WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioural strategies morphology

  1. Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies—which have mostly focused on morphological traits—could become more apparent when behaviour, ‘the integrator of form and function’, is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed. PMID:21690124

  2. Morphology and thermal behaviour of SAN/EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Blends of styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN with ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM with and without high impact polystyrene (HIPS as a compatibilizer were studied. One series of blends was prepared in composition 95/5, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20 and 60/40; and the second series of blends was prepared with addition of 5 wt % of HIPS. Their morphology and thermal behaviour were inspected by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM and dynamic mechanic analysis (DMA, respectively. Further on, blends were separated to their components by Soxlet extraction in selective solvent and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC, respectively. The results of morphological observations revealed that the addition of a small percentage of compatibilizer decreases the domain size of the dispersed phase and the compatibility of the blends was enhanced. The shifts of values of glass temperatures (Tg in the examined blends also indicate that with addition of compatibilizer HIPS miscibility between SAN and EPDM is improved.

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL STRATEGIES IN TEXT MESSAGING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Text messaging is the application of abridged morphological forms in order to communicate and it is one of the fastest means of communication since the emergence of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in the world. In text messaging, we apply innovative language forms with morpho-syntactic structures ...

  4. Effects of plant gross morphology on predator searching behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Paula G; Cuddington, Kim

    2012-06-01

    Plant morphology influences insect predators' abilities to capture prey and control pest populations. Several mechanisms for this effect of plants on predator foraging have been proposed. In particular, it is often claimed that increased complexity of plant structures may increase search time and reduce foraging success. Using time-lapse photography we recorded search paths, and compared the total path lengths, percentages of plants searched, and path tortuosity of adult multicolored Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis Pallas) and green lacewing larvae (Chrysoperla carnea Stephens) foraging for pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) on pea near-isolines (Pisum sativum L.) that differed in shape. We found that H. axyridis searched leafy morphologies less thoroughly than those with more branches, while C. carnea larvae search paths did not differ on any of the pea morphologies. In addition, the ability of H. axyridis to attach to plants and maneuver was increased on morphologies with many branches and edges, while C. carnea was able to attach to all morphologies. Both species, however, had significantly reduced predation success on inverted leaf surfaces. We conclude that undersides of leaves, far from the leaf margin, may serve as partial prey refugia. In addition, we find increased plant branching or an increase in other morphological features which provide predator attachment points may promote foraging success.

  5. Semantic annotation of morphological descriptions: an overall strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Hong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large volumes of morphological descriptions of whole organisms have been created as print or electronic text in a human-readable format. Converting the descriptions into computer- readable formats gives a new life to the valuable knowledge on biodiversity. Research in this area started 20 years ago, yet not sufficient progress has been made to produce an automated system that requires only minimal human intervention but works on descriptions of various plant and animal groups. This paper attempts to examine the hindering factors by identifying the mismatches between existing research and the characteristics of morphological descriptions. Results This paper reviews the techniques that have been used for automated annotation, reports exploratory results on characteristics of morphological descriptions as a genre, and identifies challenges facing automated annotation systems. Based on these criteria, the paper proposes an overall strategy for converting descriptions of various taxon groups with the least human effort. Conclusions A combined unsupervised and supervised machine learning strategy is needed to construct domain ontologies and lexicons and to ultimately achieve automated semantic annotation of morphological descriptions. Further, we suggest that each effort in creating a new description or annotating an individual description collection should be shared and contribute to the "biodiversity information commons" for the Semantic Web. This cannot be done without a sound strategy and a close partnership between and among information scientists and biologists.

  6. Strategies to enhance the information seeking behaviour of artisans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings revealed that artisans do have various information needs an d the areas of their information needs inclu de occupation, education, finance, and skill acquisition. It was revealed that the extent to which their information is met is low. The strategies that could be used to meet their information seeking behaviour ...

  7. Physiology, phenology and behavioural strategies of forage fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Christina

    by this strategy whereby the energy intake is lowered but the strategy also reduces potential predation is quantified. This revealed that the strongest trade off for the individual is to reduce mortality rather than to seek an opportunity to grow larger and thereby be able to produce more eggs...... condition were affecting the number of skipped spawning events and age at first spawning. Spring spawning was found to be the better strategy compared to autumn spawning. Another behavioural strategy which was investigated was the burrowing strategy seen in 5 sandeel in the North Sea. The trade off...... bioenergetic modeling. The bioenergetic model is based on the Wisconsin framework, and assumes that ingested energy is deducted losses to egestion, excretion, standard dynamic action and metabolic costs. Surplus energy, if available, is divided between growth in two structure pools; somatic tissue and reserves...

  8. Behaviour and physiology: the thermal strategy of leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Bostrom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea exhibit thermal gradients between their bodies and the environment of ≥8°C in sub-polar waters and ≤4°C in the tropics. There has been no direct evidence for thermoregulation in leatherbacks although modelling and morphological studies have given an indication of how thermoregulation may be achieved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show for the first time that leatherbacks are indeed capable of thermoregulation from studies on juvenile leatherbacks of 16 and 37 kg. In cold water (< 25°C, flipper stroke frequency increased, heat loss through the plastron, carapace and flippers was minimized, and a positive thermal gradient of up to 2.3°C was maintained between body and environment. In warm water (25 - 31°C, turtles were inactive and heat loss through their plastron, carapace and flippers increased. The thermal gradient was minimized (0.5°C. Using a scaling model, we estimate that a 300 kg adult leatherback is able to maintain a maximum thermal gradient of 18.2°C in cold sub-polar waters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In juvenile leatherbacks, heat gain is controlled behaviourally by increasing activity while heat flux is regulated physiologically, presumably by regulation of blood flow distribution. Hence, harnessing physiology and behaviour allows leatherbacks to keep warm while foraging in cold sub-polar waters and to prevent overheating in a tropical environment.

  9. Head capsule stacking by caterpillars: morphology complements behaviour to provide a novel defence

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Petah A.; McArthur, Clare; Hochuli, Dieter F.

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores employ a variety of chemical, behavioural and morphological defences to reduce mortality from natural enemies. In some caterpillars the head capsules of successive instars are retained and stacked on top of each other and it has been suggested that this could serve as a defence against natural enemies. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the survival of groups of the gumleaf skeletoniser Uraba lugens Walker caterpillars, allocated to one of three treatments: “−HC,” where stacked...

  10. Influence of defects and morphology of diamond-like carbon coatings on their tribological behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, H. [Nancy-1 Univ., (France). Lab. LPMM-ENSEM-INPL; Le Huu, T. [Inst. Mecanique de Hanoi (Viet Nam); Robert, F. [Nancy-1 Univ., (France). Lab. LPMM-ENSEM-INPL; Bedri, R. [Nancy-1 Univ., (France). Lab. LPMM-ENSEM-INPL; Kadiri, E.K. [Nancy-1 Univ., (France). Lab. LPMM-ENSEM-INPL; Paulmier, D. [Nancy-1 Univ., (France). Lab. LPMM-ENSEM-INPL

    1995-12-01

    The preparation of hard carbon and diamond-like carbon coatings depends on the ratio of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}concentrations, as described by many authors. A single crystal with good crystalline quality was prepared at low ratio (below 1%C{sub 2}H{sub 2}). The polycrystalline structure grow that high concentration (from 2 to 5% C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) generates defects. We have deposited by the CVD method different films at different gas ratios to investigate their tribological behaviour. A variety of techniques were used to characterize the coatings. The surface morphology and grain size were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The structure and amount of diamond in the films were analysed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ionization electron energy loss spectroscopy. Twinning and stacking faults were the predominant defects observed in all of the polycrystalline samples. The investigation of the tribological behaviour of these films shows that the defects as well as graphitic components are favourable factors in the friction and wear behaviour of coatings. This paper reports theinfluence of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}concentration on the films morphology and their tribological behaviour. (orig.)

  11. [Educational strategies to modify physician behaviours and health care outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendaz, Mathieu

    2005-11-23

    The current evolution of medicine requires a sustained effort in continuing medical education to maintain an evidence-based practice. To support this process, several educational strategies are available, including guideline diffusion. Their critical analysis reveals that the dissemination of passive information by conferences or by unsolicited materials is generally ineffective to modify the behaviours in practice or patient outcomes. More effective interventions are practice- and community-based rather than didactic, include an evaluation of learning needs, and enhance active participation in multiple activities. Before investing time and money into an educational activity, one should consider the evidence of its efficacy and make an oriented choice, according to the goals aimed and the available resources.

  12. Mechanical, thermal, rheological and morphological behaviour of irradiated PP/HA composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, C.; Albano, C.; Karam, A.; Dominguez, N.; Sanchez, Y.; Gonzalez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites are being developed as bone graft materials. In this research, the effect of γ irradiation on mechanical, rheological, thermal and morphological behaviour of PP-HA composites was studied. The melt flow index of polymer increased markedly when it was exposed to radiation. This is indicative of chain scission reaction as the predominant process. During the tensile testing, the composites exhibited brittle behaviour, showing no fluency point. Elongation at break showed a tendency to decrease with the increase in radiation dose while stress at break did not show significant variation with radiation dose. High HA content (>20%) and radiation dose (25 kGy) had significant influence on thermal stability

  13. Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael

    2011-07-01

    In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders ( P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey.

  14. Associations between Domestic-Dog Morphology and Behaviour Scores in the Dog Mentality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Holly R; McGreevy, Paul D; Starling, Melissa J; Forkman, Bjorn

    2016-01-01

    The domestic dog shows a wide range of morphologies, that humans have selected for in the process of creating unique breeds. Recent studies have revealed correlations between changes in morphology and behaviour as reported by owners. For example, as height and weight decrease, many undesirable behaviours (non-social fear, hyperactivity and attention seeking) become more apparent. The current study aimed to explore more of these correlations, but this time used reports from trained observers. Phenotypic measurements were recorded from a range of common dog breeds (n = 45) and included cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length), bodyweight, height and sex. These data were then correlated with results from the Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA), which involves trained observers scoring a dog's reaction to stimuli presented over 10 standardised subtests. Each subtest is designed to evoke a behavioural response. Backward elimination and weighted step-wise regression revealed that shorter dogs demonstrated more aggressive tendencies, reacting defensively toward both assistants dressed as ghosts (p = 0.045), and to a dummy (p = 0.008). Taller dogs were more affectionate when greeting and being handled by humans (p = 0.007, p = dogs were also more cooperative (p = dogs. Heavier dogs were more inquisitive toward a dummy (p = 0.011), to the source of a metallic noise (p = 0.010) and to an assistant (p = 0.003). Heavier dogs were also more attentive to the ghosts (p = 0.013). In comparison, lighter dogs were cautious of a dummy (p = dogs were also cautious of, and demonstrated prolonged fearfulness toward, the source of metallic noise (p = behaviour.

  15. Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ben B; Hulthén, Kaj; Brönmark, Christer; Nilsson, P Anders; Skov, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare body shape between populations that differ in migratory opportunity (open vs. closed lakes), and between individuals from a single population that vary in migratory propensity (migrants and residents from a partially migratory population). Following hydrodynamic theory, we posit that migrants should have a more shallow body depth, to reduce the costs associated with migrating into streams with higher flow conditions than the lakes the residents occupy all year round. 3. We find evidence both across and within populations to support our prediction, with individuals from open lakes and migrants from the partially migratory population having a more slender, shallow-bodied morphology than fish from closed lakes and all-year residents. 4. Our data suggest that a shallow body morphology is beneficial to migratory individuals and our study is one of the first to link migratory strategy and intraspecific variation in body shape. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  16. Associations between Domestic-Dog Morphology and Behaviour Scores in the Dog Mentality Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly R Stone

    Full Text Available The domestic dog shows a wide range of morphologies, that humans have selected for in the process of creating unique breeds. Recent studies have revealed correlations between changes in morphology and behaviour as reported by owners. For example, as height and weight decrease, many undesirable behaviours (non-social fear, hyperactivity and attention seeking become more apparent. The current study aimed to explore more of these correlations, but this time used reports from trained observers. Phenotypic measurements were recorded from a range of common dog breeds (n = 45 and included cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length, bodyweight, height and sex. These data were then correlated with results from the Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA, which involves trained observers scoring a dog's reaction to stimuli presented over 10 standardised subtests. Each subtest is designed to evoke a behavioural response. Backward elimination and weighted step-wise regression revealed that shorter dogs demonstrated more aggressive tendencies, reacting defensively toward both assistants dressed as ghosts (p = 0.045, and to a dummy (p = 0.008. Taller dogs were more affectionate when greeting and being handled by humans (p = 0.007, p = <0.001, respectively. Taller dogs were also more cooperative (p = <0.001, and playful (p = 0.001 with humans than shorter dogs. Heavier dogs were more inquisitive toward a dummy (p = 0.011, to the source of a metallic noise (p = 0.010 and to an assistant (p = 0.003. Heavier dogs were also more attentive to the ghosts (p = 0.013. In comparison, lighter dogs were cautious of a dummy (p = <0.001 and fearful of the sound of a gunshot (p = <0.001. Lighter dogs were also cautious of, and demonstrated prolonged fearfulness toward, the source of metallic noise (p = <0.001, p = <0.034, respectively. With a far larger sample and the advantage of third-party reporting (which overcomes potential owner bias, the current findings

  17. Morphological knowledge as revealed in children's spelling accuracy and reports of spelling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Monique; Basque, Michelle T; Leclaire, Tina

    2006-12-01

    The goal of the current research was to assess whether children can make strategic use of morphological relations among words to spell. French-speaking children in Grade 4 spelled three word types: (a) phonological words that had regular phoneme-grapheme correspondences, (b) morphological words that had silent consonant endings for which a derivative revealed the silent ending, and (c) lexical words that had silent consonant endings for which no familiar derivative revealed the ending. Children were also asked to provide immediate retrospective reports of the strategies used to spell each word. Two experiments (Ns = 46 and 39) were conducted. As expected, children in Grade 4 spelled phonological words more accurately than they did words with silent consonant endings. In addition, children spelled morphological words more accurately than they did lexical words. Reports of using retrieval were associated with accurate performance across word types. Importantly, reports of using morphological strategies to spell morphological words were associated with a similar level of accuracy, as were reports of using retrieval. Even though children reported using a phonological strategy frequently across all word types, this strategy was associated with accurate performance only for spelling phonological words. Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 with another set of stimuli and also showed that children's morphological awareness predicted their spelling accuracy for morphological words as well as the reported frequency of morphological strategy use. In sum, the findings revealed that most children showed evidence of adaptive strategy use.

  18. Locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae): a contribution to a comparative study of burrowing behaviour in athenarian sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of English populations of a small (<2 cm long), burrowing athenarian sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935 (= N. pellucida Crowell, 1946), which lives in soft mud in salt marshes and creeks, are described. Objectives were to ascertain

  19. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart JH

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘quite promising’, or ‘non-promising’ according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  20. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed.

  1. Shape up or ship out: Migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brönmark, C.

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body...... morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare body shape between populations that differ in migratory opportunity...... with migrating into streams with higher flow conditions than the lakes the residents occupy all year round. We find evidence both across and within populations to support our prediction, with individuals from open lakes and migrants from the partially migratory population having a more slender, shallow...

  2. Specialization and group size: brain and behavioural correlates of colony size in ants lacking morphological castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Vargas, Sabrina; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Wcislo, William T; Mueller, Ulrich

    2015-02-22

    Group size in both multicellular organisms and animal societies can correlate with the degree of division of labour. For ants, the task specialization hypothesis (TSH) proposes that increased behavioural specialization enabled by larger group size corresponds to anatomical specialization of worker brains. Alternatively, the social brain hypothesis proposes that increased levels of social stimuli in larger colonies lead to enlarged brain regions in all workers, regardless of their task specialization. We tested these hypotheses in acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex spinicola), which exhibit behavioural but not morphological task specialization. In wild colonies, we marked, followed and tested ant workers involved in foraging tasks on the leaves (leaf-ants) and in defensive tasks on the host tree trunk (trunk-ants). Task specialization increased with colony size, especially in defensive tasks. The relationship between colony size and brain region volume was task-dependent, supporting the TSH. Specifically, as colony size increased, the relative size of regions within the mushroom bodies of the brain decreased in trunk-ants but increased in leaf-ants; those regions play important roles in learning and memory. Our findings suggest that workers specialized in defence may have reduced learning abilities relative to leaf-ants; these inferences remain to be tested. In societies with monomorphic workers, brain polymorphism enhanced by group size could be a mechanism by which division of labour is achieved. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles on a Living Organism: Morphological, Behavioural and Molecular Biology Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eAmbrosone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that silica (SiO2 is not toxic. But the increasing use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs in many different industrial fields has prompted the careful investigation of its toxicity in biological systems. In this report, we describe the effects elicited by SiO2NPs on animal and cell physiology. Stable and monodisperse amorphous silica nanoparticles 25nm in diameter, were administered to living Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria. The dose-related effects were defined by morphological and behavioural assays. The results revealed an all-or-nothing lethal toxicity with a rather high threshold (35nM NPs and a LT50 of 38h. At sub lethal doses the morpho-physiological effects included: animal morphology alterations, paralysis of the gastric region, disorganization and depletion of tentacle specialized cells, increase of apoptotic and collapsed cells and reduction of the epithelial cell proliferation rate. Transcriptome analysis (RNAseq revealed 45 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in stress response and cuticle renovation. Our results show that Hydra reacts to SiO2NPs, is able to rebalance the animal homeostasis up to a relatively high doses of SiO2NPs and that the physiological modifications are transduced to gene expression modulation.

  4. Echinoderms display morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity in response to their trophic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Hughes

    Full Text Available The trophic interactions of sea urchins are known to be the agents of phase shifts in benthic marine habitats such as tropical and temperate reefs. In temperate reefs, the grazing activity of sea urchins has been responsible for the destruction of kelp forests and the formation of 'urchin barrens', a rocky habitat dominated by crustose algae and encrusting invertebrates. Once formed, these urchin barrens can persist for decades. Trophic plasticity in the sea urchin may contribute to the stability and resilience of this alternate stable state by increasing diet breadth in sea urchins. This plasticity promotes ecological connectivity and weakens species interactions and so increases ecosystem stability. We test the hypothesis that sea urchins exhibit trophic plasticity using an approach that controls for other typically confounding environmental and genetic factors. To do this, we exposed a genetically homogenous population of sea urchins to two very different trophic environments over a period of two years. The sea urchins exhibited a wide degree of phenotypic trophic plasticity when exposed to contrasting trophic environments. The two populations developed differences in their gross morphology and the test microstructure. In addition, when challenged with unfamiliar prey, the response of each group was different. We show that sea urchins exhibit significant morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity independent of their environment or their nutritional status.

  5. Disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology in French speakers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Blanc, Romuald; Caldani, Simona; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2018-01-18

    Mixed and inconsistent findings have been reported across languages concerning grammatical morphology in speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Some researchers argue for a selective sparing of grammar whereas others claim to have identified grammatical deficits. The present study aimed to investigate this issue in 26 participants with ASD speaking European French who were matched on age, gender and SES to 26 participants with typical development (TD). The groups were compared regarding their productivity and accuracy of syntactic and agreement categories using the French MOR part-of-speech tagger available from the CHILDES. The groups significantly differed in productivity with respect to nouns, adjectives, determiners, prepositions and gender markers. Error analysis revealed that ASD speakers exhibited a disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology. They made gender, tense and preposition errors and they omitted determiners and pronouns in nominal and verbal contexts. ASD speakers may have a reduced sensitivity to perceiving and processing the distributional structure of syntactic categories when producing grammatical morphemes and agreement categories. The theoretical and cross-linguistic implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.; Achterberg, van T.; Bruin, de M.; Grol, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour

  7. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.; van Achterberg, T.; de Bruin, M.; Grol, R.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour

  8. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: An International Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A review of international research literature on teacher strategies for effective intervention with students presenting social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) is presented. Particular attention is given to evidence defining the qualities and skills of effective teachers and the value of behavioural and cognitive behavioural…

  9. Orthorexic eating behaviour as a coping strategy in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Friederike; Meyer, Frank; Huber, Thomas; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    Orthorexia nervosa is defined as the fixation on health-conscious eating behaviour and has recently been discussed as a new variant of disordered eating. The aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic eating behaviour in an inpatient treatment sample of female anorexics to investigate the relation between anorexic and orthorexic eating behaviour. Female anorexic patients with low (n = 29) and pronounced (n = 13) orthorexic eating behaviour as well as a matched control group composed of healthy females (n = 30) were compared with regard to several aspects of disordered eating, hypochondriacal traits, food consumption frequency and fulfilment of basic psychological needs in terms of eating. Orthorexic eating behaviour was assessed using the Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala. Fulfilment of basic psychological needs with respect to autonomy and competence is higher in anorexic individuals with pronounced orthorexic eating behaviour compared to patients with low orthorexic eating behaviour. Furthermore, patients with pronounced orthorexic eating behaviour state eating healthy food regardless of calorie content more often. No difference was found for hypochondriacal traits and eating disordered symptoms in general. Orthorexic eating behaviour enhances self-perception of eating behaviour as autonomous and competent, indicating that it might serve as a coping strategy in anorexic individuals. Further research is needed to investigate if this tendency in food selection strategy leads to positive effects in the long term.

  10. Predatory behaviour of some Central European pselaphine beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) with descriptions of relevant morphological features of their heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria; Afflerbach, Kerstin; Betz, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The Pselaphinae is a large subfamily of staphylinid beetles with a characteristic habitus and small body size. Detailed morphological and behavioural studies on these beetles are scarce. In this study, specimens of Bryaxis puncticollis (Denny, 1825), Bryaxis bulbifer (Reichenbach, 1816), Bythinus...

  11. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huis Anita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of behaviour change that prompt good HH behaviour to provide a better overview of the choice and content of such strategies. Methods Systematic searches of experimental and quasi-experimental research on HH improvement strategies were conducted in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to November 2009. First, we extracted the study characteristics using the EPOC Data Collection Checklist, including study objectives, setting, study design, target population, outcome measures, description of the intervention, analysis, and results. Second, we used the Taxonomy of Behavioural Change Techniques to identify targeted determinants. Results We reviewed 41 studies. The most frequently addressed determinants were knowledge, awareness, action control, and facilitation of behaviour. Fewer studies addressed social influence, attitude, self-efficacy, and intention. Thirteen studies used a controlled design to measure the effects of HH improvement strategies on HH behaviour. The effectiveness of the strategies varied substantially, but most controlled studies showed positive results. The median effect size of these strategies increased from 17.6 (relative difference addressing one determinant to 49.5 for the studies that addressed five determinants. Conclusions By focussing on determinants of behaviour change, we found hidden and valuable components in HH improvement strategies. Addressing only determinants such as knowledge, awareness, action control, and facilitation is not enough to change HH behaviour. Addressing combinations of different determinants showed better results. This indicates that we should be more creative in the application of

  12. Strategies for managing deviant behaviour among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    continue to provide right information to in-school adolescents about the negative effects of deviant .... performance also predisposes youth to deviant behaviours. ..... to negative information on the social media. 3.11 .555. 7 nonchalant attitude of parents to the needs of their children. 2.95 .817. 8 negative peer group influence.

  13. Exploring self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nureeva, Liliya; Brunsø, Karen; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Healthy eating behaviour in adolescence may be negatively affected by lack of self-regulation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies for regulating eating behaviour as formulated by adolescents themselves. Design/methodology/approach – Self-regulatory strategies were elicited......: [. . .]”. At the second meeting, participants had to group the statements. At the third meeting, the results were discussed with participants. Findings – The results suggest that adolescents’ knowledge about healthy and unhealthy eating is in line with the official guidelines provided by health organisations. Adolescents...... – Focusing on improving adolescents’ self-regulatory skills in the domain of eating behaviour is a promising approach in developing future interventions. Originality/value – The present article explores self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in adolescence and discusses their relevance....

  14. Transitions during cephalopod life history: the role of habitat, environment, functional morphology and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jean-Paul; Roberts, Michael; Zeidberg, Lou; Bloor, Isobel; Rodriguez, Almendra; Briceño, Felipe; Downey, Nicola; Mascaró, Maite; Navarro, Mike; Guerra, Angel; Hofmeister, Jennifer; Barcellos, Diogo D; Lourenço, Silvia A P; Roper, Clyde F E; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Green, Corey P; Mather, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod life cycles generally share a set of stages that take place in different habitats and are adapted to specific, though variable, environmental conditions. Throughout the lifespan, individuals undertake a series of brief transitions from one stage to the next. Four transitions were identified: fertilisation of eggs to their release from the female (1), from eggs to paralarvae (2), from paralarvae to subadults (3) and from subadults to adults (4). An analysis of each transition identified that the changes can be radical (i.e. involving a range of morphological, physiological and behavioural phenomena and shifts in habitats) and critical (i.e. depending on environmental conditions essential for cohort survival). This analysis underlines that transitions from eggs to paralarvae (2) and from paralarvae to subadults (3) present major risk of mortality, while changes in the other transitions can have evolutionary significance. This synthesis suggests that more accurate evaluation of the sensitivity of cephalopod populations to environmental variation could be achieved by taking into account the ontogeny of the organisms. The comparison of most described species advocates for studies linking development and ecology in this particular group. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  15. A Typology of Approaches to Peer Tutoring: Unraveling Peer Tutors' Behavioural Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghmans, Inneke; Neckebroeck, Fanny; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien

    2013-01-01

    Peer tutors' behaviour has been stated to have the power to create and increase learning opportunities within peer tutoring programs. However, previous studies have shown that peer tutors struggle to adopt facilitative and constructivist-oriented strategies, as they lean more towards directive and knowledge-telling strategies. This study aims…

  16. Optimal Vaccination Strategies and Rational Behaviour in Seasonal Epidemics

    OpenAIRE

    Doutor, Paulo; Rodrigues, Paula; Soares, Maria do Céu; Chalub, Fabio A. C. C.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a SIR model with temporary immunity and time dependent transmission rate. We assume time dependent vaccination which confers the same immunity as natural infection. We study two types of vaccination strategies: i) optimal vaccination, in the sense that it minimizes the effort of vaccination in the set of vaccination strategies for which, for any sufficiently small perturbation of the disease free state, the number of infectious individuals is monotonically decreasing; ii) Nash-equ...

  17. Listening strategies instruction: Effects on Hong Kong students' general strategic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueroles López, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The present article reports on a study which explores the impact of listening strategies instruction on typical strategic behaviour. Participants were 38 Hong Kong students of Spanish divided into two groups: the experimental group, who were trained in listening strategies, and the control group, who presented similar level of Spanish, needs, educational and cultural background, but did not receive such a training. The listening strategies instruction consisted in integrating the development ...

  18. Head capsule stacking by caterpillars: morphology complements behaviour to provide a novel defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petah A. Low

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores employ a variety of chemical, behavioural and morphological defences to reduce mortality from natural enemies. In some caterpillars the head capsules of successive instars are retained and stacked on top of each other and it has been suggested that this could serve as a defence against natural enemies. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the survival of groups of the gumleaf skeletoniser Uraba lugens Walker caterpillars, allocated to one of three treatments: “−HC,” where stacked head capsules were removed from all individuals, “+HC,” where the caterpillars retained their stacked head capsules, and “mixed,” where only half of the caterpillars in a group had their stacked head capsules removed. We found no difference in predation rate between the three treatments, but within the mixed treatment, caterpillars with head capsules were more than twice as likely to survive. During predator choice trials, conducted to observe how head capsule stacking acts as a defence, the predatory pentatomid bug attacked the −HC caterpillar in four out of six trials. The two attacks on +HC caterpillars took over 10 times longer because the bug would poke its rostrum through the head capsule stack, while the caterpillar used its head capsule stack to deflect the bug’s rostrum. Our results support the hypothesis that the retention of moulted head capsules by U. lugens provides some protection against their natural enemies and suggest that this is because stacked head capsules can function as a false target for natural enemies as well as a weapon to fend off attackers. This represents the first demonstration of a defensive function.

  19. Head capsule stacking by caterpillars: morphology complements behaviour to provide a novel defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Petah A; McArthur, Clare; Hochuli, Dieter F

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores employ a variety of chemical, behavioural and morphological defences to reduce mortality from natural enemies. In some caterpillars the head capsules of successive instars are retained and stacked on top of each other and it has been suggested that this could serve as a defence against natural enemies. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the survival of groups of the gumleaf skeletoniser Uraba lugens Walker caterpillars, allocated to one of three treatments: "-HC," where stacked head capsules were removed from all individuals, "+HC," where the caterpillars retained their stacked head capsules, and "mixed," where only half of the caterpillars in a group had their stacked head capsules removed. We found no difference in predation rate between the three treatments, but within the mixed treatment, caterpillars with head capsules were more than twice as likely to survive. During predator choice trials, conducted to observe how head capsule stacking acts as a defence, the predatory pentatomid bug attacked the -HC caterpillar in four out of six trials. The two attacks on +HC caterpillars took over 10 times longer because the bug would poke its rostrum through the head capsule stack, while the caterpillar used its head capsule stack to deflect the bug's rostrum. Our results support the hypothesis that the retention of moulted head capsules by U. lugens provides some protection against their natural enemies and suggest that this is because stacked head capsules can function as a false target for natural enemies as well as a weapon to fend off attackers. This represents the first demonstration of a defensive function.

  20. Matching Managerial Skills and Behaviour with Business Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... number of authors. The paper then concludes that matching a manager to a business strategy needs learning. However managerial characteristics are difficult to change as business change. At best the matching concepts suits manual and technical jobs. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.8(2) 2000: 32-36 ...

  1. A Review of Morphological Analysis Strategies on Vocabulary Outcomes with ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Dana R.; McMaster, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the literature on instruction in morphological analysis strategies with English Language Learners (ELLs) is reviewed to identify vocabulary outcomes for these students. The nature of instruction and quality of outcomes are examined for ELLs in general, and also for those with or at risk of reading disabilities. A total of nine…

  2. Strategies to control morphology in hybrid group III-V/group IV heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerich, Karla; Dick, Kimberly A; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Reuter, Mark C; Kodambaka, Suneel; Ross, Frances M

    2013-03-13

    By combining in situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy measurements, we examine the factors that control the morphology of "hybrid" nanowires that include group III-V and group IV materials. We focus on one materials pair, GaP/Si, for which we use a wide range of growth parameters. We show through video imaging that nanowire morphology depends on growth conditions, but that a general pattern emerges where either single kinks or inclined defects form some distance after the heterointerface. We show that pure Si nanowires can be made to exhibit the same kinks and defects by changing their droplet volume. From this we derive a model where droplet geometry drives growth morphology and discuss optimization strategies. We finally discuss morphology control for material pairs where the second material kinks immediately at the heterointerface and show that an interlayer between segments can enable the growth of unkinked hybrid nanowires.

  3. A distributed and morphology-independent strategy for adaptive locomotion in self-reconfigurable modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stoy, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed reinforcement learning strategy for morphology-independent lifelong gait learning for modular robots. All modules run identical controllers that locally and independently optimize their action selection based on the robot’s velocity as a global, shared reward...... signal.Weevaluate the strategy experimentally mainly on simulated, but also on physical, modular robots. We find that the strategy: (i) for six of seven configurations (3–12 modules) converge in 96% of the trials to the best known action-based gaits within 15 min, on average, (ii) can be transferred...... to physical robots with a comparable performance, (iii) can be applied to learn simple gait control tables for both M-TRAN and ATRON robots, (iv) enables an 8-module robot to adapt to faults and changes in its morphology, and (v) can learn gaits for up to 60 module robots but a divergence effect becomes...

  4. Strategies for Developing Positive Behaviour Management. Teacher Behaviour Outcomes and Attitudes to the Change Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Hindle, Sarah; Withington, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an extended action research project run in a large secondary school over an 18-month period. The work was part of a wider strategy for change within the school. The data presented here describes some of the features of the change process and reflections on its impact. A key aim was to challenge and enable teachers to modify…

  5. Influence of maternal testosterone on the strategies in the open field behaviour of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsková, Lucia; Talaroviová, Alzbeta

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the influence of testosterone administered to pregnant females on offsprings postnatal behavioral strategies in the open field. The influence of maternal testosterone on behaviour of 23 day old male and female offsprings was studied in a 20-minute open field test. A total of 9 behavioural events were compared between a control (male n=12, female n=8) and a testosterone group (male n=9, female n=9). Dynamics and patterns of association of these behavioural events were analyzed. The testosterone group was prenatally exposed to testosterone (a single intramuscular injection of 2.5 mg testosteroni isobutyras on gestation day 14). Male offsprings exposed prenatally to testosterone displayed significantly high levels of ambulation (Pair (Pair (Pair (Pdefecation (Popen field strategies.

  6. Effective Behaviour Management Strategies for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Linda L.; Boon, Helen J.; Lewthwaite, Brian E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a systematic literature review conducted to identify effective behaviour management strategies which create a positive learning environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. The search criteria employed resulted in 103 documents which were analysed in response to this focus. Results identified…

  7. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR: A CASE OF THE HIGH-TECHNOLOGY MARKET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Zhurylo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research consumer behaviour types and to develop marketing strategies of communicative influence on the consumer in the high-technology goods market. Methodology. Marketing research in Ukrainian market of high-tech goods is conducted to define motivations of the consumers and the peculiarities of their market behaviour. The profiles of target customers are developed and the typology of consumer behaviour is formed, based on the reasons of purchasing of high-tech goods and on the level of consumer involvement in the purchasing process. Results showed that Highly Rational, Cautious, and Demonstrative behaviours can be observed in case of high consumer involvement in the buying process. Rationally-Confident, Comfortable, Adaptive behaviour can be observed in the case of low involvement. The peculiarities of communicative influence for each type of consumer behaviour in the market of high-tech goods are determined and the appropriate strategies of marketing communication are offered. Practical implementation. Strategies of communicative influence and communication sources depend on consumer behavioural types and the stage of the process of adopting innovations. In case of highly rational consumer behaviour, generic strategy, benefit strategy, and unique technical advantage strategies are recommended to be used as the main communicative strategies. Benefit strategy, unique technical advantage strategy, positioning strategy should be used in the case of rationally confident behaviour. The technology of intrusion, intimidation, positioning strategy, affective strategy, and resonance strategy should be used in the case of cautious consumer behaviour. Brand strategy should be used in the case of demonstrative consumer behaviour. The communicative strategies of product positioning and the strategy of resonance can be used in the case of comfortable consumer behaviour. Brand strategy is the main communicative strategy in the

  8. Work stress, health behaviours and coping strategies in dentists from Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Cristian; Colosi, Horaţiu Alexandru

    2018-01-07

    The recognition of work stressors and their links to sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviours and coping strategies is important for enhancing the working conditions of dentists. The aim of our study was to identify and rank work stressors in dentists from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and to investigate their potential links to sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviours and coping strategies. A questionnaire based on the Work Stress Inventory for Dentists (WSID) was delivered to a cross-sectional sample of 250 dentists working in six neighborhoods across Cluj-Napoca, Romania, as well as at the local Faculty of Dentistry. We collected and analysed information on sociodemographic characteristics, work stressors, health behaviours and coping strategies. Time and scheduling pressure, concerns about the future and pay-related work stressors were found to rank highest among the categories of work stressors investigated. Higher work stress was significantly linked to higher workloads, lower job satisfaction, poorer eating and exercise habits, higher work pain and discomfort, lower perceived health and less sleep. Job satisfaction was the single best predictor variable of work stress scores. The most frequently used coping strategy to deal with work stress was resting and taking breaks. Only one-quarter of respondents used active coping strategies. Our findings suggest that work stress is linked to a number of detrimental attitudes in dentists and that there is room for dentists to make lifestyle improvements. © 2018 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. The what, how much, and when of study strategies: comparing intended versus actual study behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiman, Rachael N; Dunlosky, John; Rawson, Katherine A

    2017-07-01

    The study behaviours of students can be assessed from several perspectives, such as what study strategies are used, the total number of hours of study, and the distribution of studying over time. Here, we present the results of a survey study that considered each of these perspectives by asking students to report the what, how much, and when of their study behaviours over the course of a semester. As important, to better understand students' use of study strategies, we also had students report at the beginning of the semester how they intended to study and their beliefs about the effectiveness of a variety of common strategies. Our results indicate that during the semester, students rely on relatively ineffective strategies and mass their studying the day or two before an exam. However, students intended to begin studying earlier and to use a mix of effective and ineffective study habits. Despite their use of some ineffective strategies, they did have a relatively accurate assessment of which strategies were less versus more effective. Taken together, our results suggest that students have some excellent intentions but may falter because massing study the evening before an exam limits their use of more effective study strategies.

  11. Endocrine differences among colour morphs in a lizard with alternative behavioural strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewers, Madeleine St Clair; Jessop, Tim S; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2017-07-01

    Alternative behavioural strategies of colour morphs are expected to associate with endocrine differences and to correspond to differences in physical performance (e.g. movement speed, bite force in lizards); yet the nature of correlated physiological and performance traits in colour polymorphic species varies widely. Colour morphs of male tawny dragon lizards Ctenophorus decresii have previously been found to differ in aggressive and anti-predator behaviours. We tested whether known behavioural differences correspond to differences in circulating baseline and post-capture stress levels of androgen and corticosterone, as well as bite force (an indicator of aggressive performance) and field body temperature. Immediately after capture, the aggressive orange morph had higher circulating androgen than the grey morph or the yellow morph. Furthermore, the orange morph maintained high androgen following acute stress (30min of capture); whereas androgen increased in the grey and yellow morphs. This may reflect the previously defined behavioural differences among morphs as the aggressive response of the yellow morph is conditional on the colour of the competitor and the grey morph shows consistently low aggression. In contrast, all morphs showed an increase in corticosterone concentration after capture stress and morphs did not differ in levels of corticosterone stress magnitude (CSM). Morphs did not differ in size- and temperature-corrected bite force but did in body temperature at capture. Differences in circulating androgen and body temperature are consistent with morph-specific behavioural strategies in C. decresii but our results indicate a complex relationship between hormones, behaviour, temperature and bite force within and between colour morphs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different resource levels in two different parts of the study area (rabbit-rich vs. rabbit-poor areas). Our analyses revealed (1) that rabbit abundance positively affected male reproductive output; (2) that age, size and rabbit abundance (during winter) positively affected different components of female reproductive output; (3) that foraging movements were inversely affected by rabbit abundance for both sexes (for females, this may mainly have reflected poor provisioning by males in the rabbit-poor area); (4) that younger breeders (both in males and females) tended to move over larger distances than older individuals (which may have reflected both a lack of hunting experience and mate searching); and (5) that male body size (wing length) showed some covariation with resource conditions (suggesting possible adaptations to hunting agile avian prey in the rabbit-poor area). Although we are unable to establish firm causal relationships with our observational data set, our results provide an example of how territory quality (here, food abundance) and individual features (here, age and morphology) may combine to shape a predator's foraging behaviour and, ultimately, its breeding performance.

  13. Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekár, S.; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 7 (2011), s. 593-603 ISSN 0028-1042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : prey specificity * stenophagy * predatory behaviour * trophic niche * spider Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2011

  14. Coping strategies, mental health and HIV status: Predictors of suicidal behaviour among PWIDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, B.; Ilyas, M.

    2017-01-01

    To understand suicidal behaviour among people who inject drugs. Methods: This correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in two Pakistani cities of Gujrat and Jhelum from October 2015 to March 2016, and comprised male injecting-drug users aged18-60 years. Multistage systematic random sampling method was used. Urdu-translated versions of the brief cope inventory, mental health status scale and suicidal behaviour questionnaire (revised) were administered. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 200 participants, 83(41.5%) were aged 26-32 years. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus was in 94(47%) cases. Suicidal behaviour was positively associated with psychological distress and human immunodeficiency virus status (p<0.05), whereas it was negatively associated with mental health, psychological well-being and coping strategies (p<0.05). Regression analysis showed mental health index and psychological well-being were negative predictors, whereas psychological distress and human immunodeficiency virus status were positive predictors of suicidal behaviour among the participants (p<0.05). Conclusion: The level of stress led people who inject drugs towards suicidal behaviour. However, the level of stress varied according to the severity of human immunodeficiency virus and poor mental health. (author)

  15. Subtypes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Associated with Behaviour and Neurofacial Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinderberry, Brooke; Brown, Scott; Hammond, Peter; Stevens, Angela F.; Schall, Ulrich; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.; Campbell, Linda E.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) has a complex phenotype with more than 180 characteristics, including cardiac anomalies, cleft palate, intellectual disabilities, a typical facial morphology, and mental health problems. However, the variable phenotype makes it difficult to predict clinical outcome, such as the high prevalence of psychosis among…

  16. Combined foraging strategies and soldier behaviour in Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Camilla S; Cristaldo, Paulo F; Florencio, Daniela F; Cruz, Nayara G; Santos, Abraão A; Oliveira, Alexandre P; Santana, Alisson S; Ribeiro, Efrem J M; Lima, Ana P S; Bacci, Leandro; Araújo, Ana P A

    2016-05-01

    A range of behavioural strategies and sensory abilities allows animals to minimize costs involved in food search. By building a network of tunnels and presenting a large number of soldiers (i.e., trophically dependent individuals), Nasutitermes spp. termites feature behaviours that imply additional costs during this process. Here we evaluated N. aff. coxipoensis foraging strategies focusing on the role of soldiers during foraging. Field experiments were carried out via nests transplantation to dune areas, and laboratory experiments evaluated termite responses to sternal gland chemical signals from workers and soldiers. N. aff. coxipoensis presented primarily nocturnal foraging. Soldiers typically initiated foraging; however, in established trails, the number of workers was always higher than that of soldiers. The number of trails remained constant over time, while the number of tunnels increased linearly over time. A higher proportion of tunnels originated in surrounding areas than directly from the nests. At observation points with tunnels, there were more stationary than walking soldiers; the opposite was true at observation points without tunnels. In mixed groups, the workers chose to follow soldier chemical signals, and in these groups, soldiers were the first to follow trails. Our results allowed us to identify a not common foraging strategy in termite species; which included the establishment of trails followed by construction of tunnels. Such foraging strategies occur predominantly at night and soldiers play a key role in the foraging process. This foraging strategy reported here seems to be employed to optimize energetic gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphological shifts of the external flight apparatus across the range of a passerine (Northern Wheatear) with diverging migratory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förschler, Marc I; Bairlein, Franz

    2011-04-18

    We studied morphological differentiation in the flight apparatus of the four currently recognised sub-species of Northern Wheatears, Oenanthe oenanthe. Considering all measured birds without assigning them a priori to any sub-species we found a clinal morphological shift. Relative wing length, wing pointedness, and the degree of tail forking were positively correlated with migratory distance, whereas tail length (relative to wing length) was negatively correlated. The large-sized, long-distance migrant "Greenland" Wheatear, O. o. leucorhoa, is characterized by relatively longer, broader and more pointed wings and more forked tails, similar to the smaller-sized nominate Northern Wheatear, O. o. oenanthe, from North Europe, Siberia and Russia. In contrast, the short distance migrant "Seebohm's" Wheatear, O. o. seebohmi, from northwest Africa, possesses much rounder wings, and the tail is relatively longer and less forked. Sub-species with intermediate migratory habits (different populations of nominate Northern Wheatear, O. o. oenanthe, and "Mediterranean" Northern Wheatear, O. o. libanotica) show, as expected, intermediate features according to their intermediate migratory behaviour. Our results are congruent with other inter- and intraspecific studies finding similar adaptations for energy-effective flight in relation to migration distance (morphological migratory syndrome).

  18. Morphological shifts of the external flight apparatus across the range of a passerine (Northern Wheatear with diverging migratory behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc I Förschler

    Full Text Available We studied morphological differentiation in the flight apparatus of the four currently recognised sub-species of Northern Wheatears, Oenanthe oenanthe. Considering all measured birds without assigning them a priori to any sub-species we found a clinal morphological shift. Relative wing length, wing pointedness, and the degree of tail forking were positively correlated with migratory distance, whereas tail length (relative to wing length was negatively correlated. The large-sized, long-distance migrant "Greenland" Wheatear, O. o. leucorhoa, is characterized by relatively longer, broader and more pointed wings and more forked tails, similar to the smaller-sized nominate Northern Wheatear, O. o. oenanthe, from North Europe, Siberia and Russia. In contrast, the short distance migrant "Seebohm's" Wheatear, O. o. seebohmi, from northwest Africa, possesses much rounder wings, and the tail is relatively longer and less forked. Sub-species with intermediate migratory habits (different populations of nominate Northern Wheatear, O. o. oenanthe, and "Mediterranean" Northern Wheatear, O. o. libanotica show, as expected, intermediate features according to their intermediate migratory behaviour. Our results are congruent with other inter- and intraspecific studies finding similar adaptations for energy-effective flight in relation to migration distance (morphological migratory syndrome.

  19. INFLUENCE OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR: A CASE OF THE HIGH-TECHNOLOGY MARKET OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Zhurylo; Olga Prygara

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to research consumer behaviour types and to develop marketing strategies of communicative influence on the consumer in the high-technology goods market. Methodology. Marketing research in Ukrainian market of high-tech goods is conducted to define motivations of the consumers and the peculiarities of their market behaviour. The profiles of target customers are developed and the typology of consumer behaviour is formed, based on the reasons of purchasing of high-tech...

  20. Considering behaviour to ensure the success of a disease control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Christopher Finn; Gilligan, Christopher Aidan; van den Bosch, Frank

    2017-12-01

    The success or failure of a disease control strategy can be significantly affected by the behaviour of individual agents involved, influencing the effectiveness of disease control, its cost and sustainability. This behaviour has rarely been considered in agricultural systems, where there is significant opportunity for impact. Efforts to increase the adoption of control while decreasing oscillations in adoption and yield, particularly through the administration of subsidies, could increase the effectiveness of interventions. We study individual behaviour for the deployment of clean seed systems to control cassava brown streak disease in East Africa, noting that high disease pressure is important to stimulate grower demand of the control strategy. We show that it is not necessary to invest heavily in formal promotional or educational campaigns, as word-of-mouth is often sufficient to endorse the system. At the same time, for improved planting material to have an impact on increasing yields, it needs to be of a sufficient standard to restrict epidemic spread significantly. Finally, even a simple subsidy of clean planting material may be effective in disease control, as well as reducing oscillations in adoption, as long as it reaches a range of different users every season.

  1. Feedback as a strategy to change behaviour: the devil is in the details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elaine L; Patel, Sameer J; Evans, David; Saiman, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    Performance feedback is one of a number of strategies used to improve clinical practice among students and clinicians. The aims of this paper were to examine conceptual underpinnings and essential components for audit and feedback strategies, to assess the extent to which recently published audit and feedback interventions include these components and to recommend future directions for feedback to improve its educational and behavioural impact. Based on the actionable feedback model, we examined the presence of four theoretical constructs--timeliness, individualization, lack of punitiveness and customizability--in studies published during 2009-2010 which included a feedback intervention. There was wide variation in the definition, implementation and outcomes of 'feedback' interventions, making it difficult to compare across studies. None of the studies we reviewed included all of the components of the actionable feedback model. Feedback interventions reported to date, even when results are positive, often fail to include concepts of behaviour change. This may partially explain the large variation in approaches and in results of such interventions and presents major challenges for replicating any given intervention. If feedback processes are to be successfully used and disseminated and implemented widely, some standardization and certainly more clarity is needed in the specific action steps taken to apply behavioural theory to practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hazardous health effects of smoking and second hand smoke have been confirmed in numerous studies. For Germany, the mortality attributable to smoking is estimated at 110,000 to 140,000 deaths per year, associated with annual smoking-related costs of 17 to 21 billion euro. Because the majority of smokers initiate this habit early in life, behavioural preventive strategies usually tried to prevent the uptake of smoking among children and youths. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to summarise the current literature on behavioural strategies for smoking prevention and to evaluate their medical effectiveness/efficacy and cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of smoking prevention programs. In addition, this report aims to compare the effectiveness and efficacy of different intervention components and to evaluate the reliability of results in the German context. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI. In addition a manual search of identified reference lists was conducted. The present report includes German and English literature published between August 2001 and August 2006 targeting youths up to 18 years old. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to pre-defined quality criteria, based on the criteria of evidence-based medicine. Results: Among 3,580 publications 37 medical studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall study quality was satisfactory but only half the studies reported smoking uptake as an outcome, while the remaining studies reported alternative outcome parameters. The follow-up duration varied between twelve and 120 months. Although overall effectiveness of prevention programs showed considerable heterogeneity, there was evidence for the long-term effectiveness of behavioural smoking prevention programs. However, the

  3. The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: nurse practitioners using behaviour modification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Todd Charles; Keeping-Burke, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) places great financial strain on the health care system and dramatically affects individual quality of life. As primary health care providers, nurse practitioners (NPs) are ideally positioned to advise clients on risk factor and lifestyle modifications that ameliorate the impact of CVD. While the lifestyle targets for CVD prevention are established, the most effective means of achieving these goals remain uncertain. Behaviour modification strategies, including motivational interviewing (MI) and the transtheoretical model (TTM), have been suggested, but neither approach is established as being more efficacious than the other. In this paper, evidence on the effectiveness of the two approaches for modifying smoking, diet, and exercise behaviour are presented, and a recommendation for NP practice is made.

  4. Wear behaviour and morphology of stir cast aluminium/SiC nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwir Alam, Md; Arif, Sajjad; Husain Ansari, Akhter

    2018-04-01

    Wear and friction play a vital role in the service life of components. Aluminium matrix nanocomposites possess tremendous potential for a number of applications in addition to their present uses. It is valuable to the field of newer materials for better performance in tribological applications. In this work, dry sliding wear, friction coefficient and morphology of aluminium alloy (A356) reinforced with silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiCn) were investigated. A356/SiCn nanocomposites (AMNCs) containing 1–5 weight percentage of SiCn were prepared through two-step stir casting process via mechanical ball milling. The wear test was conducted on pin-on-disc test apparatus. Regression analysis was performed to develop mathematical functions to fit the experimental data points. Morphological studies of Al and SiCn as-received, wear debris and worn surfaces were further analysed by SEM along with EDS. The occurrence of oxide layers was observed on worn surfaces. Iron trace was identified by wear debris. It was found that the wear loss and friction coefficient were strongly influenced by mechanical milling and SiCn content. The results exhibited that the friction coefficient reduces with the addition of SiCn as well as with the increase in load. However, wear resistance increases as the reinforcement content increases because of the embedding and wettability effects.

  5. A systematic review investigating the behaviour change strategies in interventions to prevent misuse of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Geoff; Begley, Emma; Tod, David; Jones, Lisa; Leavey, Conan; McVeigh, Jim

    2017-10-01

    We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times. However, studies with components in addition to information provision may be more promising. Interventions outside of sport settings are required to reflect the transition of this form of substance use to the general population.

  6. Root morphology and mycorrhizal symbioses together shape nutrient foraging strategies of temperate trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weile; Koide, Roger T; Adams, Thomas S; DeForest, Jared L; Cheng, Lei; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-08-02

    Photosynthesis by leaves and acquisition of water and minerals by roots are required for plant growth, which is a key component of many ecosystem functions. Although the role of leaf functional traits in photosynthesis is generally well understood, the relationship of root functional traits to nutrient uptake is not. In particular, predictions of nutrient acquisition strategies from specific root traits are often vague. Roots of nearly all plants cooperate with mycorrhizal fungi in nutrient acquisition. Most tree species form symbioses with either arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) or ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. Nutrients are distributed heterogeneously in the soil, and nutrient-rich "hotspots" can be a key source for plants. Thus, predicting the foraging strategies that enable mycorrhizal root systems to exploit these hotspots can be critical to the understanding of plant nutrition and ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. Here, we show that in 13 sympatric temperate tree species, when nutrient availability is patchy, thinner root species alter their foraging to exploit patches, whereas thicker root species do not. Moreover, there appear to be two distinct pathways by which thinner root tree species enhance foraging in nutrient-rich patches: AM trees produce more roots, whereas EM trees produce more mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. Our results indicate that strategies of nutrient foraging are complementary among tree species with contrasting mycorrhiza types and root morphologies, and that predictable relationships between below-ground traits and nutrient acquisition emerge only when both roots and mycorrhizal fungi are considered together.

  7. Root morphology and mycorrhizal symbioses together shape nutrient foraging strategies of temperate trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weile; Koide, Roger T.; Adams, Thomas S.; DeForest, Jared L.; Cheng, Lei; Eissenstat, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis by leaves and acquisition of water and minerals by roots are required for plant growth, which is a key component of many ecosystem functions. Although the role of leaf functional traits in photosynthesis is generally well understood, the relationship of root functional traits to nutrient uptake is not. In particular, predictions of nutrient acquisition strategies from specific root traits are often vague. Roots of nearly all plants cooperate with mycorrhizal fungi in nutrient acquisition. Most tree species form symbioses with either arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) or ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. Nutrients are distributed heterogeneously in the soil, and nutrient-rich “hotspots” can be a key source for plants. Thus, predicting the foraging strategies that enable mycorrhizal root systems to exploit these hotspots can be critical to the understanding of plant nutrition and ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. Here, we show that in 13 sympatric temperate tree species, when nutrient availability is patchy, thinner root species alter their foraging to exploit patches, whereas thicker root species do not. Moreover, there appear to be two distinct pathways by which thinner root tree species enhance foraging in nutrient-rich patches: AM trees produce more roots, whereas EM trees produce more mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. Our results indicate that strategies of nutrient foraging are complementary among tree species with contrasting mycorrhiza types and root morphologies, and that predictable relationships between below-ground traits and nutrient acquisition emerge only when both roots and mycorrhizal fungi are considered together. PMID:27432986

  8. The Role of Gender as Moderator between Cognitive-Emotional Regulation Strategies and Internalizing/Externalizing Behavioural Problems among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani BTE Mansor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems among adolescents are the most important issue in adolescents’ mental health. Cognitive-emotional regulation strategies are the important protective and risk factor for internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems. In the present study the moderating role of gender in the relationship between cognitive-emotional regulation strategies and internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems among adolescents was investigated. The respondents were 328 students who filled out Youth Self Report and Cognitive-Emotional Regulation Questionnaire. The moderating effect of gender were estimated by AMOS and the model fit indicated that gender did not have any significant moderating role in the relationship between positive and negative cognitive-emotional regulation strategies and internalizing/externalizing behavioural problems among adolescents.

  9. Association between shell morphology of micro-land snails (genus Plectostoma and their predator’s predatory behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor-Seng Liew

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Predator–prey interactions are among the main ecological interactions that shape the diversity of biological form. In many cases, the evolution of the mollusc shell form is presumably driven by predation. However, the adaptive significance of several uncommon, yet striking, shell traits of land snails are still poorly known. These include the distorted coiled “tuba” and the protruded radial ribs that can be found in micro-landsnails of the genus Plectostoma. Here, we experimentally tested whether these shell traits may act as defensive adaptations against predators. We characterised and quantified the possible anti-predation behaviour and shell traits of Plectostoma snails both in terms of their properties and efficiencies in defending against the Atopos slug predatory strategies, namely, shell-apertural entry and shell-drilling. The results showed that Atopos slugs would first attack the snail by shell-apertural entry, and, should this fail, shift to the energetically more costly shell-drilling strategy. We found that the shell tuba of Plectostoma snails is an effective defensive trait against shell-apertural entry attack. None of the snail traits, such as resting behaviour, shell thickness, shell tuba shape, shell rib density and intensity can fully protect the snail from the slug’s shell-drilling attack. However, these traits could increase the predation costs to the slug. Further analysis on the shell traits revealed that the lack of effectiveness in these anti-predation shell traits may be caused by a functional trade-off between shell traits under selection of two different predatory strategies.

  10. Association between shell morphology of micro-land snails (genus Plectostoma) and their predator’s predatory behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilthuizen, Menno

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey interactions are among the main ecological interactions that shape the diversity of biological form. In many cases, the evolution of the mollusc shell form is presumably driven by predation. However, the adaptive significance of several uncommon, yet striking, shell traits of land snails are still poorly known. These include the distorted coiled “tuba” and the protruded radial ribs that can be found in micro-landsnails of the genus Plectostoma. Here, we experimentally tested whether these shell traits may act as defensive adaptations against predators. We characterised and quantified the possible anti-predation behaviour and shell traits of Plectostoma snails both in terms of their properties and efficiencies in defending against the Atopos slug predatory strategies, namely, shell-apertural entry and shell-drilling. The results showed that Atopos slugs would first attack the snail by shell-apertural entry, and, should this fail, shift to the energetically more costly shell-drilling strategy. We found that the shell tuba of Plectostoma snails is an effective defensive trait against shell-apertural entry attack. None of the snail traits, such as resting behaviour, shell thickness, shell tuba shape, shell rib density and intensity can fully protect the snail from the slug’s shell-drilling attack. However, these traits could increase the predation costs to the slug. Further analysis on the shell traits revealed that the lack of effectiveness in these anti-predation shell traits may be caused by a functional trade-off between shell traits under selection of two different predatory strategies. PMID:24749008

  11. Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies in Response to Problematic Behaviours of Primary School Children with Special Educational Needs: Views of Special Educational Needs Coordinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Elizabeth; Gardner, Frances; Hansford, Lorraine; Edwards, Vanessa; Hayes, Rachel; Ford, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Children identified with special educational needs (SEN) and behavioural difficulties present extra challenges to educators and require additional supports in school. This paper presents views from special educational needs coordinators (SENCos) on various strategies used by educators to support children identified with SEN and problematic…

  12. The Influence of PEG400 and Acetone on Polysulfone Membrane Morphology and Fouling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T.P. Aryanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modification of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane was conducted by blending polysulfone with PEG400 and acetone as additives. The influence of each additive on the resulted membrane morphology and fouling characteristics were investigated. The experimental results showed that the hydrophilicity of the polysulfone membrane was improved by the increase of PEG400 in the polysulfone membrane. The water contact angle of the membrane was decreased from 76.1° to 38.31° when 35 %wt of PEG400 was added into the polysulfone solution, while the water content of the membrane was increased by around 38%. The high concentration of PEG400 in the polysulfone solution led to the formation of longer finger-like cavities in the membrane structure and resulted in a thicker membrane skin layer. The high concentration of PEG400 also contributed to the increase in hydraulic resistance of the membrane due to organic matter fouling. This problem could be minimized by the addition of acetone into the polysulfone solution, which resulted in a lower fouling resistance of organic matter during up to five hours of peat water filtration.

  13. Coordination of Multiple Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Using Strategies Based on the Schooling Behaviour of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan McColgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (BAUVs are Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs that employ similar propulsion and steering principles as real fish. While the real life applicability of these vehicles has yet to be fully investigated, laboratory investigations have demonstrated that at low speeds, the propulsive mechanism of these vehicles is more efficient when compared with propeller based AUVs. Furthermore, these vehicles have also demonstrated superior manoeuvrability characteristics when compared with conventional AUVs and Underwater Glider Systems (UGSs. Further performance benefits can be achieved through coordination of multiple BAUVs swimming in formation. In this study, the coordination strategy is based on the schooling behaviour of fish, which is a decentralized approach that allows multiple AUVs to be self-organizing. Such a strategy can be effectively utilized for large spatiotemporal data collection for oceanic monitoring and surveillance purposes. A validated mathematical model of the BAUV developed at the University of Glasgow, RoboSalmon, is used to represent the agents within a school formation. The performance of the coordination algorithm is assessed through simulation where system identification techniques are employed to improve simulation run time while ensuring accuracy is maintained. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of implementing coordination algorithms based on the behavioural mechanisms of fish to allow a group of BAUVs to be considered self-organizing.

  14. Impact of the Canadian Diabetes Association Guidelines Dissemination Strategy on clinician knowledge and behaviour change outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Catherine H; Lillie, Erin; Mascarenhas-Johnson, Alekhya; Gall Casey, Carolyn; Straus, Sharon E

    2018-04-04

    Implementation of clinical practice guideline(CPG) into clinical practice remains limited. Using the Knowledge-To-Action framework, a guideline dissemination and implementation strategy for the Canadian Diabetes Association's 2013 CPG was developed and launched to clinicians and people with diabetes. The RE-AIM framework guided evaluation of this strategy clinician; we report here one aspect of the effectiveness dimension using mixed methods. We measured impact of the strategy on clinican knowledge and behaviour change constructs using evaluation forms, national online survey and individual interviews. After attending a lecture, clinician confidence(n=915) increased(3.7(SD 0.7) to 4.5(SD 0.6) on a 5-point scale(pcontent, and education sessions facilitated uptake; lack of time, team-based consensus, and seamless integration into care and patient complexity were barriers. The complexity of diabetes care requires systemic adoption of organization of care interventions, including interprofessional collaboration and consensus. Augmenting our strategy to include scalable models for professional development, integration of guidelines into electronic medical records, and expansion of our target audience to include health care teams and patients, may optimize guideline uptake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of probenecid on the pain-related behaviour and morphological markers in orofacial formalin test of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes-Szabó, Annamária; Bohár, Zsuzsanna; Nagy-Grócz, Gábor; Vámos, Enikő; Tar, Lilla; Pődör, Borbála; Tajti, János; Toldi, József; Vécsei, László; Párdutz, Árpád

    2015-01-01

    Probenecid has been widely used in the treatment of gout, but evidence suggests that it may also have antinociceptive effects in different inflammatory and pain conditions. We examined the potential modulatory effects of probenecid on behavioural and morphological markers in the orofacial formalin test of the rat. One hour after pre-treatment with vehicle or probenecid (1 mmol/kg body weight) intraperitoneally, 50μl 1.5% formalin solution or physiological saline was injected subcutaneously into the right whisker pad of rats. The rubbing activity directed to the injected whisker pad was then measured for a period of 45 minutes. Four hours after formalin injection, the caudal part of spinal trigeminal nucleus was removed and subjected to c-Fos and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunohistochemistry and to interleukin-1β and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) Western blot. There was a significant decrease in formalin-induced biphasic behavioural response and c-Fos and nNOS immunoreactivity in the rats that were pre-treated with probenecid. However there were no alterations in expression of interleukin-1β or NQO1 after formalin administration. Our results suggest that probenecid has an anti-nociceptive effect in the trigeminal inflammatory pain model. This effect may be through influencing the release of prostaglandin E2 or desensitizing the transient receptor potential channel subtype A member 1 or the transient receptor potential channel subtype V member 2 or the effect may be through modulating kynurenic acid levels in the central nervous system. Thus, probenecid might be a potential candidate for the treatment of trigeminal activation related pain conditions.

  16. Protective effect of systemic L-kynurenine and probenecid administration on behavioural and morphological alterations induced by toxic soluble amyloid beta (25-35) in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Fortoul-van Der Goes, Teresa I; Santamaría, Abel

    2010-07-11

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide exerts different toxic effects at a cellular level, including over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) and excitotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of NMDAr and alpha7 nicotinic receptors. Systemic administrations of both the immediate metabolic precursor of KYNA, L-kynurenine (L-KYN), and a proved inhibitor of KYNA's brain transport, probenecid (PROB), have shown to produce neuroprotective effects in a considerable number of experimental toxic conditions; however, this strategy has not been tested in the toxic model Abeta peptide so far. In this study we evaluated the effects of systemic administration of PROB (50 mg/kg/day for 7 days), L-KYN (75 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and their combination, on behavioural (locomotor activity and spatial memory) and morphological alterations induced by an intrahippocampal infusion of Abeta 25-35 to rats. An additional group was administered with the potent NMDAr antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801, 0.8 mg/kg/day for 7 days) for comparative purposes. A significant improvement of spatial memory was evident in Abeta-lesioned rats since post-lesion day 21 with all treatments tested and this effect was correlated with a reduction of cell damage and a decrease in reactive gliosis in hippocampal CA1 area. Neither L-KYN, nor PROB, or their combination, produced major alterations in motor function when given alone to rats. These results suggest that modulation of NMDAr activity by mean of therapeutic strategies designed to enhance KYNA in the brain may help to counteract neurodegenerative events coursing with Abeta toxicity and excitotoxic patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the particle morphology on the Cold Gas Spray deposition behaviour of titanium on aluminum light alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinca, N.; Rebled, J.M.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Fernández, J.; Guilemany, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of the particle–substrate and particle–particle interfaces in the cold spray process. ► Use of irregular feedstock particles whereas normally FIB studies have been undergone for spherical particles. ► Deep Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of the interfaces and within the particle. -- Abstract: The present work evaluates the deposition behaviour of irregular titanium powder particles impinged by Cold Gas Spraying onto an aluminium 7075-T6 alloy substrate. The influence of their irregular shape on the bonding phenomena, in particle–substrate and particle–particle interfaces are discussed in view of Transmission Electron Microscopy examinations of a Focused Ion Beam lift-out prepared sample. Key aspects will be the jetting-out, the occurrence of oxide layers and grain size refinement. Different structural morphologies could be featured; at the particle–substrate interface, both the aluminium alloy and the titanium side exhibit recrystallization. Titanium particles in intimate contact in small agglomerates during deposition, on the other hand, show grain refinement at their interfaces whereas the original structure is maintained outside those boundaries

  18. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using green tea leaves: Experimental study on the morphological, rheological and antibacterial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavani, Maryam; Nikkhah, V.; Sarafraz, M. M.; Shoja, Saeed; Sarafraz, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, silver nanoparticles are produced via green synthesis method using green tea leaves. The introduced method is cost-effective and available, which provides condition to manipulate and control the average nanoparticle size. The produced particles were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic images, UV visualization, digital light scattering, zeta potential measurement and thermal conductivity measurement. Results demonstrated that the produced samples of silver nanoparticles are pure in structure (based on the x-ray diffraction test), almost identical in terms of morphology (spherical and to some extent cubic) and show longer stability when dispersed in deionized water. The UV-visualization showed a peak in 450 nm, which is in accordance with the previous studies reported in the literature. Results also showed that small particles have higher thermal and antimicrobial performance. As green tea leaves are used for extracting the silver nanoparticles, the method is eco-friendly. The thermal behaviour of silver nanoparticle was also analysed by dispersing the nanoparticles inside the deionized water. Results showed that thermal conductivity of the silver nano-fluid is higher than that of obtained for the deionized water. Activity of Ag nanoparticles against some bacteria was also examined to find the suitable antibacterial application for the produced particles.

  19. Towards a preventive strategy for complaints of arm, neck and/or shoulder (CANS): the role of help seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruls, Vivian E J; Jansen, Nicole W H; de Bie, Rob A; Bastiaenen, Caroline H G; Kant, IJmert

    2016-11-28

    When developing an effective early preventive strategy for employees and students with CANS (Complaints of Arm, Neck or Shoulder, not caused by acute trauma or systemic disease), insight in help seeking behaviour and knowledge of factors associated with help seeking behaviour within the target population, is a prerequisite. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived hindrance is associated with help seeking behaviour, specifically in employees and students identified with CANS. Additionally, the associations of factors related to functioning and participation, work-environment and demographics with help seeking behaviour were explored in these groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among employees and students of two universities in the South of the Netherlands. The questionnaire included questions to assess (1) demographics, work/study and activity related factors (2) experience of CANS (3) perceived hindrance (4) help seeking behaviour. A subpopulation of the survey, consisting of those employees and students with self-reported CANS, received additional questionnaires to examine the impact of (1) participant characteristics (2) complaint and health related variables (3) functioning and participation (4) work-environment and social support, on help seeking behaviour. 37.3% of the employees and 41.4% of the students reported CANS. Of these, respectively 43.3% and 45.5%, did not seek help and had no intention to seek help either. Employees and students who had not sought help reported less hindrance, less perceived disabilities and shorter duration of complaints, compared those who did seek help. Employees and students within this group who had also no intention to seek help, perceived fewer disabilities and reported shorter duration of complaints. The absence of help seeking behaviour in respondents with CANS is a bottleneck for implementation of preventive strategies. In employees and students with CANS, help seeking behaviour is primarily

  20. Coping Strategies in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities Showing Multiple Forms of Challenging Behaviour: Associations with Maternal Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D; Rose, J; Jackson, N; Karakatsani, E; Oliver, C

    2017-11-29

    It is well documented that mothers of children with intellectual disabilities experience elevated mental health difficulties and that these are exacerbated by the presence of challenging behaviour. However, comparatively little is known about the effect of specific coping strategies for managing such behaviours. This paper aims to document coping strategies used by mothers of children showing multiple forms of challenging behaviour and to explore how these relate to positive and negative maternal mental health. Eighty-nine mothers of children with intellectual disabilities completed questionnaires assessing maternal mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale) and maternal coping strategies (Brief COPE). Coping strategies were not associated with child age or ability, but were associated with maternal mental health. Higher levels of problem- and positive-coping strategies were associated with higher positive affect. Although active-avoidance coping was the least frequently reported, it was associated with higher levels of negative affect and increased anxiety and depression. Moderated mediation analyses identified that active-avoidance coping mediated the relationship between the number of forms of challenging behaviour and poor maternal mental health, but only in mothers with lower levels of problem-focused coping. Active-avoidance coping is associated with poorer negative mental health in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities who have average to low levels of problem-focused coping. This is reflective of that noted within a range of populations, highlighting it as a key area for intervention.

  1. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the potential to further advance our understanding of animal dietary composition and foraging behaviour by allowing identification of a much greater proportion of prey items often with increased taxonomic resolution. We used morphological analysis and Illumina-based second generation sequencing to study the winter diet of Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattereri) and compared the results obtained from these two approaches. For the first time, we demonstrate the applicability of the Illumina MiSeq platform as a data generation source for bat dietary analyses. Results Faecal pellets collected from a hibernation site in southern England during two winters (December-March 2009–10 and 2010–11), indicated that M. nattereri forages throughout winter at least in a location with a mild winter climate. Through morphological analysis, arthropod fragments from seven taxonomic orders were identified. A high proportion of these was non-volant (67.9% of faecal pellets) and unexpectedly included many lepidopteran larvae. Molecular analysis identified 43 prey species from six taxonomic orders and confirmed the frequent presence of lepidopteran species that overwinter as larvae. Conclusions The winter diet of M. nattereri is substantially different from other times of the year confirming that this species has a wide and adaptable dietary niche. Comparison of DNA derived from the prey to an extensive reference dataset of potential prey barcode sequences permitted fine scale taxonomic resolution of prey

  2. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  3. Floral heterochrony promotes flexibility of reproductive strategies in the morphologically homogeneous genus Eugenia (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thais N C; Lucas, Eve J; Faria, Jair E Q; Prenner, Gerhard

    2018-01-25

    Comparative floral ontogeny represents a valuable tool to understand angiosperm evolution. Such an approach may elucidate subtle changes in development that discretely modify floral architecture and underlie reproductive lability in groups with superficial homogeneous morphology. This study presents a comparative survey of floral development in Eugenia (Myrtaceae), one of the largest genera of angiosperms, and shows how previously undocumented ontogenetic trends help to explain the evolution of its megadiversity in contrast to its apparent flower uniformity. Using scanning electron microscopy, selected steps of the floral ontogeny of a model species (Eugenia punicifolia) are described and compared with 20 further species representing all ten major clades in the Eugenia phylogenetic tree. Additional floral trait data are contrasted for correlation analysis and character reconstructions performed against the Myrtaceae phylogenetic tree. Eugenia flowers show similar organ arrangement patterns: radially symmetrical, (most commonly) tetramerous flowers with variable numbers of stamens and ovules. Despite a similar general organization, heterochrony is evident from size differences between tissues and structures at similar developmental stages. These differences underlie variable levels of investment in protection, subtle modifications to symmetry, herkogamic effects and independent androecium and gynoecium variation, producing a wide spectrum of floral display and contributing to fluctuations in fitness. During Eugenia's bud development, the hypanthium (as defined here) is completely covered by stamen primordia, unusual in other Myrtaceae. This is the likely plesiomorphic state for Myrteae and may have represented a key evolutionary novelty in the tribe. Floral evolution in Eugenia depends on heterochronic patterns rather than changes in complexity to promote flexibility in floral strategies. The successful early establishment of Myrteae, previously mainly linked to the

  4. The relationships between morphological features and social signalling behaviours in juvenile dogs: the effect of early experience with dogs of different morphotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerswell, Keven J; Butler, Kym L; Bennett, Pauleen; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2010-09-01

    Research on dog communication has tended to focus on breed differences and the use of lupine signals by the domestic dog. However, the relationship between morphological change and communication has received little empirical study. The link between morphology and behavioural selection in a canid undergoing domestication, the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), has been well documented. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose a similar link may be present in another canid species that has undergone domestication, namely the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Inter-morphotype interactions (587 interactions) of 115 juvenile dogs aged 8-20 weeks from over 30 breeds and various hybrids, enrolled in veterinary "Puppy Socialisation Classes", were video taped. Each signal that could be sent, was recorded, and the sending and the intended receiving dog identified. The frequencies with which a dog sent each category of signal, and the frequency with which each category of signal was directed at the dog (elicited), were calculated. The relationship between these frequencies and the morphology of the dog was then studied using generalized linear models. Overall morphology of the dog was not related to either the sending or eliciting of any social signaling behaviours (social signals). However, snout length was related to both the signals sent by a dog, and especially the signals that were directed to a dog (elicited). Relationships to eye cover and coat length were also found. Possible explanations for the results are discussed, and avenues for further research are indicated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioural strategies towards human disturbances explain individual performance in woodland caribou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Martin; Dussault, Christian; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2014-09-01

    Behavioural strategies may have important fitness, ecological and evolutionary consequences. In woodland caribou, human disturbances are associated with higher predation risk. Between 2004 and 2011, we investigated if habitat selection strategies of female caribou towards disturbances influenced their calf's survival in managed boreal forest with varying intensities of human disturbances. Calf survival was 53% and 43% after 30 and 90 days following birth, respectively, and 52% of calves that died were killed by black bear. The probability that a female lose its calf to predation was not influenced by habitat composition of her annual home range, but decreased with an increase in proportion of open lichen woodland within her calving home range. At the local scale, females that did not lose their calf displayed stronger avoidance of high road density areas than females that lost their calf to predation. Further, females that lost their calf to predation and that had a low proportion of ≤5-year-old cutovers within their calving home range were mostly observed in areas where these young cutovers were locally absent. Also, females that lost their calf to predation and that had a high proportion of ≤5-year-old cutovers within their calving home range were mostly observed in areas with a high local density of ≤5-year-old cutovers. Our study demonstrates that we have to account for human-induced disturbances at both local and regional scales in order to further enhance effective caribou management plans. We demonstrate that disturbances not only impact spatial distribution of individuals, but also their reproductive success.

  6. A Conceptual framework of Strategy, Structure and Innovative Behaviour for the Development of a Dynamic Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Trivellas, Panagiotis; Reklitis, Panagiotis

    2007-12-01

    According to many researchers of organizational theory, a great number of problems encountered by the manufacturing firms are due to their failure to foster innovative behaviour by aligning business strategy and structure. From this point of view, the fit between strategy and structure is essential in order to facilitate firms' innovative behaviour. In the present paper, we adopt Porter's typology to operationalise business strategy (cost leadership, innovative and marketing differentiation, and focus). Organizational structure is built on four dimensions (centralization, formalization, complexity and employees' initiatives to implement new ideas). Innovativeness is measured as product innovation, process and technological innovation. This study provides the necessary theoretical framework for the development of a dynamic simulation method, although the simulation of social events is a quite difficult task, considering that there are so many alternatives (not all well understood).

  7. Behaviour change strategies for reducing blood pressure-related disease burden: findings from a global implementation research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, David; Thompson, Simon R; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Goudge, Jane; Gyamfi, Joyce; Kamano, Jemima Hoine; Irazola, Vilma; Johnson, Claire; Kengne, Andre P; Keat, Ng Kien; Miranda, J Jaime; Mohan, Sailesh; Mukasa, Barbara; Ng, Eleanor; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Praveen, Devarsetty; Salam, Abdul; Thorogood, Margaret; Thrift, Amanda G; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Waddy, Salina P; Webster, Jacqui; Webster, Ruth; Yeates, Karen; Yusoff, Khalid

    2015-11-09

    The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases comprises the majority of the world's public research funding agencies. It is focussed on implementation research to tackle the burden of chronic diseases in low- and middle-income countries and amongst vulnerable populations in high-income countries. In its inaugural research call, 15 projects were funded, focussing on lowering blood pressure-related disease burden. In this study, we describe a reflexive mapping exercise to identify the behaviour change strategies undertaken in each of these projects. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel framework, each team rated the capability, opportunity and motivation of the various actors who were integral to each project (e.g. community members, non-physician health workers and doctors in projects focussed on service delivery). Teams then mapped the interventions they were implementing and determined the principal policy categories in which those interventions were operating. Guidance was provided on the use of Behaviour Change Wheel to support consistency in responses across teams. Ratings were iteratively discussed and refined at several group meetings. There was marked variation in the perceived capabilities, opportunities and motivation of the various actors who were being targeted for behaviour change strategies. Despite this variation, there was a high degree of synergy in interventions functions with most teams utilising complex interventions involving education, training, enablement, environmental restructuring and persuasion oriented strategies. Similar policy categories were also targeted across teams particularly in the areas of guidelines, communication/marketing and service provision with few teams focussing on fiscal measures, regulation and legislation. The large variation in preparedness to change behaviour amongst the principal actors across these projects suggests that the interventions themselves will be variably taken up, despite the similarity in approaches taken

  8. Data-driven behavioural modelling of residential water consumption to inform water demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Cominola, Andrea; Alshaf, Ahmad; Castelletti, Andrea; Anda, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The continuous expansion of urban areas worldwide is expected to highly increase residential water demand over the next few years, ultimately challenging the distribution and supply of drinking water. Several studies have recently demonstrated that actions focused only on the water supply side of the problem (e.g., augmenting existing water supply infrastructure) will likely fail to meet future demands, thus calling for the concurrent deployment of effective water demand management strategies (WDMS) to pursue water savings and conservation. However, to be effective WDMS do require a substantial understanding of water consumers' behaviors and consumption patterns at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Retrieving information on users' behaviors, as well as their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas for targeting water saving efforts and to design user-tailored WDMS, such as education campaigns and personalized recommendations. In this work, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify household water users' consumption behavioural profiles and model their water use habits. State-of-the-art clustering methods are coupled with big data machine learning techniques with the aim of extracting dominant behaviors from a set of water consumption data collected at the household scale. This allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample and characterizing them with respect to several consumption features. Our approach is validated onto a real-world household water consumption dataset associated with a variety of demographic and psychographic user data and household attributes, collected in nine towns of the Pilbara and Kimberley Regions of Western Australia. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in capturing the influence of candidate determinants on residential water consumption profiles and in attaining sufficiently accurate predictions of users' consumption behaviors, ultimately providing

  9. Beyond Behavioural Management Strategies: An Alternative Viewpoint from the Pupil Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Allan

    2007-01-01

    The article begins by discussing the literature as it relates to the perceived effectiveness of behavioural management approaches, as well as the author's experiences of implementing a behavioural approach. The second part highlights an alternative viewpoint, as derived from an empirical study, as it relates to the pupil perspective of effective…

  10. TEMAS: fleet-based bio-economic simulation software to evaluate management strategies accounting for fleet behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Sparre, Per Johan

    2007-01-01

    TEMAS (technical management measures) is a fleet-based bio-economic software for evaluating management strategies accounting for technical measures and fleet behaviour. It focuses on mixed fisheries in which several fleets can choose among several fishing activities to target different stocks...... in one or several areas. The software combines a management strategy evaluation framework, using a forward-running operating model and a management procedure with a fleet behaviour module simulating both short-term (effort allocation) and long-term (entry/exit) fleet dynamics. The suite of models behind...... TEMAS can be thought of as an extension of the traditional ICES forecast model. Alternative management scenarios can be compared and evaluated for their bio-economic consequences and robustness to parameter uncertainty. The software is generic and user-friendly, and can be run at several space and time...

  11. Effect of primary particle size on spray formation, morphology and internal structure of alumina granules and elucidation of flowability and compaction behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Ramavath

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different alumina powders with varying particle sizes were subjected to spray drying under identical conditions and effect of particle size on heat transfer efficiency and mechanism of formation of granules was elucidated. Morphology, internal structure and size distribution of granules were studied and evaluated with respect to their flow behaviour. In order to estimate the elastic interaction of granules, the granules were subjected to compaction under progressive loading followed by periodic unloading. Compaction curves were plotted and compressibility factor was estimated and correlated with predicted and measured green density values.

  12. Behavioural treatment strategies improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, E; Hassmén, P; Welvaert, M; Pumpa, K L

    2017-04-01

    Poor adherence to lifestyle intervention remains a key factor hindering treatment effectiveness and health outcomes for adults with obesity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if behavioural treatment strategies (e.g. goal setting, motivational interviewing, relapse prevention, cognitive restructuring etc.) improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the use of behavioural treatment strategies in obesity management were identified by systematically reviewing the literature within Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science from their inception to August 2016. This meta-analysis shows that behavioural treatment interventions have a significant positive effect on session attendance (percentage) and physical activity (total min/week) in adults with obesity (M = 17.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.77, 24.50), z =5.0337, P intervention programmes in adults with obesity. These strategies should be routinely incorporated into lifestyle intervention, obesity management and weight loss programmes with the aim of improving engagement and adherence. If adherence were improved, treatment effectiveness, health outcomes and the ultimate burden of chronic disease could also be improved. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Evaluation of intensified behaviour change communication strategies in an artemisinin resistance setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; de Beyl, Celine Zegers; Ly, Po; Shafique, Muhammad; Boukheng, Thavrin; Rang, Chandary; Whittaker, Maxine Anne; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Sintasath, David

    2016-04-30

    In Cambodia, behaviour change communication (BCC) represents an integral component of malaria efforts aimed at fighting artemisinin resistant parasites and achieving elimination. The multi-pronged BCC interventions include interpersonal communication through village health volunteers (VHVs) and village malaria workers (VMWs), broadcasting malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment messages via TV, radio and mobile broadcasting units (MBUs), distributing information education and communication (IEC) materials and introducing mobile malaria workers (MMWs) in endemic villages. This was a cross sectional household survey using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling approach, conducted in December 2012. A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling approach was used; 30 villages were selected (15 in each stratum) and a total of 774 households were interviewed. This survey aimed to assess the potential added effect of 'intense' BCC interventions in three Western provinces. Conducted 2 years after start of these efforts, 'non-intense' BCC (niBBC) interventions (e.g., radio or TV) were compared to "intense" BCC (iBBC) implemented through a set of interpersonal communication strategies such as VMWs, VHVs, mobile broadcasting units and listener viewer clubs. In both groups, the knowledge of the mode of malaria transmission was high (96.9 vs 97.2 %; p = 0.83), as well as of fever as a symptom (91.5 vs 93.5 %; p = 0.38). Knowledge of local risk factors, such as staying in the forest (39.7 vs 30.7 %; p = 0.17) or the farm (7.1 vs 5.1 %; p = 0.40) was low in both groups. Few respondents in either group knew that they must get tested if they suspected malaria (0.3 vs 0.1; p = 0.69). However, iBBC increased the discussions about malaria in the family (51.7 vs 35.8 %; p = 0.002) and reported prompt access to treatment in case of fever (77.1 vs 59.4 %; p resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  14. Hydrologic behaviour of the Lake of Monate (Italy): a parsimonious modelling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomesani, Giulia; Soligno, Irene; Castellarin, Attilio; Baratti, Emanuele; Cervi, Federico; Montanari, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Lake of Monate (province of Varese, Northern Italy), is a unique example of ecosystem in equilibrium. The lake water quality is deemed excellent notwithstanding the intensive agricultural cultivation, industrial assets and mining activities characterising the surrounding areas. The lake has a true touristic vocation and is the only swimmable water body of the province of Varese, which counts several natural lakes. Lake of Monate has no tributary and its overall watershed area is equal to c.a. 6.6 km2 including the lake surface (i.e. 2.6 km2), of which 3.3 out of c.a. 4.0 km2 belong to the topographical watershed, while the remaining 0.7 km2 belong to the underground watershed. The latter is larger than the topographical watershed due to the presence of moraine formations on top of the limestone bedrock. The local administration recently promoted an intensive environmental monitoring campaign that aims to reach a better understanding of the hydrology of the lake and the subsurface water fluxes. The monitoring campaign started in October 2013 and, as a result, several meteoclimatic and hydrologic data have been collected up to now at daily and hourly timescales. Our study focuses on a preliminary representation of the hydrological behaviour of the lake through a modified version of HyMOD, a conceptual 5-parameter lumped rainfall-runoff model based on the probability-distributed soil storage capacity. The modified model is a semi-distributed application of HyMOD that uses the same five parameters of the original version and simulates the rainfall-runoff transformation for the whole lake watershed at daily time scale in terms of: direct precipitation on, and evaporation from, the lake surface; overall lake inflow, by separating the runoff component (topographic watershed) from the groundwater component (overall watershed); lake water-level oscillation; streamflow at the lake outlet. We used the first year of hydrometeorological observations as calibration data and

  15. Enterprising health: creating the conditions for entrepreneurial behaviour as a strategy for effective and sustainable change in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exton, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate conditions under which entrepreneurs emerge as agents of effective and sustainable change in UK National Health Service Trusts. The research synthesises literature on changing regulatory structures ("post-bureaucracy") and entrepreneurial behaviour to understand how individual identity construction is informed both by context and by individual attributes. Thematic analysis of interview data involving managers from 11 NHS Trusts, including detailed analysis of six transcripts, focuses on regulatory processes, the emergence of entrepreneurial behaviour and outcome variations in workplace innovation and improvement. This study identifies co-existing modes of regulation, which interact with individual behaviour, generating strategies differentiated as entrepreneurial or conformist. Four ideal types are identified: organisational entrepreneurship, resisted or dissonant entrepreneurship, conformity, and symbolic entrepreneurship. Analysis reinforces those literature findings, which suggest that the interaction of regulatory structures and the identity work of individuals influence the emergence of entrepreneurial behaviour and the effectiveness of change. The ability to achieve effective and sustainable outcomes varies considerably even between NHS Trusts faced with comparable challenges in implementing nationally prescribed targets. This variance is explained in terms of the organisation's ability to generate the structures, processes, individual competence and motivation which enable employees at all levels to act entrepreneurially with the ability and legitimacy to achieve strategic goals by working creatively in the spaces between formal organisational structures. The study identifies specific conditions, which stimulate the emergence of entrepreneurs as agents of effective and sustainable change in the NHS, identifying factors that policymakers should consider when implementing change.

  16. IMPACT OF PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY PRODUCTS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Świątkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chain and market-oriented dairy sustainability, nutritional and social objectives related to the promotion of behaviours aimed at the development are essential. At the same time, the signifi cance of the various forms of sales promotion, as a factor of consumer buying behaviour infl uence, increases. The study includes the use of the sales promotion instruments in commercial space, perceived by consumers and assessment of their impact on purchasing decisions. The study was carried out on the basis of a standardized authoring individual interview questionnaire on nationwide random-quota, registered trials, in 2007–2012, as a part of the study of consumer behaviour performed in the dairy market for KZSM (National Association of Dairy Cooperatives. The results confi rm that the effect of promotion activities is a high visibility by consumers and change of their purchasing decisions. The most important determinant of consumer purchasing behaviour are the price promotions. Most often supported by a complete set of sales promotion instruments have been modern dairy products – yoghurt, grainy and ripening cheese. Sales promotion is an important instrument of balancing the dairy market and shaping the desired behaviour of consumers.

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of the ecological, biological and behavioural variants of the JE vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus: an assessment of its taxonomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, A R; Kumar, N Pradeep; Natarajan, R; Vanamail, P; Rathinakumar, A; Jambulingam, P

    2015-03-01

    Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae), an important vector of Japanese encephalitis belongs to the Culex vishnui subgroup which includes two other vector species namely, Cx. Vishnui and Cx. pseudovishnui. Many varieties and types of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus have been reported, besides populations that exhibit behavioural and biological differences. This study was undertaken to find out whether Cx. tritaeniorhynchus populations exhibiting behavioural and biological variations, and those from different geographical areas, are comprised of more than one taxon or belong to a single taxon. Morphological characterization was done by examining 153 morphological and morphometric characters in the larval (75), pupal (60) and adult stages (18) of five geographical populations of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Molecular characterization was done by PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COI) gene sequences (DNA barcodes) and another hypervariable genetic marker, the ribosomal DNA (16S). One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) were done for statistical analyses using the statistical package SPSS IBM version 19.0. Morphological characterization showed that no intraspecific differentiation can be made among the five geographical populations of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Molecular characterization done by DNA barcoding also showed that the COI sequences of all the five populations of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus grouped into a single taxonomic clade plus the genetic differentiation among these was non-significant and the overall gene flow among the populations was very high. Analysis of the ribosomal DNA also confirmed that the Cx. tritaeniorhynchus populations belonged to a single taxon. Culex tritaeniorhynchus is a taxon that does not involve cryptic species.

  18. A systematic review of hand hygiene improvement strategies: a behavioural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, A.M.P.; van Achterberg, T.; de Bruin, M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Schoonhoven, L.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many strategies have been designed and evaluated to address the problem of low hand hygiene (HH) compliance. Which of these strategies are most effective and how they work is still unclear. Here we describe frequently used improvement strategies and related determinants of

  19. Backtracking behaviour in lost ants: an additional strategy in their navigational toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wystrach, Antoine; Schwarz, Sebastian; Baniel, Alice; Cheng, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Ants use multiple sources of information to navigate, but do not integrate all this information into a unified representation of the world. Rather, the available information appears to serve three distinct main navigational systems: path integration, systematic search and the use of learnt information—mainly via vision. Here, we report on an additional behaviour that suggests a supplemental system in the ant's navigational toolkit: ‘backtracking’. Homing ants, having almost reached their nest but, suddenly displaced to unfamiliar areas, did not show the characteristic undirected headings of systematic searches. Instead, these ants backtracked in the compass direction opposite to the path that they had just travelled. The ecological function of this behaviour is clear as we show it increases the chances of returning to familiar terrain. Importantly, the mechanistic implications of this behaviour stress an extra level of cognitive complexity in ant navigation. Our results imply: (i) the presence of a type of ‘memory of the current trip’ allowing lost ants to take into account the familiar view recently experienced, and (ii) direct sharing of information across different navigational systems. We propose a revised architecture of the ant's navigational toolkit illustrating how the different systems may interact to produce adaptive behaviours. PMID:23966644

  20. Analysis of Customer Behaviour and Online Retailers Strategies Using the Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Čavoški

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of ABMS – agent-based modelling and simulation in the analysis of customer behaviour on B2C e-commerce websites as well as in the analysis of various business decisions upon the effects of on-line sales. By linking the areas of modelling based on agents and electronic commerce, this paper addresses the new opportunities for a quality assessment of consumer behaviour and reasons explaining this behaviour in e-commerce. The interactions of agents that make up this model are sublimated in the utility function that provides the basis for decision-making in the model. The rules of behaviour and interactions, included in the model through the utility function, denote the complexity of the decision-making process which occurs in evaluation and purchase of products in the part of B2C e-commerce. The simulation model implemented in the software NetLogo enables the monitoring of all interactions between the consumers (ConsumerAgents, seller-Internet sites (SellerAgents and advertisement agents (BannerAgents by generating the indicators of B2C site business performance.

  1. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in…

  2. Form follows function: morphological diversification and alternative trapping strategies in carnivorous Nepenthes pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ulrike; Clemente, C J; Renner, T; Federle, W

    2012-01-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved a striking diversity of pitcher traps that rely on specialized slippery surfaces for prey capture. With a comparative study of trap morphology, we show that Nepenthes pitcher plants have evolved specific adaptations for the use of either one of two distinct trapping mechanisms: slippery wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall and 'insect aquaplaning' on the wet upper rim (peristome). Species without wax crystals had wider peristomes with a longer inward slope. Ancestral state reconstructions identified wax crystal layers and narrow, symmetrical peristomes as ancestral, indicating that wax crystals have been reduced or lost multiple times independently. Our results complement recent reports of nutrient source specializations in Nepenthes and suggest that these specializations may have driven speciation and rapid diversification in this genus. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Understanding the size selectivity in diamond mesh codends based on flume tank experiments and fish morphology: effect of catch size and fish escape behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Junita Diana; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    2013-01-01

    (Gadus morhua) and Nephrops (N. norvegicus) to simulate potential size selection. By assuming certain patterns of fish escape behaviour in the codend, it was demonstrated that it was possible to replicate results for size selection based on sea trials with similar codends. Results show that L50 can......This study quantifies potential size selection of a fish and a crustacean species in di-amond mesh codends during a fishing process. Changes in mesh geometry along the codends and at different catch weights were recorded in a flume tank and subse-quently used together with the morphology of cod...... happens mostly in the area of catch accu-mulation. In response to questions, it was also noted that FISHSELECT methodology has been used. Mesh penetrations were simulated for each individual. Considering the relationship between catch weight and codend selectivity, studies with lower catches can...

  4. Coping strategies associated with suicidal behaviour in adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Alexandra; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Labelle, Réal; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Boudailliez, Bernard; De La Rivière, Sébastien Garny; Kharij, Brahim; Mille, Christian; Mirkovic, Bojan; Pripis, Cornelia; Renaud, Johanne; Vervel, Christine; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-02-01

    To compare the coping strategies of adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) to the coping strategies of adolescents without BPD, and to explore the association of coping with suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents with BPD. Adolescent inpatients (n = 167) aged 13 to 17 years were admitted after suicide attempts and evaluated within 10 days, using the abbreviated version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines-Revised, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version supported by a team consensus best estimate method for the primary diagnosis, the Adolescent Coping Scale, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Firstly, compared with adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD relied more on nonproductive coping strategies, mostly avoidant strategies, and less on productive coping strategies. Secondly, coping appeared as a factor associated with suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD. While while controlling for age, sex, and depression, multivariate analyses showed a significant positive association between the coping strategy to focusing on solving the problem and suicidal ideation. The use of avoidant strategies by adolescents with BPD could be viewed as attempts to increase emotional regulation. Problem-solving strategies in the immediate aftermath of a suicide attempt may prevent adolescents with BPD from overcoming a crisis and may increase suicidal ideation.

  5. Coping Strategies Associated With Suicidal Behaviour in Adolescent Inpatients With Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Alexandra; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Labelle, Réal; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Boudailliez, Bernard; de la Rivière, Sébastien Garny; Kharij, Brahim; Mille, Christian; Mirkovic, Bojan; Pripis, Cornelia; Renaud, Johanne; Vervel, Christine; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the coping strategies of adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) to the coping strategies of adolescents without BPD, and to explore the association of coping with suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents with BPD. Method: Adolescent inpatients (n = 167) aged 13 to 17 years were admitted after suicide attempts and evaluated within 10 days, using the abbreviated version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines–Revised, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version supported by a team consensus best estimate method for the primary diagnosis, the Adolescent Coping Scale, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results: Firstly, compared with adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD relied more on nonproductive coping strategies, mostly avoidant strategies, and less on productive coping strategies. Secondly, coping appeared as a factor associated with suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD. While while controlling for age, sex, and depression, multivariate analyses showed a significant positive association between the coping strategy to focusing on solving the problem and suicidal ideation. Conclusion: The use of avoidant strategies by adolescents with BPD could be viewed as attempts to increase emotional regulation. Problem-solving strategies in the immediate aftermath of a suicide attempt may prevent adolescents with BPD from overcoming a crisis and may increase suicidal ideation. PMID:25886671

  6. Teachers' High Maintenance Behaviour as Perceived by University Students in Taiwan, and Their Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fu-Yuan; Cheng, Kuang-Tsan

    2014-01-01

    Using a questionnaire survey, this study probed into interpersonal cues and characteristics of teachers' high maintenance behaviors perceived by university students and their coping strategies, and then analyzed the relationship between their perceived high maintenance behaviors and the dimensions of their coping strategies. The Scale of Teachers'…

  7. Derivation of the out-of-plane behaviour of an English bond masonry wall through homogenization strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís Carlos; Milani, Gabriele; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2017-11-01

    Two finite element homogenized-based strategies are presented for the out-of-plane behaviour characterization of an English bond masonry wall. A finite element micro-modelling approach using Cauchy stresses and first order movements are assumed for both strategies. The material nonlinearity is lumped on joints interfaces and bricks are considered elastic. Nevertheless, the first model is based on a Plane-stress assumption, in which the out-of-plane quantities are derived through on-thickness wall integration considering a Kirchhoff-plate theory. The second model is a tridimensional one, in which the homogenized out-of-plane quantities can be directly derived after solving the boundary value problem. The comparison is conducted by assessing the obtained out-of-plane bending- and torsion-curvature diagrams. A good agreement is found for the present study case.

  8. Business to business buying behaviour : An analysis and sales strategy for Aalund Customer Dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Aalund is a Nordic market research institute that is interested in finding out more about industrial buying behaviour especially in relation to its new analyses product, Customer Dialogue. This online management tool is developed for companies that are interested in improving their business customer relations and service by measuring business customer satisfaction. Through the results of the analyses a company can discover issues that could be improven and in the end gain even more engaged bu...

  9. Morphology, germination, and storage behaviour in seeds of Tuscan populations of Fritillaria montana (Liliaceae), a rare perennial geophyte in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    MANCUSO, Elisa; BEDINI, Gianni; PERUZZI, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J.Koch (Liliaceae) is a rare perennial geophyte growing in south-eastern Europe. Although it occurs in most of the Italian territory, it is very rare and is included in the Red List of threatened plant species of most of the regions in which it grows; in Tuscany (central Italy), it is listed as Critically Endangered. The aim of our study was to investigate the seed size, weight, and morphology; the seed moisture and oil contents; the seed germination condition...

  10. The Strategy to Control the Morphology of ZnO Nanostructure UV Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humayun, Q; Hashim, U; Foo, Kai Loong; Ruzaidi, C M

    2015-01-01

    The control morphology of ZnO nanostructures at specific area of electrodes by implemented a cost effective fabrication process, is extremely a challenging task. Rapid sensing, fast response and fast detection capability of the electronics devices is nowadays hot subject of keen interest. Our research is one of the successful attempts to achieve the desired goal at certain levels. Therefore in the current research article the ZnO thin film and ZnO nanorods were selectively deposited by low cost sol-gel and hydrothermal growth process at the selective area of microgap electrodes spacing and further the comparative study of ZnO thin film and ZnO nanorods were conducted electrically, for ultraviolet (UV) sensing application. On exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light the current gains, response/recovery times, repeatability, of the ZnO nanorods compared with ZnO thin film was improved probably due to the role of large surface area covered by the deposited nanostructures, and the most important is the bridging nanorods at the microgap electrodes tips. All the characterization including, surface, electrical and structural of the deposited nanostructures were completed by using SEM, sourcemeter and XRD respectively. (paper)

  11. Examining behavioural coping strategies as mediators between work-family conflict and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict.

  12. Why did the meerkat cross the road? Flexible adaptation of phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to modern-day threats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Perony

    Full Text Available Risk-sensitive adaptive spatial organisation during group movement has been shown to efficiently minimise the risks associated with external ecological threats. Whether animals can draw on such behaviours when confronted with man-made threats is generally less clear. We studied road-crossing in a wild, but habituated, population of meerkats living in the Kalahari Desert, South Africa. We found that dominant females, the core member in meerkat social systems, led groups to the road significantly more often than subordinates, yet were consistently less likely to cross first. Our results suggest that a reshuffling occurs in progression order when meerkat groups reach the road. By employing a simple model of collective movement, we have shown that risk aversion alone may be sufficient to explain this reshuffling, but that the risk aversion of dominant females toward road crossing is significantly higher than that of subordinates. It seems that by not crossing first, dominant females avoid occupying the most risky, exposed locations, such as at the front of the group--a potential selfish strategy that also promotes the long-term stability and hence reproductive output of their family groups. We argue that our findings support the idea that animals can flexibly apply phylogenetically-old behavioural strategies to deal with emerging modern-day problems.

  13. Interspecific comparison of the performance of soaring migrants in relation to morphology, meteorological conditions and migration strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Mellone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Performance of migrating birds can be affected by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors like morphology, meteorological conditions and migration strategies. We compared travel speeds of four raptor species during their crossing of the Sahara desert. Focusing the analyses on this region allows us to compare different species under equivalent conditions in order to disentangle which factors affect migratory performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We tracked raptors using GPS satellite transmitters from Sweden, Spain and Italy, and evaluated their migratory performance at both an hourly and a daily scale. Hourly data (flight speed and altitude for intervals of two hours were analyzed in relation to time of day, species and season, and daily data (distance between roosting sites in relation to species, season, day length and tailwind support. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite a clear variation in morphology, interspecific differences were generally very small, and did only arise in spring, with long-distance migrants (>5000 km: osprey and Western marsh-harrier being faster than species that migrate shorter distances (Egyptian vulture and short-toed eagle. Our results suggest that the most important factor explaining hourly variation in flight speed is time of day, while at a daily scale, tailwind support is the most important factor explaining variation in daily distance, raising new questions about the consequences of possible future changes in worldwide wind patterns.

  14. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Aazami, Sanaz; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of medi...

  15. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  16. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mukhin

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1 the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1, (2 the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3 the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1 the markedly reduced mobility and (2 the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1 influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better

  17. Modelling of the physico-chemical behaviour of clay minerals with a thermo-kinetic model taking into account particles morphology in compacted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, D.; Fritz, B.; Clément, C.; Michau, N.

    2003-04-01

    Modelling of fluid-mineral interactions is largely used in Earth Sciences studies to better understand the involved physicochemical processes and their long-term effect on the materials behaviour. Numerical models simplify the processes but try to preserve their main characteristics. Therefore the modelling results strongly depend on the data quality describing initial physicochemical conditions for rock materials, fluids and gases, and on the realistic way of processes representations. The current geo-chemical models do not well take into account rock porosity and permeability and the particle morphology of clay minerals. In compacted materials like those considered as barriers in waste repositories, low permeability rocks like mudstones or compacted powders will be used : they contain mainly fine particles and the geochemical models used for predicting their interactions with fluids tend to misjudge their surface areas, which are fundamental parameters in kinetic modelling. The purpose of this study was to improve how to take into account the particles morphology in the thermo-kinetic code KINDIS and the reactive transport code KIRMAT. A new function was integrated in these codes, considering the reaction surface area as a volume depending parameter and the calculated evolution of the mass balance in the system was coupled with the evolution of reactive surface areas. We made application exercises for numerical validation of these new versions of the codes and the results were compared with those of the pre-existing thermo-kinetic code KINDIS. Several points are highlighted. Taking into account reactive surface area evolution during simulation modifies the predicted mass transfers related to fluid-minerals interactions. Different secondary mineral phases are also observed during modelling. The evolution of the reactive surface parameter helps to solve the competition effects between different phases present in the system which are all able to fix the chemical

  18. The role of brain/behavioural systems in prediction of quality of life and coping strategies in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shala Jangi Goujeh Biglou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems that individual differences in personality characteristics are implicated in the incidence and progress of physical diseases and socio-psychological consequences. However, there are a few studies about the role of personality in the prediction of socio-psychological consequences of cancer. The aim of this research was to survey the role of personality in the prediction of socio-psychosocial factors: quality of life and coping strategies. Methods: This research was a descriptive-correlational study in which the sample included fifty cancer patients who were selected through convenience sampling method. To assess the personality differences, quality of life and coping strategies, the Carver and White (1994 BIS/BAS Scales, SF-12 Health Survey and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation (CISS were used, respectively. The data were analysed by SPSS software using Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. Results: The findings showed that Both BIS and BAS systems could predict the quality of life (P<0.001, BIS system could explain the emotion-oriented coping strategy (P<0.05 and avoidance-oriented coping stratesy (P<0.01 and BAS system could explain the problem-oriented coping strategy (P<0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that brain/behavioural systems can predict the quality of life and coping strategies in cancer patients. The identification of these systems in cancer patients can help recognize the persons that are under the risk of poor quality of life or have a higher chance of using inconsistent coping strategies, and execute preventive measures about them.

  19. Embryoid body morphology influences diffusive transport of inductive biochemicals: a strategy for stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachlos, Eleftherios; Auguste, Debra T

    2008-12-01

    Differentiation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells into cells for regenerative medicine is often initiated by embryoid body (EB) formation. EBs may be treated with soluble biochemicals such as cytokines, growth factors and vitamins to induce differentiation. A scanning electron microscopy analysis, conducted over 14 days, revealed time-dependent changes in EB structure which led to the formation of a shell that significantly reduced the diffusive transport of a model molecule (374 Da) by >80%. We found that the shell consists of 1) an extracellular matrix (ECM) comprised of collagen type I; 2) a squamous cellular layer with tight cell-cell adhesions associated with E-cadherin; and 3) a collagen type IV lining indicative of a basement membrane. Disruption of the basement membrane, by either inhibiting its formation with noggin or permeabilizing it with collagenase, resulted in recovery of diffusive transport. Increasing the diffusive transport of retinoic acid (RA) and serum in EBs by a 15-min collagenase digestion on days 4, 5, 6 and 7 promoted neuronal differentiation. Flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of collagenase-treated EBs revealed 68% of cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) relative to 28% for untreated EBs. Our results suggest that limitations in diffusive transport of biochemicals need to be considered when formulating EB differentiation strategies.

  20. Fe and Fe-P Foam for Biodegradable Bone Replacement Material: Morphology, Corrosion Behaviour, and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hrubovčáková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron and iron-phosphorus open-cell foams were manufactured by a replica method based on a powder metallurgical approach to serve as a temporary biodegradable bone replacement material. Iron foams alloyed with phosphorus were prepared with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties and manipulating the corrosion rate. Two different types of Fe-P foams containing 0.5 wt.% of P were prepared: Fe-P(I foams from a phosphated carbonyl iron powder and Fe-P(II foams from a mixture of carbonyl iron and commercial Fe3P. The microstructure of foams was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties and the corrosion behaviour were studied by compression tests and potentiodynamic polarization in Hank’s solution and a physiological saline solution. The results showed that the manufactured foams exhibited an open, interconnected, microstructure similar to that of a cancellous bone. The presence of phosphorus improved the mechanical properties of the foams and decreased the corrosion rate as compared to pure iron foams.

  1. COMMUNICATIVE PROVOCATION AS A STRATEGY OF DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR IN EVERY-DAY CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkova Olga Sergeevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concentrated on the issue of systematization and classification of strategies and tactics of individual's verbal behavior in a number of typical situations associated with disharmonious communication. Its scientific originality is defined by the necessity to present the provocation phenomenon as a category of communicative linguistics and linguistic pragmatics. The use of discourse analysis and descriptive pragmatic interpretation of real communication forms have enabled the revelation of various patterns of destructive verbal behavior that could provoke a communicative conflict. Communicative provocation is described as a strategy of destructive behavior aimed at dragging a communication partner into a conflict interaction or creating conditions for its occurrence. The provocation strategy is implemented in disharmonious interactions by means of individual or complex communication tactics including not only the aggressive ones: indignation, reproach, deliberate false informing, exaggerated demonstration of emotions, but also such tolerant tactics as praise, advice, apology, assurances, admiration, persuasion, etc. Two forms of communicative provocation are represented in the article. A direct provocation presupposes personal involvement of a provocateur in the conflict interaction while an indirect one allows its initiator stay aside from the open confrontation. In the latter case the provocateur stimulates and demonstrates the parties' conflict of interests, which leads to the communication harmony disruption.

  2. A Morphology Study of Nanofiller Networks in Polymer Nanocomposites: Improving Their Electrical Conductivity through Better Doping Strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Angel

    2018-02-01

    Over the past years, research efforts have focused on adding highly conductive nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), into polymers to improve their electrical conductivity or to tailor their piezoresistive behavior. Resultant materials are typically described by the weight or volume fractions of their nanoparticles. The weight/volume fraction alone is a very global quantity, making it a poor evaluator of a doping configuration. Knowing which particles actually participate in improving electrical conductivity can optimize the doping strategy. Additionally, conductive particles are only capable of charge transfer over a very short range, thus most of them do not form part of the conduction path. Thus, understanding how these particles are arranged is necessary to increase their efficiency. First, this work focuses on polymers loaded with CNTs. A computational modeling strategy based on a full morphological analysis of the CNT network is presented to systematically analyze conductive networks and show how particles are arranged. A definition of loading efficiency is provided based on the results obtained from this morphology analysis. This study provides useful guidelines for designing these types of materials based on important features, such as representative volume element, nanotube tortuosity and length, tunneling cutoff distance, and efficiency. Second, a computational approach is followed to study the conductive network formed by hybrid particles in polymer nanocomposites. These hybrid particles are synthesized by growing CNTs on the surfaces of GNPs. The objective of this study is to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrids forming a segregated structure. Polymers loaded with hybrid particles have shown a higher electrical conductivity compared with classical carbon fillers: only CNTs, only GNPs or mixed CNTs and GNPs. This is done to understand and compare the doping

  3. Developmental morphology of cover crop species exhibit contrasting behaviour to changes in soil bulk density, revealed by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr-Hersey, Jasmine E; Mooney, Sacha J; Bengough, A Glyn; Mairhofer, Stefan; Ritz, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Plant roots growing through soil typically encounter considerable structural heterogeneity, and local variations in soil dry bulk density. The way the in situ architecture of root systems of different species respond to such heterogeneity is poorly understood due to challenges in visualising roots growing in soil. The objective of this study was to visualise and quantify the impact of abrupt changes in soil bulk density on the roots of three cover crop species with contrasting inherent root morphologies, viz. tillage radish (Raphanus sativus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and black oat (Avena strigosa). The species were grown in soil columns containing a two-layer compaction treatment featuring a 1.2 g cm-3 (uncompacted) zone overlaying a 1.4 g cm-3 (compacted) zone. Three-dimensional visualisations of the root architecture were generated via X-ray computed tomography, and an automated root-segmentation imaging algorithm. Three classes of behaviour were manifest as a result of roots encountering the compacted interface, directly related to the species. For radish, there was switch from a single tap-root to multiple perpendicular roots which penetrated the compacted zone, whilst for vetch primary roots were diverted more horizontally with limited lateral growth at less acute angles. Black oat roots penetrated the compacted zone with no apparent deviation. Smaller root volume, surface area and lateral growth were consistently observed in the compacted zone in comparison to the uncompacted zone across all species. The rapid transition in soil bulk density had a large effect on root morphology that differed greatly between species, with major implications for how these cover crops will modify and interact with soil structure.

  4. Mating behaviour in laevicaudatan clam shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda and functional morphology of male claspers in a phylogenetic context: a video-based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra M S Sigvardt

    Full Text Available Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males. Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata. It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable "finger" of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable "finger", possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the "finger" position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding.

  5. Developmental morphology of cover crop species exhibit contrasting behaviour to changes in soil bulk density, revealed by X-ray computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine E Burr-Hersey

    Full Text Available Plant roots growing through soil typically encounter considerable structural heterogeneity, and local variations in soil dry bulk density. The way the in situ architecture of root systems of different species respond to such heterogeneity is poorly understood due to challenges in visualising roots growing in soil. The objective of this study was to visualise and quantify the impact of abrupt changes in soil bulk density on the roots of three cover crop species with contrasting inherent root morphologies, viz. tillage radish (Raphanus sativus, vetch (Vicia sativa and black oat (Avena strigosa. The species were grown in soil columns containing a two-layer compaction treatment featuring a 1.2 g cm-3 (uncompacted zone overlaying a 1.4 g cm-3 (compacted zone. Three-dimensional visualisations of the root architecture were generated via X-ray computed tomography, and an automated root-segmentation imaging algorithm. Three classes of behaviour were manifest as a result of roots encountering the compacted interface, directly related to the species. For radish, there was switch from a single tap-root to multiple perpendicular roots which penetrated the compacted zone, whilst for vetch primary roots were diverted more horizontally with limited lateral growth at less acute angles. Black oat roots penetrated the compacted zone with no apparent deviation. Smaller root volume, surface area and lateral growth were consistently observed in the compacted zone in comparison to the uncompacted zone across all species. The rapid transition in soil bulk density had a large effect on root morphology that differed greatly between species, with major implications for how these cover crops will modify and interact with soil structure.

  6. Coping strategies and behavioural changes following a genital herpes diagnosis among an urban sample of underserved Midwestern women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Roth, Alexis; Brand, Juanita Ebert; Zimet, Gregory D; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    This study focused on understanding the coping strategies and related behavioural changes of women who were recently diagnosed with herpes simplex virus type 2. In particular, we were interested in how coping strategies, condom use, and acyclovir uptake evolve over time. Twenty-eight women screening positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 were recruited through a public health STD clinic and the Indianapolis Community Court. Participants completed three semi-structured interviews with a woman researcher over a six-month period. The interviews focused on coping strategies for dealing with a diagnosis, frequency of condom use, suppressive and episodic acyclovir use, and the utilisation of herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups. Interview data were analysed using content analysis to identify and interpret concepts and themes that emerged from the interviews. Women employed a variety of coping strategies following an herpes simplex virus type 2 diagnosis. Of the women, 32% reported an increase in religious activities, 20% of women reported an increase in substance use, and 56% of women reported engaging in other coping activities. A total of 80% of women reported abstaining from sex immediately following the diagnosis, but 76% of women reported engaging in sex again by the six-month interview. Condom and medication use did not increase and herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups were not utilised by participants. All participants reported engaging in at least one coping mechanism after receiving their diagnosis. A positive diagnosis did not seem to result in increased use of condoms for the majority of participants and the use of acyclovir was low overall. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Effective behavioural strategies for reducing disgust in contamination-related OCD: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvik, Dominika; Boschen, Mark J; Neumann, David L

    2015-12-01

    Disgust is an understudied but important emotion in various psychological disorders. Over the last decade, increasing evidence suggests that disgust is also present in various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), especially in contamination-related OCD (C-OCD). The treatment of choice for C-OCD is exposure with response prevention, originally designed to reduce fear-associated emotions thought to be acquired through Pavlovian conditioning (PC). However, disgust has been proposed to be acquired through evaluative conditioning (EC) and according to the referential model of this form of learning, there are functional differences between PC and EC that need to be considered in the treatment of disgust-related responses. Alternative strategies suggested by EC-based models include counterconditioning (contingent presentation of the CS with a US of opposite valence) and US revaluation (contingent presentation of the US with US of opposite valence). Drawing on the referential model, this paper reviews evidence for the effectiveness of each strategy to identify the most theoretically sound and empirically valid intervention to reduce disgust in C-OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A systematic review of the relationship between weight status perceptions and weight loss attempts, strategies, behaviours and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, I.; Sutin, A.; Daly, M.; Robinson, E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary It is commonly assumed that a person identifying that they are ‘overweight’ is an important prerequisite to successful weight management. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of evidence supporting this proposition. The aim of the present research was to systematically review evidence on the relationship between perceived overweight and (i) weight loss attempts, (ii) weight control strategies (healthy and unhealthy), (iii) weight‐related behaviours (physical activity and eating habits), (iv) disordered eating and (v) weight change. We synthesized evidence from 78 eligible studies and evaluated evidence linking perceived overweight with outcome variables separately according to the gender, age and objective weight status of study participants. Results indicated that perceived overweight was associated with an increased likelihood of attempting weight loss and with healthy and unhealthy weight control strategies in some participant groups. However, perceived overweight was not reliably associated with physical activity or healthy eating and was associated with greater disordered eating in some groups. Rather than being associated with improved weight management, there was consistent evidence that perceived overweight was predictive of increased weight gain over time. Individuals who perceive their weight status as overweight are more likely to report attempting weight loss but over time gain more weight. PMID:29266851

  9. A decision-support tool to inform Australian strategies for preventing suicide and suicidal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Page

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation modelling is increasingly being recognised as a valuable decision-support tool to help guide investments and actions to address complex public health issues such as suicide. In particular, participatory system dynamics (SD modelling provides a useful tool for asking high-level ‘what if’ questions, and testing the likely impacts of different combinations of policies and interventions at an aggregate level before they are implemented in the real world. We developed an SD model for suicide prevention in Australia, and investigated the hypothesised impacts over the next 10 years (2015–2025 of a combination of current intervention strategies proposed for population interventions in Australia: 1 general practitioner (GP training, 2 coordinated aftercare in those who have attempted suicide, 3 school-based mental health literacy programs, 4 brief-contact interventions in hospital settings, and 5 psychosocial treatment approaches. Findings suggest that the largest reductions in suicide were associated with GP training (6% and coordinated aftercare approaches (4%, with total reductions of 12% for all interventions combined. This paper highlights the value of dynamic modelling methods for managing complexity and uncertainty, and demonstrates their potential use as a decision-support tool for policy makers and program planners for community suicide prevention actions.

  10. Melatonin versus Placebo in Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions and Severe Sleep Problems Not Amenable to Behaviour Management Strategies: A Randomised Controlled Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Sims, David; Smart, Siobhan; Alwazeer, Ahmed; Alderson-Day, Ben; Allgar, Victoria; Whitton, Clare; Tomlinson, Heather; Bennett, Sophie; Jardine, Jenni; McCaffrey, Nicola; Leyland, Charlotte; Jakeman, Christine; Miles, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two children with autism spectrum disorders who had not responded to supported behaviour management strategies for severe dysomnias entered a double blind, randomised, controlled crossover trial involving 3 months of placebo versus 3 months of melatonin to a maximum dose of 10 mg. 17 children completed the study. There were no significant…

  11. War and peace in the classroom: moments of reprieve; a strategy for reflecting on – and improving – students’ classroom behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebor, Merv

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I intend to outline a strategy for supporting trainee teachers on Certificate in Education (Cert Ed and Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE courses in developing their ability to deal with disruptive student behaviour in their classes. I describe a particular class-based, peer-reflective practice and demonstrate how this has been effective in impacting on helping trainees to deal with teaching disruptive or challenging groups. The rationale for exploring this issue, and the problematic national context in which disruptive student behaviour takes place, is outlined. I then explore a strategy for offering trainee support and peer reflection by sharing a case study of two trainees’ classes where students were particularly disruptive. I examine how this reflective strategy helped support these trainees to improve their practice. Before concluding, some epistemological questions are raised as to the problematics of how teachers know whether improvements took place.

  12. Geomechanical behaviour of laminated, weak coal mine roof strata and the implications for a ground reinforcement strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebblewhite, B.K.; Lu, T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Mining Engineering

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a component of the results from an ARC-SPIRT funded collaborative research project between UNSW, Powercoal Pty Ltd. and Springvale Coal Pty Ltd. The research project was aimed at identifying strategies for appropriate ground control in particularly weak and soft roof strata in underground coal mining. A field investigation was undertaken at Angus Place Colliery in the Western Coalfield of New South Wales. The investigation incorporated a range of geotechnical instrumentation and was conducted over a period of time from the development face until the site was lost into the goaf of a retreating longwall panel. This paper describes the outcomes from the field investigation, together with a selection of supporting laboratory studies. The paper also presents a number of alternative presentation modes for extensometry data. The results clearly demonstrate the time and face-proximity related influences on roof integrity, and particularly demonstrated the distribution of deformation, bed separation and strata failure into the roof and across the full span of the roadway, together with reflection of this behaviour within the fully encapsulated roof bolt reinforcement system installed.

  13. Strategies in behaviour modification: theoretical background : an introductory literature study for the OECD-Expert Group on "Enforcement and Rewarding: Strategies and effects"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the domain of traffic safety, attempts in the past to modify the behaviour of individuals through punishment and rewards have been carried out in a largely ad hoc and unsystematic manner, despite the fact that behaviour modification has been a central topic in psychology for nearly a century. In

  14. Spider mite web mediates anti-predator behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemos, F.; de Almeida Sarmento, R.; Pallini, A.; Rosa Dias, C.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Herbivores suffer significant mortality from predation and are therefore subject to natural selection on traits promoting predator avoidance and resistance. They can employ an array of strategies to reduce predation, for example through changes in behaviour, morphology and life history. So far, the

  15. Assessment tools of energy balance-related behaviours used in European obesity prevention strategies: review of studies during preschool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouratidou, T.; Mesana, M.I.; Manios, Y.; Koletzko, B.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Socha, P.; Iotova, V.; Moreno, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Valid and reliable measures of energy balance-related behaviours are required when evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions aiming at prevention of childhood obesity. A structured descriptive review was performed to appraise food intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviour

  16. The associations among personality, alcohol-related Protective Behavioural Strategies (PBS, alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse in Irish, female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad Moylett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study presented one of the first examinations of the associations among personality, alcohol-related protective behavioural strategies (PBS, alcohol consumption, sexual intercourse and sex-related alcohol negative consequences in Irish, female college students (n=522. Methods: A cross-sectional observational design was employed and participants completed the study online. Participants completed measures of personality, alcohol-related PBS, alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse. Hierarchical multiple regression was utilised to access the associations between such measures. Results: From the analyses, it was found that age, frequency of sexual intercourse, frequency of alcohol consumption, level of alcohol consumption and openness were all significantly related to the use of alcohol-related protective behavioural strategies, and in turn, sex-related negative consequences. However, inconsistent findings with other personality dimensions to those of previous research were noted. Conclusions: The findings of this study posited that the use of PBS has a key role to play in the levels of sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption, age and openness, and the associated negative sexual consequences in Irish, female college students. Keywords: Protective behavioural strategies, Personality, Women, Alcohol consumption, Sexual intercourse

  17. Sensory-based conservation of seabirds: a review of management strategies and animal behaviours that facilitate success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Megan R; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Gaskett, Anne C

    2017-08-01

    Sensory-based conservation harnesses species' natural communication and signalling behaviours to mitigate threats to wild populations. To evaluate this emerging field, we assess how sensory-based manipulations, sensory mode, and target taxa affect success. To facilitate broader, cross-species application of successful techniques, we test which behavioural and life-history traits correlate with positive conservation outcomes. We focus on seabirds, one of the world's most rapidly declining groups, whose philopatry, activity patterns, foraging, mate choice, and parental care behaviours all involve reliance on, and therefore strong selection for, sophisticated sensory physiology and accurate assessment of intra- and inter-species signals and cues in several sensory modes. We review the use of auditory, olfactory, and visual methods, especially for attracting seabirds to newly restored habitat or deterring birds from fishing boats and equipment. We found that more sensory-based conservation has been attempted with Procellariiformes (tube-nosed seabirds) and Charadriiformes (e.g. terns and gulls) than other orders, and that successful outcomes are more likely for Procellariiformes. Evolutionary and behavioural traits are likely to facilitate sensory-based techniques, such as social attraction to suitable habitat, across seabird species. More broadly, successful application of sensory-based conservation to other at-risk animal groups is likely to be associated with these behavioural and life-history traits: coloniality, philopatry, nocturnal, migratory, long-distance foraging, parental care, and pair bonds/monogamy. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Assessing Public Attitudes and Behaviour to Household Waste Management in Cameroon to Drive Strategy Development: A Q Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence O. Mbeng

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Household waste is an environmental and public health problem, especially for the large cities in Sub-Saharan African countries. While the improper management of household waste in Cameroon is linked to the systematic failure of policy makers and municipal authorities to identify the most sustainable ways of dealing with it in such a manner that is in line is with their socio-economic aspirations, the impact of public attitudes and behaviour has been neglected. It is in this context that this paper uses Q-methodology, a powerful methodology for identifying the different trends in behaviour in the management of household waste in Douala, Cameroon.

  19. A change in SHATTERPROOF protein lies at the origin of a fruit morphological novelty and a new strategy for seed dispersal in medicago genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourquin, Chloé; del Cerro, Carolina; Victoria, Filipe C; Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie; de Oliveira, Antonio C; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Angiosperms are the most diverse and numerous group of plants, and it is generally accepted that this evolutionary success owes in part to the diversity found in fruits, key for protecting the developing seeds and ensuring seed dispersal. Although studies on the molecular basis of morphological innovations are few, they all illustrate the central role played by transcription factors acting as developmental regulators. Here, we show that a small change in the protein sequence of a MADS-box transcription factor correlates with the origin of a highly modified fruit morphology and the change in seed dispersal strategies that occurred in Medicago, a genus belonging to the large legume family. This protein sequence modification alters the functional properties of the protein, affecting the affinities for other protein partners involved in high-order complexes. Our work illustrates that variation in coding regions can generate evolutionary novelties not based on gene duplication/subfunctionalization but by interactions in complex networks, contributing also to the current debate on the relative importance of changes in regulatory or coding regions of master regulators in generating morphological novelties.

  20. The transtheoretical model and strategies of European fitness professionals to support clients in changing health-related behaviour: A survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The transtheoretical model of behaviour change (TTM) is often used to understand and predict changes in health related behaviour, for example exercise behaviour and eating behaviour. Fitness professionals like personal trainers typically service and support clients in improving

  1. Context and Communication Strategies in Naturalistic Behavioural Intervention: A Framework for Understanding How Practitioners Facilitate Communication in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Hannah; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy

    2011-01-01

    There are many different approaches to intervention aimed at facilitating the social and communicative abilities of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Behavioural interventions seek to improve the social and communicative abilities of children with ASD through interaction. Recently there has been a move towards naturalistic…

  2. A Team of Instructors' Use of Social Presence, Teaching Presence, and Attitudinal Dissonance Strategies: An Animal Behaviour and Welfare MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Watson, William R.; Janakiraman, Shamila; Richardson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This case study examined a team of instructors' use of social presence, teaching presence, and attitudinal dissonance in a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) on Animal Behaviour and Welfare (ABW), designed to facilitate attitudinal learning. The study reviewed a team of six instructors' use of social presence and teaching presence by applying the…

  3. Functional morphology, biology and sexual strategy of the circumboreal, adventitious crypt-building, Crenella decussata (Bivalvia: Mytiloidea: Crenellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Brian; Dinesen, Grete E.; Ockelmann, Kurt W.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of Crenella decussata (Mytiloidea) is described. Individuals of this circumboreal species occupy granular crypts composed of sand grains held in place by mucus. The swollen basal region of the tubule is occupied by an individual, which connects to the sediment surface by two posterior...... to the prodissoconch stage. Subsequently, these larvae are transferred to the exhalant tube of the crypt wherein they attach by a single fine byssal thread and are further brooded until the crawl-away juvenile stage is attained. Experimental studies of larval behaviour suggest that parental pheromones sustain...... the female/offspring bond. Newly hatched individuals responded to parental exhalant water by actively attaching themselves using a byssal thread. This response persisted for 28 days, but not after 55 days when, we suggest, the pheromonal response ceases and offspring are developed sufficiently to take up...

  4. Effect of ZrO2 Addition on Microstructure, Morphology and Pressure Sensing Behaviour of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 Ceramics Sintered in Al2O3 Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhashimah Ramli; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Muhammad Yahaya; Mohammad Hafizuddin Jumali

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ZrO 2 addition on the microstructure, morphology and pressure sensing behaviour of Pb(Zr x Ti 1-x )O 3 ceramics was studied in five different compositions of ZrO 2 , namely x = 0.48, 0.50, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.56. The samples were prepared through the solid-state reaction method using high purity metal oxides powders. In order to control the PbO losses due to high temperature sintering, a novel approach were explored whereby the samples were sintered in Al 2 O 3 environment. Structural investigation using X-ray diffraction (XRD) method revealed that all samples exhibited a tetragonal crystal structure. However the c/a lattice parameters ratios exhibited a decreasing trend as the ZrO 2 content was increased, indicating that PZT crystals gradually evolved towards pseudo cubic structure. SEM micrographs showed different morphology of each composition with the grain size varies in the range of 1.5 μm to 3.15 μm. The performance of pressure sensing behaviour showed that sample with composition x = 0.52 exhibited the best piezoelectric properties with high sensitivity. However, all samples failed to show good stability and repeatability due to slow recovery after severe lattice strain. (author)

  5. Life skills as a behaviour change strategy in the prevention of HIV and AIDS: Perceptions of students in an open and distance learning institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapi, B J; Pitsoane, E M

    2017-12-01

    The prevention of HIV and AIDS, especially amongst young people, is very important, as they are the future leaders. South Africa carries a high burden of the HIV and AIDS disease, and efforts at the prevention of the disease need to be intensified. University students are also at risk, and prevention efforts need to be intensified to ensure that students graduate and enter the world of work to become productive citizens. Failure to pay attention to preventative behaviour amongst university students may have negative socio-economic consequences for the country. The paper presents a quantitative study undertaken amongst students at the University of South Africa, an Open and Distance Learning Institution in South Africa. The aim of the study was to explore the perceptions of students regarding life skills as a behaviour change strategy at Unisa. The study was conducted in the three regions of the University: Midlands region, Gautengregion and Limpopo region. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and were analysed by using the Statistical Programme for Social Sciences. The findings revealed that students have a need to attend life skills workshops, which are facilitated by trained student counsellors since they believe that the life skills training will assist them to be assertive and practise behaviours which will not make them vulnerable to the HIV and AIDS infection.

  6. Evaluating a multicomponent social behaviour change communication strategy to reduce intimate partner violence among married couples: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Spencer, Rachael A; Shrestha, Binita; Ferguson, Gemma; Oakes, J Michael; Gupta, Jhumka

    2017-01-13

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health issue that affects 1 in 3 women globally and a similarly large number of women in Nepal. Over the past decade, important policy and programmatic steps have been taken to address violence against women in Nepal. There remains a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of primary violence prevention strategies. The Change Starts at Home study begins to fill this gap by utilizing a multi-component social behaviour change communication (SBCC) strategy involving a radio drama and community mobilization to shift attitudes, norms and behaviours that underpin IPV perpetration in Nepal. The study uses a concurrent mixed-methods design. The quantitative aspect of the evaluation is a pair-matched, repeated cross-sectional 2-armed, single-blinded cluster trial (RCT: N = 36 clusters, 1440 individuals), comparing a social behaviour change communication (SBCC) strategy to radio programming alone for its impact on physical and / or sexual IPV at the end of programming (12 months' post-baseline) and 6-months post the cessation of project activities (18-months post baseline). The qualitative aspects of the design include several longitudinal approaches to understand the impact of the intervention and to examine mechanisms of change including in-depth interviews with participants (N = 18 couples), and focus group discussions with community leaders (N = 3 groups), and family members of participants (N = 12 groups). Treatment effects will be estimated with generalized logistic mixed models specified to compare differences in primary outcome from baseline to 12-month follow-up, and baseline to 18-months follow-up in accordance with intention-to-treat principles. The study rigorously evaluates the effectiveness of a promising strategy to prevent IPV. The results of the trial will be immediately useful for governmental, nongovernmental, and donor funded programs targeting partner violence or social norms that

  7. Evaluating a multicomponent social behaviour change communication strategy to reduce intimate partner violence among married couples: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Jo Clark

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue that affects 1 in 3 women globally and a similarly large number of women in Nepal. Over the past decade, important policy and programmatic steps have been taken to address violence against women in Nepal. There remains a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of primary violence prevention strategies. The Change Starts at Home study begins to fill this gap by utilizing a multi-component social behaviour change communication (SBCC strategy involving a radio drama and community mobilization to shift attitudes, norms and behaviours that underpin IPV perpetration in Nepal. Methods/Design The study uses a concurrent mixed-methods design. The quantitative aspect of the evaluation is a pair-matched, repeated cross-sectional 2-armed, single-blinded cluster trial (RCT: N = 36 clusters, 1440 individuals, comparing a social behaviour change communication (SBCC strategy to radio programming alone for its impact on physical and / or sexual IPV at the end of programming (12 months’ post-baseline and 6-months post the cessation of project activities (18-months post baseline. The qualitative aspects of the design include several longitudinal approaches to understand the impact of the intervention and to examine mechanisms of change including in-depth interviews with participants (N = 18 couples, and focus group discussions with community leaders (N = 3 groups, and family members of participants (N = 12 groups. Treatment effects will be estimated with generalized logistic mixed models specified to compare differences in primary outcome from baseline to 12-month follow-up, and baseline to 18-months follow-up in accordance with intention-to-treat principles. Discussion The study rigorously evaluates the effectiveness of a promising strategy to prevent IPV. The results of the trial will be immediately useful for governmental, nongovernmental, and donor funded

  8. THE INTERRELATION OF INTOLERANT BEHAVIOUR AND NOT ADAPTIVE COPING STRATEGIES IN INTERETHNIC INTERACTION OF THE ELDER TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sergeevna Igonina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical and empirical research on the interrelation of coping strategies and ethnic tolerance of the elder teenagers. Particular attention is paid to consideration of interrelations of intolerant behavior of teenagers with not adaptive coping strategies. The question is actual for modern society taking into account constantly arising conflict situations of international character. Used in the article methodology of empirical research extend the learning experience of teenagers, allow teachers to differentiate educational process in development of cognitive independence. As a result of the correlation analysis were obtained direct interrelations of ethnic tolerance and coping strategies: the higher the indicators of the choice of not adaptive coping strategies, the higher the performance of the selection strategies of intolerant behavior. The obtained data can be of interest to experts of school level, graduate students, research associates.

  9. Strategies for optimizing organic solar cells. Correlation between morphology and performance in DCV6T-C{sub 60} heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynands, David

    2011-02-04

    This work investigates organic solar cells made of small molecules. Using the material system {alpha}{omega}-bis(dicyanovinylene)-sexithiophene (DCV6T)-C{sub 60} as model, the correlation between the photovoltaic active layer morphology and performance of the solar cell is studied. The chosen method for controlling the layer morphology is applying different substrate temperatures (T{sub sub}) during the deposition of the layer. In neat DCV6T layers, substrate heating induces higher crystallinity as is shown by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The absorption spectrum displays a more distinct fine structure, a redshift of the absorption peaks by up to 11 nm and a significant increase of the low energy absorption band at T{sub sub}=120 C compared to T{sub sub}=30 C. Contrary to general expectations, the hole mobility as measured in field effect transistors and with the method of charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) does not increase in samples with higher crystallinity. In mixed layers, investigations by AFM and UV-Vis spectroscopy reveal a stronger phase separation induced by substrate heating, leading to larger domains of DCV6T. This is indicated by an increased grain size and roughness of the topography, the increase of the DCV6T luminescence signal, and the more distinct fine structure of the DCV6T related absorption. Based on the results of the morphology analysis, the effect of different substrate temperatures on the performance of solar cells with flat and mixed DCV6T-C{sub 60} heterojunctions is investigated. In flat heterojunction solar cells, a slight increase of the photocurrent by about 10% is observed upon substrate heating, attributed to the increase of DCV6T absorption. In mixed DCV6T:C{sub 60} heterojunction solar cells, much more pronounced enhancements are achieved. By varying the substrate temperature from -7 C to 120 C, it is shown that the stronger phase separation upon substrate heating facilitates the

  10. The associations among personality, alcohol-related Protective Behavioural Strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse in Irish, female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylett, Sinéad; Hughes, Brian M

    2017-12-01

    The study presented one of the first examinations of the associations among personality, alcohol-related protective behavioural strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption, sexual intercourse and sex-related alcohol negative consequences in Irish, female college students ( n  = 522). A cross-sectional observational design was employed and participants completed the study online. Participants completed measures of personality, alcohol-related PBS, alcohol consumption and sexual intercourse. Hierarchical multiple regression was utilised to access the associations between such measures. From the analyses, it was found that age, frequency of sexual intercourse, frequency of alcohol consumption, level of alcohol consumption and openness were all significantly related to the use of alcohol-related protective behavioural strategies, and in turn, sex-related negative consequences. However, inconsistent findings with other personality dimensions to those of previous research were noted. The findings of this study posited that the use of PBS has a key role to play in the levels of sexual intercourse and alcohol consumption, age and openness, and the associated negative sexual consequences in Irish, female college students.

  11. Impact of a short-term exposure to tributyl phosphate on morphology, physiology and migratory behaviour of European eels during the transition from freshwater to the marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Privitera, Lucia; Aarestrup, Kim; Moore, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Migrating silver European eels were exposed for 5 days in a laboratory to an environmental level of tributyl phosphate (TBP), tagged with acoustic transmitters and released below the Tange hydropower station, on the River Gudenaa, Denmark. The subsequent movements of the eels were monitored as th...... predominantly at night. The results of the study are discussed in relation to the impact of diffuse pollution on the behaviour and physiology of European eels...

  12. Self-Organization Schemes towards Thermodynamic Stable Bulk Heterojunction Morphologies: A Perspective on Future Fabrication Strategies of Polymer Photovoltaic Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benmouna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research efforts to improve our understanding of electronic polymers are developing fast because of their promising advantages over silicon in photovoltaic solar cells. A major challenge in the development of polymer photovoltaic devices is the viable fabrication strategies of stable bulk heterojunction architecture that will retain functionality during the expected lifetime of the device. Block copolymer self-assembly strategies have attracted particular attention as a scalable means toward thermodynamically stable microstructures that combine the ideal geometrical characteristics of a bulk heterojunction with the fortuitous combination of properties of the constituent blocks. Two primary routes that have been proposed in the literature involve the coassembly of block copolymers in which one domain is a hole conductor with the electron-conducting filler (such as fullerene derivatives or the self-assembly of block copolymers in which the respective blocks function as hole and electron conductor. Either way has proven difficult because of the combination of synthetic challenges as well as the missing understanding of the complex governing parameters that control structure formation in semiconducting block copolymer blends. This paper summarizes important findings relating to structure formation of block copolymer and block copolymer/nanoparticle blend assembly that should provide a foundation for the future design of block copolymer-based photovoltaic systems.

  13. The effect of zinc bath temperature on the morphology, texture and corrosion behaviour of industrially produced hot-dip galvanized coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bakhtiari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of zinc bath temperature on the morphology, texture and corrosion behavior of hot-dip galvanized coatings. Hot-dip galvanized samples were prepared at temperature in the range of 450-480 °C in steps of 10 °C, which is the conventional galvanizing temperature range in the galvanizing industries. The morphology of coatings was examined with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The composition of the coating layers was determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analysis. The texture of the coatings was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behavior was performed using salt spray cabinet test and Tafel extrapolation test. From the experimental results, it was found that increasing the zinc bath temperature affects the morphology of the galvanized coatings provoking the appearance of cracks in the coating structure. These cracks prevent formation of a compact structure. In addition, it was concluded that (00.2 basal plane texture component was weakened by increasing the zinc bath temperature and, conversely, appearance of (10.1 prism component, (20.1 high angle pyramidal component and low angle component prevailed. Besides, coatings with strong (00.2 texture component and weaker (20.1 components have better corrosion resistance than the coatings with weak (00.2 and strong (20.1 texture components. Furthermore, corrosion resistance of the galvanized coatings was decreased by increasing the zinc bath temperature.

  14. Fair Play Game: A Group Contingency Strategy to Increase Students' Active Behaviours in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Lee, Chang-Hung; Azevedo, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    A dependent group contingency strategy called Fair Play Game was applied to promote increase in number of steps during physical education classes for sixth-grade students. Results from a multiple baseline design across three classes showed that the mean number of steps for baseline vs. intervention were: Class 1: 43 vs. 64 steps/minute; Class 2:…

  15. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products

    2013-06-28

    performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: • The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system • The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model • A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model • An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation • The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model • The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model • The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model • Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions • Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves • A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): • Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) • Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release • Stage 2 - Beta

  16. An individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for managing fatigue among frail older people: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Y-W; Lai, Claudia Ky; Siu, Parco M; Kwong, Enid; Tse, Mimi My

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of an individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for frail older people with fatigue. A three-arm, single-blinded, quasi-experimental pilot study. Community health centres. A total of 79 frail older people with fatigue, mean age 79.32 years (±7.72). The combined group received a 16-week combined intervention consisting of exercise training and a behavioural change enhancement programme. The exercise group received exercise training and health talks, whereas the control group received only health talks. Feasibility was assessed through the participants' recruitment, retention, attendance and adherence, feedback, and reports of adverse events. The preliminary effects were assessed by the participants' level of fatigue, physical endurance, self-efficacy, and self-perceived compliance with exercise. Feasibility was achievable with high recruitment (87.2%) and low overall attrition (7.1%) rates. A similar reduction in fatigue was identified in all groups, but a trend of greater improvement in physical endurance was observed in the combined group than in the other two groups. The combined group also had a significantly better attendance rate [F(2,76) = 5.64, p change, when the participants are establishing the habit of exercising daily.

  17. The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneliese Arno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic and is spreading to countries with emerging economies. Previously tested interventions are often too costly to maintain in the long term. This leaves a need for improved strategies for management of the epidemic. Nudge Theory presents a new collection of methods, deemed “nudges”, which have the potential for low-cost and broad application to guide healthier lifestyle choices without the need for restrictive regulation. There has not yet been a large-scale examination of the effectiveness of nudges, despite several policy making bodies now considering their use. Methods To address this gap in knowledge, an adapted systematic review methodology was used to collect and consolidate results from current Nudge papers and to determine whether Nudge strategies are successful in changing adults’ dietary choices for healthier ones. Results It was found that nudges resulted in an average 15.3 % increase in healthier dietary or nutritional choices, as measured by a change in frequency of healthy choices or a change in overall caloric consumption. All of the included studies were from wealthy nations, with a particular emphasis on the United States with 31 of 42 included experiments. Conclusions This analysis demonstrates Nudge holds promise as a public health strategy to combat obesity. More research is needed in varied settings, however, and future studies should aim to replicate previous results in more geographically and socioeconomically diverse countries.

  18. Chemical degradation and morphological instabilities during focused ion beam prototyping of polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthacker, A; Schmied, R; Chernev, B; Fröch, J E; Winkler, R; Hobisch, J; Trimmel, G; Plank, H

    2014-01-28

    Focused ion beam processing of low melting materials, such as polymers or biological samples, often leads to chemical and morphological instabilities which prevent the straight-forward application of this versatile direct-write structuring method. In this study the behaviour of different polymer classes under ion beam exposure is investigated using different patterning parameters and strategies with the aim of (i) correlating local temperatures with the polymers' chemistry and its morphological consequences; and (ii) finding a way of processing sensitive polymers with lowest chemical degradation while maintaining structuring times. It is found that during processing of polymers three temperature regimes can be observed: (1) at low temperatures all polymers investigated show stable chemical and morphological behaviour; (2) very high temperatures lead to strong chemical degradation which entails unpredictable morphologies; and (3) in the intermediate temperature regime the behaviour is found to be strongly material dependent. A detailed look reveals that polymers which rather cross-link in the proximity of the beam show stable morphologies in this intermediate regime, while polymers that rather undergo chain scission show tendencies to develop a creeping phase, where material follows the ion beam movement leading to instable and unpredictable morphologies. Finally a simple, alternative patterning strategy is suggested, which allows stable processing conditions with lowest chemical damage even for challenging polymers undergoing chain scission.

  19. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    approaches. For the first time, we demonstrate the applicability of the Illumina MiSeq platform as a data generation source for bat dietary analyses. RESULTS: Faecal pellets collected from a hibernation site in southern England during two winters (December-March 2009-10 and 2010-11), indicated that M....... nattereri forages throughout winter at least in a location with a mild winter climate. Through morphological analysis, arthropod fragments from seven taxonomic orders were identified. A high proportion of these was non-volant (67.9% of faecal pellets) and unexpectedly included many lepidopteran larvae....... Molecular analysis identified 43 prey species from six taxonomic orders and confirmed the frequent presence of lepidopteran species that overwinter as larvae. CONCLUSIONS: The winter diet of M. nattereri is substantially different from other times of the year confirming that this species has a wide...

  20. On the socio-sexual behaviour of the extinct Ursid Indarctos arctoides: an approach based on its baculum size and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Juan; Valenciano, Alberto; Pérez-Ramos, Alejandro; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The fossil bacula, or os penis, constitutes a rare subject of study due to its scarcity in the fossil record. In the present paper we describe five bacula attributed to the bear Indarctos arctoides Depéret, 1895 from the Batallones-3 site (Madrid Basin, Spain). Both the length and morphology of this fossil bacula enabled us to make interpretative approaches to a series of ecological and ethological characters of this bear. Thus, we suggest that I. arctoides could have had prolonged periods of intromission and/or maintenance of intromission during the post-ejaculatory intervals, a multi-male mating system and large home range sizes and/or lower population density. Its size might also have helped females to choose from among the available males.

  1. On the Socio-Sexual Behaviour of the Extinct Ursid Indarctos arctoides: An Approach Based on Its Baculum Size and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Juan; Valenciano, Alberto; Pérez-Ramos, Alejandro; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The fossil bacula, or os penis, constitutes a rare subject of study due to its scarcity in the fossil record. In the present paper we describe five bacula attributed to the bear Indarctos arctoides Depéret, 1895 from the Batallones-3 site (Madrid Basin, Spain). Both the length and morphology of this fossil bacula enabled us to make interpretative approaches to a series of ecological and ethological characters of this bear. Thus, we suggest that I. arctoides could have had prolonged periods of intromission and/or maintenance of intromission during the post-ejaculatory intervals, a multi-male mating system and large home range sizes and/or lower population density. Its size might also have helped females to choose from among the available males. PMID:24058484

  2. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marteleto, Patricia B.; Lomonaco, Cecilia; Kerr, Warwick E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  3. On the socio-sexual behaviour of the extinct Ursid Indarctos arctoides: an approach based on its baculum size and morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abella

    Full Text Available The fossil bacula, or os penis, constitutes a rare subject of study due to its scarcity in the fossil record. In the present paper we describe five bacula attributed to the bear Indarctos arctoides Depéret, 1895 from the Batallones-3 site (Madrid Basin, Spain. Both the length and morphology of this fossil bacula enabled us to make interpretative approaches to a series of ecological and ethological characters of this bear. Thus, we suggest that I. arctoides could have had prolonged periods of intromission and/or maintenance of intromission during the post-ejaculatory intervals, a multi-male mating system and large home range sizes and/or lower population density. Its size might also have helped females to choose from among the available males.

  4. PCA-based polling strategy in machine learning framework for coronary artery disease risk assessment in intravascular ultrasound: A link between carotid and coronary grayscale plaque morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Shukla, Devarshi; Jain, Pankaj K; Londhe, Narendra D; Shrivastava, Vimal K; Banchhor, Sumit K; Saba, Luca; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventional procedures need advance planning prior to stenting or an endarterectomy. Cardiologists use intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for screening, risk assessment and stratification of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesize that plaque components are vulnerable to rupture due to plaque progression. Currently, there are no standard grayscale IVUS tools for risk assessment of plaque rupture. This paper presents a novel strategy for risk stratification based on plaque morphology embedded with principal component analysis (PCA) for plaque feature dimensionality reduction and dominant feature selection technique. The risk assessment utilizes 56 grayscale coronary features in a machine learning framework while linking information from carotid and coronary plaque burdens due to their common genetic makeup. This system consists of a machine learning paradigm which uses a support vector machine (SVM) combined with PCA for optimal and dominant coronary artery morphological feature extraction. Carotid artery proven intima-media thickness (cIMT) biomarker is adapted as a gold standard during the training phase of the machine learning system. For the performance evaluation, K-fold cross validation protocol is adapted with 20 trials per fold. For choosing the dominant features out of the 56 grayscale features, a polling strategy of PCA is adapted where the original value of the features is unaltered. Different protocols are designed for establishing the stability and reliability criteria of the coronary risk assessment system (cRAS). Using the PCA-based machine learning paradigm and cross-validation protocol, a classification accuracy of 98.43% (AUC 0.98) with K=10 folds using an SVM radial basis function (RBF) kernel was achieved. A reliability index of 97.32% and machine learning stability criteria of 5% were met for the cRAS. This is the first Computer aided design (CADx) system of its kind that is able to demonstrate the ability of coronary

  5. [Morphological analysis of the hippocampal region associated with an innate behaviour task in the transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD) for Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-Salazar, E; Feria-Velasco, A; Medina-Aguirre, G I; Díaz-Cintra, S

    2013-10-01

    Different animal models for Alzheimer disease (AD) have been designed to support the hypothesis that the neurodegeneration (loss of neurons and synapses with reactive gliosis) associated with Aβ and tau deposition in these models is similar to that in the human brain. These alterations produce functional changes beginning with decreased ability to carry out daily and social life activities, memory loss, and neuropsychiatric disorders in general. Neuronal alteration plays an important role in early stages of the disease, especially in the CA1 area of hippocampus in both human and animal models. Two groups (WT and 3xTg-AD) of 11-month-old female mice were used in a behavioural analysis (nest building) and a morphometric analysis of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus. The 3xTg-AD mice showed a 50% reduction in nest quality associated with a significant increase in damaged neurons in the CA1 hippocampal area (26%±6%, Pde Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. L'euro e il comportamento delle grandi banche nell'UME: strategie imprenditoriali e politica monetaria (The euro and the large banks' behaviour within the EMU - entrepreneurial strategies and monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BORCHERT

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper connects different business cultures of large banks in various countries of the EMU with monetary policy issue of the ECB. First, the banks' competitive potential as well as their strategic behaviour is outlined. Furthermore, a cluster analysis exhibits some banking groups according to the liability-orientation of the largest EMU-banks, and a factor analysis gives some additional information about their asset-orientation; both business-orientations play an important role for the efficiency of monetary policy. Finally, the different cash requirements within the various European coun-tries might lead to totally new bank strategies, yielding to an internationali-sation of large bank-credits. JEL: F15, G21

  7. Entomophytophagy ('Sequential Predatory, then Phytophagous Behaviour') in an Indian Braconid ‘Parasitoid’ Wasp (Hymenoptera): Specialized Larval Morphology, Biology and Description of a New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, U. K. A.; Butcher, Buntika A.; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Nasser, M.

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of braconid wasps are parasitoids of other insects. Although a few cases of pure phytophagy (primary gall production and seed predation) are known, no previous entomophytophagous species (i.e. ones that display entomophagy and phytophagy sequentially), has been discovered among braconids. We describe the detailed biology and specialized larval morphology for the first confirmed entomophytophagous braconid species. Leaf galls on Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae) in India, induced by the psyllid, Phacopteron lentiginosum Buckton (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, Phacopteronidae) were sampled throughout a period of several months and found to suffer a high level of attack by a new species Bracon garugaphagae Ranjith & Quicke which is here described and illustrated. The wasps oviposit singly into the galls without paralysing the psyllids. The larvae first attack psyllid nymphs which they seek out within the gall, kill them with a single bite and consume them. Unique dorsal abdominal tubercles, with eversible tips present on the abdominal segments of the larvae that are used to help maintain larval position while feeding, are illustrated. After consuming all available prey, the larvae continue feeding on gall tissue until mature enough to spin cocoons and pupate. The new species illustrates, for the first time, a possible intermediate stage in the evolution of pure phytophagy within the Braconidae. Interestingly, the two unrelated seed predator Bracon species are also associated with Burseraceae, perhaps indicating that this plant family is particularly suited as a food for braconine wasps. PMID:27355679

  8. Leaf morphological strategies of seedlings and saplings of Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae), Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae) and Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae) from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelozo, Andressa; Boeger, Maria Regina T; Sereneski-de-Lima, Carolina; Soffiatti, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The initial phase of a plant life cycle is a short and critical period, when individuals are more vulnerable to environmental factors. The morphological and anatomical study of seedlings and saplings leaf type enables the understanding of species strategies of fundamental importance in their establishment and survival. The objective of this study was to analyze the structure of seedlings and saplings leaf types of three mangrove species, Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, Rhizophora mangle, to understand their early life adaptive strategies to the environment. A total of 30 fully expanded cotyledons (A. schaueriana and L. racemosa), 30 leaves of seedlings, and 30 leaves of saplings of each species were collected from a mangrove area in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil. Following standard methods, samples were prepared for morphological (leaf dry mass, density, thickness) and anatomical analysis (epidermis and sub-epidermal layers, stomata types, density of salt secretion glands, palisade and spongy parenchyma thickness). To compare leaf types among species one-way ANOVA and Principal Component Analysis were used, while Cluster Analysis evaluated differences between the species. We observed significant structural differences among species leaf types. A. schaueriana showed the thickest cotyledons, while L. racemosa presented a dorsiventral structure. Higher values of the specific leaf area were observed for seedlings leaves of A. schaueriana, cotyledons of L. racemosa and saplings leaves of A. schaueriana and R. mangle. Leaf density was similar to cotyledons and seedlings leaves in A. schaueriana and L. racemosa, while R. mangle had seedlings leaves denser than saplings. A. schaueriana and R. mangle showed hypostomatic leaves, while L. racemosa amphistomatic; besides, A. chaueriana showed diacytic stomata, while L. racemosa anomocytic, and R. mangle ciclocytic. Seedling leaves were thicker in R. mangle (535 μm) and L. racemosa (520 μm) than in A

  9. The influence of marketing on the sports betting attitudes and consumption behaviours of young men: implications for harm reduction and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Emily G; Thomas, Samantha L; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Daube, Mike

    2017-01-19

    Gambling can cause significant health and social harms for individuals, their families, and communities. While many studies have explored the individual factors that may lead to and minimise harmful gambling, there is still limited knowledge about the broader range of factors that may contribute to gambling harm. There are significant regulations to prevent the marketing of some forms of gambling but comparatively limited regulations relating to the marketing of newer forms of online gambling such as sports betting. There is a need for better information about how marketing strategies may be shaping betting attitudes and behaviours and the range of policy and regulatory responses that may help to prevent the risky or harmful consumption of these products. We conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 50 Australian men (aged 20-37 years) who gambled on sports. We explored their attitudes and opinions regarding sports betting marketing, the embedding of marketing within sports and other non-gambling community environments, and the implications this had for the normalisation of betting. Our findings indicate that most of the environments in which participants reported seeing or hearing betting advertisements were not in environments specifically designed for betting. Participants described that the saturation of marketing for betting products, including through sports-based commentary and sports programming, normalised betting. Participants described that the inducements offered by the industry were effective marketing strategies in getting themselves and other young men to bet on sports. Inducements were also linked with feelings of greater control over betting outcomes and stimulated some individuals to sign up with more than one betting provider. This research suggests that marketing plays a strong role in the normalisation of gambling in sports. This has the potential to increase the risks and subsequent harms associated with these products

  10. The Generative Process of Professional and Personal Development of Cognitive-Behavioural Clinical Psychologists in Training through the Inclusion of Strategies of Expressive Arts: A Qualitative Analysis and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Bertelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Starting out from the perspective that art is in fact a process and not simply the creation of objects neither the creation’s final products, the present article reports a qualitative analysis, examination and comparison of the subjective nature of the generative process experienced with the inclusion of strategies of expressive arts, described and interpreted by two cognitive-behavioural clinical psychologists in training, both knowledgeable of the principles of cognitive-behavioural model of learning. Does the nature of the psychologists in training subjective experiences with the inclusion of strategies of expressive arts, as reported during their training of professional and personal development, share features and effects? Results revealed similar generative processes guiding towards the development of abilities to focus on the identification and contemplation of automatic thoughts. Such abilities facilitated the grasping of the mechanics of the cognitive-behavioural intervention and also triggered a beneficial sense of well-being during the course of training.

  11. Strategies for swimming: explorations of the behaviour of a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of the lamprey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma L. Williams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed on a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a lamprey, to explore the strategies for controlling swimming speed. The muscle component of the model was based on previous experiments on isolated lamprey muscle. The patterns of muscle activation were those found in EMG studies on swimming lampreys. The fluid mechanics were modelled with G.I. Taylor's simplification. Tail beat frequencies of 2–6 sec−1 were combined with muscle activation strengths of 0.1% to 20% of maximum tetanic isometric strength. The resulting forward swimming speed and changing body shape were recorded. From the changing body shape the speed of the backward-travelling wave of curvature was calculated, as well as the ratio between the speeds of the waves of activation and curvature. For any given activation strength there was a tail beat frequency that gave maximal forward speed. Furthermore, for all the combinations of activation strength and tail beat frequency that gave such maximum swimming speeds, the ratio of the speed of the wave of curvature to the wave of muscle activation was approximately 0.75. This is similar to the ratio found in swimming lampreys.

  12. Firm strategy and consumer behaviour under a complex tobacco tax system: implications for the effectiveness of taxation on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuk, Oğuz; Özmen, M Utku

    2017-05-01

    The current tobacco taxation scheme in Turkey, a mix of high ad valorem tax and low specific tax, contains incentives for firms and consumers to change pricing and consumption patterns, respectively. The association between tax structure and price and tax revenue stability has not been studied in detail with micro data containing price segment information. In this study, we analyse whether incentives for firms and consumers undermine the effectiveness of tax policy in reducing consumption. We calculate alternative taxation scheme outcomes using differing ad valorem and specific tax rates through simulation analysis. We also estimate price elasticity of demand using detailed price and volume statistics between segments via regression analysis. A very high ad valorem rate provides strong incentives to firms to reduce prices. Therefore, this sort of tax strategy may induce even more consumption despite its initial aim of discouraging consumption. While higher prices dramatically reduce consumption of economy and medium price segment cigarettes, demand for premium segment cigarettes is found to be highly price-inelastic. The current tax scheme, based on both ad valorem and specific components, introduces various incentives to firms as well as to consumers which reduce the effectiveness of the tax policy. Therefore, on the basis of our theoretical predictions, an appropriate tax scheme should involve a balanced combination of ad valorem and specific rates, away from extreme ( ad valorem or specific dominant) cases to enhance the effectiveness of tax policy for curbing consumption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. New nanotechnology approaches using dendrimers modified with natural polymers for controlling stem cells behaviour in tissue engineering strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel Antunes de

    In the recent years, great progress has been done in the emerging field of tissue engineering. Despite the important advances the performance of cells-scaffold constructs, one of the several tissue engineering approaches, remains limited in part due to the need for optimize cell culture techniques and culture media. Nanocarrier systems have generated a significant amount of interest in the ex vivo cell maintenance, and control of the cellular fate in vivo mainly due to their internalization efficiency, drug loading capacity, and to favorably modulate the solubility and pharmacokinetics of drugs. Dendrimers are synthetic, monodispersive, spherical and highly branched macromolecules that present unique advantages and fulfills most requirements as carriers for drug delivery; however, it has been found that high generation dendrimers are often cytotoxic. Thus, in this thesis we focused our attention in this fundamental problem and explore the development of novel nanobiomaterials based on the grafting of carboxymethylchitosan (CMCht) onto low generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, the socalled CMCht/PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles. These macromolecular vehicles were developed to explore a new concept consisting on the intracellular and controlled delivery of bioactive molecules aimed at control stem cells functions in a more effective manner ex vivo, and maintain the cellular phenotype in vivo upon re-implantation. Thus, by combining nanotechnology-based systems and traditional tissue engineering strategies, we expect to develop a novel therapeutic solution for the efficient treatment of damage/diseased cells and tissues. To validate this new concept, there is the need to evaluate the performance of the developed nanocarriers, in vitro and in vivo. Firstly, the uptake efficiency and internalization mechanism of fluorescent-labeled CMCht/PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles was investigated using different cell types. Fluorescence microscopy studies revealed that the

  14. Effects of psycho-education plus basic cognitive behavioural therapy strategies on medication-treated adolescents with depressive disorder in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Ehimwenma W; Ani, Cornelius; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope; Omigbodun, Olayinka

    2018-04-11

    Limited data exists on psychological interventions for adolescent depression in African countries such as Nigeria. This study therefore investigates the effects of a psychological intervention that includes psycho-education and basic elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) on depressed medication-treated adolescents in Nigeria. This was a pre-post one-group intervention study of 18 adolescents aged 13-18 years with clinically diagnosed depressive disorder, attending a specialist psychiatric hospital. They had been on antidepressants for 3 months or longer. Depressive symptoms, knowledge of depression, hope, and attitudes towards treatment adherence were measured at baseline and repeated at 1 and 4 weeks post-intervention. The adolescents received four sessions of a group-based manualised intervention focused on psycho-education and basic CBT strategies. Statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms were recorded, as were improvements in the adolescents' knowledge of depression, hope, and attitude towards treatment adherence one week after the intervention (all p = 0.001). All differences were sustained at 4 weeks post-intervention. Participants' satisfaction with the intervention was high. This study suggests that adding psycho-education with elements of CBT to antidepressant treatment is feasible, acceptable and can produce further benefits to depressed adolescents in this region.

  15. High-strength porous biomaterials for bone replacement: A strategy to assess the interplay between cell morphology, mechanical properties, bone ingrowth and manufacturing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabnejad, Sajad; Burnett Johnston, R; Pura, Jenny Ann; Singh, Baljinder; Tanzer, Michael; Pasini, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    High-strength fully porous biomaterials built with additive manufacturing provide an exciting opportunity for load-bearing orthopedic applications. While factors controlling their mechanical and biological response have recently been the subject of intense research, the interplay between mechanical properties, bone ingrowth requirements, and manufacturing constraints, is still unclear. In this paper, we present two high-strength stretch-dominated topologies, the Tetrahedron and the Octet truss, as well as an intuitive visualization method to understand the relationship of cell topology, pore size, porosity with constraints imposed by bone ingrowth requirements and additive manufacturing. 40 samples of selected porosities are fabricated using Selective Laser Melting (SLM), and their morphological deviations resulting from SLM are assessed via micro-CT. Mechanical compression testing is used to obtain stiffness and strength properties, whereas bone ingrowth is assessed in a canine in vivo model at four and eight weeks. The results show that the maximum strength and stiffness ranged from 227.86±10.15 to 31.37±2.19MPa and 4.58±0.18 to 1.23±0.40GPa respectively, and the maximum 0.2% offset strength is almost 5 times stronger than that of tantalum foam. For Tetrahedron samples, bone ingrowth after four and eight weeks is 28.6%±11.6%, and 41.3%±4.3%, while for the Octet truss 35.5%±1.9% and 56.9%±4.0% respectively. This research is the first to demonstrate the occurrence of bone ingrowth into high-strength porous biomaterials which have higher structural efficiency than current porous biomaterials in the market. We present two stretch-dominated cell topologies for porous biomaterials that can be used for load-bearing orthopaedic applications, and prove that they encourage bone ingrowth in a canine model. We also introduce an intuitive method to visualize and understand the relationship of cell topology, pore size, porosity with constraints imposed by bone ingrowth

  16. Understanding influences on teachers' uptake and use of behaviour management strategies within the STARS trial: process evaluation protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Lorraine; Sharkey, Siobhan; Edwards, Vanessa; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Byford, Sarah; Norwich, Brahm; Logan, Stuart; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-02-10

    The 'Supporting Teachers And childRen in Schools' (STARS) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) programme as a public health intervention. TCM is a 6 day training course delivered to groups of 8-12 teachers. The STARS trial will investigate whether TCM can improve children's behaviour, attainment and wellbeing, reduce teachers' stress and improve their self-efficacy. This protocol describes the methodology of the process evaluation embedded within the main trial, which aims to examine the uptake and implementation of TCM strategies within the classroom plus the wider school environment and improve the understanding of outcomes. The STARS trial will work with eighty teachers of children aged 4-9 years from eighty schools. Teachers will be randomised to attend the TCM course (intervention arm) or to "teach as normal" (control arm) and attend the course a year later. The process evaluation will use quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess fidelity to model, as well as explore headteachers' and teachers' experiences of TCM and investigate school factors that influence the translation of skills learnt to practice. Four of the eight groups of teachers (n = 40) will be invited to participate in focus groups within one month of completing the TCM course, and again a year later, while 45 of the 80 headteachers will be invited to take part in telephone interviews. Standardised checklists will be completed by group leaders and each training session will be videotaped to assess fidelity to model. Teachers will also complete standardised session evaluations. This study will provide important information about whether the Teacher Classroom Management course influences child and teacher mental health and well-being in both the short and long term. The process evaluation will provide valuable insights into factors that may facilitate or impede any impact. The trial has been registered with ISCTRN

  17. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  19. Luxury consumption of soil nutrients: a possible competitive strategy in above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation and root morphology for slow-growing arctic vegetation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Gough, L.; Hobbie, S.E.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    1 A field-experiment was used to determine how plant species might retain dominance in an arctic ecosystem receiving added nutrients. We both measured and modelled the above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation and root morphology of non-acidic tussock tundra near Toolik Lake, Alaska, after 4

  20. The SITLESS project: exercise referral schemes enhanced by self-management strategies to battle sedentary behaviour in older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné-Garriga, Maria; Coll-Planas, Laura; Guerra, Míriam; Domingo, Àlex; Roqué, Marta; Caserotti, Paolo; Denkinger, Michael; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank; McIntosh, Emma; Martín-Borràs, Carme; Oviedo, Guillermo R; Jerez-Roig, Javier; Santiago, Marta; Sansano, Oriol; Varela, Guillermo; Skjødt, Mathias; Wirth, Katharina; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Klenk, Jochen; Wilson, Jason J; Blackburn, Nicole E; Deidda, Manuela; Lefebvre, Guillaume; González, Denise; Salvà, Antoni

    2017-05-18

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world's population. Recent evidence indicates that excessive sitting time is harmful to health, independent of meeting the recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) guidelines. The SITLESS project aims to determine whether exercise referral schemes (ERS) can be enhanced by self-management strategies (SMSs) to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB), increase PA and improve health, quality of life and function in the long term, as well as psychosocial outcomes in community-dwelling older European citizens from four countries, within a three-armed pragmatic randomised controlled trial, compared with ERS alone and also with general recommendations about PA. A total of 1338 older adults will be included in this study, recruited from four European countries through different existing primary prevention pathways. Participants will be randomly allocated into an ERS of 16 weeks (32 sessions, 45-60 min per session), ERS enhanced by seven sessions of SMSs and four telephone prompts, or a control group. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, month 4 (end of ERS intervention), month 16 (12 months post intervention) and month 22 (18 months post intervention). Primary outcomes will include measures of SB (time spent sedentary) and PA (counts per minute). Secondary outcomes will include muscle and physical function, health economics' related outcomes, anthropometry, quality of life, social networks, anxiety and depressive symptoms, disability, fear of falling, executive function and fatigue. A process evaluation will be conducted throughout the trial. The full analysis set will follow an intention-to-treat principle and will include all randomised participants for whom a baseline assessment is conducted. The study hypothesis will be tested with mixed linear models with repeated measures, to assess changes in the main outcomes (SB and PA) over time (baseline to month 22) and between study arms. The findings of this

  1. Solution-processed flexible planar perovskite solar cells: A strategy to enhance efficiency by controlling the ZnO electron transfer layer, PbI2 phase, and CH3NH3PbI3 morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyungeun; Lee, Jeongwon; Kim, Joosun; Chae, Weon-Sik; Lee, Man-Jong

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a synergistic strategy to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of flexible planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by controlling the thickness of the ZnO electron transport layer (ETL), PbI2 phase, and size/morphology of the perovskite (MAPbI3) absorber layer. To optimize the size/morphology of MAPbI3 via a two-step spin coating process, various volumes of CH3NH3I precursor solutions with a constant concentration were continuously coated, which greatly affected the grain growth condition of the MAPbI3. In addition, the remnant PbI2 phase in the MAPbI3, which acted as a recombination barrier, was simultaneously controlled. This strategic method to synergistically combine the major factors affecting the final PCE resulted in the best efficiency of 12.3%, which is the highest efficiency among ZnO-ETL-based flexible planar PSCs to date.

  2. Mechanical behaviour of nickel foams: three-dimensional morphology, non-linear models and fracture; Caracterisation et simulation numerique du comportement mecanique des mousses de nickel: morphologie tridimensionnelle, reponse elastoplastique et rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillard, Th.

    2004-03-15

    The deformation behaviour and failure of nickel foams were studied during loading by using X-ray microtomography. Strut alignment and stretching are observed in tension whereas strut bending followed by strut buckling are observed in compression. Strain localisation, that occurs during compression tests, depends on nickel weight distribution in the foam. Fracture in tension first takes place at cell nodes and the crack propagates cell by cell. The damaged area in front of a crack is about five cells wide. A detailed description of the three-dimensional morphology is also presented. One third of the cells are dodecahedral and 57 % of the faces are pentagonal. The most frequent cell is composed of two quadrilaterals, two hexagons and eight pentagons. The dimensions of the equivalent ellipsoid of each cell are identified and cell orientation are determined. The geometrical aspect ratio is linked to the mechanical anisotropy of the foam. In tension, a uniaxial analytical model, based on elastoplastic strut bending, is developed. The whole stress-strain curve of the foam is predicted according to its specific weight and its anisotropy. It is found that the non-linear regime of the macroscopic curve of the foam is not only due to the elastoplastic bending of the struts. The model is also extended to two-phase foams and the influence of the hollow struts is analysed. The two-phase foams model is finally applied to oxidized nickel foams and compared with experimental data. The strong increase in the rigidity of nickel foams with an increasing rate of oxidation, is well described by the model. However, a fracture criterion must also be introduced to take into account the oxide layer cracking. A phenomenological compressible continuum plasticity model is also proposed and identified in tension. The identification of the model is carried out using experimental strain maps obtained by a photo-mechanical technique. A validation of the model is provided by investigating the

  3. The Importance of Morphological/Physiological Heterogeneity as Adaptive Strategies in Stocks of Common Northern/Arctic Phytoplankton Species with Special Focus on the Common Diatom Chaetoceros socialis

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Kathryn Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cosmopolitan, centric diatom Chaetoceros socialis was investigated in terms of its validity as a single species characterized by its morphology, physiology and distribution. A database was constructed using my own and published literature distribution observations of C. socialis in Northern Norway, the Atlantic, Arctic and Barents Sea. From this range of observations, it is possible to establish that C. socialis is found at temperatures ranging from -1.86°C to +13.6°C. Observatio...

  4. Morphological and anatomical response of Acacia ehrenbergiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 3

    2012-02-20

    Feb 20, 2012 ... The response of Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne and Acacia tortilis (Forssk) Haynes subspp. raddiana seedlings to 100, 50 and 25% field capacity (FC) watering regimes was studied to determine their morphological and anatomical behaviour. Both species responded morphologically as well as anatomically ...

  5. Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed...

  6. Relationship between Teachers' Perception of Causes of Challenging Behaviour and the Choice of Management Strategies among Learners with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasakhala, Edward; Galava, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    The ministry of Public Health and Sanitation in Kenya together with ministry of Education recognizes that mental well being is important in psychosocial well being and cognitive development of children. They point out that learners with emotional and behavioural problems may engage in truancy, delinquency, drug and substance abuse and other…

  7. Strategy; Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-15

    Francois Loos, Minister of Industry, explains the French energy policy in the frame of Europe. ONERC is a French public body in charge of defining a national strategy against climate changes. It submits its first strategic elements to the Government. (authors)

  8. Investigation of Teachers' Verbal and Non-Verbal Strategies for Managing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students' Behaviours within a Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated teachers' verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing ADHD students in a classroom environment. It was found that effective verbal and non-verbal strategies included voice control, short phrases, repeated instructions, using students' names, and visual cues and verbal instructions combined. It has been found that…

  9. The effect of long-term weight-loss intervention strategies on the dynamics of pancreatic-fat and morphology: An MRI RCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tene, Lilac; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tsaban, Gal; Zelicha, Hila; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusy, Benjamin; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2018-04-01

    The ability to mobilize pancreatic-fat and the meaning of decreased fat in the pancreas remain controversial. We followed the dynamics of pancreatic-fat and its morphology during various long weight-loss induced lifestyle-interventions. In isolated workplace with monitored/provided lunch, we randomly assigned healthy persons with abdominal obesity or dyslipidemia for one of two 18-month equal-caloric diets: low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (Med/LC, with provided 1oz walnuts/day), with or without added moderate exercise (supervised gym membership). We used magnetic-resonance-imaging to quantify pancreatic-fat and morphology. At baseline, 277 eligible participants (mean age = 48 years; 88% men; pancreatic-fat = 17.4 ± 5.1%) had higher pancreatic-fat in men (17.7 ± 4.9% vs 14.9 ± 5.5% in women; p = 0.004). Following 18-month intervention (adherence = 86.3%) and moderate weight-loss (mean = -3.0 ± 5.5 kg), pancreatic-fat decreased moderately but significantly (-0.26 ± 2.18% units; p = 0.049). Med/LC diet induced a greater decrease in pancreatic-fat compared to LF (p = 0.043), and the combination of Med/LC diet + exercise exhibited the highest reduction (-0.69% units) as compared to LF diet without exercise (+0.12%units; p = 0.027 between groups). In multivariate regression models, after further adjusted for visceral adipose-tissue (ΔVAT), pancreatic-fat loss associated with both decreases in pancreatic-morphology ratio (perimeter divided by area; beta = 0.361; p loss (beta = 0.242; p = 0.001), but not with changes in intrahepatic-fat (beta = -0.034; p = 0.638). Pancreatic-fat loss associated with increased intake of polyunsaturated-fat (beta = -0.137; p = 0.032), as with improved high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL; beta = -0.156; p = 0.023) and triglycerides/HDL ratio (beta = 0.162; p = 0.015), independently of ΔVAT, but not with glycemic-control parameters (e.g. HbA1c, HOMA-IR and HOMA

  10. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  11. CSR STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    LAURENTIU BARANGA; ION STEGAROIU

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has got three components: economic responsibility of shareholders, corporate environmental responsibility, corporate responsibility of the society. Each component of the CSR has its own features, according to which adequate individual behaviour is established. Knowing these features is very important in CSR strategy development.

  12. Relationship between growth behaviour, micro and macroscopic morphologies and freezing sensitivity of the ripening starter Geotrichum candidum is strain specific and mostly related to the morphotypes: the arthrospores/hyphae parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missous, Ghalia; Thammavongs, Bouachanh; Launay, Géraldine; Guéguen, Micheline; Dieuleveux, Virginie; Panoff, Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    Microscopic conformation, growth behaviour and freezing sensitivity of seven strains of Geotrichum candidum, a ripening starter, were studied and compared according to their macroscopic morphotypes. It has been shown that the thallus forming units (TFU)×ml-1/OD600nm ratio as a function of time is an interesting parameter to follow G. candidum sporulation through the growth behaviour. Microscopic conformation, growth behaviour and freezing sensitivity are clearly strain specific and mostly related to their corresponding morphotypes "yeast", "mould" or "intermediate". The two "mould" strains that sporulate weakly (UCMA103, UCMA499) showed a low survival rate to freezing stress whereas the "yeast" strains expressed a significant resistance owing to the arthrospore abundance. Interestingly, one strain (UCMA96) which appeared on solid medium in accord with the "mould" morphotype respond similarly to freezing stress.

  13. Protecting the Great Barrier Reef: Analysing the Impact of a Conservation Documentary and Post-Viewing Strategies on Long-Term Conservation Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Karen; Hughes, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Nature-based tourism experiences have the potential to change the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behavior of visitors; but such experiences may be beyond the physical and/or financial reach of many people. To influence the conservation behavior of populations world-wide, a more accessible yet equally effective strategy is required. Using…

  14. Challenges in integrating shrot-term behaviour in a mixed-fishery Management Strategies Evaluation frame: a case study of the North Sea flatfish fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, B.S.; Vermard, Y.; Ulrich, C.; Hutton, T.; Poos, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a fleet-based bioeconomic simulation model to the international mixed flatfish fishery in the North Sea. The model uses a Management Strategies Evaluation framework including a discrete choice model accounting for short-term temporal changes in effort allocation across fisheries.

  15. Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: Using archival time-depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M.T.; Costa, D.P.; Estes, J.A.; Wieringa, N.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of individual prey specializations has been reported for an ever-growing number of taxa, and has important ramifications for our understanding of predator-prey dynamics. We use the California sea otter population as a case study to validate the use of archival time-depth data to detect and measure differences in foraging behaviour and diet. We collected observational foraging data from radio-tagged sea otters that had been equipped with Mk9 time depth recorders (TDRs, Wildlife Computers, Redmond, WA). After recapturing the study animals and retrieving the TDRs it was possible to compare the two data types, by matching individual dives from the TDR record with observational data and thus examining behavioural correlates of capture success and prey species. Individuals varied with respect to prey selection, aggregating into one of three distinct dietary specializations. A number of TDR-derived parameters, particularly dive depth and post-dive surface interval, differed predictably between specialist types. A combination of six dive parameters was particularly useful for discriminating between specialist types, and when incorporated into a multivariate cluster analysis, these six parameters resulted in classification of 13 adult female sea otters into three clusters that corresponded almost perfectly to the diet-based classification (1 out of 13 animals was misclassified). Thus based solely on quantifiable traits of time-depth data that have been collected over an appropriate period (in this case 1 year per animal), it was possible to assign female sea otters to diet type with >90% accuracy. TDR data can thus be used as a tool to measure the degree of individual specialization in sea otter populations, a conclusion that will likely apply to other diving marine vertebrates as well. Our ultimate goals must be both to understand the causes of individual specialization, and to incorporate such variation into models of population- and community-level food web

  16. The Relationship between Morphological Awareness and Morphological Decomposition among English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Morphological awareness facilitates many reading processes. For this reason, L1 and L2 learners of English are often directly taught to use their knowledge of English morphology as a useful reading strategy for determining parts of speech and meaning of novel words. Over time, use of morphological awareness skills while reading develops into an…

  17. A qualitative approach using the integrative model of behaviour change to identify intervention strategies to increase optimal child restraint practices among culturally and linguistically diverse families in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Burton, Danielle; Nikolin, Stevan; Crooks, Philippa Jane; Hatfield, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E

    2013-02-01

    To qualitatively explore barriers to optimal child restraint use using the integrative behaviour change model in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A semi-structured discussion was used to conduct 11 language specific focus groups in Arabic, Assyrian, Cantonese, Mandarin, Vietnamese and Turkish. Translated transcriptions were analysed using the major concepts of the integrative behaviour change model. Restraint use intent among CALD community carers is related to perceived safety of their children and complying with the law. While most participants appreciated the safety benefits of correct and appropriate use, a minority did not. Child restraint legislation may positively influence social norms, and enforcement appears to increase parental self-efficacy. However, concerns over child comfort may negatively influence both norms and self-efficacy. There are clear deficits in knowledge that may act as barriers as well as confusion over best practice in safely transporting children. Large family size, vehicle size and cost appear to be real environmental constraints in CALD communities. Determinants of intent and deficits in knowledge in this diverse range of CALD communities in NSW Australia are similar to those reported in other qualitative studies regardless of the population studied. This indicates that key messages should be the same regardless of the target population. However, for CALD communities there is a specific need to ensure access to detailed information through appropriate delivery strategies and languages. Furthermore, practical constraints such as cost of restraints and family size may be particularly important in CALD communities.

  18. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  19. Behaviour Questionnaire

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    symptoms signifying a hostile-aggressive dimension, factor 2 an anxious-fearful dimension, and factor 3 emerged as a ... Objective. This paper examines the factor structure of the. Yoruba translation of the Children's Behaviour Questionnaire .... Twitches/mannerisms/tics. Sucks thumb/finger. Bites nails. Often disobedient.

  20. From nano to micro: topographical scale and its impact on cell adhesion, morphology and contact guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Sathe, Sharvari R; Yim, Evelyn K F

    2016-01-01

    Topography, among other physical factors such as substrate stiffness and extracellular forces, is known to have a great influence on cell behaviours. Optimization of topographical features, in particular topographical dimensions ranging from nanoscale to microscale, is the key strategy to obtain the best cellular performance for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey on the significance of sizes of topography and their impacts on cell adhesion, morphology and alignment, and neurite guidance. Also recent works mimicking the hierarchical structure of natural extracellular matrix by combining both nanoscale and microscale topographies are highlighted. (topical review)

  1. Challenges in integrating short-term behaviour in a mixed-fishery Management Strategies Evaluation frame: a case study of the North Sea flatfish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Vermard, Youen; Ulrich, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a fleet-based bioeconomic simulation model to the international mixed flatfish fishery in the North Sea. The model uses a Management Strategies Evaluation framework including a discrete choice model accounting for short-term temporal changes in effort allocation across fisheries....... A simplified random utility model was used based on the expected revenue (or economic attractiveness) and two tradition parameters related to short and long term historical fishing patterns. All three parameters were significant. Even though reactions and adaptations vary between fleets, the estimated......-fisheries, and illustrates the necessary trade-offs between very detailed numerical relationships and the representation of aggregated processes. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Morphology of juvenile instars of Ameronothridae (Acari: Oribatida)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ermilov, S.G.; Starý, Josef; Block, W.

    -, č. 3224 (2012), s. 1-40 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * morphology * juvenile instars Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2012

  3. Individual behavioural characteristics in pigs and their consequences for pig husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessing, M.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction
    The main aspect of this thesis is individual behavioural variation. Behavioural variability among individuals within a population may provide information on strategies or roles in social behaviour, on personality traits and individual recognition.

  4. [Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Sarah; Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz

    2016-10-01

    Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample Numerous research studies emphasize parental monitoring as a protective factor for adolescent problem behaviour. The purpose of the study presented was to use Stattin and Kerr's (2000) monitoring subscales for the first time in a German-speaking area and to explore the relations to behaviour problems in an adolescent school sample. The two active monitoring strategies "parental control" and "parental solicitation" as well as "parental knowledge" and "child disclosure" relating to behaviour problems and risk behaviour were examined. A sample of 494 pupils, grades 5, 7 and 9, of German secondary schools and their parents answered questions on "parental knowledge", "control", "solicitation" and "child disclosure". Adolescents also answered the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and items about risk behaviour like frequency of violence, delinquency, substance abuse, self-injuring behaviour and school absenteeism. Behaviour problems in terms of the SDQ could be predicted sufficiently by "parental knowledge", but for the prediction of risk behaviour, the active parental monitoring strategies were of importance, too. More "parental knowledge", more "control" and less "solicitation" could predict less risk behaviour. Results confirm "parental knowledge" as a general protective factor for problem behaviour. However, they show the importance of "parental control" for adolescent risk behaviour.

  5. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  6. Providing NHS staff with height-adjustable workstations and behaviour change strategies to reduce workplace sitting time: protocol for the Stand More AT (SMArT) Work cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, S E; Jackson, B R; Edwardson, C L; Yates, T; Biddle, S J H; Davies, M J; Dunstan, D; Esliger, D; Gray, L; Miller, P; Munir, F

    2015-12-09

    High levels of sedentary behaviour (i.e., sitting) are a risk factor for poor health. With high levels of sitting widespread in desk-based office workers, office workplaces are an appropriate setting for interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour. This paper describes the development processes and proposed intervention procedures of Stand More AT (SMArT) Work, a multi-component randomised control (RCT) trial which aims to reduce occupational sitting time in desk-based office workers within the National Health Service (NHS). SMArT Work consists of 2 phases: 1) intervention development: The development of the SMArT Work intervention takes a community-based participatory research approach using the Behaviour Change Wheel. Focus groups will collect detailed information to gain a better understanding of the most appropriate strategies, to sit alongside the provision of height-adjustable workstations, at the environmental, organisational and individual level that support less occupational sitting. 2) intervention delivery and evaluation: The 12 month cluster RCT aims to reduce workplace sitting in the University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust. Desk-based office workers (n = 238) will be randomised to control or intervention clusters, with the intervention group receiving height-adjustable workstations and supporting techniques based on the feedback received from the development phase. Data will be collected at four time points; baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is a reduction in sitting time, measured by the activPAL(TM) micro at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include objectively measured physical activity and a variety of work-related health and psycho-social measures. A process evaluation will also take place. This study will be the first long-term, evidence-based, multi-component cluster RCT aimed at reducing occupational sitting within the NHS. This study will help form a better understanding and knowledge base of facilitators and

  7. Cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternaria blotch (Alternaria mali) causes severe foliar damage to apple trees in Kashmir. Twenty one (21) isolates of A. mali were collected from different locations and characterized for cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular variations. A. mali colonies varied in their cultural behaviour ranging from velvety to ...

  8. Morphological, cultural, pathogenic and molecular variability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) causes severe foliar damage to Indian mustard in Uttarakhand. Ten (10) isolates of A. brassicae were collected from different hosts and characterized for cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular variations. A. brassicae colonies varied in their cultural behaviour ranging from ...

  9. Morfologia, comportamento, parasitismo e mecanismos de defesa dos imaturos de Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner(Lepidoptera, Papilionidae Morphology, behaviour, parasitism and mechanisms of defense of the immatures of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Heraclides anchisiades capys é uma espécie comum de Papilionidae, cujas larvas se alimentam de várias espécies de Citrus spp. (Rutaceae. Neste estudo são descritas a morfologia e dados sobre a história natural dos imaturos através de ilustrações, incluindo fotografias em microscopia eletrônica de varredura.Heraclides anchisiades capys is a common species among the Papilionidae, whose larvae feed on various species of Citrus spp. (Rutaceae. In this study the morphology and data on natural history of the immature stages of this species are described with illustrations, including photos in scanning electronic microscope.

  10. Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutze, Mark K.

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White are four horticultural pest tephritid fruit fly species that are highly similar, morphologically and genetically, to the destructive pest, the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This similarity has rendered the discovery of reliable diagnostic characters problematic, which, in view of the economic importance of these taxa and the international trade implications, has resulted in ongoing difficulties for many areas of plant protection and food security. Consequently, a major international collaborative and integrated multidisciplinary research effort was initiated in 2009 to build upon existing literature with the specific aim of resolving biological species limits among B. papayae, B. philippinensis, B. carambolae, B. invadens and B. dorsalis to overcome constraints to pest management and international trade. Bactrocera philippinensis has recently been synonymized with B. papayae as a result of this initiative and this review corroborates that finding; however, the other names remain in use. While consistent characters have been found to reliably distinguish B. carambolae from B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, no such characters have been found to differentiate the latter three putative species. We conclude that B. carambolae is a valid species and that the remaining taxa, B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, represent the same species. Thus, we consider B. dorsalis (Hendel) as the senior synonym of B. papayae Drew and Hancock syn.n. and B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White syn.n. A redescription of B. dorsalis is provided. Given the agricultural importance of B. dorsalis, this taxonomic decision will have significant global plant biosecurity implications, affecting pest management, quarantine, international trade, postharvest treatment and basic research

  11. Investment Behaviour of Institutional Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rubbaniy (Ghulame)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the portfolio choice anomalies and trading strategies of two types of institutional investors, Dutch pension funds (PFs) and US mutual funds (MFs), and presents some explanation for the unexpected behaviour in their trading. Particularly we focus on the determinants

  12. Stimulating Strategically Aligned Behaviour among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); M. Dijkstra (Majorie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStrategically aligned behaviour (SAB), i.e., employee action that is consistent with the company’s strategy, is of vital importance to companies. This study provides insights into the way managers can promote such behaviour among employees by stimulating employee motivation and by

  13. River System Behaviour Effects on Flood Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Van Mierlo, M.C.L.M.; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular

  14. River system behaviour effects on flood risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Mierlo, M.C.L.M. van; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular

  15. Morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, Séverine; Colé, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

    2004-06-01

    This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to analyze in more detail the implications of the phonological impairments of dyslexics in dealing with larger units of language such as morphemes. First, the performance of dyslexic children in a series of morphological tasks was compared with the performance of children matched on reading-level and chronological age. In all the tasks, the dyslexic group performed below the chronological age control group, suggesting that morphological awareness cannot be developed entirely independently of reading experience and/or phonological skills. Comparisons with the reading-age control group indicated that, while the dyslexic children were poorer in the morphemic segmentation tasks, they performed normally for their reading level in the sentence completion tasks. Furthermore, they produced more derived words in the production task. This suggests that phonological impairments prevent the explicit segmentation of affixes while allowing the development of productive morphological knowledge. A second study compared dyslexic subgroups defined by their degree of phonological impairment. Our results suggest that dyslexics develop a certain type of morphological knowledge which they use as a compensatory reading strategy.

  16. Lattice-Algebraic Morphology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    ... invariance present in concrete morphology theories. The other, developed by Banon and Barrera, analyzes general mappings between complete lattices and develops morphological decomposition formulas for such mappings...

  17. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    After Maynard-Smith and Price [1] mathematically derived why a given behaviour or strategy was adopted by a certain proportion of the population at a given time, it was shown that a strategy which is currently stable in a population need not be stable in evolutionary time (across generations). Additionally it was sug-.

  18. The multiple strategies of an insect herbivore to overcome plant cyanogenic glucoside defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    2014-01-01

    during feeding and digestion are unknown. We show that CNglc-sequestering Zygaena filipendulae larvae combine behavioural, morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies at different time points during feeding and digestion to avoid toxic hydrolysis of the CNglcs present in their Lotus food......, a highly alkaline midgut lumen inhibited the activity of ingested plant b-glucosidases significantly. Moreover, insect b-glucosidases from the saliva and gut tissue did not hydrolyse the CNglcs present in Lotus. The strategies disclosed may also be used by other insect species to overcome CNglc-based plant...

  19. Identification of stock components using morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, B J; Grabowski, T B; Marteinsdóttir, G

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the development of a quantitative method for distinguishing stock components of Icelandic cod Gadus morhua based on visual examination of morphology. The stock is known to be structured into genetically distinct geographic components (north and south of Iceland) and behavioural types that spawn sympatrically. Differences in morphology were tested between locations, genotypes (a proxy for behaviour) and sexes. Results show morphological markers on the head, fins and body of G. morhua that are correlated with the sex, genotype of the fish at the pantophysin (pan-I) locus and the location at which the fish were caught. Females were found to have relatively deep bodies, and the pan-I(BB) genotype (associated with deep-water feeding behaviour) have greater gaps between their fins. Overall, morphology is more useful for distinguishing sympatric genotypes but less powerful at identifying genetically distinct geographic sub-populations, perhaps because counter-gradient evolution reduces phenotypic differences even with an underlying genetic cause. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Creating a Culture: How School Leaders Can Optimise Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The national picture of school behaviour is complex, but numerous indicators suggest that it can be better in a great number of schools and contexts. Every leader should consciously aspire to the very best behaviour possible in their schools as a matter of priority. There are a number of strategies that schools with outstanding behaviour use…

  1. Type and Behaviour Reconstruction for Higher-Order Concurrent Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amtoft, T.; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1997-01-01

    The authors develop a sound and complete type and behaviour inference algorithm for a fragment of CML (Standard ML with primitives for concurrency). Behaviours resemble terms of a process algebra and yield a concise representation of the communications taking place during execution; types...... completeness as well as soundness; this is due to an alternative strategy for generalising over types and behaviours...

  2. Child behaviour problems and childhood illness: development of the Eczema Behaviour Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A E; Morawska, A; Fraser, J A; Sillar, K

    2017-01-01

    Children with atopic dermatitis are at increased risk of both general behaviour problems, and those specific to the condition and its treatment. This can hamper the ability of parents to carry out treatment and manage the condition effectively. To date, there is no published instrument available to assess child behaviour difficulties in the context of atopic dermatitis management. Our aim was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems, and parents' self-efficacy (confidence) for managing these behaviours. The Eczema Behaviour Checklist (EBC) was developed as a 25-item questionnaire to measure (i) extent of behaviour problems (EBC Extent scale), and (ii) parents' self-efficacy for managing behaviour problems (EBC Confidence scale), in the context of child atopic dermatitis management. A community-based sample of 292 parents completed the EBC, measures of general behaviour difficulties, self-efficacy with atopic dermatitis management and use of dysfunctional parenting strategies. There was satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity for EBC Extent and Confidence scales. There was a negative correlation between atopic dermatitis-specific behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with behaviours (r = -.53, p behaviours; (ii) symptom-related behaviours; and (iii) behaviours related to impact of the illness. Variation in parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's atopic dermatitis was explained by intensity of illness-specific child behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with the behaviours. The new measure of atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems was a stronger predictor of parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's condition than was the measure of general child behaviour difficulties. Results provide preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of the EBC, which has potential for use in clinical and research settings, and

  3. Corrosion, haemocompatibility and bacterial adhesion behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiZrN coating was deposited on 316L stainless steel (SS) by the reactive magnetron co-sputtering technique. Cubic phase of TiZrN with uniform surface morphology was observed by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Bacterial adhesion, haemocompatibility and corrosion behaviour of TiZrN coating were ...

  4. Behavioural testing based breeding policy reduces the prevalence of fear and aggression related behaviour in Rottweilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, van der Joanne A.M.; Graat, Lisette; Beerda, Bonne

    2017-01-01

    Behavioural testing allows to exclude dogs that are fearful and aggressive from the breeding population, but relatively little is known about the effectiveness of such strategies in practice. From 2001 till 2009 parent purebred Dutch Rottweilers had to pass the Socially Acceptable Behaviour

  5. Mesophase behaviour of polyhedral particles

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Umang

    2011-02-13

    Translational and orientational excluded-volume fields encoded in particles with anisotropic shapes can lead to purely entropy-driven assembly of morphologies with specific order and symmetry. To elucidate this complex correlation, we carried out detailed Monte Carlo simulations of six convex space-filling polyhedrons, namely, truncated octahedrons, rhombic dodecahedrons, hexagonal prisms, cubes, gyrobifastigiums and triangular prisms. Simulations predict the formation of various new liquid-crystalline and plastic-crystalline phases at intermediate volume fractions. By correlating these findings with particle anisotropy and rotational symmetry, simple guidelines for predicting phase behaviour of polyhedral particles are proposed: high rotational symmetry is in general conducive to mesophase formation, with low anisotropy favouring plastic-solid behaviour and intermediate anisotropy (or high uniaxial anisotropy) favouring liquid-crystalline behaviour. It is also found that dynamical disorder is crucial in defining mesophase behaviour, and that the apparent kinetic barrier for the liquid-mesophase transition is much lower for liquid crystals (orientational order) than for plastic solids (translational order). © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Shape, colour plasticity, and habitat use indicate morph-specific camouflage strategies in a marine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rafael C; Stevens, Martin; Flores, Augusto A V

    2016-10-18

    Colour and shape polymorphisms are important features of many species and may allow individuals to exploit a wider array of habitats, including through behavioural differences among morphs. In addition, differences among individuals in behaviour and morphology may reflect different strategies, for example utilising different approaches to camouflage. Hippolyte obliquimanus is a small shrimp species inhabiting different shallow-water vegetated habitats. Populations comprise two main morphs: homogeneous shrimp of variable colour (H) and transparent individuals with coloured stripes (ST). These morphs follow different distribution patterns between their main algal habitats; the brown weed Sargassum furcatum and the pink-red weed Galaxaura marginata. In this study, we first investigated morph-specific colour change and habitat selection, as mechanisms underlying camouflage and spatial distribution patterns in nature. Then, we examined habitat fidelity, mobility, and morphological traits, further indicating patterns of habitat use. H shrimp are capable of changing colour in just a few days towards their algal background, achieving better concealment in the more marginal, and less preferred, red weed habitat. Furthermore, laboratory trials showed that habitat fidelity is higher for H shrimp, whereas swimming activity is higher for the ST morph, aligned to morphological evidence indicating these two morphs comprise a more benthic (H) and a more pelagic (ST) life-style, respectively. Results suggest that H shrimp utilise a camouflage strategy specialised to a limited number of backgrounds at any one time, whereas ST individuals comprise a phenotype with more generalist camouflage (transparency) linked to a more generalist background utilisation. The coexistence within a population of distinct morphotypes with apparently alternative strategies of habitat use and camouflage may reflect differential responses to substantial seasonal changes in macroalgal cover. Our findings

  7. Behavioural laterality as a factor in emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempala, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who perform a variety of tasks using one side of their bodies (i.e., high-dominance people) are thought to differ from individuals who perform a variety of tasks with both sides of their body (i.e., low-dominance people) in several neurological and cognitive characteristics. We examined whether behavioural laterality predicted the efficacy of different emotional regulation strategies. Specifically, we thought that behavioural laterality would influence verbal strategies (associated with left hemisphere activation) when regulating anxiety (associated with right hemisphere activation). In three studies participants presented in front of small audiences. Behavioural laterality (as measured by a modified handedness inventory) positively correlated with presentation anxiety, such that "low-dominance" participants reported less anxiety than "high-dominance" participants, but only when using cognitive reappraisal (a verbal strategy), not attention deployment or response modulation (behavioural strategies). These results provide preliminary evidence that individual differences in behavioural laterality mediate the efficacy of certain emotional regulation strategies.

  8. Gross morphology betrays phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Fregin, Silke

    2011-01-01

    .). Superficial morphological similarity to cisticolid warblers has previously clouded the species true relationship. Detailed morphology, such as facial bristles and claw and footpad structure, also supports a closer relationship to Cettiidae and some other non-cisticolid warblers....

  9. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  10. Gender and Behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender ...

  11. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of surface morphology on atmospheric corrosion behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    adverse effect of quenched-in defects on the corrosion resistance of Fe34Ni36Cr10P14B6 amorphous alloy has been reported by some investigators (Gravano et al 1992). The inferior corrosion resistance of the wheel side surface has been attributed to higher concentration of quenched- in defects due to higher cooling rate ...

  13. Effect of surface morphology on atmospheric corrosion behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Co18Si1B14 ribbon, was evaluated. The wheel side surface of the ribbon was more corroded than the air side surface, due to the higher density of air pockets present. The phases present in atmospheric rust were analysed by X-ray diffraction ...

  14. Disruptive behaviour in the Foundation Phase of schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro Marais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the passage of legislation banning corporal punishment in South African schools, disruptive behaviour in schools has become an issue of national concern. Against this background a research project was undertaken in which the types and causes of disruptive behaviour occurring most frequently in the Foundation Phase of schooling were identified, with a view to providing strategies for teachers to manage behaviour of this kind. A qualitative research approach was applied. Data collection was done by conducting interviews comprising semistructured questions with Foundation Phase teachers. Strategies purposely devised to deal specifically with the identified types and causes of disruptive behaviour are explained.

  15. Soft morphological image resizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseff, Pavel A.

    1997-04-01

    One important problem in computer vision and image processing is image resizing. Current techniques are generally based on different interpolation methods. These methods are convenient but the downsampled or upsampled image will include new gray values which are not present in the original image. Soft morphological interpolation is a new technique for resampling discrete data. The soft morphological operations are an alternative to the standard morphological operation. The generic description of hierarchical soft morphological transformations was done previously. The further development of soft morphological operations by a hierarchical structural system uses the relaxation of the requirement that the result of the operation must be the r-th largest or smallest value of the corresponding multiset, where r is an order index of the internal hard center. We will assume that any reasonable integer value is acceptable. The purpose of this paper is to derive the sot morphological convolution and compare the result of this convolution with the cubic convolution and Gaussian pyramid.

  16. Non-oblivious Strategy Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John

    2010-01-01

    We study strategy improvement algorithms for mean-payoff and parity games. We describe a structural property of these games, and we show that these structures can affect the behaviour of strategy improvement. We show how awareness of these structures can be used to accelerate strategy improvement algorithms. We call our algorithms non-oblivious because they remember properties of the game that they have discovered in previous iterations. We show that non-oblivious strategy improvement algorit...

  17. Preschoolers' dietary behaviours: parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer D; He, Meizi; Bouck, L Michelle Sangster; Pollett, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Preschoolers' dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers' parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents' keen interest in their preschoolers' eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted.

  18. Preschoolers’ Dietary Behaviours: Parents’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUCKER, PATRICIA; IRWIN, JENNIFER D.; HE, MEIZI; BOUCK, L. MICHELLE SANGSTER; POLLETT, GRAHAM

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Preschoolers’ dietary intake behaviours are described from the perspective of their parents. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents of preschoolers participated in this qualitative study. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted. Two experienced moderators facilitated all focus groups, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed throughout the study. Two team members independently performed inductive content analysis. NVivo software was used to code the emerging themes. Results Parents identified food and food issues as key health-related behaviours among preschoolers. Parents discussed challenges to healthy eating, including time limitations and societal pressures, as well as methods for facilitating healthy food choices, including bribery, education, and being creative with food. Conclusions Dietary intake is on the minds of preschoolers’ parents. Unfortunately, some methods that parents currently use to promote healthy food choices may be more detrimental than beneficial for children in the long term. Parents’ keen interest in their preschoolers’ eating habits may make them particularly receptive to learning about and facilitating healthy choices in more behaviourally appropriate ways. Widespread educational messages about the benefits and detriments of various strategies to facilitate healthy eating among preschoolers therefore seem warranted. PMID:16759432

  19. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  20. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  1. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General ... Using some examples of classical games, we show how evolutionary game theory can help understand behavioural decisions of animals.

  2. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour....

  3. Morphological peculiarities of bryophytes asexual organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Lobachevska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main types of brood organs of dominant bryophyte species on dumps of the mining factories were determined. The special features of morphology, localization and genesis of specialized asexual propagula and gemmae were detected. The analysis of their role in reproductive strategy of colonist species was conducted.

  4. Role of Self-Talk in the Classroom: Investigating the Relationship of Eight-to-Nine-Year-Olds' Self-Regulatory Self-Talk Strategies with Their Classroom Self-Regulatory Behaviour and Mathematical Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott; McDonough, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on children's self-talk and its use to regulate thinking and behaviour, but research has typically been conducted on audible self-talk when undertaking specific tasks designed by researchers and in laboratory situations. Addressing the need to study self-talk in the classroom and by students of an age when…

  5. Generalized Morphology using Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical morphology has traditionally been grounded in lattice theory. For non-scalar data lattices often prove too restrictive, however. In this paper we present a more general alternative, sponges, that still allows useful definitions of various properties and concepts from morphological

  6. Channel morphology [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary

    2012-01-01

    Channel morphology has become an increasingly important subject for analyzing the health of rivers and associated fish populations, particularly since the popularization of channel classification and assessment methods. Morphological data can help to evaluate the flows of sediment and water that influence aquatic and riparian habitat. Channel classification systems,...

  7. Flight Morphology, Compound Eye Structure and Dispersal in the Bog and the Cranberry Fritillary Butterflies: An Inter- and Intraspecific Comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Turlure

    Full Text Available Understanding dispersal is of prime importance in conservation and population biology. Individual traits related to motion and navigation during dispersal may differ: (1 among species differing in habitat distribution, which in turn, may lead to interspecific differences in the potential for and costs of dispersal, (2 among populations of a species that experiences different levels of habitat fragmentation; (3 among individuals differing in their dispersal strategy and (4 between the sexes due to sexual differences in behaviour and dispersal tendencies. In butterflies, the visual system plays a central role in dispersal, but exactly how the visual system is related to dispersal has received far less attention than flight morphology. We studied two butterfly species to explore the relationships between flight and eye morphology, and dispersal. We predicted interspecific, intraspecific and intersexual differences for both flight and eye morphology relative to i species-specific habitat distribution, ii variation in dispersal strategy within each species and iii behavioural differences between sexes. However, we did not investigate for potential population differences. We found: (1 sexual differences that presumably reflect different demands on both male and female visual and flight systems, (2 a higher wing loading (i.e. a proxy for flight performance, larger eyes and larger facet sizes in the frontal and lateral region of the eye (i.e. better navigation capacities in the species inhabiting naturally fragmented habitat compared to the species inhabiting rather continuous habitat, and (3 larger facets in the frontal region in dispersers compared to residents within a species. Hence, dispersers may have similar locomotory capacity but potentially better navigation capacity. Dispersal ecology and evolution have attracted much attention, but there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms of dispersal. Unfortunately, for many

  8. Flight Morphology, Compound Eye Structure and Dispersal in the Bog and the Cranberry Fritillary Butterflies: An Inter- and Intraspecific Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Van Dyck, Hans; Seymoure, Brett; Rutowski, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Understanding dispersal is of prime importance in conservation and population biology. Individual traits related to motion and navigation during dispersal may differ: (1) among species differing in habitat distribution, which in turn, may lead to interspecific differences in the potential for and costs of dispersal, (2) among populations of a species that experiences different levels of habitat fragmentation; (3) among individuals differing in their dispersal strategy and (4) between the sexes due to sexual differences in behaviour and dispersal tendencies. In butterflies, the visual system plays a central role in dispersal, but exactly how the visual system is related to dispersal has received far less attention than flight morphology. We studied two butterfly species to explore the relationships between flight and eye morphology, and dispersal. We predicted interspecific, intraspecific and intersexual differences for both flight and eye morphology relative to i) species-specific habitat distribution, ii) variation in dispersal strategy within each species and iii) behavioural differences between sexes. However, we did not investigate for potential population differences. We found: (1) sexual differences that presumably reflect different demands on both male and female visual and flight systems, (2) a higher wing loading (i.e. a proxy for flight performance), larger eyes and larger facet sizes in the frontal and lateral region of the eye (i.e. better navigation capacities) in the species inhabiting naturally fragmented habitat compared to the species inhabiting rather continuous habitat, and (3) larger facets in the frontal region in dispersers compared to residents within a species. Hence, dispersers may have similar locomotory capacity but potentially better navigation capacity. Dispersal ecology and evolution have attracted much attention, but there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms of dispersal. Unfortunately, for many species

  9. Extrinsic morphology of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Teng

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses a significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene–substrate interaction, thus is distinct from the random intrinsic morphology of freestanding graphene. The regulated extrinsic morphology of graphene sheds light on new pathways to fine tune the properties of graphene. To guide further research to explore these fertile opportunities, this paper reviews recent progress on modeling and experimental studies of the extrinsic morphology of graphene under a wide range of external regulation, including two-dimensional and one-dimensional substrate surface features and one-dimensional and zero-dimensional nanoscale scaffolds (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles)

  10. Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

  11. Tool making, hand morphology and fossil hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Mary W

    2013-11-19

    Was stone tool making a factor in the evolution of human hand morphology? Is it possible to find evidence in fossil hominin hands for this capability? These questions are being addressed with increasingly sophisticated studies that are testing two hypotheses; (i) that humans have unique patterns of grip and hand movement capabilities compatible with effective stone tool making and use of the tools and, if this is the case, (ii) that there exist unique patterns of morphology in human hands that are consistent with these capabilities. Comparative analyses of human stone tool behaviours and chimpanzee feeding behaviours have revealed a distinctive set of forceful pinch grips by humans that are effective in the control of stones by one hand during manufacture and use of the tools. Comparative dissections, kinematic analyses and biomechanical studies indicate that humans do have a unique pattern of muscle architecture and joint surface form and functions consistent with the derived capabilities. A major remaining challenge is to identify skeletal features that reflect the full morphological pattern, and therefore may serve as clues to fossil hominin manipulative capabilities. Hominin fossils are evaluated for evidence of patterns of derived human grip and stress-accommodation features.

  12. Morphology, thermal, electrical and electrochemical stability of nano ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop nano aluminium oxide (Al2O3)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite gel electrolytes. Surface morphological studies, thermal behaviour, electrochemical stability and electrical characterization of these composite gel electrolytes have been performed. An increase ...

  13. Long term evolution of coastal morphology and global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capobianco, M.; De Vriend, H.J.; Nicholls, R.J.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Long-term prediction of sediment transport and of morphological behaviour in the coastal zone, in response to human interference or to change in environmental conditions (collectively global change) is an increasingly important issue in coastal zone management, especially in relation to the needs

  14. Morphology, thermal, electrical and electrochemical stability of nano

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop nano aluminium oxide (Al2O3)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite gel electrolytes. Surface morphological studies, thermal behaviour, electrochemical stability and electrical characterization of these composite gel electrolytes have been performed. An increase ...

  15. [Morphological analysis of autophagy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fang; Hu, Zhuo-wei

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is an important homeostatic cellular recycling mechanism responsible for degrading injured or dysfunctional subcellular organelles and proteins in all living cells. The process of autophagy can be divided into three relatively independent steps: the initiation of phagophore, the formation of autophagosome and the maturation/degradation stage. Different morphological characteristics and molecular marker changes can be observed at these stages. Morphological approaches are useful to produce novel knowledge that would not be achieved through other experimental methods. Here we summarize the morphological methods in monitoring autophagy, the principles in data interpretation and the cautions that should be considered in the study of autophagy.

  16. The effect of enforcement on speed behaviour : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this literature study is to give an overview of research on speed enforcement and its effect on speed behaviour and safety. This study will be used to find new strategies and tactics to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of speed enforcement by the police in terms of behaviour

  17. Traditional Gender Roles As Precursors Of Risky Sexual Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... it was recommended that those in the helping professions should take cognizance of those variables that have been found to influence risky sexual behaviours and decisions among couples. The result also recommends intervention strategy to help couples achieve a better reproductive health behaviour, relationship and ...

  18. Do socio-demographic factors influence the travel behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature-based tourism products in Africa, especially South Africa, are playing an important role in attracting visitors. It is therefore essential to understand travel behaviour and the factors influencing the behaviour of visitors, as such knowledge can influence future park visits, park development and target marketing strategies ...

  19. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  20. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  1. Behavioural present value

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Piasecki

    2013-01-01

    Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.

  2. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  3. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  4. Attenuated behaviour in Cornelia de Lange and fragile X syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Oliver, C; Wittkowski, A; Moss, J; Hare, D

    2018-03-13

    Catatonia-like presentations in people with autism have been increasingly recognised within research and diagnostic guidelines. The recently developed Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire has identified that attenuated behaviour [autistic catatonia] is very prevalent in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and associated with repetitive behaviour. In the current study, we investigated attenuated behaviour within two genetic syndromes associated with ASD and examined ASD and repetitive behaviour as longitudinal predictors of attenuated behaviour. The Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire was completed by parents/carers of 33 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and 69 with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Information collected from the same informants 4 years previously was utilised to examine ASD and repetitive behaviour as predictors of later attenuated behaviour, controlling for age, gender and ability. Catatonia-like attenuated behaviour was reported for individuals with CdLS (30.3%) and FXS (11.6%). Slowed movement was more prevalent in people with CdLS. No other phenotypic differences were observed. Across the two groups, repetitive behaviour predicted the presence of attenuated behaviour 4 years later, after controlling for age, gender and ability. Attenuated behaviour can be identified in individuals with CdLS and FXS and may have an effect on both adaptive behaviour and quality of life. Repetitive behaviours predicted subsequent risk within both groups and should be assessed by services as part of a pro-active strategy of support. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research published by MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disibilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Integrating human behaviour dynamics into flood disaster risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Botzen, W. J.; Clarke, K. C.; Cutter, S. L.; Hall, J. W.; Merz, B.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Mysiak, J.; Surminski, S.; Kunreuther, H.

    2018-02-01

    The behaviour of individuals, businesses, and government entities before, during, and immediately after a disaster can dramatically affect the impact and recovery time. However, existing risk-assessment methods rarely include this critical factor. In this Perspective, we show why this is a concern, and demonstrate that although initial efforts have inevitably represented human behaviour in limited terms, innovations in flood-risk assessment that integrate societal behaviour and behavioural adaptation dynamics into such quantifications may lead to more accurate characterization of risks and improved assessment of the effectiveness of risk-management strategies and investments. Such multidisciplinary approaches can inform flood-risk management policy development.

  6. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pović, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of δz/z Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological types for ~ 20.000 sources in 8 ALHAMBRA fields. For early-type galaxies we expect to recover ~ 70% and 30-40% up to magnitudes 20.0 and 21.5, respectively, having the contamination of late-types of

  7. Behavioural Hybrid Process Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in

  8. Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to

  9. Risk Sexual Behaviour?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    lead to an increase in population-wide high-risk sexual behaviour (either because HIV transmission appears to be ... countries reported an increase in high-risk sexual behaviour amongst men who have sex with men ... government and resulted in a fall in the annual number of HIV incidence and a drop in HIV prevalence ...

  10. Does Nationality Matter in Eco-Behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bonera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many authors agree on the role of personal values in explaining the main determinants of eco-behaviour, disagreement about the effects of socio-demographic features exists, particularly about the effect of nationality. In an attempt to fill this gap in the literature, this paper contributes to the debate surrounding the main determinants of eco-behaviour, based on a cross-country analysis. To test the role of nationality and personal values in eco-behaviour, a linear regression model involving 353 Chinese and 333 Italian subjects was performed. A stepwise analysis was then conducted to identify the main significant effects. The explorative and stepwise analyses confirmed that nationality is significant when explaining individual eco-behaviour, for both Italian and Chinese people. Moreover, the linear regression model, as a stepwise analysis, showed that regulatory focus and universalism are the main personal values influencing ecological behaviour. Differences emerging from the analysis show significant differences in terms of eco-behaviour and eco-awareness, for the two countries involved in the analysis, that might lead companies to adopt different marketing strategies when promoting eco-products.

  11. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  12. Safer by design strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaleda-Siles, M.; Guillamon, A. P.; Delpivo, C.; Vázquez-Campos, S.; Puntes, V. F.

    2017-06-01

    Throughout the EU funded FP7 project GUIDENano, we are trying to control and monitor the evolution of nano-enable products during their lifecycle. Small alterations of the nanoparticle (NP) state may have critical consequences on the NP behaviour and performance. For this reason it is important to highlight the importance of an extensive and proper characterization to define the NP physico-chemical characteristics under several environmental conditions. Furthermore, this characterization is necessary to ensure that obtained results are reproducible and allow understanding the behaviour of the NP on biological systems. In this paper different strategies reported in the literature regarding the safety-by-design concept are summarized. Several strategies from the synthetic point of view that help us to modulate the main factors which determine the safety of nanomaterials are proposed.

  13. The need for a behavioural analysis of behavioural addictions

    OpenAIRE

    James, Richard J.E.; Tunney, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript overviews the behavioural (i.e. associative learning, conditioning) research in behavioural addictions, with reference to contemporary models of substance addiction and ongoing controversies in the behavioural addictions literature. The role of behaviour has been well explored in substance addictions and gambling but this focus is often absent in other candidate behavioural addictions. In contrast, the standard approach to behavioural addictions has been to look at individual ...

  14. Microstructure evolution and fracture behaviour for electron beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of microstructural characteristics on fracture behaviour mechanism for electron beam welding of Ti–6Al–4V was investigated. The results indicated that the welded microstructure composed of coarse needle + phases presenting disordered and multidirectional short needle morphology to make fracture ...

  15. Microstructure evolution and fracture behaviour for electron beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The effect of microstructural characteristics on fracture behaviour mechanism for electron beam welding of Ti–6Al–4V was investigated. The results indicated that the welded microstructure composed of coarse needle α + β phases presenting disordered and multidirectional short needle morphology to make frac-.

  16. Electrochemical behaviour of graphene–poly (3,4-ethylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    superior when compared to the polymer with a weight loss temperature of 350 ◦C for the composite and 250 ◦C for the polymer, respectively. The above electrochemical and thermal behaviours of the composite are correlated to the unique morphology of electrodeposited graphene that provides a conductive and high ...

  17. Eye size and behaviour of day- and night-flying leafcutting ant alates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Moser; John D. Reeve; José Maunício S. Bento; Terezinha M.C. Della Lucia; R. Scott Cameron; Natalie M. Heck

    2004-01-01

    The morphology of insect eyes often seems to be shaped by evolution to match their behaviour and lifestyle. Here the relationship between the nuptial flight behaviour of 10 Atta species (Hymenoptera: Fonnicidae) and the eye size of male and female alates, including the compound eyes, ommatidia facets, and ocelli were examined. These species can be...

  18. The Challenge of Behaviour Change and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Laverack

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The evidence about the effectiveness of behaviour change approaches—what works and what does not work—is unclear. What we do know is that single interventions that target a specific behavioural risk have little impact on the determinants that actually cause poor health, especially for vulnerable people. This has not prevented health promoters from continuing to invest in behaviour change interventions which are widely used in a range of programs. The future of behaviour change and health promotion is through the application of a comprehensive strategy with three core components: (1 a behaviour change approach; (2 a strong policy framework that creates a supportive environment and (3 the empowerment of people to gain more control over making healthy lifestyle decisions. This will require the better planning of policy interventions and the coordination of agencies involved in behaviour change and empowerment activities at the community level, with government to help develop policy at the national level.

  19. Aspects of Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.F L; de Raedt, H.A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we review the basic concepts of integral-geometry-based morphological image analysis. This approach yields an objective, numerical characterization of two- and three-dimensional patterns in terms of geometrical and topological descriptors called Minkowski functionals. We review its

  20. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin

    2010-01-01

    in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations...

  1. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, H.M.; van Eerd, A.R.T.; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few

  2. Evolution of morphological allometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pelabon, Christophe; Firmat, Cyril Joel Patrick; Bolstad, Geir Hysing; Voje, Kjetil L.; Houle, David; Cassara, Jason; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Hansen, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Morphological allometry refers to patterns of covariance between body parts resulting from variation in body size. Whether measured during growth (ontogenetic allometry), among individuals at similar developmental stage (static allometry), or among populations or species (evolutionary allometry), allometric relationships are often tight and relatively invariant. Consequently, it has been suggested that allometries have low evolvability and could constrain phenotypic evolution by forcing evolv...

  3. Facile biological synthetic strategy to morphologically aligned CeO2/ZrO2core nanoparticles using Justicia adhatoda extract and ionic liquid: Enhancement of its bio-medical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Nithya; Murugesan, Balaji; Sonamuthu, Jegatheeswaran; Samayanan, Selvam; Mahalingam, Sundrarajan

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a typical green synthesis route has approached for CeO 2 /ZrO 2 core metal oxide nanoparticles using ionic liquid mediated Justicia adhatoda extract. This synthesis method is carried out at simple room temperature condition to obtain the core metal oxide nanoparticles. XRD, SEM and TEM studies employed to study the crystalline and surface morphological properties under nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes. CeO 2 /ZrO 2 core metal oxides display agglomerated nano stick-like structure with 20-45nm size. GC-MS spectroscopy confirms the presence of vasicinone and N,N-Dimethylglycine present in the plant extract, which are capable of converting the corresponding metal ion precursor to CeO 2 /ZrO 2 core metal oxide nanoparticles. In FTIR, the corresponding stretching for Ce-O and Zr-O bands indicated at 498 and 416cm -1 and Raman spectroscopy also supports typical stretching frequencies at 463 and 160cm -1 . Band gap energy of the CeO 2 /ZrO 2 core metal oxide is 3.37eV calculated from UV- DRS spectroscopy. The anti-bacterial studies performed against a set of bacterial strains the result showed that core metal oxide nanoparticles more susceptible to gram-positive (G+) bacteria than gram-negative (G-) bacteria. A unique feature of the antioxidant behaviors core metal oxides reduces the concentration of DPPH radical up to 89%. The CeO 2 /ZrO 2 core metal oxide nanoparticles control the S. marcescent bio-film formation and restrict the quorum sensing. The toxicology behavior of CeO 2 /ZrO 2 core metal oxide NPs is found due to the high oxygen site vacancies, ROS formation, smallest particle size and higher surface area. This type of green synthesis route may efficient and the core metal oxide nanoparticles will possess a good bio-medical agent in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... (approximately) showed no significant change compared to control or no overall positive findings. We identified 79 eligible studies which described 96 separate interventions to change prescribing behaviour. Of these interventions, 49 (51%, 41%-61%) showed a positive significant change compared to the control...

  5. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society.

  6. Parental socioeconomic background and child behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette

    2014-01-01

    and resource constraints, respectively. We address this issue using a unique longitudinal data set of almost 1,500 schoolchildren attending state schools between 2008 and 2010 in the Danish Municipality of Aalborg. One empirical strategy is to control for a rich set of child and parental characteristics......; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge the predominant assumption that behaviour...... set of child and parental characteristics; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge...

  7. Modelling customer behaviour in multi-channel service distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinhuis, D.; de Vries, E.J.; Kundisch, D.; Veit, D.J.; Weitzel, T.; Weinhardt, C.

    2009-01-01

    Financial service providers are innovating their distribution strategy into multi-channel strategies. The success of a multi-channel approach and the high investments made in information systems and enterprise architectures depends on the adoption and multi-channel usage behaviour of consumers. We

  8. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals.

  9. Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ricardo Lazzari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.

  10. A New Distribution Strategy : The Omnichannel Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Gabriela Belu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world, dependent on information technology, distribution companies are searching for new marketing models meant to enrich the consumer’s experience. Therefore, the evolution of new technologies, the changes in the consumer’s behaviour are the main factors that determine changes in the business model in the distribution field. The following article presents different forms of distribution, focusing on the omnichannel strategy. In the last part of the paper, the authors analyse the Romanian retail market, namely, the evolution of the market, its key competitors and the new distribution models adopted by retaileres in our country.

  11. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  12. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    ABSTRACT. Electrochemical behaviour of Aloe secundiflora on carbon steel corrosion control in neutral and aerated soft water solutions have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. The investigation was performed at different inhibitor concentrations under ...

  13. Everyday behaviour in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Eken Asp, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The absolute majority of dogs are kept as companion animals. Dogs kept as family pets are frequently exposed to noisy and crowded environments, and often have to interact with unfamiliar dogs and humans. In Sweden, we have a long history of recording behaviour in dogs on a large scale. The Swedish Working Dog Association (SBK) has, since 1989, carried out a standardized behavioural test called Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA). Results from the DMA can be condensed into five personality traits: ...

  14. Marine and Coastal Morphology: medium term and long-term area modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn

    This thesis documents development and application of a modelling concept developed in collaboration between DTU and DHI. The modelling concept is used in morphological modelling in coastal areas where the governing sediment transport processes are due to wave action. The modelling concept...... evolution model and apply them to problems concerning coastal protection strategies (both hard and soft measures). The applied coastal protection strategies involve morphological impact of detached shore parallel segmented breakwaters and shore normal impermeable groynes in groyne fields, and morphological...

  15. Morphology of leukaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ladines-Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukaemias are characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of immature blood cells with lymphoid or myeloid lineage. Morphological classification is based on the identification of the leukaemia cell line and its stage of differentiation. The first microscopic descriptions dating from the 1930s pointed to 2 different types of leukaemia cells: lymphoid and myeloid. In 1976, the consensus that led to the French-American-British (FAB classification was achieved. This includes criteria for identifying myeloid and lymphoid leukaemias, and gives a list of morphological subtypes, describing how these affect the patient's prognosis. Today, despite new classifications based on sophisticated studies, FAB classification is widely used by experts due to its technical simplicity, good diagnostic reliability and cost-effectiveness.

  16. Philanthropic behaviour and motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hyánek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though philanthropy tends to be considered a sociological theme rather than an economic one, it poses a number of questions that challenge economists as well. We chose to address the following: How can economists contribute to the theories related to philanthropy? We examine some terms that are used in public economics theory and use them to explore the issues of philanthropy like Samaritan’s Dilemma, the Prisoner’s Dilemma, and the Free-Rider Problem, which we consider to be interesting and inspiring (Stone, 2008. We have to find and identify the social values of donors and volunteers rather than their economic values, because economists are not fully able to explain empathy, altruism, and helpful behaviour using traditional economic principles (Rutherford, 2008. The theoretical frame is supported by relevant empirical data. Before starting a large-scale survey, we decided to conduct smaller pre-research probes into people’s attitudes towards altruism, philanthropy, and giving. Even though our sample was not fully representative, the responses that we collected generated interesting findings about people’s views and attitudes. The first wave of data was collected between February and April 2009; the second wave between February and April 2010.Because of this pilot research mission and because of the budget restriction too, the non-representative sample of 823 respondents has been used; students of our Public Economics study programme were used as interviewers. They have also obtained a proper training of the professional sociologist. Students utilized the face to face interviewing method; non-standardized questions were immediately recorded into the reply form. Questions were divided into three groups with typical characteristics. The first one focuses on personal (individual motives for financial donating (only financial gifts for non-profit organizations. Second part examines the attitudes of individual towards the non

  17. Coordinated Behaviour in Pigeon Flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yomosa

    Full Text Available We analysed pigeon flock flights using GPS trajectory data to reveal the most important kinematic aspects of flocking behaviour. We quantitatively investigated the internal motion of the flock based on pairwise statistics and found the following general relationships in all datasets: i the temporal order of decisions characterised by the delay between directional changes is strictly related to the spatial order characterised by the longitudinal relative position within the flock; ii during circling motion, pigeons use a mixture of two idealised and fundamentally different turning strategies, namely, parallel-path and equal-radius type turning. While pigeons tend to maintain their relative position within the flock on average, as in the parallel-path approximation, those who turn later also get behind as in the equal-radius case. Equal-radius type turning also tends to be expressed more during smaller radius turns.

  18. Morphology targets: What do seedling morphological attributes tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Morphology is classically defined as the form and structure of individual organisms, as distinct from their anatomy or physiology. We use morphological targets in the nursery because they are easy to measure, and because we can often quantitatively link seedling morphological traits with survival and growth performance in the field. In the 20 years since the Target...

  19. Gender and Behaviour: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural ...

  20. Predatory functional morphology in raptors: interdigital variation in talon size is related to prey restraint and immobilisation technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver W Fowler

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity of raptors in terrestrial ecosystems, many aspects of their predatory behaviour remain poorly understood. Surprisingly little is known about the morphology of raptor talons and how they are employed during feeding behaviour. Talon size variation among digits can be used to distinguish families of raptors and is related to different techniques of prey restraint and immobilisation. The hypertrophied talons on digits (D I and II in Accipitridae have evolved primarily to restrain large struggling prey while they are immobilised by dismemberment. Falconidae have only modest talons on each digit and only slightly enlarged D-I and II. For immobilisation, Falconini rely more strongly on strike impact and breaking the necks of their prey, having evolved a 'tooth' on the beak to aid in doing so. Pandionidae have enlarged, highly recurved talons on each digit, an adaptation for piscivory, convergently seen to a lesser extent in fishing eagles. Strigiformes bear enlarged talons with comparatively low curvature on each digit, part of a suite of adaptations to increase constriction efficiency by maximising grip strength, indicative of specialisation on small prey. Restraint and immobilisation strategy change as prey increase in size. Small prey are restrained by containment within the foot and immobilised by constriction and beak attacks. Large prey are restrained by pinning under the bodyweight of the raptor, maintaining grip with the talons, and immobilised by dismemberment (Accipitridae, or severing the spinal cord (Falconini. Within all raptors, physical attributes of the feet trade off against each other to attain great strength, but it is the variable means by which this is achieved that distinguishes them ecologically. Our findings show that interdigital talon morphology varies consistently among raptor families, and that this is directly correlative with variation in their typical prey capture and restraint strategy.

  1. Quantitative morphological descriptors confirm traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... J. Appl. Biosci. 2015 Quantitative morphological descriptors confirm traditionally classified morphotypes of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (clusiaceae). 8736. Quantitative morphological descriptors ...... Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis. A, 2004. The WorldClim interpolated global.

  2. Physiology modulates social flexibility and collective behaviour in equids and other large ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersick, Andrew S; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2017-08-19

    Though morphologically very similar, equids across the extant species occupy ecological niches that are surprisingly non-overlapping. Occupancy of these distinct niches appears related to subtle physiological and behavioural adaptations which, in turn, correspond to significant differences in the social behaviours and emergent social systems characterizing the different species. Although instances of intraspecific behavioural variation in equids demonstrate that the same body plan can support a range of social structures, each of these morphologically similar species generally shows robust fidelity to its evolved social system. The pattern suggests a subtle relationship between physiological phenotypes and behavioural flexibility. While environmental conditions can vary widely within relatively short temporal or spatial scales, physiological changes and changes to the behaviours that regulate physiological processes, are constrained to longer cycles of adaptation. Physiology is then the limiting variable in the interaction between ecological variation and behavioural and socio-structural flexibility. Behavioural and socio-structural flexibility, in turn, will generate important feedbacks that will govern physiological function, thus creating a coupled web of interactions that can lead to changes in individual and collective behaviour. Longitudinal studies of equid and other large-bodied ungulate populations under environmental stress, such as those discussed here, may offer the best opportunities for researchers to examine, in real time, the interplay between individual behavioural plasticity, socio-structural flexibility, and the physiological and genetic changes that together produce adaptive change.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Morphology, deformation and failure behaviour of homo- and copolyimide fibres. 1. Fibres from 4,4'-oxybis(phthalic anhydride) (DPhO) and p-phenylenediamine (PPh) or/and 2,5-bis(4-aminophenyl)-pyrimidine (2,5PRM)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sukhanova, T. E.; Baklagina, Yu. G.; Kudryavtsev, V. V.; Maricheva, T. A.; Lednický, František

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 40, - (1999), s. 6265-6276 ISSN 0032-3861. [Europhysics Conference on Macromolecular Physics Morphology of Polymers. Prague, 17.07.1995-20.07.1995] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A55/98:AVOZ4050913 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.344, year: 1999

  4. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lithium battery anodes by nanocasting strategy from ordered 2D and 3D templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lupo, F. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Gerbaldi, C., E-mail: claudio.gerbaldi@polito.it [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Casino, S.; Francia, C.; Meligrana, G. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Tuel, A. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, IRC-CNRS (UPR 5401), 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Penazzi, N. [GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Nanosized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lithium battery conversion anodes with tunable morphology. • Nanocasting technique using MCM-41 and MCM-48 silica moulds is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} replica of MCM-41 exhibits stable capacity (∼300 mA h g{sup −1}) after 100 cycles. • α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} replica of MCM-41 shows promising prospects as high-capacity Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Nanocasting strategy is here proposed as effective approach to tune structure and size of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} active nanoparticles as a promising anode material for Li-ion cells. MCM-41 and MCM-48 silicas, presenting hexagonal 2D and cubic 3D symmetry, respectively, and regular pore diameter of about 4 nm are selected as moulds. The structural–morphological and electrochemical characteristics are assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} physisorption at 77 K, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge/charge cycling. It is here demonstrated that structural–morphological features change accordingly to the template used and careful control of the texture/particle characteristics is likely a fundamental variable noticeably affecting the cycling behaviour.

  5. The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based practice depends on successful behaviour change interventions. This requires an appropriate method for characterising interventions and linking them to an analysis of the targeted behaviour. There exists a plethora of frameworks of behaviour change interventions, but it is not clear how well they serve this purpose. This paper evaluates these frameworks, and develops and evaluates a new framework aimed at overcoming their limitations. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases and consultation with behaviour change experts were used to identify frameworks of behaviour change interventions. These were evaluated according to three criteria: comprehensiveness, coherence, and a clear link to an overarching model of behaviour. A new framework was developed to meet these criteria. The reliability with which it could be applied was examined in two domains of behaviour change: tobacco control and obesity. Results Nineteen frameworks were identified covering nine intervention functions and seven policy categories that could enable those interventions. None of the frameworks reviewed covered the full range of intervention functions or policies, and only a minority met the criteria of coherence or linkage to a model of behaviour. At the centre of a proposed new framework is a 'behaviour system' involving three essential conditions: capability, opportunity, and motivation (what we term the 'COM-B system'). This forms the hub of a 'behaviour change wheel' (BCW) around which are positioned the nine intervention functions aimed at addressing deficits in one or more of these conditions; around this are placed seven categories of policy that could enable those interventions to occur. The BCW was used reliably to characterise interventions within the English Department of Health's 2010 tobacco control strategy and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence's guidance on reducing obesity

  6. The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Robert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the design and implementation of evidence-based practice depends on successful behaviour change interventions. This requires an appropriate method for characterising interventions and linking them to an analysis of the targeted behaviour. There exists a plethora of frameworks of behaviour change interventions, but it is not clear how well they serve this purpose. This paper evaluates these frameworks, and develops and evaluates a new framework aimed at overcoming their limitations. Methods A systematic search of electronic databases and consultation with behaviour change experts were used to identify frameworks of behaviour change interventions. These were evaluated according to three criteria: comprehensiveness, coherence, and a clear link to an overarching model of behaviour. A new framework was developed to meet these criteria. The reliability with which it could be applied was examined in two domains of behaviour change: tobacco control and obesity. Results Nineteen frameworks were identified covering nine intervention functions and seven policy categories that could enable those interventions. None of the frameworks reviewed covered the full range of intervention functions or policies, and only a minority met the criteria of coherence or linkage to a model of behaviour. At the centre of a proposed new framework is a 'behaviour system' involving three essential conditions: capability, opportunity, and motivation (what we term the 'COM-B system'. This forms the hub of a 'behaviour change wheel' (BCW around which are positioned the nine intervention functions aimed at addressing deficits in one or more of these conditions; around this are placed seven categories of policy that could enable those interventions to occur. The BCW was used reliably to characterise interventions within the English Department of Health's 2010 tobacco control strategy and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence

  7. Psychobiology of partnership behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploog, D

    1975-11-01

    Animal experiments demonstrate that it is not only the quality of transmitted and received social signals that is important, but also their frequency and the timing of the information transmitted. In order for progress to be made in the investigation of human social behaviour and its disorders, methods must be developed which allow the transmission of verbal and non-verbal information to be measured. Experiments carried out with healthy adults and healthy and disturbed children to investigate human eye contact and distance behaviour are reported, along with experiments on the influence of gaze and body posture on spoken communication. Finally, a report on the use of behaviour therapy for an autistic child is outlined in order to explore the psychobiological correlations between social behaviour and language, which concur with extensive experiments on brain stimulation. It is suggested that there is a cerebral representation for species-specific social behaviour and a vocalization system embedded in these brain structures which is a phylogenetically-patterned prerequisite for the development of human language.

  8. Morphological rates of angiosperm seed size evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Hallie J

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of seed size among angiosperms reflects their ecological diversification in a complex fitness landscape of life-history strategies. The lineages that have evolved seeds beyond the upper and lower boundaries that defined nonflowering seed plants since the Paleozoic are more dispersed across the angiosperm phylogeny than would be expected under a neutral model of phenotypic evolution. Morphological rates of seed size evolution estimated for 40 clades based on 17,375 species ranged from 0.001 (Garryales) to 0.207 (Malvales). Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that morphological rates are not associated with the clade's seed size but are negatively correlated with the clade's position in the overall distribution of angiosperm seed sizes; clades with seed sizes closer to the angiosperm mean had significantly higher morphological rates than clades with extremely small or extremely large seeds. Likewise, per-clade taxonomic diversification rates are not associated with the seed size of the clade but with where the clade falls within the angiosperm seed size distribution. These results suggest that evolutionary rates (morphological and taxonomic) are elevated in densely occupied regions of the seed morphospace relative to lineages whose ecophenotypic innovations have moved them toward the edges. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Morphology and function in the empirical analysis of reading adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpio, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of varying the criterion and the morphology of the percentage of correct response upon reading adjustment tasks. Participants were 20 voluntary students, distributed in four groups, which were differentiated by the certainty - variability of the criterion and the certainty - variability of the morphology of response to satisfy the criterion. All participants were exposed to a first evaluation, training and finally a second evaluation similar to the first one was applied. Results question the role of morphology as a comprehension strategy independent of a functional criterion, domain and of the text itself

  10. Morphological awareness assessment and intervention to improve language and literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Julie A; Gibson, Frances E

    2015-02-01

    Morphological awareness positively influences language and literacy development and may be an ideal intervention focus for improving vocabulary, sight word reading, reading decoding, and reading comprehension in students with and without language and literacy deficits. This article will provide supporting theory, research, and strategies for implementing morphological awareness intervention with students with language and literacy deficits. Additionally, functional connections are explored through the incorporation and application of morphological awareness intervention in academic literacy contexts linked to Common Core State Standards. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Electrochemical and morphological characterisation of polyphenazine films on copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia-Caridade, Carla; Romeiro, Andreia; Brett, Christopher M.A., E-mail: cbrett@ci.uc.pt

    2013-11-15

    The morphology of films of the phenazine polymers poly(neutral red) (PNR), poly(brilliant cresyl blue) (PBCB), poly(Nile blue A) (PNB) and poly(safranine T) (PST), formed by potential cycling electropolymerisation on copper electrodes, in order to reduce the corrosion rate of copper, has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The copper surface was initially partially passivated in sodium oxalate, hydrogen carbonate or salicylate solution, in order to inhibit copper dissolution at potentials where phenazine monomer oxidation occurs, and to induce better polymer film adhesion. SEM images were also taken of partially passivated copper in order to throw light on the different morphology and anti-corrosive behaviour of the polyphenazine films. Analysis of the morphology of the polymer-coated copper with best anti-corrosive behaviour after 72 h immersion in 0.1 M KCl, Cu/hydrogen carbonate/PNB, showed that the surface is completely covered by closely packed crystals. By contrast, images of PST films on copper partially passivated in oxalate solution, that had the least protective behaviour, showed large amounts of insoluble corrosion products after only 4 h immersion in 0.1 M KCl.

  12. Morphological analysis of ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the progress made during the period of April 1st, 1989 and March 31st, 1990. Topics covered are: SANS of Telechelic Ionomers, SANS of Sulfonated Polyurethanes, Effect of Matrix Polarity and Ambient Aging on the Morphology of Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Adhesive Sphere Model for Analysis of SAXS Data from Ionomers, Comparison of Structure-Property Relationships in Carboxylated and Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Development of a Liquid-like Hard Sphere Model for Deformed Ionomer Samples, and Polymer Synthesis for Proposed Research. (JDL)

  13. Morphology of Seyfert Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    We probed the relation between properties of Seyfert nuclei and morphology of their host galaxies. We selected Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts less 0.2 identified by the V\\'{e}ron Catalog (13th). We used the "{\\it{FracDev}}" parameter from SDSS galaxy fitting models to represent the bulge fractions of the Seyfert host galaxies. We found that the host galaxies of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 are dominated by large bulge fractions, and Seyfert 2 galaxies are more li...

  14. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... (approximately) showed no significant change compared to control or no overall positive findings. We identified 79 eligible studies which described 96 separate interventions to change prescribing behaviour. Of these interventions, 49 (51%, 41%-61%) showed a positive significant change compared to the control...... or inconclusive. Positive studies (+) were those that demonstrated a statistically significant change in the majority of outcomes measured at level of p change in the opposite direction and inconclusive studies...

  15. Size Of Industrial Organization: Impact On Workers Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dayo Akintayo; S.S. Babalola

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of size of organization on workers behaviour (labour turnover, absenteeism, and job satisfaction and strike prone activity behaviour) in industrial organizations in South-Western Nigeria. This was for the purpose of determining the appropriate management strategies that could foster commitment, cooperation and compliance among industrial workers in Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. A total of 320 respondents were drawn from the sele...

  16. Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians' behaviour: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Heather O

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice. Several interventions have been shown to be effective in changing health care professionals' behaviour, but heterogeneity within interventions, targeted behaviours, and study settings make generalisation difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the 'active ingredients' in professional behaviour change strategies. Theories of human behaviour that feature an individual's "intention" to do something as the most immediate predictor of their behaviour have proved to be useful in non-clinical populations. As clinical practice is a form of human behaviour such theories may offer a basis for developing a scientific rationale for the choice of intervention to use in the implementation of new practice. The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between intention and behaviour in clinicians and how this compares to the intention-behaviour relationship in studies of non-clinicians. Methods We searched: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science/Social science citation index, Current contents (social & behavioural med/clinical med, ISI conference proceedings, and Index to Theses. The reference lists of all included papers were checked manually. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they had: examined a clinical behaviour within a clinical context, included measures of both intention and behaviour, measured behaviour after intention, and explored this relationship quantitatively. All titles and abstracts retrieved by electronic searching were screened independently by two reviewers, with disagreements resolved by discussion. Discussion Ten studies were found that examined the relationship between intention and clinical behaviours in 1623 health professionals. The proportion of variance in behaviour explained by

  17. Morphology Controls on Calcite Recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, Frank; Paulig, Leonie; Nie, Zhe; Schild, Dieter; Finck, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Environmental scientists and geoscientists working in different fields regard the reactivity of calcite and corresponding changes in its trace elemental- or isotopic composition from diametrically opposed points of view. As one extreme, calcite based environmental remediation strategies rely on the fast recrystallization of calcite and the concurrent uptake and immobilization of pollutants. Paleo-ecological investigations denote the other extreme, and rely on the invariability of calcite composition over geological periods of time. We use long-term radiotracer experiments to quantify recrystallization rates of seven types of calcite powder with diverse morphology and particle size distribution. On the one hand our results demonstrate the long-term metastability of calcite with equilibrated crystal surfaces even at isotopic dis-equilibrium. On the other hand, we document the extremely high reactivity and interfacial free energy of freshly ground, rough calcite. Our results indicate that bulk calcite recrystallization is an interfacial free energy driven Ostwald-ripening process, in which particle roughness effects dominate over the effect of crystal habitus and particle size. We confirm that the dynamic equilibrium exchange of crystal constituents between kink sites involves an activation barrier of about 25 kJ/mol. At room temperature the equilibrium exchange is limited to a near surface region and proceeds at a rate of (3.6 ± 1.4)·10 -13 mol/(m 2 ·s).

  18. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  19. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...

  20. Evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a group psychological intervention using cognitive behavioural strategies for women with common mental disorders in conflict-affected rural Pakistan: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumento, Anna; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Dawson, Katie; Bryant, Richard A; Sijbrandij, Marit; Nazir, Huma; Akhtar, Parveen; Masood, Aqsa; Wang, Duolao; van Ommeren, Mark; Rahman, Atif

    2017-04-26

    The impact of humanitarian disasters upon mental health is well recognised. The evidence for psychological interventions for mental health is mounting, but few interventions have been rigorously tested in humanitarian settings. To be sustainable in humanitarian settings interventions need to be short, simple, deliverable by nonspecialists under supervision, and adopt a transdiagnostic approach where an array of mental health outcomes are addressed simultaneously. These elements have been incorporated into the newly developed WHO Problem Management Plus (PM+) Group intervention. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the locally adapted PM+ Group intervention for women in Swat, Pakistan. This PM+ Group trial is a two-arm, single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial conducted in a community-based setting with women in rural Pakistan. PM+ is delivered in partnership with the Lady Health Worker (LHW) Programme which provides community-based health care to women in Pakistan. Thirty-four LHW clusters will be randomised in a 1:1 allocation ratio using a permuted-block randomisation method. Participants screened and found to meet the inclusion criteria will be allocated to either the PM+ intervention group (n = 306), or the control arm (n = 306). The manualised PM+ intervention involves five sessions, each lasting 3 h, and introduces four strategies applied by participants to problems that they are facing. It is delivered by local female facilitators with a minimum of 16 years of education who are provided with targeted training and supervision. The primary outcome is individual psychological distress, measured by levels of anxiety and depression on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at 20 weeks after baseline. Secondary outcomes include major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, levels of social support, levels of functioning, and economic effectiveness. Intervention acceptability will be explored through an embedded qualitative study. The PM

  1. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  2. Morphological Analysis for Statistical Machine Translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Young-Suk

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel morphological analysis technique which induces a morphological and syntactic symmetry between two languages with highly asymmetrical morphological structures to improve statistical...

  3. Behaviour Centred Design: towards an applied science of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    Behaviour change has become a hot topic. We describe a new approach, Behaviour Centred Design (BCD), which encompasses a theory of change, a suite of behavioural determinants and a programme design process. The theory of change is generic, assuming that successful interventions must create a cascade of effects via environments, through brains, to behaviour and hence to the desired impact, such as improved health. Changes in behaviour are viewed as the consequence of a reinforcement learning process involving the targeting of evolved motives and changes to behaviour settings, and are produced by three types of behavioural control mechanism (automatic, motivated and executive). The implications are that interventions must create surprise, revalue behaviour and disrupt performance in target behaviour settings. We then describe a sequence of five steps required to design an intervention to change specific behaviours: Assess, Build, Create, Deliver and Evaluate. The BCD approach has been shown to change hygiene, nutrition and exercise-related behaviours and has the advantages of being applicable to product, service or institutional design, as well as being able to incorporate future developments in behaviour science. We therefore argue that BCD can become the foundation for an applied science of behaviour change.

  4. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  5. Targeting sedentary behaviour for behavioural change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The South African online population is rapidly transforming into one which is always reachable. The economic benefits of this transition are vast; however, the impact on obesity and related diseases is potentially devastating. Discussion: In this commentary it is proposed that public health strategies be revisited ...

  6. Non-oblivious Strategy Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, John

    We study strategy improvement algorithms for mean-payoff and parity games. We describe a structural property of these games, and we show that these structures can affect the behaviour of strategy improvement. We show how awareness of these structures can be used to accelerate strategy improvement algorithms. We call our algorithms non-oblivious because they remember properties of the game that they have discovered in previous iterations. We show that non-oblivious strategy improvement algorithms perform well on examples that are known to be hard for oblivious strategy improvement. Hence, we argue that previous strategy improvement algorithms fail because they ignore the structural properties of the game that they are solving.

  7. Immoral behaviour in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmon, P; Tabak, N

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize a social phenomenon that exists in Israel: immoral medicine. In recent years, nurses have been exposed to many instances of immoral medicine in hospitals. We want to protest about the demands for money from patients who are waiting for surgical intervention, arouse the medical community's conscience concerning these immoral activities, and improve professional and moral behaviour.

  8. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR AND VOLTAMMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrochemical behaviour of Geshoidin was investigated at a glassy carbon electrode in mixtures of citric acid and di-sodium hydrogen orthophosphate aqueous buffer system over a wide pH range (pH 2-11) using cyclic voltammetry. Chemically irreversible single oxidation and reduction peaks were obtained in the ...

  9. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-20

    May 20, 2003 ... It is a form of therapy where the patient is helped to recognise patterns of ... The article briefly discusses the development of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), and makes mention of the important contri- butions made by South ..... was the displace- ment of aspects of the Newtonian paradigm of physics by.

  10. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, the industrialised countries have experienced a shift from the Keynesian state intervention paradigm towards a more market-regulated economy. Firms have found themselves in a new era, where they are expected to self-regulate their behaviour in terms of working conditions...

  11. Behavioural economics, travel behaviour and environmental-transport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel

  12. Reproductive strategies of a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakadera, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive strategies in a simultaneous hermaphrodite All the extant organisms are the consequence of reproduction by ancestors. This fact naturally invokes the urge to know how organisms managed to reproduce. Therefore, I studied reproductive strategy, which is defined as a set of (behavioural,

  13. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  14. Crinoid Ecological Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumiller, Tomasz K.

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies of crinoids reveal that their connective tissue, known to be mutable, is also contractile, and that certain stalked taxa are capable of crawling and subject to predation by cidaroid sea urchin. Aspects of crinoid functional morphology, ecology, and paleobiology are reviewed in the context of these findings. Mutability and contractility of ligament are important to autotomy, posture maintenance, and motility, and those, in turn, are shown to play a role in how crinoids acquire nutrients, select habitats and respond to predation pressure. A review of predation on crinoids supports the view that it is ecologically significant. Motility, a trait critical for handling predation pressure by stalkless crinoids, is shown to play an analogous role in stalked crinoids. The distribution of traits required for motility among extant and fossil crinoids reveals that their frequency increased dramatically following the Permo-Triassic extinction, with low values characterizing the Paleozoic and high values characterizing the post-Paleozoic.

  15. Ultrastructural assessment of cellulite morphology: clues to a therapeutic strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Tokuya; Sato, Shigeru; Kawana, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Cellulite is a problematic condition affecting mostly women, characterized by a bumpy or nodular skin surface. Recent approaches with laser treatment have offered some promise. The present study sought to identify possible targets for laser treatment or light therapy through an ultrastructural investigation of the condition. Study subjects comprised 7 healthy Japanese female volunteers (Age range 37-46 yr, average 38.4) with cellulite, graded on the 4-point Nurnberger-Muller cellulite severity scale. Four patients were at grade 2 and 3 at grade 3. Three millimeter punch biopsies were obtained and routinely processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. Microphotography of specimens from cellulite patients demonstrated the presence of fibrotic septa which divided up larger clusters of adipose tissue into smaller packets, with the septa acting as a tethering system, thus producing the typical dimpling pattern. Ultrastructural findings showed proliferation of collagen and elastic fibers down into the cellulite tissue with compression of capillaries and congestion of arterioles, resulting in poor blood flow. The histological and ultrastructural findings of cellulite clearly distinguish the condition from simple fat deposition. The remodeling of the fat layer into lobulated packets of lipocytes sequestered by fibrotic septa with a high proportion of elastic fibers would suggest the use of a fiber-based interstitial laser-assisted lipolysis system at an appropriate wavelength which might offer benefits through disruption of the septae through a photomechanical effect and lipolysis of the sequestered lipocytes. This could be followed by a course of near-infrared phototherapy to accelerate clearance of freed lipid and debris and reestablish the vascular system.

  16. Modelling the long-term morphological evolution of a coupled open coast, inlet and estuary system to explore climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Barend; Walkden, Mike; Barnes, John; Nicholls, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Coastal and shoreline management increasingly needs to account for morphological change occurring at decadal to centennial timescales. Critical aspects of geomorphic behaviour at these temporal scales emerge at a system level, such that accounting for the feedbacks between different landform components is of key importance. In this study we develop new methods to simulate the large-scale evolution of a coupled open coast - inlet - estuary system, allowing us to explore the system's response to climate change impacts and management interventions. The system explored here encompasses the Deben estuary (eastern England) and its adjacent shorelines. The estuary itself mainly consists of finer sediments. Sediments throughout the inlet, on the other hand, including the ebb-tidal delta itself, comprise a mixture of gravel and sand. The ebb-tidal shoals and sediment bypassing show broadly cyclic behaviour on a 10 to 30 year timescale. Neighbouring beaches consist of mixed sediment and are partially backed up by sedimentary cliffs, the behaviour of which is potentially influenced by the sediment bypassing at the inlet. In addition, the open coast has undergone major transformations as a result of numerous sea defences which have altered sediment availability and supply. The interlinked behaviour of this system is approached by coupling a new inlet model (MESO_i) with an existing, and recently extended, model for the open coast (SCAPE+). MESOi simulates the evolution at the mouth of the Deben at an aggregated scale, conceptualizing the inlet by different geomorphic features that are characterized mainly by their volume. The behaviour of the inlet shoals is influenced by the estuarine tidal prism, linking estuarine processes with inlet dynamics. SCAPE+ computes the shaping of the shore profile and has proven capable of providing valuable information in terms of decadal evolution and related cliff recession rates. Simulations conducted with this composition of models highlight

  17. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  18. Optimal kinematics and morphologies for spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Daniel; Hosoi, A. E.

    2011-04-01

    We investigate the role of hydrodynamics in the evolution of the morphology and the selection of kinematics in simple uniflagellated microorganisms. We find that the most efficient swimming strategies are characterized by symmetrical, nonsinusoidal bending waves propagating from the base of the head to the tip of the tail. In addition, we show that the ideal tail-to-head length ratio for such a swimmer is ≈12 and that this predicted ratio is consistent with data collected from over 400 species of mammalian sperm.

  19. Entrepreneurial personality and entrepreneurial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Rodica LUCA

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.

  20. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...... and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results...

  1. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected...

  2. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    The purpose of Work Package 5 Deliverable 5.1., “Case study reports on energy efficiency and behaviour” is to present examples of behavioral interventions to promote energy efficiency in cities. The case studies were collected in January – June 2014, and they represent behavioural interventions...... from different sectors of energy efficiency from the following PLEEC partner countries: Denmark, Sweden, Finland, the UK, the Netherlands, Estonia, Bulgaria and Spain. Each case is presented shortly with key details of budget, target group, and methods as well as a short assessment of main success...... factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...

  3. Strategie podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlašinský, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of theoretic part of the thesis is to define the term of a strategy, specify the way how to create the strategy, what approach, methods and instruments are used for the strategy determination. Part of the definicions and further focus will be the area of strategic analysis,competetive advantage and the Enterprise's resources. In the application part, the present strategy of Airport Prague company, that is the the international Prague Ruzyne airport operator, will be specified. On the ...

  4. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  5. Quantum circuit behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulton, D.

    1989-09-01

    Single electron tunnelling in multiply connected weak link systems is considered. Using a second quantised approach the tunnel current, in both normal and superconducting systems, using perturbation theory, is derived. The tunnel currents are determined as a function of an Aharanov-Bohm phase (acquired by the electrons). Using these results, the multiply connected system is then discussed when coupled to a resonant LC circuit. The resulting dynamics of this composite system are then determined. In the superconducting case the results are compared and contrasted with flux mode behaviour seen in large superconducting weak link rings. Systems in which the predicted dynamics may be seen are also discussed. In analogy to the electron tunnelling analysis, the tunnelling of magnetic flux quanta through the weak link is also considered. Here, the voltage across the weak link, due to flux tunnelling, is determined as a function of an externally applied current. This is done for both singly and multiply connected flux systems. The results are compared and contrasted with charge mode behaviour seen in superconducting weak link systems. Finally, the behaviour of simple quantum fluids is considered when subject to an external rotation. Using a microscopic analysis it is found that the microscopic quantum behaviour of the particles is manifest on a macroscopic level. Results are derived for bosonic, fermionic and BCS pair-type systems. The connection between flux quantisation in electromagnetic systems is also made. Using these results, the dynamics of such a quantum fluid is considered when coupled to a rotating torsional oscillator. The results are compared with those found in SQUID devices. A model is also presented which discusses the possible excited state dynamics of such a fluid. (author)

  6. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  7. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  8. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Sedentary behaviour and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Margot; Tremblay, Mark S

    2008-06-01

    This article examines sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use and reading) in relation to obesity among Canadian adults aged 20 to 64 years. The analysis is based on 42,612 respondents from the 2007 Canadian Community Health Survey Cross-tabulations were used to compare the prevalence of obesity by time engaged in sedentary behaviours. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine if associations between sedentary behaviours and obesity were independent of the effects of sociodemographic variables, leisure-time physical activity and diet. Approximately one-quarter of men (25%) and women (24%) who reported watching television 21 or more hours per week were classified as obese. The prevalence of obesity was substantially lower for those who averaged 5 or fewer hours of television per week (14% of men and 11% of women). When examined in multivariate models controlling for leisure-time physical activity and diet, the associations between time spent watching television and obesity persisted for both sexes. Frequent computer users (11 or more hours per week) of both sexes had increased odds of obesity, compared with those who used computers for 5 or fewer hours per week. Time spent reading was not related to obesity.

  10. Evolution of morphological allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Firmat, Cyril; Bolstad, Geir H; Voje, Kjetil L; Houle, David; Cassara, Jason; Rouzic, Arnaud Le; Hansen, Thomas F

    2014-07-01

    Morphological allometry refers to patterns of covariance between body parts resulting from variation in body size. Whether measured during growth (ontogenetic allometry), among individuals at similar developmental stage (static allometry), or among populations or species (evolutionary allometry), allometric relationships are often tight and relatively invariant. Consequently, it has been suggested that allometries have low evolvability and could constrain phenotypic evolution by forcing evolving species along fixed trajectories. Alternatively, allometric relationships may result from natural selection for functional optimization. Despite nearly a century of active research, distinguishing between these alternatives remains difficult, partly due to wide differences in the meaning assigned to the term allometry. In particular, a broad use of the term, encompassing any monotonic relationship between body parts, has become common. This usage breaks the connection to the proportional growth regulation that motivated Huxley's original narrow-sense use of allometry to refer to power-law relationships between traits. Focusing on the narrow-sense definition of allometry, we review here evidence for and against the allometry-as-a-constraint hypothesis. Although the low evolvability and the evolutionary invariance of the static allometric slope observed in some studies suggest a possible constraining effect of this parameter on phenotypic evolution, the lack of knowledge about selection on allometry prevents firm conclusions. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Skin mechanics and morphology of two species of Pachydactylus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The southern African species Pachydactylus namaquensis is one of only a few mainland species of geckos that exhibits the escape strategy of regional integumentary loss. The skin morphology and mechanics of this species were compared to the same parameters in lhe sympatric congener P. bibronii. The tensile strength ...

  12. Morphology-controlled Pd nanocrystals as catalysts in tandem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The catalytic performance was strongly dependent on the nanocrystals morphology and the spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 5.5 nm displayed the ... Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Japan; Unit of Elements Strategy ...

  13. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  14. Determinants of biosecurity behaviour of British cattle and sheep farmers-a behavioural economics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Heffernan, Claire; Ringrose, Siân; Gunn, George J

    2013-03-01

    The paper analyses the impact of a priori determinants of biosecurity behaviour of farmers in Great Britain. We use a dataset collected through a stratified telephone survey of 900 cattle and sheep farmers in Great Britain (400 in England and a further 250 in Wales and Scotland respectively) which took place between 25 March 2010 and 18 June 2010. The survey was stratified by farm type, farm size and region. To test the influence of a priori determinants on biosecurity behaviour we used a behavioural economics method, structural equation modelling (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships amongst variables, some of which may be latent using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Thirteen latent variables were identified and extracted, expressing the behaviour and the underlying determining factors. The variables were: experience, economic factors, organic certification of farm, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, knowledge about biosecurity measures, perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, perceived effect (on farm business in the past five years) of welfare/health regulation, perceived effect of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, attitudes towards animal welfare, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures and biosecurity behaviour. The SEM model applied on the Great Britain sample has an adequate fit according to the measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious fit. The results suggest that farmers' perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, organic certification of farm, knowledge about biosecurity measures, attitudes towards animal welfare, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, perceived effect on business during the past five years of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, membership

  15. Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anupam; Carrara, Francesco; Stocker, Roman

    2017-03-01

    Marine phytoplankton inhabit a dynamic environment where turbulence, together with nutrient and light availability, shapes species fitness, succession and selection. Many species of phytoplankton are motile and undertake diel vertical migrations to gain access to nutrient-rich deeper layers at night and well-lit surface waters during the day. Disruption of this migratory strategy by turbulence is considered to be an important cause of the succession between motile and non-motile species when conditions turn turbulent. However, this classical view neglects the possibility that motile species may actively respond to turbulent cues to avoid layers of strong turbulence. Here we report that phytoplankton, including raphidophytes and dinoflagellates, can actively diversify their migratory strategy in response to hydrodynamic cues characteristic of overturning by Kolmogorov-scale eddies. Upon experiencing repeated overturning with timescales and statistics representative of ocean turbulence, an upward-swimming population rapidly (5-60 min) splits into two subpopulations, one swimming upward and one swimming downward. Quantitative morphological analysis of the harmful-algal-bloom-forming raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo together with a model of cell mechanics revealed that this behaviour was accompanied by a modulation of the cells’ fore-aft asymmetry. The minute magnitude of the required modulation, sufficient to invert the preferential swimming direction of the cells, highlights the advanced level of control that phytoplankton can exert on their migratory behaviour. Together with observations of enhanced cellular stress after overturning and the typically deleterious effects of strong turbulence on motile phytoplankton, these results point to an active adaptation of H. akashiwo to increase the chance of evading turbulent layers by diversifying the direction of migration within the population, in a manner suggestive of evolutionary bet-hedging. This migratory

  16. Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anupam; Carrara, Francesco; Stocker, Roman

    2017-03-23

    Marine phytoplankton inhabit a dynamic environment where turbulence, together with nutrient and light availability, shapes species fitness, succession and selection. Many species of phytoplankton are motile and undertake diel vertical migrations to gain access to nutrient-rich deeper layers at night and well-lit surface waters during the day. Disruption of this migratory strategy by turbulence is considered to be an important cause of the succession between motile and non-motile species when conditions turn turbulent. However, this classical view neglects the possibility that motile species may actively respond to turbulent cues to avoid layers of strong turbulence. Here we report that phytoplankton, including raphidophytes and dinoflagellates, can actively diversify their migratory strategy in response to hydrodynamic cues characteristic of overturning by Kolmogorov-scale eddies. Upon experiencing repeated overturning with timescales and statistics representative of ocean turbulence, an upward-swimming population rapidly (5-60 min) splits into two subpopulations, one swimming upward and one swimming downward. Quantitative morphological analysis of the harmful-algal-bloom-forming raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo together with a model of cell mechanics revealed that this behaviour was accompanied by a modulation of the cells' fore-aft asymmetry. The minute magnitude of the required modulation, sufficient to invert the preferential swimming direction of the cells, highlights the advanced level of control that phytoplankton can exert on their migratory behaviour. Together with observations of enhanced cellular stress after overturning and the typically deleterious effects of strong turbulence on motile phytoplankton, these results point to an active adaptation of H. akashiwo to increase the chance of evading turbulent layers by diversifying the direction of migration within the population, in a manner suggestive of evolutionary bet-hedging. This migratory behaviour

  17. The spider Harpactea sadistica: co-evolution of traumatic insemination and complex female genital morphology in spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezáč, Milan

    2009-01-01

    The males of invertebrates from a few phyla, including arthropods, have been reported to practise traumatic insemination (TI; i.e. injecting sperm by using the copulatory organ to penetrate the female's body wall). As all previously reported arthropod examples have been insects, there is considerable interest in whether TI might have evolved independently in other arthropods. The research reported here demonstrates the first case of TI in the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata, in particular how the genital morphology and mating behaviour of Harpactea sadistica (Řezáč 2008), a spider from Israel, has become adapted specifically for reproduction based on TI. Males have needle-like intromittent organs and females have atrophied spermathecae. In other spiders, eggs are fertilized simultaneously with oviposition, but the eggs of H. sadistica are fertilized in the ovaries (internal fertilization) and develop as embryos before being laid. Sperm-storage organs of phylogenetically basal groups to H. sadistica provide males with last male sperm priority and allow removal of sperm by males that mate later, suggesting that TI might have evolved as an adaptive strategy to circumvent an unfavourable structure of the sperm-storage organs, allowing the first male to mate with paternity advantage. Understanding the functional significance of TI gives us insight into factors underlying the evolution of the genital and sperm-storage morphology in spiders. PMID:19403531

  18. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions.

  19. Morphology Of The English Noun

    OpenAIRE

    ., farikah .

    2003-01-01

    Word is the key element in morphology. Morpology is a study of internal con­ struction of words. In language learneang, noun is the important element, In this paper, the writer will present morphologv of the English noun, it will also he described noun identification. Key Words: Morphology, Noun

  20. Functional architecture of behavioural thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D

    2011-01-01

    The human thermoregulatory system relies primarily on behavioural adaptation and secondarily on autonomic and endocrine responses for thermal homeostasis. This is because autonomic and endocrine responses have a limited capacity in preventing hyper/hypothermia in extreme environments. Until recently, the neuroanatomy of behavioural thermoregulation as well as the neuroanatomic substrate of the various thermoregulatory behaviours remained largely unknown. However, this situation has changed in recent years as behavioural thermoregulation has become a topic of considerable attention. The present review evaluates the current knowledge on behavioural thermoregulation in order to summarize the present state-of-the-art and to point towards future research directions. Findings on the fundamental distinction between thermal (dis)comfort and sensation are reviewed showing that the former drives behaviour while the latter initiates autonomic thermoregulation. Moreover, the thermosensitive neurons and thermoeffector functions of behavioural thermoregulation are presented and analysed in a detailed discussion.

  1. Morphology of open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Dannhauer, Karl-Heinz; Hierl, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to define and illustrate the skeletal morphology of open-bite patients against the background of sagittal jaw relationships on the basis of lateral cephalograms. Lateral cephalograms of 197 untreated adults were analyzed in dental imaging software (Onyx Ceph 3™; Image Instruments, Chemnitz, Germany). Four groups were formed based on vertical (Index scores) and sagittal (individualized ANB values) parameters. Ninety-nine patients were defined as the control group due to their neutral sagittal and vertical relationships. The remaining patients were found by their vertical relationships to represent open-bite cases and were divided by their sagittal relationships into three study groups: neutral (Class I, n = 34), distal (Class II, n = 26), and mesial (Class III, n = 38). A geometric morphometric approach was used to analyze the x,y-coordinates of 28 skeletal landmarks on each cephalogram. Relative size was captured based on centroid size (CS). The shape-determining factors in the groups were compared by permutation testing after Procrustes transformation, and intergroup differences were visualized in the form of thin-plate splines. While size (CS) was significantly increased in the Class III group, the other two groups were not different from the control group. After Procrustes transformation, characteristic and invariably significant (p common that the mandibular ramus is compressed, but marked differences are seen in terms of vertical development of the maxilla. This differentiated view of open-bite cases should be taken into consideration during individual etiology assessment and treatment planning.

  2. Intense extrapair behaviour in a semicolonial passerine does not result in extrapair fertilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Paulo Gama; Hoi-Leitner, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Sperm competition is a strong force on the evolution of mating behaviour of animals, particularly birds. In monogamous birds extrapair behaviour is one main source of variation in the reproductive success of males, which has caused the evolution of paternity guards as well as strategies by females to increase the genetic quality of their descendants. We investigated the importance of sperm competition in the reproductive behaviour of serins, Serinus serinus. Male serins guarded their mates an...

  3. Specificity of the Codependent Behaviour and Some Models in the Therapy of Codependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Ivanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the specificity of the codependent behaviour, some models of therapeutical effect, their scientific validity and practicaleffectiveness. The focus is on the possibilities of motivational interviewing - one comparatively new therapy in the area of dependent behaviours with specific techniques, which are directed towards the act and the mobilization of the inner values and goals of the codependents, their resources for stimulating changes in behaviour and forming more effective coping strategies.

  4. Consumer behaviour and order fulfilment in online retailing – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, D; De Leeuw, S; Dullaert, W

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of consumer behaviour and order fulfilment in online retailing. The objective of this review is threefold: first, to identify elements of order fulfilment operations that are relevant to online consumer behaviour (purchase, repurchase, product return); second, to understand the relationship between order fulfilment performance and consumer behaviour; and third, to inspire future research on developing consumer service strategies that takes account of th...

  5. The influence of collective behaviour on pacing in endurance competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eRenfree

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of theoretical models have been proposed to explain pacing strategies in individual competitive endurance events. These have typically related to internal regulatory processes informing the making of decisions relating to muscular work rate. Despite a substantial body of research investigating the influence of collective group dynamics on individual behaviours in various animal species, this issue has not been comprehensively studied in individual athletic events. This is surprising given that athletes directly compete in close proximity to one another, and that collective behaviour has also been observed in other human environments. Whilst reasons for adopting collective behaviour are not fully understood, it is thought to result from individual agents following simple local rules resulting in seemingly complex large systems acting to confer some biological advantage to the collective as a whole. Although such collective behaviours may generally be beneficial, endurance events are complicated by the fact that increasing levels of physiological disruption as activity progresses may compromise the ability of individuals to continue to interact with other group members. This could result in early fatigue and relative underperformance due to suboptimal utilisation of physiological resources by some athletes. Alternatively, engagement with a collective behaviour may benefit all due to a reduction in the complexity of decisions to be made and a subsequent reduction in cognitive loading and mental fatigue. This paper seeks evidence for collective behaviour in previously published analyses of pacing behaviour and proposes mechanisms through which it could potentially be either beneficial, or detrimental to individual performance.

  6. Physiologic, morphologic and behavioural responses of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) related to the consume of different varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris; Respostas fisiologicas, morfologicas e comportamentais de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) associadas ao consumo de diferentes variedades de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteleto, Patricia B. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Genetica e Bioquimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao], e-mail: patriciamarteleto@gmail.com; Lomonaco, Cecilia [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia], e-mail: lomonaco@ufu.br; Kerr, Warwick E. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Umuarama, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: kerr@ufu.br

    2009-03-15

    This study was developed aiming to verify physiological, morphological and behavioral responses of two different Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) populations to different beans varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Fabaceae). Female longevity, fertility and oviposition preference site, as well as size and levels of fluctuating asymmetry for males and females were described. Zabrotes subfasciatus displayed physiological plasticity in response to the diet, which was considered an important adaptive ability to maintain the insect generalist habit for food consumption and oviposition sites. The populations studied had different responses to the same treatments, indicating genetic, physiological and behavioral variation on their plastic potential. The Hopkins' principle, which determines the influence of previous female experience in the choice of oviposition sites, was not confirmed. The occurrence of fluctuating asymmetry in males and females was variable, probably as a consequence of genomic factors determining this trait. (author)

  7. Nonlinear behaviour of self-excited microcantilevers in viscous fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouro, J.; Tiribilli, B.; Paoletti, P.

    2017-09-01

    Microcantilevers are increasingly being used to create sensitive sensors for rheology and mass sensing at the micro- and nano-scale. When operating in viscous liquids, the low quality factor of such resonant structures, translating to poor signal-to-noise ratio, is often manipulated by exploiting feedback strategies. However, the presence of feedback introduces poorly-understood dynamical behaviours that may severely degrade the sensor performance and reliability. In this paper, the dynamical behaviour of self-excited microcantilevers vibrating in viscous fluids is characterized experimentally and two complementary modelling approaches are proposed to explain and predict the behaviour of the closed-loop system. In particular, the delay introduced in the feedback loop is shown to cause surprising non-linear phenomena consisting of shifts and sudden-jumps of the oscillation frequency. The proposed dynamical models also suggest strategies for controlling such undesired phenomena.

  8. Behavioural design: A process for integrating behaviour change and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hartlev, Charlotte Gram; Durazo, Christine Boysen

    2017-01-01

    Nudge, persuasion, and the influencing of human behaviour through design are increasingly important topics in design research and in the wider public consciousness. However, current theoretical approaches to behaviour change have yet to be operationalized this in design process support....... Specifically, there are few empirically grounded processes supporting designers in realising behaviour change projects. In response to this, 20 design projects from a case company are analysed in order to distil a core process for behavioural design. Results show a number of process stages and activities...... associated with project success, pointing to a new perspective on the traditional design process, and allowing designers to integrate key insights from behaviour change theory. Using this foundation we propose the Behavioural Design process....

  9. Individual differences in cocaine addiction: maladaptive behavioural traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Karel, P.G.A.; Verheij, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to addiction in only a subset of individuals. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these individual differences in the transition from cocaine use to cocaine abuse is important to develop treatment strategies. There is agreement that specific behavioural traits increase the risk

  10. The impact of emotional intelligent on workers' behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of emotional intelligence on workers' behaviour in industrial organizations. This was for the purpose of determining the appropriate management strategies that could foster improved job performance, job involvement, satisfaction and commitment among the workforce in Nigeria.

  11. Behavioural Constraints on Practices of Auditing in Nigeria (BCPAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpomi, Margaret E.; Amesi, Joy

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the behavioural constraints on practices of auditing (BCPAN) in Nigeria and to proffer strategies for making incidence of auditing (internal and external auditors) more effective. Thirty-seven administrators drawn from some public limited liability companies, private companies and tertiary institutions were…

  12. Measuring behaviour in rodents: towards translational neuropsychiatric research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent behavioural tasks are indispensable to advance the understanding of gene x environment interactions in neuropsychiatric disorders and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Yet, the actual translation of rodent data to humans, and thereby the understanding of the pathophysiology of

  13. Relationships among Selected Practice Behaviours and Achievement in Jazz Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the practice strategies that collegiate music majors chose to employ in preparing for a jazz improvisation performance, and the relationships among selected practice behaviours and achievement in instrumental jazz improvisation. Participants for the study (N = 62) were enrolled as music majors…

  14. Influence of sward characteristics on grazing behaviour and short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feasibility of intensifying grazing studies in the tropics, particularly in Nigeria, to examine the behaviour of ruminants in highly heterogeneous pastures has the potential to provide integrated (sward, animal, management) strategies for sustainable livestock production in Nigeria. Key Words: Sward characteristics; Grazing ...

  15. Risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: This study revealed risky sexual behaviours among Debre Tabor University students. Thus, continuous and intensified public health strategies on health education and reproductive health services are required to address the sexual and reproductive health needs of the students. Key words: Risky sexual ...

  16. Emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The interaction between teachers, classroom strategies and learners experiencing emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in a system of inclusive education results in multiple dynamics on different levels. Many teachers in mainstream education lack training to deal with learners ...

  17. Developing Pro-Environmental Behaviour: Ecotourism Fieldtrip and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ding Hooi; Cheng, Charles Fang Chin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a student participatory approach and assessment to achieve an environmentally friendly behaviour and change strategy. Design/methodology/approach Three time-phase studies employed a participatory and experiential case in the form of ecotourism experiential learning and assessment using a…

  18. Customer satisfaction and complaint behaviour: The case of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore female customers' satisfaction/ dissatisfaction with the quality of custom-made clothes, the accompanying emotions resulting from the dissatisfaction and their coping strategies in the form of complaint behaviour. A survey-based research design was followed. The sample consisted of ...

  19. Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus bird hunting behaviour and capture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detailed observations were made of Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus behaviour when hunting birds, the bird prey species and bird capture success in northern Cameroon. Four hunting strategies are described to capture birds: fast contour flight, overt approach with rapid acceleration, covert ambush, and stoop from flight.

  20. The Influence Personality and Leader Behaviours Have on Teacher Self-Leadership in Vocational Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Glenn; Kiffin-Petersen, Sandra; Soutar, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Teacher self-leadership includes a set of individual cognitive and behavioural strategies that, when practised together, can lead to improved performance. This study examines the influence personality and leader behaviours have on teacher self-leadership in a vocational education and training setting. Survey data from 418 teachers from an…

  1. Intergenerational linkages in antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P; Freeman-Gallant, Adrienne; Lovegrove, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    A life-course perspective was used to examine whether a parent's adolescent antisocial behaviour increases the chances of his or her child being involved in antisocial behaviour and, if so, the extent to which different aspects of parenting mediate this relationship. It was hypothesised that there will be significant levels of intergenerational continuity in antisocial behaviour when parents have ongoing contact with the child, and that stress from parenting and ineffective parenting styles will mediate this relationship. Longitudinal data from the Rochester Intergenerational Study were used to test these issues in structural equation models for fathers and for mothers. Parental antisocial behaviour is significantly related to child antisocial behaviour for mothers and for fathers who have frequent contact with the child, but not for fathers with infrequent contact. For mothers, the impact of adolescent antisocial behaviour on the child's antisocial behaviour is primarily mediated through parenting stress and effective parenting. For high-contact fathers there are multiple mediating pathways that help explain the impact of their adolescent antisocial behaviour on their child's behaviour. The roots of antisocial behaviour extend back at least to the parent's adolescence, and parenting interventions need to consider these long-term processes.

  2. Developing Leadership Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter

    Managers in the public sector act in a political context full of dilemmas. Nevertheless, they must show courage, efficiency, make difficult decisions, prioritize and produce results for the citizens. This seems to demand new and/or better ways of leading the public sector. Leadership development......, education and training are some of the tools, which are often used to renew, rethink and restructure leadership as well as management. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of formal leadership education on developing public leadership behaviour....

  3. Window opening behaviour: simulations of occupant behaviour in residential buildings using models based on a field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentina, Fabi; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Window opening behaviour has been shown to have a significant impact on airflow rates and hence energy consumption. Nevertheless, the inhabitant behaviour related to window opening in residential buildings is currently poorly investigated through both field surveys and building energy simulations....... In particular, reliable information regarding user behaviour in residential buildings is crucial for suitable prediction of building performance (energy consumption, indoor environmental quality, etc.). To face this issue, measurements of indoor climate and outdoor environmental parameters and window “opening...... and closing” actions were performed in 15 dwellings from January to August 2008 in Denmark. Probabilistic models of inhabitants’ window “opening and closing” behaviour were developed and implemented in the energy simulation software IDA ICE to improve window opening and closing strategies in simulations...

  4. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of resident,...

  5. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  6. The types and levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour of Senior Phase learners in Potchefstroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C.W. De Vos

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Strategies need to be implemented to raise the physical activity levels of Senior Phase learners, especially during weekdays, and to decrease sedentary behaviour. With this view in mind, recommendations are made for Physical Education teachers.

  7. Collision avoidance in unstructured environments for autonomous robots: a behavioural modelling approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yinka-Banjo, CO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Collision avoidance is one of the important safety key operations that needs attention in the navigation system of an autonomous robot. In this paper, a Behavioural Bayesian Network approach is proposed as a collision avoidance strategy...

  8. Morphology and sedimentation in Caribbean montane streams" examples from Jamaica and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ahmad; F.N. Scatena; A Gupta

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary description of the morphology, sedimentation, and behaviour of the montane streams of eastern Jamaica and eastern Puerto Rico. The area is located within a 200 km wide seismically active zone of Neogene left-lateral strike-slip deformation which defines the plate boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates. Tropical storms,...

  9. Economizing behaviour during travel: strategies and information sources used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the consumer was hit hard by the consequences of the global economic and financial crisis. The crisis affected consumer spending in general and tourism in particular. In 2009, data was collected in the Netherlands about how people economize during travel, which can help to find out what

  10. Strategies for managing deviant behaviour among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school adolescents as expressed by secondary school counsellors in Kwara State. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design method. The target population for this study consisted of secondary school counsellors in the state.

  11. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Litjens, R.; Brogle, Marc; Osipov, Evgeny; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which

  12. behavioural strategies for the management of domestic violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youth-gang and school vices. Domestic Violence. Domestic violence, the main focus of this paper, involves any behavior used by one person in a relationship to control the other. Strickly speaking, the involved partners may be married or not married, gay, lesbian or heterosexual, living together, separated or dating. It.

  13. Tri-Space Framework for Understanding MNC Behaviour and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework called ‘Tri-Space’ that comprises three overlapping social spaces, indicating three different concepts: institution and business systems, civil society, and transnational communities. Tri-space framework broadens the horizon of understanding of how MNCs behave...

  14. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Litjens, R.; Heijenk, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which

  15. Morphological and physiological adjustments to waterlogging and drought in seedlings of Amazonian floodplain trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Pia

    2001-08-01

    Plants in central Amazonian floodplains are subjected to waterlogging or complete submersion for 50-270 days every year. Most trees have growth reductions, photosynthetic activity can be reduced for some weeks to months, and leaf fall increases during the high-water period, but leaf flush, flowering and fruiting also occur in waterlogged plants. Whether flooding can trigger the changes in phenology, growth and metabolism of the plants has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which waterlogging was directly responsible for morphological, phenological and physiological changes in floodplain seedlings. In two flooding experiments performed at different times of the year, the effects of waterlogging, submersion and drought were tested in seedlings of six species with different growth strategies. One experiment was performed in the period of highest precipitation and rising river levels, and a second experiment in the period of highest river levels and the onset of the period of lowest precipitation. All results were comparable in the two experiments, and the morphological, phenological and physiological responses were linked to the treatments. Height growth and new leaf production were not severely affected in the waterlogged seedlings. All waterlogged plants produced adventitious roots, lenticels and stem hypertrophy. Submersion and drought caused a state of rest, but soon after the water had receded, leaves resprouted. Five to 12 weeks after the end of submersion, the seedlings reached the height of the control plants, showing a high ability to compensate the period of rest induced by submergence. Only the three deciduous species subjected to waterlogging showed a different phenological behaviour in the two experiments, perhaps related to genetically fixed phenological rhythms which are synchronous to those of adult trees in the field.

  16. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  17. [Health behaviour of doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Anikó

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviour involves maintaining, improving and restoration of health. The aim of the author was to assess correlations of health behaviour with age, gender, job type and overtime. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire (N = 186). Data were analyzed with chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Doctors working in in-patient care drink more coffee (p = 0.034) and energy drinks (p = 0.018); they eat undisturbed only on weekends at home (p = 0.032). Men consume more alcohol (p = 0.003), red meats (pmeals (p = 0.018) and their daily fluid consumption exceeds 2 litres (p = 0.005); their body mass index values are higher compared to women (peat more hot meals (p = 0.005), and those under the age of 30 consume more crisps, fast food (p = 0.001) and energy drinks (p = 0.005), while they are more active (p = 0.010). Dietary habits of doctors are not ideal and their physical activity is diminished compared to international trends. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(30), 1198-1206.

  18. [Sedentary behaviour and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füzéki, E; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2015-03-01

    Exercise-related public health recommendations and research for increased fitness and health had long focused on vigorous exercise or the lack thereof. Recently scientific interest in possible effects of sedentary behaviour (SB) (sitting) independent of moderate-vigorous intensity exercise has been growing.We conducted a selective literature search in Pubmed and the Sedentary Research Database with the outcomes SB, risk factors, mortality and morbidity in adults. We included only reviews and systematic reviews.Observational studies suggest an association between SB and all-cause and cardiovascular, but not cancer mortality. SB also seems to be associated with diabetes and overweight/weight gain. Evidence for other diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, cancer, and mental diseases is limited also because of the heterogeneity and poor methodology of the -studies. Intervention studies found inconsistent evidence that SB is associated with detrimental effects on markers of cardiometabolic risk.The evidence on the detrimental effects of sedentary behaviour is decreasingly convincing with the endpoints of mortality, -morbidity, and markers of metabolic risk, in that order. Higher TV and screen time, but not total SB seems to be associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular, but not cancer mortality. Further intervention studies are needed to establish -dose-response relationships and potentially protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Inclusive Education: Teachers' Intentions and Behaviour Analysed from the Viewpoint of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zi; Sin, Kuen-fung

    2014-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) claims that behaviour can be predicted by behavioural intention and perceived behavioural control, while behavioural intention is a function of attitude towards the behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. This study aims at providing explanation and prediction of teachers' inclusive…

  20. Consumer behaviour and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    , that information alone is usually not sufficient to change behaviour (Stern, 1999). My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for pro-moting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this publication...... that are in some way related to their behaviour as consumers. Information may be even more important for furthering other important types of behaviour, such as voter behaviour or activist behav-iour, but these issues are outside the limits of this chapter...... ago." It continues to be true that a funda-mental requirement for success in this endeavour is consumers' active support and willing participation (Norwegian Ministry of Environment, 1994). Information is an important tool in this connection. Not only for marshalling public support...

  1. Predatory behaviour in synthetic protocell communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yan; Li, Mei; Booth, Richard; Mann, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Recent progress in the chemical construction of colloidal objects comprising integrated biomimetic functions is paving the way towards rudimentary forms of artificial cell-like entities (protocells). Although several new types of protocells are currently available, the design of synthetic protocell communities and investigation of their collective behaviour has received little attention. Here we demonstrate an artificial form of predatory behaviour in a community of protease-containing coacervate microdroplets and protein-polymer microcapsules (proteinosomes) that interact via electrostatic binding. The coacervate microdroplets act as killer protocells for the obliteration of the target proteinosome population by protease-induced lysis of the protein-polymer membrane. As a consequence, the proteinosome payload (dextran, single-stranded DNA, platinum nanoparticles) is trafficked into the attached coacervate microdroplets, which are then released as functionally modified killer protocells capable of rekilling. Our results highlight opportunities for the development of interacting artificial protocell communities, and provide a strategy for inducing collective behaviour in soft matter microcompartmentalized systems and synthetic protocell consortia.

  2. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports.

  3. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    With centralised buying organisations, growth in market coverage and turn over retailers have become gatekeepers to the consumer markets. Therefore, knowledge about retailers' and trade buyers' buying behaviour has become important to producers. W review the literature on retailer buying behaviour...... committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  4. Disruptive behaviour in the perioperative setting: a contemporary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Hamlin, Colin; Enns, Stephanie; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Disruptive behaviour, which we define as behaviour that does not show others an adequate level of respect and causes victims or witnesses to feel threatened, is a concern in the operating room. This review summarizes the current literature on disruptive behaviour as it applies to the perioperative domain. Searches of MEDLINE ® , Scopus™, and Google books identified articles and monographs of interest, with backreferencing used as a supplemental strategy. Much of the data comes from studies outside the operating room and has significant methodological limitations. Disruptive behaviour has intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational causes. While fewer than 10% of clinicians display disruptive behaviour, up to 98% of clinicians report witnessing disruptive behaviour in the last year, 70% report being treated with incivility, and 36% report being bullied. This type of conduct can have many negative ramifications for clinicians, students, and institutions. Although the evidence regarding patient outcomes is primarily based on clinician perceptions, anecdotes, and expert opinion, this evidence supports the contention of an increase in morbidity and mortality. The plausible mechanism for this increase is social undermining of teamwork, communication, clinical decision-making, and technical performance. The behavioural responses of those who are exposed to such conduct can positively or adversely moderate the consequences of disruptive behaviour. All operating room professions are involved, with the rank order (from high to low) being surgeons, nurses, anesthesiologists, and "others". The optimal approaches to the prevention and management of disruptive behaviour are uncertain, but they include preventative and professional development courses, training in soft skills and teamwork, institutional efforts to optimize the workplace, clinician contracts outlining the clinician's (and institution's) responsibilities, institutional policies that are monitored and

  5. Influence of fossoriality on inner ear morphology: insights from caecilian amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddin, Hillary C; Sherratt, Emma

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that a relationship exists between inner ear morphology and functional aspects of an animal's biology, such as locomotor behaviour. Animals that engage in agile and spatially complex behaviours possess semicircular canals that morphologically maximise sensitivity to correspondingly complex physical stimuli. Stemming from the prediction that fossorial tetrapods require a well-developed sense of spatial awareness, we investigate the hypothesis that fossoriality leads to inner ear morphology that is convergent with other spatially adept tetrapods. We apply morphometrics to otic capsule endocasts of 26 caecilian species to quantify aspects of inner ear shape, and compare these with a sample of frog and salamander species. Our results reveal caecilians (and also frogs) possess strongly curved canals, a feature in common with spatially adept species. However, significantly shorter canals in caecilians suggest reduced sensitivity, possibly associated with reduced reliance on vestibulo-ocular reflexes in this group of visually degenerate tetrapods. An elaboration of the sacculus of caecilians is interpreted as a unique adaptation among amphibians to increase sensitivity to substrate-borne vibrations transmitted through the head. This study represents the first quantitative analyses of inner ear morphology of limbless fossorial tetrapods, and identifies features within a new behavioural context that will contribute to our understanding of the biological consequences of physical stimuli on sensory function and associated morphological evolution. PMID:24762299

  6. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  7. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Yan, Ng Sze; Zakuan, Norhayati; Bahari, Ahamad Zaidi; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  8. Developmental Problems and Dental Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, William C., Jr.; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    1973-01-01

    Ninety-five subjects (mean age 55 months) with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and/or minimal brain dysfunction and 47 control subjects (mean age 46 months) were compared to determine the relationship between developmental problems and dental morphology. (Author)

  9. Representing strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijf, Hein; Broersen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Quite some work in the ATL-tradition uses the differences between various types of strategies (positional, uniform, perfect recall) to give alternative semantics to the same logical language. This paper contributes to another perspective on strategy types, one where we characterise the differences

  10. Representing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Duijf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quite some work in the ATL-tradition uses the differences between various types of strategies (positional, uniform, perfect recall to give alternative semantics to the same logical language. This paper contributes to another perspective on strategy types, one where we characterise the differences between them on the syntactic (object language level. This is important for a more traditional knowledge representation view on strategic content. Leaving differences between strategy types implicit in the semantics is a sensible idea if the goal is to use the strategic formalism for model checking. But, for traditional knowledge representation in terms of object language level formulas, we need to extent the language. This paper introduces a strategic STIT syntax with explicit operators for knowledge that allows us to charaterise strategy types. This more expressive strategic language is interpreted on standard ATL-type concurrent epistemic game structures. We introduce rule-based strategies in our language and fruitfully apply them to the representation and characterisation of positional and uniform strategies. Our representations highlight crucial conditions to be met for strategy types. We demonstrate the usefulness of our work by showing that it leads to a critical reexamination of coalitional uniform strategies.

  11. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism should be of interest to investigate. Furthermore, modern brain-imaging studies will reveal the site of action of aggressiveness and impulsivity. Within brain regions of interest, biological studies will promote our knowledge of this deleterious behaviour.

  12. Evaluation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coto Chotto, Mayela; Wentzer, Helle; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation strategy based on deliberate ideals and principles of dialogue design. The evaluation strategy is based on experiential phenomenology taking the point of departure for design and evaluation processes in the experienced practitioners themselves. The article present...... the evaluation strategy and methodology of a research project Making Online Path to Enter new Markets, MOPEM. It is an EU-research project with partners from different Educational Institutions of Technology and Business in five European Countries.......The paper presents an evaluation strategy based on deliberate ideals and principles of dialogue design. The evaluation strategy is based on experiential phenomenology taking the point of departure for design and evaluation processes in the experienced practitioners themselves. The article presents...

  13. Smoking cessation strategies in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; van Riet, Evelien E S; Rutten, Frans H

    2013-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of behavioural and pharmacological smoking cessation strategies in COPD patients. MEDLINE was searched from January 2002 to October 2011....... Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of smoking cessation interventions for COPD patients, published in English, were selected. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed using the Delphi list by two reviewers independently. The relative risks of smoking cessation due...... that in COPD patients, pharmacological therapy combined with behavioural counselling is more effective than each strategy separately. Neither the intensity of counselling nor the type of anti-smoking drug made a difference....

  14. Composição morfológica da forragem consumida por bovinos de corte durante o rebaixamento do capim-marandu submetido a estratégias de pastejo rotativo Morphological composition of the herbage consumed by beef cattle during the grazing down process of marandu palisadegrass subjected to rotational strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Kuhn da Trindade

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de estratégias de pastejo rotativo sobre a composição morfológica da forragem consumida por bovinos de corte em pastos de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. Os pastejos foram realizados sempre que o dossel atingia 95 ou 100% de intercepção luminosa (IL até as alturas pós-pastejo de 10 e 15 cm. Foi avaliada a composição morfológica das extrusas coletadas de animais fistulados no esôfago em três etapas ao longo do rebaixamento dos pastos. À medida que o rebaixamento progrediu, a proporção de lâminas foliares na extrusa diminuiu e a de colmos e de material morto aumentou. Pastejos iniciados com 100% de IL ou realizados até a altura pós-pastejo de 10 cm resultaram em menor proporção de lâminas foliares e maior de colmos e de material morto. O tratamento 95/15 foi consistente entre os tratamentos que apresentaram as maiores proporções de lâminas foliares e menores de colmos e de material e, mesmo no final do rebaixamento, apresentou, ainda, mais de 50% de proporção de lâminas foliares na extrusa. Os resultados obtidos indicam que, durante o rebaixamento do dossel, pastejos mais freqüentes e menos severos proporcionam aos animais a obtenção de dietas com elevada proporção de lâminas foliares, o que deve aumentar o valor nutritivo da forragem consumida.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of rotational grazing strategies on the morphological composition of the herbage consumed by beef cattle in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu swards. Grazings were carried out when swards achieved 95 and 100% of light interception (LI until postgrazing heights of 10 and 15 cm. Morphological composition of the herbage consumed was determined from extrusa samples harvested from oesophageal-fistulated animals in three occasions, during the grazing down process. As sward height decreased from the pre-grazing condition, the proportion of leaf laminae in the extrusa decreased

  15. Brain signatures of early lexical and morphological learning of a new language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    Morphology is an important part of language processing but little is known about how adult second language learners acquire morphological rules. Using a word-picture associative learning task, we have previously shown that a brief exposure to novel words with embedded morphological structure (suffix for natural gender) is enough for language learners to acquire the hidden morphological rule. Here we used this paradigm to study the brain signatures of early morphological learning in a novel language in adults. Behavioural measures indicated successful lexical (word stem) and morphological (gender suffix) learning. A day after the learning phase, event-related brain potentials registered during a recognition memory task revealed enhanced N400 and P600 components for stem and suffix violations, respectively. An additional effect observed with combined suffix and stem violations was an enhancement of an early N2 component, most probably related to conflict-detection processes. Successful morphological learning was also evident in the ERP responses to the subsequent rule-generalization task with new stems, where violation of the morphological rule was associated with an early (250-400ms) and late positivity (750-900ms). Overall, these findings tend to converge with lexical and morphosyntactic violation effects observed in L1 processing, suggesting that even after a short exposure, adult language learners can acquire both novel words and novel morphological rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruk, Alexander M; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M

    2015-06-11

    Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design.

  17. Suicide prevention: A proposed national strategy for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem globally and in Africa. A brief overview of the nature and severity of the problem is provided, but the primary aim of this paper is to identify priorities and prevention strategies for reducing suicidal behaviour in South Africa by discussing a framework for a proposed ...

  18. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second study will use a health behaviour survey to evaluate risk-taking behaviours among school-based adolescents in Entebbe, Uganda. Researchers will conduct interviews with health and education officials in Entebbe to assess acceptance levels for school-based HIV intervention strategies. Both studies will inform ...

  19. Efficacy of anger management strategies for effective living among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is on this note that strategies in replacing anger arousal behaviours are advocated and to also make a rethink in every situation as a component of cognitive behaviour therapy. This would make adolescents and youth to be creative and become useful to self and society. Keywords: Efficacy, Anger Management, Effective ...

  20. Morphological analysis and modelling of sintering and of sintered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernot, Jean-Paul

    1982-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of solid phase sintering of metallic powders, and aims at describing as precisely as possible the different involved matter transport mechanisms, first by using a thermodynamic approach to sintering. Sintering diagrams are also used to determine prevailing mechanisms. The microstructure of sintered materials has been studied by using image quantitative analysis, thus by using a morphological approach to sintering. Morphological parameters allow, on the one hand, the evolution of powders during sintering to be followed, and, on the other hand, sintered products to be correctly characterised. Moreover, the author reports the study of the evolution of some physical properties of sintered materials with respect to their microstructure parameters. This leads to the development of a modelling of the behaviour of these materials [fr

  1. Behaviour genetics of Drosophila: Non-sexual behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Several approaches have been made to unravel the genetic complexity of the behaviour, which have provided information that may be useful in dif- ... and environment, the study of the genetic control of behaviour habits has tended to lag ... are rapidly expanding mostly due to the excellent tools for genetic analysis readily.

  2. Computer Solution to the Game of Pure Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bartholdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We numerically solve the classical "Game of Pure Strategy" using linear programming. We notice an intricate even-odd behaviour in the results of our computations that seems to encourage odd or maximal bids.

  3. Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCosta, Patricia; Møller, Per; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating behaviour. The authors recommend future research to examine how taste and palatability can positively affect children's attitudes and eating behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Goals and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuchlik Milan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper I intend to argue that anthropologists have a predominantly causal conception of explanation and that the only feasible way to avoid this is to apply consistently the assumption of goal-orientation of behaviour, that is to hold what could broadly be called a teleological conception of explanation – a view that developments are due to the purpose or design that is served by them. Further on I will try to show that groups and norms do not exist and act independently of people. They have no existence as “things” apart from forming a part of the relevant stock of knowledge of the members of society. They can be brought to bear on actions only by people invoking them. Thus we have to make a sharp distinction between the conceptual or notional level of phenomena, and the transactional or processual level, sometimes known as cultural and social respectively.

  5. Internet user behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furthermore, the paper looks at a representative sample of Romanian internet users. The results reveal that the Romanians are using the Internet especially for information gathering, e-mail, entertainment and social networking.

  6. Epigenetics, Behaviour, and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyf Moshe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of behaviour and environmental exposures, particularly during childhood, on health outcomes are well documented. Particularly thought provoking is the notion that exposures to different social environments have a long-lasting impact on human physical health. However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of the environment are still unclear. In the last decade, the main focus of attention was the genome, and interindividual genetic polymorphisms were sought after as the principal basis for susceptibility to disease. However, it is becoming clear that recent dramatic increases in the incidence of certain human pathologies, such as asthma and type 2 diabetes, cannot be explained just on the basis of a genetic drift. It is therefore extremely important to unravel the molecular links between the "environmental" exposure, which is believed to be behind this emerging incidence in certain human pathologies, and the disease's molecular mechanisms. Although it is clear that most human pathologies involve long-term changes in gene function, these might be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence. The genome is programmed by the epigenome, which is composed of chromatin and a covalent modification of DNA by methylation. It is postulated here that "epigenetic" mechanisms mediate the effects of behavioural and environmental exposures early in life, as well as lifelong environmental exposures and the susceptibility to disease later in life. In contrast to genetic sequence differences, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible, raising the hope for interventions that will be able to reverse deleterious epigenetic programming.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in bite performance drives morphological variation in chameleons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M da Silva

    Full Text Available Phenotypic performance in different environments is central to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive adaptive divergence and, ultimately, speciation. Because habitat structure can affect an animal's foraging behaviour, anti-predator defences, and communication behaviour, it can influence both natural and sexual selection pressures. These selective pressures, in turn, act upon morphological traits to maximize an animal's performance. For performance traits involved in both social and ecological activities, such as bite force, natural and sexual selection often interact in complex ways, providing an opportunity to understand the adaptive significance of morphological variation with respect to habitat. Dwarf chameleons within the Bradypodion melanocephalum-Bradypodion thamnobates species complex have multiple phenotypic forms, each with a specific head morphology that could reflect its use of either open- or closed-canopy habitats. To determine whether these morphological differences represent adaptations to their habitats, we tested for differences in both absolute and relative bite performance. Only absolute differences were found between forms, with the closed-canopy forms biting harder than their open-canopy counterparts. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was found for both absolute and relative bite force, but the relative differences were limited to the closed-canopy forms. These results indicate that both natural and sexual selection are acting within both habitat types, but to varying degrees. Sexual selection seems to be the predominant force within the closed-canopy habitats, which are more protected from aerial predators, enabling chameleons to invest more in ornamentation for communication. In contrast, natural selection is likely to be the predominant force in the open-canopy habitats, inhibiting the development of conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics and, ultimately, enforcing their overall diminutive

  8. Phase morphological study on SEBS compatibilized PS/LDPE blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Kunyawut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The co-continuous phase morphology of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends compatibilized with poly(styrene-block-ethylene/butylene-block-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS with varying molecular weights has been investigated. The blend samples were prepared in a mini-twin screw extruder. The barrel length and diameter are 224 and 16 mm, respectively. The diameter of the capillary die is 1 mm. The concentration of the blends was 70/30 wt% of PS/LDPE while that of the SEBS used was 5 wt% of the blend. The mixing temperatures used were 180, 250, and 280o C, and a screw speed of 60 rpm. The morphology of the blends was investigated using an AFM technique. Average droplet diameters of the blend samples were determined using an OM technique. The co-continuous morphology has not been obtained in all the blends, although the mixing temperature used is as high as 280o C. The experimental results indicated that the model prediction of the co-continuous morphology proposed by Willemse and co-worker was not applicable to the blend systems studied. Only droplet-type dispersion was observed. This is considered to arise from the processing conditions and the mixing device used. The blend compatibilized with the high molecular weight SEBS had higher dispersed phase size than that of the blend compatibilized with the medium and low molecular weight SEBSs. This behaviour is likely to arise from coalescence during melt processing.

  9. Similar recent selection criteria associated with different behavioural effects in two dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundman, A-S; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2016-11-01

    Selection during the last decades has split some established dog breeds into morphologically and behaviourally divergent types. These breed splits are interesting models for behaviour genetics since selection has often been for few and well-defined behavioural traits. The aim of this study was to explore behavioural differences between selection lines in golden and Labrador retriever, in both of which a split between a common type (pet and conformation) and a field type (hunting) has occurred. We hypothesized that the behavioural profiles of the types would be similar in both breeds. Pedigree data and results from a standardized behavioural test from 902 goldens (698 common and 204 field) and 1672 Labradors (1023 and 649) were analysed. Principal component analysis revealed six behavioural components: curiosity, play interest, chase proneness, social curiosity, social greeting and threat display. Breed and type affected all components, but interestingly there was an interaction between breed and type for most components. For example, in Labradors the common type had higher curiosity than the field type (F 1,1668 = 18.359; P selection pressures. In conclusion, in spite of similar genetic origin and similar recent selection criteria, types behave differently in the breeds. This suggests that the genetic architecture related to behaviour differs between the breeds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. Safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The basis for safety strategy in nuclear industry and especially nuclear power plants is the prevention of radioactivity release inside or outside of the technical installation. Therefore either technical or administrative measures are combined to a general strategy concept. This introduction will explain in more detail the following topics: - basic principles of safety - lines of assurance (LOA) - defense in depth - deterministic and probabilistic methods. This presentation is seen as an introduction to the more detailed discussion following in this course, nevertheless some selected examples will be used to illustrate the aspects of safety strategy development although they might be repeated later on. (orig.)

  11. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  12. Acute behavioural dysfunctions following exposure to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mayank; Haridas, Seenu; Manda, Kailash

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations (IR) has been reported to have many ill effects. These are manifested immediately after exposure and may persist or develop long after the incident. The severity and manifestation is dependent on the absorbed dose and type of the IR. These have been reported extensively in human subjects; especially among the victims of the accidental exposure and radiotherapy patients. Additionally, there have been a plethora of studies in animal models which support these findings, and are being used to test radio-mitigative or radio-protective strategies. The vulnerability of neuronal tissue to IR is well known, however the acute dose-dependent behavioural consequences have yet to be understood. Thus, our laboratory has been trying to decipher the dose-dependent behavioural dysfunctions which have occurred 24-72 hours post IR exposure and possible radio-protective strategies. We are utilizing mouse models of studying the behavioural processes, in a test battery conceptualized to study the affective and cognitive skills as well as motor skills of the animals. Additionally, we have observed cellular damage to different areas of the brain and subsequent correlations to behavioural dysfunctions. This has being carried out by using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The findings show that after exposure to sub-lethal γ-rays, there are significant changes that occur in all the behavioural parameters. The most sensitive area has been found to be the Hippocampus as visualized by DTI and the SCGE. Consequently, short term and long term memory functions have been shown to be disrupted within 24-72 hours of exposure. Acute dysfunctions of affective functions have also been demonstrated to materialise within 24 hours post exposure. Unexpectedly, the behavioural dysfunctions were seen to be dose independent. Thus, this study provides a foundation to help decipher the acute behavioural manifestations of IR exposure

  13. Rod Microglia: A Morphological Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel E.; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Brain microglial morphology relates to function, with ramified microglia surveying the micro-environment and amoeboid microglia engulfing debris. One subgroup of microglia, rod microglia, have been observed in a number of pathological conditions, however neither a function nor specific morphology has been defined. Historically, rod microglia have been described intermittently as cells with a sausage-shaped soma and long, thin processes, which align adjacent to neurons. More recently, our group has described rod microglia aligning end-to-end with one another to form trains adjacent to neuronal processes. Confusion in the literature regarding rod microglia arises from some reports referring to the sausage-shaped cell body, while ignoring the spatial distribution of processes. Here, we systematically define the morphological characteristics of rod microglia that form after diffuse brain injury in the rat, which differ morphologically from the spurious rod microglia found in uninjured sham. Rod microglia in the diffuse-injured rat brain show a ratio of 1.79±0.03 cell length∶cell width at day 1 post-injury, which increases to 3.35±0.05 at day 7, compared to sham (1.17±0.02). The soma length∶width differs only at day 7 post-injury (2.92±0.07 length∶width), compared to sham (2.49±0.05). Further analysis indicated that rod microglia may not elongate in cell length but rather narrow in cell width, and retract planar (side) processes. These morphological characteristics serve as a tool for distinguishing rod microglia from other morphologies. The function of rod microglia remains enigmatic; based on morphology we propose origins and functions for rod microglia after acute neurological insult, which may provide biomarkers or therapeutic targets. PMID:24830807

  14. Financial Literacy and Financial Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the

  15. Entrepreneurial personality and entrepreneurial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rodica LUCA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.

  16. Reconsidering the sedentary behaviour paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Maher

    Full Text Available AIMS: Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. RESULTS: Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = -0.06 and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04. Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08-0.30 while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12. CONCLUSION: There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity.

  17. Driving Behaviour and Sustainable Mobility—Policies and Approaches Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keyvanfar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is receiving increasing attention in recent years. The transportation sector contributes substantially to increased fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and poor air quality, which imposes a serious respiratory health hazard. Road transport has made a significant contribution to this effect. Consequently, many countries have attempted to mitigate climate change using various strategies. This study analysed and compared the number of policies and other approaches necessary to achieve reduced fuel consumption and carbon emission. Frequency aggregation indicates that the mitigation policies associated with driving behaviours adopted to curtail this consumption and decrease hazardous emissions, as well as a safety enhancement. Furthermore, car-sharing/carpooling was the least investigated approach to establish its influence on mitigation of climate change. Additionally, the influence of such driving behaviours as acceleration/deceleration and the compliance to speed limits on each approach was discussed. Other driving behaviours, such as gear shifting, compliance to traffic laws, choice of route, and idling and braking style, were also discussed. Likewise, the influence of aggression, anxiety, and motivation on driving behaviour of motorists was highlighted. The research determined that driving behaviours can lead to new adaptive driving behaviours and, thus, cause a significant decrease of vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

  18. Individual differences in cocaine addiction: maladaptive behavioural traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R; Karel, Peter; Verheij, Michel M M

    2014-07-01

    Cocaine use leads to addiction in only a subset of individuals. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these individual differences in the transition from cocaine use to cocaine abuse is important to develop treatment strategies. There is agreement that specific behavioural traits increase the risk for addiction. As such, both high impulsivity and high anxiety have been reported to predict (compulsive) cocaine self-administration behaviour. Here, we set out a new view explaining how these two behavioural traits may affect addictive behaviour. According to psychological and psychiatric evolutionary views, organisms flourish well when they fit (match) their environment by trait and genotype. However, under non-fit conditions, the need to compensate the failure to deal with this environment increases, and, as a consequence, the functional use of rewarding drugs like cocaine may also increase. It suggests that neither impulsivity nor anxiety are bad per se, but that the increased risk to develop cocaine addiction is dependent on whether behavioural traits are adaptive or maladaptive in the environment to which the animals are exposed. This 'behavioural (mal)adaptation view' on individual differences in vulnerability to cocaine addiction may help to improve therapies for addiction. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Island morphology : morphology's interactions in the study of stem patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Camilleri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the notion of morphological complexity, with a focus on stem patterns. Stem patterns, creating stem-based inflectional classes, are morphological constructs which come about as a result of observing the patterns rendered by the stem-form alternations (or stem splits (Baerman/Corbett forthcoming, which one extracts after the formation of word-forms within paradigms. Stem-based inflectional class formation constitutes one aspect in the analysis of non-canonical paradigms, which also include affix-based inflectional classes, syncretism, defectiveness, and overabundance Corbett 2005, 2007, 2009; Baerman, Brown and Corbett 2005; Thornton 2010. While these non-canonical instances are in themselves interesting to observe, it is even more intriguing to be able to see what interactions can arise, which at times do not seem to be the result of something exterior to morphology proper. Through data taken from Maltese verbal paradigms the phenomenon of stem-based inflectional classes will be explored, which will exhibit how internal to the paradigm there exists a complex system in itself, which is based on the distinct organisation of different conflated morphosyntactic features which come about via syncretism. These patterns should illustrate a paradigm-internal morphological phenomenon that is irrelevant to the syntax, where while morphology borders with it, there need not be any interaction at this interface. At the same time, it will also be shown how at times, the border with phonology is blurred, where while the phonology may often try to build bridges that interface with the morphological island, the island's internal forces that drive its autonomy may deem to be more superior than the phonology's strive to impose its interacting requirements, which render some interesting morphophonological mismatches as a result.

  20. Globalization strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ryuei

    1992-01-01

    History of overseas strategies of Japanese firms can be divided into three periods; until 1960's, when import and export were the main focus; from 1970's to the first half of 1980's, when establishing overseas bases was a major interest for clear purposes of reducing labor cost, averting trade conflicts, or securing natural resources; and after 1985, when strategy started to be formulated from more global viewpoint in order to cope with new situation arising from stronger yen and Japan having...

  1. The behavioural consequences of sex reversal in dragons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Holleley, Clare E.; Elphick, Melanie; Georges, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in morphology, physiology, and behaviour are caused by sex-linked genes, as well as by circulating sex-steroid levels. Thus, a shift from genotypic to environmental sex determination may create an organism that exhibits a mixture of male-like and female-like traits. We studied a lizard species (Central Bearded Dragon, Pogona vitticeps), in which the high-temperature incubation of eggs transforms genetically male individuals into functional females. Although they are reproductively female, sex-reversed dragons (individuals with ZZ genotype reversed to female phenotype) resemble genetic males rather than females in morphology (relative tail length), general behaviour (boldness and activity level), and thermoregulatory tactics. Indeed, sex-reversed ‘females’ are more male-like in some behavioural traits than are genetic males. This novel phenotype may impose strong selection on the frequency of sex reversal within natural populations, facilitating rapid shifts in sex-determining systems. A single period of high incubation temperatures (generating thermally induced sex reversal) can produce functionally female individuals with male-like (or novel) traits that enhance individual fitness, allowing the new temperature-dependent sex-determining system to rapidly replace the previous genetically based one.

  2. Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites in a community of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Significant taxonomic differences occur, closely related species tending to share mate location behaviours. Morphological differences are found with heavier and larger butterflies displaying greater site fidelity and territorial defence, and differences occur between individuals of species which both perch and patrol. Invariant ...

  3. Corrosion behaviour of Ni–Co alloy coatings at Kish Island (marine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. In this study, the corrosion behaviour of Ni-Co alloys with low Co content, electroplated on steel substrate in sulphate bath, was investigated. The morphology of coatings was studied by optical and SEM microscopy. The corrosion products were analyzed using EDX. The results showed that Ni–1%Co coatings had ...

  4. Corrosion behaviour of Ni–Co alloy coatings at Kish Island

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the corrosion behaviour of Ni-Co alloys with low Co content, electroplated on steel substrate in sulphate bath, was investigated. The morphology of coatings was studied by optical and SEM microscopy. The corrosion products were analyzed using EDX. The results showed that Ni–1% Co coatings had a better ...

  5. Growth behaviour of twisted ribbons of barium carbonate/silica self-assembled ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Ruiz, J.M.; Moreno, A.

    1997-01-01

    Twisted ribbons of self-assembled crystal aggregates of barium carbonate, in the presence of silicate ions at pH 9.5 grow at constant rate between 20 and 50 mu m/min. The morphological behaviour depends on temperature, while it was demonstrated to be independent of the viscosity of the growth environment. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites in a community of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to taxonomy, morphology, .... mating are likely to be harassed by males using host plant mate location cues. ...... Bonnet E and van der Peer Y 2002 ZT: a software tool for simple and partial Mantel tests; ...

  7. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the

  8. Corrosion behaviour of Ni–Co alloy coatings at Kish Island (marine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the corrosion behaviour of Ni-Co alloys with low Co content, electroplated on steel substrate in sulphate bath, was investigated. The morphology of coatings was studied by optical and SEM microscopy. The corrosion products were analyzed using EDX. The results showed that Ni–1% Co coatings had a better ...

  9. 3-D modelling of megaloolithid clutches: insights about nest construction and dinosaur behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Vila

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Megaloolithid eggs have long been associated with sauropod dinosaurs. Despite their extensive and worldwide fossil record, interpretations of egg size and shape, clutch morphology, and incubation strategy vary. The Pinyes locality in the Upper Cretaceous Tremp Formation in the southern Pyrenees, Catalonia provides new information for addressing these issues. Nine horizons containing Megaloolithus siruguei clutches are exposed near the village of Coll de Nargó. Tectonic deformation in the study area strongly influenced egg size and shape, which could potentially lead to misinterpretation of reproductive biology if 2D and 3D maps are not corrected for bed dip that results from tectonism. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Detailed taphonomic study and three-dimensional modelling of fossil eggs show that intact M. siruguei clutches contained 20-28 eggs, which is substantially larger than commonly reported from Europe and India. Linear and grouped eggs occur in three superimposed levels and form an asymmetric, elongate, bowl-shaped profile in lateral view. Computed tomography data support previous interpretations that the eggs hatched within the substrate. Megaloolithid clutch sizes reported from other European and Indian localities are typically less than 15 eggs; however, these clutches often include linear or grouped eggs that resemble those of the larger Pinyes clutches and may reflect preservation of incomplete clutches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that 25 eggs represent a typical megaloolithid clutch size and smaller egg clusters that display linear or grouped egg arrangements reported at Pinyes and other localities may represent eroded remnants of larger clutches. The similarity of megaloolithid clutch morphology from localities worldwide strongly suggests common reproductive behaviour. The distinct clutch geometry at Pinyes and other localities likely resulted from the asymmetrical, inclined, and laterally compressed titanosaur pes

  10. Parent perceptions of managing child behavioural side-effects of cancer treatment: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L K; McCarthy, M C

    2015-07-01

    Very little research has examined the role of parenting in managing behavioural side-effects of cancer treatment. The purpose of this paper was to explore parent perceptions of (a) parenting in the context of childhood cancer; (b) the parenting strategies used in the context of managing child behavioural side-effects of cancer treatment; and (c) the perceived impact that cancer-specific parenting strategies have on child behaviour. Participants were 15 mothers of children aged 2-6 years in the maintenance phase of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at the Royal Children's Hospital Children's Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Mothers participated in a one-on-one semi-structured telephone interview using an interview guide which included questions on parenting in the context of childhood cancer, specifically in relation to behavioural side-effects (problems with behaviour, sleep and eating) and any perceived impact cancer-specific parenting may have on the ill child. Many parents reported that following their child's cancer diagnosis, they had to implement a suite of 'new' strategies that 'pre-diagnosis' were used only in moderation, if at all. The most salient theme that emerged was parents' perception that their parenting became more lax since their child's diagnosis. Parents further reported specific parenting strategies for each of the main child behavioural side-effects of cancer treatment. Data from the current qualitative exploratory study highlight the role of specific parenting strategies in managing or assisting child behavioural side-effects of cancer treatment. Further quantitative research is needed to more fully examine the association between parenting and child behavioural outcomes in order to develop modifiable approaches to improving child behavioural side-effects in a paediatric oncology context. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Phenotypic clustering: a novel method for microglial morphology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Franck; Roux, Pascal; Flamant, Patricia; Fiette, Laurence; Bozza, Fernando A; Simard, Sébastien; Lemaire, Marc; Plaud, Benoit; Shorte, Spencer L; Sharshar, Tarek; Chrétien, Fabrice; Danckaert, Anne

    2016-06-17

    Microglial cells are tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system. They are extremely dynamic, sensitive to their microenvironment and present a characteristic complex and heterogeneous morphology and distribution within the brain tissue. Many experimental clues highlight a strong link between their morphology and their function in response to aggression. However, due to their complex "dendritic-like" aspect that constitutes the major pool of murine microglial cells and their dense network, precise and powerful morphological studies are not easy to realize and complicate correlation with molecular or clinical parameters. Using the knock-in mouse model CX3CR1(GFP/+), we developed a 3D automated confocal tissue imaging system coupled with morphological modelling of many thousands of microglial cells revealing precise and quantitative assessment of major cell features: cell density, cell body area, cytoplasm area and number of primary, secondary and tertiary processes. We determined two morphological criteria that are the complexity index (CI) and the covered environment area (CEA) allowing an innovative approach lying in (i) an accurate and objective study of morphological changes in healthy or pathological condition, (ii) an in situ mapping of the microglial distribution in different neuroanatomical regions and (iii) a study of the clustering of numerous cells, allowing us to discriminate different sub-populations. Our results on more than 20,000 cells by condition confirm at baseline a regional heterogeneity of the microglial distribution and phenotype that persists after induction of neuroinflammation by systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using clustering analysis, we highlight that, at resting state, microglial cells are distributed in four microglial sub-populations defined by their CI and CEA with a regional pattern and a specific behaviour after challenge. Our results counteract the classical view of a homogenous regional resting

  12. Fast algorithm for Morphological Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Shan; Jiang Xiangqian; Scott, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    In surface metrology, morphological filters, which evolved from the envelope filtering system (E-system) work well for functional prediction of surface finish in the analysis of surfaces in contact. The naive algorithms are time consuming, especially for areal data, and not generally adopted in real practice. A fast algorithm is proposed based on the alpha shape. The hull obtained by rolling the alpha ball is equivalent to the morphological opening/closing in theory. The algorithm depends on Delaunay triangulation with time complexity O(nlogn). In comparison to the naive algorithms it generates the opening and closing envelope without combining dilation and erosion. Edge distortion is corrected by reflective padding for open profiles/surfaces. Spikes in the sample data are detected and points interpolated to prevent singularities. The proposed algorithm works well both for morphological profile and area filters. Examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and superiority on efficiency of this algorithm over the naive algorithm.

  13. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  14. Morphology study of niobium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.P.P.; Panta, P.C.; Araujo, A.O. de; Bergmann, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Niobium pentoxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) has been studied due to physical properties and their use in obtaining electronic ceramics, optical lenses, pH sensors, special filters for TV receivers, among other applications. This study investigated the morphology of the niobium pentoxide obtained by hydrothermal synthesis from the precursor pentachloride niobium (NbCl 5 ), where the synthesis was carried out at a temperature of 150 and 200 °C for 130 min and the product obtained was calcined at temperatures 600, 800 and 1000 °C for 60 min. The following characterizations were performed for analysis of the material, among them, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for analysis of the crystal structure, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for detecting the existing functional groups and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology of material. As a result, different morphologies were obtained and consequently different niobium pentoxide properties studied. (author)

  15. Morphological disambiguation of Tunisian dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Zribi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to disambiguate the output of a morphological analyzer of the Tunisian dialect. We test three machine-learning techniques that classify the morphological analysis of each word token into two classes: true and false. The class label is assigned to each analysis according to the context of the corresponding word in a sentence. In failure cases, we combine the results of the proposed techniques with a bigram classifier to choose only one analysis for a given word. We disambiguate the result of the morphological analyzer of the Tunisian Dialect Al-Khalil-TUN (Zribi et al., 2013b. We use the Spoken Tunisian Arabic Corpus STAC (Zribi et al., 2015 to train and test our method. The evaluation shows that the proposed method has achieved an accuracy performance of 87.32%.

  16. Multiobjective Genetic Programming of Agent Decision Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Šlapák, M.; Neruda, R. (Roman)

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a method to control a behaviour of intelligent data mining agent We developed an adaptive decision making system that utilizes genetic programming technique to evolve an agent’s decision strategy. The parameters of data mining task and current state of an agent are taken into account by tree structures evolved by genetic programming. Efficiency of decision strategies is compared from the perspectives of single and multi criteria optimization.

  17. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter [H 2 C 2 O 4 ]/[HNO 3 ] 2 . Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory

  18. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    Literature on liver morphology in untreated obesity reveals varying prevalences of various pathological findings. The purpose of this literature study was to summarize and evaluate the published observations and to discuss discrepant findings. A complete search was aimed at utilizing bibliographic...... methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...

  19. On the morphology of caprolactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertman, R. M.; van der Heijden, A. E. D. M.

    1992-11-01

    The morphology of ɛ-caprolactam has been predicted using a periodic bond chain analysis. Two kinds of building units have been considered: monomers and dimers. The most important forms according to the monomer analysis are {11}; overline1; {110};, {200};, {311}; and 31 overline1. The dimer analysis gives the {200};, 20 overline1, ;11 overline1 and {110}; forms as the most important ones. The results of the analyses are compared with the morphology of caprolactam grown from the melt and from fifteen different solvents.

  20. STRUCTURE OF BOXERS´ MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Benin Murić; Izet Kahrović

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to help solving the problems we meet every day, and through this research we did. Research was done on population of boxers 15-19 years old, who compete in Serbian Youth League. We keep being asked: “How big is the morphological characteristics influence on a boxer`s success? While selecting boys for boxing, on which morphological characteristics we need to pay our attention most?” Based on results we got in this research, boys must have a good relation of height and weight, and rel...

  1. STRUCTURE OF BOXERS´ MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benin Murić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We wanted to help solving the problems we meet every day, and through this research we did. Research was done on population of boxers 15-19 years old, who compete in Serbian Youth League. We keep being asked: “How big is the morphological characteristics influence on a boxer`s success? While selecting boys for boxing, on which morphological characteristics we need to pay our attention most?” Based on results we got in this research, boys must have a good relation of height and weight, and relatively long legs and arms.

  2. Behavioural management of migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to recognise that migraine is a ′biological′ and not a ′psychological′ entity. However, psychological factors can be involved in migraine in 4 different ways:- 1 Migraines can be triggered by psychological stressors; 2 Severe migraine can itself be a cause of significant psychological stress which can, in turn, exacerbate the problem; 3 Even if psychological stress is not significantly involved in the genesis of the headache, pain management techniques can help people cope with their pain more effectively; 4 Longitudinal data demonstrate a complex bidirectional association between mood disorders and migraine. Treatment of a co-existing mood disorder, for example with cognitive behavioural techniques, may therefore reduce the impact of migraine. It would thus appear logical to view medical and psychological approaches as potentially synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Functional imaging indicates that cognition, emotions, and pain experiences change the way the brain processes pain inputs. This may provide a physiological rationale for psychological interventions in pain management. As most studies of psychological management of migraine have been relatively small and the approach often varies between clinicians, the magnitude of benefit, optimum method of delivery, and the length of intervention are uncertain.

  3. Cartography of cell morphology in tomato pericarp at the fruit scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legland, D; Devaux, M-F; Bouchet, B; Guillon, F; Lahaye, M

    2012-07-01

    In fleshy fruits, the variability of cell morphology at the fruit scale is largely unknown. It presents both a huge variability and a high level of organization. Better knowledge of cell morphology heterogeneity within the fruit is necessary to understand fruit development, to model fruit mechanical behaviour, or to investigate variations of physico-chemical measurements. A generic approach is proposed to build cartographies of cell morphology at the fruit scale, which depict regions corresponding to different cell morphologies. The approach is based on: (1) sampling the whole fruit at known positions; (2) imaging and quantifying local cell morphology; (3) pooling measurements to take biological variability into account and (4) projecting results in a morphology model of the whole fruit. The result is a synthetic representation of cell morphology variations within the whole fruit. The method was applied to the characterization of cell morphology in tomato pericarp. Two different imaging scales that provided complementary descriptions were used: 3D confocal microscopy and macroscopy. The approach is generic and can be adapted to other fruits or other products. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Children's Morphological Knowledge: Links to Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen, Deborah; Green, Laura; Abbott, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Using a reliable and broad-based measure of morphological awareness, which tapped knowledge of relational, syntactic, and distributional morphology, we examined the development of morphological knowledge among older elementary students and the relationship of their morphological knowledge to a range of literacy measures. We found that…

  5. Children's Morphological Awareness and Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, John R.; Deacon, S. Helene; Bowers, Peter N.; Izenberg, Leah; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of morphological awareness on five measures of reading in 103 children from Grades 1 to 3. Morphological awareness was assessed with a word analogy task that included a wide range of morphological transformations. Results indicated that the new measure had satisfactory reliability, and that morphological awareness was a…

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention strategies for primary school teachers. Wrong labelling of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has given rise to this paper. Hitherto not much attention has been given to the pupils who manifest symptoms of this chronic behavioural ...

  7. Schroedinger operators and evolutionary strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselmeyer, T.

    1997-01-01

    First we introduce a simple model for the description of evolutionary algorithms, which is based on 2nd order partial differential equations for the distribution function of the individuals. Then we turn to the properties of Boltzmann's and Darwin's strategy. the next chapter is dedicated to the mathematical properties of Schroedinger operators. Both statements on the spectral density and their reproducibility during the simulation are summarized. The remaining of this chapter are dedicated to the analysis of the kernel as well as the dependence of the Schroedinger operator on the potential. As conclusion from the results of this chapter we obtain the classification of the strategies in dependence of the fitness. We obtain the classification of the evolutionary strategies, which are described by a 2nd order partial differential equation, in relation to their solution behaviour. Thereafter we are employed with the variation of the mutation distribution

  8. Behavioural memory reconsolidation of food and fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Charlotte R; Barber, David J; Lee, Jonathan L C

    2011-10-18

    The reactivation of a memory through retrieval can render it subject to disruption or modification through the process of memory reconsolidation. In both humans and rodents, briefly reactivating a fear memory results in effective erasure by subsequent extinction training. Here we show that a similar strategy is equally effective in the disruption of appetitive pavlovian cue-food memories. However, systemic administration of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine, under the same behavioural conditions, did not potentiate appetitive memory extinction, suggesting that reactivation does not enhance subsequent extinction learning. To confirm that reactivation followed by extinction reflects a behavioural analogue of memory reconsolidation, we show that prevention of contextual fear memory reactivation by the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker nimodipine interferes with the amnestic outcome. Therefore, the reconsolidation process can be manipulated behaviourally to disrupt both aversive and appetitive memories. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Very Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Morphologic Classification of Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Thomas J S; Olson, Eben M; Schulz, Wade L; Torres, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Morphologic profiling of the erythrocyte population is a widely used and clinically valuable diagnostic modality, but one that relies on a slow manual process associated with significant labor cost and limited reproducibility. Automated profiling of erythrocytes from digital images by capable machine learning approaches would augment the throughput and value of morphologic analysis. To this end, we sought to evaluate the performance of leading implementation strategies for convolutional neural networks (CNNs) when applied to classification of erythrocytes based on morphology. Erythrocytes were manually classified into 1 of 10 classes using a custom-developed Web application. Using recent literature to guide architectural considerations for neural network design, we implemented a "very deep" CNN, consisting of >150 layers, with dense shortcut connections. The final database comprised 3737 labeled cells. Ensemble model predictions on unseen data demonstrated a harmonic mean of recall and precision metrics of 92.70% and 89.39%, respectively. Of the 748 cells in the test set, 23 misclassification errors were made, with a correct classification frequency of 90.60%, represented as a harmonic mean across the 10 morphologic classes. These findings indicate that erythrocyte morphology profiles could be measured with a high degree of accuracy with "very deep" CNNs. Further, these data support future efforts to expand classes and optimize practical performance in a clinical environment as a prelude to full implementation as a clinical tool. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  10. Cartography – morphology – topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    I 2004 a Summer School was established on the Greek island of Hydra. The was to be the basis of research-based morphological and topological studies, which have since taken place for 4 weeks of every year. Starting with Hydra’s topography different ways of considering topology were developed...

  11. with morphological and molecular markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    sourced fruits and bred up to F3 generation. The F3 plants grown in the University of Port Harcourt garden were used for the study. A total of 15 male and 15 female plants were selected. Vegetative morphological features like foliar dimensions and ...

  12. Human morphology and temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. S.

    For nearly a century individuals have believed that there is a link between human morphology and one's thermoregulatory response in adverse environments. Most early research was focussed on the rate of core cooling in a male adult population and the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to withstand varying degrees of cold stress. More recently research has addressed heat tolerance in various populations, exploring the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to maintain thermal equilibrium in warm and hot, dry and humid environments. Since the late 1970s an emphasis has been placed on the role of muscle and muscle perfusion in total-body thermal insulation. Yet, despite the history of research pertaining to human morphology and temperature regulation there is little consensus as to the impact of variations in human morphology on thermoregulatory responses. Individuals differing in body size, shape and composition appear to respond quantitatively differently to variations in both ambient and core temperatures but the interrelations between morphological components and temperature regulation are complex. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the literature pertaining to the impact of variations in muscularity, adipose tissue thickness and patterning, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio on thermoregulation and thermal stability in response to both heat and cold stress.

  13. Morphological variation of Stromatella monostromatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    1988-09-01

    Thirty two isolates of Stromatella monostromatica (Dangeard) Kornmann were studied in unialgal culture; extensive morphological variation was documented. The shape of bicellular germlings and development of young plants were similar for all isolates which had globular sporangia. These features are, therefore, the most important diagnostic characteristics of the species. The widespread distribution of S. monostromatica suggests that this is a cosmopolitan species.

  14. Computer Vision and Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Kropratsch, W.; Klette, R.; Albrecht, R.

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical morphology is a theory of set mappings, modeling binary image transformations, which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This framework turns out to be too restricted for many applications, in particular for computer vision where group theoretical considerations

  15. Mandibular morphological changes associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report described the morphological alterations on the mandible in a 3- year- old West African dwarfdoe caused by Actinomycesviscosus infection. The animal recovered after treatment but was later culled and the head submitted to the Department of Veterinary Anatomy. Hot water maceration of the lower jaw and the ...

  16. Different evolutionary pathways underlie the morphology of wrist bones in hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L; Barros, Anna P; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2013-10-23

    The hominoid wrist has been a focus of numerous morphological analyses that aim to better understand long-standing questions about the evolution of human and hominoid hand use. However, these same analyses also suggest various scenarios of complex and mosaic patterns of morphological evolution within the wrist and potentially multiple instances of homoplasy that would benefit from require formal analysis within a phylogenetic context.We identify morphological features that principally characterize primate - and, in particular, hominoid (apes, including humans) - wrist evolution and reveal the rate, process and evolutionary timing of patterns of morphological change on individual branches of the primate tree of life. Linear morphological variables of five wrist bones - the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, capitate and hamate - are analyzed in a diverse sample of extant hominoids (12 species, 332 specimens), Old World (8 species, 43 specimens) and New World (4 species, 26 specimens) monkeys, fossil Miocene apes (8 species, 20 specimens) and Plio-Pleistocene hominins (8 species, 18 specimens). Results reveal a combination of parallel and synapomorphic morphology within haplorrhines, and especially within hominoids, across individual wrist bones. Similar morphology of some wrist bones reflects locomotor behaviour shared between clades (scaphoid, triquetrum and capitate) while others (lunate and hamate) indicate clade-specific synapomorphic morphology. Overall, hominoids show increased variation in wrist bone morphology compared with other primate clades, supporting previous analyses, and demonstrate several occurrences of parallel evolution, particularly between orangutans and hylobatids, and among hominines (extant African apes, humans and fossil hominins). Our analyses indicate that different evolutionary processes can underlie the evolution of a single anatomical unit (the wrist) to produce diversity in functional and morphological adaptations across individual wrist

  17. How Do Parents Manage Irritability, Challenging Behaviour, Non-Compliance and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders? A Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Happé, Francesca; Evers, Kris; Boonen, Hannah; Noens, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Although there is increasing research interest in the parenting of children with ASD, at present, little is known about everyday strategies used to manage problem behaviour. We conducted a meta-synthesis to explore what strategies parents use to manage irritability, non-compliance, challenging behaviour and anxiety in their children with ASD.…

  18. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Syntactic behaviour and semantic kinship of selected Danish verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braasch, Anna Rosita

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses relationships between the syntactic behaviour and meaning of selected verbs, with the focus on exploiting observable syntactic similarities for uncovering of semantic kinship. The investigation is inspired by the demand in language technology for large-scale lexicons...... that combine morphological, syntactic and semantic descriptions of the lemmas. The development of such a lexical resource is rather demanding, therefore, an enhancement of existing resources with additional information types is a worthwhile task. The computational lexicon for Danish SprogTeknologisk Ordbase...... (STO) comprises a comprehensive syntactic layer which is assumed to be suitable for enhancement with semantic information. The theoretical background for the current approach is the consensus on obvious relationships between a syntactic behaviour and a particular sense of lemmas, as a surface...

  20. Foaming Behaviour, Structure, and Properties of Polypropylene Nanocomposites Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antunes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the preparation and characterization of compression-moulded montmorillonite and carbon nanofibre-polypropylene foams. The influence of these nanofillers on the foaming behaviour was analyzed in terms of the foaming parameters and final cellular structure and morphology of the foams. Both nanofillers induced the formation of a more isometric-like cellular structure in the foams, mainly observed for the MMT-filled nanocomposite foams. Alongside their crystalline characteristics, the nanocomposite foams were also characterized and compared with the unfilled ones regarding their dynamic-mechanical thermal behaviour. The nanocomposite foams showed higher specific storage moduli due to the reinforcement effect of the nanofillers and higher cell density isometric cellular structure. Particularly, the carbon nanofibre foams showed an increasingly higher electrical conductivity with increasing the amount of nanofibres, thus showing promising results as to produce electrically improved lightweight materials for applications such as electrostatic painting.

  1. Behaviour : Seeing heat saves energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Household energy conservation can help to significantly lower energy consumption. Visual cues provided by thermal imaging of heat loss in buildings are now shown to increase energy conserving behaviours and implementations among homeowners more effectively than just performing carbon footprint

  2. SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR · COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN AFFAIRS · COMPLEXITY IN STATISTICAL PHYSICS · DISORDER, CRITICALITY and ORDER IN EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS · COARSENING PHENOMENA · NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES · ORDERING INDUCED BY RANDOM DRIVING.

  3. Behavioural Finance and Its Postulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Vučinić

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for dealing with the chosen topic can be found in the fact that there is a certain number of anomalies, system errors and conduct leaving the frames of rational behaviour, not being included and presented synthetically within a concise scientific work. Instead, the analysis deals with definite, already identified postulates of behavioural economics and finance. During the research, induction, deduction, comparative and abstraction methods are used. The challenge of the research lies in the identification of those system errors, partialities and behaviours deviating from postulates of rational, typical for classical finance, not being covered by standard behavioural, economic and finance literature. However, the challenge is even bigger because of the fact that it deals with answers to demands of universality and conciseness. Its greatest importance is reflected in the extent of identified and processed anomalies decision makers face, as well as in the identification and description of factors implying absence of rationality during the decision making process.

  4. FLOSS strategies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabaso, NM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mabaso_2006_D.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1617 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mabaso_2006_D.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 FLOSS Strategies Presented...

  5. Teaching Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994

    This instruction guide conveys effective strategies for engaging students in small group exercises, brainstorming, discussions, case studies and controversial issues. After emphasizing the importance of the first small group session for setting the tone, the guide advises teachers to appoint groups of two to five students, assigning the most…

  6. SuDS and human behaviour: Co-developing solutions to encourage sustainable behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Glyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS are today widely considered to be a more progressive and environmentally sensitive approach to Flood Risk Management (FRM. However, this paper argues that the sustainability of SuDS should not be so simply presumed. Devices will depend upon correct behaviour from those local to them in order to function properly over time, and for Green Infrastructure SuDS to flourish and deliver their promised multiple benefits. This paper looks to the potential value in using Social Practice Theory as a lens for understanding current behaviours around SuDS devices, and for assessing possible strategies for encouraging positive behaviour amongst affected communities. It concludes in arguing that involving local people as much as possible in the co-design of systems and then working to maintain involvement and awareness will be the most cost-effective means by which SuDS might be made to live up to the sustainability they are celebrated for.

  7. Marketing channel behaviour and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Margarida

    2000-01-01

    Thesis submitted to University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Business Administration. A major aim of this study is to offer a relatively comprehensive picture of marketing channel behaviour and performance. Given the statistical difficulties in testing a very large, comprehensive model to achieve this aim, two separate but overlapping models are proposed. One model specifically addresses behaviour in marketing channels, while the other integrates k...

  8. Collective behaviour across animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-16

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  9. Multi-scale approach of the mechanical behaviour of reinforced concrete structures - Application to nuclear plant containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis develops a multi-scale strategy to describe the mechanical behaviour of steel reinforcements and prestressing tendons in a reinforced concrete structure. This strategy is declined in several steps, which allow gradual integration of new physical phenomena. The first asymptotic model represents the effective elastic behaviour of heterogeneities periodically distributed on a surface. It combines an elastic interface behaviour and a membrane behaviour. A second asymptotic model then focuses on the behaviour of rigid fibers distributed on a surface, which may slide with respect to the surrounding volume. These models induce less stress concentrations than the usual truss models. They are implemented in the finite element code Code-Aster, and validated with respect to reference three-dimensional simulations. Their interaction with a macroscopic crack is studied. Finally, this strategy allows the modeling of experimental tests carried out on a portion of a containment building in real scale. (author)

  10. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  11. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  12. Unequivocal morphological diagnosis of fungi in morphologically abnormal nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A; Berger, T H D; Middag-Broekman, J H F F; Boon, M E

    2006-06-01

    To analyse the prevalence of fungi in abnormal nails by morphological diagnosis. Prevalence studies of onychomycoses in temperate climate zones have yielded widely varying rates, possibly reflecting the confounding effects of referral bias, sampling specificity and intrinsic sensitivity of the diagnostic techniques employed. The method employed to identify fungi in nails entailed primary fixation using a non-formaldehyde-based coagulative fixative (BoonFix; Finetec, Japan) and microwave-enhanced processing to histology, followed by staining the paraffin sections with periodic acid-Schiff, using haematoxylin as a routine counterstain. The results of 990 nail samples were tabled for statistical analysis related to gender, patient age and diabetes mellitus status. In four of the 990 (fungal infection in morphologically abnormal nails was found to be higher for persons or = 71 years. The 61% positivity rate for fungi found justifies systematic direct submission of samples from abnormal nails for histological confirmation in order to avoid unwarranted treatment.

  13. Behavioural consequences of child abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022

  14. Public information strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldahl, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 uncovered serious information problems in many Western countries, and started a debate on crisis communication and information strategies in relation to radiation danger in society. The information problem focuses on four main perspectives. The first is related to information as a persuasion process in which an efficient strategy would influence both the public's knowledge of radiation danger, their attitude towards it and their behaviour. The second perspective calls attention to the importance of the different elements of the information process. How important are different characteristics of the information source; the message itself, and the receiver? The third perspective concentrates on different types of information. What is this issue all about, why is the situation as it is, and how should people behave to protect themselves? The fourth perspective points to the various phases of a crisis. The information needed is obviously not the same in the period before a crisis emerges when no one knows what is going to happen, in the warning period when one knows that something may happen, and during the crisis itself. (Author)

  15. A comparison of the caring behaviours of nursing students and registered nurses: implications for nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuh-Shiow; Yu, Wen-Pin; Yang, Bao-Huan; Liu, Chin-Fang

    2016-11-01

    To compare the respective views of nursing students and registered nurses on caring behaviours. Research has indicated that nursing includes not only technical skills and professional knowledge but also the expression of care. In addition to nursing care, nurses demonstrate the acts of supporting, negotiating, reinforcing and transforming. However, little research simultaneously investigates the caring behaviours of nursing students and registered nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 657 subjects participated in this study. The research tool was a self-administered structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, t-test and chi-square test. The results showed that the most important caring behaviour is 'knowing the patient', while the least is 'advocating for the patient', which includes caring behaviours to respect the patient's and family's best interests, and voicing for them, possibly because this behaviour is more difficult for nurses to practice in the Taiwanese culture. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the caring behaviours between nursing students and registered nurses. However, age was found to be a significant difference in the caring behaviours of nursing students and registered nurses. Caring behaviour is essential in clinical practice. Based on the results, this study suggested that role models should be provided to nursing students to develop proper caring behaviours. Nursing faculty can boost nursing students' interests in learning caring behaviours by incorporating diverse teaching strategies to enhance the effectiveness of caring behaviours. Much attention should be focused on education about awareness of caring behaviour for both nursing students and nursing staff. This study addressed that nursing administrators and faculty members should emphasise the importance of the essence of caring. Consequently, nursing curricula and training of nurses need to be

  16. Extracurricular activity participation moderates impact of family and school factors on adolescents' disruptive behavioural problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessens, Corine M E F

    2015-11-11

    disruptive behavioural problems for British adolescents. The potential of extracurricular activities to intervention strategies addressing disruptive behavioural problems of adolescents is discussed.

  17. Parenting styles, family structure and adolescent dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    To examine associations between parenting styles, family structure and aspects of adolescent dietary behaviour. Cross-sectional study. Secondary schools in the East Midlands, UK. Adolescents aged 12-16 years (n 328, 57 % boys) completed an FFQ assessing their consumption of fruit, vegetables, unhealthy snacks and breakfast. Adolescents provided information on parental and sibling status and completed a seventeen-item instrument measuring the general parenting style dimensions of involvement and strictness, from which four styles were derived: indulgent, neglectful, authoritarian, authoritative. After controlling for adolescent gender and age, analysis of covariance revealed no significant interactions between parenting style and family structure variables for any of the dietary behaviours assessed. Significant main effects for family structure were observed only for breakfast consumption, with adolescents from dual-parent families (P parent families and those with one or more brother, respectively. Significant main effects for parenting style were observed for all dietary behaviours apart from vegetable consumption. Adolescents who described their parents as authoritative ate more fruit per day, fewer unhealthy snacks per day, and ate breakfast on more days per week than those who described their parents as neglectful. The positive associations between authoritative parenting style and adolescent dietary behaviour transcend family structure. Future research should be food-specific and assess the efficacy of strategies promoting the central attributes of an authoritative parenting style on the dietary behaviours of adolescents from a variety of family structures.

  18. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.

  19. Behavioural modification framework to address wastage in household electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Stephanie K A; Yeow, Paul H P; Nair, Sumesh R; Tan, Felix B

    2018-05-01

    Household electricity wastage poses a sustainability issue. Ergonomic interventions that prevent wastage through technological innovations are expensive and complex, making consumers unwilling to adopt them. The study aimed to investigate the motivations and impediments in avoiding electricity wastage. Thirteen Repertory Grid interviews were conducted on household electricity users relating to the behaviour of those living with them. The key motivational themes found were altruistic and egoistic reasons while the impediments were perceived behavioural control, hedonism and self-efficacy. Based on the research findings, a behavioural modification framework was developed to encourage consumers to adopt a higher level of responsible electricity practice through the following suggested interventions - (1) reframing sustainability from 'future-for-others' to 'present-for-us', (2) clarifying responsible consumption and (3) performance feedback. The research identified the key motivations and impediments of being a responsible household electricity user and provided a framework to encourage a higher responsibility level. Practitioner Summary: Household electricity wastage poses sustainability issue: excess CO 2 & high costs. We developed a mindset changing behavioural modification framework. We investigated HFE issues: motivations & impediments of avoiding the wastage, i.e. altruistic, egoistic, behavioural control, hedonism & self-efficacy. The framework provides governments insights into strategies to address the wastage.

  20. Acetaldehyde as the first hit of addictive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cavallaro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy alcohol use is common in the Western society, which puts risk of health consequences, causing multiple behavioural injuries. Increasing evidence focuses on acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, as the mediator of the several behavioural actions of alcohol, including its rewarding and motivational effects. In particular, acetaldehyde induces dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens modulating primary alcohol rewarding effect, drug seeking, and relapse behaviour. Recent behavioural studies point at acetaldehyde as a drug of abuse since its oral self-administration is induced and maintained in an operant/conflict paradigm. These findings provide further evidence on the role played by the acetaldehyde as a mediator of the effects of alcohol and focus attention on this molecule to arrange a more effective strategy, aimed at the prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize latest results on the role of acetaldehyde as the mediator of ethanol-central effects focusing on its capacity to induce an addictive behaviour.