can choose among several fishing activities to target different stocks...... in one or several areas. The software combines a management strategy evaluation framework, using a forward-running operating model and a management procedure with a fleet behaviour module simulating both short-term (effort allocation) and long-term (entry/exit) fleet dynamics. The suite of models behind...

  2. Determinants of risk behaviour: effects of perceived risks and risk attitude on farmer's adoption of risk management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    van Winsen, F.; de Mey, Yann; Lauwers, L.; Van Passel, Steven; Vancauteren, Mark; Wauters, E.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of risk perception and risk attitude for understanding individual’s risk behaviour are independently well described in literature, but rarely combined in an integrated approach. In this study, we propose a model assuming the choice to implement certain risk management strategies to be directly driven by both perceptions of risks and risk attitude. Other determinants influence the intention to apply different risk strategies mainly indirectly, mediated by risk perception and ris...

  3. Influence of the particle morphology on the Cold Gas Spray deposition behaviour of titanium on aluminum light alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Study of the particle–substrate and particle–particle interfaces in the cold spray process. ► Use of irregular feedstock particles whereas normally FIB studies have been undergone for spherical particles. ► Deep Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of the interfaces and within the particle. -- Abstract: The present work evaluates the deposition behaviour of irregular titanium powder particles impinged by Cold Gas Spraying onto an aluminium 7075-T6 alloy substrate. The influence of their irregular shape on the bonding phenomena, in particle–substrate and particle–particle interfaces are discussed in view of Transmission Electron Microscopy examinations of a Focused Ion Beam lift-out prepared sample. Key aspects will be the jetting-out, the occurrence of oxide layers and grain size refinement. Different structural morphologies could be featured; at the particle–substrate interface, both the aluminium alloy and the titanium side exhibit recrystallization. Titanium particles in intimate contact in small agglomerates during deposition, on the other hand, show grain refinement at their interfaces whereas the original structure is maintained outside those boundaries

  4. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  5. Prospect Theory and Choice Behaviour Strategies: Review and Synthesis of Concepts from Social and Transport sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kaa, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Utility Theory is commonly considered as the most useful descriptive theory of human choice behaviour. Alternative concepts are only incidentally considered. This paper reviews alternative assumptions and empirical findings about human choice behaviour. To facilitate comparison and synthesis the rev

  6. A Conceptual framework of Strategy, Structure and Innovative Behaviour for the Development of a Dynamic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Trivellas, Panagiotis; Reklitis, Panagiotis

    2007-12-01

    According to many researchers of organizational theory, a great number of problems encountered by the manufacturing firms are due to their failure to foster innovative behaviour by aligning business strategy and structure. From this point of view, the fit between strategy and structure is essential in order to facilitate firms' innovative behaviour. In the present paper, we adopt Porter's typology to operationalise business strategy (cost leadership, innovative and marketing differentiation, and focus). Organizational structure is built on four dimensions (centralization, formalization, complexity and employees' initiatives to implement new ideas). Innovativeness is measured as product innovation, process and technological innovation. This study provides the necessary theoretical framework for the development of a dynamic simulation method, although the simulation of social events is a quite difficult task, considering that there are so many alternatives (not all well understood).

  7. A New LC-MS-based Strategy to integrate chemistry, morphology, and evolution of eggplant (Solanum) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economically valuable giant genus Solanum, containing dozens of functional food species such as eggplant and tomato, affords an excellent system to compare and correlate metabolic chemistry with species morphology and evolution. Here, we devised a strategy based on repeatable reversed-phase LC-T...

  8. Modelling rip current flow and bather escape strategies across a transverse bar and rip channel morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Castelle, Bruno; Brander, Robert W.; Scott, Timothy

    2015-10-01

    . Critically, no strategy succeeded in all scenarios at all locations across the surfzone, and small changes to input conditions (water level, start time and location, swim direction) had major impacts on outcomes. Future modelling efforts should examine additional surf zone rip current morphologies and wave-tide inputs, with a goal of determining generalised rip escape principles that may be communicated to the general public.

  9. Data-driven behavioural modelling of residential water consumption to inform water demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Cominola, Andrea; Alshaf, Ahmad; Castelletti, Andrea; Anda, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The continuous expansion of urban areas worldwide is expected to highly increase residential water demand over the next few years, ultimately challenging the distribution and supply of drinking water. Several studies have recently demonstrated that actions focused only on the water supply side of the problem (e.g., augmenting existing water supply infrastructure) will likely fail to meet future demands, thus calling for the concurrent deployment of effective water demand management strategies (WDMS) to pursue water savings and conservation. However, to be effective WDMS do require a substantial understanding of water consumers' behaviors and consumption patterns at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Retrieving information on users' behaviors, as well as their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas for targeting water saving efforts and to design user-tailored WDMS, such as education campaigns and personalized recommendations. In this work, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify household water users' consumption behavioural profiles and model their water use habits. State-of-the-art clustering methods are coupled with big data machine learning techniques with the aim of extracting dominant behaviors from a set of water consumption data collected at the household scale. This allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample and characterizing them with respect to several consumption features. Our approach is validated onto a real-world household water consumption dataset associated with a variety of demographic and psychographic user data and household attributes, collected in nine towns of the Pilbara and Kimberley Regions of Western Australia. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in capturing the influence of candidate determinants on residential water consumption profiles and in attaining sufficiently accurate predictions of users' consumption behaviors, ultimately providing

  10. Morphology as a key to behavioural flexibility: body shape and swimming variability in the dimorphic crucian carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Pettersson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Swimming trajectories of length-matched deep-bodied and shallow-bodied crucian carp were quantified in the laboratory using motion analysis software and compared in terms of swimming velocity, turning behaviour and associated coefficients of variation. The mean velocities of the two morphs were similar, but slower than predicted, and there was no difference in turning behaviour. In line with predictions from analysis of power curve steepness, swimming velocities of deep-bodied, high-drag individuals were significantly less variable than shallow-bodied conspecifics, thus indicating an association between body shape behavioural flexibility in terms of swimming variability.

  11. Advantage of rare infanticide strategies in an invasion experiment of behavioural polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Mappes, Tapio; Aspi, Jouni; Koskela, Esa; Mills, Suzanne; Poikonen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Killing conspecific infants (infanticide) is among the most puzzling phenomena in nature. Stable polymorphism in such behaviour could be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection (benefit of rare types). However, it is currently unknown whether there is genetic polymorphism in infanticidal behaviour or whether infanticide may have any fitness advantages when rare. Here we show genetic polymorphism in non-parental infanticide. Our novel invasion experiment confirms negative frequenc...

  12. Hydrologic behaviour of the Lake of Monate (Italy): a parsimonious modelling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomesani, Giulia; Soligno, Irene; Castellarin, Attilio; Baratti, Emanuele; Cervi, Federico; Montanari, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Lake of Monate (province of Varese, Northern Italy), is a unique example of ecosystem in equilibrium. The lake water quality is deemed excellent notwithstanding the intensive agricultural cultivation, industrial assets and mining activities characterising the surrounding areas. The lake has a true touristic vocation and is the only swimmable water body of the province of Varese, which counts several natural lakes. Lake of Monate has no tributary and its overall watershed area is equal to c.a. 6.6 km2 including the lake surface (i.e. 2.6 km2), of which 3.3 out of c.a. 4.0 km2 belong to the topographical watershed, while the remaining 0.7 km2 belong to the underground watershed. The latter is larger than the topographical watershed due to the presence of moraine formations on top of the limestone bedrock. The local administration recently promoted an intensive environmental monitoring campaign that aims to reach a better understanding of the hydrology of the lake and the subsurface water fluxes. The monitoring campaign started in October 2013 and, as a result, several meteoclimatic and hydrologic data have been collected up to now at daily and hourly timescales. Our study focuses on a preliminary representation of the hydrological behaviour of the lake through a modified version of HyMOD, a conceptual 5-parameter lumped rainfall-runoff model based on the probability-distributed soil storage capacity. The modified model is a semi-distributed application of HyMOD that uses the same five parameters of the original version and simulates the rainfall-runoff transformation for the whole lake watershed at daily time scale in terms of: direct precipitation on, and evaporation from, the lake surface; overall lake inflow, by separating the runoff component (topographic watershed) from the groundwater component (overall watershed); lake water-level oscillation; streamflow at the lake outlet. We used the first year of hydrometeorological observations as calibration data and

  13. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy recommendation is made to implement it. This paper describes the development of a behaviour change communication strategy to support implementation of IPTi by the routine health services in southern Tanzania, in the context of a five-year research programme evaluating the community effectiveness of IPTi. Methods Mixed methods including a rapid qualitative assessment and quantitative health facility survey were used to investigate communities' and providers' knowledge and practices relating to malaria, EPI, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and existing health posters. Results were applied to develop an appropriate behaviour change communication strategy for IPTi involving personal communication between mothers and health staff, supported by a brand name and two posters. Results Malaria in young children was considered to be a nuisance because it causes sleepless nights. Vaccination services were well accepted and their use was considered the mother's responsibility. Babies were generally taken for vaccination despite complaints about fevers and swellings after the injections. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was widely used for malaria treatment and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, despite widespread rumours of adverse reactions based on hearsay and newspaper reports. Almost all health providers said that they or their spouse were ready to take SP in pregnancy (96%, 223/242. A brand name, key messages and images were developed and pre-tested as behaviour change communication materials. The posters contained public health messages

  14. Tail biting in pigs--causes and management intervention strategies to reduce the behavioural disorder. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Lilia Thays; Fels, Michaela; Oczak, Maciej; Vranken, Erik; Ismayilova, Gunel; Guarino, Marcella; Viazzi, Stefano; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    One of the largest animal welfare problems in modern pig production is tail biting. This abnormal behaviour compromises the well-being of the animals, can seriously impair animal health and can cause considerable economic losses. Tail biting has a multifactorial origin and occurs mainly in fattening pigs. High stocking densities, poor environment and bad air quality are seen as important factors. However, it is presumed that a plurality of internal and external motivators in intensive pig production can trigger this behaviour which is not reported in sounders of wild boars. The aim of this review is to summarize the causes and the effects of tail biting in pigs and present management strategies that are likely to reduce its incidence. In particular, management strategies by applying Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies to monitor and control the behaviour of the pigs may be suitable to detect the outbreaks of tail biting at an early stage so that counter measures can be taken in time. PMID:23540192

  15. Effect of primary particle size on spray formation, morphology and internal structure of alumina granules and elucidation of flowability and compaction behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Ramavath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different alumina powders with varying particle sizes were subjected to spray drying under identical conditions and effect of particle size on heat transfer efficiency and mechanism of formation of granules was elucidated. Morphology, internal structure and size distribution of granules were studied and evaluated with respect to their flow behaviour. In order to estimate the elastic interaction of granules, the granules were subjected to compaction under progressive loading followed by periodic unloading. Compaction curves were plotted and compressibility factor was estimated and correlated with predicted and measured green density values.

  16. IMPACT OF PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY PRODUCTS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Świątkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chain and market-oriented dairy sustainability, nutritional and social objectives related to the promotion of behaviours aimed at the development are essential. At the same time, the signifi cance of the various forms of sales promotion, as a factor of consumer buying behaviour infl uence, increases. The study includes the use of the sales promotion instruments in commercial space, perceived by consumers and assessment of their impact on purchasing decisions. The study was carried out on the basis of a standardized authoring individual interview questionnaire on nationwide random-quota, registered trials, in 2007–2012, as a part of the study of consumer behaviour performed in the dairy market for KZSM (National Association of Dairy Cooperatives. The results confi rm that the effect of promotion activities is a high visibility by consumers and change of their purchasing decisions. The most important determinant of consumer purchasing behaviour are the price promotions. Most often supported by a complete set of sales promotion instruments have been modern dairy products – yoghurt, grainy and ripening cheese. Sales promotion is an important instrument of balancing the dairy market and shaping the desired behaviour of consumers.

  17. Behavioural strategy of large perch Perca fluviatilis varies between a mesotrophic and a hypereutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik; Skov, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Behaviour of large perch Perca fluviatilis was studied in two lakes differing in environmental state i.e. mesotrophic v. hypereutrophic. A total of 20 adult perch P. fluviatilis (29–42 cm total length) in each lake were tagged with radio-transmitters, tracked and located eight times a day during...

  18. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Matthew D; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism's internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving "interoceptively," i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetrical relationship between an organism and its environment, where the latter more substantially influences the former than vice versa. This relationship means that interoceptive behaviour can respond to the environment, the internal state and the interaction between the two, while exteroceptive behaviour can only respond to the environment. We discuss the possibilities that (i) interoceptive behaviour may play an important role of facilitating adaptive evolution (especially in the early evolution of primitive life) and (ii) interoceptive mechanisms could prove useful in efforts to create more robust synthetic life-forms. PMID:26743579

  19. The impact of China's Indigenous innovation strategy on the innovation behaviour of automobile enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guangjie

    2014-01-01

    China's indigenous innovation strategy is a government-led innovation strategy in the term of pushing forward the technology development both in the state-owned enterprises and in the private enterprises. It was codified in the "Medium- and Long-Term National Science and Technology development Plan (2006-2020)" which was officially announced in 2006. There are several policy tools as the support to the indigenous innovation strategy.  R&D funding  Mega projects sponsored by government  Pub...

  20. Assembling strategy to synthesize palladium modified kaolin nanocomposites with different morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Jing; Zhou, Yonghua; Yang, Huaming

    2015-09-01

    Nanocomposites of aluminosilicate minerals, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite) with natural different morphologies assembling with palladium (Pd) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized through strong electrostatic adsorption and chemical bonding after surface modification with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). Meanwhile, the influence of different morphologies supports on catalytic hydrogenation properties was explored. The surface concentration of amino groups on the kaolins was related to the morphology and surface nature. Electronmicroscopy revealed that the monodisperse Pd nanoparticles were uniformly deposited onto the surface of kaolins, ranging in diameter from 0.5 nm to 5.5 nm. The functional groups could not only improve the dispersion of kaolins with different morphologies in solution, but also enhance the interaction between Pd precursors and kaolins, thus preventing small Pd nanoparticles from agglomerating and leading to high activity for the catalytic hydrogenation of styrene. Pd-FK@APTES was more active compared to other samples. Selecting the kaolin morphology with a different surface nature allows the selective surface modification of a larger fraction of the reactive facets on which the active sites can be enriched and tuned. This desirable surface coordination of catalytically active atoms could substantially improve catalytic activity.

  1. Effect of heat treatment upon the mechanical and poro-mechanical behaviour of cement-based materials: hydraulic properties and morphological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the effects of morphological changes of a cement-based material subjected to heat treatment (up to 400 C). For a model W/C=0.5 mortar, we have characterized experimentally hydraulic behaviour (gas permeability), mechanical behaviour (in uniaxial compression, hydrostatic compression with or without deviatoric stress) and poro-mechanical behaviour (incompressibility moduli Kb, Ks and Biot's coefficient b) after a heating/cooling cycle. We have also developed an original experiment aimed at quantifying the accessible pore space volume under hydrostatic compression. The creation of occluded porosity under high confinement is confirmed, which justifies the observed decrease of solid matrix rigidity Ks under high confinement. A gas retention phenomenon was identified under simultaneous thermal and hydrostatic loadings for mortar, and industrial concretes (provided by CERIB and ANDRA). A predictive thermo-elasto-plastic model with isotropic damage and a micro-mechanical approach, which represents micro-cracking, are coupled in order to analyze or predict the evolution of mechanical and poro-elastic properties after heat cycling. (author)

  2. [Interhemisphere asymmetry of hippocampus and neocortex in correlates of active and passive behavioural strategy in negative emotional situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, I V; Rysakova, M P; Ziablintseva, E A

    2010-12-01

    The interhemisphere interaction of neurons in bilateral derivations from parietal and sensomotor areas of neocortex and the area CA1 of hippocampus were studied in rabbits with active and passive behavioural strategy in the open field by plotting histograms of crosscorrelation. In passive animals, there was asymmetry in bilateral neuronal interaction: with right-sided dominance in the neocortex and with left-sided that--in the hippocampus. On the contrary, in active rabbits, the left-sided dominance was observed in the neocortex, and the lateralization was not revealed in the hippocampus. The brain laterality was reflected in motor asymmetry of animals in preferring left or right turns in the open field. Passive rabbits made relatively more left turns, and the active animals--right turns. Systemic administration of agonist GABA(B) receptors phenibut decreased behavioural responses to emotional stimuli and eliminated interhemisphere asymmetry observed usually in negative emotional situations. Thus the interhemisphere asymmetry of the neocortex and hippocampus is correlated with individual typological characteristics of animals and reflects the readiness to preferential forms of behavioural responses in active and passive rabbits. PMID:21473104

  3. Self-Reported and Actual Use of Proactive and Reactive Classroom Management Strategies and Their Relationship with Teacher Stress and Student Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunies-Ross, Penny; Little, Emma; Kienhuis, Mandy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between primary school teachers' self-reported and actual use of classroom management strategies, and examined how the use of proactive and reactive strategies is related to teacher stress and student behaviour. The total sample consisted of 97 teachers from primary schools within Melbourne. Teachers…

  4. Cognitive and behavioural strategies for fostering creativity in graphic design education / Hanri Elisabet de la Harpe

    OpenAIRE

    De la Harpe, Hanri Elisabet

    2006-01-01

    This study developed a Methodology for the systematic and strategic fostering of creativity in graphic design education at university level. The thesis identified four social-psychological factors that have an effect on graphic design students' creative ability, namely their level of intrinsic motivation for creative activities; their ability to maintain autonomous, self-regulative behaviour that is conducive to creativity; a healthy self-belief in their creative ability and the ...

  5. Election Violence and Voters’ Behaviour in Uganda: “Success of Decentralization Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    David Mwesigwa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to appraise election violence and voter behaviour in Uganda. The rule of the thumb was used to draw the sample for the study. Copies of structured questionnaire were administered on the respondents using purposive sampling technique to study two urban centers in Uganda - Hoima and Kigorobya. Using the analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests as instruments of data analysis, findings indicated among others that voter motivation, political parties, voter perceptions ...

  6. Business to business buying behaviour : An analysis and sales strategy for Aalund Customer Dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Aalund is a Nordic market research institute that is interested in finding out more about industrial buying behaviour especially in relation to its new analyses product, Customer Dialogue. This online management tool is developed for companies that are interested in improving their business customer relations and service by measuring business customer satisfaction. Through the results of the analyses a company can discover issues that could be improven and in the end gain even more engaged bu...

  7. Organizational slack and risk-taking behaviour: tests of product pricing strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Moses, O. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Organizational change inevitably involves uncertainty and some degree of risk taking. What organizational cocnditions are associated with greater risk taking? This article examines the relationship between organizational slack and risk-taking behaviour. To the degree that slack is associated with risk-taking, the presence or absence of slack is relevant to organizational change. To the degree that organizational change leads to the creation or reduction in slack, future risk-taking behavi...

  8. Adapting to Adaptations: Behavioural Strategies that are Robust to Mutations and Other Organisational-Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Egbert, Matthew D.; Juan Pérez-Mercader

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mutations, infection by parasites or symbionts, and other events can transform the way that an organism’s internal state changes in response to a given environment. We use a minimalistic computational model to support an argument that by behaving “interoceptively,” i.e. responding to internal state rather than to the environment, organisms can be robust to these organisational-transformations. We suggest that the robustness of interoceptive behaviour is due, in part, to the asymmetric...

  9. A narrative review of psychological and educational strategies applied to young children's eating behaviours aimed at reducing obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E L; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; Vögele, C; Summerbell, C D; Nixon, C; Moore, H; Douthwaite, W; Manios, Y

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to reduce risk of obesity by influencing preschool children's eating behaviour are reviewed. The studies are placed in the context of relevant psychological processes, including inherited and acquired preferences, and behavioural traits, such as food neophobia, 'enjoyment of food' and 'satiety responsiveness'. These are important influences on how children respond to feeding practices, as well as predictors of obesity risk. Nevertheless, in young children, food environment and experience are especially important for establishing eating habits and food preferences. Providing information to parents, or to children, on healthy feeding is insufficient. Acceptance of healthy foods can be encouraged by five to ten repeated tastes. Recent evidence suggests rewarding healthy eating can be successful, even for verbal praise alone, but that palatable foods should not be used as rewards for eating. Intake of healthier foods can be promoted by increasing portion size, especially in the beginning of the meal. Parental strategies of pressuring to eat and restriction do not appear to be causally linked to obesity, but are instead primarily responses to children's eating tendencies and weight. Moderate rather than frequent restriction may improve healthy eating in children. Actively positive social modelling by adults and peers can be effective in encouraging healthier eating. PMID:22309067

  10. Election Violence and Voters’ Behaviour in Uganda: “Success of Decentralization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mwesigwa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to appraise election violence and voter behaviour in Uganda. The rule of the thumb was used to draw the sample for the study. Copies of structured questionnaire were administered on the respondents using purposive sampling technique to study two urban centers in Uganda - Hoima and Kigorobya. Using the analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests as instruments of data analysis, findings indicated among others that voter motivation, political parties, voter perceptions and civic education have a strong contribution towards election violence among voters in Uganda. Forms of election violence could easily be as a result of voters’ perception, voter motivation, civic education and political organizations or parties. The mode of elections organized by governments presents a closer relationship between election violence and voter behaviour characterized by perceptions, motivation, civic education and political party activities. There was a significant positive relation between election violence and voter behaviour. If factors promoting election violence are to be dealt with so as to have a peaceful political system, the study submitted that political big wigs should embrace the culture of attitudinal change and see politics or elections as a game that there must always be a winner and a loser

  11. Comparative morphology of the gonadal structure related to reproductive strategies in six species of neotropical catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rafael Magno Costa; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; dos Santos, José Enemir; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2011-05-01

    We studied the relationship between the morphology of the reproductive system and the reproductive strategies of six neotropical catfishes using macroscopic and microscopic analyses. The reproductive system of the examined Siluriformes showed diversified characteristics, but permitted their being grouped according to three reproductive strategies: pelagic spawning, demersal spawning, and internally fertilizing. The pelagic spawners Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Conorhynchos conirostris have testes that are characterized by filiform lobes, absence of testicular secretion, full-grown oocytes of small diameter, thin zona radiata, and cuboidal follicular cells. Pimelodus maculatus is morphologically distinct from the other two pelagic spawners catfishes due to the presence of testicular secretion. The demersal spawners Lophiosilurus alexandri and Rhinelepis aspera possess homogeneous testicular secretion, large mature oocytes, and columnar follicular cells. The most specialized reproductive system was observed in the internally fertilizing Trachelyopterus galeatus, which possesses a seminal vesicle accessory to the testes, spermatozoa with elongated nuclei that form spermatozeugmata, and a secretory ovarian lamellar epithelium that is associated with sperm storage. The reproductive system observed in Neotropical catfishes showed a relationship associated with the type of fertilization and the reproductive strategies of the six species studied. PMID:21246599

  12. The role of brain/behavioural systems in prediction of quality of life and coping strategies in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shala Jangi Goujeh Biglou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems that individual differences in personality characteristics are implicated in the incidence and progress of physical diseases and socio-psychological consequences. However, there are a few studies about the role of personality in the prediction of socio-psychological consequences of cancer. The aim of this research was to survey the role of personality in the prediction of socio-psychosocial factors: quality of life and coping strategies. Methods: This research was a descriptive-correlational study in which the sample included fifty cancer patients who were selected through convenience sampling method. To assess the personality differences, quality of life and coping strategies, the Carver and White (1994 BIS/BAS Scales, SF-12 Health Survey and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation (CISS were used, respectively. The data were analysed by SPSS software using Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. Results: The findings showed that Both BIS and BAS systems could predict the quality of life (P<0.001, BIS system could explain the emotion-oriented coping strategy (P<0.05 and avoidance-oriented coping stratesy (P<0.01 and BAS system could explain the problem-oriented coping strategy (P<0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that brain/behavioural systems can predict the quality of life and coping strategies in cancer patients. The identification of these systems in cancer patients can help recognize the persons that are under the risk of poor quality of life or have a higher chance of using inconsistent coping strategies, and execute preventive measures about them.

  13. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Aazami; Khadijah Shamsuddin; Syaqirah Akmal

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of medi...

  14. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  15. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  16. Including 'positive handling strategies' within training in behaviour management: the 'Team-Teach' approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, Carol; S. Pike

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on aspects of an evaluation of ‘Team-Teach’ - a ‘whole setting holistic’ approach to behaviour management in a range of child-care environments. A distinctive feature of Team-Teach is that it includes both training in de-escalation skills and physical interventions, known as ‘positive handling strategies’. The approach is clearly structured and calibrated against level of risk. It includes accreditation and re-accreditation of trainers. Findings from four case study educa...

  17. Behaviour of filariae: morphological and anatomical signatures of their life style within the arthropod and vertebrate hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Odile; Babayan, Simon

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to pinpoint the most original morphological anatomical features of the biology of filariae per se and those which are or could be important for triggering regulatory processes in the arthropod vector and uncontrolled pathogenic processes in the vertebrate hosts. The following stages are considered: the motile egg or newly-hatched larva, the microfilaria, in the lymphatic or blood vessels of its vertebrate host; the larva, its migrations and its intrasyncitial development i...

  18. Bath temperature impact on morphological evolution of Ni(OH)2 thin films and their supercapacitive behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U M Patil; K V Gurav; J H Kim; C D Lokhande; S C Jun

    2014-02-01

    Nanostructured Ni(OH)2 thin films were deposited over stainless steel (SS) and glass substrate via simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. NiCl2 :6H2O were used as source of nickel and aqueous ammonia as a complexing agent. The coating process of Ni(OH)2 material over substrate is based on the decomposition of ammonia complexed nickel ions at two different bath temperatures. The changes in structural, morphological and electro-chemical properties are examined as an impact of bath temperature. XRD studies reveal formation of mixed phase of and at lower bath temperature (313 K) while, pure phase of Ni(OH)2 thin films deposited was observed at higher bath temperature (353 K). The morphological evolution from honeycomb structure to vertically aligned flakes over the substrate is observed as the influence of bath temperature. The supercapacitive performance based on the morphology examined by using cyclic voltammetric measurements in 1 M KOH. The maximum specific capacitances of 610 and 460 F/g were observed for the vertical flake and honeycomb structured Ni(OH)2 thin films, respectively.

  19. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc. PMID:23031513

  20. Sex difference in cue strategy in a modified version of the Morris water task: correlations between brain and behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin J Keeley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex differences in spatial memory function have been reported with mixed results in the literature, with some studies showing male advantages and others showing no differences. When considering estrus cycle in females, results are mixed at to whether high or low circulating estradiol results in an advantage in spatial navigation tasks. Research involving humans and rodents has demonstrated males preferentially employ Euclidean strategies and utilize geometric cues in order to spatially navigate, whereas females employ landmark strategies and cues in order to spatially navigate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used the water-based snowcone maze in order to assess male and female preference for landmark or geometric cues, with specific emphasis placed on the effects of estrus cycle phase for female rat. Performance and preference for the geometric cue was examined in relation to total hippocampal and hippocampal subregions (CA1&2, CA3 and dentate gyrus volumes and entorhinal cortex thickness in order to determine the relation between strategy and spatial performance and brain area size. The study revealed that males outperformed females overall during training trials, relied on the geometric cue when the platform was moved and showed significant correlations between entorhinal cortex thickness and spatial memory performance. No gross differences in behavioural performance was observed within females when accounting for cyclicity, and only total hippocampal volume was correlated with performance during the learning trials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the sex-specific use of cues and brain areas in a spatial learning task.

  1. Effect of Noisy Fitness in Real-Time Strategy Games Player Behaviour Optimisation Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio M.Mora; Antonio Fernández-Ares; Juan J.Merelo; Pablo García-Sánchez; Carlos M.Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance and the results of an evolutionary algorithm (EA) specifically designed for evolving the decision engine of a program (which,in this context,is called bot) that plays Planet Wars.This game,which was chosen for the Google Artificial Intelligence Challenge in 2010,requires the bot to deal with multiple target planets,while achieving a certain degree of adaptability in order to defeat different opponents in different scenarios.The decision engine of the bot is initially based on a set of rules that have been defined after an empirical study,and a genetic algorithm (GA) is used for tuning the set of constants,weights and probabilities that those rules include,and therefore,the general behaviour of the bot.Then,the bot is supplied with the evolved decision engine and the results obtained when competing with other bots (a bot offered by Google as a sparring partner,and a scripted bot with a pre-established behaviour) are thoroughly analysed.The evaluation of the candidate solutions is based on the result of non-deterministic battles (and environmental interactions) against other bots,whose outcome depends on random draws as well as on the opponents'actions.Therefore,the proposed GA is dealing with a noisy fitness function.After analysing the effects of the noisy fitness,we conclude that tackling randomness via repeated combats and reevaluations reduces this effect and makes the GA a highly valuable approach for solving this problem.

  2. Nutrients and behaviour: research strategies for the investigation of taste characteristics, food preferences, hunger sensations and eating patterns in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A J; Blundell, J E

    Although, as described elsewhere in this report, the consumption of particular nutrients can modify behaviors that are not directly related to eating, it seems highly likely that the main function of nutrient-induced changes in neurotransmitter synthesis is to provide the brain with information about what has been eaten, which the brain can then utilize in deciding what to eat next. This chapter summarizes research strategies and techniques which have been used to assess the effects of drugs and diseases on appetite and food consumption, and which might also be useful in exploring the effects of particular nutrients. Crude measures of total food intake and of global hunger ratings are probably too insensitive to reveal the subtle effects of many nutrients. Some alternative procedures allow the assessment of particular aspects of feeding behaviour, (e.g. food or nutrient choice), and of the relationships between such behaviour and the individual's metabolic and physiological state, sensory functions, taste hedonics, and affective response to foods. PMID:6764938

  3. Can behavioural differences in Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) from Portugal and Tunisia be explained by genetic and morphological traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahirech, A; Inácio, M L; Nóbrega, F; Henriques, J; Bonifácio, L; Sousa, E; Ben Jamâa, M L

    2016-02-01

    Platypus cylindrus is an important wood borer of cork oak trees (Quercus suber) in the Mediterranean region, namely Portugal, Morocco and Algeria where its presence has drastically increased in the past few decades. On the contrary, the insect is not a relevant pest in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to analyze morphological and genetic differences among Tunisian and Portuguese populations in order to understand their role in the diverse population dynamics (e.g., aggressiveness) of the insect. The information could be used as a novel tool to implement protective measures. Insects were collected from cork oak stands in Tunisia (Ain Beya, Babouch and Mzara) and Portugal (Chamusca and Crato). Morphological traits of female and male mycangial pits were determined, using scanning electron microscopy but no significant differences were found. Genetic differences were analyzed using nuclear (internal simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I (COI)) molecular markers. The results showed a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism and genetic diversity. The alignment of COI sequences showed high percentage of identical sites (99%) indicating a very low variation in nucleotide composition. Other variables related with the ecology of the insect and its associated fungi must be studied for a better understanding of the differences in the insect population's dynamic in Mediterranean countries. PMID:26193771

  4. Effects of hydroxyapatite/Zr and bioglass/Zr coatings on morphology and corrosion behaviour of Rex-734 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Y; Aksakal, B

    2016-06-01

    To improve corrosion resistance of metallic implant surfaces, Rex-734 alloy was coated with two different bio-ceramics; single-Hydroxyapatite (HA), double-HA/Zirconia(Zr) and double-Bioglass (BG)/Zr by using sol-gel method. Porous surface morphologies at low crack density were obtained after coating and sintering processes. Corrosion characteristics of coatings were determined by Open circuit potential and Potentiodynamic polarization measurements during corrosion tests. Hardness and adhesion strength of coating layers were measured and their surface morphologies before and after corrosion were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), XRD and EDX. Through the SEM analysis, it was observed that corrosion caused degradation and sphere-like formations appeared with dimples on the coated surfaces. The coated substrates that exhibit high crack density, the corrosion was more effective by disturbing and transmitting through the coating layer, produced CrO3 and Cr3O8 oxide formation. It was found that the addition of Zr provided an increase in adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the coatings. However, BG/Zr coatings had lower adhesion strength than the HA/Zr coatings, but showed higher corrosion resistance. PMID:27094320

  5. Risk Taking Behaviour and Diversification Strategies: Do Financial Literacy and Financial Education Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Cavezzali Elisa; Gardenal Gloria; Rigoni Ugo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether financial education and financial literacy influence the risk taking of non-professional investors and the diversification strategies they pursue. To this purpose, we submitted a questionnaire to 711 US residents. Our results show that financial education prevents financial illiteracy and changes the investment process of investors. On the other hand, financial literacy, measured according to the synthetic metric introduced by Lusardi and Mitchell, does not inf...

  6. COMMUNICATIVE PROVOCATION AS A STRATEGY OF DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR IN EVERY-DAY CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkova Olga Sergeevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concentrated on the issue of systematization and classification of strategies and tactics of individual's verbal behavior in a number of typical situations associated with disharmonious communication. Its scientific originality is defined by the necessity to present the provocation phenomenon as a category of communicative linguistics and linguistic pragmatics. The use of discourse analysis and descriptive pragmatic interpretation of real communication forms have enabled the revelation of various patterns of destructive verbal behavior that could provoke a communicative conflict. Communicative provocation is described as a strategy of destructive behavior aimed at dragging a communication partner into a conflict interaction or creating conditions for its occurrence. The provocation strategy is implemented in disharmonious interactions by means of individual or complex communication tactics including not only the aggressive ones: indignation, reproach, deliberate false informing, exaggerated demonstration of emotions, but also such tolerant tactics as praise, advice, apology, assurances, admiration, persuasion, etc. Two forms of communicative provocation are represented in the article. A direct provocation presupposes personal involvement of a provocateur in the conflict interaction while an indirect one allows its initiator stay aside from the open confrontation. In the latter case the provocateur stimulates and demonstrates the parties' conflict of interests, which leads to the communication harmony disruption.

  7. Morphological divergence in a trimorphic population of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) in Skogsfjordvatn, northern Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Sigrid Østrem

    2013-01-01

    Sympatric polymorphisms are found in many freshwater fish taxa, including the salmonid Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)). Polymorphism is often expressed as differences in morphology, behaviour and life-history strategies, and may be driven by alternative phenotypic adaptations to resource use such as habitat and prey preferences. Morphological divergence is usually linked to different functions of the morphological trait. Here, I study the correlations between morphology and ecological ...

  8. Form follows function: morphological diversification and alternative trapping strategies in carnivorous Nepenthes pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ulrike; Clemente, C J; Renner, T; Federle, W

    2012-01-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved a striking diversity of pitcher traps that rely on specialized slippery surfaces for prey capture. With a comparative study of trap morphology, we show that Nepenthes pitcher plants have evolved specific adaptations for the use of either one of two distinct trapping mechanisms: slippery wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall and 'insect aquaplaning' on the wet upper rim (peristome). Species without wax crystals had wider peristomes with a longer inward slope. Ancestral state reconstructions identified wax crystal layers and narrow, symmetrical peristomes as ancestral, indicating that wax crystals have been reduced or lost multiple times independently. Our results complement recent reports of nutrient source specializations in Nepenthes and suggest that these specializations may have driven speciation and rapid diversification in this genus. PMID:22023155

  9. Modelling of the physico-chemical behaviour of clay minerals with a thermo-kinetic model taking into account particles morphology in compacted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, D.; Fritz, B.; Clément, C.; Michau, N.

    2003-04-01

    Modelling of fluid-mineral interactions is largely used in Earth Sciences studies to better understand the involved physicochemical processes and their long-term effect on the materials behaviour. Numerical models simplify the processes but try to preserve their main characteristics. Therefore the modelling results strongly depend on the data quality describing initial physicochemical conditions for rock materials, fluids and gases, and on the realistic way of processes representations. The current geo-chemical models do not well take into account rock porosity and permeability and the particle morphology of clay minerals. In compacted materials like those considered as barriers in waste repositories, low permeability rocks like mudstones or compacted powders will be used : they contain mainly fine particles and the geochemical models used for predicting their interactions with fluids tend to misjudge their surface areas, which are fundamental parameters in kinetic modelling. The purpose of this study was to improve how to take into account the particles morphology in the thermo-kinetic code KINDIS and the reactive transport code KIRMAT. A new function was integrated in these codes, considering the reaction surface area as a volume depending parameter and the calculated evolution of the mass balance in the system was coupled with the evolution of reactive surface areas. We made application exercises for numerical validation of these new versions of the codes and the results were compared with those of the pre-existing thermo-kinetic code KINDIS. Several points are highlighted. Taking into account reactive surface area evolution during simulation modifies the predicted mass transfers related to fluid-minerals interactions. Different secondary mineral phases are also observed during modelling. The evolution of the reactive surface parameter helps to solve the competition effects between different phases present in the system which are all able to fix the chemical

  10. Substance use, sexual behaviour and prevention strategies of Vancouver gay and bisexual men who recently attended group sex events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Ashleigh J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Lal, Allan; Birch, Robert; Montaner, Julio; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Group sex events are an epidemiologically important part of some gay and bisexual men's sexual culture in Canada. Associated with condomless anal intercourse and polysubstance use, such events have been cited as disproportionally contributing to HIV infection rates. We analysed questionnaire data from the Momentum Health Study in Vancouver, Canada, to understand substance use, sexual behaviour, psychosocial variables (Sexual Sensation Seeking, Sexual Escape Motivation, Treatment Optimism) and HIV prevention strategies (sero-sorting, strategic positioning, avoiding anal sex, disclosure, treatment as prevention) of men attending such events, which were defined as group (n ≥ 4 partners) sex parties, blackout events and darkrooms. Analysis by multivariable logistic regression compared men attending group sex events within the past six months (n = 180) with non-attendees (n = 539). Results showed that attendees reported: (1) significantly higher use of sex drugs and alcohol consumption, (2) higher scores on the Sexual Sensation Scale, more anal sex partners, greater odds of any condomless anal sex with sero-discordant partners and greater odds of reporting fisting and sex toy use and (3) different prevention practices that varied by HIV-serostatus. Findings are interpreted in light of the importance of pleasure, sociality and HIV/STI prevention strategies associated with group sex events. Findings contribute to the development of appropriate education and intervention for attendees. PMID:26443295

  11. Behaviour of filariae: morphological and anatomical signatures of their life style within the arthropod and vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Odile; Babayan, Simon

    2003-12-15

    This paper attempts to pinpoint the most original morphological anatomical features of the biology of filariae per se and those which are or could be important for triggering regulatory processes in the arthropod vector and uncontrolled pathogenic processes in the vertebrate hosts. The following stages are considered: the motile egg or newly-hatched larva, the microfilaria, in the lymphatic or blood vessels of its vertebrate host; the larva, its migrations and its intrasyncitial development in the hematophagous arthropod subverted as vector; its transfer to the vertebrate host, migratory properties through the lymphatic system, maturation, mating and, finally, egg laying in the tissues they reach. This synthesis is based on parasite morphological features and their functional interpretation, histological features in the different niches the filariae reach, and on quantitative analyses of filarial development at its different phases, as well as on the rare and valuable observations of living parasites in situ. Data have been drawn from various species of Onchocercidae from amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. These comparative analyses have revealed the major constraints to which the filariae, including those parasitizing humans, have been subjected during their evolution from their ancestors, the oviparous and heteroxenic spirurids. Emphasis is placed on mechanical events: resistance of the microfilariae to the currents in the blood or lymph vessels, regulatory processes induced in the vector mesenteron by the movements of the ingested microfilariae, transient disruption by the microfilarial cephalic hook of the vectors' tissues and cell membranes during microfilarial translocation, attachment of males to females during mating by means of 'non-slip' systems, etc. Like other nematodes, filariae are equipped with sensory organs and a locomotor system, composed of the muscles and of the original osmoregulatory-excretory cell. Any change in one of these elements

  12. Vegetative morphology and interfire survival strategies in the Cape Fynbos grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Linder

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that there is a wide range of structural variation in the habit of the Arundineae and Ehrharteae of the fynbos of the Cape Floristic Region (Cape Province, South Africa. Structural differences in the bases of the fynbos grasses have been classified into four groups: swollen, knotty tillering, weak and annual. Variation in the position of the innovation buds occurs with one group having basal perennating buds, implying that all the culm material is annual, while the second group has cauline innovation buds, leading to the development of a divaricate perennial herb. The recognition of caducous, mesic (orthophyllous and sclerophyllous leaf blades is also possible, based on leaf morphology and anatomy. These variations in growth forms allow the classification of the Cape grasses into five guilds adapted for survival in the dense fynbos vegetation that develops between the well-spaced fires in these heathlands. The following guilds have been recognized: competition avoiders that grow on rock ledges and outcrops where competition from shrubby vegetation is reduced; reseeders, that survive the protracted interfire period as seed; geophytes, that survive this period as underground organs; coppicers, that survive as small plants; and competitors, that grow tall by means of cauline innovation buds, and so are able to compete with the shrubby heath vegetation.

  13. Interspecific comparison of the performance of soaring migrants in relation to morphology, meteorological conditions and migration strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Mellone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Performance of migrating birds can be affected by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors like morphology, meteorological conditions and migration strategies. We compared travel speeds of four raptor species during their crossing of the Sahara desert. Focusing the analyses on this region allows us to compare different species under equivalent conditions in order to disentangle which factors affect migratory performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We tracked raptors using GPS satellite transmitters from Sweden, Spain and Italy, and evaluated their migratory performance at both an hourly and a daily scale. Hourly data (flight speed and altitude for intervals of two hours were analyzed in relation to time of day, species and season, and daily data (distance between roosting sites in relation to species, season, day length and tailwind support. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite a clear variation in morphology, interspecific differences were generally very small, and did only arise in spring, with long-distance migrants (>5000 km: osprey and Western marsh-harrier being faster than species that migrate shorter distances (Egyptian vulture and short-toed eagle. Our results suggest that the most important factor explaining hourly variation in flight speed is time of day, while at a daily scale, tailwind support is the most important factor explaining variation in daily distance, raising new questions about the consequences of possible future changes in worldwide wind patterns.

  14. Melatonin versus Placebo in Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions and Severe Sleep Problems Not Amenable to Behaviour Management Strategies: A Randomised Controlled Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Sims, David; Smart, Siobhan; Alwazeer, Ahmed; Alderson-Day, Ben; Allgar, Victoria; Whitton, Clare; Tomlinson, Heather; Bennett, Sophie; Jardine, Jenni; McCaffrey, Nicola; Leyland, Charlotte; Jakeman, Christine; Miles, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two children with autism spectrum disorders who had not responded to supported behaviour management strategies for severe dysomnias entered a double blind, randomised, controlled crossover trial involving 3 months of placebo versus 3 months of melatonin to a maximum dose of 10 mg. 17 children completed the study. There were no significant…

  15. War and peace in the classroom: moments of reprieve; a strategy for reflecting on – and improving – students’ classroom behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebor, Merv

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I intend to outline a strategy for supporting trainee teachers on Certificate in Education (Cert Ed and Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE courses in developing their ability to deal with disruptive student behaviour in their classes. I describe a particular class-based, peer-reflective practice and demonstrate how this has been effective in impacting on helping trainees to deal with teaching disruptive or challenging groups. The rationale for exploring this issue, and the problematic national context in which disruptive student behaviour takes place, is outlined. I then explore a strategy for offering trainee support and peer reflection by sharing a case study of two trainees’ classes where students were particularly disruptive. I examine how this reflective strategy helped support these trainees to improve their practice. Before concluding, some epistemological questions are raised as to the problematics of how teachers know whether improvements took place.

  16. Using the theory of planned behaviour as a process evaluation tool in randomised trials of knowledge translation strategies: A case study from UK primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised trials of knowledge translation strategies for professional behaviour change can provide robust estimates of effectiveness, but offer little insight into the causal mechanisms by which any change is produced. To illustrate the applicability of causal methods within randomised trials, we undertook a theory-based process evaluation study within an implementation trial to explore whether the cognitions of primary care doctors' predicted their test requesting behaviours and, secondly, whether the trial results were mediated by the theoretical constructs. Methods The process evaluation comprised a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a random 50% sample of the randomised groups of primary care practices in Grampian (NHS Grampian, UK, who took part in a trial of the effect of enhanced feedback and brief educational reminders on test requesting behaviour. The process evaluation was based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour and focussed on three of the test requesting behaviours that were targeted in the trial -- ferritin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and Helicobacter Pylori serology (HPS. Results The questionnaire was completed by 131 primary care doctors (56% from 42 (98% of the sampled practices. Behavioural intention, attitude, and subjective norm were highly correlated for all the tests. There was no evidence that perceived behavioural control was correlated with any of the other measures. Simple linear regression analysis of the rate of test requests on minimum behavioural intentions had R2 of 11.1%, 12.5%, and 0.1% for ferritin, FSH, and HPS requesting, respectively. Mediational analysis showed that the trial results for ferritin and FSH were partially mediated (between 23% and 78% mediation through intentions. The HPS trial result was not mediated through intention. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a theory-based process evaluation can provide useful information on causal mechanisms that aid not

  17. Using the theory of planned behaviour as a process evaluation tool in randomised trials of knowledge translation strategies: A case study from UK primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Randomised trials of knowledge translation strategies for professional behaviour change can provide robust estimates of effectiveness, but offer little insight into the causal mechanisms by which any change is produced. To illustrate the applicability of causal methods within randomised trials, we undertook a theory-based process evaluation study within an implementation trial to explore whether the cognitions of primary care doctors' predicted their test requesting behaviours and, secondly, whether the trial results were mediated by the theoretical constructs. Methods The process evaluation comprised a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a random 50% sample of the randomised groups of primary care practices in Grampian (NHS Grampian), UK, who took part in a trial of the effect of enhanced feedback and brief educational reminders on test requesting behaviour. The process evaluation was based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour and focussed on three of the test requesting behaviours that were targeted in the trial -- ferritin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and Helicobacter Pylori serology (HPS). Results The questionnaire was completed by 131 primary care doctors (56%) from 42 (98%) of the sampled practices. Behavioural intention, attitude, and subjective norm were highly correlated for all the tests. There was no evidence that perceived behavioural control was correlated with any of the other measures. Simple linear regression analysis of the rate of test requests on minimum behavioural intentions had R2 of 11.1%, 12.5%, and 0.1% for ferritin, FSH, and HPS requesting, respectively. Mediational analysis showed that the trial results for ferritin and FSH were partially mediated (between 23% and 78% mediation) through intentions. The HPS trial result was not mediated through intention. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a theory-based process evaluation can provide useful information on causal mechanisms that aid not only interpretation of

  18. A model of surface layer behaviour and morphology of lithium in an inorganic electrolyte solution; Modell fuer das Deckschichtverhalten und die Morphologie von Lithium in anorganischer Elektrolytloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkwart, K.

    1999-07-01

    Rechargeable lithium systems are characterized in that the lithium, which is thermodynamically unstable under the influence of electrolyte solution, is protected by an ion-conducting surface layer. This layer and its characteristics are decisive for the applicability of lithium as negative mass. Apart from the characteristics of the protective layer, also the morphological structure of the lithium is of interest. The author investigated the surface layer behaviour and morphology of lithium on a nickel substrate using impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The light microscope was used successfully for the first time. It showed that lithium grows in cylindrical threads during the deposition process, and that the thread diameter is a function of current density. Impedance spectroscopy can measure the thickness of the surface layer on the basis of the SEI model. The ion-conductive surface layer of lithium dthionite is decisive for the separation and corrosion characteristics of the lithium. The investigations provide a link between fundamental research and applied research and will improve the technical applicability. [German] Wiederaufladbare Lithiumsysteme zeichnen sich dadurch aus, dass Lithium, welches gegenueber der Elektrolytloesung thermodynamisch nicht stabil ist, durch eine ionenleitende Deckschicht geschuetzt wird. Diese Schicht und deren Verhalten sind entscheidende Faktoren fuer den Einsatz von Lithium als negative Masse. Jedoch nicht nur die Eigenschaften der Schutzschicht sind von Bedeutung, auch die morphologische Struktur des aufgebrachten Lithiums sind von Interesse. Ziel der Arbeit war die Aufklaerung des Deckschichtverhaltens und der Morphologie von Lithium auf dem Nickelsubstrat. Als wesentliche elektrochemische Untersuchungsmethoden wurden dabei die Impedanzspektroskopie und die zyklische Voltammetrie angewandt. Erstmals gelang es, die Ergebnisse durch lichtmikroskopische Aufnahmen zu belegen. Die Mikroskopie zeigt, dass Lithium waehrend

  19. Human Adaptation as a Behavioural Strategy: Preliminary Considerations for Web Interaction (COPE Project, Technical Report), available at 10.3927/170263

    OpenAIRE

    Vigo, Markel; Harper, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In addition to explicit consequences such as learning or task completion, the interaction of individuals’ with the Web has some other implicit outcomes: the behavioural strategies adopted while interacting in the Web lead individuals to a better adjustment to Web environments. This means that individuals gain problem-solving skills and knowledge, their actions become automatic and they are able to better anticipate the effect of their actions. As a result, users interact with an increased eff...

  20. Using the theory of planned behaviour as a process evaluation tool in randomised trials of knowledge translation strategies: A case study from UK primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Grimshaw Jeremy M; Croal Bernard L; Thomas Ruth E; Ramsay Craig R; Eccles Martin P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Randomised trials of knowledge translation strategies for professional behaviour change can provide robust estimates of effectiveness, but offer little insight into the causal mechanisms by which any change is produced. To illustrate the applicability of causal methods within randomised trials, we undertook a theory-based process evaluation study within an implementation trial to explore whether the cognitions of primary care doctors' predicted their test requesting behavi...

  1. Monitoring Treatment Integrity: An Alternative to the "Consult and Hope" Strategy in School-Based Behavioural Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    An international trend in school psychology services is a shift from an emphasis on assessment-based activities to a paradigm of consultation problem-solving and behavioural intervention. As the profession experiences an expansion of roles and functions, school psychologists should have an understanding of a critical aspect of behaviour change:…

  2. Behavioural Patterns of Conflict Resolution Strategies in Preschool Boys with Language Impairment in Comparison with Boys with Typical Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Laura; Jansson, Liselotte; Ljungberg, Tomas; Hedenbro, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children with language impairment (LI) experience social difficulties, including conflict management. This paper is therefore motivated to examine behavioural processes guiding preschool peer conflict progression, which ultimately contributes to overall development. Aims: To describe behavioural sequences in conflicts between children…

  3. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy. PMID:23557321

  4. Teachers' High Maintenance Behaviour as Perceived by University Students in Taiwan, and Their Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fu-Yuan; Cheng, Kuang-Tsan

    2014-01-01

    Using a questionnaire survey, this study probed into interpersonal cues and characteristics of teachers' high maintenance behaviors perceived by university students and their coping strategies, and then analyzed the relationship between their perceived high maintenance behaviors and the dimensions of their coping strategies. The Scale of…

  5. Mothers' and Fathers' Well-being, Parenting Styles, and their Children's Cognitive and Behavioural Strategies at Primary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onatsu-Arvilommi, Tiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Aunola, Kaisa

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which parents' well-being and parenting styles provide a basis of the development of their children's cognitive and behavioral strategies in primary school. Reveals that maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with their children's use of maladaptive strategies, whereas maternal authoritative parenting styles…

  6. THE INTERRELATION OF INTOLERANT BEHAVIOUR AND NOT ADAPTIVE COPING STRATEGIES IN INTERETHNIC INTERACTION OF THE ELDER TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sergeevna Igonina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical and empirical research on the interrelation of coping strategies and ethnic tolerance of the elder teenagers. Particular attention is paid to consideration of interrelations of intolerant behavior of teenagers with not adaptive coping strategies. The question is actual for modern society taking into account constantly arising conflict situations of international character. Used in the article methodology of empirical research extend the learning experience of teenagers, allow teachers to differentiate educational process in development of cognitive independence. As a result of the correlation analysis were obtained direct interrelations of ethnic tolerance and coping strategies: the higher the indicators of the choice of not adaptive coping strategies, the higher the performance of the selection strategies of intolerant behavior. The obtained data can be of interest to experts of school level, graduate students, research associates.

  7. Mobile Banking as Business Strategy: Impact of Mobile Technologies on Customer Behaviour and Its Implications for Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Rajnish; Buse, Stephan; Herstatt, Cornelius

    2006-01-01

    Mobile Commerce is gaining increasing acceptance amongst various sections of the society. This growth can be partly traced back to technological and demographical developments that have been influencing important aspects of the socio-cultural behaviour in today's world. The need/wish for mobility seems to be the driving force behind Mobile Commerce in general. Mobile Banking, availment of bank-related financial services via mobile devices, builds a cornerstone of Mobile Commerce. An empirical...

  8. Why Did the Meerkat Cross the Road? Flexible Adaptation of Phylogenetically-Old Behavioural Strategies to Modern-Day Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Perony; Simon W Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Risk-sensitive adaptive spatial organisation during group movement has been shown to efficiently minimise the risks associated with external ecological threats. Whether animals can draw on such behaviours when confronted with man-made threats is generally less clear. We studied road-crossing in a wild, but habituated, population of meerkats living in the Kalahari Desert, South Africa. We found that dominant females, the core member in meerkat social systems, led groups to the road significant...

  9. Paddock management systems for organic growing pigs: Effect of land allocation strategies on foraging activity and excretory behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Helmerichs, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    The EU regulations for organic farming require outdoor access for pigs, as one of the main organic principles is to establish sustainable farming systems including harmonious relationships between animals, plants and environment. Outdoor access for pigs provides benefits in terms of animal welfare as pigs are able to express their natural and social behaviour. However, it is still common to keep organic growing pigs indoors with access to outdoor concrete yards. Main reasons for not keepin...

  10. Empirical evidence for the differential impact of gambling outcome on behaviour in electronic gambling: implications for harm-minimisation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Andrew; Parke, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    There is large uncertainty surrounding Electronic Gambling Machines (EGMs) and their potential contribution towards disordered gambling. As a result, gambling authorities have called for investigations assessing the efficacy of measures aimed towards increasing player protection during electronic gambling. Losses, compared to equivalent gains, have been shown to have greater impact on emotion and behaviour in a wide array of human experiences outside of gambling. If this is found in electro...

  11. THE INTERRELATION OF INTOLERANT BEHAVIOUR AND NOT ADAPTIVE COPING STRATEGIES IN INTERETHNIC INTERACTION OF THE ELDER TEENAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Sergeevna Igonina

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of theoretical and empirical research on the interrelation of coping strategies and ethnic tolerance of the elder teenagers. Particular attention is paid to consideration of interrelations of intolerant behavior of teenagers with not adaptive coping strategies. The question is actual for modern society taking into account constantly arising conflict situations of international character. Used in the article methodology of empirical research extend the learning...

  12. Managing the screen-viewing behaviours of children aged 5–6 years: a qualitative analysis of parental strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R; Zahra, J; Edwards, M J; Kesten, J M; Solomon-Moore, E; Thompson, J L; Sebire, S J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study used qualitative methods to: (1) examine the strategies that were used by parents of children aged 5–6 years to manage screen viewing; (2) identify key factors that affect the implementation of the strategies and (3) develop suggestions for future intervention content. Design Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of children aged 5–6 years participating in a larger study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive and deductive content analysis. Coding and theme generation was iterative and refined throughout. Setting Parents were recruited through 57 primary schools located in the greater Bristol area (UK). Participants 53 parents of children aged 5–6 years. Results Parents reported that for many children, screen viewing was a highly desirable behaviour that was difficult to manage, and that parents used the provision of screen viewing as a tool for reward and/or punishment. Parents managed screen viewing by setting limits in relation to daily events such as meals, before and after school, and bedtime. Screen-viewing rules were often altered depending on parental preferences and tasks. Inconsistent messaging within and between parents represented a source of conflict at times. Potential strategies to facilitate reducing screen viewing were identified, including setting screen-viewing limits in relation to specific events, collaborative rule setting, monitoring that involves mothers, fathers and the child, developing a family-specific set of alternative activities to screen viewing and developing a child's ability to self-monitor their own screen viewing. Conclusions Managing screen viewing is a challenge for many parents and can often cause tension in the home. The data presented in this paper provide key suggestions of new approaches that could be incorporated into behaviour change programmes to reduce child screen viewing. PMID:26932143

  13. Mobile Guide System Using Problem-Solving Strategy for Museum Learning: A Sequential Learning Behavioural Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y.-T.; Hou, H.-T.; Liu, C.-K.; Chang, K.-E.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices have been increasingly utilized in informal learning because of their high degree of portability; mobile guide systems (or electronic guidebooks) have also been adopted in museum learning, including those that combine learning strategies and the general audio-visual guide systems. To gain a deeper understanding of the features and…

  14. A Research on Consumer Behaviour in the Industrial Valve market and Entry Strategy for Advanced Valve Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Vishal

    2005-01-01

    The importance of successful innovation for the long-term performance of companies can hardly be exaggerated. Although pioneers outsell late movers in many markets, in some cases innovative late entry has produced some remarkably successful brands that outsell pioneers. The central theme of this dissertation is to design a market entry strategy for Advanced Valve Technologies (AVT) to launch their product in the industrial valve market. AVT is a valve manufacturing company based in UK. AV...

  15. Strategies for optimizing organic solar cells. Correlation between morphology and performance in DCV6T-C{sub 60} heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynands, David

    2011-02-04

    This work investigates organic solar cells made of small molecules. Using the material system {alpha}{omega}-bis(dicyanovinylene)-sexithiophene (DCV6T)-C{sub 60} as model, the correlation between the photovoltaic active layer morphology and performance of the solar cell is studied. The chosen method for controlling the layer morphology is applying different substrate temperatures (T{sub sub}) during the deposition of the layer. In neat DCV6T layers, substrate heating induces higher crystallinity as is shown by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The absorption spectrum displays a more distinct fine structure, a redshift of the absorption peaks by up to 11 nm and a significant increase of the low energy absorption band at T{sub sub}=120 C compared to T{sub sub}=30 C. Contrary to general expectations, the hole mobility as measured in field effect transistors and with the method of charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) does not increase in samples with higher crystallinity. In mixed layers, investigations by AFM and UV-Vis spectroscopy reveal a stronger phase separation induced by substrate heating, leading to larger domains of DCV6T. This is indicated by an increased grain size and roughness of the topography, the increase of the DCV6T luminescence signal, and the more distinct fine structure of the DCV6T related absorption. Based on the results of the morphology analysis, the effect of different substrate temperatures on the performance of solar cells with flat and mixed DCV6T-C{sub 60} heterojunctions is investigated. In flat heterojunction solar cells, a slight increase of the photocurrent by about 10% is observed upon substrate heating, attributed to the increase of DCV6T absorption. In mixed DCV6T:C{sub 60} heterojunction solar cells, much more pronounced enhancements are achieved. By varying the substrate temperature from -7 C to 120 C, it is shown that the stronger phase separation upon substrate heating facilitates the

  16. Study of rheological and electrical behaviour of RBC suspensions in dextran and PEG under non-steady flow. Role of RBC deformability and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.; Gluhcheva, Y.

    Heidelberg: Springer, 2010 - (Lim, C.; Goh, J.), s. 330-333. (IFMBE Proceedings. vol. 31). ISBN 978-3-642-14514-8. ISSN 1680-0737. [WCB 2010: World Congress of Biomechanics /6./. Singapore (SG), 01.08.2010-06.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : electrorheology * RBC suspensions in dextrans and PEG solutions * conductivity * deformability * RBC morphology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.springerlink.com/content/h31423474480p417/

  17. Effect of surface morphology on atmospheric corrosion behaviour of Fe-based metallic glass, Fe67Co18Si14B1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Vishwanadh; R Balasubramaniam; D Srivastava; G K Dey

    2008-08-01

    The nature of atmospheric corrosion behaviour of an as-cast metallic glass, Fe67Co18Si1B14 ribbon, was evaluated. The wheel side surface of the ribbon was more corroded than the air side surface, due to the higher density of air pockets present. The phases present in atmospheric rust were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to be goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, cobalt oxide and cobalt hydroxide phases. Goethite and lepidocrocite were in amorphous form. The nature of rusting was understood by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nucleation of rust started at preferred locations on the surface and grew along the surface in certain directions.

  18. Behavioural therapy of suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a serious public health issue. Suicidal behaviour includes completed suicide, suicide attempts, suicidal intent and/or plans and suicide ideation. Two prominent mechanisms, behavioural deficits, in particular poor problem-solving skills, and a certain cognitive style with overgeneralization, distortion and lack of positive expectations, have been identified in suicidal patients so far. Besides general therapy strategies, including the diagnostic process and a collaborative, confident relationship and strengthening of protective factors, specific behavioural strategies should aim at the modification of the behavioural repertoire and of cognitive strategies. The modification of the behavioural repertoire includes the direct modification of the behaviour, acquiring techniques for stress reduction and learning problem-solving strategies. Applied cognitive techniques comprise such as thought-stopping, examining options and alternatives, fantasizing consequences, externalizing inner voices, and reattribution. Psychotherapy with suicidal patients has a specific feature: It requires high activity of the therapist in terms of motivation and guidance of the patient. Regular assessment of the suicide risk at every session is a must. Nevertheless, the therapist should always be aware that it is impossible to prevent all suicidal acts. PMID:22926057

  19. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  20. Strategies for swimming: explorations of the behaviour of a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of the lamprey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma L. Williams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed on a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a lamprey, to explore the strategies for controlling swimming speed. The muscle component of the model was based on previous experiments on isolated lamprey muscle. The patterns of muscle activation were those found in EMG studies on swimming lampreys. The fluid mechanics were modelled with G.I. Taylor's simplification. Tail beat frequencies of 2–6 sec−1 were combined with muscle activation strengths of 0.1% to 20% of maximum tetanic isometric strength. The resulting forward swimming speed and changing body shape were recorded. From the changing body shape the speed of the backward-travelling wave of curvature was calculated, as well as the ratio between the speeds of the waves of activation and curvature. For any given activation strength there was a tail beat frequency that gave maximal forward speed. Furthermore, for all the combinations of activation strength and tail beat frequency that gave such maximum swimming speeds, the ratio of the speed of the wave of curvature to the wave of muscle activation was approximately 0.75. This is similar to the ratio found in swimming lampreys.

  1. On a morphological approach of the meso-structure for the multi-scale analysis of the thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of the behavior of heated concrete is a major research topic which concerns the assessment of safety level of structures when exposed to high temperatures, for instance during a fire. For this purpose, several modeling approaches were developed within thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) frameworks in order to take into account the involved physic-chemical and mechanical processes that affect stability of heated concrete. However, existing models often do note account explicitly for the heterogeneity of the material: concrete is composite material that may be schematized as an assembly of inclusions (aggregates) embedded in a cementitious matrix (cement paste). This latter may be described as a partially saturated open porous medium. The aggregates are characterized by their mineralogical nature together with their morphology and size distribution. The material heterogeneity bring an additional complexity: the need to take into account the microstructure in order to quantify the effect of matrix-inclusion thermal, hygral and mechanical incompatibilities on the THM behavior of concrete. This work is a first step in this direction. For this purpose, a three-dimensional (3D) multi-scale finite element model is developed. It allows affecting specific behaviors to matrix and inclusions. For the former, where mass transports occur within the connected porous network, a three-fluids approach (liquid water, vapor and dry air) is adopted and is coupled to a poro-mechanical damage based approach. For inclusions (aggregates) no hygral component arises a pure thermo-mechanical model is considered. The developed model is then used to investigate, either by 2D or 3D numerical simulations, effects of mineralogical nature, morphology and distribution of aggregates. Studied effects have mainly concerned the influence of these parameters on local fluctuations of simulated temperature, gas pressure and damage fields with regard to experimentally observed dispersion. The

  2. Behaviour patterns which may predispose to HIV infection or further transmission and possible intervention strategy in the City of Harare. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, I M; Ray, C S; Chisvo, D; Gumbo, N; Low, A; Katsumbe, T M; Mbengeranwa, O L

    1993-11-01

    The proportion of people with AIDS is increasing rapidly in Zimbabwe. Several strategies have been adopted to check the further spread of the disease. This paper discusses the behaviour patterns which may predispose to HIV infection and possible intervention strategies that may be taken in the City of Harare. Over a third (33.9 pc, n = 1,526) of the married respondents reported that they were living separately from their spouses. There was a high proportion (76.6 pc, n = 564) of single respondents who admitted to engaging in premarital sex. Fifteen pc of total respondents were engaging in casual sex. The proportion of single respondents (31.2 pc) engaging in casual sex was higher than among the married (11.1 pc). More single respondents (10.9 pc) had been paid for sex than the married (4.1 pc) whilst the proportion that had been paid for sex was similar for the single (21.2 pc) and the married (22.9 pc). The median age for starting sex was 17 years (range = three to 26) for the single and 18 years (range = four to 35) for the married respondents. Sixteen pc stated that they had an STD in 1989. Condom usage was low with only 9.2 pc always using a condom. Forty eight pc of the married respondents who have engaged in casual sexual relationships never use condoms. The main source of information on AIDS/HIV was the radio (74 pc). Most parents (66 pc) had not talked about AIDS to their children. PMID:8055550

  3. Entomophytophagy ('Sequential Predatory, then Phytophagous Behaviour' in an Indian Braconid 'Parasitoid' Wasp (Hymenoptera: Specialized Larval Morphology, Biology and Description of a New Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Ranjith

    Full Text Available The vast majority of braconid wasps are parasitoids of other insects. Although a few cases of pure phytophagy (primary gall production and seed predation are known, no previous entomophytophagous species (i.e. ones that display entomophagy and phytophagy sequentially, has been discovered among braconids. We describe the detailed biology and specialized larval morphology for the first confirmed entomophytophagous braconid species. Leaf galls on Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae in India, induced by the psyllid, Phacopteron lentiginosum Buckton (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, Phacopteronidae were sampled throughout a period of several months and found to suffer a high level of attack by a new species Bracon garugaphagae Ranjith & Quicke which is here described and illustrated. The wasps oviposit singly into the galls without paralysing the psyllids. The larvae first attack psyllid nymphs which they seek out within the gall, kill them with a single bite and consume them. Unique dorsal abdominal tubercles, with eversible tips present on the abdominal segments of the larvae that are used to help maintain larval position while feeding, are illustrated. After consuming all available prey, the larvae continue feeding on gall tissue until mature enough to spin cocoons and pupate. The new species illustrates, for the first time, a possible intermediate stage in the evolution of pure phytophagy within the Braconidae. Interestingly, the two unrelated seed predator Bracon species are also associated with Burseraceae, perhaps indicating that this plant family is particularly suited as a food for braconine wasps.

  4. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products

    2013-06-28

    performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: • The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system • The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model • A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model • An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation • The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model • The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model • The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model • Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions • Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves • A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): • Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) • Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release • Stage 2 - Beta

  5. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  6. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    The present review addresses the reproductive strategies of marine calanoid copepods, as affected by their physiological preconditioning, and aims to enhance understanding of their adaptations to specific environmental conditions. Knowledge about oocyte development and internal gonad structure, especially in relation to feeding conditions, is essential for a complete understanding of the reproductive strategies of the copepods. Therefore, the foci of the review are to identify general patterns in oocyte and gonad development in calanoid copepod species from marine ecosystems worldwide and to elucidate the significance of gonad structures for reproductive strategies. Oogenesis is similar in all copepod species. During maturation, the morphology of the oocytes changes distinctly and, according to oocyte size and appearance of ooplasm and nucleus, five oocyte developmental stages are distinguished. In contrast, the gonad structure and its changes during the spawning cycle differ considerably among species, and these differences are related to specific reproductive traits. Four gonad morphology types can be distinguished: the Calanus-type, found in species from all over the world with distinctly different life history traits, is apparently most common in calanoid copepods. In this gonad type, most oocyte developmental stages are present simultaneously, and usually many oocytes mature synchronously, all of which are released in one clutch. The gonad structure allows frequent spawning and large clutches, hence, high egg production rates. This may be a preconditioning for exploiting seasonally high food supply. However, the Calanus-type was also found in species producing eggs at lower rates. In the diverticula of Pseudocalanus-type gonads, only two oocyte developmental stages are present and usually fewer oocytes mature synchronously. Accordingly, the egg production rate is generally lower as compared to the Calanus-type, and apparently only this gonad-type is

  7. The Multiple Strategies of an Insect Herbivore to Overcome Plant Cyanogenic Glucoside Defence

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Pentzold; Mika Zagrobelny; Pernille Sølvhøj Roelsgaard; Birger Lindberg Møller; Søren Bak

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are widespread plant defence compounds that release toxic hydrogen cyanide by plant bglucosidaseactivity after tissue damage. Specialised insect herbivores have evolved counter strategies and some sequesterCNglcs, but the underlying mechanisms to keep CNglcs intact during feeding and digestion are unknown. We show thatCNglc-sequestering Zygaena filipendulae larvae combine behavioural, morphological, physiological and biochemicalstrategies at different time point...

  8. Challenges in integrating short-term behaviour in a mixed-fishery Management Strategies Evaluation frame: a case study of the North Sea flatfish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Vermard, Youen; Ulrich, Clara;

    2010-01-01

    . A simplified random utility model was used based on the expected revenue (or economic attractiveness) and two tradition parameters related to short and long term historical fishing patterns. All three parameters were significant. Even though reactions and adaptations vary between fleets, the...... estimated conservative behaviour of the main fleets led to only marginal effect at the stock level. The importance of accounting for fleet behaviour was then evaluated using an elasticity analysis to explore how increased weight of economic attractiveness contributes to changes in the biological output and...

  9. Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed...

  10. Relationship between Teachers' Perception of Causes of Challenging Behaviour and the Choice of Management Strategies among Learners with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasakhala, Edward; Galava, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    The ministry of Public Health and Sanitation in Kenya together with ministry of Education recognizes that mental well being is important in psychosocial well being and cognitive development of children. They point out that learners with emotional and behavioural problems may engage in truancy, delinquency, drug and substance abuse and other…

  11. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  12. Mechanical behaviour of nickel foams: three-dimensional morphology, non-linear models and fracture; Caracterisation et simulation numerique du comportement mecanique des mousses de nickel: morphologie tridimensionnelle, reponse elastoplastique et rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillard, Th.

    2004-03-15

    The deformation behaviour and failure of nickel foams were studied during loading by using X-ray microtomography. Strut alignment and stretching are observed in tension whereas strut bending followed by strut buckling are observed in compression. Strain localisation, that occurs during compression tests, depends on nickel weight distribution in the foam. Fracture in tension first takes place at cell nodes and the crack propagates cell by cell. The damaged area in front of a crack is about five cells wide. A detailed description of the three-dimensional morphology is also presented. One third of the cells are dodecahedral and 57 % of the faces are pentagonal. The most frequent cell is composed of two quadrilaterals, two hexagons and eight pentagons. The dimensions of the equivalent ellipsoid of each cell are identified and cell orientation are determined. The geometrical aspect ratio is linked to the mechanical anisotropy of the foam. In tension, a uniaxial analytical model, based on elastoplastic strut bending, is developed. The whole stress-strain curve of the foam is predicted according to its specific weight and its anisotropy. It is found that the non-linear regime of the macroscopic curve of the foam is not only due to the elastoplastic bending of the struts. The model is also extended to two-phase foams and the influence of the hollow struts is analysed. The two-phase foams model is finally applied to oxidized nickel foams and compared with experimental data. The strong increase in the rigidity of nickel foams with an increasing rate of oxidation, is well described by the model. However, a fracture criterion must also be introduced to take into account the oxide layer cracking. A phenomenological compressible continuum plasticity model is also proposed and identified in tension. The identification of the model is carried out using experimental strain maps obtained by a photo-mechanical technique. A validation of the model is provided by investigating the

  13. Investigating mothers' decisions about their child's sun-protective behaviour using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Courtney E; White, Katherine M; Hamilton, Kyra

    2012-10-01

    This study tested the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to predict mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in sun-protective behaviours. Mothers (N = 162) of children aged four or five years completed standard TPB items (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention) and additional variables of role construction, mothers' own sun safe behaviour, planning and past behaviour. One week later, participants (N = 116) reported their behaviour. Results found support for the TPB constructs, role construction, past behaviour and the mediating role of planning. These findings can inform strategies to prevent skin cancer. PMID:22253324

  14. Investigation of Teachers' Verbal and Non-Verbal Strategies for Managing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students' Behaviours within a Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated teachers' verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing ADHD students in a classroom environment. It was found that effective verbal and non-verbal strategies included voice control, short phrases, repeated instructions, using students' names, and visual cues and verbal instructions combined. It has been found that…

  15. Peer-based behavioural strategies to improve chronic disease self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Funnell, Martha Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of a chronic disease such as diabetes generally evokes strong emotions and often brings with it the need to make changes in lifestyle behaviours, such as diet, exercise, medication management and monitoring clinical and metabolic parameters. The diagnosis thus affects not only the person diagnosed but also the family members. Chronic illnesses are largely self-managed with ∼99% of the care becoming the responsibility of patients and their families or others involved in the daily...

  16. Understanding influences on teachers’ uptake and use of behaviour management strategies within the STARS trial: process evaluation protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hansford, Lorraine; Sharkey, Siobhan; Edwards, Vanessa; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Byford, Sarah; Norwich, Brahm; Logan, Stuart; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-01-01

    Background The ‘Supporting Teachers And childRen in Schools’ (STARS) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) programme as a public health intervention. TCM is a 6 day training course delivered to groups of 8–12 teachers. The STARS trial will investigate whether TCM can improve children’s behaviour, attainment and wellbeing, reduce teachers’ stress and improve their self-efficacy. This protocol describes the methodology ...

  17. Solution-processed flexible planar perovskite solar cells: A strategy to enhance efficiency by controlling the ZnO electron transfer layer, PbI2 phase, and CH3NH3PbI3 morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyungeun; Lee, Jeongwon; Kim, Joosun; Chae, Weon-Sik; Lee, Man-Jong

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a synergistic strategy to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of flexible planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by controlling the thickness of the ZnO electron transport layer (ETL), PbI2 phase, and size/morphology of the perovskite (MAPbI3) absorber layer. To optimize the size/morphology of MAPbI3 via a two-step spin coating process, various volumes of CH3NH3I precursor solutions with a constant concentration were continuously coated, which greatly affected the grain growth condition of the MAPbI3. In addition, the remnant PbI2 phase in the MAPbI3, which acted as a recombination barrier, was simultaneously controlled. This strategic method to synergistically combine the major factors affecting the final PCE resulted in the best efficiency of 12.3%, which is the highest efficiency among ZnO-ETL-based flexible planar PSCs to date.

  18. CSR STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    LAURENTIU BARANGA; ION STEGAROIU

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has got three components: economic responsibility of shareholders, corporate environmental responsibility, corporate responsibility of the society. Each component of the CSR has its own features, according to which adequate individual behaviour is established. Knowing these features is very important in CSR strategy development.

  19. Locomotion and postural behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diversity of primate locomotor behaviour for people who are involved in research using laboratory primates. The main locomotor modes displayed by primates are introduced with reference to some general morphological adaptations. The relationships between locomotor behaviour and body size, habitat structure and behavioural context will be illustrated because these factors are important determinants of the evolutionary diversity of primate locomotor activities. They also induce the high individual plasticity of the locomotor behaviour for which primates are well known. The article also provides a short overview of the preferred locomotor activities in the various primate families. A more detailed description of locomotor preferences for some of the most common laboratory primates is included which also contains information about substrate preferences and daily locomotor activities which might useful for laboratory practice. Finally, practical implications for primate husbandry and cage design are provided emphasizing the positive impact of physical activity on health and psychological well-being of primates in captivity.

  20. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  1. Managing the screen-viewing behaviours of children aged 5–6 years: a qualitative analysis of parental strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jago, R; Zahra, J; Edwards, M. J.; Kesten, J M; Solomon-Moore, E; Thompson, J. L.; Sebire, S J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study used qualitative methods to: (1) examine the strategies that were used by parents of children aged 5–6 years to manage screen viewing; (2) identify key factors that affect the implementation of the strategies and (3) develop suggestions for future intervention content. Design Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of children aged 5–6 years participating in a larger study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive and deductive...

  2. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  3. The influence of the laser scan strategy on grain structure and cracking behaviour in SLM powder-bed fabricated nickel superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Luke N. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Martin, Christopher; Withers, Philip J. [Manchester Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Attallah, Moataz M., E-mail: M.M.Attallah@Bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Laser scanning strategies in Selectively Laser Melted (SLM) of CM247LC were studied. • A bi-modal grain structure has been identified due to the island scan strategy. • EBSD and MicroCT were used to show the influence of the scan strategy. • The island strategy affects the crystrallographic orientation and crack formation. • A possible explanation for this structure is presented based on the microstructural evidence. - Abstract: During the development of a processing route for the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) powder-bed fabrication of the nickel superalloy CM247LC it has been observed that the ‘island’ scan-strategy used as standard by the Concept Laser M2 SLM powder-bed system strongly influences the grain structure of the material. Optical and SEM micrographs are presented to show the observed grain structure in the SLM fabricated and Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIPped) material. The repeating pattern shown in the grain structure has been linked to the overlapping of the ‘island’ pattern used as standard in the Concept Laser M2 powder-bed facility. It is suggested that the formation of this bi-modal grain structure can be linked to the heat transfer away from the solidifying melt pool. The concept of a ‘band’ heating effect across each ‘island’ rather than ‘moving point’ heating has been suggested and has been supported by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) evidence. For comparison an EBSD map from a sample formed using a simple ‘back-and-forth’ strategy has also been presented and reveals a dramatically different grain structure and crystallographic orientation. MicroCT evidence, supported by SEM microscopy, shows that in the as-fabricated material the bimodal structure caused by the ‘island’ scan-strategy translates directly into the macroscopic pattern for the regions of extensive weld cracking associated with the SLM fabrication of γ′ hardenable materials. Similar microCT data has shown that

  4. The influence of the laser scan strategy on grain structure and cracking behaviour in SLM powder-bed fabricated nickel superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Laser scanning strategies in Selectively Laser Melted (SLM) of CM247LC were studied. • A bi-modal grain structure has been identified due to the island scan strategy. • EBSD and MicroCT were used to show the influence of the scan strategy. • The island strategy affects the crystrallographic orientation and crack formation. • A possible explanation for this structure is presented based on the microstructural evidence. - Abstract: During the development of a processing route for the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) powder-bed fabrication of the nickel superalloy CM247LC it has been observed that the ‘island’ scan-strategy used as standard by the Concept Laser M2 SLM powder-bed system strongly influences the grain structure of the material. Optical and SEM micrographs are presented to show the observed grain structure in the SLM fabricated and Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIPped) material. The repeating pattern shown in the grain structure has been linked to the overlapping of the ‘island’ pattern used as standard in the Concept Laser M2 powder-bed facility. It is suggested that the formation of this bi-modal grain structure can be linked to the heat transfer away from the solidifying melt pool. The concept of a ‘band’ heating effect across each ‘island’ rather than ‘moving point’ heating has been suggested and has been supported by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) evidence. For comparison an EBSD map from a sample formed using a simple ‘back-and-forth’ strategy has also been presented and reveals a dramatically different grain structure and crystallographic orientation. MicroCT evidence, supported by SEM microscopy, shows that in the as-fabricated material the bimodal structure caused by the ‘island’ scan-strategy translates directly into the macroscopic pattern for the regions of extensive weld cracking associated with the SLM fabrication of γ′ hardenable materials. Similar microCT data has shown that

  5. Functional morphology, biology and sexual strategy of the circumboreal, adventitious crypt-building, Crenella decussata (Bivalvia Mytiloidea: Crenellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Brian; Dinesen, Grete E.; Ockelmann, Kurt W.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of Crenella decussata (Mytiloidea) is described. Individuals of this circumboreal species occupy granular crypts composed of sand grains held in place by mucus. The swollen basal region of the tubule is occupied by an individual, which connects to the sediment surface by two posterior...... the prodissoconch stage. Subsequently, these larvae are transferred to the exhalant tube of the crypt wherein they attach by a single fine byssal thread and are further brooded until the crawl-away juvenile stage is attained. Experimental studies of larval behaviour suggest that parental pheromones...... sustain the female/offspring bond. Newly hatched individuals responded to parental exhalant water by actively attaching themselves using a byssal thread. This response persisted for 28 days, but not after 55 days when, we suggest, the pheromonal response ceases and offspring are developed sufficiently to...

  6. Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: Using archival time-depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M.T.; Costa, D.P.; Estes, J.A.; Wieringa, N.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of individual prey specializations has been reported for an ever-growing number of taxa, and has important ramifications for our understanding of predator-prey dynamics. We use the California sea otter population as a case study to validate the use of archival time-depth data to detect and measure differences in foraging behaviour and diet. We collected observational foraging data from radio-tagged sea otters that had been equipped with Mk9 time depth recorders (TDRs, Wildlife Computers, Redmond, WA). After recapturing the study animals and retrieving the TDRs it was possible to compare the two data types, by matching individual dives from the TDR record with observational data and thus examining behavioural correlates of capture success and prey species. Individuals varied with respect to prey selection, aggregating into one of three distinct dietary specializations. A number of TDR-derived parameters, particularly dive depth and post-dive surface interval, differed predictably between specialist types. A combination of six dive parameters was particularly useful for discriminating between specialist types, and when incorporated into a multivariate cluster analysis, these six parameters resulted in classification of 13 adult female sea otters into three clusters that corresponded almost perfectly to the diet-based classification (1 out of 13 animals was misclassified). Thus based solely on quantifiable traits of time-depth data that have been collected over an appropriate period (in this case 1 year per animal), it was possible to assign female sea otters to diet type with >90% accuracy. TDR data can thus be used as a tool to measure the degree of individual specialization in sea otter populations, a conclusion that will likely apply to other diving marine vertebrates as well. Our ultimate goals must be both to understand the causes of individual specialization, and to incorporate such variation into models of population- and community-level food web

  7. Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: Using archival time depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. T.; Costa, D. P.; Estes, J. A.; Wieringa, N.

    2007-02-01

    The existence of individual prey specializations has been reported for an ever-growing number of taxa, and has important ramifications for our understanding of predator-prey dynamics. We use the California sea otter population as a case study to validate the use of archival time-depth data to detect and measure differences in foraging behaviour and diet. We collected observational foraging data from radio-tagged sea otters that had been equipped with Mk9 time depth recorders (TDRs, Wildlife Computers, Redmond, WA). After recapturing the study animals and retrieving the TDRs it was possible to compare the two data types, by matching individual dives from the TDR record with observational data and thus examining behavioural correlates of capture success and prey species. Individuals varied with respect to prey selection, aggregating into one of three distinct dietary specializations. A number of TDR-derived parameters, particularly dive depth and post-dive surface interval, differed predictably between specialist types. A combination of six dive parameters was particularly useful for discriminating between specialist types, and when incorporated into a multivariate cluster analysis, these six parameters resulted in classification of 13 adult female sea otters into three clusters that corresponded almost perfectly to the diet-based classification (1 out of 13 animals was misclassified). Thus based solely on quantifiable traits of time-depth data that have been collected over an appropriate period (in this case 1 year per animal), it was possible to assign female sea otters to diet type with >90% accuracy. TDR data can thus be used as a tool to measure the degree of individual specialization in sea otter populations, a conclusion that will likely apply to other diving marine vertebrates as well. Our ultimate goals must be both to understand the causes of individual specialization, and to incorporate such variation into models of population- and community-level food web

  8. Individual behavioural characteristics in pigs and their consequences for pig husbandry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessing, M.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    IntroductionThe main aspect of this thesis is individual behavioural variation. Behavioural variability among individuals within a population may provide information on strategies or roles in social behaviour, on personality traits and individual recognition. Generally, this behavio

  9. Stress and risk avoidance by exploring rats: implications for stress management in fear-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Farshad; Kolb, Bryan; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2013-03-01

    Animals display protective patterns of behaviour. Adoption of such protective patterns requires the assessment of risks posed by the environment and subsequent avoidance of high-risk locations. We hypothesized that adverse experiences lead to formation of a context-specific memory, thus changing the pattern of exploratory behaviours in response to specific cues associated with this experience. Here we examined exploratory movement patterns and compared approach/avoidance behaviours in rats following a stressful experience in the same versus a different environment. Using an open table exploration task, we compared exploratory movements in rats that were either stressed by restraint in a different environment or stressed in the test environment. The following day rats were allowed to explore the open table environment. Different test situations were provided in which rats were given access to a refuge or a large visual object as placed in the vicinity to the open table. The results indicate that stressed rats avoid the specific location associated with a stressful experience. However, when provided with a refuge in this location the salience of the stressful memory is reduced and the refuge will become a preferred location. Exploratory patterns and avoidance behaviours were correlated with corticosterone levels. Behavioural changes were not related to dendritic morphology in the medial prefrontal cortex (layer III). The results provide insights into risk avoidance strategies in rats and suggest that environmental intervention can reverse stress-related changes in behaviour. PMID:23305801

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution and habitat use of sea trout Salmo trutta in a fjord system in Central Norway: - influence of morphology and life history on marine behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Eldøy, Sindre Håvarstein

    2014-01-01

    Marine migration and habitat use of sea trout Salmo trutta from the watercourse Søa and the river Snilldalselva in Sør-Trøndelag in Central Norway was studied during summer in 2012 and 2013. Fishes were tagged with acoustic transmitters and their movements and behaviour recorded by automatic listening stations. Significant individual variation in the time spent in the marine environment was found, ranging from 7 days to 183 days during the months from April to September. The sp...

  11. Stimulating Strategically Aligned Behaviour among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); M. Dijkstra (Majorie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStrategically aligned behaviour (SAB), i.e., employee action that is consistent with the company’s strategy, is of vital importance to companies. This study provides insights into the way managers can promote such behaviour among employees by stimulating employee motivation and by inform

  12. Galaxy Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

  13. Noun Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Santazilia, Ekaitz

    2013-01-01

    This is a study of the Basque noun morphology, which sets out the noun paradigm of historical Basque and the structure of its NP, and then goes on to list the explanations proposed so far for every aspect concerning the formation of that paradigm: first the number/definiteness axis, and then the individual cases, classifying these into primary cases (grammatical and local), secondary cases (those built upon the allative and the genitive), and pseudo-flectional morphemes or non-cases.

  14. Year-round recordings of behavioural and physiological parameters reveal the survival strategy of a poorly insulated diving endotherm during the Arctic winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémillet, David; Kuntz, Grégoire; Woakes, Anthony J; Gilbert, Caroline; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Le Maho, Yvon; Butler, Patrick J

    2005-11-01

    Warm-blooded diving animals wintering in polar regions are expected to show a high degree of morphological adaptation allowing efficient thermal insulation. In stark contrast to other marine mammals and seabirds living at high latitudes, Arctic great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo have very limited thermal insulation because of their partly permeable plumage. They nonetheless winter in Greenland, where they are exposed to very low air and water temperatures. To understand how poorly insulated diving endotherms survive the Arctic winter, we performed year-round recordings of heart rate, dive depth and abdominal temperature in male great cormorants using miniature data loggers. We also examined the body composition of individuals in the spring. Abdominal temperatures and heart rates of birds resting on land and diving showed substantial variability. However, neither hypothermia nor significantly lower heart rate levels were recorded during the winter months. Thus our data show no indication of general metabolic depression in great cormorants wintering in Greenland. Furthermore, great cormorants did not reduce their daily swimming time during the coldest months of the year to save energy; they continued to forage in sub-zero waters for over an hour every day. As birds spent extended periods in cold water and showed no signs of metabolic depression during the Arctic winter, their theoretical energy requirements were substantial. Using our field data and a published algorithm we estimated the daily food requirement of great cormorants wintering in Greenland to be 1170+/-110 g day(-1). This is twice the estimated food requirement of great cormorants wintering in Europe. Great cormorants survive the Arctic winter but we also show that they come close to starvation during the spring, with body reserves sufficient to fast for less than 3 days. Lack of body fuels was associated with drastically reduced body temperatures and heart rates in April and May. Concurrent, intense

  15. Mating Behaviour and Copulatory Mechanism in the Scorpionfly Neopanorpa longiprocessa (Mecoptera: Panorpidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Wen; Hua, Baozhen

    2013-01-01

    Sexual conflict during copulation may drive morphological and behavioral evolution in insects. Although nuptial feeding behaviour is well studied in Panorpa, whether this behaviour is universal in Panorpidae remains unknown. The scorpionfly Neopanorpa longiprocessa Hua & Chou, 1997 was investigated for its mating behaviour, functional morphology of the notal organ, and external genitalia using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the mating behaviour is not...

  16. Visual Analysis of Behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Shaogang

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatment of visual analysis of behaviour from computational-modelling and algorithm-design perspectives. This title: covers learning-group activity models, unsupervised behaviour profiling, hierarchical behaviour discovery, learning behavioural context, modelling rare behaviours, and 'man-in-the-loop' active learning; examines multi-camera behaviour correlation, person re-identification, and 'connecting-the-dots' for abnormal behaviour detection; discusses Bayesian information criterion, Bayesian networks, 'bag-of-words' representation, canonical correlation

  17. From nano to micro: topographical scale and its impact on cell adhesion, morphology and contact guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Sathe, Sharvari R.; Yim, Evelyn K. F.

    2016-05-01

    Topography, among other physical factors such as substrate stiffness and extracellular forces, is known to have a great influence on cell behaviours. Optimization of topographical features, in particular topographical dimensions ranging from nanoscale to microscale, is the key strategy to obtain the best cellular performance for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey on the significance of sizes of topography and their impacts on cell adhesion, morphology and alignment, and neurite guidance. Also recent works mimicking the hierarchical structure of natural extracellular matrix by combining both nanoscale and microscale topographies are highlighted.

  18. Spawning Behaviour and the Softmouth Trout Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve Manu; McLennan Deborah Ann; Zablocki John Andrew; Pustovrh Gašper; Doadrio Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Morphological, ecological and molecular data sets do not completely agree on the phylogenetic placement of the softmouth trout, Salmo (Salmothymus) obtusirostris (Heckel). Molecules posit that softmouths are closely related to brown trout, Salmo trutta L. while some morphological, ecological and life history traits place them in the most basal position of the Salmoninae subfamily between grayling (Thymallus) and lenok (Brachymystax). Here we add an additional source of data, behavioural chara...

  19. Morfologia, comportamento, parasitismo e mecanismos de defesa dos imaturos de Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner(Lepidoptera, Papilionidae Morphology, behaviour, parasitism and mechanisms of defense of the immatures of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Heraclides anchisiades capys é uma espécie comum de Papilionidae, cujas larvas se alimentam de várias espécies de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae. Neste estudo são descritas a morfologia e dados sobre a história natural dos imaturos através de ilustrações, incluindo fotografias em microscopia eletrônica de varredura.Heraclides anchisiades capys is a common species among the Papilionidae, whose larvae feed on various species of Citrus spp. (Rutaceae. In this study the morphology and data on natural history of the immature stages of this species are described with illustrations, including photos in scanning electronic microscope.

  20. Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White are four horticultural pest tephritid fruit fly species that are highly similar, morphologically and genetically, to the destructive pest, the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This similarity has rendered the discovery of reliable diagnostic characters problematic, which, in view of the economic importance of these taxa and the international trade implications, has resulted in ongoing difficulties for many areas of plant protection and food security. Consequently, a major international collaborative and integrated multidisciplinary research effort was initiated in 2009 to build upon existing literature with the specific aim of resolving biological species limits among B. papayae, B. philippinensis, B. carambolae, B. invadens and B. dorsalis to overcome constraints to pest management and international trade. Bactrocera philippinensis has recently been synonymized with B. papayae as a result of this initiative and this review corroborates that finding; however, the other names remain in use. While consistent characters have been found to reliably distinguish B. carambolae from B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, no such characters have been found to differentiate the latter three putative species. We conclude that B. carambolae is a valid species and that the remaining taxa, B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, represent the same species. Thus, we consider B. dorsalis (Hendel) as the senior synonym of B. papayae Drew and Hancock syn.n. and B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White syn.n. A redescription of B. dorsalis is provided. Given the agricultural importance of B. dorsalis, this taxonomic decision will have significant global plant biosecurity implications, affecting pest management, quarantine, international trade, postharvest treatment and basic research

  1. Behavioural Finance Theories Effecting on Individual Investor's Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Leppinen, Essi

    2013-01-01

    The author of this dissertation chose the topic of behavioural finance theories for the reason of studying the controversial relevance of these theories in relation to investment strategies. Reading investment books and newspaper articles has been a part of the writers' daily life for many years. Hence, the writer’s interest towards investment strategies and behavioural finance theories has grown over time. Behavioural theories are seen as a relatively new phenomenon in the security markets. ...

  2. Mesophase behaviour of polyhedral particles

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Umang

    2011-02-13

    Translational and orientational excluded-volume fields encoded in particles with anisotropic shapes can lead to purely entropy-driven assembly of morphologies with specific order and symmetry. To elucidate this complex correlation, we carried out detailed Monte Carlo simulations of six convex space-filling polyhedrons, namely, truncated octahedrons, rhombic dodecahedrons, hexagonal prisms, cubes, gyrobifastigiums and triangular prisms. Simulations predict the formation of various new liquid-crystalline and plastic-crystalline phases at intermediate volume fractions. By correlating these findings with particle anisotropy and rotational symmetry, simple guidelines for predicting phase behaviour of polyhedral particles are proposed: high rotational symmetry is in general conducive to mesophase formation, with low anisotropy favouring plastic-solid behaviour and intermediate anisotropy (or high uniaxial anisotropy) favouring liquid-crystalline behaviour. It is also found that dynamical disorder is crucial in defining mesophase behaviour, and that the apparent kinetic barrier for the liquid-mesophase transition is much lower for liquid crystals (orientational order) than for plastic solids (translational order). © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours. PMID:26423363

  4. Impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviour : a life history perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Copping, L.; Campbell, A; Muncer, S.

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity has often been invoked as a proximate driver of different life-history strategies. However, conceptualisations of “impulsivity” are inconsistent and ambiguities exist regarding which facets of impulsivity are actually involved in the canalisation of reproductive strategies. Two variables commonly used to represent impulsivity were examined in relation to reproductive behaviour. Results demonstrated that sensation seeking was significantly related to strategy-based behaviour, but i...

  5. Competitive behaviour in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Konecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article deals with the results of literature and empirical research into competitiveness and behaviour of entities in supply chains. Methods: A research hypothesis has been formulated that both partnership as well as dominance relations occur between enterprises functioning as suppliers-consignees. In order to verify the hypothesis a survey was completed in 2012. It encompassed 116 enterprises (manufacturers - 33, service providers - 32 and sellers - 24 as well as enterprises selling goods and providing services - 27 of which 54 were large, 26 medium and 36 were small enterprises. Competitive behaviour in supply chains has been identified and analysed. Furthermore, the authors intended to identify, reveal and examine possible interdependences between competitive behaviour and behaviour typical of supply chain strategies. Results and conclusions: The analysis of survey results revealed a tendency to preserve equilibrium between a chain leader and dependent enterprises. It may be easily justified in practice as on the one hand there is a need to keep the supply chain competitive and on the other hand to avoid the interruptions, which could occur as a result of elimination of dependent enterprises.

  6. Spawning Behaviour and the Softmouth Trout Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Manu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, ecological and molecular data sets do not completely agree on the phylogenetic placement of the softmouth trout, Salmo (Salmothymus obtusirostris (Heckel. Molecules posit that softmouths are closely related to brown trout, Salmo trutta L. while some morphological, ecological and life history traits place them in the most basal position of the Salmoninae subfamily between grayling (Thymallus and lenok (Brachymystax. Here we add an additional source of data, behavioural characters based on the first reported observations of softmouth spawning. During spawning softmouth females present three important behaviours not found in the other Salmo members: they continually abandon their nests, rarely staying on them for periods over nine minutes; they expel different batches of eggs at the same nest at intervals of several minutes; and they do not cover their eggs immediately after spawning. These three behaviours are intriguing for two reasons: 1 they are possible homologous to behaviours found in grayling females; 2 when coupled to the nest digging behaviour-widespread in all the salmonines, including softmouths, they seem to be mal-adaptive.

  7. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  8. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  9. Fundamentals of soil behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gens Solé, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews in summary form the generalised behaviour of soils under nonisothermal and chemically varying conditions. This generalised soil behaviour underlies the performance of a number of ground improvement techniques. The behaviour of frozen soil is examined first showing that some concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics appear to be readily applicable. Afterwards, the observation that volumetric behaviour of saturated and unsaturated soils at high temperature is similar, leads to th...

  10. Disruptive behaviour in the Foundation Phase of schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Petro Marais; Corinne Meier

    2010-01-01

    Since the passage of legislation banning corporal punishment in South African schools, disruptive behaviour in schools has become an issue of national concern. Against this background a research project was undertaken in which the types and causes of disruptive behaviour occurring most frequently in the Foundation Phase of schooling were identified, with a view to providing strategies for teachers to manage behaviour of this kind. A qualitative research approach was applied. Data collection w...

  11. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Lert France; Hope Vivian; Elford Jonathan; Graz Bertrand; Gervasoni Jean-Pierre; Spencer Brenda; Jeannin André; Dubois-Arber Françoise; Ward Helen; Haour-Knipe Mary; Low Nicola; van de Laar Marita

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance syst...

  12. AIDS awareness and VCT behaviour: An application of the integrated model of behaviour prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Hilde Diteweg; Adinda van Oostwaard; Hugo Tempelman; Adri Vermeer; Melanie Appels; Marieke F. van der Schaaf; David J.F. Maree

    2013-01-01

    In order to limit the expansion of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa, it is important to develop targeted prevention strategies. The voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) programme appears to be effective for preventing the spread of the HI virus. This study adapted guidelines of the integrated model of behaviour prediction (IMBP) into a questionnaire and examined the extent to which it predicts behaviour. A sample of 92 sports team members from Limpopo ranging from 14 to 30 yea...

  13. Williams Syndrome: A Relationship between Genetics, Brain Morphology and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, C.; Yoon, U.; Nashaat, N. H.; Khalil, A. K.; El-Belbesy, M.; Mancini-Marie, A.; Evans, A. C.; Meguid, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Genetically Williams syndrome (WS) promises to provide essential insight into the pathophysiology of cortical development because its ~28 deleted genes are crucial for cortical neuronal migration and maturation. Phenotypically, WS is one of the most puzzling childhood neurodevelopmental disorders affecting most intellectual…

  14. Meta-Synthesis of Research on Information Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Meta-synthesis methods may help to make more sense of information behaviour research evidence. Aims and objectives: The objectives are to: 1) identify and examine the theoretical research strategies commonly used in information behaviour research; 2) discuss meta-synthesis methods that might be appropriate to the type of research…

  15. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaya-Moore, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this second part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour in the classroom. A proactive approach to classroom management is designed to provide…

  16. Students' Perception of University Teaching Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar; Tariq, Riaz H.; Topping, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explore students' perception of university teaching behaviours in Pakistan. Three hundred and fifty students from the six public sector Pakistani universities returned questionnaires. Assessment framework, learning activities and instructional strategies emerged from factor analysis as common factors. Students' views…

  17. Beyond body size: muscle biochemistry and body shape explain ontogenetic variation of anti-predatory behaviour in the lizard Salvator merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Fábio Cury; de Carvalho, José Eduardo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2016-06-01

    Anti-predatory behaviour evolves under the strong action of natural selection because the success of individuals avoiding predation essentially defines their fitness. Choice of anti-predatory strategies is defined by prey characteristics as well as environmental temperature. An additional dimension often relegated in this multilevel equation is the ontogenetic component. In the tegu Salvator merianae, adults run away from predators at high temperatures but prefer fighting when it is cold, whereas juveniles exhibit the same flight strategy within a wide thermal range. Here, we integrate physiology and morphology to understand ontogenetic variation in the temperature-dependent shift of anti-predatory behaviour in these lizards. We compiled data for body shape and size, and quantified enzyme activity in hindlimb and head muscles, testing the hypothesis that morphophysiological models explain ontogenetic variation in behavioural associations. Our prediction is that juveniles exhibit body shape and muscle biochemistry that enhance flight strategies. We identified biochemical differences between muscles mainly in the LDH:CS ratio, whereby hindlimb muscles were more glycolytic than the jaw musculature. Juveniles, which often use evasive strategies to avoid predation, have more glycolytic hindlimb muscles and are much smaller when compared with adults 1-2 years old. Ontogenetic differences in body shape were identified but marginally contributed to behavioural variation between juvenile and adult tegus, and variation in anti-predatory behaviour in these lizards resides mainly in associations between body size and muscle biochemistry. Our results are discussed in the ecological context of predator avoidance by individuals differing in body size living at temperature-variable environments, where restrictions imposed by the cold could be compensated by specific phenotypes. PMID:26994181

  18. AIDS awareness and VCT behaviour: An application of the integrated model of behaviour prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Diteweg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to limit the expansion of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa, it is important to develop targeted prevention strategies. The voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT programme appears to be effective for preventing the spread of the HI virus. This study adapted guidelines of the integrated model of behaviour prediction (IMBP into a questionnaire and examined the extent to which it predicts behaviour. A sample of 92 sports team members from Limpopo ranging from 14 to 30 years of age completed the questionnaire. Results suggested that beliefs about the outcomes of behaviour and beliefs about the expectations of others had a direct influence on the intention to undergo HIV counselling and testing. Efficacy beliefs, namely beliefs that there are factors that can facilitate behaviour, can lead to actual testing behaviour if accompanied by self-efficacy. Knowledge, intention and stigma are not related to VCT behaviour. Findings show that some constructs influence intention and test behaviour, but in ways not predicted by the model. Thus, the adequacy of the IMBP to determine HIV and AIDS-preventative behavioural intentions is questioned.

  19. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking perspec...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  20. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possible relations between nutrients and behaviour were investigated. In the first study, levels of nutrients in blood samples of forensic psychiatric patients were measured. Low levels of omega-3 fatty a...

  1. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  2. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumalova, Hana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon.

  3. Clouding behaviour in surfactant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Partha; Padhan, Susanta K; Dash, Sukalyan; Patel, Sabita; Mishra, Bijay K

    2011-02-17

    A study on the phenomenon of clouding and the applications of cloud point technology has been thoroughly discussed. The phase behaviour of clouding and various methods adopted for the determination of cloud point of various surfactant systems have been elucidated. The systems containing anionic, cationic, nonionic surfactants as well as microemulsions have been reviewed with respect to their clouding phenomena and the effects of structural variation in the surfactant systems have been incorporated. Additives of various natures control the clouding of surfactants. Electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, organic substances as well as ionic surfactants, when present in the surfactant solutions, play a major role in the clouding phenomena. The review includes the morphological study of clouds and their applications in the extraction of trace inorganic, organic materials as well as pesticides and protein substrates from different sources. PMID:21296314

  4. Tribological Behaviour of Kfre Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C. W.; Yousif, B. F.

    This paper presents an attempt to use kenaf fibres as reinforcement for tribo-polymeric composite. Kenaf fibres reinforced epoxy (KFRE) composite was fabricated using a closed mould technique associated with vacuum system. Adhesive wear and frictional behaviour of the composite and neat epoxy (NE) were studied against polished stainless steel counterface using a newly developed block-on-disc (BOD) machine at 50N applied load, sliding distances (0-4.2 km) and sliding velocities of 2.8 m/s. The morphology of the worn surfaces of the composite and NE was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result revealed that the longer the sliding distance is, the higher the weight loss. Up to 70% reduction in the weight loss was achieved when the epoxy was reinforced with the kenaf fibres. The wear mechanism was predominated by plastic deformation, in the resinous regions and debonding of fibres.

  5. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  6. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...

  7. Adaptive behavioural syndromes due to strategic niche specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmüller Ralph

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural syndromes, i.e. consistent individual differences in behaviours that are correlated across different functional contexts, are a challenge to evolutionary reasoning because individuals should adapt their behaviour to the requirements of each situation. Behavioural syndromes are often interpreted as a result of constraints resulting in limited plasticity and inflexible behaviour. Alternatively, they may be adaptive if correlated ecological or social challenges functionally integrate apparently independent behaviours. To test the latter hypothesis we repeatedly tested helpers in the cooperative breeder Neolamprologus pulcher for exploration and two types of helping behaviour. In case of adaptive behavioural syndromes we predicted a positive relationship between exploration and aggressive helping (territory defence and a negative relationship between these behaviours and non-aggressive helping (territory maintenance. Results As expected, helpers engaging more in territory defence were consistently more explorative and engaged less in territory maintenance, the latter only when dominant breeders were present. Contrary to our prediction, there was no negative relationship between exploration and territory maintenance. Conclusion Our results suggest that the three behaviours we measured are part of behavioural syndromes. These may be adaptive, in that they reflect strategic specialization of helpers into one of two different life history strategies, namely (a to stay and help in the home territory in order to inherit the breeding position or (b to disperse early in order to breed independently.

  8. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  9. Malaysian Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Disruptive Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Norzila; Reupert, Andrea; Sharma, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate Malaysian primary pre-service teachers' perceptions of students' disruptive behaviour and their self-reported strategies to prevent and to manage such behaviours. Results indicate that Malaysian pre-service teachers understand disruptive behaviours to be those that disrupt the learning and…

  10. A proposed general model of information behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a critical description of Wilson's (1996 global model of information behaviour and proposes major modification on the basis of research into information behaviour of managers, conducted in Poland. The theoretical analysis and research results suggest that Wilson's model has certain imperfections, both in its conceptual content, and in graphical presentation. The model, for example, cannot be used to describe managers' information behaviour, since managers basically are not the end users of external from organization or computerized information services, and they acquire information mainly through various intermediaries. Therefore, the model cannot be considered as a general model, applicable to every category of information users. The proposed new model encompasses the main concepts of Wilson's model, such as: person-in-context, three categories of intervening variables (individual, social and environmental, activating mechanisms, cyclic character of information behaviours, and the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach to explain them. However, the new model introduces several changes. They include: 1. identification of 'context' with the intervening variables; 2. immersion of the chain of information behaviour in the 'context', to indicate that the context variables influence behaviour at all stages of the process (identification of needs, looking for information, processing and using it; 3. stress is put on the fact that the activating mechanisms also can occur at all stages of the information acquisition process; 4. introduction of two basic strategies of looking for information: personally and/or using various intermediaries.

  11. The multiple strategies of an insect herbivore to overcome plant cyanogenic glucoside defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj;

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are widespread plant defence compounds that release toxic hydrogen cyanide by plant bglucosidase activity after tissue damage. Specialised insect herbivores have evolved counter strategies and some sequester CNglcs, but the underlying mechanisms to keep CNglcs intact...... during feeding and digestion are unknown. We show that CNglc-sequestering Zygaena filipendulae larvae combine behavioural, morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies at different time points during feeding and digestion to avoid toxic hydrolysis of the CNglcs present in their Lotus food......, a highly alkaline midgut lumen inhibited the activity of ingested plant b-glucosidases significantly. Moreover, insect b-glucosidases from the saliva and gut tissue did not hydrolyse the CNglcs present in Lotus. The strategies disclosed may also be used by other insect species to overcome CNglc...

  12. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  13. ASSO : Behavioural specialization modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Andolina, Rosanna; Locuratolo, Elvira

    1996-01-01

    An approach of behavioural modelling based on the specialization concept is proposed within ASSO, a formal database design methodology which combines features from database design with formal methods. This approach preserves the semantics of the current behavioural modelling while producing benefits on the phases of the methodology.

  14. Innovation Strategies and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Charlie; Tavassoli, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of various innovation strategies of firms on their future performance, captured by labour productivity. Using five waves of the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced the innovative behaviour of firms over a decade, i.e. from 2002 to 2012. We distinguish between sixteen innovation strategies, which compose of Schumpeterian four types of innovations, i.e. process, product, marketing, and organizational (simple innovation strategies) plus various co...

  15. The Luminosity Function of PNe with different morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Magrini, L.; R. L. M. Corradi; Leisy, P.; Scatarzi, A.; L. Morbidelli; Perinotto, M.

    2003-01-01

    We have analyzed the behaviour of various parameters of PNe in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the Galaxy as a function of their morphology. The luminosity function of different morphological types has been built, finding that elliptical and round PNe dominate the bright cutoff both in the MCs and in the Galaxy. The dependence of the [OIII] absolute magnitude on chemical abundances has been investigated.

  16. Consumer behaviour analysis and the behavioural perspective model.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, G.R.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; James, V.K.; Schrezenmaier, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the FIRST of TWO linked articles on consumer behavioural analysis. Cognitive theories have dominated the field of consumer behaviour for the last few decades, however, an observed lack of consistency between attitudes and behaviour has suggested the need to investigate more thoroughly situational and behavioural variables. Consumer behaviour analysis can be viewed as an alternative theoretical approach that emphasizes situational variables and measures of behaviour. Within consumer be...

  17. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia’s Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves—specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef.

  18. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time. PMID:21836174

  19. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society. PMID:24735112

  20. A practical approach for applying best practices in behavioural interventions to injury prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Flaura K.; Jacobsohn, Lela

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural science when combined with engineering, epidemiology and other disciplines creates a full picture of the often fragmented injury puzzle and informs comprehensive solutions. To assist efforts to include behavioural science in injury prevention strategies, this paper presents a methodological tutorial that aims to introduce best practices in behavioural intervention development and testing to injury professionals new to behavioural science. This tutorial attempts to bridge research ...

  1. Parental socioeconomic background and child behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette

    2014-01-01

    and resource constraints, respectively. We address this issue using a unique longitudinal data set of almost 1,500 schoolchildren attending state schools between 2008 and 2010 in the Danish Municipality of Aalborg. One empirical strategy is to control for a rich set of child and parental characteristics......; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge the predominant assumption that behaviour...... set of child and parental characteristics; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge...

  2. Cognitive science and behaviourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, B F

    1985-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that cognitive scientists, claiming the support of brain science and computer simulation, have revived a traditional view that behaviour is initiated by an internal, autonomous mind. In doing so, they have misused the metaphor of storage and retrieval, given neurology a misleading assignment, frequently replaced controlled experimental conditions with mere descriptions of conditions and the assessment of behaviour with statements of expectations and intentions, given feelings and states of mind the status of causes of behaviour rather than the products of the causes, and failed to define many key terms in dimensions acceptable to science. PMID:4041702

  3. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  4. Morphology of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

  5. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers-Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun-are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals. PMID:26898725

  6. Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

  7. Elementarity and quantum behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion of elementarity is considered as a concept on which a motivation of quantum behaviour may be founded. The definition of velocity of an elementary body, in particular, is examined in comparison with the classical situation. (author)

  8. Behavioural Biometrics in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    Prague, 2013, nestr. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. Prague (CZ), 17.04.2013-19.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * behavioural biometrics * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  9. Psychology: Inducing green behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-02-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions -- for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people's environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change.

  10. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and...... the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for...

  11. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching...

  12. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  13. Tool making, hand morphology and fossil hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Mary W

    2013-11-19

    Was stone tool making a factor in the evolution of human hand morphology? Is it possible to find evidence in fossil hominin hands for this capability? These questions are being addressed with increasingly sophisticated studies that are testing two hypotheses; (i) that humans have unique patterns of grip and hand movement capabilities compatible with effective stone tool making and use of the tools and, if this is the case, (ii) that there exist unique patterns of morphology in human hands that are consistent with these capabilities. Comparative analyses of human stone tool behaviours and chimpanzee feeding behaviours have revealed a distinctive set of forceful pinch grips by humans that are effective in the control of stones by one hand during manufacture and use of the tools. Comparative dissections, kinematic analyses and biomechanical studies indicate that humans do have a unique pattern of muscle architecture and joint surface form and functions consistent with the derived capabilities. A major remaining challenge is to identify skeletal features that reflect the full morphological pattern, and therefore may serve as clues to fossil hominin manipulative capabilities. Hominin fossils are evaluated for evidence of patterns of derived human grip and stress-accommodation features. PMID:24101624

  14. Behavioural perspectives on piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    1990-01-01

    Litters of domestic piglets show strong sibling competition, large differences among litter-mates in birth weight and rate of growth, and, in the absence of human intervention, a high mortality rate. This combination of traits suggests that pigs are using a reproductive strategy similar to that of certain bird species which produce one or more small 'spare' young whose death or survival is determined by sibling competition. Death through competition is natural in such species. Prevention of death requires the early identification and separate rearing of unsuccessful competitors. The major behavioural pathways leading to piglet deaths are considered to be malnutrition through unsuccessful suckling behaviour, and crushing of piglets by the sow. Crushing involves two distinct behavioural sequences: posterior crushing (beneath the sow's hind quarters) and ventral crushing (beneath the udder and rib cage). Farrowing crates are designed to prevent posterior but not ventral crushing. Malnourished piglets appear to be more vulnerable to crushing, perhaps because persistent suckling attempts cause them to spend more time near the sow. Prevention of crushing thus requires a reduction in malnutrition, not merely restriction of the sow's movements. Under certain conditions, dehydration may be an important but neglected aspect of malnutrition. Some litters of piglets have much higher death losses than others, presumably because of risk factors that apply to the litter as a whole. Early malnutrition, resulting from hypogalactia in the sow in the first days after farrowing, appears to be an important risk factor. Farrowing difficulties leading to piglet hypoxia during the birth process may be another. Risk factors that affect whole litters deserve greater emphasis in future research. PMID:2192051

  15. Investigating garment drape behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Sanad,, R; Cassidy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Drapeability is one of the most important visual properties affecting garment appearance. Even though there are many studies concerned with fabric drape, understanding about the drape behaviour of garments is very limited. This study analyzes the key properties affecting the drape behaviour of garments to provide prediction equations. Results are statistically analyzed. From multiple regression analysis, drape rank scores obtained from subjective analyses are predicted using weight, bending m...

  16. Morphological awareness assessment and intervention to improve language and literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Julie A; Gibson, Frances E

    2015-02-01

    Morphological awareness positively influences language and literacy development and may be an ideal intervention focus for improving vocabulary, sight word reading, reading decoding, and reading comprehension in students with and without language and literacy deficits. This article will provide supporting theory, research, and strategies for implementing morphological awareness intervention with students with language and literacy deficits. Additionally, functional connections are explored through the incorporation and application of morphological awareness intervention in academic literacy contexts linked to Common Core State Standards. PMID:25633142

  17. EFECTIVIDAD DE LA ESTRATEGIA DE RECURSOS HUMANOS: MODELO INTEGRADOR DE LA TEORÍA DE RECURSOS Y CAPACIDADES Y LA TEORÍA DEL COMPORTAMIENTO EN LAS ENTIDADES FINANCIERAS DE LA ECONOMIA SOCIAL/EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY: INTEGRATION MODEL OF THE THEORY OF RESOURCES AND CAPABILITIES AND THE THEORY OF BEHAVIOUR ON FINANCIAL ENTITIES IN SOCIAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe HERNÁNDEZ PERLINES

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se sitúa en la línea de investigación que analiza la relación entre la estrategia de recursos humanos y los resultados. En concreto, propondremos un modelo integrador de las principales perspectivas teóricas que han servido para articular la investigación empírica: a Teoría de Recursos y Capacidades –fundamentados principalmente en la creación por parte de la empresa de capital humano, que se constituya en la base para la consecución de ventajas competitivas; y b Teoría del Comportamiento –en tanto que la mejora de los resultados además de una fuerza de trabajo altamente formada y capacitada, requiere que se manifiesten determinados comportamientos y actitudes–. /The present work follows the research line which analyses the relation between human resources strategies and results. More precisely, we will propose an integration model of the main theoretical viewpoints which have articulated empirical research: a The Theory of Resources and Capabilities —mainly based on company-created human capital, which becomes a means for achieving competitive advantages— and b Theory of Behaviour —since improvement in results requires, apart from a highly trained and qualified working force, the manifestation of certain behaviours and attitudes.

  18. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  19. α-Fe2O3 lithium battery anodes by nanocasting strategy from ordered 2D and 3D templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nanosized α-Fe2O3 lithium battery conversion anodes with tunable morphology. • Nanocasting technique using MCM-41 and MCM-48 silica moulds is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • α-Fe2O3 replica of MCM-41 exhibits stable capacity (∼300 mA h g−1) after 100 cycles. • α-Fe2O3 replica of MCM-41 shows promising prospects as high-capacity Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Nanocasting strategy is here proposed as effective approach to tune structure and size of α-Fe2O3 active nanoparticles as a promising anode material for Li-ion cells. MCM-41 and MCM-48 silicas, presenting hexagonal 2D and cubic 3D symmetry, respectively, and regular pore diameter of about 4 nm are selected as moulds. The structural–morphological and electrochemical characteristics are assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 physisorption at 77 K, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge/charge cycling. It is here demonstrated that structural–morphological features change accordingly to the template used and careful control of the texture/particle characteristics is likely a fundamental variable noticeably affecting the cycling behaviour

  20. The Effect of Gender, Wayfinding Strategy and Navigational Support on Wayfinding Behaviour%性别、寻路策略与导航方式对寻路行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房慧聪; 周琳

    2012-01-01

    The wayfinding strategy and the navigational support mode are two important factors in human wayfinding behavior. Although many lines of evidences have displayed the gender differences in the use of wayfinding strategy and the effectiveness of some navigational support designs, the interaction of these two factors still remained to be studied. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of gender, wayfinding strategy and navigational support mode on wayfinding behavior. 120 subjects were screened by the classic Wayfinding Strategy Scale developed by Lawton and then were assigned to different navigational support mode in a VR maze program scripted with 3Dmax and Virtools. In the practice stage, the subjects were required to get familiar with the operation rules, such as moving forward or backward, turning left or right by pressing the cursor keys. Then, the subjects entered the formal test, in which they were asked to arrive at the exit of the maze as quickly as possible with the aid of a given navigational support mode. The navigation time and the route map were recorded when the subjects successfully completed the task. Firstly, our data showed that the navigation time in males with lower-score in orientation strategy was the shortest under the condition of the guide sign support in the VR maze, while it was the longest under the condition of the YAH map support. Moreover, they were significantly different between the two treatments. However, the effect of the navigational support mode on wayfinding performance was not significantly different in the males with higher score in orientation strategy. These data indicated that orientation strategy was an important factor to predict the male's navigational performance. Secondly, our data also showed that the effect of the navigational support mode on the female's wayfinding performance was statistically significant. The navigation time was the shortest under the condition of the guide sign support, and it was

  1. Effective Transformational Leadership Behaviours For Managing Change

    OpenAIRE

    Gift Vinger; Frans Cilliers

    2006-01-01

    The South African higher education (HE) sector has been criticised for an apparent lack of leadership, calling into question the leaders’ ability to manage change as a result of the recent mergers of HE institutions. The aim of this present research was to establish the frequency of exhibition of transformational leadership and its behaviours and its level in this sector, including the commonly manifesting themes and strategies that transformational leaders, as change agents, utilise to effec...

  2. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour - Source of Organizational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alecxandrina DEACONU; Lavinia RASCA

    2011-01-01

    Organizational performance has, over time, become a fundamental objective of managerial strategies. Its achievement is conditioned by thorough scientific research concerning the context in which it is obtained as well as the analysis of the concept of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and the way it influences different dimensions of organizational involvement, organizational climate, work satisfaction and, consequently, business results. This study has a two-part structure: the firs...

  3. Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ricardo Lazzari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.

  4. Rewards for safe road behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.

  5. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  6. Different hunting strategies of generalist predators result in functional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalko, Radek; Pekár, Stano

    2016-08-01

    The morphological, physiological, and behavioural traits of organisms are often used as surrogates for actual ecological functions. However, differences in these traits do not necessarily lead to functional differences and/or can be context-dependent. Therefore, it is necessary to explicitly test whether the surrogates have general ecological relevance. To investigate the relationship between the hunting strategies of predators (i.e., how, where, and when they hunt) and their function, we used euryphagous spiders as a model group. We used published data on the diet composition of 76 spider species based on natural prey and laboratory prey acceptance experiments. We computed differences in the position and width of trophic niches among pairs of sympatrically occurring species. Pairs were made at different classification levels, ranked according to the dissimilarity in their hunting strategies: congeners, confamiliars (as phylogenetic proxies for similarity in hunting strategy), species from the same main class of hunting strategy, from the same supra-class, and from different supra-classes. As for niche position computed from the natural prey analyses, species from the same class differed less than species from different classes. A similar pattern was obtained from the laboratory studies, but the congeners differed less than the species from the same classes. Niche widths were most similar among congeners and dissimilar among species from different supra-classes. Functional differences among euryphagous spiders increased continuously with increasing difference in their hunting strategy. The relative frequency of hunting strategies within spider assemblages can, therefore, influence the food webs through hunting strategy-specific predator-prey interactions. PMID:27098662

  7. A New Distribution Strategy : The Omnichannel Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Gabriela Belu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world, dependent on information technology, distribution companies are searching for new marketing models meant to enrich the consumer’s experience. Therefore, the evolution of new technologies, the changes in the consumer’s behaviour are the main factors that determine changes in the business model in the distribution field. The following article presents different forms of distribution, focusing on the omnichannel strategy. In the last part of the paper, the authors analyse the Romanian retail market, namely, the evolution of the market, its key competitors and the new distribution models adopted by retaileres in our country.

  8. Specifics of fashion marketing and its impact on consumer's behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kureková, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the characteristics of fashion marketing, its specifics and its impact on consumer's behaviour. It defines the specifics of fashion marketing and communication strategies of the fashion companies and its impact on consumer's behaviour focusing on two specific companies: H&M and Zara. This thesis explains how fashion marketing differs from other industries and what factors influence its consumers to choose the product. It analyzes the marketing tools and instruments whic...

  9. The effect of enforcement on speed behaviour : a literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Oei, H.-l.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this literature study is to give an overview of research on speed enforcement and its effect on speed behaviour and safety. This study will be used to find new strategies and tactics to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of speed enforcement by the police in terms of behaviour and safety. (For the original MASTER Deliverable 3 report see http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/yki6/master/rep212.pdf)

  10. A suitable research methodology for analyzing online banking behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey J. L. van Meer; W. Fred van Raaij

    2004-01-01

    Banks and financial institutions still perceive the Internet as a ‘black box’ in which little insight is provided about individual-level online behaviour. The authors state that clickstream analyses open up the black box and illuminate online banking behaviour. In this article, examples are presented that show that clickstream analysis is a suitable research methodology for integrating the Internet in the marketing strategy of a bank or financial institution.

  11. A Behaviour-Based Architecture for Mapless Navigation Using Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Serdar Guzel; Robert Bicker

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous robots operating in an unknown and uncertain environment must be able to cope with dynamic changes to that environment. For a mobile robot in a cluttered environment to navigate successfully to a goal while avoiding obstacles is a challenging problem. This paper presents a new behaviour based architecture design for mapless navigation. The architecture is composed of several modules and each module generates behaviours. A novel method, inspired from a visual homing strategy, is ada...

  12. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  13. Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians' behaviour: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Heather O

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice. Several interventions have been shown to be effective in changing health care professionals' behaviour, but heterogeneity within interventions, targeted behaviours, and study settings make generalisation difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the 'active ingredients' in professional behaviour change strategies. Theories of human behaviour that feature an individual's "intention" to do something as the most immediate predictor of their behaviour have proved to be useful in non-clinical populations. As clinical practice is a form of human behaviour such theories may offer a basis for developing a scientific rationale for the choice of intervention to use in the implementation of new practice. The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between intention and behaviour in clinicians and how this compares to the intention-behaviour relationship in studies of non-clinicians. Methods We searched: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science/Social science citation index, Current contents (social & behavioural med/clinical med, ISI conference proceedings, and Index to Theses. The reference lists of all included papers were checked manually. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they had: examined a clinical behaviour within a clinical context, included measures of both intention and behaviour, measured behaviour after intention, and explored this relationship quantitatively. All titles and abstracts retrieved by electronic searching were screened independently by two reviewers, with disagreements resolved by discussion. Discussion Ten studies were found that examined the relationship between intention and clinical behaviours in 1623 health professionals. The proportion of variance in behaviour explained by

  14. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  15. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  16. Behavioural flexibility in migratory behaviour in a long-lived large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeman, Scott L; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bohm, Holger; Whittington, Jesse; Merrill, Evelyn H

    2016-05-01

    Migratory animals are predicted to enhance lifetime fitness by obtaining higher quality forage and/or reducing predation risk compared to non-migratory conspecifics. Despite evidence for behavioural flexibility in other taxa, previous research on large mammals has often assumed that migratory behaviour is a fixed behavioural trait. Migratory behaviour may be plastic for many species, although few studies have tested for individual-level flexibility using long-term monitoring of marked individuals, especially in large mammals such as ungulates. We tested variability in individual migratory behaviour using a 10-year telemetry data set of 223 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in the partially migratory Ya Ha Tinda population in Alberta, Canada. We used net squared displacement (NSD) to classify migratory strategy for each individual elk-year. Individuals switched between migrant and resident strategies at a mean rate of 15% per year, and migrants were more likely to switch than residents. We then tested how extrinsic (climate, elk/wolf abundance) and intrinsic (age) factors affected the probability of migrating, and, secondly, the decision to switch between migratory strategies. Over 630 individual elk-years, the probability of an individual elk migrating increased following a severe winter, in years of higher wolf abundance, and with increasing age. At an individual elk level, we observed 148 switching events of 430 possible transitions in elk monitored at least 2 years. We found switching was density-dependent, where migrants switched to a resident strategy at low elk abundance, but residents switched more to a migrant strategy at high elk abundance. Precipitation during the previous summer had a weak carryover effect, with migrants switching slightly more following wetter summers, whereas residents showed the opposite pattern. Older migrant elk rarely switched, whereas resident elk switched more frequently to migrate at older ages. Our results show migratory

  17. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Drønen, Nils; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented......A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...... the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a...

  18. Tax Compliance Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    ªtefura Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    To every state it is essential to ensure that the public budget copes with the public expenditure, in other words, to make sure that it collects sufficient revenues in order to have a stable economy. These revenues come especially from the collecting of taxes and fees. In order to have a functional fiscal system, it is important to understand both the fiscal component and the behaviour of its contributors. That is why the taxpayer behaviour has grown as a subject of research, in many fields b...

  19. Values and behaviour model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational injuries, accidents, trips of equipment, emergencies, and idle times represent a loss from each megawatt hour which we could have supplied to the network, or other costs related to settlement or compensation for damages. All of it can be caused by short lack of attention while doing a routine job, ignoring safety indicators, and rules. Such behaviour would not be a characteristic of a professional. People working at the nuclear power plants are the first ones to learn about the Values and Behaviour Model. (author)

  20. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  1. Perspectives in Physical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    In the first section of these lectures I outline the classical framework of the Hubble classification system. Because of space limitations I will focus on points of controversy concerning the physical interpretation of the Hubble sequence, showing how morphological ideas shape our understanding of galaxy evolution. I will then present an overview of the remarkable progress made in recent years in understanding how the local morphological composition has transformed into that seen the distant ...

  2. Extrinsic morphology of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Teng

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically-thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene-substrate interaction, thus is distinct from the random intri...

  3. Trends in popularity of some morphological traits of purebred dogs in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Kendy T.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L. M. L.; Navneet K Dhand

    2016-01-01

    Background The morphology of dogs can provide information about their predisposition to some disorders. For example, larger breeds are predisposed to hip dysplasia and many neoplastic diseases. Therefore, longitudinal trends in popularity of dog morphology can reveal potential disease pervasiveness in the future. There have been reports on the popularity of particular breeds and behavioural traits but trends in the morphological traits of preferred breeds have not been studied. Methods This s...

  4. Innovation networks in young branches of industry. Formation, morphology and implications for corporate strategy investigated for the example of the German photovoltaic industry.; Innovationsnetzwerke in jungen Branchen. Formation, Morphologie und unternehmensstrategische Implikationen am Beispiel der deutschen Photovoltaikbranche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, Mareike

    2012-07-01

    It is shown that innovation is regarded as a central success factor in tackling challenges of the future. Especially in high-wage regions such as Germany companies find themselves in a fierce innovation competition marked by growing challenges at the global level and the growing dynamism of innovation processes. Young industries are typically faced with much uncertainty in regard to strategy and technology, presenting their individual companies, most of them small and young themselves, with the challenge of having to rely on limited resources to develop innovative products, services and processes and launch them on the market. This provides the backdrop to the present dissertation, which inquires into the factors that determine the success of cooperative innovation projects in young branches of industry. Using the German photovoltaic industry as an example, the study empirically determines major determinants of success of joint innovation projects in young industries and derives recommendations for action for the management of companies and innovation networks.

  5. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  6. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  7. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Jong; D. den Hartog

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions: th

  8. Observing behaviour categorically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Cheng, Allan

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the relationships and differences between the extensive amount of research within the field of bisimulation equivalences, Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel recently proposed an abstract category-theoretic definition of bisimulation. They identify spans of morphisms satisfyin......, in fact, captures not only bisimulations but many other behavioural equivalences. We also briefly present presheaf models as an abstract model of computation....

  9. PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF SUICIDE BEHAVIOUR*

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.

  10. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  11. Managing Behaviour in Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹柯

    2008-01-01

    Managing the class is a fussy but indispensable job for the class teacher. The relationship between teachers and students is a subtle one, which is different with each group. So it is a duty to manage their behaviour, meanwhile the teachers'skills of management appears more important.

  12. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  13. ‘Nudging’ behaviours in healthcare: insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin G. Voyer

    2015-01-01

    Since the creation of the Behavioural Insight Team in 2010, the word ‘nudge’ has become a popular one in social and public policy. According to policymakers and managers, applications of behavioural economics to public sector management results in increased policy efficiency and savings. This article offers a critical perspective on the topic, and discusses how the application of behavioural economics can foster innovative healthcare management. It first reviews behavioural economics principl...

  14. A cognitive human behaviour model for pedestrian behaviour simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hollmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian behaviour simulation models are being developed with the intention to simulate human behaviour in various environments in both non-emergency and emergency situations. These models are applied with the objective to understand the underlying causes and dynamics of pedestrian behaviour and how the environment or the environment’s intrinsic procedures can be adjusted in order to provide an improvement of human comfort and safety. In order to realistically model pedestrian behaviour...

  15. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  16. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  17. Pressing behaviour of spray dried alumina-zirconia granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, spray drying of alumina-zirconia slurries on a pilot scale, and their pressing behaviour were investigated. Slurries were prepared at 50 wt-% solid loading. An acrylic polymer emulsion, polyethylene glycol, and stearic acid were used as a binder, plasticizer, and lubricant, respectively. Granules produced had a mean size of 85 μm with spherical morphology and smooth surfaces with considerably good flow behaviour. When polyethylene glycol was not used, granules were rather hard such that it was very difficult to break down the granule structure even at a pressure of 195 MPa. (orig.)

  18. Cognitive-behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older people: therapy development and randomised controlled trial - the Strategies for Increasing Independence, Confidence and Energy (STRIDE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Steve W; Bamford, Claire; Deary, Vincent; Finch, Tracy L; Gray, Jo; MacDonald, Claire; McMeekin, Peter; Sabin, Neil J; Steen, I Nick; Whitney, Sue L; McColl, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls cause fear, anxiety and loss of confidence, resulting in activity avoidance, social isolation and increasing frailty. The umbrella term for these problems is 'fear of falling', seen in up to 85% of older adults who fall. Evidence of effectiveness of physical and psychological interventions is limited, with no previous studies examining the role of an individually delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approach. OBJECTIVES Primary objective To develop and then determine the effectiveness of a new CBT intervention (CBTi) delivered by health-care assistants (HCAs) plus usual care compared with usual care alone in reducing fear of falling. Secondary objectives To measure the impact of the intervention on falls, injuries, functional abilities, anxiety/depression, quality of life, social participation and loneliness; investigate the acceptability of the intervention for patients, family members and professionals and factors that promote or inhibit its implementation; and measure the costs and benefits of the intervention. DESIGN Phase I CBTi development. Phase II Parallel-group patient randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the new CBTi plus usual care compared with usual care alone. SETTING Multidisciplinary falls services. PARTICIPANTS Consecutive community-dwelling older adults, both sexes, aged ≥ 60 years, with excessive or undue fear of falling per Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) score of > 23. INTERVENTIONS Phase I Development of the CBTi. The CBTi was developed following patient interviews and taught to HCAs to maximise the potential for uptake and generalisability to a UK NHS setting. Phase II RCT. The CBTi was delivered by HCAs weekly for 8 weeks, with a 6-month booster session plus usual care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES These were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. Primary outcome measure Fear of falling measured by change in FES-I scores at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures

  19. Factors Influencing Drivers' Speeding Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén Warner, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...

  20. Investors' behavioural biases and stop-loss strategy: Empirical study based on disposition effect and reference point%投资者的非理性行为偏差与止损策略——处置效应、参考价格角度的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池丽旭; 庄新田

    2011-01-01

    应用前景理论思想,以中国证券市场中存在的处置效应为切入点,系统分析了投资者的行为偏差和风险偏好特征,并且进一步确定了决策者投资过程中的参考价格水平.实证结果表明,1)宏观面因素直接影响投资者对风险的态度.股权分置改革前,投资者的非理性较强,表现出长期持有损失股票,而过早地卖出盈利股票的处置效应特征;股权分置改革后,投资者更愿意长期持有盈利的股票,对收益表现出一定的风险喜好.另外,投资者表现出的私房钱效应削弱了处置效应的强度.2)投资者除了将动态购买成本作为参考价格,其情绪还会受到股票历史最高价格的影响.3)最后,针对投资者的认知与行为偏差,验证了止损策略的收益优于买入后持有的策略.%This paper focuses on the investors' behavioural biases and their preference property in the Chinese stock market, and further confirms the reference price for investors. The results show that macroeconomic factors affect investors' preferences. Before the split-share structure reform, investors preferred to ride losers too long, and sell winners too early. However, after the reform, investors tend to hold the gains. On the other side, house money effect weakens the disposition effect. This study also finds that the investors consider both dynamic costs and highest stock price as their reference point. While considering individual' s behavioural biases, the stop-loss strategy, which helps the investors earn more money, is more predominant than the holding strategy.

  1. The evolution of behaviour therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, S

    2015-01-01

    The historical background of the development of behaviour therapy is described. It was based on the prevailing behaviourist psychology and constituted a fundamentally different approach to the causes and treatment of psychological disorders. It had a cold reception and the idea of treating the behaviour of neurotic and other patients was regarded as absurd. The opposition of the medical profession and psychoanalysts is explained. Parallel but different forms of behaviour therapy developed in the US and UK. The infusion of cognitive concepts and procedures generated a merger of behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The strengths and limitations of the early and current approaches are evaluated. PMID:25462876

  2. Redeeming behaviours: a push, not a shove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Joan Wharf; Cookson, Susanne; Hastings-James, Cynthia; Frazer, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    By now, it's no secret that Canadians are struggling to maintain a healthy body weight, eat right and get enough physical activity to promote their health and prevent the early onset of or to manage, chronic disease. Considered with our tendency to have poor adherence rates to prescribed medications and difficulties overcoming addictive substances, this struggle threatens to shorten our life spans and overburden our healthcare system. To turn the tide, layered and coordinated initiatives at the population level are needed that educate, motivate and support individuals to embrace healthy living. In this commentary, the authors respond to Oliver's recent paper on the utility of user financial incentives and architectural choice interventions as mechanisms for facilitating voluntary behaviour change. They concur with many of his ideas and argue that a more comprehensive approach, particularly adhering to the principles and strategies of social marketing, is needed to stimulate and sustain behaviour change. PMID:23713400

  3. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lithium battery anodes by nanocasting strategy from ordered 2D and 3D templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lupo, F. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Gerbaldi, C., E-mail: claudio.gerbaldi@polito.it [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Casino, S.; Francia, C.; Meligrana, G. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Tuel, A. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, IRC-CNRS (UPR 5401), 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Penazzi, N. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Nanosized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lithium battery conversion anodes with tunable morphology. • Nanocasting technique using MCM-41 and MCM-48 silica moulds is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} replica of MCM-41 exhibits stable capacity (∼300 mA h g{sup −1}) after 100 cycles. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} replica of MCM-41 shows promising prospects as high-capacity Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Nanocasting strategy is here proposed as effective approach to tune structure and size of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} active nanoparticles as a promising anode material for Li-ion cells. MCM-41 and MCM-48 silicas, presenting hexagonal 2D and cubic 3D symmetry, respectively, and regular pore diameter of about 4 nm are selected as moulds. The structural–morphological and electrochemical characteristics are assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} physisorption at 77 K, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge/charge cycling. It is here demonstrated that structural–morphological features change accordingly to the template used and careful control of the texture/particle characteristics is likely a fundamental variable noticeably affecting the cycling behaviour.

  4. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained...... systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...

  5. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, the industrialised countries have experienced a shift from the Keynesian state intervention paradigm towards a more market-regulated economy. Firms have found themselves in a new era, where they are expected to self-regulate their behaviour in terms of working conditions......, human rights and environmental protection. Without a common point of reference in national regulation, managers in multinational enterprises now have to develop their own codes of corporate social behaviour. This has created a growing market for private standards within the field of environmental...... management systems, social accountability, corporate citizenship, occupational health and safety and so forth. However, both the idea of government regulation and the literature acclaiming corporate self-regulation should be met with some scepticism. This paper offers a short assessment of the potentials and...

  6. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own......Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected to...

  7. Morphological Evolution of Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Premadi, P.; Matzner, R. [Center for Relativity, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Premadi, P.; Matzner, R. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    We simulate the growth of large-scale structure for three different cosmological models, an Einstein{endash}de Sitter model (density parameter {Omega}{sub 0} = 1), an open model ({Omega}{sub 0} = 0.2), and a flat model with nonzero cosmological constant ({Omega}{sub 0} = 0.2, cosmological constant {lambda}{sub 0} = 0.8), using a cosmological {ital N}-body code (particle-particle/particle-mesh) with 64{sup 3} dark matter particles in a comoving cubic volume of present comoving size 128 Mpc. The calculations start at {ital z} = 24 and end at {ital z} = 0. We use the results of these simulations to generate distributions of galaxies at the present ({ital z} = 0), as follows: Using a Monte Carlo method based on the present distribution of dark matter, we located {approximately}40,000 galaxies in the computational volume. We then ascribe to each galaxy a morphological type based on the local number density of galaxies in order to reproduce the observed morphology-density relation. The resulting galaxy distributions are similar to the observed ones, with most ellipticals concentrated in the densest regions, and most spirals concentrated in low-density regions. By {open_quotes}tying{close_quotes} each galaxy to its nearest dark matter particle, we can trace the trajectory of that galaxy back in time by simply looking at the location of that dark matter particle at earlier time slices provided by the {ital N}-body code. This enables us to reconstruct the distribution of galaxies at high redshift and the trajectory of each galaxy from its formation epoch to the present. We use these galaxy distributions to investigate the problem of morphological evolution. Our goal is to determine whether the morphological type of galaxies is determined primarily by the initial conditions in which these galaxies form or by evolutionary processes (such as mergers or tidal stripping) occurring after the galaxies have formed and eventually altering their morphology, or a combination of both

  8. EDF Experience about RCCA Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concerns which may affect the RCCA (rod control cluster assembly) component are known today. The cladding wear, due to hydraulic forces in the guide tube, remains the first RCCA life limiting factor on the 900 MWe and the 1300 MWe reactors. The clad swelling induced by the buckling of the SIC (Silver Indium Cadmium) absorber material is also a potential problem but, up to now, no jam occurring inside the core may be attributed to this factor. A lot of monitoring campaigns have been performed since 1988. The inspections have allowed to identify the wear amplitude and the swelling when sufficient to induce cracks. Three actions were initiated, mainly to deal with these problems: the first concerned the immediate requirements and consisted in defining a RCCA management strategy based on mechanical calculations; this strategy includes periodical controls, axial repositioning and specific rejection criteria; the criteria are based on safety considerations like the mechanical integrity of the RCCA, the integrity of the absorber itself and the primary coolant activity. The second is devoted to some design improvements of RCCA; regarding the wear problem, various hardening methods of the clad have been investigated (nitride, chrome carbide, chrome); for the swelling, geometrical modifications should delay the interaction between the absorber and the clad. The third action is a long term work with a more ambitious approach; it consist in a large R and D program concerning the study of the phenomena involved in the wear process. The aim is to build a full set of physical models and to introduce them in a computer code, in order to be able to predict RCCA wear. The present status of these actions is the following. The management strategy is now in current use on all the reactors and allows to operate them in safe conditions, even with standard RCCA. This strategy will require some adjustments when reactor operating conditions are modified. Out of pile tests have showed

  9. Essays on Economic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hudík, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The main thesis of these essays is that social phenomena are different from psychological phenomena and thus social sciences do not belong to behavioural sciences. Chapter 1 introduces the fundamental problem of the rational choice theory ("Macaulay's problem"): either the theory is empirical and false or it is without empirical content and true. Various suggested solutions to this problem are reviewed and criticized. It is argued that the problem is evaded once it is admitted that rational c...

  10. e-Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, C.; Merrilees, B; Jayawardhena, C; Wright, L T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The primary purpose of this article is to bring together apparently disparate and yet interconnected strands of research and present an integrated model of e-consumer behaviour. It has a secondary objective of stimulating more research in areas identified as still being underexplored. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is discursive, based on analysis and synthesis of econsumer literature. Findings – Despite a broad spectrum of disciplines that investigate e-cons...

  11. Modelling of soil behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feda, Jaroslav

    Lisse: Balkema, 2003 - (Natau, O.; Fecker, E.; Pimentel, E.), s. 457-460 ISBN 90-5809-603-3. [Geotechnical measurements and modelling. Karlsruhe (DE), 23.09.2003-25.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2111301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : standard and nonstandard behaviour * silica gel * lime and mixture Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  12. Suicidal ideation and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Korczak, Daphne J

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Canadian adolescents. The present practice point provides paediatricians and child health professionals with a framework for assessing the adolescent with suicidal thoughts and/or behaviours. The epidemiological context, general considerations and practical suggestions for how to approach the suicidal adolescent are reviewed. Paediatricians can and should screen youth for mental illness and significant psychosocial stressors. Early identification and ...

  13. Web seminar: Behaviour change

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, V

    2012-01-01

    The IDEAS project runs web seminars as part of its Technical Resource Centre. The IDEAS web seminar series aims to share learning, knowledge and experience in maternal and newborn health. Seminar description: On 7 November 2012, join the IDEAS team for a varied presentation and discussion on behaviour change.This web seminar is part of a series IDEAS is running to share learning, knowledge and experience in maternal and newborn health. There will be an opportunity for questions and comme...

  14. Internet user behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furt...

  15. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  16. Essays on Behavioural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Traditional economic theory assumes that individuals are self-interested. They only care about their own well-being and disregard the impact of their actions on the others. However, the assumption of selfish individuals is unable to explain a number of important phenomena and puzzles. Individuals frequently engage in actions that are costly to themselves with noapparent reward. Behavioural economics provides plausible explanations for these actions.Individuals can be “boundedly rational" (Sim...

  17. Adsorption behaviour of bulgur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaş, Mustafa; Aykın, Elif; Arslan, Sultan; Durak, Atike N

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the adsorption behaviour of bulgur. Three different particle sizes (2dry matter and 4.96-16.57, respectively. Constant k was between 0.85 and 0.93, and GAB equation was determined to fit very well for bulgur adsorption, because of %E values lower than 10%. Bulgur must be stored below 70% relative humidity and with less than 10 g water per 100 g of dry mater. PMID:26575716

  18. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  19. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced by...... rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  1. Vocabulary— Teaching Through Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A large vocabulary is crucial to learners of English, but how to teach vocabulary effectively is equally important to a teacher of English. This article tries to emphasize the importance of part of speech in vocabulary teaching by analyzing the characteristics of English words from the aspect of morphology.

  2. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, H.M.; Eerd, A.R.T. van; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few representat

  3. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  4. Morphology of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium metal is being used as nuclear fuel for Indian Research Reactors. During production of U metal various intermediate compounds of uranium are being processed. Physical, chemical properties of these compounds are important in overall processing rate and conversion determination. As no systematic data on morphology of these compounds were available, study was conducted to record the morphology of various U-compounds which are important in production of ceramic and metallic U-fuel for reactors. Most important intermediates were found to be ammonium diuranate (ADU) and uranium oxide (UO3/UO2). Morphology of these powders controls their flowability required for further material movement through different equipment, surface area required for chemical reactivity of powder, carryover losses occurred during gas solid counter current reaction and tap density required for effective capacity determination. ADU particle basically consists of primary platelets of 250-500 nm width and of 500-1000 nm length. These primary platelets form primary agglomerates. These agglomerates look like woollen balls or balls or cauliflower and primary agglomerates are also connected with each other to form secondary agglomerates. The basic morphology of ADU is maintained in UO3 even after calcination at high temperature. Pores are generated at the surface of platelet of UO3 due to release of gaseous reaction products during calcination. As temperature increases more pores are generated and sintering also starts. Specific surface area of UO3, produced by the calcination of ammonium di-urinate is generally a function of two competing processes: generation of surface area due to generation of pores because of the evolution of gaseous products (NH3, H2O vapour) and the loss of surfaces due to sintering. As a results surface area increases with calcination temperature due to generation of pores and then reduces. It has also been observed that morphology of the compounds are very much processing

  5. Identifying Key Factors of Consumer Behaviour in an Online Environment: a Study of Taiwan Online Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Consumer behaviour in an online environment has been drawn much attention in different perspectives and different countries. However, there is little research conducted culture differences, so it is doubtful that the uniform market strategy is applicable in Taiwan online market. This project considers the implication of variables in consumer behaviour and focuses on CDP model which can be used as a good start point to investigate consumer behaviour. Reports of key factors already carried out ...

  6. The theory of planned behaviour and discrete food choices: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Svenson, Alexander; Simnadis, Thomas; Beck, Eleanor J.; Coltman, Tim; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter; Sharma, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    The combination of economic and social costs associated with non-communicable diseases provide a compelling argument for developing strategies that can influence modifiable risk factors, such as discrete food choices. Models of behaviour, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provide conceptual order that allows program designers and policy makers to identify the substantive elements that drive behaviour and design effective interventions. The primary aim of the current review was to ...

  7. Dietary behaviours during pregnancy: findings from first-time mothers in southwest Sydney, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson Judy M; Flood Victoria M; Wen Li; Rissel Chris; Baur Louise A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Limited prevalence data are available for nutrition related health behaviours during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess dietary behaviours during pregnancy among first-time mothers, and to investigate the relationships between these behaviours and demographic characteristics, so that appropriate dietary intervention strategies for pregnant women can be developed. Method An analysis of cross-sectional survey was conducted using data from 409 first-time mothers at 26-36 w...

  8. A new approach for managing the Western Scheldt's morphology and ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Plancke, Y.M.G.; Peters, J.J.; Ides, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    An expert team appointed by the Port of Antwerp proposed the idea of morphological dredging, aiming at steering the estuarine morphology. The idea was based on positive experience with morphological dredging in the maritime reach of the Congo River in Africa. As a first step of morphological management of the estuary, the experts proposed for the Western Scheldt a new disposal strategy, using the sediment dredged in the fairway to modify the shape of the sandbars and channels system. As a pil...

  9. Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmid Nayeem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the differences between individualism-collectivism and consumer behaviour in relationto automobile purchases. In this study the author looked at several stages of the consumer decision-makingprocess and identified the possible differences between individualist and collectivist consumers and how itinfluences purchase decision. Based on a sample of 211 respondents from individualist (Australian-born andcollectivist (Asian-born backgrounds, an established scale (Cultural Values Scale: Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk,& Gelfand, 1995 was used to confirm the cultural values among the participants, if the respondents are alignedwith the particular group (i.e. Asian-born with collectivism and Australian-born with individualism.Hypotheses were tested using independent sample t-test. Results found that there were no differences inindividualism observed between Australian-born and Asian-born respondents; however, there were differencesin collectivism observed between these two groups, such that Asian-born participants scored higher oncollectivism. Results also found that Asian-born consumers are more brand conscious and involve a number offamily/friends in their decision making. In contrast Australian-born consumers do not believe in group decisionmaking and uses internet as the most important source of information. The findings will provide insight intohow automobile companies could position themselves with respect to their marketing strategies in differentcultural settings.

  10. Dynamics across the morphological transition in two-dimensional aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Mahesh; Das, Tamoghna

    2015-03-01

    Microscopic dynamics of two-dimensional aggregates have been studied by analysing simulated particle trajectories generated by molecular dynamics. Tuning the competition between the short-range attraction and long-range repulsion in a particulate system at fixed temperature and density results in a continuous non-compact to compact morphological transition. The finite-size aggregates, obtained by very slow cooling, show long-time sub-diffusive behaviour irrespective of their morphologies. By analysing the relative displacement fluctuations of particles with respect to their nearest neighbours, non-compact aggregates can be attributed to bonding between particles while caging is found to be responsible for compact clusters. These dynamical mechanisms are further illustrated by the self-displacement fluctuation of particles which show a continuous change from power-law to exponential behaviour across the non-compact to compact transition. This work was supported by the OIST Graduate University with subsidy funding from the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan.

  11. The influence of collective behaviour on pacing in endurance competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eRenfree

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of theoretical models have been proposed to explain pacing strategies in individual competitive endurance events. These have typically related to internal regulatory processes informing the making of decisions relating to muscular work rate. Despite a substantial body of research investigating the influence of collective group dynamics on individual behaviours in various animal species, this issue has not been comprehensively studied in individual athletic events. This is surprising given that athletes directly compete in close proximity to one another, and that collective behaviour has also been observed in other human environments. Whilst reasons for adopting collective behaviour are not fully understood, it is thought to result from individual agents following simple local rules resulting in seemingly complex large systems acting to confer some biological advantage to the collective as a whole. Although such collective behaviours may generally be beneficial, endurance events are complicated by the fact that increasing levels of physiological disruption as activity progresses may compromise the ability of individuals to continue to interact with other group members. This could result in early fatigue and relative underperformance due to suboptimal utilisation of physiological resources by some athletes. Alternatively, engagement with a collective behaviour may benefit all due to a reduction in the complexity of decisions to be made and a subsequent reduction in cognitive loading and mental fatigue. This paper seeks evidence for collective behaviour in previously published analyses of pacing behaviour and proposes mechanisms through which it could potentially be either beneficial, or detrimental to individual performance.

  12. Sedentary behaviour in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tanja; Beyer, Nina; Aadahl, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite increasing interest in investigating sedentary behaviour (SB) in the general population and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is little documentation of the subjective experiences of SB in patients with RA. This study aimed to examine how patients with RA...... modification of physical activity level causing increase in SB, especially during periods of disease flare. Prioritizing and planning of SB also functioned as part of self-management strategies. 3) It has nothing to do with my arthritis; for some patients, SB was not related to RA, but simply reflected a way...

  13. The Influence Personality and Leader Behaviours Have on Teacher Self-Leadership in Vocational Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Glenn; Kiffin-Petersen, Sandra; Soutar, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Teacher self-leadership includes a set of individual cognitive and behavioural strategies that, when practised together, can lead to improved performance. This study examines the influence personality and leader behaviours have on teacher self-leadership in a vocational education and training setting. Survey data from 418 teachers from an…

  14. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A School-Wide Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information, strategies, stories from schools and sample tools for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour. This integrated system of school-wide, classroom management, and individual…

  15. Relationships among Selected Practice Behaviours and Achievement in Jazz Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the practice strategies that collegiate music majors chose to employ in preparing for a jazz improvisation performance, and the relationships among selected practice behaviours and achievement in instrumental jazz improvisation. Participants for the study (N = 62) were enrolled as music majors…

  16. Interrelationships between organic food industry, innovation and consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gaviglio, Anna; Licitra Pedol, Martina; Pirani, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between organic foods firms and innovation with particularly attention to organic dairying productions and consumer’s behaviour. Using Porter’s competitive analysis and a special case history, the work wants to study which role innovation plays in a business strategy based on an upgraded concept of differentiation.

  17. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  18. Strategy and environmental analysis in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Adcroft, AP

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the nature of strategy and how this influences the direction and behaviour of sport organisations. The chapter begins with an explanation of what we mean when we talk about strategy and how this means different things to different people. The chapter also looks at the common elements of strategy across different theories, schools and concepts in order to understand what it means to be a strategist in a sport organisation. The chapter considers three issues crucial to t...

  19. Three dimensional structure and morphology of pelagic fish schools

    OpenAIRE

    Paramo, J.; Gerlotto, François; Oyarzun, C.

    2010-01-01

    In fish resource assessment, it is very important to know about the behaviour and form of fish schools. This paper describes the three-dimensional (3D) morphology and internal structure of pelagic schools observed using vertical-scanning multibeam sonar. The acoustic data were collected in waters off Venezuela, Senegal, and Mexico. The data were used to derive metrics of school location, density, shape and internal structure from a total of 668 schools: 257 from Mexico, 343 from Venezuela and...

  20. Modelling the long-term morphological evolution of a coupled open coast, inlet and estuary system to explore climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Barend; Walkden, Mike; Barnes, John; Nicholls, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Coastal and shoreline management increasingly needs to account for morphological change occurring at decadal to centennial timescales. Critical aspects of geomorphic behaviour at these temporal scales emerge at a system level, such that accounting for the feedbacks between different landform components is of key importance. In this study we develop new methods to simulate the large-scale evolution of a coupled open coast - inlet - estuary system, allowing us to explore the system's response to climate change impacts and management interventions. The system explored here encompasses the Deben estuary (eastern England) and its adjacent shorelines. The estuary itself mainly consists of finer sediments. Sediments throughout the inlet, on the other hand, including the ebb-tidal delta itself, comprise a mixture of gravel and sand. The ebb-tidal shoals and sediment bypassing show broadly cyclic behaviour on a 10 to 30 year timescale. Neighbouring beaches consist of mixed sediment and are partially backed up by sedimentary cliffs, the behaviour of which is potentially influenced by the sediment bypassing at the inlet. In addition, the open coast has undergone major transformations as a result of numerous sea defences which have altered sediment availability and supply. The interlinked behaviour of this system is approached by coupling a new inlet model (MESO_i) with an existing, and recently extended, model for the open coast (SCAPE+). MESOi simulates the evolution at the mouth of the Deben at an aggregated scale, conceptualizing the inlet by different geomorphic features that are characterized mainly by their volume. The behaviour of the inlet shoals is influenced by the estuarine tidal prism, linking estuarine processes with inlet dynamics. SCAPE+ computes the shaping of the shore profile and has proven capable of providing valuable information in terms of decadal evolution and related cliff recession rates. Simulations conducted with this composition of models highlight

  1. Fuel thermal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest in the thermal behaviour of the fuel mainly comes from the safety criterion which prohibit any fuel melting in the pins. Due to the gap lying between fuel and cladding, the highest temperatures are most probably occurring at Beginning Of Life (BOL) before completion of the central hole formation and before any substantial gap closure has taken place. However it cannot be ruled out that after some burn up the thermal transfer between fuel and cladding becomes worse than it was at BOL Then if the power does not decrease the maximum temperature might become higher than at (BOL). In order to get an overall experimental validation of our thermal calculations we need to cover the entire range of the pin life. Actually the method cannot be the same for BOL and end of life (EOL). For BOL it is possible to get a direct thermal measure through thermocouples, but this method is no longer practical after some days due to the failure of the thermocouples under neutrons flux at the temperatures of interest. This failure may happen before or after complete gap closure is reached and the rate of gap closure is especially meaningful for the BOL thermal behaviour. Another aspect of the thermal behaviour is the statistical one which may be obtained by the post-irradiation examination of the fuel microstructure, although it is not a proper way to get the absolute temperatures in the fuel, it is one of the most direct ones to have an insight in fuel thermal dispersion at BOL and over-heating at EOL

  2. The Effect of Brand Equity on Consumer Buying Behaviour In the Laptop Market of China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT As the laptop market is teemed with increasingly competition and more sophisticated customers, effective branding strategies are a key tool for firms to acquire and maintain customers. However, consumer buying behaviour is complicated concept. Therefore, precisely understanding the consumer buying behaviour and how the brand elements affect the consumer's buy decision can help firms to develop effective branding strategies. Based on the China's laptop market, the purpose of this...

  3. Morphological mutants of garlic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, A.D.; Dnyansagar, V.R. (Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order.

  4. Morphological mutants of garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order. (author)

  5. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  6. Predicting exercise behaviour : extending the theory of planned behaviour with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated exercise behaviour over a six-week period in a theory of planned behaviour context, extended with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour. Two waves of questionnaires were used to measure behavioural intention, perceived behavioural control, past behaviour, and three dispositional variables, that is optimism, self-efficacy and action-orientation, as well as actual performance of exercise behaviour. Implementation intentions were ma...

  7. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  8. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  9. Managing unwanted behaviour in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Theresa

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes a behaviour group, set up as a pilot project to empower parents and to promote their self-confidence in managing pre-school children's undesirable behaviour. Led by community nursery nurses (CNNs), the programme has already worked with six groups, each of six parents or carers and their children. Families are guided through coping strategies and learn management skills in changing undesirable behaviour problems in their pre-school children. Children between the ages of two to five years have been referred along with their parents to the group. Types of behaviours referred include: sleep problems, feeding/eating difficulties, sibling rivalry, temper tantrums, defiant anti-social behaviour and toilet/potty training. All these behaviours are prevalent among pre-school children, but are sometimes difficult for parents to manage. The evaluation of this pilot programme was based on pre-post-programme questionnaires and direct observation of parent-child interaction. Success of the behaviour group has indicated the need for such early preventative work to continue with parents and children. The children's services team, which includes health visitors and school health advisors, refers targeted families for immediate intervention, without families being on a long waiting list. Parents and carers who have difficulties coping with their child's undesirable behaviour can now access a service in their local clinic. Feedback from parents has been positive. Such a group is also beneficial in reducing the problem of less severe behavioural difficulties being referred to hard pressed and understaffed CAMHS teams. PMID:17455575

  10. The psychology of suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-06-01

    The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404

  11. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves. PMID:26154200

  12. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process. PMID:26427638

  13. Reproductive strategies in Mediterranean labrid fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Ylieff, Marc

    2000-01-01

    In contrast to tropical environments, Mediterranean fish assemblages have been exposed to greater seasonal fluctuations of climatic factors (water temperature, photoperiod), which have impacted more or less significantly on the biology of fish. The labrid fishes (wrasses) are good examples of how climatic changes influence behavioural strategies. The European wrasses differ mainly from the tropical ones by their particular reproductive behavioural patterns. In these wrasses, the variety of th...

  14. Morphology and function in the empirical analysis of reading adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpio, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of varying the criterion and the morphology of the percentage of correct response upon reading adjustment tasks. Participants were 20 voluntary students, distributed in four groups, which were differentiated by the certainty - variability of the criterion and the certainty - variability of the morphology of response to satisfy the criterion. All participants were exposed to a first evaluation, training and finally a second evaluation similar to the first one was applied. Results question the role of morphology as a comprehension strategy independent of a functional criterion, domain and of the text itself

  15. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  16. Nonverbal elements of leadership behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Schyns, Birgit; Mohr, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    In this theoretical paper, we investigate the importance of nonverbal behaviour in the context of leadership. Research on the decoding of social interactions has shown that the quality or type of relationship as well as relationally relevant emotional states are transmitted nonverbally. With this in mind, we review the existing literature on nonverbal leadership behaviour, such as research on Pygmalion leadership or political leadership. The nonverbal behaviours examined in these research are...

  17. Criminalising Anti-Social Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew CORNFORD

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the justifiability of criminalising anti-social behaviour through two-step prohibitions such as the Anti-Social Behaviour Order (ASBO). The UK government has recently proposed to abolish and replace the ASBO; however, the proposed new orders would retain many of its most controversial features. The paper begins by criticising the definition of anti-social behaviour employed in both the current legislation and the new proposals. This definition is objectionable because it ...

  18. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Träskman Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism...

  19. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotte...

  20. Behaviour Trees for Evolutionary Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper, Kirk Y. W.; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Coen C.; de Croon, Guido C. H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this paper we show the first application of the Behaviour Tree framework to a real robotic platform using the Evolutionary Robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behaviour as compared to the traditional Neural Network formulation. As a result, the behaviour is easier to comprehend and manually ad...

  1. Does trust influence consumer behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Dierks, Leef H.

    2007-01-01

    Against the background of diverse food scandals this article investigates the role of trust as a determinant of consumer behaviour in Germany. As empirical analyses indicate, the impact of trust on consumer behaviour in a quotidian and presumably safe setting is to be neglected. In the environment of a food scandal, however, trust proves to be a crucial element with regard to a more in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour under uncertainty. Moreover, it is analysed whether different valu...

  2. Parental effects and flight behaviour in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

    OpenAIRE

    Attisano, Alfredo; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a key role in determining the phenotype of their offspring. However, relatively few studies have investigated whether parents can change their offspring's behaviour in a sustained way that persists into adulthood. With experiments on the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, we investigated how the developmental environment created by parents affects their offspring's wing morphology in adulthood, and the correlated effects on adult flight behaviour. Burying beetles exhibit c...

  3. Effects of domestication related genes on behaviour, physiology and gene expression in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin

    2014-01-01

    Domestication, the process when animals adapt to captivity, tends to modify a whole array of traits towards what has been termed “the domesticated phenotype”, where the domesticated animal differs from its wild ancestor in morphology, physiology, development and behaviour. Physiological traits and behaviours are controlled by genes. One single gene can control several different traits (pleiotropy), be linked to a neighbouring gene on the chromosome, or interact with another gene that in turn ...

  4. Freezing-Thawing Characteristics of Botanical Tissues and Influence of Water Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-Ling; MA Yuan; PENG Xiao-Feng

    2004-01-01

    @@ A series of visualization experiments were conducted to investigate the transport phenomena and interface behaviour during the freezing-thawing process of typical botanical tissues. Attention was paid to the growth of ice crystals and the advance of the phase-change interface. A comparison was made to identify the freezing/thawing behaviour for different tissues under various freezing conditions. Based on the experimental observation, analyses were conducted to explore the influence of water morphology on the freezing/thawing characteristics.

  5. On the coevolution of social responsiveness and behavioural consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Max; Van Doorn, G Sander; Weissing, Franz J

    2011-02-01

    Recent research focuses on animal personalities, that is individual differences in behaviour that are consistent across contexts and over time. From an adaptive perspective, such limited behavioural plasticity is surprising, since a more flexible structure of behaviour should provide a selective advantage. Here, we argue that consistency can be advantageous because it makes individuals predictable. Predictability, however, can only be advantageous if at least some individuals in the population respond to individual differences. Consequently, the evolution of consistency and responsiveness are mutually dependent. We present a general analysis of this coevolutionary feedback for scenarios that can be represented as matrix games with two pure strategies (e.g. hawk-dove game, snowdrift game). We first show that responsive strategies are favoured whenever some individual differences are present in the population (e.g. due to mutation and drift). We then show that the presence of responsive individuals can trigger a coevolutionary process between responsiveness and consistency that gives rise to populations in which responsive individuals coexist with unresponsive individuals who show high levels of adaptive consistency in their behaviour. Next to providing an adaptive explanation for consistency, our results also link two key features associated with personalities, individual differences in responsiveness and behavioural consistency. PMID:20739321

  6. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  7. Acute behavioural dysfunctions following exposure to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiations (IR) has been reported to have many ill effects. These are manifested immediately after exposure and may persist or develop long after the incident. The severity and manifestation is dependent on the absorbed dose and type of the IR. These have been reported extensively in human subjects; especially among the victims of the accidental exposure and radiotherapy patients. Additionally, there have been a plethora of studies in animal models which support these findings, and are being used to test radio-mitigative or radio-protective strategies. The vulnerability of neuronal tissue to IR is well known, however the acute dose-dependent behavioural consequences have yet to be understood. Thus, our laboratory has been trying to decipher the dose-dependent behavioural dysfunctions which have occurred 24-72 hours post IR exposure and possible radio-protective strategies. We are utilizing mouse models of studying the behavioural processes, in a test battery conceptualized to study the affective and cognitive skills as well as motor skills of the animals. Additionally, we have observed cellular damage to different areas of the brain and subsequent correlations to behavioural dysfunctions. This has being carried out by using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The findings show that after exposure to sub-lethal γ-rays, there are significant changes that occur in all the behavioural parameters. The most sensitive area has been found to be the Hippocampus as visualized by DTI and the SCGE. Consequently, short term and long term memory functions have been shown to be disrupted within 24-72 hours of exposure. Acute dysfunctions of affective functions have also been demonstrated to materialise within 24 hours post exposure. Unexpectedly, the behavioural dysfunctions were seen to be dose independent. Thus, this study provides a foundation to help decipher the acute behavioural manifestations of IR exposure

  8. Physiology, phenology and behavioural strategies of forage fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Christina

    distribution limit with regard to temperature. Climate scenarios for the Baltic Sea predict a significant warming and the impact of predicted future climate changes and the prey phenology on growth, egg production and fitness was determined. We find the warmer future climate reduces egg production and fitness....... The model includes an additional structure pool; gonads, to which energy is transferred during the spawning season. During periods of poor feeding, energy to cover metabolic costs are firstly taken from the reserve pool and secondly, if the reserves are depleted, from the somatic tissue pool. The...

  9. Economizing behaviour during travel: strategies and information sources used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bronner; R. de Hoog

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the consumer was hit hard by the consequences of the global economic and financial crisis. The crisis affected consumer spending in general and tourism in particular. In 2009, data was collected in the Netherlands about how people economize during travel, which can help to find out what kin

  10. Tri-Space Framework for Understanding MNC Behaviour and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework called ‘Tri-Space’ that comprises three overlapping social spaces, indicating three different concepts: institution and business systems, civil society, and transnational communities. Tri-space framework broadens the horizon of understanding of how MNCs behave...

  11. Ultrastructural assessment of cellulite morphology: clues to a therapeutic strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Omi, Tokuya; Sato, Shigeru; Kawana, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Aims: Cellulite is a problematic condition affecting mostly women, characterized by a bumpy or nodular skin surface. Recent approaches with laser treatment have offered some promise. The present study sought to identify possible targets for laser treatment or light therapy through an ultrastructural investigation of the condition.

  12. Epigenetics, Behaviour, and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyf Moshe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of behaviour and environmental exposures, particularly during childhood, on health outcomes are well documented. Particularly thought provoking is the notion that exposures to different social environments have a long-lasting impact on human physical health. However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of the environment are still unclear. In the last decade, the main focus of attention was the genome, and interindividual genetic polymorphisms were sought after as the principal basis for susceptibility to disease. However, it is becoming clear that recent dramatic increases in the incidence of certain human pathologies, such as asthma and type 2 diabetes, cannot be explained just on the basis of a genetic drift. It is therefore extremely important to unravel the molecular links between the "environmental" exposure, which is believed to be behind this emerging incidence in certain human pathologies, and the disease's molecular mechanisms. Although it is clear that most human pathologies involve long-term changes in gene function, these might be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence. The genome is programmed by the epigenome, which is composed of chromatin and a covalent modification of DNA by methylation. It is postulated here that "epigenetic" mechanisms mediate the effects of behavioural and environmental exposures early in life, as well as lifelong environmental exposures and the susceptibility to disease later in life. In contrast to genetic sequence differences, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible, raising the hope for interventions that will be able to reverse deleterious epigenetic programming.

  13. Morphology dependent magnetic properties of α-Fe2O3 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well crystalline α-Fe2O3 nanomaterials with a wide range of morphology variation have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal route. The synthesized products have been characterized for structural and morphological details by employing x-ray diffraction patterns, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Various unique shapes of α-Fe2O3 nanocrystal have been modelled on the basis of their growth evolution. The effect of morphology of α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals on their magnetic behaviour has been studied by investigating temperature and field dependence of magnetization. The results are analyzed considering all the possible surface anisotropy and lattice strain evolved due to their surface structure. This comprehensive study of morphology dependent magnetic behaviour of α-Fe2O3 nanomaterials offers a better opportunity to tune the materials in the desired technological applications. (paper)

  14. Neuroimaging of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural bases of aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents. Most functional neuroimaging studies have persued the hypothesis that pathological aggression is a consequence of deficits in the neural circuits involved in emotion processing. There is converging evidence for deficient neural responses to emotional stimuli in youths with a propensity towards aggressive behaviour. In addition, recent neuroimaging work has suggested that aggressive behaviour is also associated with abnormalities in neural processes that subserve both the inhibitory control of behaviour and the flexible adaptation of behaviour in accord with reinforcement information. Structural neuroimaging studies in children and adolescents with conduct problems are still scarce, but point to deficits in brain structures in volved in the processing of social information and in the regulation of social and goal directed behaviour. The indisputable progress that this research field has made in recent years notwithstanding, the overall picture is still rather patchy and there are inconsistencies between studies that await clarification. Despite this, we attempt to provide an integrated view on the neural abnormalities that may contribute to various forms of juvenile aggression and violence, and discuss research strategies that may help to provide a more profound understanding of these important issues in the future.

  15. Individual differences in cocaine addiction: maladaptive behavioural traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R; Karel, Peter; Verheij, Michel M M

    2014-07-01

    Cocaine use leads to addiction in only a subset of individuals. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these individual differences in the transition from cocaine use to cocaine abuse is important to develop treatment strategies. There is agreement that specific behavioural traits increase the risk for addiction. As such, both high impulsivity and high anxiety have been reported to predict (compulsive) cocaine self-administration behaviour. Here, we set out a new view explaining how these two behavioural traits may affect addictive behaviour. According to psychological and psychiatric evolutionary views, organisms flourish well when they fit (match) their environment by trait and genotype. However, under non-fit conditions, the need to compensate the failure to deal with this environment increases, and, as a consequence, the functional use of rewarding drugs like cocaine may also increase. It suggests that neither impulsivity nor anxiety are bad per se, but that the increased risk to develop cocaine addiction is dependent on whether behavioural traits are adaptive or maladaptive in the environment to which the animals are exposed. This 'behavioural (mal)adaptation view' on individual differences in vulnerability to cocaine addiction may help to improve therapies for addiction. PMID:24835358

  16. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  17. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Skoumalova, H

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Thu Oct 7 08:24 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (dxmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.76]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id IAA19870 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from yyy.lanl.gov (yyy.lanl.gov [204.121.6.60]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id IAA28502 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from xxx.lanl.gov (xxx.lanl.gov [204.121.6.57]) by yyy.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) with ESMTP id AAA17918; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:01 -0600 (MDT) Received: (from e-prints@localhost) by xxx.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) id AAA25245; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:08 -0600

  18. Long-period creep behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to dimensioning and reliable determination of the service life of high-temperature components the following subjects are discussed: Creep data as criteria for materials selection; weld behaviour under creep stress; influence of the test atmosphere; influence of production process and initial structure; studies on creep behaviour extrapolation procedure; estimation of permissible operating periods. (orig./IHOE)

  19. Candidate genes for behavioural ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ben-Sahar, Y.; Smid, H.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Sokolowski, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of millions of years of evolutionary divergence, the conservation of gene function is common across distant lineages. As such, genes that are known to influence behaviour in one organism are likely to influence similar behaviours in other organisms. Recent studies of the evolution of behavi

  20. Reconsidering the sedentary behaviour paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Maher

    Full Text Available AIMS: Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. RESULTS: Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = -0.06 and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04. Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08-0.30 while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12. CONCLUSION: There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity.

  1. Financial Literacy and Financial Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the ne

  2. Plasticity in behavioural responses and resistance to temperature stress in Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino;

    2015-01-01

    Organisms can respond to and cope with stressful environments in a number of ways including behavioural, morphological and physiological adjustments. To understand the role of behavioural traits in thermal adaptations we compared heat resistance, locomotor (walking and flying) activity, flight...... benign temperature, whereas the Spanish flies were able to stay active for longer at the stressful temperature. Population differences in behavioural traits and heat resistance were obtained using flies held for several generations in a laboratory common garden setting; therefore we suggest that exposure...

  3. Computer Solution to the Game of Pure Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bartholdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We numerically solve the classical "Game of Pure Strategy" using linear programming. We notice an intricate even-odd behaviour in the results of our computations that seems to encourage odd or maximal bids.

  4. Morphological and genetic structuring in the Utah Lake sucker complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, D D; Mock, K E; Cardall, B L; Crowl, T A

    2008-12-01

    Population decline in the federally endangered June sucker (Chasmistes liorus), a lakesucker unique to Utah Lake, Utah, has been attributed in part to hybridization with the more widespread Utah sucker (Catostomus ardens). As a group, suckers in Utah Lake exhibit considerable external morphological variation. Meristic and morphological ambiguities, presumably the result of hybridization, create a continuum of intermediate forms between Chasmistes and Catostomus extremes and prevent definitive identification to species. Here we describe and evaluate the morphological and genetic variation in suckers in Utah Lake by comparing a morphological analysis with amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite analyses. Suckers were morphologically differentiated using mouth characters associated with different feeding strategies: planktivory (June sucker) and benthivory (Utah sucker). Although we found no genetic evidence for a deep divergence between June and Utah morphs, significant, but slight population structuring accompanied the substantial morphological variation. Bayesian model-based genetic clustering analyses detected two sucker populations in Utah Lake; however, these clusters were not strongly concordant with morphological groupings or between marker systems. The suckers in Utah Lake present an interesting dilemma regarding conservation: should one conserve (breed and stock) a subset of the morphotypic variation in the Utah Lake sucker complex, focusing on the endangered June sucker morphotype, or should one conserve both June sucker and Utah sucker morphotypes in this complex, possibly maximizing evolutionary potential? We explore this question in the context of current genetic and morphological variation in the Utah Lake sucker complex as well as historical information on this complex and other lakesuckers. PMID:19067800

  5. Strategies and instruments for organising CSR by small and large businesses in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Graafland, J.J.; Ven van de, B.; Stoffele, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the use of strategies and instruments for organising ethics by small and large business in the Netherlands. We find that large firms mostly prefer an integrity strategy to foster ethical behaviour in the organisation, whereas small enterprises prefer a dialogue strategy. Both large and small firms make least use of a compliance strategy that focuses on controlling and sanctioning the ethical behaviour of workers. The size of the business is found to have a p...

  6. Ethnic differences in skin physiology, hair follicle morphology and follicular penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Luther, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that different ethnic groups exhibit varieties in skin physiological parameters and penetration behaviour, although data available are inconsistent. Likewise variations in hair follicle morphology have been described although its influence on the follicular penetration process has not been investigated until now. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate skin physiological parameters, the hair follicle morphology and the follicular and interce...

  7. Locomotor activity influences muscle architecture and bone growth but not muscle attachment site morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Rabey, Karyne N.; Green, David J; Taylor, Andrea B.; Begun, David R.; Richmond, Brian G.; McFarlin, Shannon C.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make behavioural inferences from skeletal remains is critical to understanding the lifestyles and activities of past human populations and extinct animals. Muscle attachment site (enthesis) morphology has long been assumed to reflect muscle strength and activity during life, but little experimental evidence exists to directly link activity patterns with muscle development and the morphology of their attachments to the skeleton. We used a mouse model to experimentally test how t...

  8. Evaluation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coto Chotto, Mayela; Wentzer, Helle; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation strategy based on deliberate ideals and principles of dialogue design. The evaluation strategy is based on experiential phenomenology taking the point of departure for design and evaluation processes in the experienced practitioners themselves. The article presents...... the evaluation strategy and methodology of a research project Making Online Path to Enter new Markets, MOPEM. It is an EU-research project with partners from different Educational Institutions of Technology and Business in five European Countries....

  9. Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorná, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with issues of marketing strategy of a company in chosen retail business. Its main aim is to suggest new advertising strategy of a company for the purpose of increasing awareness customers and marketability of products. On the grounds of consultations with the management of the company, analysis of current marketing strategy and results of market research I have fulfiled this task. In the theoretical part of this diploma thesis I deal with introduction to strat...

  10. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris; Respostas fisiologicas, morfologicas e comportamentais de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) associadas ao consumo de diferentes variedades de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteleto, Patricia B. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Genetica e Bioquimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao], e-mail: patriciamarteleto@gmail.com; Lomonaco, Cecilia [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia], e-mail: lomonaco@ufu.br; Kerr, Warwick E. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: kerr@ufu.br

    2009-03-15

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  11. Morphological disintegration as a mode of morphological evolution of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya P. Savinykh

    2014-01-01

    Morphological disintegration evaluated as a mode of morphological evolution, condition and adaptation of plants to biotopes the conditions of with high humidity. The value of morphological disintegration and autonomization of the parts of organism in these conditions was shown. The life forms of oligoennial plants, as well as of annual aquatic and coastal-aquatic plants were clarified. The spectrum of biomorphes of oligoennial and annual plants of vegetative origin was represented.

  12. Behavioural management of migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to recognise that migraine is a ′biological′ and not a ′psychological′ entity. However, psychological factors can be involved in migraine in 4 different ways:- 1 Migraines can be triggered by psychological stressors; 2 Severe migraine can itself be a cause of significant psychological stress which can, in turn, exacerbate the problem; 3 Even if psychological stress is not significantly involved in the genesis of the headache, pain management techniques can help people cope with their pain more effectively; 4 Longitudinal data demonstrate a complex bidirectional association between mood disorders and migraine. Treatment of a co-existing mood disorder, for example with cognitive behavioural techniques, may therefore reduce the impact of migraine. It would thus appear logical to view medical and psychological approaches as potentially synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Functional imaging indicates that cognition, emotions, and pain experiences change the way the brain processes pain inputs. This may provide a physiological rationale for psychological interventions in pain management. As most studies of psychological management of migraine have been relatively small and the approach often varies between clinicians, the magnitude of benefit, optimum method of delivery, and the length of intervention are uncertain.

  13. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB)

  14. Resisting confined identities: Women’s strategies of coping in prison

    OpenAIRE

    Kilty, Jennifer Maureen

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the self-injurious behaviours that women in prison adopt as coping strategies, the ‘psy’/medical practices and policies that govern such behaviours, and constructions of prisoner identity. Correctional officials and feminists have been aware of self-injurious behaviour among women prisoners since the 1970s, but little Canadian research on the topic has been conducted to date. By centring self-harming behaviours a nd examining the experiences of both federally and provincia...

  15. Dynamic behaviour of a rolling tyre: Experimental and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Diaz, Cristobal; Kindt, Peter; Middelberg, Jason; Vercammen, Stijn; Thiry, Christophe; Close, Roland; Leyssens, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Based on the results of experimental and numerical analyses, the effect of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour is investigated. Better understanding of these effects will further improve the ability to control and optimize the noise and vibrations that result from the interaction between the road surface and the rolling tyre. Therefore, more understanding in the complex tyre dynamic properties will contribute to develop tyre design strategies to lower the tyre/road noise while less affecting other tyre performances. The presented work is performed in the framework of the European industry-academia project TIRE-DYN, with partners Goodyear, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and LMS International. The effect of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour is quantified for different operating conditions of the tyre, such as load, air pressure and rotation speed. By means of experimental and numerical analyses, the effects of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour are studied.

  16. INERTIAL BEHAVIOUR AND THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD Mihail DIMITRIU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As increasingly obvious signs tell us that the natural environment is changing abruptly and, unfortunately, noticeably, the natural resources, while being increasingly depleted, have to support a growing population. In this context, strategies for the sustainable development of the society have to be implemented. This situation will entail a rethinking of the place and role of the firm within the society. During the transition towards another type of human society, the problem of behaviour, including the behaviour of the economic agent, will appear more and more frequently and in terms that we can not even imagine now. Within this context, the paper attempts to capture several aspects concerning the inertial behaviour of the firms in the financial domain.

  17. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast–slow behavioural types (BTs; e....

  18. Local Minority Game with Evolutionary Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei-Song; LI Ping; ZOU Shan-Shan; WANG Bing-Hong

    2006-01-01

    @@ We study a model of local minority game in the random Kauffman network with evolutionary strategies and propose three methods to update the strategy of poor agents, with lower points in a given generation: namely to update either the Boolean function of their strategies randomly, or their local information of randomly adjacent m agents, or the number m of randomly chosen adjacent agents. The results of extended numerical simulations show that the behaviour of strategies in the three methods may enhance significantly the entire coordination of agents in the system. It is also found that a poor agent tends to use both small m strategies and correlated strategies, and the strategies of agents will finally self-organize into a steady-state distribution for a long time playing of the game.

  19. Rotation-invariant convolutional neural networks for galaxy morphology prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Dieleman, Sander; Dambre, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the morphological parameters of galaxies is a key requirement for studying their formation and evolution. Surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) have resulted in the availability of very large collections of images, which have permitted population-wide analyses of galaxy morphology. Morphological analysis has traditionally been carried out mostly via visual inspection by trained experts, which is time-consuming and does not scale to large ($\\gtrsim10^4$) numbers of images. Although attempts have been made to build automated classification systems, these have not been able to achieve the desired level of accuracy. The Galaxy Zoo project successfully applied a crowdsourcing strategy, inviting online users to classify images by answering a series of questions. Unfortunately, even this approach does not scale well enough to keep up with the increasing availability of galaxy images. We present a deep neural network model for galaxy morphology classification which exploits translational and r...

  20. Multi-scale approach of the mechanical behaviour of reinforced concrete structures - Application to nuclear plant containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis develops a multi-scale strategy to describe the mechanical behaviour of steel reinforcements and prestressing tendons in a reinforced concrete structure. This strategy is declined in several steps, which allow gradual integration of new physical phenomena. The first asymptotic model represents the effective elastic behaviour of heterogeneities periodically distributed on a surface. It combines an elastic interface behaviour and a membrane behaviour. A second asymptotic model then focuses on the behaviour of rigid fibers distributed on a surface, which may slide with respect to the surrounding volume. These models induce less stress concentrations than the usual truss models. They are implemented in the finite element code Code-Aster, and validated with respect to reference three-dimensional simulations. Their interaction with a macroscopic crack is studied. Finally, this strategy allows the modeling of experimental tests carried out on a portion of a containment building in real scale. (author)

  1. Behavioural Change, Indoor Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health in Developing Countries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon R. Barnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983–2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%–98% in laboratory settings and 31%–94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1 based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2 have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.

  2. Effect of microstructure on the mechanical and damping behaviour of dragonfly wing veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Shafiei, A; Darvizeh, A; Dirks, J-H; Appel, E; Gorb, S N

    2016-02-01

    Insect wing veins are biological composites of chitin and protein arranged in a complex lamellar configuration. Although these hierarchical structures are found in many 'venous wings' of insects, very little is known about their physical and mechanical characteristics. For the first time, we carried out a systematic comparative study to gain a better understanding of the influence of microstructure on the mechanical characteristics and damping behaviour of the veins. Morphological data have been used to develop a series of three-dimensional numerical models with different material properties and geometries. Finite-element analysis has been employed to simulate the mechanical response of the models under different loading conditions. The modelling strategy used in this study enabled us to determine the effects selectively induced by resilin, friction between layers, shape of the cross section, material composition and layered structure on the stiffness and damping characteristics of wing veins. Numerical simulations suggest that although the presence of the resilin-dominated endocuticle layer results in a much higher flexibility of wing veins, the dumbbell-shaped cross section increases their bending rigidity. Our study further shows that the rubber-like cuticle, friction between layers and material gradient-based design contribute to the higher damping capacity of veins. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the design of novel bioinspired composite structures. PMID:26998340

  3. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  4. Teaching staff knowledge, attributions and confidence in relation to working with children with an intellectual disability and challenging behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, Helen; Murray, George; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined Scottish teaching staff knowledge about the definition and management of challenging behaviour displayed by children with an intellectual disability. Knowledge levels were relatively low, and participants were most likely to define challenging behaviour by function or topography. Teaching staff were largely unaware of positive programming strategies, suggesting that they may not be properly equipped to manage challenging behaviour effectively in the longer term. The...

  5. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A......Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs...

  6. Changing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in people with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheri, Vinicius; Straker, Leon; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Gardiner, Paul A; Hill, Kylie

    2016-04-01

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) engage in low levels of physical activity (PA). Given the evidence for the health benefits associated with participating in 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA each week, there is considerable interest in methods to increase PA in people with COPD. Studies to date have focused largely on exercise training and behavioural approaches, and many have demonstrated minimal, if any effect. An intermediate goal that focuses on reducing time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) and increasing participation in light intensity PA is a more realistic goal in this population and offers a gateway to higher intensity PA. Although strategies that are capable of reducing time spent in SB in COPD are unknown, studies that have shown some increase in PA in this population often provide individualized goal setting, motivational interviewing and frequent contact with health-care professionals to provide advice regarding strategies to overcome barriers. Therefore, these approaches should be considered in interventions to reduce time in SB. There are a range of devices available to monitor time in SB for use in both clinical and research settings. To move this area forward, a theoretically informed and systematic approach to behaviour change is needed. The theoretical model, the 'behaviour change wheel', is described and an example is provided of how it can be applied to a person with COPD. PMID:26560834

  7. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  8. Morphology of Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovcinnikov, N M; Delektorskij, V V

    1966-01-01

    In recent years many investigations have been carried out on the morphology of Treponema pallidum by means of the electron microscope, and the use of ultra-thin sections has shown up a number of structural details. However, there is still need for much more evidence before the internal structure of treponemes can be elucidated fully and the functions of the structures interpreted. To provide such evidence, the authors have examined under the electron microscope negative-stained treponemes and ultra-thin sections, using both cultivated strains and treponemes obtained direct from syphilids in people suffering from fresh secondary syphilis. It has been shown that treponemes have a complex structure. T. pallidum has a two-layered outer wall, a cytoplasmic membrane proper, cytoplasm and a bunch of fibrils following a different path in different places on the treponeme. The sites of insertion of the fibrils (the basal granules) were investigated; structures similar to mesosomes and nucleoids were found. Cysts and granular forms are described. PMID:5332527

  9. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  10. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater......It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  11. Safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  12. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the presen

  13. Electroconvulsive stimulations normalizes stress-induced changes in the glucocorticoid receptor and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hageman, Ida; Nielsen, Marianne; Wörtwein, Gitta;

    2009-01-01

    Animal models of chronic stress, such as 21 days of 6h/daily restraint stress cause changes in neuronal morphology in the hippocampus and alter behaviour. These changes are partly mediated by the glucocorticoids. The objective of this study was threefold: (1) to study how this particular chronic ...

  14. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition-The roles of cell morphology, labile adhesion and junctional coupling.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla, Tariq; Schleich, Jean-Marc; Summers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    International audience Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process during development and disease, including development of the heart valves and tumour metastases. An extended cellular Potts model was implemented to represent the behaviour emerging from autonomous cell morphology, labile adhesion, junctional coupling and cell motility. Computer simulations normally focus on these functional changes independently whereas this model facilitates exploration of the inte...

  15. Cavitation damages morphology of high-strength low-alloy steel

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić, V.; M. Dojčinović; Lj. Milović; Samardžić, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the research into behaviour of HSLA steel affected by cavitation. The parent material (PM) and simulated heat-affected zone (SHAZ) were studied. Ultrasonic vibratory cavitation test was performed in laboratory conditions (by stationary specimen method). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the variations in the surface morphology that occurred within different time intervals.

  16. Cavitation damages morphology of high-strength low-alloy steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Aleksić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research into behaviour of HSLA steel affected by cavitation. The parent material (PM and simulated heat-affected zone (SHAZ were studied. Ultrasonic vibratory cavitation test was performed in laboratory conditions (by stationary specimen method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe the variations in the surface morphology that occurred within different time intervals.

  17. To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate: Why Behavioural Mechanisms Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Arthur; André, Jean-Baptiste; Bredeche, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Mutualistic cooperation often requires multiple individuals to behave in a coordinated fashion. Hence, while the evolutionary stability of mutualistic cooperation poses no particular theoretical difficulty, its evolutionary emergence faces a chicken and egg problem: an individual cannot benefit from cooperating unless other individuals already do so. Here, we use evolutionary robotic simulations to study the consequences of this problem for the evolution of cooperation. In contrast with standard game-theoretic results, we find that the transition from solitary to cooperative strategies is very unlikely, whether interacting individuals are genetically related (cooperation evolves in 20% of all simulations) or unrelated (only 3% of all simulations). We also observe that successful cooperation between individuals requires the evolution of a specific and rather complex behaviour. This behavioural complexity creates a large fitness valley between solitary and cooperative strategies, making the evolutionary transition difficult. These results reveal the need for research on biological mechanisms which may facilitate this transition. PMID:27148874

  18. Trends in information behaviour research

    OpenAIRE

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008).Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014.Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed.Results. Qualit...

  19. Management Behaviour and Market Response

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Schuster; Jinhui Luo

    2003-01-01

    We study the relationship between management behaviour and the subsequent market response in the German IPO market. When applying two forms for earnings management, issuers that overperform in the long run manage earnings less aggressively. Over shorter measurement horizons, however, the performance is sensitive to the starting date of the measurement period. The market takes a considerable time to respond to the fundamental message conveyed by management behaviour towards earnings management...

  20. Seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures

    OpenAIRE

    F. Vinale; F. Santucci de Magistratis; Sica, S

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with some fundamental considerations regarding the behaviour of geotechnical structures under seismic loading. First a complete definition of the earthquake disaster risk is provided, followed by the importance of performing site-specific hazard analysis. Then some suggestions are provided in regard to adequate assessment of soil parameters, a crucial point to properly analyze the seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures. The core of the paper is centered on a critical re...

  1. Social Phobias: Behavioural and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesal, Robin T.; Bajramovic, Hifzija

    1989-01-01

    Five to 10% of the general population suffers from symptoms of an anxiety disorder. Social phobias, while less common than panic disorder, agoraphobia or simple phobias, are just as debilitating. Patients present with somatic, behavioural, mood and cognitive disturbances, of which unrecognized social isolation, depression, loss of employment, and drug and alcohol abuse can be the result. A symptomatic approach can be implemented through the use of education, insight, support, behaviour therapy, cognitive therapy, and pharmacological intervention. PMID:21248950

  2. Collective behaviour across animal species

    OpenAIRE

    DeLellis, P.; G. Polverino; Ustuner, G.; Abaid, N.; Macri, S.; Bollt, E. M.; M. Porfiri

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, whe...

  3. Social Behaviour in Public Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Nicole Alicia-Marie; Munch, Kathrine; Johansen, Gitte Højgaard; Duvarci, Medine

    2011-01-01

    Social behaviour in public transportation is a project that focuses on how passengers within the public transportation system behave, in terms of social psychology and psychological anthropology. Through the use of theoretical approaches, that being social psychology and psychological anthropology, we aimed to find patterns of social and anti-social behaviour. In order to gather valid research data, we conducted various observations in trains and busses in both London and Copenhagen. Through...

  4. Collective behaviour across animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  5. Social Phobias: Behavioural and Pharmacotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Reesal, Robin T.; Bajramovic, Hifzija

    1989-01-01

    Five to 10% of the general population suffers from symptoms of an anxiety disorder. Social phobias, while less common than panic disorder, agoraphobia or simple phobias, are just as debilitating. Patients present with somatic, behavioural, mood and cognitive disturbances, of which unrecognized social isolation, depression, loss of employment, and drug and alcohol abuse can be the result. A symptomatic approach can be implemented through the use of education, insight, support, behaviour therap...

  6. Scitovsky, behavioural economics, and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Pugno, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    By revisiting Scitovsky's work on well-being, which introduces 'novelty' into the consumer's option set as a peculiar source of satisfaction, this paper finds a number of connections with the recent behavioural economics so as to open new lines on inquiry. First, similarly to behavioural economics, Scitovsky used psychology to interpret sub-optimal choices. However, his welfare benchmark is different from rational choice, as understood by the economists, because 'novelty' implies a very stron...

  7. Group Norms and Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Rajasekharan; Rajan, Jainey S.; Variyamveettil, Sunitha; Mathew, Dhanu E.; Nath, Subodh S.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of group norms on forming consumer behaviour is an important attribute of man’s social life. The market segmentation principles acknowledge the presence of this phenomenon. People belong to different age group, professional status, income levels, educational status etc. are seemed to display some specific consumer behaviour that can be attributed to a particular group. The present study attempts to find the influence of certain selected group norms on consumption pattern.

  8. Aggregation of Composite Solutions: strategies, models, examples

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses aggregation issues for composite (modular) solutions. A systemic view point is suggested for various aggregation problems. Several solution structures are considered: sets, set morphologies, trees, etc. Mainly, the aggregation approach is targeted to set morphologies. The aggregation problems are based on basic structures as substructure, superstructure, median/consensus, and extended median/consensus. In the last case, preliminary structure is built (e.g., substructure, median/consensus) and addition of solution elements is considered while taking into account profit of the additional elements and total resource constraint. Four aggregation strategies are examined: (i) extension strategy (designing a substructure of initial solutions as "system kernel" and extension of the substructure by additional elements); (ii) compression strategy (designing a superstructure of initial solutions and deletion of some its elements); (iii) combined strategy; and (iv) new design strategy to build a new s...

  9. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina;

    by different stakeholders tackling separate key aspects hinders strategic energy efficiency planning. For this reason, the PLEEC project – “Planning for Energy Efficient Cities” – funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme uses an integrative approach to achieve the sus‐ tainable, energy– efficient......, smart city. By coordinating strategies and combining best practices,PLEEC will develop a general model for energy efficiency and sustainable city planning. By connecting scientific excellence and innovative enterprises in the energy sector with ambitious and well‐organized cities, the project aims to...... reduce energy use in Europe in the near future and will therefore be an important tool contributing to the EU’s 20‐20‐20 targets....

  10. The management of schizophrenia: cognitive behavioural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, R; Kingdon, D

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade advances in the management of schizophrenia in the community have involved increasing emphasis on the psychosocial dynamics of care, coordinated through a care programme approach, and the introduction of new medication. In particular, the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective means of tackling symptoms associated with schizophrenia (Jones et al, 1998). While some of the techniques used in CBT may be too advanced for untrained therapists to use, the approach described in this article may be used by registered mental health nurses and community professionals. This approach includes medication adherence, coping strategies, questioning style, the prevention of patient relapse and dealing with relatives. PMID:12784789

  11. Boundary element method for modelling creep behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two dimensional initial strain direct boundary element method is proposed to numerically model the creep behaviour. The boundary of the body is discretized into quadratic element and the domain into quadratic quadrilaterals. The variables are also assumed to have a quadratic variation over the elements. The boundary integral equation is solved for each boundary node and assembled into a matrix. This matrix is solved by Gauss elimination with partial pivoting to obtain the variables on the boundary and in the interior. Due to the time-dependent nature of creep, the solution has to be derived over increments of time. Automatic time incrementation technique and backward Euler method for updating the variables are implemented to assure stability and accuracy of results. A flowchart of the solution strategy is also presented. (Author)

  12. Effective Transformational Leadership Behaviours For Managing Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gift Vinger

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African higher education (HE sector has been criticised for an apparent lack of leadership, calling into question the leaders’ ability to manage change as a result of the recent mergers of HE institutions. The aim of this present research was to establish the frequency of exhibition of transformational leadership and its behaviours and its level in this sector, including the commonly manifesting themes and strategies that transformational leaders, as change agents, utilise to effect change in their organisations. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was administered to 190 HE leaders, followed by individual interviews. It was found that these leaders exhibit transformational leadership fairly often and that, contrary to criticism, they manage change fairly successfully.

  13. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen;

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial ...

  14. Spatial behaviour of little owls (Athene noctua) in a declining low-density population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Thorup, Kasper; Jacobsen, Lars Bo;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of a species' spatial behaviour is essential for understanding its behavioural ecology and a prerequisite to planning of conservation strategies. The little owl has shown a substantial decline in North-western Europe and is on the road of extinction in Denmark. To quantify relevant aspe...

  15. Factors influencing Consumer Behaviour on the Czech Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Maher Mohamad

    2009-01-01

    The important problems for marketing companies in the Czech Republic are how to exposure determinants that lead consumer to decision of buying certain products and which factors influence the consumer purchasing, Through this, Czech marketing companies can understand deeply their consumer behaviour and issue suitable strategies so they can develop their companies and whole industry more. The objective of the study is: To exploit the factors that influence buying decision when buying certain p...

  16. Green Marketing: An Attitudinal and Behavioural Analysis of Indian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sanjay K.; Gurmeet Kaur

    2004-01-01

    Environmentalism has fast emerged as a worldwide phenomenon. Business firms too have risen to the occasion and have started responding to environmental challenges by practising green marketing strategies. Green consumerism has played a catalystic role in ushering corporate environmentalism and making business firms green marketing oriented. Based on the data collected through a field survey, the paper makes an assessment of the extent of environmental awareness, attitudes and behaviour preval...

  17. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS UPON ROMANIAN CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Toma; Paul Marinesc; Niculae Sabin Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Article examines changes in consumer behaviour occurred due to economic crisis. The article explores the changes that have occurred between late 2008 and early 2010 compared with the period from 2003 to 2008 and try to show new patterns developed by consumers arising from the crisis and developing in this context of ways of adapting for the Romanian retailers. The article also brings into attention strategies developed by shoppers for adapting to the crisis and opportunities for growing withi...

  18. RURAL BUYER BEHAVIOUR: A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO SOFT DRINKS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K.SINGARAVELU; K.R. Kavitha

    2012-01-01

    The rural market in India is not a separate entity in itself and it is highly influenced by the sociological and behavioural factors operating in the country. The rural population in India accounts for around 627 million, which is exactly 74.3 percent of the total population. On account of green revolution, the rural areas are consuming a large quantity of industrial and urban manufactured products. In this context, a special marketing strategy, namely, rural marketing has emerged. But often,...

  19. Behavioural responses of caddisfly larvae (Hydropsyche angustipennis) to hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Geest, van der, S.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of aquatic oxygen can limit habitat suitability for benthic insects, and differences in hypoxia tolerance can therefore play a role in explaining distributions in the field. This study describes a behavioural test in which the trade off between different survival strategies after exposure to different oxygen concentrations is analyzed, using the caddisfly Hydropsyche angustipennis as a model organism. The impedance conversion technique was used to quantify patterns of behavio...

  20. Export Behaviour Modeling Using EvoNF Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Ron; Abraham, Ajith; Petrovic-Lazarevic, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    The academic literature suggests that the extent of exporting by multinational corporation subsidiaries (MCS) depends on their product manufactured, resources, tax protection, customers and markets, involvement strategy, financial independence and suppliers' relationship with a multinational corporation (MNC). The aim of this paper is to model the complex export pattern behaviour using a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system in order to determine the actual volume of MCS export output (sales e...

  1. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions. PMID:24219917

  2. Strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHOVÁ, Iveta

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor paper was elaboration of a business strategy for selected company. The main purpose was to evaluate the business of the company in order to prepare or change its strategy. Methods used for evalution of the position of the company: financial analysis, analysis of external environment, STEP analysis, SWOT analysis, operating model. All processed information related to periods 2006 and 2007.

  3. Globalization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIZU, RYUEI

    1992-01-01

    History of overseas strategies of Japanese firms can be divided into three periods; until 1960's, when import and export were the main focus; from 1970's to the first half of 1980's, when establishing overseas bases was a major interest for clear purposes of reducing labor cost, averting trade conflicts, or securing natural resources; and after 1985, when strategy started to be formulated from more global viewpoint in order to cope with new situation arising from stronger yen and Japan having...

  4. Strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Brabcová, Sanda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to conduct strategic analysis and create a strategy for travel agency Autoturist a.s. Part of the analysis is research on external environment that includes PEST analysis, 4C method and Porter's five forces analysis. Internal environment is explored especilly with financial analysis, analysis of resources and SWOT analysis. Outcome is to propose concrete strategy for selected company.

  5. Attitudes and sexual behaviours of unmarried people with HIV/AIDS living in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abasiubong, Festus; Udoh, Sunday B.; Idung, Alphonsus U; Umoiyoho, Aniefiok J

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/AIDS may be attributable to the lifestyle of individuals. Appropriate sexual behaviour and lifestyle modification may be helpful strategies for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in many countries.

  6. Biting behaviour of Anopheles funestus populations in Mutare and Mutasa districts, Manicaland province, Zimbabwe: Implications for the malaria control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadreck Sande

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The present work highlighted important information on the host-seeking behaviour, blood meal sources and infection rates in An. funestus. The information would be helpful in improving the vector control strategies.

  7. Solving the surveillance dilemma for pro-environmental behaviour : The motivating power of in-group goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovanovic, Marko; Steg, Linda; Spears, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers often employ extrinsic incentives, regulations and enforcements to promote sustainable energy use. Surveillance is one such classic means to encourage or enforce positive behaviour. However, such strategies backfire if they encourage extrinsic motivation, potentially alienating those w

  8. Medical Students' Personal Determinants of Overcoming Strategies in Difficult Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veretelnikova Yu.Ya.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the research was to study conditionality of overcoming strategies in difficult situations of social interaction by personal representations of attitude to others among medical students. Material and methods. 134 first-year students of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky took part in the comparative diagnostic study. Results. Comparison of average indices of various strategies evidence in coping behaviour allowed revealing statistically significant dependence of coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction upon types of personal representations of attitude toward others and gender features of forming effective strategies of coping behaviour among medical students. Conclusion. Correlation between coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction and typology of personal representations of attitudes toward others among medical students was marked.

  9. FUNCTIONAL HARMONY OF LABOUR BEHAVIOUR OF THE PERSONNEL FUNCTIONAL HARMONY OF LABOUR BEHAVIOUR OF THE PERSONNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Doronina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A modern team of employees should be considered as a social institution that interacts with the environment and varies with time from an extremely orderly organized state to a complete disorganization and chaos. There is a certain dynamic harmony that needs to be estimated to develop instruments for regulating staff behaviour on the spot. To provide practical and constructive recommendations of modern sciences that study human behaviour, today researches must focus on a new image of the world, built with the help of using the achievements of the theory of modular construction of society. This theory confirms the fact that the social systems’ duration, their harmony, qualitative originality of their states depend on the compliance of the quantitative relationships between their characteristics with the Fibonacci numbers.Availability of proportions and disproportions of the characteristics of a social system indicates the quality of its functions: development of the elements, properties, relations, balance of the conservation and development functions, preservation of the relations, properties and elements of the system; the state of chaos and the collapse of the system. The teaching of the social systems harmony requires its quantitative estimation.To examine the functional harmony of the teams of employees the quantitative assessments of the actual and the desired state of labour behaviour motives were used for three models of the employee: the contractor, the intrapreneur and the intellectual capitalist. Their analysis showed that, firstly, there is a special state of harmony of the motives of labour behaviour in every team, and secondly, the actual and the desired proportion of motives do not coincide. The final assessment of the functional harmony of the team can be given, focusing on its development strategy.

  10. [Bullying: Prevention and intervention strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christaki, M

    2007-04-01

    Bullying can be defined as when one (or more) individual engages in aggressive behaviour against another individual who seem to be unable to defend himself. This action is intentional and persistent and creates great distress and fear. There are not specific statistics in Greece but recent researches from EKKE showed that one out of four children in Athens have been bullied physically. Bullying is a multifaceted and complex problem. Modern psychological perspectives emphasize that aggressive and violent behaviours are learned responses to frustration. Learning occurs by observing models of such behaviour in the family, in the neighbourhood, in school. Ignoring the problem gives a bad example. Prevention and intervention strategies should include the family, the school personnel and the children. Bullying has negative effects on the physical and mental health of the child and it can also cost his life, some kids commit suicide. Therefore intervention strategies need to develop in the communities. The aim is to create a -physically and psychologically- safe environment. PMID:22466519

  11. Electrodeposition and Electrochemical Behaviour of Tungsten Oxide (WO3) Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WO3 films were electrochemically deposited from bath solution containing Na2WO4.2H2O and H2O2 with different pH values using constant potential of -0.45 V versus Ag/AgCl for 300 s. The structural morphology of the prepared films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and their electrochemical behaviour was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). A smooth and thin WO3 film was formed from pH solution of 1.30 through electrolytic deposition; however, the deposition at pH=0.80 through electrophoretic deposition process under the same electrodeposition conditions has produced a porous and thick film with agglomerated granules of WO3 nanoparticles. The porous film has greatly enhanced the electrochemical behaviour of WO3 for intercalation and de-intercalation of H+ ions due to its high surface area. (author)

  12. Foaming Behaviour, Structure, and Properties of Polypropylene Nanocomposites Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antunes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the preparation and characterization of compression-moulded montmorillonite and carbon nanofibre-polypropylene foams. The influence of these nanofillers on the foaming behaviour was analyzed in terms of the foaming parameters and final cellular structure and morphology of the foams. Both nanofillers induced the formation of a more isometric-like cellular structure in the foams, mainly observed for the MMT-filled nanocomposite foams. Alongside their crystalline characteristics, the nanocomposite foams were also characterized and compared with the unfilled ones regarding their dynamic-mechanical thermal behaviour. The nanocomposite foams showed higher specific storage moduli due to the reinforcement effect of the nanofillers and higher cell density isometric cellular structure. Particularly, the carbon nanofibre foams showed an increasingly higher electrical conductivity with increasing the amount of nanofibres, thus showing promising results as to produce electrically improved lightweight materials for applications such as electrostatic painting.

  13. Defensive strategies in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Roode, Brad; Matthews, Bevan; Lambert, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Success in rugby union competition is dependent partly on the defensive strategies of a team. Despite this, little empirical evidence exists about effective defensive strategies used during play. This study attempted to identify defensive characteristics associated with increased likelihood of a successful outcome in rugby union, while considering the game situation. Twenty-one matches of the 2010 Super 14 competition were analysed, amounting to 2,394 coded tackle contacts. The likelihood of the defending team winning the breakdown (the post-tackle contact situation where opposing teams compete for possession of the ball) increased as the match progressed. Defensive speed, measured as the speed of the defence in response to the attacking line, was a statistically significant predictor of breakdown wins and preventing the attacking team from advancing towards the gain line. Identifying the relative effectiveness of such strategies allows understanding of rugby match behaviour and may be applied to improve organisation, design, training, teaching and learning the game. PMID:24422340

  14. Schroedinger operators and evolutionary strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First we introduce a simple model for the description of evolutionary algorithms, which is based on 2nd order partial differential equations for the distribution function of the individuals. Then we turn to the properties of Boltzmann's and Darwin's strategy. the next chapter is dedicated to the mathematical properties of Schroedinger operators. Both statements on the spectral density and their reproducibility during the simulation are summarized. The remaining of this chapter are dedicated to the analysis of the kernel as well as the dependence of the Schroedinger operator on the potential. As conclusion from the results of this chapter we obtain the classification of the strategies in dependence of the fitness. We obtain the classification of the evolutionary strategies, which are described by a 2nd order partial differential equation, in relation to their solution behaviour. Thereafter we are employed with the variation of the mutation distribution

  15. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Godin Gaston; Amireault Steve; Vohl Marie-Claude; Pérusse Louis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC)- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, parti...

  16. Neural mechanisms underlying the evolvability of behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of nervous systems alters the evolvability of behaviour. Complex nervous systems are phylogenetically constrained; nevertheless particular species-specific behaviours have repeatedly evolved, suggesting a predisposition towards those behaviours. Independently evolved behaviours in animals that share a common neural architecture are generally produced by homologous neural structures, homologous neural pathways and even in the case of some invertebrates, homologous identified neu...

  17. Modeling the effect of sedentary behaviour on the prevention of population obesity using the system dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a medical condition where an individual has an excessive amount of body fat. There are many factors contributing to obesity and one of them is the sedentary behaviour. Rapid development in industrialization and urbanization has brought changes to Malaysia's socioeconomic, especially the lifestyles of Malaysians. With this lifestyle transition, one of the impact is on weight and obesity. How does sedentary behaviour have an impact on the growth of Malaysian population's weight and obesity? What is the most effective sedentary behaviour preventing strategy to obesity? Is it through reduction in duration or frequency of sedentary behaviour? Thus, the aim of this paper is to design an intervention to analyse the effect of decreasing duration and frequency of sedentary behaviour on the population reversion trends of average weight (AW), average body mass index (ABMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity (POVB). This study combines the different strands of sub-models comprised of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism, and then synthesis these knowledge into a system dynamics of weight behaviour model, namely SIMULObese. Findings from this study revealed that Malaysian's adults spend a lot of time engaged in sedentary behaviour and this resulted in weight gain and obesity. Comparing between frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour, this study reported that reduced in duration or time spend in sedentary behaviour is a better preventing strategy to obesity compared to duration. As a summary, this study highlighted the importance of decreasing the frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  18. FROM EFFICIENT MARKET HYPOTHESIS TO BEHAVIOURAL FINANCE: CAN BEHAVIOURAL FINANCE BE THE NEW DOMINANT MODEL FOR INVESTING?

    OpenAIRE

    George BOROVAS; Androniki KATARACHIA; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Maria Eleni VOUTSA

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reviews two fundamental investing paradigms, which have had a substantial impact on the manner investors tend to develop their own strategies. specifically, the study elaborates on efficient market hypothesis (emh), which, despite remaining most prominent and popular until the 1990s, is considered rather controversial and often disputed, and the theory of behavioural finance, which has increasingly been implemented in financial institutions. based on an extensive survey of b...

  19. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour

    KAUST Repository

    Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-07-28

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  20. Effects of Ar+ ion implantation on tribological behaviour of UHMWPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was implanted with Ar+. The modified surfaces were characterized by OM, AFM and NTM and FT-IR. And, tribological behaviour of UHMWPE was evaluated using a tribometer. The results show that alterations in surface colour, morphology and microstructure of UHMWPE were induced by Ar+ implantation, and the mechanical properties in terms of microhardness and elastic modulus were improved. The wear properties of modified UHMWPE were enhanced significantly, both in dry friction and under deionized water lubrication. The degree of property improvement increased with the implantation dose, with increasing friction coefficient, though. (authors)

  1. Modeling of droplet dynamic and thermal behaviour during spray deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N S Mahesh; Johnson Mendonca; M K Muralidhara; B K Muralidhara; C Ramachandra

    2003-04-01

    Mathematical modeling of supersonic gas atomization for spray forming has been investigated. Influence of the droplet dynamic and thermal behaviour on the resultant microstructure has been studied. Analytical models have been constructed taking into account the higher Reynolds number owing to supersonic gas flow. The impact velocity profiles of the droplets lend credence to the evolution of equiaxed grain morphology through dendrite fragmentation. The thermal history profile along with the fraction solid plot could yield optimized standoff distance to obtain a mushy droplet. A comparison of secondary dendrite arm spacing obtained from the mathematical model showed good agreement with experimental observations.

  2. Corrosion behaviour of aluminium-magnesium alloys in molten sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of the Al-1% Mg, A1-3% Mg, A1-5% Mg and A1-3% Mg-0.15%Zr alloys in moltensodium was investigated. The morphology of the corrosion products and the alloying element distribution of the specimenswere analyzed by using OM, SEM and EDS. The results showed that the effects of the magnesium content and the im-mersion temperature on the corrosion of the specimens are related to β phase (Mg5Al8).

  3. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and its software environment supports the conceptual and detailed design, and execution of these models. Experiments reported in the literature on animal behaviour have been simulated for a num...

  4. BFS Human Behaviour Model for Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Molan, Marija; Molan, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    The Butterfly Flower Shower (BFS) Human Behaviour Model describes human behaviour in each demanding, possible accidental situation. The BFS human behaviour model is presented for a traffic situation. The key elements (perception, cognition, reaction) of the human behaviour are identified. Also possible limitations and errors in all elements of human behaviour are presented. The model is presented as the butterfly on the flower under the shower of interventions. The flower is environment descr...

  5. Analysis of canine stereotypic behaviour and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, E. Anne; Redhead, Ed; Bizo, Lewis A.; Parker, Matt

    2005-01-01

    Problem behaviour may have a physiological basis; it may be conditioned to inappropriate stimuli; or it may be abnormal in terms of frequency or duration of display, known as stereotypic behaviour (SB), that is considered functionless (Mason, 1991). However, repetitive, invariant behaviours that are resistant to change are also characteristic of normal behaviours, and may have phylogenetic influences (Timberlake and Lucas, 1989). So, when does normal behaviour become a stereotypy? Whilst...

  6. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of...

  7. A morphological algorithm for improving radio-frequency interference detection

    CERN Document Server

    Offringa, A R; Roerdink, J B T M

    2012-01-01

    A technique is described that is used to improve the detection of radio-frequency interference in astronomical radio observatories. It is applied on a two-dimensional interference mask after regular detection in the time-frequency domain with existing techniques. The scale-invariant rank (SIR) operator is defined, which is a one-dimensional mathematical morphology technique that can be used to find adjacent intervals in the time or frequency domain that are likely to be affected by RFI. The technique might also be applicable in other areas in which morphological scale-invariant behaviour is desired, such as source detection. A new algorithm is described, that is shown to perform quite well, has linear time complexity and is fast enough to be applied in modern high resolution observatories. It is used in the default pipeline of the LOFAR observatory.

  8. A morphological algorithm for improving radio-frequency interference detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, A. R.; van de Gronde, J. J.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.

    2012-03-01

    A technique is described that is used to improve the detection of radio-frequency interference in astronomical radio observatories. It is applied on a two-dimensional interference mask after regular detection in the time-frequency domain with existing techniques. The scale-invariant rank (SIR) operator is defined, which is a one-dimensional mathematical morphology technique that can be used to find adjacent intervals in the time or frequency domain that are likely to be affected by RFI. The technique might also be applicable in other areas in which morphological scale-invariant behaviour is desired, such as source detection. A new algorithm is described, that is shown to perform quite well, has linear time complexity and is fast enough to be applied in modern high resolution observatories. It is used in the default pipeline of the LOFAR observatory.

  9. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals’ intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention) to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional process. However, despite a

  10. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Per

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals’ intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional

  11. Habit versus planned behaviour: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, B; Aarts, H; van Knippenberg, A; Moonen, A

    1998-03-01

    A field experiment investigated the prediction and change in repeated behaviour in the domain of travel mode choices. Car use during seven days was predicted from habit strength (measured by self-reported frequency of past behaviour, as well as by a more covert measure based on personal scripts incorporating the behaviour), and antecedents of behaviour as conceptualized in the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention). Both habit measures predicted behaviour in addition to intention and perceived control. Significant habit x intention interactions indicated that intentions were only significantly related to behaviour when habit was weak, whereas no intention-behaviour relation existed when habit was strong. During the seven-day registration of behaviour, half of the respondents were asked to think about the circumstances under which the behaviour was executed. Compared to control participants, the behaviour of experimental participants was more strongly related to their previously expressed intentions. However, the habit-behaviour relation was unaffected. The results demonstrate that, although external incentives may increase the enactment of intentions, habits set boundary conditions for the applicability of the theory of planned behaviour. PMID:9554090

  12. Proliferation, bcl-2 expression and angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas: relationship to tumour behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, H E; Nagy, Zs.; Gatter, K C; Esiri, M M; Wass, J A H; Harris, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of pituitary tumour behaviour, in terms of response to treatment from which can be derived optimal management strategies, is a challenge that has been approached using several different means. Angiogenesis in other tumour types has been shown to be correlated with poor response to treatment and tumour recurrence. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of measurements of cell proliferation and angiogenesis in predicting pituitary tumour behaviour. The proliferative capacity...

  13. TYPES OF SAVING BEHAVIOURS OF YOUNG RESIDENTS OF GEORGIA ON THE EXAMPLE OF TBILISI INHABITANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Anioła-Mikołajczak; Joanna Chudzian; Larisa Pataraia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to distinguish the types of saving behaviour of young Georgians – residents of the capital Tbilisi. The objective was achieved using primary survey data and cluster analysis. Three types of saving behaviour strategies were distinguished: with cash, valuing safety and diversifying saving portfolio. Research indicates that among young residents of Georgia dominates the type of valuing safety. People belonging to this group place their savings in products with a lo...

  14. Experiment on consumer behaviour in fashion E-commerce – experience and insights

    OpenAIRE

    Hjort, Klas; Hellström, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    As e-commerce continues to grow, so do the competition and expectations from consumers. To meet these challenges, e-tailers need to become more streamlined and understand the behaviour of their customers. An experiment was performed to gain knowledge about the impact of delivery and returns policies on consumer buying behaviour. Realistic and trustworthy results were generated by using a random sample strategy in performing a real-life experiment with actual consumers and products. Neither fi...

  15. Winter behaviour of stream salmonids: effects of temperature, light, and ice cover

    OpenAIRE

    Watz, Johan

    2013-01-01

    In boreal streams, stream salmonids typically face low water temperatures and variable ice conditions during winter, and thus stream salmonids are expected to use different behavioural strategies to cope with these environmental conditions. The studies presented in this thesis explore how temperature, light intensity, and surface ice affect salmonid behaviour, with focus on drift-feeding and ventilation rates. The first paper reports results from a laboratory study designed to measure prey ca...

  16. The Behavioural Homogeneity Evaluation Framework: multi-level evaluations of consumer involvement in international segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda J Broderick; Gordon E Greenley; Rene Dentiste Mueller

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a generic strategic framework of alternative international marketing strategies and market segmentation based on intra- and inter-cultural behavioural homogeneity. Consumer involvement (CI) is proposed as a pivotal construct to capture behavioural homogeneity, for the identification of market segments. Results from a five-country study demonstrate how the strategic framework can be valuable in managerial decision-making. First, there is evidence for the cultural invariance...

  17. Ethics of personal behaviour in family business (II): Differences of perception

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Miguel A.; Cappuyns, Kristin

    1999-01-01

    The results presented in the following research paper are based on information collected by means of a questionnaire sent to 1,800 medium-sized and large Spanish family businesses. The owners and managers of these firms were asked about their perceptions of the frequency of violations of ethics in personal behaviour in family businesses. A total of 33 types of behaviour to do with ways of obtaining ownership, ways of gaining power, business strategy, company organization and shareholders was ...

  18. Eating Attitudes and Behaviours in Young People With or Without a Diabetic Sibling

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Rachel K

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Body image concerns and problematic eating attitudes and behaviours are recognised as an important concern for young people and clinicians. Identification of groups that might be at risk of developing such problems would enable prevention and early implementation strategies to be implemented. The aim of this study was to explore body image concerns and eating attitudes and behaviours in a community sample of young people aged between 12 and 17 years. Design & Met...

  19. A stated choice model of sequential mode and destination choice behaviour for shopping trips

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, HJP Harry

    1996-01-01

    Stated preference and choice models currently used in urban planning are focused on predicting single choices. In this paper the intention is to extend these modelling approaches to the case of sequential choice behaviour. Design strategies and model specifications that allow one to predict sequential choice are discussed. The approach is illustrated in a study of sequential mode and destination choice behaviour for shopping trips. The research findings suggest that the proposed approach may ...

  20. Mass community cycling events: Who participates and is their behaviour influenced by participation?

    OpenAIRE

    Bauman Adrian; Rissel Chris; Bowles Heather R

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Participation in mass physical activity events may be a novel approach for encouraging inactive or low active adults to trial an active behaviour. The public health applicability of this strategy has not been investigated thoroughly. The purpose of this study to was describe participants in a mass cycling event and examine the subsequent effect on cycling behaviour. Methods A sample of men and women aged 16 years and older (n = 918) who registered online for a mass cycling...

  1. The application of multivariate statistical methods for understanding food consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Lakner, Zoltan; Hajdu, Istvanne; Banati, Diana; Szabo, Erzsebet; Kasza, Gyula

    2007-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is a necessary precondition for a targeted communication strategy. The behaviour is a complex phenomenon and research needs to undertake a rigorously apply sophisticated methods. This article entails the combined utilisation of categorical principal component analysis and cluster analysis to determine the major, relatively homogenous consumer groups and this is coupled with confirmatory factor analysis and structural model building to understand consumer behav...

  2. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.

  3. Strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Vrabec, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this diploma thesis is the execution of strategic analysis of the company Plzeňský Prazdroj, a. s. based on external and internal analysis. Next step is the elaboration of strategy for future company development. The outcome of this thesis is a comprehensive view of the external and internal environment of Plzeňský Prazdroj providing good basis for strategic management. Author of this thesis recommends suitable strategies for the future business development based on these outputs ...

  4. Dynamic behaviour of "Collapsible" concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzan, Alessio; Lamperti Tornaghi, Marco G. L.; Peroni, Marco; Solomos, George

    2015-09-01

    In this work a particular cement composite material for protection of structures and infrastructures against accidental actions, such as blast or impact, has been investigated. An experimental procedure has been developed in order to assess static and dynamic behaviour of energy absorbing cementitious composites. The granular cementitious composite has been studied focusing attention to compressive strength, high deformation and energy dissipation capacity which are important characteristics for an absorber material. An experimental characterization of the material behaviour under compressive static and dynamic loadings has been carried out. Different deformation velocities have been studied in order to define the material behaviour in a wide range of strain rates. The velocity range up to 0.1 m/s is investigated by means of a universal servo-hydraulic MTS 50 kN testing machine. Some preliminary results have been reported and discussed in the present work.

  5. Cycling in multimodal transport behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2016-01-01

    explores how cycling forms part of multimodal transport behaviour based on survey data on transport modes and travel purposes and the weekly frequency of out-of-home activities and travel mode use in a representative sample of adult Danes (n = 1957). The following five distinct multimodal travel segments...... or 'modality styles' are identified: 'education transport'; 'public-based transport'; 'limited transport'; 'bicycle-based transport'; and 'car-based transport'. Travel behaviour is predominantly multimodal with few unimodal car-drivers being identified. Substantial cycling takes place in all modality...... urban settings and small towns. Thus, the way in which travel modes relate to the urban environment and variations in modality styles must serve as the starting point for policies aiming to fulfil the potential of multimodal transport behaviour and promote cycling....

  6. Consumer behaviour and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    ten years ago." It continues to be true that a funda-mental requirement for success in this endeavour is consumers' active support and willing participation (Norwegian Ministry of Environment, 1994). Information is an important tool in this connection. Not only for marshalling public support for the...... environmental cause, but for facilitating environmentally responsible behaviour in many specific ways. Research dealing with the diverse roles of information in the environmental field shows a need to distinguish between different forms and objectives of information, but also, it needs to be stressed, that...... information alone is usually not sufficient to change behaviour (Stern, 1999). My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for pro-moting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this publication is...

  7. Public information strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 uncovered serious information problems in many Western countries, and started a debate on crisis communication and information strategies in relation to radiation danger in society. The information problem focuses on four main perspectives. The first is related to information as a persuasion process in which an efficient strategy would influence both the public's knowledge of radiation danger, their attitude towards it and their behaviour. The second perspective calls attention to the importance of the different elements of the information process. How important are different characteristics of the information source; the message itself, and the receiver? The third perspective concentrates on different types of information. What is this issue all about, why is the situation as it is, and how should people behave to protect themselves? The fourth perspective points to the various phases of a crisis. The information needed is obviously not the same in the period before a crisis emerges when no one knows what is going to happen, in the warning period when one knows that something may happen, and during the crisis itself. (Author)

  8. Modelling parasite transmission in a grazing system: the importance of host behaviour and immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi J Fox

    Full Text Available Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts' immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites' free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes

  9. Not-so-social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia; Pearce, John M

    2015-03-01

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) are rules specifying the conditions in which it would be adaptive for animals to copy the behaviour of others rather than to persist with a previously established behaviour or to acquire a new behaviour through asocial learning. In behavioural ecology, cultural evolutionary theory and economics, SLSs are studied using a 'phenotypic gambit'-from a purely functional perspective, without reference to their underlying psychological mechanisms. However, SLSs are described in these fields as if they were implemented by complex, domain-specific, genetically inherited mechanisms of decision-making. In this article, we suggest that it is time to begin investigating the psychology of SLSs, and we initiate this process by examining recent experimental work relating to three groups of strategies: copy when alternative unsuccessful, copy when model successful and copy the majority. In each case, we argue that the reported behaviour could have been mediated by domain-general and taxonomically general psychological mechanisms; specifically, by mechanisms, identified through conditioning experiments, that make associative learning selective. We also suggest experimental manipulations that could be used in future research to resolve more fully the question whether, in non-human animals, SLSs are mediated by domain-general or domain-specific psychological mechanisms. PMID:25608880

  10. Mathematical morphology for shape description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M.

    2002-03-01

    We first examine the measurements one can perform on the space of compact and convex sets. A famous theorem, due to Hadwiger (1957), shows that any measurement with nice properties, namely additivity, is a linear combination of Minkowski functionals. Then, some useful formulae, linking measurements in different dimensions of space are derived.In the second step, we make use of the morphological operations transforming sets into sets. These sets are then measured using the previous measurements. The most famous attempt yields the concept of granulomerties and their extensions.In the last part, we examine a way to build morphological random sets which are compatible with morphological operators like erosions or openings and apply it to the most famous example in morphology, the Boolean model, describing objects located at random.

  11. Phase morphological study on SEBS compatibilized PS/LDPE blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Kunyawut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The co-continuous phase morphology of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends compatibilized with poly(styrene-block-ethylene/butylene-block-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS with varying molecular weights has been investigated. The blend samples were prepared in a mini-twin screw extruder. The barrel length and diameter are 224 and 16 mm, respectively. The diameter of the capillary die is 1 mm. The concentration of the blends was 70/30 wt% of PS/LDPE while that of the SEBS used was 5 wt% of the blend. The mixing temperatures used were 180, 250, and 280o C, and a screw speed of 60 rpm. The morphology of the blends was investigated using an AFM technique. Average droplet diameters of the blend samples were determined using an OM technique. The co-continuous morphology has not been obtained in all the blends, although the mixing temperature used is as high as 280o C. The experimental results indicated that the model prediction of the co-continuous morphology proposed by Willemse and co-worker was not applicable to the blend systems studied. Only droplet-type dispersion was observed. This is considered to arise from the processing conditions and the mixing device used. The blend compatibilized with the high molecular weight SEBS had higher dispersed phase size than that of the blend compatibilized with the medium and low molecular weight SEBSs. This behaviour is likely to arise from coalescence during melt processing.

  12. Structural Behaviour of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures.......The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures....

  13. Managerial Ownership Influencing Tunnelling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Juliarto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the extent and the determinants of tunnelling behaviour in five ASEAN countries (i.e. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Related party transactions (RPTs in the form of loans to related parties are used as the proxy for tunnelling. With 200 firm-year observations over the period 2006-2009, this study finds a positive association between managerial ownership and the extent of tunnelling.The other important findings are that business environment (BE, foreign ownership, and independent directors are ineffective governance mechanisms to rein in tunnelling behaviour. This suggests that regulators need to evolve more effective governance mechanisms.

  14. Analysis of the behaviours mediating barnacle cyprid reversible adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Aldred

    Full Text Available When exploring immersed surfaces the cypris larvae of barnacles employ a tenacious and rapidly reversible adhesion mechanism to facilitate their characteristic 'walking' behaviour. Although of direct relevance to the fields of marine biofouling and bio-inspired adhesive development, the mechanism of temporary adhesion in cyprids remains poorly understood. Cyprids secrete deposits of a proteinaceous substance during surface attachment and these are often visible as 'footprints' on previously explored surfaces. The attachment structures, the antennular discs, of cyprids also present a complex morphology reminiscent of both the hairy appendages used by some terrestrial invertebrates for temporary adhesion and a classic 'suction cup'. Despite the numerous analytical approaches so-far employed, it has not been possible to resolve conclusively the respective contributions of viscoelastic adhesion via the proteinaceous 'temporary adhesive', 'dry' adhesion via the cuticular villi present on the disc and the behavioural contribution by the organism. In this study, high-speed photography was used for the first time to capture the behaviour of cyprids at the instant of temporary attachment and detachment. Attachment is facilitated by a constantly sticky disc surface - presumably due to the presence of the proteinaceous temporary adhesive. The tenacity of the resulting bond, however, is mediated behaviourally. For weak attachment the disc is constantly moved on the surface, whereas for a strong attachment the disc is spread out on the surface. Voluntary detachment is by force, requiring twisting or peeling of the bond - seemingly without any more subtle detachment behaviours. Micro-bubbles were observed at the adhesive interface as the cyprid detached, possibly an adaptation for energy dissipation. These observations will allow future work to focus more specifically on the cyprid temporary adhesive proteins, which appear to be fundamental to adhesion

  15. Analysis of the behaviours mediating barnacle cyprid reversible adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Nick; Høeg, Jens T; Maruzzo, Diego; Clare, Anthony S

    2013-01-01

    When exploring immersed surfaces the cypris larvae of barnacles employ a tenacious and rapidly reversible adhesion mechanism to facilitate their characteristic 'walking' behaviour. Although of direct relevance to the fields of marine biofouling and bio-inspired adhesive development, the mechanism of temporary adhesion in cyprids remains poorly understood. Cyprids secrete deposits of a proteinaceous substance during surface attachment and these are often visible as 'footprints' on previously explored surfaces. The attachment structures, the antennular discs, of cyprids also present a complex morphology reminiscent of both the hairy appendages used by some terrestrial invertebrates for temporary adhesion and a classic 'suction cup'. Despite the numerous analytical approaches so-far employed, it has not been possible to resolve conclusively the respective contributions of viscoelastic adhesion via the proteinaceous 'temporary adhesive', 'dry' adhesion via the cuticular villi present on the disc and the behavioural contribution by the organism. In this study, high-speed photography was used for the first time to capture the behaviour of cyprids at the instant of temporary attachment and detachment. Attachment is facilitated by a constantly sticky disc surface - presumably due to the presence of the proteinaceous temporary adhesive. The tenacity of the resulting bond, however, is mediated behaviourally. For weak attachment the disc is constantly moved on the surface, whereas for a strong attachment the disc is spread out on the surface. Voluntary detachment is by force, requiring twisting or peeling of the bond - seemingly without any more subtle detachment behaviours. Micro-bubbles were observed at the adhesive interface as the cyprid detached, possibly an adaptation for energy dissipation. These observations will allow future work to focus more specifically on the cyprid temporary adhesive proteins, which appear to be fundamental to adhesion, inherently sticky and

  16. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined. PMID:25104107

  17. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  18. Better Behaviour. Building Success through Better Behaviour Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Many children have all sorts of difficulties in their lives, which set up barriers to learning. This book demonstrates how teachers can help them face personal challenges. It contains: ideas for stress proofing children; guidance on teaching problem-solving skills; and explanations of cognitive behaviour therapy.

  19. [Potentiation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumy, Olivier; Bennabi, Djamila; El-Hage, Wissam; Allaïli, Najib; Bation, Rémy; Bellivier, Frank; Holtzmann, Jérôme; Bubrovszky, Maxime; Camus, Vincent; Charpeaud, Thomas; Courvoisier, Pierre; d'Amato, Thierry; Garnier, Marion; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Bougerol, Thierry; Lançon, Christophe; Moliere, Fanny; Nieto, Isabel; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Saba, Ghassen; Courtet, Philippe; Vaiva, Guillaume; Leboyer, Marion; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Aouizerate, Bruno; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    Lithium is among the most classically recommended add-on therapeutic strategy for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. The effectiveness of the add-on strategy with lithium requires achieving plasma levels above 0.5mEq/L. Mood-stabilizing antiepileptic drugs such as carbamazepine, valproate derivatives or lamotrigine have not demonstrated conclusive therapeutic effects for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. Thyroid hormones are considered among the currently recommended add-on therapeutic strategy for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. The effectiveness of the add-on strategy with thyroid hormones requires achieving plasma concentration of TSH close to the lower limits at the normal range (0.4μUI/L) or even below it. Second-generation antipsychotics such as aripiprazole or quetiapine have consistently demonstrated significant therapeutic effects for the management of depressive patients showing unsuccessful response to standard antidepressant medications. Second-generation antipsychotics however require the careful monitoring of both cardiovascular and metabolic adverse effects. PMID:26970936

  20. Transfusion strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and numerous reports have emphasised the need for reduction. Following this there is increased attention to the concept of patient blood management. However, bleeding is relatively common following cardiac surgery and is furth...... conclusion the evidence supports that each institution establishes its own patient blood management strategy to both conserve blood products and maximise outcome....

  1. Mitochondrial morphology and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic and are able to interchange their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are regulated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins 1 and 2, and optic atrophy 1) and the mitochondrial fission proteins (dynamin-related peptide 1 and mitochondrial fission protein 1) and have been implicated in a...

  2. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G; Brown, Kerry A.; Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Shepherd, Richard; Raats, Monique M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated the...... complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes in...

  3. Fundamental Theories on Consumer Behaviour: An Overview of the Influences Impacting Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Andreea Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a component of the economic behaviour, which in its turn is a manifestation of human behaviour. As a consequence of the social and economic development of modern societies, the study of consumer behaviour has undergone a strong development process, during the past years consumer behaviour acquiring its own status among sciences. However scientists concern with the study of consumer behaviour covers a time span of many decades. Due to the multiple interdependences and par...

  4. Hesitation behaviour of hoverflies Sphaerophoria spp. to avoid ambush by crab spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Pollinators possess several antipredator adaptations that minimise predation risk during foraging. In addition to morphological adaptations, hoverflies might have behavioural antipredator adaptations. We conducted three field experiments to investigate whether the “hesitation behaviour” of hoverflies Sphaerophoria spp., moving backwards and forwards in front of a flower, is effective in avoiding ambush predators on flowers. First, we compared the behaviour of different flower visitors, including several bees and other hoverflies, with Sphaerophoria spp. behaviour. Only Sphaerophoria spp. exhibited the hesitation behaviour in front of flowers. The flight behaviour was observed more frequently before landing on flowers than on leaves. Second, we investigated rejection by Sphaerophoria spp. to artificially placed corpses of the crab spider Thomisus labefactus. The rejection rate of flowers with a crab spider placed on or under it was significantly higher than that of non-treated flowers. Moreover, the presence of a spider on the flower decreased the number of hesitation displays, compared with non-treated flowers. Finally, to determine whether hesitation behaviour could be a consequence of floral assessment, we investigated hoverfly rejection of previously foraged flowers. Sphaerophoria spp. did not reject flowers that had been visited by the same individual or conspecifics within 3 min. We suggest that hesitation behaviour may be adaptive, enabling assessment of predation risk and hence avoiding ambush predators on flowers.

  5. The theory of planned behaviour and discrete food choices: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Svenson, Alexander; Simnadis, Thomas; Beck, Eleanor J; Coltman, Tim; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter; Sharma, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    The combination of economic and social costs associated with non-communicable diseases provide a compelling argument for developing strategies that can influence modifiable risk factors, such as discrete food choices. Models of behaviour, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provide conceptual order that allows program designers and policy makers to identify the substantive elements that drive behaviour and design effective interventions. The primary aim of the current review was to examine the association between TPB variables and discrete food choice behaviours. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Calculation of the pooled mean effect size (r(+)) was conducted using inverse-variance weighted, random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed using the Q- and I(2)-statistics. Meta-regression was used to test the impact of moderator variables: type of food choice behaviour; participants' age and gender. A total of 42 journal articles and four unpublished dissertations met the inclusion criteria. TPB variables were found to have medium to large associations with both intention and behaviour. Attitudes had the strongest association with intention (r(+)  = 0.54) followed by perceived behavioural control (PBC, r(+)  = 0.42) and subjective norm (SN, r(+)  = 0.37). The association between intention and behaviour was r(+)  = 0.45 and between PBC and behaviour was r(+)  = 0.27. Moderator analyses revealed the complex nature of dietary behaviour and the factors that underpin individual food choices. Significantly higher PBC-behaviour associations were found for choosing health compromising compared to health promoting foods. Significantly higher intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour associations were found for choosing health promoting foods compared to avoiding health compromising foods. Participant characteristics were also found to moderate associations within the model. Higher

  6. Protein structure and physical behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Belton; Miller, Aline F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the structure and behaviour of Protective Antigen (PA), which is the main constituent in a new and improved Anthrax vaccine. The long term goal of the work is to reduce degradation of PA by improving processing, formulation and storage.

  7. Deterministic behavioural models for concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Nielsen, Mogens; Winskel, Glynn

    1993-01-01

    This paper offers three candidates for a deterministic, noninterleaving, behaviour model which generalizes Hoare traces to the noninterleaving situation. The three models are all proved equivalent in the rather strong sense of being equivalent as categories. The models are: deterministic labelled...

  8. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to...

  9. Embodied myopia and purchasing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Bergh (Bram); J. Schmitt (Julien); L. Warlop (Luk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn conventional thinking, the mind controls the body. Our brains decide something and the body follows suit. However, in many ways this turns out not to be the case. Indeed, our research has found that even simple postures and gestures may be enough to influence our purchasing behaviour.

  10. Dunking behaviour in Carib grackles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morand-Ferron, J.; Lefebvre, L.; Reader, S.M.; Sol, D.; Elvin, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dunking behaviour, the dipping of food in water, has been anecdotally observed in more than 25 species of birds in the wild, but its function and ecology have not been systematically studied. In experiments conducted in the field and in captivity on Carib grackles, Quiscalus lugubris, in Barbados, w

  11. Behaviour: Seeing heat saves energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Household energy conservation can help to significantly lower energy consumption. Visual cues provided by thermal imaging of heat loss in buildings are now shown to increase energy conserving behaviours and implementations among homeowners more effectively than just performing carbon footprint audits.

  12. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    . The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket...

  13. Preventing behaviour problems in ferrets

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Under the Animal Welfare Act 2006, owners have a responsibility to take all reasonable precuations to ensure their animal's physical and mental health. This gives a brief overview of how to meet the behavioural needs of ferrets kept as companion animals.

  14. Magnetic Behaviour of Ferritin Nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miglierini, M.; Lančok, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 5 (2010), s. 944-945. ISSN 0587-4246 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Iron proteins * Human spleen * Superparamagnetic behaviours Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  16. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  17. Chaos Behaviour of Molecular Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Tang; SUN Fu-Yan; SHEN Shu-Lan

    2007-01-01

    Based on H(u)ckel's molecular orbit theory,the chaos and;bifurcation behaviour of a molecular orbit modelled by a nonlinear dynamic system is studied.The relationship between molecular orbit and its energy level in the nonlinear dynamic system is obtained.

  18. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J.

    2014-01-01

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction conte...

  19. Defining and quantifying coping strategies after stroke: a review

    OpenAIRE

    DONNELLAN, CLAIRE; Hevey, David; Hickey, Anne; O'Neill, Desmond

    2006-01-01

    The coping strategies that people use after a stroke may influence recovery. Coping measures are generally used to assess the mediating behaviour between a stressor (ie, disease or condition) and the physical or psychological outcome of an individual. This review evaluates measures that quantified coping strategies in studies on psychological adaptation to stroke. The main aspects of the coping measures reviewed were (a) conceptual basis; (b) coping domains assessed; (c) coping strategies use...

  20. Single-cell resolution of morphological changes in hemogenic endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Frank L; Hawkins, John S; Zovein, Ann C

    2015-08-01

    Endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT) occurs within a population of hemogenic endothelial cells during embryogenesis, and leads to the formation of the adult hematopoietic system. Currently, the prospective identification of specific endothelial cells that will undergo EHT, and the cellular events enabling this transition, are not known. We set out to define precisely the morphological events of EHT, and to correlate cellular morphology with the expression of the transcription factors RUNX1 and SOX17. A novel strategy was developed to allow for correlation of immunofluorescence data with the ultrastructural resolution of scanning electron microscopy. The approach can identify single endothelial cells undergoing EHT, as identified by the ratio of RUNX1 to SOX17 immunofluorescence levels, and the morphological changes associated with the transition. Furthermore, this work details a new technical resource that is widely applicable for correlative analyses of single cells in their native tissue environments. PMID:26243871