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Sample records for behavioural problems conclusions

  1. Conclusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusion. Problems of an Under-developed Economy. Geographical Location. Terrain. Change in attitude of mainstream India required. Using Technology to overcome problems.

  2. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions. Be it 2G or 4G, networks are vulnerable to unwanted access and thus should be protected. 4G networks would be more sensitive as its core network will be TCP/IP based. Accordingly, resource and security management schemes with seamless ...

  3. Conclusions:

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions: Extended objects – “D-branes” – appear naturally in theories of strings. They manifest themselves as new types of physical particles in string models. They provide a powerful handle on the symmetries and dynamics of strings. Branes will play a key role ...

  4. Conclusions :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions : No dramatic difference in the dynamics of anion-water and water-water hydrogen bonds are found for Cl- and Br- ions. Solvation shells of these ions are not rigid. For OH- in water, HB dynamics in the hydration shell determines the rate of proton transfer.

  5. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøy, Helge; Kristiansen, Tore

    2010-01-01

    1. Comparing empirical findings with the “mountain peak model” In the introduction to this volume, we presented a “mountain peak model” of Nordic purism based on evidence showing that language scholars and lay people are very much in agreement as to where we find the more purist languages......-speaking Finland to Finnish-speaking Finland. In this conclusion to the volume, we will summarize the empirical findings presented in the volume, findings for use and attitudes alike, and compare them with the mountain peak model. That way, we may be able to estimate the nature of the cross-national ideological...

  6. Actual Problems of Conclusion and Discharge of Urgent Labour Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevelyova A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the consideration of the questions connected with the conclusion and the termination of the urgent labour contract. The author, analyzing judicial practice, allocates the problems of separate regulation of the RF labour legislation enforcement.

  7. Behavioural problems among schoolchildren in Nigeria | Akpan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rutter behavioural scale for teachers (B2) was completed by their teachers, and that for parents (A2) was completed by the parents. Student's t-test was ... There is a high prevalence of behavioural problems among primary school children in Uyo, with a predominance of antisocial behaviour. The government needs to ...

  8. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Cuperus, J.M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to clarify the incidence and nature of behavioural problems in children with PLI using a prognostic design in mainstream education. This design should provide valuable insights into the general relationship between PLI and various behavioural problems. Methods & Procedures:

  9. [Language Competence and Behavioural Problems in Preschool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rißling, J K; Melzer, J; Menke, B; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2015-10-01

    Children with language disorders are at increased risk of developing behavioural and emotional problems. The analysis focused on the question whether behavioural problems differ depending on the type of language deficit. The present study examines the behaviour of preschool children with different language impairments. The results of N=540 children aged between 4;0 and 5;11 years were analyzed. Language impairments were classified into phonetics/phonology (n=44), vocabulary (n=44), grammar (n=58), pragmatics (n=26) and multiple language impairments (n=171). In addition, a distinction was made between deficits in language production and comprehension. The children were compared with an unimpaired control group (n=197). The extent of emotional and behavioural problems were analyzed. The results indicate that emotional and behavioural problems differ depending on the type of language deficit already in preschoolers. Especially deficits in language comprehension, pragmatic impairments and multiple language impairments increase the risk of behavioural and emotional problems and hyperactivity. The relationship between language skills and emotional and behavioural problems should be emphasized in the developmental observation and documentation in preschool. In particular, the distinction between deficits in pragmatics and behavioural problems requires a differentiated examination to ensure an optimal intervention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Behaviour problems in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiervang, E; Stevenson, J; Lund, A; Hugdahl, K

    2001-01-01

    The association between behaviour problems and dyslexia was assessed in a population sample of 10- to 12-year-old children. Twenty-five dyslexic children and a matched control group were recruited through a screening in primary schools in the city of Bergen, Norway. For the assessment of behaviour problems the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher Self Report (TRF), and Youth Self Report (YSR) were filled out by parents, teachers, and children, respectively. Information on health and developmental factors were obtained from parents on a separate questionnaire designed for the study. The dyslexic group had significantly more behaviour problems than the control group according to both the CBCL and the TRF. On the YSR there was no significant difference between the groups. Dyslexic children had higher CBCL and TRF scores on the Total Behaviour Problem scale, the Internalizing and Externalizing subdomains, and the Attention problem subscale. The groups differed in social background, prenatal risk factors, birth weight, preschool language problems, and IQ, but these variables showed no relationship to the level of behaviour problems in the present sample. We conclude that pre-adolescent dyslexic children show a wide range of behaviour problems that cannot be attributed to social or developmental background variables.

  11. Normal feline behaviour: … and why problem behaviours develop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John

    2018-05-01

    Practical relevance: Cats are descended from a solitary, territorial ancestor, and while domestication has reduced their inherited tendency to be antagonistic towards all animals larger than their typical prey, they still place more reliance on the security of their territory than on psychological attachments to people or other cats, the exact opposite to dogs. Many feline problem behaviours stem from perceived threats to this security, often due to conflicts with other cats. Others are more developmental in origin, often caused by inadequate exposure to crucial stimuli, especially people, during the socialisation period. Strongly aversive events experienced at any age can also contribute. A third category comprises normal behaviour that owners deem unacceptable, such as scratching of furniture. Evidence base: This review identifies three areas in which basic research is inadequate to support widely employed concepts and practices in feline behavioural medicine. First, classification of cats' problem behaviours relies heavily on approaches derived from studies of their behavioural ecology and, to some extent, extrapolation from canine studies. Few studies have focused on cats in the home, the environment in which most behavioural disorders are expressed. Secondly, cats' chemical senses (olfactory and vomeronasal) are far more sensitive than our own, making it difficult for owners or clinicians to fully comprehend the sensory information upon which they base their behaviour. Thirdly, although the concept of psychological distress is widely invoked as an intervening variable in behavioural disorders, there are still no reliable measures of distress for pet cats in the home. Global importance: Psychological distress of some kind is the primary cause of many of the behavioural problems presented to clinicians, but surveys indicate that many more cats display the same clinical signs without their owners ever seeking help. The welfare of this 'invisible' group could be

  12. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  13. Teachers' Personal Constructs on Problem Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Everaert; J.T.E. van Beukering; J.M.F. Touw

    2005-01-01

    Present study focuses on revealing and developing personal constructs regarding problem behaviour in classrooms. The main idea is that teachers’ opinions about their students and themselves influence the way they interact with them. Their thoughts and ideas about students - their personal constructs

  14. Behavioural problems among schoolchildren in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    single child can have a range of problems.3,6-8 However, the prevalence .... senior school teachers with secondary education and some further training, grade III ... Table II shows the age and gender distribution of children with behavioural ...

  15. A Socio Behavioural Perspective for Understanding and Managing Behaviour Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Cull

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, reasons for the occurrence of interictal behaviour disturbance in children with epilepsy, and the management of such problems, are considered. The search for a direct relationship between epilepsy related variables and behaviour disorders is far from conclusive. While such a relationship may exist with respect to ictal behaviour problems, this line of investigation is of limited value in respect of its implications for the management of interictal problems. In the latter case it is proposed that organic factors may be considered to be a risk factor. In addition, the negative psychosocial sequelae of a diagnosis of epilepsy can result in conditions which are likely to foster the development of inappropriate behaviours. Learning theory would further suggest that environmental contingencies have a role to play in the shaping and maintenance of such behaviours. This broader framework for conceptualising the development and maintenance of interictal behaviour disorders has clear management implications. Clinical examples of the successful application of this approach to the management of persistent behavioural problems in two young people with epilepsy are presented.

  16. Religiosity as a factor protecting against problem behaviour in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewiadomska Iwona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the question, to what degree religiosity contributes, as a protecting factor against a broad category of socially deviant adolescent and youth behaviours. It also tests the hypothesis that gender plays a moderating role in the relationship between religiosity and problem behaviour. It employs a modified version of the Problem Behaviour Syndrome Measure (PBSM, in concert with Jessor and Jessor’s conceptual work. It also makes use of the Duke Religion Index (DUREL to assess religiosity. The empirical study deals with a representative group of 960 students of upper-secondary schools in the Lubelskie province, Poland. The results were analyzed using canonical analysis and ANOVA. The achievements of the article are twofold. First, it identifies significant correlations between the different levels of religiosity among youth, and the occurrence and intensification of problem behaviours, particularly in regard to organized activity. Organized and intrinsic religiosity play principal protective roles, while the impact of personal religious practices is less significant. Secondly, while analyzing the moderating role of gender in the relationship between religiosity and the intensity of problem behaviour, it was found that gender does not have a significant interactive impact. An affirmative conclusion was confirmed in only two instances.

  17. Prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faride Malekshahi

    2008-10-01

    problems. Anxiety, withdrawal and social isolation, too much irrelevant peevishing and crying were higher in urban children, and behavioural problems such as, urinary incontinence, night fear, teeth gnashing, hitting the head against the wall, sleep disorders were higher in rural children. Some of the children behavioural problems such as urinary incontinence, stammering, onychophagia and … had a significant relation with sex, as well as between age, job, educational level of the parents, birth rank, and some behavioural problems a significant relation was observed. Conclusion: These findings showed that most of the pre-school children somehow suffer from behavioural problems, they need more attention and support in the area of mental health which require an accurate and comprehensive planning. So study of children mental health level in the stations of measurement and mental health services in the schools, and education to teachers and parents in order to prevent behavioural disorders, and ontime diagnosis and treatment are necessary.

  18. Problem Behaviours, Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying among Adolescents: Longitudinal Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Leanne; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese

    2012-01-01

    Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people's problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary…

  19. Cannabis use, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel Frederique Heleen

    2013-01-01

    During early adolescence, there is no association between internalizing behaviour and cannabis use. There is an association between externalizing behaviour and cannabis use, where externalizing behaviour precedes cannabis use rather than the other way around. Secondly, during adolescence, there is

  20. Problem behaviours of kindergartners: The affects of children's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children's problem behaviour (internalising and externalising problems) and cognitive ability. Second, there was a .... predict internalising problems such as depression and anxiety ..... creativity: Teachers' perception of student characteristics ...

  1. Reframing implementation as an organisational behaviour problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay-Williams, Robyn; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) intervention study that tested the effectiveness of classroom- and simulation-based crew resource management courses, alone and in combination, and identifies organisational barriers and facilitators to implementation of team training programmes in healthcare. The RCT design consisted of a before and after study with a team training intervention. Quantitative data were gathered on utility and affective reactions to training, and on teamwork knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of the learners. A sample of participants was interviewed at the conclusion of the study. Interview responses were analysed, alongside qualitative elements of the classroom course critique, to search for evidence, context, and facilitation clues to the implementation process. The RCT method provided scientifically robust data that supported the benefits of classroom training. Qualitative data identified a number of facilitators to implementation of team training, and shed light on some of the ways that learning was diffused throughout the organisation. Barriers to successful implementation were also identified, including hospital time and resource constraints and poor organisational communication. Quantitative randomised methods have intermittently been used to evaluate team training interventions in healthcare. Despite two decades of team training trials, however, the authors do not know as well as the authors would like what goes on inside the "black box" of such RCTs. While results are usually centred on outcomes, this study also provides insight into the context and mechanisms associated with those outcomes and identifies barriers and facilitators to successful intervention implementation.

  2. Polydrug Use by European Adolescents in the Context of Other Problem Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokkevi Anna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim – Previous studies of the association between polydrug use and other risk behaviours have generally been limited to specific substances and a small number of behaviours. The aim of this study is to obtain better insight into polydrug use (comprising legal and illegal substances: tobacco, alcohol, tranquillisers/sedatives, cannabis, and other illegal drugs and its association with co-occurring problem behaviours drawn from various broad domains (sexual, aggressive, delinquent, school achievement, relationships among European adolescents. METHODS – Data were obtained from 101,401 16-year-old students from 35 European countries participating in the 2011 ESPAD survey. Associations between polydrug use and other problem behaviours were examined by multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses. RESULTS – Tranquillisers/sedatives appeared among the commonest combinations in the polydrug use pattern, especially for females. A strong trend was found between levels of involvement with polydrug use and other problem behaviours for both genders. The highest associations with polydrug use were for problems with the police, risky sexual behaviour and skipping school. Gender differences showed higher prevalences among boys than girls of problem behaviours of aggressive, antisocial type, while girls prevailed over boys in relationship problems. CONCLUSION – An incremental relationship exists between the level of involvement with polydrug use and the co-occurrence of problem behaviours. Preventative interventions should consider the misuse of tranquillisers/sedatives within the context of polydrug use by adolescents and expand their target groups towards multiple problem behaviours.

  3. Cannabis use, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel Frederique Heleen

    2013-01-01

    During early adolescence, there is no association between internalizing behaviour and cannabis use. There is an association between externalizing behaviour and cannabis use, where externalizing behaviour precedes cannabis use rather than the other way around. Secondly, during adolescence, there is an association between psychosis vulnerability and cannabis use, where cannabis use predicts psychosis vulnerability and vice versa, suggesting a bi-directional cascading association. Thirdly, durin...

  4. Child behaviour problems and childhood illness: development of the Eczema Behaviour Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A E; Morawska, A; Fraser, J A; Sillar, K

    2017-01-01

    Children with atopic dermatitis are at increased risk of both general behaviour problems, and those specific to the condition and its treatment. This can hamper the ability of parents to carry out treatment and manage the condition effectively. To date, there is no published instrument available to assess child behaviour difficulties in the context of atopic dermatitis management. Our aim was to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems, and parents' self-efficacy (confidence) for managing these behaviours. The Eczema Behaviour Checklist (EBC) was developed as a 25-item questionnaire to measure (i) extent of behaviour problems (EBC Extent scale), and (ii) parents' self-efficacy for managing behaviour problems (EBC Confidence scale), in the context of child atopic dermatitis management. A community-based sample of 292 parents completed the EBC, measures of general behaviour difficulties, self-efficacy with atopic dermatitis management and use of dysfunctional parenting strategies. There was satisfactory internal consistency and construct validity for EBC Extent and Confidence scales. There was a negative correlation between atopic dermatitis-specific behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with behaviours (r = -.53, p behaviours; (ii) symptom-related behaviours; and (iii) behaviours related to impact of the illness. Variation in parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's atopic dermatitis was explained by intensity of illness-specific child behaviour problems and parents' self-efficacy for dealing with the behaviours. The new measure of atopic dermatitis-specific child behaviour problems was a stronger predictor of parents' self-efficacy for managing their child's condition than was the measure of general child behaviour difficulties. Results provide preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of the EBC, which has potential for use in clinical and research settings, and

  5. Rating Students' Problem Behaviour: The Role of Teachers' Individual Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kargiotidis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of teachers' personal characteristics and mental health status on their frequency ratings of student problem behaviour. A sample of 121 primary school teachers were asked to rate the frequency of a student's behavioural problems, and to self-report their personality traits, psychopathology symptoms and burnout.…

  6. Female Pubertal Timing and Problem Behaviour: The Role of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therese; Stattin, Hakan; Ruiselova, Zdena; Ozdemir, Metin

    2013-01-01

    We tested the peer-socialization/contextual-amplification explanation for the link between early female puberty and problem behaviour. We propose that in cultures with high tolerance for adolescent heterosexual involvement, early puberty should be linked with problem behaviour--not in other cultures. We compared girls in two cultures (Slovakia and…

  7. The Problem Behaviour Check List: a short scale to assess challenging behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrer, PJ; Nagar, J; Evans, R; Oliver, P; Bassett, P; Liedtka, N; Tarabi, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Challenging behaviour, especially in intellectual disability, covers a wide range that is in need of further evaluation. Aims To develop a short but comprehensive instrument for all aspects of challenging behaviour. Method In the first part of a two-stage enquiry, a 28-item scale was constructed to examine the components of challenging behaviour. Following a simple factor analysis this was developed further to create a new short scale, the Problem Behaviour Checklist (PBCL). The sc...

  8. Problem Gambling and Delinquent Behaviours Among Adolescents: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryszajtys, David T; Hahmann, Tara E; Schuler, Andrée; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Ziegler, Carolyn P; Matheson, Flora I

    2018-02-22

    Despite many studies indicating an association between problem gambling and delinquent behaviours among adolescents, there has been no effort to systematically analyze the state of the literature on this relationship. To fill this gap, we conducted a scoping review of the literature published between 2000 and 2016 on problem gambling and delinquent behaviours among adolescents. We searched twelve databases and reviewed reference lists to identify eligible studies. Search terms included a combination of medical subject headings and keywords for gambling, youth, and delinquency, which were combined with the Boolean operator "AND". 1795 studies were identified through the literature search. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. All of the studies were conducted in North America, with primarily male participants, and most of the data were cross-sectional. No qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Screening tools used to measure problem gambling were inconsistent, making comparisons across studies difficult. We found a consistent moderate to strong association between problem gambling and delinquent behaviour. Only one study presented associations by socio-economic status and none considered gender, sex or ethnic differences. Studies in the review showed that problem gambling is associated with both violent and non-violent behaviours among adolescents. These associations may suggest that problem gambling and delinquent behaviours have common risk factors and reflect a syndrome of risky behaviours best targeted through prevention and treatment that is holistic and considers the context in which the youth is situated. Further research is warranted to better understand the relationship between problem gambling and delinquent behaviours.

  9. Oral health and oral health risk behaviour in children with and without externalising behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staberg, M; Norén, J G; Gahnberg, L; Ghaderi, A; Kadesjö, C; Robertson, A

    2018-05-15

    This was to study children with early detected externalising behaviour problems compared to matched controls regarding oral health, oral health risk behaviour and the parental evaluation of the child's oral health and dental care. Children aged 10-13 years and with externalising behaviour problems, were compared to matched controls. Behavioural characteristics were based on the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The children and their parents completed questionnaires regarding dental fear, tooth brushing, dietary habits and evaluation of oral health and dental care. Data on dental caries risk assessments, caries, behaviour management problems and dental trauma were obtained from dental files. There were no differences in caries prevalence in children with early detected externalising behaviour problems, compared to controls. However, the former group consumed more sweet drinks when thirsty and brushed their teeth fewer than twice daily; they also had more dental trauma in both dentitions and a higher risk range for dental fear, compared to controls. This study points out potential oral health risk factors in children with early-detected externalising behaviour problems. Although no difference in caries prevalence was observed, externalising behaviour may affect oral health. Therefore, dental professionals should support the families and the children to preserve dental health by offering increased prophylactic measures. There were no differences between children with externalising behaviour problems, compared with controls, regarding the parent evaluation of their child's dental health. However, more parents in the study group evaluated the dental care as poor or not functioning.

  10. Behaviour problems of children from care homes and special schools

    OpenAIRE

    Kaffemanas, Romanas

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents and analyzes data on the behaviour peculiarities, similarities and differences of students from 24 special schools and Care Homes in Lithuania. Most children with or without mental disability in institutional care have mild emotional and behaviour difficulties. However, slight emotional deviations, anti-social behaviour and school adjustment problems are more characteristic of the special school students. The inmates of Care Homes without mental disability are characterized...

  11. Problems of space-time behaviour of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradovic, D.

    1966-01-01

    This paper covers a review of literature and mathematical methods applied for space-time behaviour of nuclear reactors. The review of literature is limited to unresolved problems and trends of actual research in the field of reactor physics [sr

  12. [Adolescents and new technologies: Behaviours pointing a possible addiction problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Encinas, Francisco Javier; Villadangos González, Silvia María

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate adolescents' subjective risk perception derived from the use of the New Technologies (NT), and to identify behaviours or warning symptoms of possible addiction problems. A sample of 1,710 underage students of Madrid responded to the DENA questionnaire. Firstly, we found a positive correlation between the time of NT use and the perception of addiction problems. Also, age was positively correlated to these perception problems. Secondly, the results indicated that television is the technology that generates a major perception problem in underage students. Lastly, the NTs have produced behaviours that are similar to those produced by other established addictions. Among them are notable the relaxation caused by their use or discomfort if they cannot be used. In addition, the frequent presence of other behaviours exclusive to these instruments has been identified, such as constantly checking one's mobile phone screen. It is necessary to continue studying possible addictive behaviours specific to the NT.

  13. Behaviour Problems in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As more children survive with congenital heart diseases, management of their behavioural problems are becoming increasingly important. In this article we aim to review the current status of knowledge on this aspect. Children with congenital heart diseases have more behavioural problems compared to children without chronic illnesses. Behavioural problems in children can be classified into externalizing behaviours and internalizing behaviours. Externalizing behaviours are marked by defiance, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disruptiveness, aggression and antisocial features. Internalizing behaviours are evidenced by withdrawal, dysphoria and anxiety. Boys with congenital heart diseases have more externalizing problems compared to girls. Preoperative hypoxia as well as peri and postoperative cardiocirculatory insufficiency can lead to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in future. High treatment intensity and palliative interventions are associated with poor behavioral outcomes. Children who underwent open heart surgery at very young age are prone to develop attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on reaching school age. A comprehensive approach in this field is essential, so that effective early interventions and guidance can be planned.

  14. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...... pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health...... Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy...

  15. Pragmatic language impairment and associated behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to

  16. Problem behaviours and parenting in preschool children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C; Massie, J; Glazner, J; Sheehan, J; Canterford, L; Armstrong, D; Jaffe, A; Hiscock, H

    2009-05-01

    Problems with sleep, eating and adherence to therapy may adversely affect health outcomes in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Data on the prevalence of such problems, associated parenting styles and caregiver mental health are limited. To determine: (a) the prevalence of sleep, mealtime, therapy adherence and externalising and internalising behavioural problems in preschool children with CF; (b) the prevalence of caregiver mental health problems and poor sleep quality; and (c) associations between child behavioural problems and parenting styles. This was a cross sectional survey of caregivers of children aged 6 months to 5 years attending CF outpatient clinics at Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne), Monash Medical Centre (Melbourne) and Sydney Children's Hospital. Main outcome measures were child externalising and internalising behaviours, sleep, eating and adherence with therapy; the predictor was parenting styles (harsh, inconsistent, overprotective). 117 of 139 families participated. Problems were common with child sleep (small 31.6%; moderate/large problem: 21.9%), eating (32.4%) and adherence with physiotherapy (50.4%). Compared to normative data, sleep and mealtime problems were more prevalent. Caregivers reported high rates of symptoms indicating depression (33.3%), anxiety (16.4%) and stress (34.2%). Harsh parenting was associated with internalising behaviours (adjusted OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.16 to 13.17, p = 0.03). Problems with sleeping, eating and physiotherapy adherence were common in preschool children with CF. Caregivers reported high rates of symptoms indicative of mental health problems. Harsh parenting was associated with internalising problems. An intervention targeting child problem behaviours and parental mental health would be appropriate for CF families.

  17. The Directive 2010/63/EU on animal experimentation may skew the conclusions of pharmacological and behavioural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Laviola, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    All laboratory animals shall be provided some form of environmental enrichment (EE) in the nearest future (Directive 2010/63/EU). Displacing standard housing with EE entails the possibility that data obtained under traditional housing may be reconsidered. Specifically, while EE often contrasts the abnormalities of consolidated disease models, it also indirectly demonstrates that their validity depends on housing conditions. We mimicked a situation in which the consequences of a novel pharmacological compound were addressed before and after the adoption of the Directive. We sub-chronically exposed standard- or EE-reared adolescent CD1 mice (postnatal days 23-33) to the synthetic compound JWH-018, and evaluated its short- and long-term potential cannabinoid properties on: weight gain, locomotion, analgesia, motor coordination, body temperature, brain metabolism ((1)H MRI/MRS), anxiety- and depressive-related behaviours. While several parameters are modulated by JWH-018 independently of housing, other effects are environmentally mediated. The transition from standard housing to EE shall be carefully monitored.

  18. Parenting behaviour and adolescent behavioural and emotional problems: The role of self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkenauer, C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Baumeister, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional data from 1359 boys and girls aged 10-14 years investigated whether parenting behaviours are directly or indirectly (through building self-control) associated with emotional (depression, stress, low self-esteem) and behavioural (delinquency, aggression) problems among adolescents.

  19. Bedwetting and behavioural and/or emotional problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirasing, R.A.; Leerdam, F. van; Bolk-Bennink, L.B.; Bosch, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the link between enuresis nocturna and the severity of behavioural and/or emotional problems in Dutch children and the course of these problems. Setting: West-Mine Region in the Netherlands: Subjects and methods: Prospective cohort study involving 66 of the 80 bedwetting

  20. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  1. Management of common behaviour and mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Radhi, A Sahib

    Behavioural problems are usually influenced by both biological and environmental factors. Disruptive behavioural problems such temper tantrums or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are displayed during the first years of childhood. Breath-holding attacks are relatively common and are an important problem. Although the attacks are not serious and the prognosis is usually good, parents often fear that their child may die during an attack. Parents therefore require explanation and reassurance from health professionals. Conduct disorders (often referred to as antisocial behaviours), such as aggression to others or theft, are more serious as they tend to be repetitive and persistent behaviours where the basic rights of others are violated. Emotional problems, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder tend to occur in later childhood, and are often unrecognised because young children often find it difficult to express their emotions, or it may go unnoticed by the child's parents. This article briefly discusses the most common behavioural problems, including autism, that affect children of all ages.

  2. Parent–child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamse Mariëlle E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. Methods This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI, obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5% dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59. Results The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively, which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an

  3. Child behaviour problems, parenting behaviours and parental adjustment in mothers and fathers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Wells, Michael B; Sarkadi, Anna

    2014-11-01

    We aim to examine the relationship between child behavioural problems and several parental factors, particularly parental behaviours as reported by both mothers and fathers in a sample of preschool children in Sweden. Participants were mothers and fathers of 504 3- to 5-year-olds that were recruited through preschools. They completed a set of questionnaires including the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Parenting Scale, Parent Problem Checklist, Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Correlational analyses showed that parent-reported child behaviour problems were positively associated with ineffective parenting practices and interparental conflicts and negatively related to parental competence. Regression analyses showed that, for both mothers and fathers, higher levels of parental over-reactivity and interparental conflict over child-rearing issues and lower levels of parental satisfaction were the most salient factors in predicting their reports of disruptive child behaviour. This study revealed that swedish parents' perceptions of their parenting is related to their ratings of child behaviour problems which therefore implies that parent training programs can be useful in addressing behavioural problems in Swedish children. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  4. Relations between Parenting and Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behaviour in Early Adolescence: Child Behaviour as Moderator and Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, E.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigated relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour during early adolescence. First, we examined parenting effects on problem behaviour, including child behaviour as a moderator. Second, we examined child behaviour as predictor of parenting, also including moderator effects.…

  5. Conclusion; Zaklyuchenie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, V I

    1961-07-01

    In this chapter of book are present conclusions about work done by author, in particular that he found comparatively simple and available ways of synthesis of glycerin of acetylene line and glycerin of ethylen line which before was unknown or almost unknown in the chemical literature.

  6. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  7. Psychosocial development and the development of problem behaviour during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in

  8. The Development of Personality and Problem Behaviour in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akse, J.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the development of personality and problem behaviour in adolescence. It has long been debated whether personality is stable or whether it changes over time. Personality could change due to the many changes that occur during adolescence, such as attending a new school,

  9. Socio-Cultural Problems and Maladaptive Behaviours of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through survey research design, this study investigated the socio-cultural problems and maladaptive behaviours of post-adolescents in Nigeria. Out of 379 National Youth Service Corps (N. Y. S. C.) members drawn from various parts of Nigeria for the 2010/2011 service year, deployed to Abakaliki, Ebonyi and Izzi Local ...

  10. A comparative study of behaviour problems between adopted and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We found that adopted children had more behaviour problems on the PSQ. On SAICA, adopted children showed less social competence. The parenting practices as revealed by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire did not differ between the two groups. The IQ of the children in both groups was within the normal range.

  11. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with divorced parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Klein Velderman, M.; Cloostermans, A.P.G.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2–4 years. Methods: We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2–4 years within the setting of the national system

  12. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with divorced parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Meinou H C; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Cloostermans, Anne P G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2-4 years. We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2-4 years within the setting of the national system of routine visits to

  13. The cross‐lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M. K.; Midouhas, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross‐lagged relationship between father absence (non‐residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. Methods We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2–4). The sample was 15 293 families in which both biological parents were co‐resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut‐offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Results Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut‐off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross‐lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Conclusions Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. PMID:25708874

  14. "I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…

  15. Parents' and Teachers' Opinions of Preschool Children's Social Problem-Solving and Behavioural Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasik, László; Gál, Zita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to shed light on (1) what Hungarian mothers, fathers and teachers of 4-6-year-olds think of these children's social problem-solving (SPS) and their difficulties in terms of problem-solving, adaptability and prosocial behaviour; (2) studying any correlation between the examined aspects and (3) the connection between one's…

  16. Understanding feline emotions: … and their role in problem behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Sarah

    2018-05-01

    Practical relevance: Despite its importance, emotional health is a subject that is sadly neglected in the context of companion animals. Understanding emotions is at the heart of veterinary behavioural medicine and is key to preventing, managing and treating reported behavioural problems in domestic cats. Clinical challenges: On a daily basis, veterinary practices are presented with the physical health impact of emotional health and with emotionally motivated behaviours that are undesirable to owners and/or detrimental to the cat. Emotional health is of equal importance to physical health and lies at the very core of veterinary medicine. Clinically, the emotional motivation for a behaviour must be identified before an assessment is made of whether the motivation is contextually appropriate and whether the cat's response is justified and normal, or abnormal in the circumstances. Evidence base: The majority of referenced evidence for our understanding of emotional motivations in mammals has come from the human field, but recently there has been increasing interest in the emotional health of non-human animals and a resulting growth in research. This review draws on the published literature and the author's personal experience to explore how emotions can influence feline behaviours. Global importance: Understanding the importance of emotional health is a major factor in ensuring positive welfare for cats, wherever they are kept as companion animals. It impacts on their physical health and their quality of life, and also on the relationship between cat and owner.

  17. Parent-Child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E.; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E. Lidewei; Coelman, Frederique J. G.; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be

  18. Research on injury compensation and health outcomes: ignoring the problem of reverse causality led to a biased conclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B; Nghiem, Hong S; Pobereskin, Louis

    2012-11-01

    This study highlights the serious consequences of ignoring reverse causality bias in studies on compensation-related factors and health outcomes and demonstrates a technique for resolving this problem of observational data. Data from an English longitudinal study on factors, including claims for compensation, associated with recovery from neck pain (whiplash) after rear-end collisions are used to demonstrate the potential for reverse causality bias. Although it is commonly believed that claiming compensation leads to worse recovery, it is also possible that poor recovery may lead to compensation claims--a point that is seldom considered and never addressed empirically. This pedagogical study compares the association between compensation claiming and recovery when reverse causality bias is ignored and when it is addressed, controlling for the same observable factors. When reverse causality is ignored, claimants appear to have a worse recovery than nonclaimants; however, when reverse causality bias is addressed, claiming compensation appears to have a beneficial effect on recovery, ceteris paribus. To avert biased policy and judicial decisions that might inadvertently disadvantage people with compensable injuries, there is an urgent need for researchers to address reverse causality bias in studies on compensation-related factors and health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe neurological sequelae and behaviour problems after cerebral malaria in Ugandan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugumisirize Joshua

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of falciparum malaria and a leading cause of death and neuro-disability in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to describe functional deficits and behaviour problems in children who survived cerebral malaria with severe neurological sequelae and identify patterns of brain injury. Findings Records of children attending a specialist child neurology clinic in Uganda with severe neurological sequelae following cerebral malaria between January 2007 and December 2008 were examined to describe deficits in gross motor function, speech, vision and hearing, behaviour problems or epilepsy. Deficits were classified according to the time of development and whether their distribution suggested a focal or generalized injury. Any resolution during the observation period was also documented. Thirty children with probable exposure to cerebral malaria attended the clinic. Referral information was inadequate to exclude other diagnoses in 7 children and these were excluded. In the remaining 23 patients, the commonest severe deficits were spastic motor weakness (14, loss of speech (14, hearing deficit (9, behaviour problems (11, epilepsy (12, blindness (12 and severe cognitive impairment (9. Behaviour problems included hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness as in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and conduct disorders with aggressive, self injurious or destructive behaviour. Two patterns were observed; a immediate onset deficits present on discharge and b late onset deficits. Some deficits e.g. blindness, resolved within 6 months while others e.g. speech, showed little improvement over the 6-months follow-up. Conclusions In addition to previously described neurological and cognitive sequelae, severe behaviour problems may follow cerebral malaria in children. The observed differences in patterns of sequelae may be due to different pathogenic mechanisms, brain

  20. Maternal and Paternal Perception of Child Vulnerability and Behaviour Problems in Very Preterm Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Koot, H.M.; Last, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children have more behaviour problems than term born children. Perinatal risks, current child functioning, sociodemographic characteristics, parental psychological distress and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PCV) have been shown to be risk factors for behaviour problems.

  1. Self-reported behaviour problems and sibling relationship quality by siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A

    2014-11-01

    There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Parent-Reported Psychological and Sleep Problems in a Preschool-Aged Community Sample: Prevalence of Sleep Problems in Children with and without Emotional/Behavioural Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Salater, Julie; Røhr, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Objective : To examine (a) the prevalence of sleep problems among 4-year-olds in the general population, (b) the prevalence of sleep problems among children with emotional and/or behavioural problems, and (c) whether specific sleep problems are associated with particular emotional/behavioural problems. Method: Using The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) , data about sleep and emotional/behavioural problems was obtained from 727 parents of 4-year-olds, recruited for a large...

  3. Stakeholder's perceptions of help-seeking behaviour among people with mental health problems in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndyanabangi Sheila

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental health facilities in Uganda remain underutilized, despite efforts to decentralize the services. One of the possible explanations for this is the help-seeking behaviours of people with mental health problems. Unfortunately little is known about the factors that influence the help-seeking behaviours. Delays in seeking proper treatment are known to compromise the outcome of the care. Aim To examine the help-seeking behaviours of individuals with mental health problems, and the factors that may influence such behaviours in Uganda. Method Sixty-two interviews and six focus groups were conducted with stakeholders drawn from national and district levels. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using a framework analysis approach. Results The findings revealed that in some Ugandan communities, help is mostly sought from traditional healers initially, whereas western form of care is usually considered as a last resort. The factors found to influence help-seeking behaviour within the community include: beliefs about the causes of mental illness, the nature of service delivery, accessibility and cost, stigma. Conclusion Increasing the uptake of mental health services requires dedicating more human and financial resources to conventional mental health services. Better understanding of socio-cultural factors that may influence accessibility, engagement and collaboration with traditional healers and conventional practitioners is also urgently required.

  4. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with divorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Meinou H C; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Cloostermans, Anne P G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2-4 years. We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2-4 years within the setting of the national system of routine visits to well-child clinics. A total of 2600 children participated (response rate: 70%). Before the visit, parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist and a questionnaire with questions about divorce or separation. We assessed the associations of children's EBP with a divorce either in the previous year or at any time in the past after adjustment for other child and family factors. Four percent of the children had parents who had divorced before the child reached the age of 2-4 years, and 3.4% of these parents had divorced in the previous year. EBP (and particularly behavioural problems) were more likely in children aged 2-4 years old in cases of lifetime divorce or separation. This association was weaker after adjustment for relevant child and family characteristics: it may be partly due to confounding factors such as paternal education level, ethnicity and family size. A divorce in the previous year was not linked to child EBP. These findings show the importance of identifying care needs and providing care for pre-school children whose parents have divorced since they suggest that there may be negative effects in the longer term. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of the thermal and mechanical behaviour of granite applied to the nuclear waste repository: conclusions drawn from the Fanay-Augeres experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejeb, A.; Vouille, G.; Gros, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The considerable advances made in nuclear technology in recent years have brought with them a sizeable accumulation of nuclear waste. Leaving aside the low-activity wastes which are stored at ground level, the problem of high-activity wastes still remains. A concerted research effort has been dedicated to perfecting certain methods for waste disposal. At present, this effort has been directed towards evaluating feasibility and the long-term safety of burying these wastes in deep-lying and stable geological repositories. A priori, many types of rocks are suitable for isolating nuclear wastes: clay, salt, granite, schists, basalt and tuff. These wastes are exothermic owing to their radioactive decay which decreases continuously with time. From the geotechnical point of view, storage of these high-activity wastes in a deep-lying geological environment will increase temperature in the host rock accompanied by changes in stresses and strains. Quantifying these changes, by means of a thermomechanical analysis, is of prime importance when the mechanical behaviour of the storage drifts has to be ensured by avoiding major modifications to the characteristics of the geological barrier. This article summarises the present state of knowledge acquired about the thermomechanical behaviour of granite, and presents the results as research requirements for better characterisation in the laboratory and in situ as well as a more realistic model. We also stress the results of research carried out by the Centre de Geotechnique et d'Exploitation du sous-sol (CGES) of the Ecole des Mines de Paris (ENSMP) on the Fanay-Augeres Thermal, Hydraulic and Mechanical experiment organised by the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN) in the context of a shared-costs contract with the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). (authors). 4 figs., 10 refs

  6. The Relationships among Teachers' Perceptions of Student Behaviour, Teachers' Characteristics, and Ratings of Students' Emotional and Behavioural Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljequist, Laura; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among teachers' perceptions of students' behavioural problems and their own efficacy and psychological symptoms. Findings suggested that teachers were more bothered by externalising (i.e., acting out) than internalising (i.e., withdrawal, depression) behavioural problems in their students, and believed that…

  7. Grip on challenging behaviour: a multidisciplinary care programme for managing behavioural problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Tulder, M.W. van; Eefsting, J.A.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Pot, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems will be evaluated. METHODS/DESIGN:

  8. Grip on challenging behaviour: a multidisciplinary care programme for managing behavioural problems in nursing home residents with dementia. Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; van Tulder, M.W.; Eefsting, J.A.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Pot, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Behavioural problems are common in nursing home residents with dementia and they often are burdensome for both residents and nursing staff. In this study, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new care programme for managing behavioural problems will be evaluated. Methods/Design.

  9. Different stability of social-communication problems and negative demanding behaviour from infancy to toddlerhood in a large Dutch population sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the stability of behavioural and developmental problems as children develop from infants to toddlers in the general population. Therefore, we investigated behavioural profiles at two time points and determined whether behaviours are stable during early development. Methods Parents of 4,237 children completed questionnaires with 62 items about externalizing, internalizing, and social-communicative behaviour when the children were 14–15 and 36–37 months old. Factor mixture modelling identified five homogeneous profiles at both time points: three with relatively normal behaviour or with mild/moderate problems, one with clear communication and interaction problems, and another with pronounced negative and demanding behaviour. Results More than 85% of infants with normal behaviour or mild problems at 14–15 months were reported to behave relatively typically as toddlers at 36–37 months. A similar percentage of infants with moderate communication problems outgrew their problems by the time they were toddlers. However, infants with severe problems had mild to severe problems as toddlers, and did not show completely normal behaviour. Improvement over time occurred more often in children with negative and demanding behaviour than in children with communication and interaction problems. The former showed less homotypic continuity than the latter. Conclusions Negative and demanding behaviour is more often transient and a less specific predictor of problems in toddlerhood than communication and interaction problems. PMID:25061477

  10. Ethnic differences in problem perception and perceived need for care for young children with problem behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevaart, Floor; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Raat, Hein; Donker, Marianne C H; Verhulst, Frank C; van Oort, Floor V A

    2012-10-01

    Problem perception and perceived need for professional care are important determinants that can contribute to ethnic differences in the use of mental health care. Therefore, we studied ethnic differences in problem perception and perceived need for professional care in the parents and teachers of 5- to 6-year-old children from the general population who were selected for having emotional and behavioural problems. A cross-sectional study with data of 10,951 children from grade two of the elementary schools in the Rotterdam-Rijnmond area, The Netherlands. Parents and teachers completed the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) as well as questions on problem perception and perceived need for care. The SDQ was used to identify children with emotional and behavioural problems. We included Dutch, Surinamese, Antillean, Moroccan and Turkish children in our sample with high (>P90) SDQ scores (N = 1,215), who were not currently receiving professional care for their problems. Amongst children with high SDQ scores, problem perception was lower in non-Dutch parents than in Dutch parents (49% vs. 81%, p ethnic differences were found in parental perceived need and in problem perception and perceived need reported by teachers. Higher levels of problem perception and perceived need were reported by teachers than by parents in all ethnic groups (PP: 87% vs. 63% and PN: 48% vs. 23%). Child health professionals should be aware of ethnic variations in problem perception as low problem perception in parents of non-Dutch children may lead to miscommunication and unmet need for professional care for the child. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. [Behavioural problems and personality change related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) belongs to the group of amyloidoses that are characterized by the deposition of insoluble and tissue-damaging amyloid proteins. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is the common clinical presentation of CAA resulting from the degenerative effect of beta amyloid on the cerebral vascular system. Though CAA is rather a neurological disease psychiatric symptoms can occur and even dominate the clinical picture. A case report is presented in order to illustrate the association between CAA and psychiatric symptoms. We report the case of a 54-year-old female patient with radiologic references to a probable CAA and mild cognitive impairment who developed behavioural difficulties and personality change that necessitated a psychiatric treatment. Psychiatric symptoms were most likely due to CAA. CAA can be associated with psychiatric symptoms and hence should be considered in the treatment of elderly patients with behavioural problems or personality changes. Diagnostic neuroimaging and examination of cerebrospinal fluid is recommended. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Aetiological influences on stability and change in emotional and behavioural problems across development: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, L J; Walaker, N; Waszczuk, M A; McAdams, T A; Eley, T C

    2017-01-01

    Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence can be chronic and are predictive of future psychiatric problems. Understanding what factors drive the development and maintenance of these problems is therefore crucial. Longitudinal behavioural genetic studies using twin, sibling or adoption data can be used to explore the developmental aetiology of stability and change in childhood and adolescent psychopathology. We present a systematic review of longitudinal, behavioural genetic analyses of emotional and behavioural problems between ages 0 to 18 years. We identified 58 studies, of which 19 examined emotional problems, 30 examined behavioural problems, and 9 examined both. In the majority of studies, stability in emotional and behavioural problems was primarily genetically influenced. Stable environmental factors were also widely found, although these typically played a smaller role. Both genetic and environmental factors were involved in change across development. We discuss the findings in the context of the wider developmental literature and make recommendations for future research.

  13. Training engagement and the development of behaviour problems in the dog: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, K.F.; McBride, E.A.; Redhead, E.

    2010-01-01

    Canine behaviour problems have serious welfare implications for dog and owner. Canine behavioural development can be divided into eight stages. Of these, the first year is most critical as it is the period when most social and environmental learning occurs, learned behaviour patterns become established and problem behaviours are most likely to become apparent (Lund et al, 1996). Whilst experiences during the socialisation period are of great importance, dogs may regress and become fearful if ...

  14. Health behaviour changes and onset of chronic health problems in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Veenstra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess five-year changes in health behaviours in later life and associations with onset of chronic health problems. The results may inform policy and interventions to promote healthy life years in ageing populations.Methods: Data are derived from the Norwegian study on Life-course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG, a five-year (2002-2007 panel survey comprising a nation wide community sample. The present analyses include a sample of 1,019 respondents aged 60 years and older. Five-year changes in smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise and Body Mass Index (BMI are assessed according to prevalent and incident chronic health problems. Multivariate logistic analyses of “healthy” behavioural changes are conducted.Results: A total of 453 respondents (45% reported at least one chronic condition and 13% (N=133 reported onset of chronic conditions in the course of the past five years. Over a five-year period, there was an overall reduction in smoking rates and a decrease in regular physical activity. Alcohol consumption in older people slightly increased over time, but the incidence of chronic health problems tended to reduce alcohol intake. Older persons experiencing chronic health problems were less likely to initiate physical activity.Conclusions: The results provide limited support for the assumption that the onset of a chronic health condition triggers improved health behaviours. This suggests that the health care system could do more in targeting a potential “window of opportunity” for individuals to adopt new healthy behaviours in later life.

  15. Teaching academic skills as an answer to behavioural problems of students with emotional or behavioural disorders : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp -van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan O.; van den Bosch, Els J.

    2014-01-01

    Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to

  16. Teaching academic skills as an answer to behavioural problems of students with emotional or behavioural disorders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Worp-van der Kamp, Lidy; Pijl, S.J.; Bijstra, Jan; van den Bosch, Els

    2013-01-01

    Academic learning has always been a serious issue for students with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their teachers. However, teaching academic skills could be an important protective and curative factor for the problem behaviour of these students. The current review was conducted to

  17. Bullying-related behaviour in adolescents with autism: Links with autism severity and emotional and behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, Elian; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits; van der Meijden, Sandra; Begeer, Sander

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the association between peer-reported bullying-related behaviours (bully, victim, outsider and defender), age, gender, autism severity and teacher-rated emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, using a multi-informant approach. The sample

  18. Comorbid behavioural problems in Tourette's syndrome are positively correlated with the severity of tic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Leung, Kai Man; Liu, Po-zi; Zhou, Ming; Su, Lin-yan

    2006-01-01

    We studied the comorbid behavioural and mood problems in children with non-psychiatric Tourette's syndrome (TS) and their relationship with severity of tic disorder. Sixty-nine TS children and 69 healthy controls were assessed by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). The relationships between behavioural problems and severity of tic symptoms were analysed statistically by comparison, correlation and multiple linear regression. Tourette's syndrome patients scored significantly lower (ptic symptoms is positively correlated with the severity of overall impairment in school and social competence. When the behavioural and mood problems commonly associated with TS were studied in detail, we found that delinquent behaviour, thought problems, attention problems, aggressive behaviour and externalizing are positively correlated with severity of tic symptoms. The findings indicated that children with TS-only also had a broad range of behavioural problems, and some of these were related to the severity of tic symptoms.

  19. Goats display audience-dependent human-directed gazing behaviour in a problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Brett, Jemma M; McElligott, Alan G

    2016-07-01

    Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an 'unsolvable problem' task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward-facing or an away-facing person. They gazed towards the forward-facing person earlier and for longer and showed more gaze alternations and a lower latency until the first gaze alternation when the person was forward-facing. Our results provide strong evidence for audience-dependent human-directed visual orienting behaviour in a species that was domesticated primarily for production, and show similarities with the referential and intentional communicative behaviour exhibited by domestic companion animals such as dogs and horses. This indicates that domestication has a much broader impact on heterospecific communication than previously believed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. “Junk food” diet and childhood behavioural problems: Results from the ALSPAC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Nicola J; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Lewis, Glyn

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a “junk food” diet at age 4½ is associated with behavioural problems at age 7. Subjects and Methods Data on approximately 4000 children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a birth cohort recruited in Avon, UK in 1991/92, were used. Behavioural problems were measured at age 7 using the Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (maternal completion). Total difficulties and scores for the 5 sub-scales (hyperactivity, conduct & peer problems, emotional symptoms, & prosocial behaviour) were calculated. Principal components analysis of dietary data (frequency of consumption of 57 foods/drinks) collected at age 4½ by maternal report was used to generate a “junk food” factor. Data on confounders were available from questionnaires. Results A one standard deviation increase in “junk food” intake at age 4½ years was associated with increased hyperactivity at age 7 (odds ratio: 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.29)). This persisted after adjustment for confounders including IQ score (odds ratio: 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.15)). There was little evidence to support an association between “junk food” intake and overall behavioural difficulties or other sub-scales of the SDQ. Conclusions Children eating a diet high in “junk food” in early childhood were more likely to be in the top 33% on the SDQ hyperactivity sub-scale at age 7. This may reflect a long-term nutritional imbalance, or differences in parenting style. This finding requires replication before it can provide an avenue for intervention. PMID:18059416

  1. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E.L.; Coelman, F.J.G.; de Boer, F.; Lindauer, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or

  2. 7. Conclusions and reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Nettle, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    But now your eyes sing the sad, sad song,Of how you lived so fast and died so young. Introduction We’ve now finished the data chapters of this book, and some conclusions are in order. In this chapter, I summarise what strike me as the main things we have learned, and suggest what their implications might be. I then devote a more extended discussion to the issue of causes of patterns of social behaviour, and how our data might bear on it. From this follows a brief consideration of what kinds o...

  3. Dealing with Emotional Problems Using Rational-Emotive Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: A Client's Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2012-01-01

    Dealing with Emotional Problems offers clear, practical advice on how to deal with some of the most common emotional difficulties.\\ud \\ud Rational-Emotive Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (RECBT) is a technique that encourages a direct focus on emotional problems, helping you to understand the thoughts, beliefs and behaviours that cause you to maintain these problems. This understanding will enable you to overcome problems and lead a happier and more fulfilling life.\\ud \\ud The book begins by outl...

  4. The Impact of Behaviour Problems on Caregiver Stress in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, L.; Leone, S.; Wiltz, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of caregiver stress in a large sample of young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Two main objectives were to: (1) disentangle the effects of behaviour problems and level of functioning on caregiver stress; and (2) measure the stability of behaviour problems and…

  5. The association of behavioural and emotional problems with tobacco use in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is a highly addictive behaviour, often initiated during adolescence. It is suggested that smoking is associated with behavioural and emotional problems. This study aims to assess the impact of psychosocial problems on smoking initiation and vice versa. Method: We obtained data on

  6. Gender differences in the association between pre-adolescent smoking initiation and emotional or behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, G.; Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotional and behavioural problems are a risk factor for the initiation of smoking. In this study, we aimed to assess this relationship beyond clinical cut-off values of problem behaviour. Methods: Cross-sectional national survey among 9-13 year old children with data on smoking and

  7. Problem Behaviour and Psychosocial Functioning in Young Children with Williams Syndrome: Parent and Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Tasman, B. P.; Lee, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is sparse literature about problem behaviour in young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and little consideration of the perspectives of multiple respondents. Methods: Problem behaviour of 35 children with WS ages 2 to 6 was examined based on both parent and teacher report using the Achenbach preschool forms. Results: The most…

  8. Predicting Change in Emotional and Behavioural Problems during Inpatient Treatment in Clients with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneij, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about client characteristics that are related to outcome during inpatient treatment of adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) and severe behavioural problems. Method: We explored variables that were related to a change in behavioural problems in 87 individuals with mild ID during inpatient treatment in facilities…

  9. On the Relationships between (Relatively) Advanced Mathematical Knowledge and (Relatively) Advanced Problem-Solving Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…

  10. The Child Behaviour Assessment Instrument: development and validation of a measure to screen for externalising child behavioural problems in community setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera Hemamali

    2010-06-01

    .75-0.87. The Cronbach's alpha exceeded Nunnaly's criterion of 0.7 for items related to inattention, aggression and impaired social interaction. Conclusions Preliminary data obtained from the study indicate that the Child Behaviour Assessment Instrument is a valid and reliable screening instrument for early identification of young children at risk of behavioural problems in the community setting.

  11. Systematic review of beliefs, behaviours and influencing factors associated with disclosure of a mental health problem in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brohan Elaine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination present an important barrier to finding and keeping work for individuals with a mental health problem. This paper reviews evidence on: 1 employment-related disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem; 2 factors associated with the disclosure of a mental health problem in the employment setting; 3 whether employers are less likely to hire applicants who disclose a mental health problem; and 4 factors influencing employers' hiring beliefs and behaviours towards job applicants with a mental health problem. Methods A systematic review was conducted for the period 1990-2010, using eight bibliographic databases. Meta-ethnography was used to provide a thematic understanding of the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of individuals with mental health problem. Results The searches yielded 8,971 items which was systematically reduced to 48 included studies. Sixteen qualitative, one mixed methods and seven quantitative studies were located containing evidence on the disclosure beliefs and behaviours of people with a mental health problem, and the factors associated with these beliefs and behaviours. In the meta-ethnography four super-ordinate themes were generated: 1 expectations and experiences of discrimination; 2 other reasons for non-disclosure; 3 reasons for disclosure; and 4 disclosure dimensions. Two qualitative, one mixed methods and 22 quantitative studies provided data to address the remaining two questions on the employers perspective. Conclusions By presenting evidence from the perspective of individuals on both sides of the employment interaction, this review provides integrated perspective on the impact of disclosure of a mental health problem on employment outcomes.

  12. Applications of behavioural research on spatial problems I: cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golledge, R.G.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In this, the first of a two-part sequence, we have first discussed some critical features of early behavioural research in geography, then traced developments following from this early research to the current period. We emphasized the early applied nature of much of this research. We have also shown

  13. Behaviour planning and problem solving deficiencies in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the ...

  14. Ethnic differences in problem perception and perceived need as determinants of referral in young children with problem behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevaart, F.; Mieloo, C.L.; Donker, M.C.H.; Jansen, W.; Raat, H.; Verhulst, F.C.; van Oort, F.V.A.

    2014-01-01

    An underrepresentation of ethnic minority children in mental health care settings is consistently reported. Parents of ethnic minority children are, however, less likely to perceive problem behaviour in their children. Our hypothesis was that, as a result of ethnic differences in problem perception,

  15. Cognitive shifting and externalising problem behaviour in intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, E M; Berger, H J C; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-De Valk, H M J; Prins, J B; Teunisse, J P

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural problems are frequently reported in residential care for people with an intellectual disability (ID) in particular when they are additionally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are indications that impairment in cognitive shifting may be associated with problem behaviour. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the relationship of cognitive shifting and severity of ASD symptoms with externalising problem behaviour in individuals with ID, with and without ASD, and (2) to examine whether a diagnosis based on shifting impairment is more predictive of externalising problem behaviour than an ASD diagnosis. Participants consisted of adolescents and young adults with mild ID, with and without ASD (n = 41). Pearson intercorrelations were computed to explore the relationship between shifting impairment and severity of ASD symptoms on the one hand and ratings of externalising problem behaviour on the other hand. t-Tests were performed to analyse differences in externalising problem behaviour. Unlike ASD symptom severity, shifting scores were found to be associated with externalising problem behaviour, but only if shifting was measured using rating scales and not when using neuropsychological tasks. Externalising problem behaviour scores significantly differed when groups were classified according to shifting impairment (impaired vs. non-impaired) but not when they were classified according to ID and ASD diagnoses. It is proposed to use a cognition-based approach when analysing problem behaviour, thus concentrating not so much on ID and ASD diagnosis and their corresponding symptoms, but rather placing the focus on cognitive symptoms. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Problem Gambling Associated with Violent and Criminal Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Plauborg, Rikke; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the number of criminal charges among problem gamblers (N = 384) and non-problem gamblers including non-gamblers (N = 18,241) and examines whether problem gambling is more strongly associated with income-generating crimes like theft, fraud and forgery than other types of crimes...

  17. Emotional and behavioural problems in children with language impairments and children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E; Lindsay, Geoff; Palikara, Olympia

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well-established that children with language impairment (LI) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both show elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, the level and types of difficulties across the two groups have not previously been directly compared. To compare levels of emotional and behavioural problems in children with LI and children with ASD recruited from the same mainstream schools. We measured teacher-reported emotional and behavioural problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a sample of 5-13-year-old children with LI (N = 62) and children with ASD (N = 42) attending mainstream school but with identified special educational needs. Both groups showed similarly elevated levels of emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems. The only differences between the LI and ASD groups were on subscales assessing peer problems (which were higher in the ASD group) and prosocial behaviours (which were higher in the LI group). Overall, there were few associations between emotional and behavioural problems and child characteristics, reflecting the pervasive nature of these difficulties in children with LI and children with ASD, although levels of problems were higher in children with ASD with lower language ability. However, in the ASD group only, a measure of family social economic status was associated with language ability and attenuated the association between language ability and emotional and behavioural problems. Children with LI and children with ASD in mainstream school show similarly elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, which require monitoring and may benefit from intervention. Further work is required to identify the child, family and situational factors that place children with LI and children with ASD at risk of emotional and behavioural problems, and whether these differ between the two groups. This work can then guide the application of evidence-based interventions to

  18. Neighbourhood and own social housing and early problem behaviour trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Tzatzaki, Konstantina

    2015-02-01

    To explore the roles of proportion of social rented housing in the neighbourhood ('neighbourhood social housing'), own housing being socially rented, and their interaction in early trajectories of emotional, conduct and hyperactivity symptoms. We tested three pathways of effects: family stress and maternal psychological distress, low quality parenting practices, and peer problems. We used data from 9,850 Millennium Cohort Study families who lived in England when the cohort children were aged 3. Children's emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems were measured at ages 3, 5 and 7. Even after accounting for own social housing, neighbourhood social housing was related to all problems and their trajectories. Its association with conduct problems and hyperactivity was explained by selection. Selection also explained the effect of the interaction between neighbourhood and own social housing on hyperactivity, but not why children of social renter families living in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of social housing followed a rising trajectory of emotional problems. The effects of own social housing, neighbourhood social housing and their interaction on emotional problems were robust. Peer problems explained the association of own social housing with hyperactivity. Neither selection nor the pathways we tested explained the association of own social housing with conduct problems, the association of neighbourhood social housing with their growth, or the association of neighbourhood social housing, own social housing and their interaction with emotional problems. Children of social renter families in neighbourhoods with a low concentration of social renters are particularly vulnerable to emotional problems.

  19. Importance of fish behaviour in modelling conservation problems: food limitation as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Railsback; Bret Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Simulation experiments using the inSTREAM individual-based brown trout Salmo trutta population model explored the role of individual adaptive behaviour in food limitation, as an example of how behaviour can affect managers’ understanding of conservation problems. The model includes many natural complexities in habitat (spatial and temporal variation in characteristics...

  20. Problem Behaviours of Kindergartners: The Affects of Children's Cognitive Ability, Creativity, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sung-Ae; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, HyunJin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affects of cognitive ability, creativity, and self-esteem on kindergartners' problem behaviour. Participants were 203 children (mean age = 65.8 months) attending kindergartens in Korea. Data collection used the Korean version of Child Behaviour Checklist, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Torrance Test of…

  1. Negative Peer Influence in Special Needs Classes--A Risk for Students with Problem Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Christoph Michael

    2010-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive and delinquent behaviours are often educated in special needs classes with others who exhibit the same kind of challenging behaviour. Beside the opportunities provided by this approach there are also risks, as several studies point to the problem of negative peer influence among this student population.…

  2. The effect of Dry Bed Training on behavioural problems in enuretic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hira Sing, R.A.; van Leerdam, F.J.M.; Bolk-Bennink, L.F.; Koot, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Children with nocturnal enuresis (n = 91) selected by school doctors in the Netherlands from 1991 to 1994 were included in a study to assess the course of behavioural problems especially when the children became dry after the Dry Bed Training (DBT) programme. The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL)

  3. The Problem of Bullying in Schools and the Promise of Positive Behaviour Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Roger; Chitiyo, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Bullying in schools is recognised as a global problem. In the USA, school shootings and increasing school aggression focused research on the causes of bullying and interventions that could reduce or eliminate bullying behaviours. A variety of bullying programs have generated mixed results with some actually increasing bullying behaviours. There…

  4. Controlled Study of the Impact on Child Behaviour Problems of Intensive Interaction for Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Abi; Reed, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Pupils with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) received 6 months of intensive interaction or treatment as usual. They were assessed for behaviour problems at the start and end of the period, and changes were related to child and parent factors. Intensive interaction did not offer any greater advantages to child behaviour than treatment as usual.…

  5. Yoga--A Boon to the Adjustment Problems and Behavioural Disorders of Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilselvi, B.; Mala, V.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence period is the most important stage of a human being and it is the stage between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence is a time of storm and stress. They cannot adjust to their new role in life. They can have mental, emotional, adjustment, and behavioural problems known as "disorders". Behavioural patterns that emerge in…

  6. Links between Sleep and Daytime Behaviour Problems in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, A. J.; Hoffman, E. K.; Beebe, D. W.; Byars, K. C.; Epstein, J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In the general population, sleep problems have an impact on daytime performance. Despite sleep problems being common among children with Down syndrome, the impact of sleep problems on daytime behaviours in school-age children with Down syndrome is an understudied topic. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and…

  7. Socio-Cultural Problems and Maladaptive Behaviours of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    Nigeria is a multinational country that is bedeviled with varying problems of development ... emotional adjustment, loneliness, depression, financial constraints, examination ..... of helpfor tertiary institution students: Implications for counselling.

  8. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-09-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study. Child emotional and behaviour problems and parental worries about the child were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist at both time points. Parents' level of acute subjective distress was assessed within the first month after the burn event with the Impact of Event Scale. Mothers and fathers held comparable views of their child's emotional and behaviour problems, which were generally within the normal limits. Parents' own acute stress reactions were significantly related to parent-rated child behaviour problems at 3 and 12 months postburn. A substantial part of mothers' and fathers' worries about the child concerned physical and emotional aspects of the burn trauma, and potential future social problems. Parents with high acute stress scores more often reported burn-related concerns about their child at 3 and 12 months postburn. Health-care professionals should be informed that parents' distress in the subacute phase of their child's burn event may be related to subsequent worries about their child and to (parent-observed) child emotional and behaviour problems. The authors recommend a family perspective, with particular attention for the interplay between parents' distress and parent-reported child behaviour problems and worries, in each phase of paediatric burn care.

  9. The association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and D2 with behavioural problems in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maija Tolppanen

    Full Text Available Higher serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, an indicator of vitamin D synthesis and intake, have been associated with better mental health and cognitive function. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 (the active vitamin D(3 metabolite have been associated with openness and extrovert behaviour, but 25(OHD concentrations have not been associated with behavioural problems in humans.We investigated the prospective association between the different forms of 25(OHD - 25(OHD(3 and 25(OHD(2- and childhood behavioural problems in Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Serum 25(OHD(3 and 25(OHD(2 concentrations were assessed at mean age 9.9 years. Incident behavioural problems were assessed with Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity-inattention problems, peer relationship problems and pro-social behaviour subscales and total difficulties score at mean age 11.7. Sample sizes varied between 2413-2666 depending on the outcome.Higher 25(OHD(3 concentrations were weakly associated with lower risk of prosocial problems (fully adjusted odds ratio: OR (95% confidence interval: CI 0.85 (0.74, 0.98. Serum 25(OHD(3 or 25(OHD(2 concentrations were not associated with other subscales of SDQ or total difficulties score after adjusting for concfounders and other measured analytes related to vitamin D.Our findings do not support the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in childhood has important influences on behavioural traits in humans.

  10. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The FAO/IAEA/GSF/SIDA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Cereal Grain Protein Improvement by Nuclear Techniques was a follow-up to the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Seed Protein Improvement. It was initiated in 1969 and ended in 1981. The objectives of the meeting were to review and evaluate the achievements of the current and previous programmes in order to draw conclusions on the possibility of genetic improvement of cereal grain protein using nuclear techniques, to identify unsolved problems and to discuss and propose possible approaches for their solution. Through reviews and discussions, conclusions and recommendations were made by the participants

  11. Caring for children with learning disabilities who present problem behaviours: a maternal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert F; O'Reilly, Michelle; Vostanis, Panos

    2006-09-01

    The theoretical cognitive model of stress and coping provides a structure to obtain and analyse maternal perceptions of caring for children with learning disabilities who present severe problem behaviours. The Family Fund database identified 18 families who met the sample criteria of children aged five years to 15 years with severe to moderate learning disability presenting severe problem behaviour. Physical aggression was reported to be the primary behavioural problem for 13 of the children. Interviews undertaken with the main carer of the child at their home were taped and transcribed. The data were analysed using grounded theory techniques which identified 'secondary stressors' for the parent. These were social isolation, conflict, limitation of lifestyle and self-blame. It is proposed that the amalgamated impact of these can weaken parents' coping resources and, therefore, may prove to be as significant to the negative association with maternal wellbeing as the problem behaviour.

  12. Household Food Insecurity and Children's Behaviour Problems: New Evidence from a Trajectories-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between household food insecurity (insufficient access to adequate and nutritious food) and trajectories of externalising and internalising behaviour problems in children from kindergarten to fifth grade using longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative study in the USA. Household food insecurity was assessed using the eighteen-item standard food security scale, and children's behaviour problems were reported by teachers. Latent growth curve analysis was conducted on 7,348 children in the ECLS-K, separately for boys and girls. Following adjustment for an extensive array of confounding variables, results suggest that food insecurity generally was not associated with developmental change in children's behaviour problems. The impact of food insecurity on behaviour problems may be episodic or interact with certain developmental stages. PMID:27559210

  13. Tasks and skills in youth with problem behaviour. Development of a questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Knaap, L.; Schulze, H.; Slot, N.W.; Feij, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Although in treating adolescents with problem behaviour emphasis is placed on teaching skills of immediate relevance to everyday prosocial functioning, instruments for assessing these skills have been lacking. This article describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument that

  14. Alcohol-Related Problems And High Risk Sexual Behaviour In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.

  15. Parent-child interaction therapy for preschool children with disruptive behaviour problems in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E; Junger, Marianne; Chavannes, E Lidewei; Coelman, Frederique J G; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2012-06-13

    Persistent high levels of aggressive, oppositional and impulsive behaviours, in the early lives of children, are significant risk factors for adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour and criminal activity. If the disruptive behavioural problems of young children could be prevented or significantly reduced at an early age, the trajectory of these behavioural problems leading to adolescent delinquency and adult antisocial behaviour could be corrected. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a short-term, evidence-based, training intervention for parents dealing with preschool children, who exhibit behavioural problems. Recently, PCIT was implemented in a Dutch community mental health setting. This present study aims to examine the short-term effects of PCIT on reducing the frequency of disruptive behaviour in young children. This study is based on the data of 37 referred families. Whereby the results of which are derived from an analysis of parent reports of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI), obtained during each therapeutic session. Furthermore, demographic information, extracted from client files, was also utilized. However, it must be noted that eleven families (27.5%) dropped out of treatment before the treatment protocol was completed. To investigate the development of disruptive behaviour, a non-clinical comparison group was recruited from primary schools (N = 59). The results of this study indicate that PCIT significantly reduces disruptive behaviour in children. Large effect sizes were found for both fathers and mothers reported problems (d = 1.88, d = 1.99, respectively), which is similar to American outcome studies. At post treatment, no differences were found concerning the frequency of behavioural problems of children who completed treatment and those who participated in the non-clinical comparison group. The findings of this study suggest that PCIT is potentially an effective intervention strategy for young children and their

  16. The relationship between self-esteem and problem behaviour, social and academic competence

    OpenAIRE

    Theie, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between low self-esteem and problem behaviour, social competence and academic achievement among students in lower secondary schools in Norway. 2164 students in 11 lower secondary schools filled in a self-evaluation scale on self-esteem (Harter 1999). Teachers evaluated the same students using the problem-behaviour-scale, social competence scale and academic achievement scale developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990). Correlations were computed between each f...

  17. A New Plant Intelligent Behaviour Optimisation Algorithm for Solving Vehicle Routing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Chagwiza, Godfrey

    2018-01-01

    A new plant intelligent behaviour optimisation algorithm is developed. The algorithm is motivated by intelligent behaviour of plants and is implemented to solve benchmark vehicle routing problems of all sizes, and results were compared to those in literature. The results show that the new algorithm outperforms most of algorithms it was compared to for very large and large vehicle routing problem instances. This is attributed to the ability of the plant to use previously stored memory to respo...

  18. Transvestism in a person with learning disabilities presenting with behavioural problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P R; DeAlwis, K

    1995-10-01

    A case of transvestism is reported in a 47-year-old man with learning disabilities. He had developed encephalitis in childhood, which had resulted in moderate learning disabilities and epilepsy, and had been living in institutions from the age of six. He did not have any chance to express his sexual desire and this frustration manifested as aggressive behaviour. Recently, he moved to a community home and his deviant sexual behaviour became apparent. Management of his problems involves organizing a behavioural programme linking his cross dressing with aggressive behaviour.

  19. Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of Tools Used to Measure Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Robalino, Shannon; Terwee, Caroline B.; Glod, Magdalena; Oono, Inalegwu P.; Rodgers, Jacqui; Macdonald, Geraldine; McConachie, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Behaviour problems are common in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are many different tools used to measure behavior problems but little is known about their validity for the population. Objectives To evaluate the measurement properties of behaviour problems tools used in evaluation of intervention or observational research studies with children with ASD up to the age of six years. Methods Behaviour measurement tools were identified as part of a larger, two stage, systematic review. First, sixteen major electronic databases, as well as grey literature and research registers were searched, and tools used listed and categorized. Second, using methodological filters, we searched for articles examining the measurement properties of the tools in use with young children with ASD in ERIC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The quality of these papers was then evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Results We identified twelve tools which had been used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD, and fifteen studies which investigated the measurement properties of six of these tools. There was no evidence available for the remaining six tools. Two questionnaires were found to be the most robust in their measurement properties, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Home Situations Questionnaire—Pervasive Developmental Disorders version. Conclusions We found patchy evidence on reliability and validity, for only a few of the tools used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD. More systematic research is required on measurement properties of tools for use in this population, in particular to establish responsiveness to change which is essential in measurement of outcomes of intervention. PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42012002223 PMID:26659821

  20. Behavioural problems and autism in children with hydrocephalus : a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Barbro; Carlsson, Göran; Persson, Eva-Karin; Uvebrant, Paul

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence of behavioural problems and autism in a population-based group of children with hydrocephalus and to see whether learning disabilities, cerebral palsy (CP), epilepsy, myelomeningocele (MMC) or preterm birth increase the risk of these problems. In the 107 children with hydrocephalus born in western Sweden in 1989-1993, behaviour was assessed using the Conners' parent rating scales in 66 and the teacher's rating scales in 57. Autism was investigated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Parents rated 67% of the children and teachers 39% of the children as having behavioural problems (>1.5 SD, or T score >65). Learning disabilities increased the risk significantly and almost all the children with CP and/or epilepsy had behavioural problems. Autism was present in nine children (13%), in 20% of those without MMC and in one of 26 with MMC. Autism was significantly more frequent in children with learning disabilities (27% vs. 7%) and in children with CP and/or epilepsy (33% vs. 6%). The majority of children with hydrocephalus have behavioural problems and many have autism. It is therefore important to assess and understand all the aspects of cognition and behaviour in these children in order to minimise disability and enhance participation for the child.

  1. Electronic Interests and Behaviours Associated with Gambling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Multiple computing devices continue to develop capabilities that support online gambling, resulting in the need to evaluate the extent that this trend will contribute to gambling problems. A sample of 1,141 participants completed an online survey assessing interest in and difficulties limiting use of digital services. Questionnaire items measured…

  2. Contextual risk, maternal parenting and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems: the role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A; Flouri, Eirini

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test if emotion regulation mediates the association between mothers' parenting and adolescents' externalizing behaviour problems (conduct problems and hyperactivity). The parenting dimensions were warmth, psychological control and behavioural control (measured with knowledge, monitoring and discipline). Adjustment was made for contextual risk (measured with the number of proximal adverse life events experienced), gender, age and English as an additional language. Data were from a UK community sample of adolescents aged 11-18 from a comprehensive school in a disadvantaged area. At the multivariate level, none of the parenting variables predicted hyperactivity, which was associated only with difficulties in emotion regulation, contextual risk and English as a first language. The parenting variables predicting conduct problems at the multivariate level were warmth and knowledge. Knowledge did not predict emotion regulation. However, warmth predicted emotion regulation, which was negatively associated with conduct problems. Contextual risk was a significant predictor of both difficulties in emotion regulation and externalizing behaviour problems. Its effect on conduct problems was independent of parenting and was not via its association with difficulties in emotion regulation. The findings add to the evidence for the importance of maternal warmth and contextual risk for both regulated emotion and regulated behaviour. The small maternal control effects on both emotion regulation and externalizing behaviour could suggest the importance of paternal control for adolescent outcomes.

  3. Health Problems and Health Care Seeking Behaviour of Rohingya Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Masud, Abdullah Al; Ahmed, Md. Shahoriar; Sultana, Mst. Rebeka; Alam, S. M. Iftekhar; Kabir, Russell; Arafat, S. M. Yasir; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rohingya refugees are one of the most vulnerable group due to lack of health care system, personal hygiene, shelter, sanitation and violence. Aim: The present study aims to find out the health problems and health care seeking behavior of rohingya refugee peoples, to identify the socio-demographic information for such exposure group in relation to age, sex, occupation, living areas, to explore the patient's physical, emotional, perceptions, attitudes and environmen...

  4. Links between sleep and daytime behaviour problems in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, A J; Hoffman, E K; Beebe, D W; Byars, K C; Epstein, J

    2018-02-01

    In the general population, sleep problems have an impact on daytime performance. Despite sleep problems being common among children with Down syndrome, the impact of sleep problems on daytime behaviours in school-age children with Down syndrome is an understudied topic. Our study examined the relationship between parent-reported and actigraphy-measured sleep duration and sleep quality with parent and teacher reports of daytime behaviour problems among school-age children with Down syndrome. Thirty school-age children with Down syndrome wore an actigraph watch for a week at home at night. Their parent completed ratings of the child's sleep during that same week. Their parent and teacher completed a battery of measures to assess daytime behaviour. Parent reports of restless sleep behaviours on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, but not actigraph-measured sleep efficiency, was predictive of parent and teacher behavioural concerns on the Nisonger Child Behaviour Rating Form and the Vanderbilt ADHD Rating Scales. Actigraph-measured sleep period and parent-reported sleep duration on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was predictive of daytime parent-reported inattention. Actigraph-measured sleep period was predictive of parent-reported hyperactivity/impulsivity. The study findings suggest that sleep problems have complex relationships to both parent-reported and teacher-reported daytime behaviour concerns in children with Down syndrome. These findings have implications for understanding the factors impacting behavioural concerns and their treatment in school-age children with Down syndrome. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The cross-lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E; Narayanan, M K; Midouhas, E

    2015-11-01

    Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross-lagged relationship between father absence (non-residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2-4). The sample was 15,293 families in which both biological parents were co-resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut-offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut-off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross-lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrette, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents conclusions and recommendations at the closing session of the NEA/OECD Workshop held at Fontenay-aux-Roses on 12-14 June 1995. The conclusions refer to issues like: public reaction to foodstuffs containing radioisotope concentrations under the danger standards, possible non-adherence of manufacturers, processors, distributors, et al, to the instructions and guidance from radiation protection specialists, integration of all the food chain factors in the elaboration of the emergency intervention programs, etc. Among the most significant recommendations the following may be mentioned: 1. Differences between different intervention levels and the maximum admissible levels agreed upon by national, regional or international nutrition authorities should be further studied; 2. Problems created by the Chernobyl accident (as for instance, the methods of treatment of food chain products containing unacceptable radioactivity concentrations) are still present and must be solved; 3. Further studies should be done on the socio-cultural aspects of the communication, particularly on the information in rural environment; 4. The preventive measures in agriculture should be implemented as rapidly as possible; 5. In elaborating programmes of agriculture countermeasures, the management of contaminated media, particularly, of forests and their effect on agriculture

  7. Emotional and behavioural problems in Swedish 7- to 9-year olds with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberg, K; Broberg, A G

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare emotional and behavioural problems between preadolescent children with asthma and healthy children, and to explore if disease factors relate to problem scores. This was a cross-sectional study of 59 children, 34 boys and 25 girls, aged 7-9 years with mild (n = 11), moderate (n = 38) or severe (n = 10) asthma. A normative sample of 306 children in the same age range, 150 boys and 156 girls, was used as a comparison group. Parents assessed emotional and behavioural problems using the Child Behaviour Checklist. Peak expiratory flow rate and urinary eosinophil protein X were used as measures of lung function and inflammation. Children were interviewed about activity restriction and symptoms during the last week using the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. Parents scored day, night and exercise-induced symptoms during the same week. On average, children with asthma were attributed more problems than healthy children of the same age and comparable family socio-economic status. Effect sizes were 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.52-1.09) for total problems, 0.89 (0.60-1.18) for internalizing problems and 0.67 (0.38-0.95) for externalizing problems. The relative risk for children with asthma exceeding the 95% cut-offpoint for total problems was 4.2 (2.1-8.3) compared to healthy children. Children with parent-reported exercise-induced asthma symptoms were attributed more total problems than asthmatic children without such symptoms. Parent-reported day symptoms and child report of symptoms and restricted activities related with problem scores to a lesser degree. Objective measures of lung function and inflammation were not related to problem scores. Concurrent eczema increased problem scores. It is concluded that asthma in preadolescent children is associated with emotional and behavioural problems. Special attention should be paid to children reported to have exercise-induced symptoms.

  8. Reduced heart rate variability in pet dogs affected by anxiety-related behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Dennis; Lawrence, Andrew J; Carter, Gabrielle; Fisher, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    We present here the first evidence of correlation between canine anxiety-related behavioural problems and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is known to be related to a range of mental disorders in humans; however this has not been explored in dogs. Behavioural problems in dogs can result in suffering, property destruction and human injury. Dog behaviour problems were assessed by owner questionnaire and the extreme high and low scoring dogs were recruited into either affected (n=10) or unaffected (n=20) groups. HRV was assessed in dogs at their homes, while being held in lateral recumbency for 5min using manual restraint. Salivary cortisol samples were taken before and after HRV testing. Dogs were assessed as either being reactive to the procedure (barking, growling, struggling or shaking) or unreactive. There was no effect of reactivity or behaviour problems on salivary cortisol levels at baseline or in response to the treatment. There was a significant effect of reactivity on HR (F 1,26 =5.54; P=0.026), and no effect of behaviour problems (F 1,26 =1.07; P=0.311). There was no effect of reactivity on any of the HRV measures. The presence of behaviour problems had a significant effect on a range of measures of HRV, with unaffected dogs having higher standard deviation of RR intervals (F 1,26 =6.39; P=0.018), higher high frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =5.23; P=0.031) and higher low frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =9.25; P=0.005) power. There was no effect of behaviour problems on very low frequency spectrum power (F 1,26 =1.40; P=0.248). Together these results provide evidence for a fundamental physiological difference between dogs affected or unaffected with behaviour problems. This study provides evidence for further investigation into the role of HRV in the pathophysiology of canine anxiety-related behaviour problems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. International note: parenting, academic achievement and problem behaviour among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Walker, Richard; Armstrong, Derrick

    2014-06-01

    In light of differing findings regarding the relations between parenting and adolescent academic/behavioural outcomes and the dearth of such research in a Chinese context, we conducted research to examine the relationship between parental supervision/attachment and academic achievement/problem behaviour among mainland Chinese adolescents. In the study, 636 Grade 11 students completed a questionnaire comprising parenting and problem behaviour variables complemented by academic achievement (GPA) data drawn from school records. The study found that the relations between parenting (parental supervision and attachment) and Chinese adolescents' academic and behavioural outcomes are very weak. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between temperament, gender, and behavioural problems in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Yoleri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between gender and the temperamental characteristics of children between the ages of five and six, as well as to assess their behavioural problems. The sample included 128 children selected by simple random sampling from 5-6 year old children, receiving preschool education in the city centre of Izmir province in Turkey. Of the children, 65 were girls (50.8% and 63 (49.2% were boys. The data collection instruments were the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales and the Short Temperament Scale for Children, respectively. The results of this study reveal that there is no significiant difference between gender and the child temperament subscales of approach/withdrawal; persistence and rhythmicity; and a child's behavioural problems, respectively. However, the gender of the children was found to be significantly related to the reactivity sub-dimension of their temperament (p < 0.05. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the temperament subscale of reactivity and externalising problems subscale of behavioural problems (p < 0.05. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between the persistence temperament dimension and the behavioural problem dimension of self-centredness (p < 0.05. In the opinion of the researcher, it is important to know the children's personality features, monitor their behaviour, and take respective measures when necessary. These research results contributed positively to this end.

  11. Impact of the parenting style of foster parents on the behaviour problems of foster children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M J; Salas, M D; Bernedo, I M; García-Martín, M A

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have analysed the effects of the parenting style used by foster carers on children's behaviour problems. This study examines the role played by the quality of the emotional relationship with foster carers and the kind of discipline they use as regard internalizing and externalizing problems among foster children. Participants were 104 foster children (56 boys and 48 girls) and their respective foster families. The Child Behaviour Checklist, the Affect and Communication Scale, and the Rules and Demands Scale were completed by foster parents. A series of linear regression analyses were performed using the stepwise method. The main findings were as follows: an authoritarian parenting style explained the internalizing problems presented by foster children (11% of the variance); criticism/rejection, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting explained externalizing problems (37% of the variance); and criticism/rejection and authoritarian parenting explained total problems (29% of the variance). These results indicate that criticism/rejection on the part of foster parents, as well as the use of inappropriate parenting styles (authoritarian and permissive), has an important effect in relation to the behaviour problems of foster children. This highlights the key role that foster carers play in terms of tackling the behaviour problems that foster children present. The findings also suggest that preparation for fostering should focus especially on ways of helping foster parents both to acquire positive parenting strategies and to avoid authoritarian and permissive parenting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Do maternal attributions play a role in the acceptability of behavioural interventions for problem behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yee Ki Kathy; Kovshoff, H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between parental attributions and treatment acceptability of behavioural interventions for problem behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mothers of children with ASD aged 3–9 years (N = 139) completed survey measures that assessed demographics, parental attributions, treatment acceptability of parent-focused and child-focused behavioural interventions, severity of their child's disruptive behaviour, and severity of their child'...

  13. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Schuengel, C.; Voorman, J.; Stolk, J.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeer, A; Becher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. Methods. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence and a new scale for perceived motor competence were used in a sample of 80 children with CP. Their motor functioning was assessed with the Gross Motor Functioning Measure (GMFM) and behaviour probl...

  14. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonça, Denisa

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child’s adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal, multi-informant study was conducted. The sample consisted of 519 school-aged children from the Portuguese general population. Parental rearing styles w...

  15. [Investigation of the frequency of alcohol related problems in Józsefváros, Budapest. Data and conclusions of three surveys conducted among doctors and outpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2012-08-12

    The role of permanent alcohol consumption in the development of diseases is well-known. To study the occurrence of alcohol related problems among patients of a municipal pulmonology out-patient clinic as well as in the family practice of three physicians. In addition, a survey was performed among physicians of a municipal health service and also among family practitioners working in the same district by investigating health problems, habits and professional careers of physicians, and their addictive problems, their attitude toward addict patients and their opinion upon chemical dependency. CAGE-test was used to examine the presence of alcohol problem and a questionnaire was constructed for the study undertaken among physicians. The response rate was 60.18% and 32.98% among patients who visited the pulmonology out-patient clinic and their family physician, respectively. Among those who responded to the test, as many as 6.02% and 4.82% of the cases would need a further medical examination to make clear whether alcohol related health problem was present or not, whilst 9.77% and 11.67% of the patients proved to be alcohol dependent, respectively. The response rate in the survey among physicians was 41.28%. As stated, physicians not only screen the patients for alcohol and drug dependence, but also refer them to a specialist. The general experience seems to oppose this statement. The majority of health professionals considered chemical dependence as a chronic disease, whereas a kind of moral judgment of the problem was also seen, particularly among family physicians. If they had the opportunity to choose whom to treat: an alcoholic or a drug dependent patient, the majority of them would treat patients brought under the first category. The CAGE test revealed alcohol problem in three family physicians, but none in specialists. Nearly all physicians consumed coffee, but the majority of them were non-smokers. As the risk for committing suicide is higher among physicians

  16. [School absenteeism in Germany: prevalence of excused and unexcused absenteeism and its correlation with emotional and behavioural problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Christoph; Fischer, Gloria; Jentzsch, Anika; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Data about the prevalence of school absenteeism and its correlation with emotional and behavioural problems in Germany is scarce, in particular regarding excused absenteeism. This study aims to close the gap by examining a sample of 2,679 pupils attending the different types of secondary school (Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium), who participated in a clinical trial for the prevention of truancy (WE-STAY-Project). Pupils' mean age was 14 years (M = 13.94, SD = 0.85, Range = 11-19) and gender distribution was balanced (49.35% males, 50.65% females). Using a self-report questionnaire, pupils where asked on how many days they had missed school on average per month during the last school year (excused and unexcused). Emotional and behavioural problems were measured by using the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ). 4.1% of the pupils reported to have missed school without a valid excuse on more than four days per month (unexcused absenteeism). 6.1% had missed school having an excuse on more than ten days per month (excused absenteeism). Both, unexcused and excused absenteeism, showed an increase of emotional and behavioural problems dependent on the intensity of absenteeism. In conclusion, these findings show the relevance of school absenteeism in Germany. In the future, more attention should be given to pupils with also excused absenteeism.

  17. Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy predicts psychotic experiences via behaviour problems in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kim S; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jakob M; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been associated with later schizophrenia in offspring. We explore how prenatal stress and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in childhood associate to increase the risk of later psychotic experiences. Participants from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, pre-birth cohort study were examined for lifetime DSM-IV positive psychotic experiences at 21 years by a semi-structured interview (n = 2227). Structural equation modelling suggested psychotic experiences were best represented with a bifactor model including a general psychosis factor and two group factors. We tested for an association between prenatal stressful life events with the psychotic experiences, and examined for potential moderation and mediation by behaviour problems and cognitive ability in childhood. Prenatal stressful life events predicted psychotic experiences indirectly via behaviour problems at child age five years, and this relationship was not confounded by maternal stressful life events at child age five. We found no statistical evidence for an interaction between prenatal stressful life events and behaviour problems or cognitive ability. The measurable effect of prenatal stressful life events on later psychotic experiences in offspring manifested as behaviour problems by age 5. By identifying early abnormal behavioural development as an intermediary, this finding further confirms the role of prenatal stress to later psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioural problems in children who weigh 1000 g or less at birth in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, E T; den Ouden, A L; Saigal, S; Wolke, D; Lambert, M; Whitaker, A; Pinto-Martin, J A; Hoult, L; Meyer, R; Feldman, J F; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P; Paneth, N

    2001-05-26

    The increased survival chances of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants (weighing cultural comparisons are lacking. Our aim was to compare behavioural problems in ELBW children of similar ages from four countries. We prospectively studied 408 ELBW children aged 8-10 years, whose parents completed the child behaviour checklist. The children came from the Netherlands, Germany, Canada, and USA. The checklist provides a total problem score consisting of eight narrow-band scales. Of these, two (aggressive and delinquent behaviour) give a broad-band externalising score, three (anxious, somatic, and withdrawn behaviour) give a broad-band internalising score, and three (social, thought, and attention problems) indicate difficulties fitting neither broad-band dimension. For each cohort we analysed scores in ELBW children and those in normal- birthweight controls (two cohorts) or national normative controls (two cohorts). Across countries, we assessed deviations of the ELBW children from normative or control groups. ELBW children had higher total problem scores than normative or control children, but this increase was only significant in European countries. Narrow-band scores were raised only for the social, thought, and attention difficulty scales, which were 0.5-1.2 SD higher in ELBW children than in others. Except for the increase in internalising scores recorded for one cohort, ELBW children did not differ from normative or control children on internalising or externalising scales. Despite cultural differences, types of behavioural problems seen in ELBW children were very similar in the four countries. This finding suggests that biological mechanisms contribute to behavioural problems of ELBW children.

  19. Parenting stress and child behaviour problems among parents with intellectual disabilities: the buffering role of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelder, M; Hodes, M; Kef, S; Schuengel, C

    2015-07-01

    Parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at risk for high levels of parenting stress. The present study evaluated resources, including parental adaptive functioning, financial resources and access to a support network, as moderators of the association between child behaviour problems and parenting stress. A total of 134 parents with ID and their children (ages 1-7 years) were recruited from 10 Dutch care organisations. Questionnaires were administered to the parents to obtain information on parenting stress in the parent and child domain, financial resources and their support network. Teachers and care workers reported on child behaviour problems and parental adaptive functioning, respectively. Parents experienced more stress with regard to their children than towards their own functioning and situation. Parenting stress was less in parents who were not experiencing financial hardship. Child behaviour problems were associated with high child-related parenting stress, not parent-related parenting stress. Large support networks decreased the association between child behaviour problems and child-related parenting stress. Financial resources did not significantly moderate the association. Parenting stress among parents with ID is focused on problems with the child, especially when little social support is available. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaj, Jason L; McDonald, Sheila W; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-07-01

    Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predictors of resilience in the presence of identified risk factors. A cohort of 706 mothers followed from early pregnancy was surveyed at six to eight years post-partum by a mail-out questionnaire, which included questions on demographics, children's health, development, activities, media and technology, family, friends, community, school life, and mother's health. Although most children do well in middle childhood, of 450 respondents (64% response rate), 29.5% and 25.6% of children were found to have internalising and externalising behaviour problem scores in the lowest quintile on the NSCLY Child Behaviour Scales. Independent predictors for problem behaviours identified through multivariable logistic regression modelling included being male, demographic risk, maternal mental health risk, poor parenting interactions, and low parenting morale. Among children at high risk for behaviour problems, protective factors included high maternal and child self-esteem, good maternal emotional health, adequate social support, good academic performance, and adequate quality parenting time. These findings demonstrate that several individual and social resilience factors can counter the influence of early adversities on the likelihood of developing problem behaviours in middle childhood, thus informing enhanced public health interventions for this understudied life course phase.

  1. Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and weight problems in adolescents in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, F J; Roberts, C; Moore, L; Tudor-Smith, C

    2005-06-01

    We studied the prevalence and stability of overweight and obesity in a cohort of adolescents, and the effects of sedentary behaviour and physical activity on changes in body mass. The study also examined the extent to which physical activity mediated the relationship between sedentary behaviour and body mass. Four-year cohort study. The study was part of the Health Behaviour of School-aged Children Study that took place in Wales between 1994 and 1998. Body height and weight measurements and self-report data on sedentary behaviour, physical activity and psychosocial adjustment were collected from 355 adolescents on two occasions 4 years apart. The mean age of the sample at baseline was 12.30 (SD=6.30) years. Weight conditions (underweight, overweight and obesity) and body mass were moderately stable over the interval. Regression analyses showed that sedentary behaviour at Time 1 predicted body mass at Time 2, while physical activity predicted a change in body mass over time. The influence of sedentary behaviour on body mass was not found to be mediated by physical activity. However, weight problems in Year 7 coincided with getting bullied, bullying others, and feeling left out of things. Obesity was also related to snacking and skipping breakfast. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in early adolescence both influenced body mass in late adolescence. Results indicated that promoting healthy diets and physical activities may have long-term health benefits for young people.

  2. Conclusions and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents general problems of countries Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan-leakage of dangerous matters and industry pollutions, transboundary pollutions of environment, the problems of tailing pits, climate change, public health

  3. National origin and behavioural problems of toddlers: The role of family risk factors and maternal immigration characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Pauline; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan; Jaddoe, Vincent; Hofman, Albert; Oort, Floor; Verhulst, Frank; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn many societies the prevalence of behavioural problems in school-aged children varies by national origin. We examined the association between national origin and behavioural problems in 11/2-year-old children. Data on maternal national origin and the Child Behavior Checklist for toddlers (n = 4943) from a population-based cohort in the Netherlands were used. Children from various non-Dutch backgrounds all had a significantly higher mean behavioural problem score. After adjustmen...

  4. LIFESTYLE AND BEHAVIOUR OF MOSCOW ADOLESCENTS FROM FAMILIES WITH ALCOHOL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Kartoeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite of the spreading of adverse consequences associated with alcohol use in the Russian society, there is only a limited number of complex social and hygienic studies of adolescents from families experiencing alcohol using problems. Patients and methods: Behaviour and lifestyle of 119 adolescents aged 15–17 years from families with problem drinking from Moscow were studied and compared with control group. The methods of research were in-depth interviews and questionnaires. Results: It was shown that adolescents from families with alcohol problems have a number of disadvantages, such as the psychological climate in the family, living conditions, the use of physical punishment in the family. It was shown the higher level of dissatisfaction with housing and living conditions (42,9 and 24,4%; p <0,5, unsatisfactory family climate (26,9% vs 12,6%; p <0,5, physical forms of punishment (26,9% vs 11,8% p <0,5. The frequency of alcohol consumption is significantly higher among adolescents from families with alcohol drinking problems (11,8% vs 0,8%; p <0,05. Teens tend to earlier (before 20 years marriage than their peers in the comparison group (22,7 vs 9,2%; p <0,05. the ideal period for entry into sexual relations before the age of 15 years is accepted by 18,5% of adolescents from main group (5,9% in comparison group; p <0,05.The particular importance is the fact of underdeveloped healthy behavior (low involvement in the educational and health-preserving activities, high frequency of consumption of alcoholic beverages, the earliest being included in the smoking, the beginning of the sexual life before 18 years etc.. Conclusion: Results show the necessity of the early identifying of adolescents from families with alcohol problems and the providing them medical and social support. Special emphasis should be on measures to form a responsible health-preserving behavior between adolescents. Medical and psychosocial care should be

  5. Gender differences in children's problem behaviours in competitive play with friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Rosie; Hart, Martha; Jacobs, Lorna; Hughes, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Disruptive behaviour disorders are much more common in boys than girls (Office of National Statistics, 1999); in contrast, gender differences in normative problem behaviours are poorly understood. To address this issue, 228 6-year-olds (134 boys, 94 girls) were each observed playing a board game with a same-gender friend. Ratings of aggression, disruption, arousal and negativity were used to index problem behaviours. Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the latent factor had the same metric for boys and girls, but a mean that was approximately half a standard deviation higher for boys than girls. In addition, the association between the latent factor and teachers' ratings of total difficulties was significantly stronger for boys than girls.

  6. Behaviour Problems of Cats Reared Individually or in Coexistence with other Animals (Cats, Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmecová N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether behaviour problems in indoor cats depend on the number of cats in a household or rearing one or more cats in a household together with a dog. The study was carried out on animals which were divided for the purpose of this study into 4 groups: (1 households with one cat; (2 households with two cats; (3 households with three or more cats; (4 households with one or more cats and a dog. Altogether 91 cats were included in the study. The practical part of this investigation was based on a questionnaire. It was observed that the probability of behaviour problems was not related unambiguously to the number of cats in a household or the company of a dog. The percentage of the occurrence of changed behaviour did not differ significantly between the groups.

  7. Sleep problems and daytime problem behaviours in children with intellectual disablity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Aperloo, B. van; Overloon, C. van; Vries, M. de

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are common among children with intellectual disability (ID). METHOD: The present study assessed the prevalence of severe sleep problems in a sample of children (n=286) with mild to profound ID who lived at home with their parents(s) in the Netherlands. It also

  8. Problems of space-time behaviour of nuclear reactors; Problemi prostorno-vremenskog ponasanja nuklearnih reaktora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obradovic, D [Institut za nuklearne nauke ' Boris Kidric' , Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-07-01

    This paper covers a review of literature and mathematical methods applied for space-time behaviour of nuclear reactors. The review of literature is limited to unresolved problems and trends of actual research in the field of reactor physics. Dat je pregled literature i matematickih metoda koje se koriste prilikom tretiranja prostorno-vremenskog ponasanja nuklearnih reaktora. Pregled literature ogranicen je na jos neresene probleme i pravce u kojima su danas usmerena istrazivanja u ovoj oblasti fizike nuklearnih reaktora (author)

  9. The Effect of Postpartum Depression and Current Mental Health Problems of the Mother on Child Behaviour at Eight Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa-Monasterolo, R; Gispert-Llaurado, M; Canals, J; Luque, V; Zaragoza-Jordana, M; Koletzko, B; Grote, V; Weber, M; Gruszfeld, D; Szott, K; Verduci, E; ReDionigi, A; Hoyos, J; Brasselle, G; Escribano Subías, J

    2017-07-01

    Background Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) could affect children's emotional development, increasing later risk of child psychological problems. The aim of our study was to assess the association between child's emotional and behavioural problems and mother's PPD, considering maternal current mental health problems (CMP). Methods This is a secondary analysis from the EU-Childhood Obesity Project (NCT00338689). Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at, 2, 3 and 6 months after delivery and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to assess CMP once the children reached the age of 8 years. EPDS scores > 10 were defined as PPD and GHQ-12 scores > 2 were defined as CMP. The psychological problems of the children at the age of eight were collected by mothers through the Child's Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Results 473, 474 and 459 mothers filled in GHQ-12 and CBCL tests at 8 years and EPDS at 2, 3 and 6 months, respectively. Anxiety and depression was significantly increased by maternal EPDS. Children whose mothers had both PPD and CMP exhibited the highest levels of psychological problems, followed by those whose mothers who had only CMP and only PPD. PPD and CMP had a significant effect on child's total psychological problems (p = 0.033, p mothers had PPD did not differ from children whose mothers did not have any depression. Conclusions Maternal postpartum depression and current mental health problems, separately and synergistically, increase children's psychological problems at 8 years.

  10. Shared-Reading versus Oral Storytelling: Associations with Preschoolers' Prosocial Skills and Problem Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Craig, Michelle Jones

    2011-01-01

    Dyadic shared-reading and oral storytelling practices and their association to American preschoolers' (N = 33) prosocial and problem behaviour was examined. The frequency (how often dyads read) and history (the child's age at first reading) were examined within shared-reading; emotion state talk and evaluative judgments were examined in both…

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Smoking and Childhood Behavioural Problems: A Quasi-Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's behavioural problems at 9 years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 7,505 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study.…

  12. The Role of Aspirations in Young Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Vanessa; Flouri, Eirini; Joshi, Heather; Sullivan, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a large UK cohort (n = 11,656), we investigated the determinants of 7-year-old children's aspirations, and the role of these aspirations in emotional and behavioural problems, as reported by both parents and teachers. Aspirations were classified to reflect their occupational status, masculinity/femininity and intrinsic/extrinsic…

  13. The relationship between behavioural problems in preschool children and parental distress after a paediatric burn event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Anne; van der Heijden, Peter G M; van Son, Maarten J M; van de Schoot, Rens; Vandermeulen, Els; Helsen, Ann; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines mother- and father-rated emotional and behaviour problems in and worries about 0- to 5-year-old children at 3 and 12 months after a burn event and the relation with parental distress. Mothers (n = 150) and fathers (n = 125) representing 155 children participated in this study.

  14. The Association between Parental Personality Patterns and Internalising and Externalising Behaviour Problems in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Melanie D.; Connell, Gabrielle; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relationship between parental personality patterns and internalising and externalising behaviour problems in a clinically referred sample of children (aged 4-8) and adolescents (aged 12-18). Methods: Data from families involved in two clinical trials in Victoria, Australia were analysed (n = 59). Families…

  15. Health related quality of life, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C.M.J.; Kooloos, V.M.; Koopman, H.M.; Kolk, A.M.; van der Laan, I.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Egeler, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cognitive functioning and behaviour problems of children with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). Furthermore, we investigated which medical determinants and social demographic

  16. Regular energy drink consumption is associated with the risk of health and behavioural problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular and frequent among adolescents across Europe. Previous research showed that regular consumption of these drinks was associated with several health and behavioural problems. The aim of the present study was to determine the socio-demographic groups at

  17. Emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents with intellectual disability with and without chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    Background Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) (ID-adolescents) and adolescents with chronic diseases are both more likely to have emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this study was to assess the association between chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and emotional and

  18. Emotional intelligence profiles of nurses caring for people with severe behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerits, L.; Derksen, J.J.L.; Verbruggen, A.B.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a two-year longitudinal study on the emotional intelligence profiles of 380 nurses caring for clients with highly frequent and extremely severe behaviour problems. The aim was to identify emotional intelligence cluster types for those nurses reporting the fewest symptoms of

  19. Whole-School Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on Student Discipline Problems and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.; Putnam, Robert F.; Handler, Marcie W.; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2005-01-01

    Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour…

  20. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  1. The Relationship between Language Development and Behaviour Problems in Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna; Watkin, Peter; Worsfold, Sarah; Kennedy, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are well-replicated findings that link poor development on a range of communication skills with increased behavioural problems. This paper examines this relationship in children with hearing loss. Method: One hundred and twenty children with hearing loss (67 boys, 53 girls) and 63 hearing children (37 boys, 26 girls) with a mean…

  2. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, C.; Voorman, J.; Stolk, J.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeer, A; Becher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. Methods. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence

  3. Early Childhood Aggression Trajectories: Associations with Teacher-Reported Problem Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…

  4. Unsupportive parenting and internalising behaviour problems in children with or without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, N V; Zeedyk, S M; Baker, B L

    2016-12-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at heightened risk for developing other psychological disorders, including internalising disorders. Anxiety and depression have been shown to be familial, and parenting is a contributing factor to the development of these disorders. To extend this research, we examined the extent to which mother and father depression and negative, unsupportive parenting related to child internalising behaviour problems, in children with ID or with typical development (TD). Participants were 156 mother and father dyads and their children, assessed at ages 4 and 5 years. We examined parent (mother and father) and child delay status (ID and TD) in relation to measures of both observed and self-reported unsupportive, negative parenting. Utilising moderation models, we examined the relationship between parental depression, unsupportive/negative parenting and child internalising behaviour problems. Unsupportive, negative parenting differed based on parent gender and child delay status. In addition, father depression was a significant moderator of the relationship between unsupportive parenting and child internalising behaviour problems. Children with ID were found to be at higher risk of experiencing unsupportive, negative parenting than children with TD. Children of depressed fathers were especially vulnerable to developing internalising behaviour problems in an unsupportive parenting context. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Association between Speech-Language, General Cognitive Functioning and Behaviour Problems in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, N. F.; Giacheti, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype is described as unique and intriguing. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between speech-language abilities, general cognitive functioning and behavioural problems in individuals with WS, considering age effects and speech-language characteristics of WS sub-groups. Methods: The…

  6. Preschool children with high adherence to inhaled corticosteroids for asthma do not show behavioural problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, Wouter; Klok, Ted; Kaptein, Adrian A.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    Aim: To assess prevalence of behavioural problems in preschool children with asthma with electronically verified exposure to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 81 children 25 years of age using daily ICS for persistent asthma. During 3 months follow-up, adherence to ICS

  7. Working Memory and Behavioural Problems in Relation to Malay Writing of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Teo-Sieak; Jiar, Yeo-Kee

    2017-01-01

    Deficit in working memory is common among young children across multiple abilities. Teachers have pointed to poor memory as one contributing factor to inattentiveness and short attention spans as well as some behavioural problems among students. This study aimed to explore the relationship among working memory, externalizing and internalizing…

  8. Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Metacognitive Awareness and Metacognitive Behaviours in Problem Solving Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to observe the pre-service secondary mathematics teachers' metacognitive awareness in terms of the variables gender and class level and determine their metacognitive behaviours which showed in the non-routine problems. A partially mixed sequential dominant status design was carried out with a total of 287 participants. The data of…

  9. Family factors and life events as risk factors for behavioural and emotional problems in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harland, P.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to identify groups of children at increased risk of behavioural or emotional problems on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and recent life events with a focus on unemployment and divorce or separation. We obtained data on the

  10. Preventing Behavioural and Emotional Problems in Children Who Have a Developmental Disability: A Public Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend…

  11. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  12. Is there a link between treatments with exogenous corticosteroids and dog behaviour problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notari, L; Burman, O; Mills, D S

    2016-11-05

    Possible side effects of exogenous corticosteroids have been described in both humans and laboratory animals, with recent studies highlighting this issue in dogs. In this paper the behaviour of 345 dogs drawn from the caseload of a behaviour clinic based in the north of Italy between February 2012 and November 2014 were analysed. Possible relationships between dogs that received treatment with corticosteroids versus dogs that received treatment with drugs other than corticosteroids and positive or negative affective states, aggression towards people, other behaviour problems apart from aggression, occurrence of severe bites, and prescription of psychoactive drugs were initially assessed using a Pearson's chi-squared test. Regression analysis was then performed in order to evaluate the best predictors of the investigated items. The goal of this retrospective survey was to investigate possible relationships between the affective states associated with the behavioural complaint of dogs and their previous history of treatment with corticosteroids. Results showed that a history of corticosteroid treatment was a significant predictor of a range of behaviour problems associated with negative affective state, but this result may be confounded by age-related effects. British Veterinary Association.

  13. The influence of classroom peers on cognitive performance in children with behavioural problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, J; Wishart, J G

    1999-03-01

    Identifying factors linked to underachievement is fundamental to understanding the associated academic difficulties and crucial to the development of effective intervention strategies. Underachievement in a number of academic domains has been shown to be associated with behavioural problems in the classroom but the nature of the association and direction of any causal link has yet to be clarified. This study explored the association between poor academic achievement and behavioural problems by examining the direct effects of peer presence on classroom performance in children with identified behavioural difficulties. Specifically, it was hypothesised that independent performance on a cognitive task would decrease as number of classroom peers present increased. A total of 24 children attending two special schools for children with emotional and behavioural difficulties participated in the study. Age range was 9-14 years. A within-subjects design was used in which performance on a set of perceptual/conceptual matching tasks was assessed under three conditions: the child working alone, alongside one other peer, or within a group of six. Measures of non-verbal intelligence and academic attainment were collected, along with teacher ratings of the severity of each child's problem behaviour. Performance was found to be significantly influenced by peer presence, both in terms of number of correct responses and time taken to complete the matching tasks. Direction of effects on these two performance indicators differed according to number of peers present. Findings highlight the importance of contextual factors in determining classroom performance in children with behavioural difficulties. Given the current pressure to educate all children in mainstream classes, findings have implications for classroom management.

  14. The Cramster Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a recent "TPT" article, I wrote about a website called "Cramster" (www.cramster.com), which provides students with solutions to homework problems from many textbooks in math and science. I proposed the following question: Could giving students the answers to their assigned homework problems be an effective way of teaching them physics? This…

  15. [Child behaviour problems and parenting skills of mothers in environments of intimate partner violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser Limiñana, Ana; Suriá Martínez, Raquel; Mateo Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    To assess the behavioural problems of children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence situations, and the moderating effect of mother parenting. We analysed, using the Child Behavior CheckList, behavioural problems of 46 children between 6 and 16 years, and the relationship between the detected problems and parenting skills shown in the mother-child interaction in shelters. Increased behavioural problems were detected in children, compared with normative population. Difficulties in parenting skills in mother-child interaction especially connect with the manifestation of externalizing problems in children. Living in a gender violence environment affects children's psychosocial adjustment and it damages the victim's parental competence. Consequently, the intervention of socio-health professionals with Intimate partner violence victims should pay more attention to detect the difficulties of children and restore the parenting skills of the mothers in order to alleviate the repercussions of gender violence on their children. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  17. Ethnic differences in problem perception and perceived need as determinants of referral in young children with problem behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevaart, Floor; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Donker, Marianne C H; Jansen, Wilma; Raat, Hein; Verhulst, Frank C; van Oort, Floor V A

    2014-05-01

    An underrepresentation of ethnic minority children in mental health care settings is consistently reported. Parents of ethnic minority children are, however, less likely to perceive problem behaviour in their children. Our hypothesis was that, as a result of ethnic differences in problem perception, referral to care by a child health professional (CHP) would be lower for 5- to 6-year-old (high-risk) children from ethnic minority backgrounds than for their peers from the ethnic majority (Dutch origin). For 10,951 children in grade two of elementary school, parents and/or teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as well as questions on problem perception (PP) and perceived need for professional care (PN). Referral information was obtained from the Electronic Child Records (ECR) for 1,034 of these children. These children had a high (>90th percentile) SDQ score, and were not receiving mental health care. CHP's referred 144 children (14 %) during the routine health assessments. A lower problem perception was reported by parents of ethnic minority children (40-72 %) than by parents of the ethnic majority group (80 %; p ethnic differences in referral (OR range 0.9-1.9-p > 0.05). No ethnic differences were found for parental PN, nor for teacher's PP or PN. Despite a lower problem perception in ethnic minority parents when compared to ethnic majority parents, no ethnic differences were found in referral of children with problem behaviour in a preventive health care setting.

  18. Effects of Kanjertraining (Topper Training) on Emotional Problems, Behavioural Problems and Classroom Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliek, L.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing difficulties in social interactions and negative classroom climate at an early age may prevent escalation into severe problems that are harder to treat and save society from the associated costs and risks. Topper Training (Kanjertraining in Dutch) has been widely implemented in Dutch

  19. National origin and behavioural problems of toddlers: The role of family risk factors and maternal immigration characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline); H. Raat (Hein); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn many societies the prevalence of behavioural problems in school-aged children varies by national origin. We examined the association between national origin and behavioural problems in 11/2-year-old children. Data on maternal national origin and the Child Behavior Checklist for

  20. National Origin and Behavioural Problems of Toddlers: The Role of Family Risk Factors and Maternal Immigration Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; van Oort, Floor V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-01-01

    In many societies the prevalence of behavioural problems in school-aged children varies by national origin. We examined the association between national origin and behavioural problems in 1 1/2-year-old children. Data on maternal national origin and the Child Behavior Checklist for toddlers (n = 4943) from a population-based cohort in the…

  1. Predicting Maternal Parenting Stress in Middle Childhood: The Roles of Child Intellectual Status, Behaviour Problems and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C.; Baker, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The…

  2. Adverse life events and emotional and behavioural problems in adolescence: the role of coping and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella

    2013-12-01

    We tested whether emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and coping (distraction, avoidance, support seeking and active coping) mediate or moderate the association between change in life stress (change in number of adverse life events) and change in adolescent problem behaviour. We used prospective and retrospective longitudinal data from a community sample. We measured change in problem behaviour as emotional and behavioural problems at Time 2 controlling for emotional and behavioural problems at Time 1, a year earlier. We measured change in life stress as life stress between Times 1 and 2, controlling for total previous life stress (before Time 1). Neither coping nor emotion regulation mediated the association between change in life stress and change in problem behaviour. Avoidance and expressive suppression were related to an increase in problem behaviour. Only cognitive reappraisal moderated the effect of increase in life stress on worsening of problem behaviour, suggesting that, as expected, cognitive reappraisal was a protective factor. In adolescents who reported they habitually reappraise, the association between change in life stress and change in emotional and behavioural problems was non-significant. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Mathematical enculturation from the students' perspective: shifts in problem-solving beliefs and behaviour during the bachelor programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrenet, J.C.; Taconis, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the changes in mathematical problem-solving beliefs and behaviour of mathematics students during the years after entering university. Novice bachelor students fill in a questionnaire about their problem-solving beliefs and behaviour. At the end of their bachelor programme, as

  4. Mathematical Enculturation from the Students' Perspective: Shifts in Problem-Solving Beliefs and Behaviour during the Bachelor Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrenet, Jacob; Taconis, Ruurd

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the changes in mathematical problem-solving beliefs and behaviour of mathematics students during the years after entering university. Novice bachelor students fill in a questionnaire about their problem-solving beliefs and behaviour. At the end of their bachelor programme, as experienced bachelor students, they again fill…

  5. Structured Medication Review to Improve Pharmacotherapy in People with Intellectual Disability and Behavioural Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifes, Arlette; Egberts, Toine C G; Stolker, Joost Jan; Nijman, Henk L I; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2016-07-01

    Polypharmacy and chronic drug use are common in people with intellectual disability and behavioural problems, although evidence of effectiveness and safety in this population is lacking. This study examined the effects of a structured medication review and aimed to improve pharmacotherapy in inpatients with intellectual disability. In a treatment facility for people with mild to borderline intellectual disability and severe behavioural problems, a structured medication review was performed. Prevalence and type of drug-related problems (DRPs) and of the recommended and executed actions were calculated. In a total of 55 patients with intellectual disability and behavioural problems, 284 medications were prescribed, in which a DRP was seen in 106 (34%). No indication/unclear indication was the most prevalent DRP (70). Almost 60% of the recommended actions were also executed. This high prevalence of DRPs is worrying. The structured medication review is a valuable instrument to optimize pharmacotherapy and to support psychiatrists in adequate prescribing of both psychotropic and somatic drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuengel, Carlo; Voorman, Jeanine; Stolk, Joop; Dallmeijer, Annet; Vermeer, Adri; Becher, Jules

    2006-10-30

    To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence and a new scale for perceived motor competence were used in a sample of 80 children with CP. Their motor functioning was assessed with the Gross Motor Functioning Measure (GMFM) and behaviour problems with the Child Behaviour Check List administered to parents. Self-worth and perceived competence for children with CP were comparable to the Dutch norm sample, except for perceived athletic competence. Within the CP sample, the GMFM showed a domain-specific effect on perceived motor competence. In the multivariate analysis, internalizing problems were associated negatively with all perceived competence scales and self-worth, whereas aggression was positively associated with perceived motor competence, physical appearance, and self-worth. Children with CP appear resilient against challenges posed to their self-worth caused by their disabilities. The relevance of the physical disability appears to be domain-specific. For internalizing problems and aggression, different theoretical models are needed to account for their associations with self-worth and perceived competence.

  7. The solution of target assignment problem in command and control decision-making behaviour simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ni; Huai, Wenqing; Wang, Shaodan

    2017-08-01

    C2 (command and control) has been understood to be a critical military component to meet an increasing demand for rapid information gathering and real-time decision-making in a dynamically changing battlefield environment. In this article, to improve a C2 behaviour model's reusability and interoperability, a behaviour modelling framework was proposed to specify a C2 model's internal modules and a set of interoperability interfaces based on the C-BML (coalition battle management language). WTA (weapon target assignment) is a typical C2 autonomous decision-making behaviour modelling problem. Different from most WTA problem descriptions, here sensors were considered to be available resources of detection and the relationship constraints between weapons and sensors were also taken into account, which brought it much closer to actual application. A modified differential evolution (MDE) algorithm was developed to solve this high-dimension optimisation problem and obtained an optimal assignment plan with high efficiency. In case study, we built a simulation system to validate the proposed C2 modelling framework and interoperability interface specification. Also, a new optimisation solution was used to solve the WTA problem efficiently and successfully.

  8. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and behavioural problems in Bavarian children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Kries, Ruediger von; Radon, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Only few studies have so far investigated possible health effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) in children and adolescents, although experts discuss a potential higher vulnerability to such fields. We aimed to investigate a possible association between measured exposure to RF EMF fields and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. 1,498 children and 1,524 adolescents were randomly selected from the population registries of four Bavarian (South of Germany) cities. During an Interview data on participants' mental health, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounders were collected. Mental health behaviour was assessed using the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a personal dosimeter, we obtained radio-frequency EMF exposure profiles over 24 h. Exposure levels over waking hours were expressed as mean percentage of the reference level. Overall, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields was far below the reference level. Seven percent of the children and 5% of the adolescents showed an abnormal mental behaviour. In the multiple logistic regression analyses measured exposure to RF fields in the highest quartile was associated to overall behavioural problems for adolescents (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.5) but not for children (1.3; 0.7-2.6). These results are mainly driven by one subscale, as the results showed an association between exposure and conduct problems for adolescents (3.7; 1.6-8.4) and children (2.9; 1.4-5.9). As this is one of the first studies that investigated an association between exposure to mobile telecommunication networks and mental health behaviour more studies using personal dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings.

  9. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Sanders, Stephanie A; Crosby, Richard A; Ingelhart, Kara N; Janssen, Erick

    2015-10-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18-24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being 'turned on' enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions - particularly among men who experience CAEP.

  10. Suicidal behaviour and psychosocial problems in veterinary surgeons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Belinda; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Mellanby, Richard J

    2012-02-01

    Rates of suicide are elevated among veterinary surgeons in several countries, yet little is known about contributory factors. We have conducted a systematic review of studies investigating suicidal behaviour and psychosocial problems in veterinary surgeons. A systematic search of the international research literature was performed in May 2008. Data from 52 studies of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, mental health difficulties, stress and burnout, occupational difficulties, and psychological characteristics of veterinary surgeons were extracted by two independent reviewers and analysed. Studies were rated for quality and greater emphasis placed on findings from higher quality studies. The majority of studies were of stress and occupational difficulties experienced by veterinary surgeons. Occupational stressors included managerial aspects of the job, long working hours, heavy workload, poor work-life balance, difficult client relations, and performing euthanasia. Few studies investigated suicidal behaviour or mental health difficulties in the profession. Some studies suggested that young and female veterinarians are at greatest risk of negative outcomes such as suicidal thoughts, mental health difficulties, and job dissatisfaction. The review highlights the difficulties faced by veterinary surgeons that may contribute to poor mental wellbeing and suicidal behaviour. Future research might include further examination of the influence of euthanasia on attitudes towards suicide and more direct examination of the impact that occupational risk factors might have on suicidal behaviour. Suggestions about the review's implications for suicide prevention in this group are also made.

  11. General conclusions on workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustand, H.

    2006-01-01

    The author proposes a general conclusion on the second workshop on the indemnification of damage in the event of a nuclear accident, organized in Bratislava, the 18-20 May 2005. He pointed out the most important discussions and the results revealed during these two days. (A.L.B.)

  12. A behavioural approach to financial portfolio selection problem: an empirical study using heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Grishina, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University The behaviourally based portfolio selection problem with investor's loss aversion and risk aversion biases in portfolio choice under uncertainty are studied. The main results of this work are developed heuristic approaches for the prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory models proposed by Kahneman and Tversky in 1979 and 1992 as well as an empirical comparative analysis of these models ...

  13. A study of behaviour problems and psychiatric disorders among people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Myrbakk, Even

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates behaviour problems and their relationship to psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability living in the northern part of Norway, as well as the concordances between four of the most commonly used assessment instruments for psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disability. A total of one hundred and eighty-one individuals with intellectual disability living in the counties of Nordland, Troms and Finnmark participated in the studies. ...

  14. Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and childhood behavioural problems: a quasi-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-11-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's behavioural problems at 9 years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 7,505 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study. The children were selected through the Irish national school system using a 2-stage sampling method and were representative of the nine-year population. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained retrospectively at 9 years of age via parental recall and children's behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire across separate parent and teacher-report instruments. A quasi-experimental approach using propensity score matching was used to create treatment (smoking) and control (non-smoking) groups which did not differ significantly in their propensity to smoke in terms of 16 observed characteristics. After matching on the propensity score, children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were 3.5 % (p parent and teacher-report respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was more strongly associated with externalising than internalising behavioural problems. Analysis of the dose-response relationship showed that the differential between matched treatment and control groups increased with level of maternal smoking. Given that smoking is a modifiable risk factor, the promotion of successful cessation in pregnancy may prevent potentially adverse long-term consequences.

  15. A case of spongiform polioencephalomyelopathy in a cat with a history of behavioural problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomàs Camps

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 7-month-old, entire female, domestic shorthair cat was referred to our behavioural service owing to soiling in the house and a play-related problem. The owners’ complaints were that the cat had never used the litter tray, and it did not know how to play. After reviewing the behavioural history, a problem of substrate preferences acquisition was suspected with regard to the elimination problem. During the consultation, the physical examination was unremarkable, but the neurological examination revealed a moderate and hypermetric ataxic gait, and a bilateral lack of menace response. Some degree of visual impairment was suspected. The problem was located in the central nervous system (CNS; specifically, an intracranial and multifocal problem was diagnosed. After a complete work-up (complete ophthalmological examination, complete blood count and a complete biochemistry panel, feline immunodeficiency virus/feline leukaemia virus test, thorax radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, brain magnetic resonance imaging [0.2 T], cerebrospinal fluid analysis and a urinary metabolic screen test, a degenerative CNS problem was suspected. No treatment was prescribed for the neurological problem. Regarding the problem of soiling in the house, reward-based training with a clicker was used, and the cat partially improved in a few weeks. Three months later, the cat was referred to the neurology service in status epilepticus. A symptomatic treatment was prescribed, with a mild response. After 2 years of treatment and a progressive worsening, the cat was euthanased. Necropsy revealed spongiform polioencephalomyelopathy. In order to rule out prion aetiology a PrPsc inmunohistochemistry assay was performed, and the results were negative. Congenital spongiform polioencephalomyelopathy (CSP was diagnosed. We strongly suggest that the cat’s behavioural clinical signs were caused by the CSP, causing learning impairment. To the best of our knowledge, this would be the

  16. Chernobyl - consequences and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Chernobyl accident has taught mankind very plainly that nuclear energy bears a deadly potential and thus is to be ranked as a key problem of future decisions in the sector of power engineering. Decisions to be taken in future have to be seen in the context of the ecological, economic, and social needs. The statements given reflect the FEST's opinion on nuclear energy and the biological, economic, political, and ethical implications. (DG) [de

  17. Prevalence and associated factors of emotional and behavioural problems in Chinese school adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-N; Liu, L; Wang, L

    2014-05-01

    Emotional and behavioural problems are key health issues in adolescence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Chinese school adolescents and to explore associated factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of November/December 2009. A questionnaire including the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) self-reported version, and the characteristics of child (age, gender, only child and study pressure), parents (parent-adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and families (living area, family structure, socio-economic status and negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 5220 Chinese adolescents (aged 11-18) from 30 public schools in Liaoning province completed the questionnaire. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the factors associated with emotional and behavioural problems. The average problem score was 11.28 (SD = 5.86) and the 10.7% scored above the cut-off for emotional and behavioural problems. Factors that increased the risk of having emotional and behavioural problems were: poor parent-adolescent relationship, experiencing more negative life events, older age, having study pressure, living in rural areas, boys and lower parental expectations. The prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems among Chinese adolescents was lower level compared with those reported in other countries. We found parent-adolescent relationship, negative life events and age to be the strongest contributing factors of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret McLafferty

    Full Text Available Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI, was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739, using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond.

  19. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Lapsley, Coral R; Ennis, Edel; Armour, Cherie; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan P; Bjourson, Anthony J; Murray, Elaine K; O'Neill, Siobhan M

    2017-01-01

    Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond.

  20. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Lapsley, Coral R.; Ennis, Edel; Armour, Cherie; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan P.; Bjourson, Anthony J.; O'Neill, Siobhan M.

    2017-01-01

    Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond. PMID:29236727

  1. Paediatric chronic illness and educational failure: the role of emotional and behavioural problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layte, Richard; McCrory, Cathal

    2013-08-01

    Chronic illness in childhood is associated with worse educational outcomes. The association is usually explained via lowered cognitive development, decreased readiness to learn and school absence. However, this paper examines whether worse psychological adjustment may also play a role. We use data from the Growing Up in Ireland study, a cohort study, which collected data on 8,568 nine-year-old children through the Irish national school system using a two-stage sampling method. Maximum likelihood path analytic models are used to assess the direct effect of child chronic illness on reading and maths test scores and the mediating role of emotional and behavioural problems. In unadjusted analyses, children with a mental and behavioural condition scored 14.5 % points less on reading tests and 16.9 % points less on maths tests than their healthy peers. Children with non-mental and behavioural conditions scored 3 % points less on both tests, a significant difference. Mental and behavioural (OR, 9.58) and other chronic conditions (OR, 1.61) were significantly more likely to have 'high' levels of difficulties on the SDQ. Path analysis models showed that the association between chronic illness and educational test scores was completely mediated by emotional and behavioural problems controlling for school absence and bullying by peers. Child and adolescent chronic illness can have significant effects on educational development and a long-lasting impact on future life-chances. The psychological adjustment of the child is important in mediating the effect of chronic illness on educational outcomes. Interventions should target this developmental pathway.

  2. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: behaviour problems of children and adolescents and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, W; Schneider, M; Schwab, K Otfried

    2008-11-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome can be associated with a variety of somatic symptoms, developmental delays and psychiatric disorders. At present, there is little information on behaviour problems, parental stress and possible relations between these factors. Therefore, this study investigates behaviour problems of children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS, and their primary caregivers' stress. Parents of 4-17 year old subjects known to the German 22q11.2 deletion syndrome foundation were anonymously asked to fill out several questionnaires, e.g. the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18 (CBCL/4-18). The primary caregivers of 77/126 children [43 males, 34 females, mean age: 8;0 (4;0-16;11) years] sent back filled-out questionnaires. Forty-six of 76 subjects were rated as clinical on at least one of the CBCL-scales. Males had significantly higher scores on the total problems scale and the internalizing problems scale than females. The patients' age correlated with several CBCL-scales. Eleven of 49 subjects were suspicious of an autism spectrum disorder. Compared with the general population, but not with other parents of mentally and/or physically handicapped children, the primary caregivers experienced higher levels of stress, but showed normal life satisfaction. In spite of high rates of clinical behaviour problems among children and adolescents with 22q11.2DS and despite increased parental stress, most primary caregivers seem to have effective coping strategies, e.g. partnership support, to sustain normal levels of life satisfaction.

  3. 'Junk food' diet and childhood behavioural problems: results from the ALSPAC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, N J; Northstone, K; Emmett, P; Lewis, G

    2009-04-01

    To determine whether a 'junk food' diet at age 4(1/2) is associated with behavioural problems at age 7. Data on approximately 4000 children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a birth cohort recruited in Avon, UK in 1991/92 were used. Behavioural problems were measured at age 7 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; maternal completion). Total difficulties and scores for the five sub-scales (hyperactivity, conduct and peer problems, emotional symptoms and pro-social behaviour) were calculated. Principal components analysis of dietary data (frequency of consumption of 57 foods/drinks) collected at age 4(1/2) by maternal report was used to generate a 'junk food' factor. Data on confounders were available from questionnaires. A one standard deviation increase in 'junk food' intake at age 4(1/2) years was associated with increased hyperactivity at age 7 (odds ratio: 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.29). This persisted after adjustment for confounders including intelligence quotient score (odds ratio: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.15). There was little evidence to support an association between 'junk food' intake and overall behavioural difficulties or other sub-scales of the SDQ. Children eating a diet high in 'junk food' in early childhood were more likely to be in the top 33% on the SDQ hyperactivity sub-scale at age 7. This may reflect a long-term nutritional imbalance, or differences in parenting style. This finding requires replication before it can provide an avenue for intervention.

  4. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T; Huss, Anke

    2013-05-01

    A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we assessed the association between maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and teacher-reported and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 5. The study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a population-based birth cohort study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2003-2004). Teachers and mothers reported child behaviour problems using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 5. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy was asked when children were 7 years old. A total of 2618 children were included. As compared to non-users, those exposed to prenatal cell phone use showed an increased but non-significant association of having teacher-reported overall behaviour problems, although without dose-response relationship with the number of calls (OR=2.12 (95% CI 0.95 to 4.74) for cell phone and cordless phone use with maternal-reported overall behaviour problems remained non-significant. Non-significant associations were found for the specific behaviour problem subscales. Our results do not suggest that maternal cell phone or cordless phone use during pregnancy increases the odds of behaviour problems in their children.

  5. Predicting maternal parenting stress in middle childhood: the roles of child intellectual status, behaviour problems and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C; Baker, B

    2008-12-01

    Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children's early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention.

  6. Heritable influences on behavioural problems from early childhood to mid-adolescence: evidence for genetic stability and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G J; Plomin, R

    2015-07-01

    Although behavioural problems (e.g., anxiety, conduct, hyperactivity, peer problems) are known to be heritable both in early childhood and in adolescence, limited work has examined prediction across these ages, and none using a genetically informative sample. We examined, first, whether parental ratings of behavioural problems (indexed by the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire) at ages 4, 7, 9, 12, and 16 years were stable across these ages. Second, we examined the extent to which stability reflected genetic or environmental effects through multivariate quantitative genetic analysis on data from a large (n > 3000) population (UK) sample of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Behavioural problems in early childhood (age 4 years) showed significant associations with the corresponding behavioural problem at all subsequent ages. Moreover, stable genetic influences were observed across ages, indicating that biological bases underlying behavioural problems in adolescence are underpinned by genetic influences expressed as early as age 4 years. However, genetic and environmental innovations were also observed at each age. These observations indicate that genetic factors are important for understanding stable individual differences in behavioural problems across childhood and adolescence, although novel genetic influences also facilitate change in such behaviours.

  7. Behavioural Problems in Children with 46XY Disorders of Sex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini M. Selveindran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the behavioural problems of children with 46XY disorders of sex development (DSD with genital ambiguity and to identify the risk factors that may influence behaviour. The 27 participants (aged 6–18 years consisted of 21 patients raised as boys and 6 patients raised as girls. Control data were obtained from a representative sibling of each patient who was matched for age and gender. The study tool used was the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL, which is a parent-administered questionnaire. The analysis of the behavioural scores revealed that the patient group had poorer scores in the total, externalizing, and internalizing realms. This group also had poorer scores in the anxious-depressed, social, and rule-breaking realms as compared to the control group. In addition, the XY-F group had higher scores (more pathological than the XY-M group, although the difference in the scores was not statistically significant. A comparison of the prevalence of patients with scores in the clinical range with that of the control group was not statistically significant. These findings support the current recommendations that psychological counselling should be an integral part of the professional support offered to patients with DSD.

  8. Effectiveness of telephone-assisted parent-administered behavioural family intervention for preschool children with externalizing problem behaviour: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierfeld, Frauke; Ise, Elena; Hanisch, Charlotte; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Döpfner, Manfred

    2013-09-01

    Externalizing problem behaviour is one of the most common childhood disorders. Parent training is an effective treatment for these children and there is growing interest in the effects of parent-administered interventions with minimal therapist contact. This randomized controlled study examined the efficacy of a telephone-assisted parent-administered behavioural intervention (bibliotherapy) in families with preschool children with externalizing problem behaviour. Families were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 26) and an untreated waitlist control group (n = 22). The intervention comprised the reading of an 11 chapter self-help book and 11 weekly telephone consultations. Compared to the control group, the treatment group demonstrated significant decreases in parent-reported externalizing and internalizing child problem behaviour and dysfunctional parenting practices. Moreover, treated parents reported less parenting-related strains and decreases in parental depression, anxiety, and stress. The results suggest that telephone-assisted self-administered parent training is an effective alternative to more intensive forms of behavioural family intervention for preschool children with externalizing problem behaviour.

  9. Comparison of self-reported emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents from Greece and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapi, Aikaterini; Veltsista, Alexandra; Sovio, Ulla; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2007-08-01

    To compare self-reported emotional and behavioural problems among Greek and Finnish adolescents. Youth Self-Report scores were analysed for 3373 Greek adolescents aged 18 years and 7039 Finnish adolescents aged 15-16 years from the general population in both countries. The impact of country, gender, place of residence, socioeconomic status (SES) and family stability on the scores was evaluated. Only country and gender yielded small to medium effect on the scores. Greek boys scored significantly higher than Finns on 10 of the 11 YSR syndromes, particularly on the anxious/depressed scale. Greek girls scored significantly lower than Finnish girls on the somatic complaints and delinquent behaviour scales. In general, girls scored higher than boys on both internalising and externalising problems. The gender by country interaction revealed that Finnish girls reported more externalising problems. The main differences marked in this comparison were the higher level of anxiety and depression in Greeks than Finns and the higher level of externalising problems in Finnish girls than boys. Cultural standards could play an important role in explaining these differences. Overall, it seems that only a small number of differences exist between a northern and southern European region.

  10. Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flink Ilse JE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and native preschoolers by examining the mediating role of family functioning and parenting factors. Methods We included 4,282 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, an ethnically-diverse cohort study with inclusion in early pregnancy. At child age 3 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5; information on demographics, socio-economic status and measures of family functioning (maternal psychopathology; general family functioning and parenting (parenting stress; harsh parenting were retrieved from questionnaires. CBCL Total Problems scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Mediation was evaluated using multivariate regression models. Results After adjustment for confounders, preschoolers from ethnic minorities were more likely to present problem behaviour than the Dutch subgroup (e.g. CBCL Total Problems Turkish subgroup (OR 7.0 (95% CI 4.9; 10.1. When considering generational status, children of first generation immigrants were worse off than the second generation (P Conclusions This study showed that preschoolers from ethnic minorities and particularly children of first generation immigrants are at an increased risk of problem behaviour compared to children born to a Dutch mother. Although socio-economic factors were found to partly explain the association between the ethnic minority status and child problem behaviour, a similar part was explained by family functioning and parenting factors. Considering these findings, it is important for health care workers to also be attentive to symptoms of parental psychopathology (e.g. depression, poor

  11. Developing Environmentally Responsible Behaviours Through the Implementation of Argumentation- and Problem-Based Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettahlıoğlu, Pınar; Aydoğdu, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of using argumentation and problem-based learning approaches on the development of environmentally responsible behaviours among pre-service science teachers. Experimental activities were implemented for 14 weeks for 52 class hours in an environmental education class within a science teaching department. A mixed method was used as a research design; particularly, a special type of Concurrent Nested Strategy was applied. The quantitative portion was based on the one-group pre-test and post-test models, and the qualitative portion was based on the holistic multiple-case study method. The quantitative portion of the research was conducted with 34 third-year pre-service science teachers studying at a state university. The qualitative portion of the study was conducted with six pre-service science teachers selected among the 34 pre-service science teachers based on the pre-test results obtained from an environmentally responsible behaviour scale. t tests for dependent groups were used to analyse quantitative data. Both descriptive and content analyses of the qualitative data were performed. The results of the study showed that the use of the argumentation and problem-based learning approaches significantly contributed to the development of environmentally responsible behaviours among pre-service science teachers.

  12. A guide to using the Theoretical Domains Framework of behaviour change to investigate implementation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Lou; Francis, Jill; Islam, Rafat; O'Connor, Denise; Patey, Andrea; Ivers, Noah; Foy, Robbie; Duncan, Eilidh M; Colquhoun, Heather; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Lawton, Rebecca; Michie, Susan

    2017-06-21

    Implementing new practices requires changes in the behaviour of relevant actors, and this is facilitated by understanding of the determinants of current and desired behaviours. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was developed by a collaboration of behavioural scientists and implementation researchers who identified theories relevant to implementation and grouped constructs from these theories into domains. The collaboration aimed to provide a comprehensive, theory-informed approach to identify determinants of behaviour. The first version was published in 2005, and a subsequent version following a validation exercise was published in 2012. This guide offers practical guidance for those who wish to apply the TDF to assess implementation problems and support intervention design. It presents a brief rationale for using a theoretical approach to investigate and address implementation problems, summarises the TDF and its development, and describes how to apply the TDF to achieve implementation objectives. Examples from the implementation research literature are presented to illustrate relevant methods and practical considerations. Researchers from Canada, the UK and Australia attended a 3-day meeting in December 2012 to build an international collaboration among researchers and decision-makers interested in the advancing use of the TDF. The participants were experienced in using the TDF to assess implementation problems, design interventions, and/or understand change processes. This guide is an output of the meeting and also draws on the authors' collective experience. Examples from the implementation research literature judged by authors to be representative of specific applications of the TDF are included in this guide. We explain and illustrate methods, with a focus on qualitative approaches, for selecting and specifying target behaviours key to implementation, selecting the study design, deciding the sampling strategy, developing study materials, collecting and

  13. Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi: A cross–sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Voskuijl, Wieger; Chidzalo, Kate; Kerac, Marko; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bandsma, Robert; Gladstone, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Particularly an important research gap exists in Sub–Saharan Africa where there is a high prevalence of SAM and a high rate of co–occurring HIV (human immune deficiency virus) infection. Our first objective was to assess the prevalence and severity of developmental and behavioural disorders on a cohort of children admitted to an inpatient nutritional rehabilitation centre in Malawi. Our second objective was to compare the developmental and behavioural profiles of children with the two main phenotypes of SAM: kwashiorkor and marasmus. Methods This was a cross–sectional observational study including all children hospitalized with complicated SAM in Blantyre, Malawi over an 8–month period from February to October 2015. At discharge, children were assessed with the well-validated Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT) for gross motor, fine motor, language and social development. In children ≥24 months, emotional and behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results 150 children (55% boys) with SAM were recruited; mean age of 27.2 months (standard deviation 17.9), 27 children (18%) had pre–existing neurodisabilities (ND) and 34 (23%) had a co–occurring human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection. All children with SAM experienced profound delays in the gross and fine motor, language and social domains. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that children with kwashiorkor scored 0.75 standard deviations lower (95% confidence interval –1.43 to –0.07) on language MDAT domain than children with marasmus when adjusted for covariates. The prosocial behaviour score of the SDQ was low

  14. Summary and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section summarizes the presentations and Panel discussions of the 4 technical sessions of the workshop: 1 - Regulatory cooperation on generic and design specific issues, MDEP working groups (EPR, AP1000), vendor inspection co-operation, digital I and C, and codes and standards (7 presentations); 2 - Regulatory positions on siting practices and enhancements as a result of lessons learned from Fukushima accident (5 presentations); 3 - Construction experience and regulatory oversight of new reactor construction activities (6 presentations); 4 - Lessons learned from regulatory licensing reviews of new reactor designs (6 presentations). The main workshop conclusions are listed as follows: - Harmonization is a long term goal and significant progress has been made. However, this long term objective needs to be associated with short term measurable steps; - MDEP approach to tackle on one side with specific technical subjects, and to strive harmonisation on generic topics was considered appropriate; - Convergence on technical requirements is more realistic than harmonization of codes and standard; - Beneficial early engagement of different stakeholders specially at the siting stage has been acknowledged; - Need to characterise the hazards and to keep updated the safety assessment (PSR); - Land use issues are important particularly after Fukushima; - Commissioning aspects (e.g. training aspects for inspectors) should be addressed by WGRNR taking into account MDEP interaction; - Importance of WGRNR ConEx Programme: construction experience sharing is a leverage for quality and so for a future safe operation of NPPs; - Capability of licensee to follow the responsibility of design changes (could be an issue for small utilities); - Importance of Periodic Safety Reviews to review and account for the design. Finally, the WGRNR has convened that a third conference should be held in about two years time (2014- 2015)

  15. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  16. A Comparison of Emotions Elicited in Fair and Unfair Situations between Children with and without Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill-Roper, Gillian; Ricklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared emotions, assessed during fair and unfair situations, between children (aged 8 to 11) with and without behaviour problems, controlling for SES, depression, anxiety, IQ and educational achievement in order to study the relationship between emotional responses and subclinical antisocial behaviours. Group allocation was determined…

  17. Supervisory behaviour as a predictor of return to work in employees absent from work due to mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study supervisory behaviour as a predictive factor for return to work of employees absent due to mental health problems; and to explore the association between conditional factors and supervisory behaviour. Methods: Eighty five supervisors of employees were interviewed by telephone.

  18. An Observational Study for Evaluating the Effects of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills Training on Behavioural Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliak, Sakire; Sahin, Derya

    2010-01-01

    The present observational study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) programme on behavioural change from aggression to pro-social behaviours by using the DECB rating scale. Non-participant observation method was used to collect data in pretest-training-posttest design. It was hypothesised that the ICPS…

  19. Burden, risk factors, and comorbidities of behavioural and emotional problems in Kenyan children : a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Abubakar Ali, Amina; Kombe, Martha; Kazungu, Michael; Odhiambo, Rachael; Stein, Alan; Newton, Charles R J C

    BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of the burden of mental health problems occurs in low-and-middle-income countries, but few epidemiological studies of these problems in preschool children from sub-Saharan Africa have been published. Behavioural and emotional problems often start in early childhood, and

  20. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    authorities, reactor designers, and operators/ licensees perspectives on the various practices used in the regulation of nuclear power plant siting (selection, evaluation and site preparation). This session was also aimed to address issues on sites where a mixture of activities are taking place (e.g., operating units, new construction, decommissioning, etc.) including organisation of the regulators and licensee/engineering organisation, methods, systems, etc. Conclusions: In general workshop participants agreed on the need to regularly have these kind of forums to discuss relevant regulatory issues for new builds. One important aspect of this workshop was the participation of 'New Entrants'. The interaction between NEA member countries with mature nuclear power plants and newcomers was quite important since it gave newcomers the possibility to benefit of mature international practices in order to focus their regulatory oversight and control. NEA members could also benefit from insights the New Entrants discover as they develop or enhance their regulatory controls. In addition technical exchanges associated with construction experience of New Entrants as they begin to license, build and operate NPP could benefit NEA members

  1. Undermining belief in false memories leads to less efficient problem-solving behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqin; Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Nahouli, Zacharia

    2017-08-01

    Memories of events for which the belief in the occurrence of those events is undermined, but recollection is retained, are called nonbelieved memories (NBMs). The present experiments examined the effects of NBMs on subsequent problem-solving behaviour. In Experiment 1, we challenged participants' beliefs in their memories and examined whether NBMs affected subsequent solution rates on insight-based problems. True and false memories were elicited using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Then participants' belief in true and false memories was challenged by telling them the item had not been presented. We found that when the challenge led to undermining belief in false memories, fewer problems were solved than when belief was not challenged. In Experiment 2, a similar procedure was used except that some participants solved the problems one week rather than immediately after the feedback. Again, our results showed that undermining belief in false memories resulted in lower problem solution rates. These findings suggest that for false memories, belief is an important agent in whether memories serve as effective primes for immediate and delayed problem-solving.

  2. Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and distress in adult life: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Ann; Flouri, Eirini; Ten Brinke, JoAnn

    2002-08-01

    To assess the relationship between risk and protective factors and the continuity of psychological problems from age 7 to age 33. Data on 5,591 cohort members of the National Child Development Study were used to track continuity and discontinuity between internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7, as assessed by the Rutter 'A' Health and Behaviour Checklist, and psychological distress at age 33, as assessed by the Malaise Inventory, controlling for risk and protective groupings present at age 7. There was no association between malaise in adulthood and internalizing problems in childhood. However, people who had externalizing problems in childhood were nearly twice as likely as those without such problems to have high Malaise scores in adulthood. A grouping of risk factors (police/probation experience by family, agency referral for difficulties in school, social services involvement, domestic tension) did not predict malaise in adulthood. Also a grouping of protective factors (outings with mother, father reads to child, good creative skills, good numeric skills) predicted that women were less likely to have high Malaise scores in adult life. Protective factors in childhood were strongly associated with lower Malaise scores in adulthood. Research on factors associated with discontinuity of psychological problems may prove fruitful.

  3. Behaviour Problems in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in a Resource-Poor Setting in India--Part 1: Association with Age, Sex, Severity of Intellectual Disabilities and IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Kishore, M. Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Behaviour problems are most common in people with intellectual disabilities. Nature of behaviour problems can vary depending upon the age, sex and intellectual level (IQ). Objectives: This study examined the distribution of behaviour problems across intellectual disability categories and their association with IQ age and sex in…

  4. Adoption of the Good Behaviour Game: An evidence-based intervention for the prevention of behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Marieke A. M.; Harting, Janneke; van der Wal, Marcel F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: The Good Behaviour Game (GBG) has been shown to be effective in preventing childhood disruptive behaviours and their long-term unfavourable health-related outcomes. Like many other evidence-based preventive health programmes, however, its current use in Dutch primary

  5. Extinction and focusing behaviour of spherical and annular flames described by a free boundary problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaktionov, V A; Hulshof, J; Vazquez, J L

    1997-09-01

    We consider a free-boundary problem for the heat equation which arises in the description of premixed equi-diffusional flames in the limit of high activation energy. It consists of the heat equation u{sub t} = {Delta}u, u > 0, posed in an a priori unknown set {Omega} included in Q{sub T} = R{sup N} x (0,T) for some T >0 with boundary conditions on the free lateral boundary {Gamma}intersection between {partial_derivative}{Omega} et Q{sub T} (the flame front): u = 0 and {delta}u/{delta}{nu} = - 1. We impose initial condition u{sub 0}(x) {>=} 0 on the know initial domain {Omega}{sub 0} = interaction between {Omega}-bar et {l_brace} t = 0 {r_brace}. The paper establishes a theory of existence, uniqueness and regularity for radial symmetric solutions having bounded support. We remark that such solutions vanish in finite time (extinction phenomenon). in the paper we analyze the different types of possible extinction behaviour. We also investigate the focusing behaviour for solutions whose support expands in finite time to fill a hole. In all the cases the asymptotic behaviour is shown to be self-similar. (authors) 38 refs.

  6. Health behaviours & problems among young people in India: Cause for concern & call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sunitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The young people in the age group of 10-24 yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety. Nearly 10-30 per cent of young people suffer from health impacting behaviours and conditions that need urgent attention of policy makers and public health professionals. Nutritional disorders (both malnutrition and over-nutrition, tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, other substance use, high risk sexual behaviours, stress, common mental disorders, and injuries (road traffic injuries, suicides, violence of different types specifically affect this population and have long lasting impact. Multiple behaviours and conditions often coexist in the same individual adding a cumulative risk for their poor health. Many of these being precursors and determinants of non communicable diseases (NCDs including mental and neurological disorders and injuries place a heavy burden on Indian society in terms of mortality, morbidity, disability and socio-economic losses. Many health policies and programmes have focused on prioritized individual health problems and integrated (both vertical and horizontal coordinated approaches are found lacking. Healthy life-style and health promotion policies and programmes that are central for health of youth, driven by robust population-based studies are required in India which will also address the growing tide of NCDs and injuries.

  7. FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT IN EDUCTION OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN WITH PROBLEM BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdonė Indrašienė

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research data evidences that the number of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is growing in Lithuania, as general global trend, however, Lithuanian educators are still unprepared to learn students with ASD (Diržytė, Mikulėnaitė ir Kalvaitis, 2016. One of the reasons of this issue – students’ behavior problems, which significantly disturbs the process of education. The education system in Lithuania has not yet found its unified model of education for effective intervention plans for students with problem behavior, while Functional behavior assessment (FBA is already successfully used to reduce problem behavior of children with ASD in the United States and in part of Western European countries. The purpose of this article – to explore the practice of Western countries in the application of FBA procedures for the purposes of developing interventions for students with ASD. The meta-analysis of secondary data was performed for the purposes of this research. The article deals only with those studies’ results, which are directly related to the core problem of this article. The overview of the foreign studies has clearly shown that FBA methods may be effectively applied in both – group and individual learning – to reduce problem behaviours of children with ASD. FBA is a process when the variables influencing problem behavior are identified and this allows you to identify an effective treatment for severe problem behavior. The FBA provides the means to reduce challenging behavior sets for students with ASD and to use the outcomes of an FBA to develop function-based intervention plans. Data is essential in determining the effectiveness of an intervention and its durability. Behavior problems of students with ASD have been addressed successfully by using reinforcement of alternative behavior and extinction of inappropriate behavior. Additional research is necessary in order to find out and justify the effectiveness of

  8. Demographic, Behavioural and Normative Risk Factors for Gambling Problems Amongst Sports Bettors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Vitartas, Peter; Lamont, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Sports betting is growing exponentially, is heavily marketed and successfully targets young adult males. Associated gambling problems are increasing. Therefore, understanding risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors is an increasingly important area of research to inform the appropriate design and targeting of public health and treatment interventions. This study aimed to identify demographic, behavioural and normative risk factors for gambling problems amongst sports bettors. An online survey of 639 Australian sports bettors using online, telephone and retail betting channels was conducted. Results indicated that vulnerable sports bettors for higher risk gambling are those who are young, male, single, educated, and employed full-time or a full-time student. Risk of problem gambling was also found to increase with greater frequency and expenditure on sports betting, greater diversity of gambling involvement, and with more impulsive responses to betting opportunities, including in-play live action betting. Normative influences from media advertising and from significant others were also associated with greater problem gambling risk. The results of this study can inform a suite of intervention, protection and treatment initiatives targeted especially at young male adults and adolescents that can help to limit the harm from this gambling form.

  9. The role of marital quality and spousal support in behaviour problems of children with and without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Natalie; Baker, B L

    2010-07-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) have been found to be at an increased risk for developing behavioural problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the marital domain, including marital quality and spousal support, and behaviour problems in children with and without ID. The relationship between the marital domain and child behaviour problems was examined in 132 families of 6-year-olds with and without ID. Using hierarchical regression, these relationships were also studied over time from child ages 6-8 years. Child behaviour problems were assessed with mother-reported Child Behavior Checklist. The marital domain was measured using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale-7 and the Spousal Support and Agreement Scale. Mother-reported parenting stress and observed parenting practices were tested as potential mediators of the relationship between the marital domain and child behaviour problems. Mean levels of the marital domain were not significantly different between typically developing (TD) and ID groups, but there were significantly greater levels of variance in reported marital quality in the ID group at ages 6, 7 and 8. The marital domain score at child age 6 years predicted child behaviour problems at age 8 for the TD group only. This predictive relationship appeared to be a unidirectional effect, as child behaviour problems at age 6 were not found to predict levels of the marital domain at age 8. Parenting stress partially mediated this relationship for the TD group. The marital domain may have a greater impact on behavioural outcomes for TD children. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  10. Preventing behavioural and emotional problems in children who have a developmental disability: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Sanders, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend in parenting intervention research has been the adoption of a public health approach to improve the quality of parenting at a population level. This has involved delivering parenting interventions on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner. Such trials have been demonstrated to reduce negative parenting practices, prevent child maltreatment, and reduce child behavioural and emotional problems. However, these trials have been restricted to parents of children who are developing typically. This paper explores the rational for the extension of a population health approach to parenting interventions for children with developmental disabilities. It is argued that a population-based implementation and evaluation trial of an empirically supported system of interventions is needed to determine whether this approach is viable and can have a positive impact on parents and their children in a disability context. The Stepping Stones Triple P--Positive Parenting Program is presented as an example of a parenting intervention that satisfies the requirements for such a trial. Tasks and challenges of such a trial are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In long-term better adapted varieties are needed to adapt to multiple stresses linked with climate change. ... and water management are available which can help minimize negative impacts. ... Adaptation practices take time to become effective.

  12. Conclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grignon, F.; Mazrui, A.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Mazrui, A.; Grignon, F.

    2001-01-01

    The outcome of a three-day conference held at the African Studies Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands, in September 1998, this book on the 1997 Kenya general elections is organized in four parts: the direct pre-electoral background; technical and national analysis of the general elections, including the

  13. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rainhorn, Jean-Daniel; Boudamoussi, Samira El

    2017-01-01

    “Science without conscience is but the ruin of the soul.”—François Rabelais, 1542 A special feature of this book is to bring together the work of researchers coming from different disciplines and having various themes of reflection or practices in the field of biomedicine. While the general trend of science goes towards increasing specialization, the project of this book is to look at the use of medical advances in a transversal perspective. In other words, it intends to highlight what unregu...

  14. Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.

    1994-01-01

    The renewable energies and the nuclear one are complementary. They belong to the french energy policy, which has three aims: strategic, economic and environmental. They contribute to the diversification of the energy balance and to the energy competitiveness. Energy savings might be achieved and renewable energies might be developed for the future

  15. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Confounding effect of obesity and associated co-morbidities (especially on metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity) should be clearly dissected out in future studies ...

  16. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Houmed Soulé, Aramis

    2018-01-01

    Au cours de son règne qui a duré plus d’une quarantaine d’années, en une période cruciale de l’histoire de la Corne de l’Afrique, Maḥammad Ḥanfaré parvient à préserver son sultanat, à défaut de l’ensemble du pays ‘Afar, des visées impérialistes d’où qu’elles viennent. Malheureusement, l’indépendance de cette entité politique ‘Afar ne lui survit pas, du moins sur le plan international. Des luttes fratricides pour sa succession qui opposent ses nombreux héritiers et dont les prémices apparaisse...

  17. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian Relsted; Warming, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    analysis approach reveal how clients’ struggles in intimate and societal life, and in public and private spaces, are intertwined with geo-politics and global flows of governance strategies, e.g. neoliberalism and managerialism, which also condition social work practices. Indeed, social work constitutes......Fahnøe and Warming provide a cogent overview of how a lived citizenship approach enables critical analyses of social work and social policies by addressing challenges related to rights, recognition, participation, belonging and identity. The sub-concept of intimate citizenship and a spatial...... a kind of sociological magnifying glass through which broader social changes can be studied, including dynamics of inclusion and exclusion, new conflicts and modes of resistance, and new social pathologies....

  18. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne; Fahnøe, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    analysis approach reveal how clients’ struggles in intimate and societal life, and in public and private spaces, are intertwined with geo-politics and global flows of governance strategies, e.g. neoliberalism and managerialism, which also condition social work practices. Indeed, social work constitutes......Warming and Fahnøe provide a cogent overview of how a lived citizenship approach enables critical analyses of social work and social policies by addressing challenges related to rights, recognition, participation, belonging and identity. The sub-concept of intimate citizenship and a spatial...... a kind of sociological magnifying glass through which broader social changes can be studied, including dynamics of inclusion and exclusion, new conflicts and modes of resistance, and new social pathologies....

  19. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vreese, Claes; Reinemann, Carsten; Esser, Frank

    2017-01-01

    At the outset, we asked if there is any good news about the news and, if so, where the good news is. In academic research and public discussions about news and democracy, one fi nds different interpretations of the state of current news provision. A tendency towards pessimism about current news...... is seen as having a negative impact on the quality of political life and democracy. Set against the pessimism and caution in the public debate and literature on news quality and the performance of political journalism, we were not optimistic that we would fi nd good-quality news or that we would be able...... to offer some good news as a positive antidote, so to speak, to the pervasive pessimism in the literature....

  20. Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.; Motamen, H.

    1984-01-01

    The paper covers the following: economics of nuclear power; nuclear or fossil-fuel plants; power systems; methods of capital investment appraisal; size factor; nuclear industry; uranium demand; fuel cycle; fast reactors; choice of reactors; case studies from France; power plants in USA and West Germany; electricity tariffs; nuclear energy in Middle Eastern states; energy growth and economic growth; nuclear energy as macroeconomic influence; future energy options. (U.K.)

  1. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Wallo, Andreas; Toiviainen, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Work in times of globalisation and uncertainty is undergoing considerable changes, which has strengthened the importance of work as a site of learning. New trends in production, such as digitalisation, challenge traditional modes of producing goods and services. Emerging forms of flexible...... production and knowledge-work offer growing learning opportunities to people throughout their active working life. In contrast to the stable and standardised modes of Fordist production, modern working life is characterised by rapid changes and employees interacting across globally distributed professional...... explores the challenges of working and learning on the boundaries between education and working life. Globalisation affects the transition patterns from vocational education to the labour market in many ways (Schoon & Silbereisen, 2009), even though the specific challenges to national-level policies vary...

  2. Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    Some say that an increase in security does not necessarily mean a further encroachment on privacy - indeed, security is necessary to protect personal data and our privacy. Networks must be secure, our personal devices, reliable, dependable and trustworthy. But security is a multifaceted term, with many dimensions. We are of the view that an increase in security most likely will encroach upon our privacy in an ambient intelligence world. Surveillance cameras will continue to proliferate. We assume that, whatever the law is, whatever privacy protections government and business say they honour, our telecommunications, e-mails and Internet usage will be monitored to an increasing degree. The same will be true of our interfaces with the world of ambient intelligence.

  3. Conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    In Asia, Japan and the Republic of Korea have conducted similar studies but relying on statistical data and used inputs and outputs (I-O) methodology, utilizing on general macro-level data. In contrast, this study captures data directly through surveys using questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, case studies and focus group discussions. The impact of nuclear technology applications in Malaysia were evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. These impacts are then linked to a broader objective associated with technological development, namely wealth generation, knowledge generation and societal well-being. In the process of the study, users and practitioners of the technology highlighted issues and challenges faced by them. To cap the study, the level of activities of nuclear technology in Malaysia was benchmarked against those in Japan and the Republic of Korea. This chapter highlights the results of the study, the outcome of the study, followed by recommendations as response to issues and challenges raised by respondents, and finally the way forward for monitoring and charting further progress of nuclear technology in the country. (author)

  4. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. First study on fHSC. First study on fHSC. fHSC exhibit embryonic stem cell like properties. fHSC therapy results in myocardial regeneration in rat model of MI. fHSC may be a novel stem cell type for cardiovascular regeneration.

  5. Conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the monograph peculiarities of radioinduced sexual dysfunctions of Chernobyl accident liquidators are described. It is shown, that ones of principal clinical manifestations of stochastic radio-genetic effects are sexual dysfunctions. Assessment in point of view of stages and components of copulative cycle is carried out. Authors made attempt to take in account all involved in sexual dysfunctions systems for examined contingent. It is noted, that genesis of radioinduced sexual dysfunctions is complex and it includes both the influence of vegetative nervous system damage and the direct damage of gonads. During clinical examination with patients it is revealed that both vegetative-vascular dysfunctions and asteno-neurotic dysfunctions are dominating. Authors noting that mentioned sexual dysfunctions are caused by low dose irradiation, and they have certain distinctions. Measures for comprehensive rehabilitation of suffered contingent in late period after irradiation are developed

  6. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microbial organisms play a major role in assimilation of P from the water column and also from the interstitial waters. Mineralisation of microbial bodies is a very rapid process and autophosphatization may occur within few hours or days after death. Geo-microbiology is an important subject and needs to be developed.

  7. Conclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, Yu.M.; Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors made following summary: the cancerous growths of anal canal is rare form of growths; extension of anal canal depends from sex, age, weight and growth of patient; the developed schemes of classification and staging of cancerous growths of anal canal have important role for growths systematization; typical symptoms are blood in excrement, pains in anus, presence of swelling in anus, the treatment of the cancerous growths of anal canal must be varied

  8. The relationship between interpersonal problems, therapeutic alliance, and outcomes following group and individual cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is efficacious, but there remains individual variability in outcomes. Patient's interpersonal problems may affect treatment outcomes, either directly or through a relationship mediated by helping alliance. Interpersonal problems may affect alliance and outcomes differentially in individual and group (CBGT) treatments. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between interpersonal problems, alliance, dropout and outcomes for a clinical sample receiving either individual or group CBT for anxiety or depression in a community clinic. Patients receiving individual CBT (N=84) or CBGT (N=115) completed measures of interpersonal problems, alliance, and disorder specific symptoms at the commencement and completion of CBT. In CBGT higher pre-treatment interpersonal problems were associated with increased risk of dropout and poorer outcomes. This relationship was not mediated by alliance. In individual CBT those who reported higher alliance were more likely to complete treatment, although alliance was not associated with symptom change, and interpersonal problems were not related to attrition or outcome. Allocation to group and individual therapy was non-random, so selection bias may have influenced these results. Some analyses were only powered to detect large effects. Helping alliance ratings were high, so range restriction may have obscured the relationship between helping alliance, attrition and outcomes. Pre-treatment interpersonal problems increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes in CBGT, but not in individual CBT, and this relationship is not mediated by helping alliance. Stronger alliance is associated with treatment completion in individual, but not group CBT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-Adoption Problem Behaviours in Adolescent and Adult Dogs Rehomed through a New Zealand Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carolyn Gates

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem behaviours in dogs rehomed through animal shelters can jeopardise the long-term success of adoptions. In this study, data from 61 adolescent and adult dog adoptions that occurred through an animal shelter in Auckland, New Zealand, from 1 November 2015 to 31 July 2016 were analysed to describe the frequency of problem behaviours and level of adopter concern at different time points post-adoption. Amongst the 57 dogs with behavioural information available, 40 (70% had at least one reported problem behaviour, and the most frequently reported problem behaviours were poor manners (46%, destruction of household items (30%, and excessively high energy (28%. Very few dogs showed territorial aggression when objects or food items were removed (2% and 4%, respectively. However, aggression toward people or other dogs was frequently reported (19% and 19%, respectively. Of the 54 adopters that provided a response about their level of concern over their dog’s problem behaviours, 24 (44% were not concerned at all, 23 (43% were a little concerned, 4 (7% were moderately concerned, and 3 (6% were very concerned. Based on our interpretation of these findings, post-adoption support programmes targeted toward teaching adopters how to correctly train their dogs may be beneficial to increasing adoption satisfaction.

  10. The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on emotional dysregulation, oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ruth E; Tye, Charlotte; Kuntsi, Jonna; Vassos, Evangelos; Asherson, Philip

    2016-01-15

    A number of randomised controlled trials report a beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on emotional lability (EL) and related domains (e.g. oppositional behaviour, conduct problems). Given that n-3 PUFA supplementation shows a significant effect on reducing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and that EL and related behaviours commonly co-occurs with ADHD, it is important that there is a more conclusive picture as to the effect of n-3 PUFA on these co-occurring clinical domains. Databases (Ovid Medline, Embase, Psychinfo) were searched for trials assessing the effects of n-3 PUFA on EL, oppositional behaviour, aggression and conduct problems. We included trials in children who had ADHD or a related neurodevelopmental disorder. Of the 1775 identified studies, 10 were included in the meta-analysis. In the primary analyses n-3 PUFA supplementation did not show improvements in measures of EL, oppositional behaviour, conduct problems or aggression. However subgroup analyses of higher quality studies and those meeting strict inclusion criteria found a significant reduction in EL and oppositional behaviour. A number of treatment effects may have failed to reach statistical significance due to small sample sizes and within and between study heterogeneity in terms of design and study participants. These results exclude the possibility of moderate to large effects. They provide suggestive evidence of small effects of n-3 PUFA on reducing EL and oppositional behaviour in subgroups of children with ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of problem-solving interventions on aggressive behaviours among primary school pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ani, Cornelius; Ajuwon, Ademola J; Omigbodun, Olayinka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive patterns of behavior often start early in childhood, and tend to remain stable into adulthood. The negative consequences include poor academic performance, disciplinary problems and encounters with the juvenile justice system. Early school intervention programs can alter this trajectory for aggressive children. However, there are no studies evaluating the feasibility of such interventions in Africa. This study therefore, assessed the effect of group-based problem-solving interventions on aggressive behaviors among primary school pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria. This was an intervention study with treatment and wait-list control groups. Two public primary schools in Ibadan Nigeria were randomly allocated to an intervention group and a waiting list control group. Teachers rated male Primary five pupils in the two schools on aggressive behaviors and the top 20 highest scorers in each school were selected. Pupils in the intervention school received 6 twice-weekly sessions of group-based intervention, which included problem-solving skills, calming techniques and attribution retraining. Outcome measures were; teacher rated aggressive behaviour (TRAB), self-rated aggression scale (SRAS), strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), attitude towards aggression questionnaire (ATAQ), and social cognition and attribution scale (SCAS). The participants were aged 12 years (SD = 1.2, range 9-14 years). Both groups had similar socio-demographic backgrounds and baseline measures of aggressive behaviors. Controlling for baseline scores, the intervention group had significantly lower scores on TRAB and SRAS 1-week post intervention with large Cohen's effect sizes of 1.2 and 0.9 respectively. The other outcome measures were not significantly different between the groups post-intervention. Group-based problem solving intervention for aggressive behaviors among primary school students showed significant reductions in both teachers' and students' rated aggressive behaviours

  12. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB) score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. RESULTS: A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z......, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found....

  13. The Relationship Between Father Involvement and Child Problem Behaviour in Intact Families: A 7-Year Cross-Lagged Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Narayanan, Martina K

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the cross-lagged relationship between father involvement and child problem behaviour across early-to-middle childhood, and tested whether temperament modulated any cross-lagged child behaviour effects on father involvement. It used data from the first four waves of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, when children (50.3 % male) were aged 9 months, and 3, 5 and 7 years. The sample was 8302 families where both biological parents were co-resident across the four waves. Father involvement (participation in play and physical and educational activities with the child) was measured at ages 3, 5 and 7, as was child problem behaviour (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Key child and family covariates related to father involvement and child problem behaviour were controlled. Little evidence was found that more father involvement predicted less child problem behaviour two years later, with the exception of father involvement at child's age 5 having a significant, but small, effect on peer problems at age 7. There were two child effects. More hyperactive children at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5, and children with more conduct problems at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5. Child temperament did not moderate any child behaviour effects on father involvement. Thus, in young, intact UK families, child adjustment appears to predict, rather than be predicted by, father involvement in early childhood. When children showed more problematic behaviours, fathers did not become less involved. In fact, early hyperactivity and conduct problems in children seemed to elicit more involvement from fathers. At school age, father involvement appeared to affect children's social adjustment rather than vice versa.

  14. Research problems of fission product behaviour in fuels of nuclear power plants and ways of their solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaberidze, V.Sh.

    1988-01-01

    The most important problems of studying behaviour of fission products in fuel elements of maneouvrable nuclear power plants units are formulated. In-pile and out-of-pile investigation methods solving these problems are characterized in brief. 12 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Psychoeducation for hypochondriasis : A comparison of a cognitive-behavioural approach and a problem-solving approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, Femke M.; Bouman, Theo. K.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Van der Duin, M.

    In this study, two 6-week psychoeducational courses for hypochondriasis are compared, one based on the cognitive-behavioural approach, and the other on the problem-solving approach. Effects of both courses on hypochondriacal complaints, depression, trait anxiety, and number of problems encountered

  16. Effects of tutor-related behaviours on the process of problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Esther; Yew, Elaine H J; Schmidt, Henk G

    2011-10-01

    Tutors in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum are thought to play active roles in guiding students to develop frameworks for use in the construction of knowledge. This implies that both subject-matter expertise and the ability of tutors to facilitate the learning process must be important in helping students learn. This study examines the behavioural effects of tutors in terms of subject-matter expertise, social congruence and cognitive congruence on students' learning process and on their final achievement. The extent of students' learning at each PBL phase was estimated by tracking the number of relevant concepts recalled at the end of each learning phase, while student achievement was based on students' ability to describe and elaborate upon the relationship between relevant concepts learned. By using Analysis of Covariance, social congruence of the tutor was found to have a significant influence on learning in each PBL phase while all of the tutor-related behaviours had a significant impact on student achievement. The results suggest that the ability of tutors to communicate informally with students and hence create a less threatening learning environment that promotes a free flow exchange of ideas, has a greater impact on learning at each of the PBL phases as compared to tutors' subject-matter expertise and their ability to explain concepts in a way that is easily understood by students. The data presented indicates that these tutor-related behaviours are determinants of learning in a PBL curriculum, with social congruence having a greater influence on learning in the different PBL phases.

  17. CHALLENGING PROBLEMS OF HYPERTENSION MANAGEMENT: THE EFFECT OF INCREASED HEART RATE AND COMORBIDITIES ON THE CHOICE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY IN PRACTICE OF CARDIOLOGIST AND THERAPIST. The Conclusion of the Expert Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Arutyunov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of the Expert Council "Challenging problems of hypertension management: the effect of increased heart rate and comorbidities on the choice of antihypertensive therapy in practice of cardiologist and therapist" is presented. Topical issues of hypertensive patient’s treatment, the role of heart rate in hypertension and ways to influence it are considered. The possibility of treatment of hypertensive patients with trandolapril/verapamil SR fixed combination is analyzed separately. The data on the clinical efficacy and protective effects of trandolapril/verapamil SR fixed combination are presented.

  18. Uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of uncertainty dimensions of information behaviour in a group based problem solving context. After a presentation of the cognitive uncertainty dimension underlying Kuhlthau's ISP-model, uncertainty factors associated with personality, the work task situation and social...... members' experiences of uncertainty differ from the individual information seeker in Kuhlthau's ISP-model, and how this experience may be related to personal, work task and social factors. A number of methods have been employed to collect data on each group member during the assignment process......: a demographic survey, a personality test, 3 process surveys, 3 diaries and 3 interviews. It was found that group members' experiences of uncertainty did not correspond with the ISP-model in that other factors beyond the mere information searching process seemed to intermingle with the complex process...

  19. Commentary on 'Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Munib

    2013-03-07

    This is a commentary on a Cochrane review, published in this issue of EBCH, first published as: Furlong M, McGilloway S, Bywater T, Hutchings J, Smith SM, Donnelly M. Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD008225. DoI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008225.pub2. Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Relationships between Parenting Stress, Parenting Behaviour and Preschoolers' Social Competence and Behaviour Problems in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Anthony, Bruno J.; Glanville, Denise N.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Waanders, Christine; Shaffer, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Young children develop social and emotional competence through interactions with others in the two major contexts in which they spend time: home and preschool. This study examined whether parenting stress in the home context is related to the children's behaviour while in preschool. Previous research has suggested that parenting stress negatively…

  1. Factors associated with dental behaviour management problems in children aged 2-8 years in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Wang, Chun-Li; Ge, Li-Hong

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the prevalence of children's dental behaviour management problems (BMP) in our clinic, investigated the influence of non-dental and dental background variables on BMP, and analysed the predictive power of these variables. The study group included 209 children aged 2-8 years who received dental treatment. Interviews were conducted with accompanying guardians. Children's dental behaviour was rated by a modified Venham's clinical anxiety scale and a cooperative behaviour rating scale. Regression models were used to analyse behavioural and interview data and to calculate the power of background variables to predict children's dental behaviour. During the first treatment, 29.7% of children displayed BMP. Four variables were found to predict BMP in 87.9% of cases. The risk factors for BMP were younger age, negative guardian expectations of the child's behaviour during treatment, anxiety or shyness around strangers, and presence of toothache. Children aged 2.5-3.5 years who attended kindergarten showed better dental behaviour than those who did not. This study is the first to report BMP prevalence in mainland China. Our results indicate that a simple pre-treatment interview could provide data allowing the dentist to identify children with special dental behavioural needs. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Late-adoptions in adolescence: Can attachment and emotion regulation influence behaviour problems? A controlled study using a moderation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Cecilia Serena; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana

    2018-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that, compared to normative adolescence, adoptive adolescence could be considered a specific risk condition characterized by more psychiatric problems, attachment insecurity, and emotional regulation difficulties as consequences of negative experiences in preadoption relationships. The current study explores (a) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between attachment representations (secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and disorganized) and behavioural problems and (b) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between emotion regulation processes (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and behavioural problems. Both the moderation models were controlled for verbal skills. Forty-six adopted adolescents and a control group of 34 nonadopted peers (12-16 years old) living with both their biological parents were assessed using the Friends and Family Interview, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents, the Child Behaviour Check List 6-18, and the verbal subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the latter as control measure. Results showed that adoption status (but not attachment) positively predicted externalizing and total behaviour problems, whereas attachment disorganization (but not adoption status) positively predicted internalizing problems in both group. Moreover, low cognitive reappraisal had a negative impact on externalizing problems only for adopted adolescents, but not for nonadopted youths. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed in order to enhance effective intervention with adopted adolescents and their parents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Gender-specific linkages of parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect with children's problem behaviour: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki

    2016-05-14

    Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.

  4. Teachers’ personal constructs on problem behaviour: towards professional development & Personal constructs on (problem) pupils: a teacher’s view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Everaert; J.T.E. van Beukering; J.M.F. Touw; P. Kos

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on revealing and developing personal constructs regarding problem behaviour in classrooms. Twenty-nine teachers (initial and in-service students) took part in the project. The main idea is that teachers’ opinions about their pupils and themselves influence the way they act in

  5. Parenting Behaviours during Child Problem Solving: The Roles of Child Temperament, Mother Education and Personality, and the Problem-Solving Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Carin; Stright, Anne Dopkins

    2004-01-01

    Child temperament, parent openness to experience, conscientiousness, and education, and parent a priori assessments of the task were examined in relation to parenting behaviours during child problem solving. Mothers and their children (73 dyads) were visited the summer before kindergarten. Mothers' cognitive, emotional, and autonomy support were…

  6. Do Children Do What They Say? Responses to Hypothetical and Real-Life Social Problems in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Bijman, E. R.; Lamberix, I. C. W.; Wijnroks, L.; de Castro, B. Orobio; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Background Most research on children's social problem-solving skills is based on responses to hypothetical vignettes. Just how these responses relate to actual behaviour in real-life social situations is, however, unclear, particularly for children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Method: In the present study, the spontaneous…

  7. Do children do what they say? Responses to hypothetical and real-life social problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Bijman, ER; Lamberix, ICW; Wijnroks, L; de Castro, BO; Vermeer, A; Matthys, W

    Background Most research on children's social problem-solving skills is based on responses to hypothetical vignettes. Just how these responses relate to actual behaviour in real-life social situations is, however, unclear, particularly for children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Method

  8. The psychiatric treatment of 'behavioural problems' in adolescence: Between coercion and socialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 2005 report from the French Institute for Medical Research highlighted factors likely to prompt 'behavioural problems' in children and adolescents, and recommended early identification of at-risk families. A number of mental health professionals rose up against such medicalisation of social issues. This ethnographic study was conducted in this climate, in a psychiatric unit, located in a disadvantaged area in the outskirts of Paris, that specialises in adolescents with such problems. The research emphasised how professionals resist being instrumentalised by juvenile counselling services and the justice system, the observed practices bearing traces of critiques of psychiatric institutions since the 1960s. Psychiatrists thus try to justify and legitimate their interventions, which are co-constructed by relevant counselling and mental health professionals and, as much as possible, adolescents and their parents. Consequently, full understanding of institutionalisation, beyond its aspects of constraint and subjection, also requires consideration of its potential as a step in the socialisation process, especially for adolescents from working class backgrounds bereft of social and cultural capital. Contact with professionals may confer a kind of power, 'the power to speak'. At least, that is what the professionals try to give them using the 'pedagogy of reflexivity'.

  9. A STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE VALUE BEHAVIOUR AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS OF THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saide Özbey

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the value behaviour and interpersonal problem solving skills of the preschool children according to variables like their age, sex and the type of the schools they attend and to determine the relation between their value behaviour and their problem solving skills. The sample of the study consists of 321 children who were selected by random sampling method among the children of 48-72 months who attend to public and private kindergartens in the districts of Keçi...

  10. How to minimise the incidence of transport-related problem behaviours in horses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Amanda; Matusiewicz, Judith; Padalino, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to provide practical outcomes on how to minimise the incidence of transport-related problem behaviours (TRPBs) in horses. TRPBs are unwanted behaviours occurring during different phases of transport, most commonly, a reluctance to load and scrambling during travelling. TRPBs can result in injuries to horses and horse handlers, horse trailer accidents, disruption of time schedules, inability to attend competitions, and poor performance following travel. Therefore, TRPBs are recognised as both a horse-related risk to humans and a human-related risk to horses. From the literature, it is apparent that TRPBs are common throughout the entire equine industry, and a YouTube keyword search of 'horse trailer loading' produced over 67,000 results, demonstrating considerable interest in this topic and the variety of solutions suggested. Drawing upon articles published over the last 35 years, this review summarises current knowledge on TRPBs and provides recommendations on their identification, management, and prevention. It appears that a positive human-horse relationship, in-hand pre-training, systematic training for loading and travelling, appropriate horse handling, and the vehicle driving skills of the transporters are crucial to minimise the incidence of TRPBs. In-hand pre-training based on correct application of the principles of learning for horses and horse handlers, habituation to loading and travelling, and self-loading appear to minimise the risk of TRPBs and are therefore strongly recommended to safeguard horse and horse-handler health and welfare. This review indicates that further research and education with respect to transport management are essential to substantially decrease the incidence of TRPBs in horses.

  11. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.

  12. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  13. Are Changes in Students' Perceptions of the Learning Environment Related to Changes in Emotional and Behavioural Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuen, Elin; Bru, Edvin

    2009-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional based research suggests that students' perceptions of the learning environment are associated with emotional and behavioural problems (EBP). However, it is not clear to what extent the associations identified are merely reflections of individual student characteristics. The present study explored this issue by utilizing a…

  14. Behavioural evidence for heat-load problems in Great Knots in tropical Australia fuelling for long-distance flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Rogers, DI; Piersma, T; Koolhaas, A; Battley, Phil F.; Rogers, Danny I.

    2003-01-01

    Migratory shorebirds that live in the tropics prior to embarking on long (> 5000 km) flights may face heat-load problems. The behaviour of a large sandpiper, the Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris), was studied in Roebuck Bay, north-west Australia, from February to April 2000. We determined the

  15. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T.; Huss, Anke

    2013-01-01

    A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we assessed

  16. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, M.; van Eijsden, M.; Vermeulen, R.; Loomans, E.M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Komhout, H.; van Strien, H.; Huss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we

  17. Health-related quality of life, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C. M. Jantien; Kooloos, Vicky M.; Koopman, Hendrik M.; Kolk, Annemarie M.; van der Laan, Ingrid; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Egeler, R. Maarten

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cognitive functioning and behaviour problems of children with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). Furthermore, we investigated which medical determinants and social demographic

  18. Prevention of Problem Behaviours among Adolescents: The Impact of the Communities That Care Strategy in the Netherlands (2008-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Harrie; Aussems, Claire; Steketee, Majone; Boutellier, Hans; Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system influences targeted risk and protective factors and the subsequent development of problem behaviour among adolescents (12-18 years) in the Netherlands. In this quasi-experimental study of ten communities (five experimental, five control), adolescent outcomes were…

  19. Personality Traits of Expert Teachers of Students with Behavioural Problems: A Review and Classification of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Svenja; Pijl, Sip Jan; Bijstra, Jan; van den Bosch, Els

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students with behavioural problems is a challenge for many teachers but other teachers are able to bring out the best in these students. Much research has been done to find out what differentiates expert teachers from their less skilled colleagues. Recent evidence points to personality as an underlying core factor influencing teacher…

  20. Prevention of problem behaviours among adolescents: The impact of the Communities that Care strategy in the Netherlands (2008–2011).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, H.; Aussems, C.; Steketee, M.; Boutellier, H.; Cuijpers, P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system influences targeted risk and protective factors and the subsequent development of problem behaviour among adolescents (12-18 years) in the Netherlands. In this quasi-experimental study of ten communities (five

  1. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, M.; van Eijsden, M.; Vermeulen, R.; Loomans, E.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Komhout, H.; van Strien, R.T.; Huss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore,

  2. Social Skills and Problem Behaviours in School Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The social skills and problem behaviours of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Disorder were compared using parent and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System. The participants were 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's Disorder, and 17 typically developing children, matched on…

  3. Behavioural Problems in 2-Year-Olds: Links with Individual Differences in Theory of Mind, Executive Function and Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cognitive and family factors are implicated in the origins of behavioural problems, but little is known about their independence or interplay. Methods: We present data from 127 two-year-olds from predominantly disadvantaged families who completed tests of "theory of mind" (ToM), executive function (EF) and verbal ability. Researchers'…

  4. Relations between Young Students' Strategic Behaviours, Domain-Specific Self-Concept, and Performance in a Problem-Solving Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Leondari, Angeliki; Goudas, Marios

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relations between students' strategic behaviour during problem solving, task performance and domain-specific self-concept. A total of 167 first- and second-graders were individually examined in tasks involving cubes assembly and in academic self-concept in mathematics. Students' cognitive, metacognitive, and…

  5. Diagnostic practice and its impacts on parental health and child behaviour problems in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A

    2012-10-01

    Obtaining a diagnosis is a key point in developing a treatment plan for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little attention has been paid to the impacts of diagnostic practices on families, and the consequent impact on child outcomes. Parents' experiences during ASD diagnosis for their child can be stressful, and such stress can lead to parental ill health, child-behaviour problems, and poorer child outcomes following treatment. Thus, the conduct of diagnosis may be of particular importance for subsequent child outcomes and parental health. A lack of knowledge regarding best diagnostic practice may ultimately impair treatment efficacy and lead to increased health- and economic-burdens. Given this, the current article examines recent work concerning: parental experiences of ASD diagnoses; general health and psychological functioning of parents of newly-diagnosed children with ASD; aspects of the diagnostic process impacting on parental functioning; and the relationship of parental functioning to child outcomes. These are placed into the context of diagnostic best practice for ASD, and understanding the complex relationship between ASD and family variables.

  6. The relationship between mathematical problem-solving skills and self-regulated learning through homework behaviours, motivation, and metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiğdem Özcan, Zeynep

    2016-04-01

    Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving skills. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematical problem-solving skills and the three dimensions of self-regulated learning (motivation, metacognition, and behaviour), and whether this relationship is of a predictive nature. The sample of this study consists of 323 students from two public secondary schools in Istanbul. In this study, the mathematics homework behaviour scale was administered to measure students' homework behaviours. For metacognition measurements, the mathematics metacognition skills test for students was administered to measure offline mathematical metacognitive skills, and the metacognitive experience scale was used to measure the online mathematical metacognitive experience. The internal and external motivational scales used in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test were administered to measure motivation. A hierarchic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in the study. Based on the findings, a model was formed in which 24% of the total variance in students' mathematical problem-solving skills is explained by the three sub-dimensions of the self-regulated learning model: internal motivation (13%), willingness to do homework (7%), and post-problem retrospective metacognitive experience (4%).

  7. Behaviour of mathematics and physics students in solving problem of Vector-Physics context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi; Rizal, M.; Mansyur, J.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to describe behaviors of mathematics and physics students in solving problem of the vector concept in physics context. The subjects of the research were students who enrolled in Mathematics Education Study Program and Physics Education Study Program of FKIP Universitas Tadulako. The selected participants were students who received the highest score in vector fundamental concept test in each study program. The data were collected through thinking-aloud activity followed by an interview. The steps of data analysis included data reduction, display, and conclusion drawing. The credibility of the data was tested using a triangulation method. Based on the data analysis, it can be concluded that the two groups of students did not show fundamental differences in problem-solving behavior, especially in the steps of understanding the problem (identifying, collecting and analyzing facts and information), planning (looking for alternative strategies) and conducting the alternative strategy. The two groups were differ only in the evaluation aspect. In contrast to Physics students who evaluated their answer, mathematics students did not conducted an evaluation activity on their work. However, the difference was not caused by the differences in background knowledge.

  8. The relationship between behavioural problems and academic achievement in Kuwait primary schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Almurtaji, Yousuf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This thesis contains three related studies in the general field of educational psychology and in the specific area of behaviour, educational achievement and educational needs in mainstream schooling. The work investigated relationships between behaviour and achievement in the educational context of Kuwait, where poor behaviour has been argued to be a primary cause of low education achievement levels. Using a systemic approach, the first study sought to establish patterns of behav...

  9. Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of Tools Used to Measure Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Robalino, Shannon; Terwee, Caroline B; Glod, Magdalena; Oono, Inalegwu P; Rodgers, Jacqui; Macdonald, Geraldine; McConachie, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Behaviour problems are common in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are many different tools used to measure behavior problems but little is known about their validity for the population. To evaluate the measurement properties of behaviour problems tools used in evaluation of intervention or observational research studies with children with ASD up to the age of six years. Behaviour measurement tools were identified as part of a larger, two stage, systematic review. First, sixteen major electronic databases, as well as grey literature and research registers were searched, and tools used listed and categorized. Second, using methodological filters, we searched for articles examining the measurement properties of the tools in use with young children with ASD in ERIC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The quality of these papers was then evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. We identified twelve tools which had been used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD, and fifteen studies which investigated the measurement properties of six of these tools. There was no evidence available for the remaining six tools. Two questionnaires were found to be the most robust in their measurement properties, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Home Situations Questionnaire-Pervasive Developmental Disorders version. We found patchy evidence on reliability and validity, for only a few of the tools used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD. More systematic research is required on measurement properties of tools for use in this population, in particular to establish responsiveness to change which is essential in measurement of outcomes of intervention. CRD42012002223.

  10. Different stability of social-communication problems and negative demanding behaviour from infancy to toddlerhood in a large Dutch population sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moricke, E.; Lappenschaar, G.M.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the stability of behavioural and developmental problems as children develop from infants to toddlers in the general population. Therefore, we investigated behavioural profiles at two time points and determined whether behaviours are stable during early development.

  11. Detecting effects of the indicated prevention Programme for Externalizing Problem behaviour (PEP) on child symptoms, parenting, and parental quality of life in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Freund-Braier, Inez; Hautmann, Christopher; Jänen, Nicola; Plück, Julia; Brix, Gabriele; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural parent training is effective in improving child disruptive behavioural problems in preschool children by increasing parenting competence. The indicated Prevention Programme for Externalizing Problem behaviour (PEP) is a group training programme for parents and kindergarten teachers of children aged 3-6 years with externalizing behavioural problems. To evaluate the effects of PEP on child problem behaviour, parenting practices, parent-child interactions, and parental quality of life. Parents and kindergarten teachers of 155 children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 91) and a nontreated control group (n = 64). They rated children's problem behaviour before and after PEP training; parents also reported on their parenting practices and quality of life. Standardized play situations were video-taped and rated for parent-child interactions, e.g. parental warmth. In the intention to treat analysis, mothers of the intervention group described less disruptive child behaviour and better parenting strategies, and showed more parental warmth during a standardized parent-child interaction. Dosage analyses confirmed these results for parents who attended at least five training sessions. Children were also rated to show less behaviour problems by their kindergarten teachers. Training effects were especially positive for parents who attended at least half of the training sessions. CBCL: Child Behaviour Checklist; CII: Coder Impressions Inventory; DASS: Depression anxiety Stress Scale; HSQ: Home-situation Questionnaire; LSS: Life Satisfaction Scale; OBDT: observed behaviour during the test; PCL: Problem Checklist; PEP: prevention programme for externalizing problem behaviour; PPC: Parent Problem Checklist; PPS: Parent Practices Scale; PS: Parenting Scale; PSBC: Problem Setting and Behaviour checklist; QJPS: Questionnaire on Judging Parental Strains; SEFS: Self-Efficacy Scale; SSC: Social Support Scale; TRF: Caregiver-Teacher Report Form.

  12. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie LeBlanc

    Full Text Available With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15 using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5. Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask, with and without space limitations (obstacles and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both

  13. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  14. Gender differences in the pathway from adverse life events to adolescent emotional and behavioural problems via negative cognitive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test for gender differences in how negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the association between adverse life events and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The sample consisted of 202 boys and 227 girls (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Control variables were age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, family socio-economic disadvantage, and verbal cognitive ability. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. For both genders, we assumed a pathway from adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems via cognitive errors. We found no gender differences in life adversity, cognitive errors, total difficulties, peer problems, or hyperactivity. In both boys and girls, even after adjustment for controls, cognitive errors were related to total difficulties and emotional symptoms, and life adversity was related to total difficulties and conduct problems. The life adversity/conduct problems association was not explained by negative cognitive errors in either gender. However, we found gender differences in how adversity and cognitive errors produced hyperactivity and internalizing problems. In particular, life adversity was not related, after adjustment for controls, to hyperactivity in girls and to peer problems and emotional symptoms in boys. Cognitive errors fully mediated the effect of life adversity on hyperactivity in boys and on peer and emotional problems in girls.

  15. A twin study exploring the association between childhood emotional and behaviour problems and specific psychotic experiences in a community sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2018-05-01

    Childhood emotional and behaviour problems are antecedents for later psychopathology. This study investigated genetic and environmental influences shaping the longitudinal association between childhood emotional and behaviour problems and specific PEs. In a community-based twin sample, parents reported on emotional and behaviour problems when twins were ages 7 and 12 years. At age 16 years, specific PEs were measured using self-reports and parent reports. Structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Childhood emotional and behaviour problems were significantly associated with paranoia, cognitive disorganisation and parent-rated negative symptoms in adolescence (mean r = .15-.38), and to a lesser extent with hallucinations, grandiosity and anhedonia (mean r = .04-.12). Genetic influences on childhood emotional and behaviour problems explained significant proportions of variance in adolescent paranoia (4%), cognitive disorganisation (8%) and parent-rated negative symptoms (3%). Unique environmental influences on childhood emotional and behaviour problems explained ≤1% of variance in PEs. Common environmental influences were only relevant for the relationship between childhood emotional and behaviour problems and parent-rated negative symptoms (explaining 28% of variance) and are partly due to correlated rater effects. Childhood emotional and behaviour problems are significantly, if weakly, associated with adolescent PEs. These associations are driven in part by common genetic influences underlying both emotional and behaviour problems and PEs. However, psychotic experiences in adolescence are largely influenced by genetic and environmental factors that are independent of general childhood emotional and behaviour problems, suggesting they are not merely an extension of childhood emotional and behaviour problems. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and

  16. One-year follow-up of a parent management training for children with externalizing behaviour problems in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautmann, Christopher; Hoijtink, Herbert; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hanisch, Charlotte; Plück, Julia; Walter, Daniel; Döpfner, Manfred

    2009-07-01

    The long-term effectiveness of parent training for children with externalizing behaviour problems under routine care within the German health care system is unclear. We report the 1-year follow-up results of the parent training component of the Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behaviour (PEP) for 270 children aged 3-10 years with externalizing behaviour problems. Outcome measures included child behaviour problems (externalizing behaviour problems, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and Oppositional Defiant Disorder symptoms) and parenting (self efficacy of parenting and perceived ability to solve difficult parenting situations). Data were analysed using multilevel modelling. Comparison of the changes during the 3-month waiting and treatment periods revealed significantly stronger treatment effects on all outcome measures, indicating a substantial decrease in child behaviour problems and a significant increase in parenting due to treatment. At 1-year follow-up, initial treatment effects on child behaviour problems were maintained, while parenting continued to improve. Families whose children exhibited externalizing problem behaviour profit from PEP and improvements are maintained for at least one year.

  17. [Behaviour problems of children with Down syndrome in preschool-age - Results from the Heidelberg Down syndrome study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We report on the frequency and the correlations of behaviour problems among children with Down syndrome in preschool-age. As part of a longitudinal study 48 mothers of children with Down syndrome completed the German version of the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire” (SDQ-D) and the Parenting Stress Inventory (PSI). The mothers were asked to fill out the questionnaires when the children had a mean age of five years. The results were compared to norms from children with typical development. Thirty per cent of the children with Down syndrome were rated as abnormal. Specifically, mean scores indicating problems with children of the same age and hyperactivity were elevated. A regression analysis predicting the total problem score of the SDQ-D revealed maternal educational level, optimistic attitude, and subjective parental stress at the age of one year and the degree of behavioural abnormalities at the age of three years as significant influential factors. Early intervention for Down syndrome children should include supporting parenting competence and coping skills in order to prevent behaviour problems.

  18. Parenting stress and child behaviour problems among parents with intellectual disabilities: the buffering role of resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelder, H.M.; Hodes, M.W.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at risk for high levels of parenting stress. The present study evaluated resources, including parental adaptive functioning, financial resources and access to a support network, as moderators of the association between child behaviour

  19. Emotional development among early school-age children: gender differences in the role of problem behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Lisa K.; Niens, Ulrike; McCann, Mark; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on social and emotional development in educational programmes in early childhood as both variables are believed to influence behavioural outcomes in the classroom. However, relationships between social and emotional development and behaviour in early childhood have rarely been explored. This article sets out to investigate the conceptualisation of these variables and their interrelationships. Structural equation models were used to assess whether differences...

  20. Cochrane review: behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Mairead; McGilloway, Sinead; Bywater, Tracey; Hutchings, Judy; Smith, Susan M; Donnelly, Michael

    2013-03-07

    Early-onset child conduct problems are common and costly. A large number of studies and some previous reviews have focused on behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions, but methodological limitations are commonplace and evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programmes has been unclear. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for improving child conduct problems, parental mental health and parenting skills. We searched the following databases between 23 and 31 January 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to current), EMBASE (1980 to current), CINAHL (1982 to current), PsycINFO (1872 to current), Social Science Citation Index (1956 to current), ASSIA (1987 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to current), Academic Search Premier (1970 to current), Econlit (1969 to current), PEDE (1980 to current), Dissertations and Theses Abstracts (1980 to present), NHS EED (searched 31 January 2011), HEED (searched 31 January 2011), DARE (searched 31 January 2011), HTA (searched 31 January 2011), mRCT (searched 29 January 2011). We searched the following parent training websites on 31 January 2011: Triple P Library, Incredible Years Library and Parent Management Training. We also searched the reference lists of studies and reviews. We included studies if: (1) they involved randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions for parents of children aged 3 to 12 years with conduct problems, and (2) incorporated an intervention group versus a waiting list, no treatment or standard treatment control group. We only included studies that used at least one standardised instrument to measure child conduct problems. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias in the trials and the methodological quality of

  1. Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2011-01-01

    The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

  2. Assessing Emotional and Behavioural Problems with the Child Behaviour Checklist: Exploring the Relevance of Adjusting the Norms for the Flemish Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Braet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL is one of the most frequently used dimensional instruments for screening behavioural and emotional problems in children. In this study the psychometric properties of the CBCL 2001-version and the usefulness of existing US norms within a Flemish community sample were explored. Mothers of young children ('N' = 170 and school-aged children and adolescents ('N' = 718 completed the CBCL and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Reliability of both the CBCL/1½-5 and CBCL/6-18 was excellent. There were substantial correlations between the SDQ and CBCL scales, indicating a good concurrent validity. Significant differences were found when comparing the mean CBCL raw scores of the different subsamples (for different ages and gender groups with the US norms. Generally spoken, the mean CBCL raw scores as well as the clinical and borderline clinical cutpoints for Flemish children were mostly lower, specifically for the Total Problems score and the Externalising scales.

  3. Stressors, coping, and emotional and behavioural problems in high-functioning adolescents with ASD: a preliminary approach using EMA

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, Angela Stewart

    2017-01-01

    Behaviour and emotional problems are common in individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder (High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders, HFASD), with onset frequently occurring during adolescence. Stressful experiences and coping are important predictors of mental health outcome in nonclinical populations, yet few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with HFASD. One methodology used to assess coping in typically developing individuals is Ecological ...

  4. Internet use and electronic gaming by children and adolescents with emotional and behavioural problems in Australia – results from the second Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wavne Rikkers

    2016-05-01

    psychological distress, using alcohol, and living in a poorly functioning family. It was not possible to determine the direction of the associations. Conclusion There are links between problem behaviours associated with Internet use and electronic gaming, and mental disorders and risk-taking behaviour in young people. Further studies are required to determine whether these are precursors or sequelae.

  5. Care Seeking Behaviour and Barriers to Accessing Services for Sexual Health Problems among Women in Rural Areas of Tamilnadu State in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthuchira Ravi, Rejoice; Athimulam Kulasekaran, Ravishankar

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be either asymptomatic or symptomatic. Regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms all STIs can lead to major complications if left untreated. Objective. To assess the care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing services for sexual health problems among young married women in rural areas of Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Results. The prevalence rate of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and STIs was observed to be 14.5% and 8.8%, respectively, among the study population. Itching/irritation over vulva, thick white discharge, discharge with unpleasant odor, and frequent and uncomfortable urination were most commonly experienced symptoms of sexual health problems. Around three-fourth of the women received treatment for sexual health problems. Perception of symptoms as normal, feeling shy, lack of female health workers, distance to health facility, and lack of availability of treatment were identified as major barriers for not seeking treatment for RTIs/STIs. Conclusion. Family tradition and poor socioeconomic conditions of the family appear to be the main reasons for not utilizing the health facility for sexual health problems. Integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating awareness to control the spread of sexual health problems among young people.

  6. Sixteen-year comparisons of parent-reported emotional and behaviour problems and competencies in Norwegian children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøvik, Torunn Stene; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Studies about changes in the prevalence of emotional and behaviour problems across time are lacking, especially among younger children. To determine if the level of parent-reported emotional and behaviour problems and competencies in young Norwegian school children had changed across a 16-year time interval. We compared parent reports obtained by the Child Behavior Checklist in two samples of children aged 7-9 years from the general population assessed in 1991 and 2007. The results demonstrated overall stability or slight decreases of emotional and behaviour problems and a significant increase in competencies, mainly due to increased activity and social competence scores in the 2007 sample. Boys obtained higher scores than girls in Total Problems, Externalizing and Attention problems at both time points and there was a high stability of the rank order of items. The findings suggest stability in child emotional and behaviour problems, and an increase of competencies across the period.

  7. The role of general cognitive ability in moderating the relation of adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Panourgia, Constantina

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have established the role of various measures of cognitive functioning in dampening the association between adverse life events ('life stress') and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems. However, it is not yet clear if general cognitive ability ('intelligence') is a protective factor. In this study of 1,175 10- to 19-year-olds in five secondary schools in England, we explored this issue. We found that even after controlling for sex, age, family poverty, and special educational needs, the association of life stress with emotional, hyperactivity, and conduct problems was significant. General cognitive ability moderated the association between life stress and conduct problems; among adolescents with higher than average general cognitive ability, the association between life stress and conduct problems was non-significant. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  8. CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS Urban Children and Adolescents. Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and measures of regional (central) adiposity. High prevalence of markers of dysmetabolic state in urban adolescents. ~10% prevalence of dysglycemia in overweight / obese school children.

  9. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  10. Summary and conclusions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a “Quick Reference” guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.

  11. Application possibilities of mind map in social skills training of children with behavioural problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kirilova-Moutafova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available What impresses in clinical practice when dealing with children with antisocial destructive behaviours are the difficulties they have to foresee the impact of their own actions; and with some children, to such an extent that it is even impossible to track their behaviour in the time to come. This is a significant aspect and a goal of the training of children with behavioural issues: developing skills for action planning; foreseeing the outcome in the future and making the right choices, especially in conflict situation. Training by using mind map techniques in this study is based on an objective assessment of the real needs of a child and the goal of the training is to translate the acquired social skills into real-life situations. This study provides the results of twelve months of monitoring of runaways from Correctional Boarding Schools (CBS and Social-Educational Boarding Schools (SEBS of 50 children trained by using the mind map technique.

  12. Predicting drunk driving: contribution of alcohol use and related problems, traffic behaviour, personality and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Maarike; Harro, Jaanus

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the predictive value of socio-economic data, alcohol consumption measures, smoking, platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, traffic behaviour habits and impulsivity measures for actual drunk driving. Data were collected from 203 male drunk driving offenders and 211 control subjects using self-reported questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained from the two groups. We identified the combination of variables, which predicted correctly, approximately 80% of the subjects' belonging to the drunk driving and control groups. Significant independent discriminators in the final model were, among the health-behaviour measures, alcohol-related problems, frequency of using alcohol, the amount of alcohol consumed and smoking. Predictive traffic behaviour measures were seat belt use and paying for parking. Among the impulsivity measures, dysfunctional impulsivity was the best predictor; platelet MAO activity and age also had an independent predictive value. Our results support the notion that drunk driving is the result of a combination of various behavioural, biological and personality-related risk factors.

  13. How Trauma and Attachment Can Impact Neurodevelopment: Informing Our Understanding and Treatment of Sexual Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeden, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been a notable increase in neurological and neurodevelopmental research, with a keen interest in applying this research to our understanding of everyday human learning and behaviour. One aspect of this research has examined how the experience of trauma in childhood can affect neurodevelopment with implications…

  14. Parent and child personality characteristics as predictors of negative discipline and externalizing problem behaviour in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    Negative discipline has been linked to childhood externalizing behaviour However, relatively little attention has been given to the potential effect of individual personality characteristics of children and parents. Using the Five Factor Model, we examined the extent to which parents' and children's

  15. Increasing Explanatory Behaviour, Problem-Solving, and Reasoning within Classes Using Cooperative Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Haynes, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The present study builds on research that indicates that teachers play a key role in promoting those interactional behaviours that challenge children's thinking and scaffold their learning. It does this by seeking to determine whether teachers who implement cooperative learning and receive training in explicit strategic questioning strategies…

  16. Conclusion from the fifth topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gin, St.; Advocat, Th.

    1997-01-01

    The topic ''mechanics and alteration kinetics of glasses'' is a crucial point for the understanding of the long-term behaviour of nuclear glasses. Kinetic models used in simulation are based on the works made by Grambow who imputes the control of the alteration kinetics of borosilicate glasses to the desorption of the ortho-silica acid produced at the reactive interface. The ensuing kinetics law requires the existence of an equilibrium of the silica at the interface glass/gel and the existence of a linear concentration gradient dissolved in the interstitial gel solution. The role of the gel needs further studies to be well understood. The difficulty lies in the fact that the composition and the structure of the gel varies with time, space (anisotropy) and with the conditions of alteration (temperature, pH, flowrate...). (A.C.)

  17. Adverse life events as risk factors for behavioural and emotional problems in a 7-year follow-up of a population-based child cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Cathrine Skovmand; Nielsen, Louise Gramstrup; Petersen, Dorthe Janne

    2014-01-01

    on emotional and behavioural problems was obtained from parents filling in the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) when the child was 8-9 and again when 15 years old. Data on risk factors was drawn from Danish registers. Analysis used was logistic regression for crude and adjusted change. Results: Parental divorce......Background and aim: The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for significant changes in emotional and behavioural problem load in a community-based cohort of Danish children aged 9-16 years, the risk factors being seven parental and two child-related adverse life events. Methods: Data...... significantly raised the odds ratio of an increase in emotional and behavioural problems; furthermore, the risk of deterioration in problem behaviour rose significantly with increasing number of adverse life events. By dividing the children into four groups based on the pathway in problem load (increasers...

  18. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Adolescent Offenders with Mental Health Problems in Custody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Paul; Smedley, Kirsty; Kenning, Cassandra; McKee, Amy; Woods, Debbie; Rennie, Charlotte E.; Bell, Rachel V.; Aryamanesh, Mitra; Dolan, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…

  19. CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CONCLUSIONS New Delhi Birth Cohort. Crossing BMI centiles and early adiposity rebound associated with adult metabolic syndrome. BMI gain in infancy and early childhood – associated more with adult lean mass. BMI gain in later childhood / adolescence – associated more with adult fat mass and constituents of ...

  20. Stage-related behavioural problems in the 1-4 year old child: parental expectations in a child development unit referral group compared with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticehurst, R L; Henry, R L

    1989-02-01

    Behavioural problems in preschool (1-4 years) children are a common cause of referral to health services. Parents of children presenting to the child development unit with behavioural problems (n = 18) were compared with a control group (n = 45). A questionnaire was utilized to examine the parents' expectations of the children's behaviours. As might be expected, the parents of children presenting to the Unit rated their children as having more difficult behaviours. These parents had unrealistic expectations, particularly for the 'negative' behaviours (disobedience, temper tantrums, defiance and whinging). However, they were able to anticipate normal age-related difficulties in some problem areas (dawdling during mealtimes, masturbating, not sharing toys and being jealous of one's siblings). Counselling should address the issue of matching the expectations of parents with the individual rates of development of their children.

  1. APPLICATION OF PARAMETER CONTINUATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR. PROBLEM STATE. SHORT SURVEY OF WORLD SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bazhenov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their works study vibroimpact system dynamic behaviour by numerical parametric continuation technique combined with shooting and Newton-Raphson’s methods. The technique is adapted to two-mass two-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact system under periodic excitation. Impact is simulated by nonlinear contact interaction force based on Hertz’s contact theory. Stability or instability of obtained periodic solutions is determined by monodromy matrix eigenvalues (multipliers based on Floquet’s theory. In the present paper we describe the state of problem of parameter continuation method using for nonlinear tasks solution. Also we give the short survey of numerous contemporary literature in English and Russian about parameter continuation method application for nonlinear problems. This method is applied for vibroimpact problem solving more rarely because of the difficulties connected with repeated impacts.

  2. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSE, SUSAN; DHANDAYUDHAM, ARUN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. Method: The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science – Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. Results: The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Conclusions: Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA. PMID:25215218

  3. The behaviour of the local error in splitting methods applied to stiff problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Roman; Kvaernoe, Anne; Owren, Brynjulf

    2004-01-01

    Splitting methods are frequently used in solving stiff differential equations and it is common to split the system of equations into a stiff and a nonstiff part. The classical theory for the local order of consistency is valid only for stepsizes which are smaller than what one would typically prefer to use in the integration. Error control and stepsize selection devices based on classical local order theory may lead to unstable error behaviour and inefficient stepsize sequences. Here, the behaviour of the local error in the Strang and Godunov splitting methods is explained by using two different tools, Lie series and singular perturbation theory. The two approaches provide an understanding of the phenomena from different points of view, but both are consistent with what is observed in numerical experiments

  4. Study of the behaviour of artificial radioactive aerosols. Applications to some problems of atmospheric circulation (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.

    1963-11-01

    The aim of this work, consists in the examination of the behaviour of radioactive aerosols produced in the atmosphere by nuclear explosions, in order to deduce the most general laws governing atmospheric circulation and diffusion. After having given a general table of the radioactive aerosols present the authors consider the validity and the precision of the measurement methods and the concentration of the aerosols at ground level and in the upper atmosphere, as well as their deposition on the ground. The existence is thus demonstrated of a tropospheric equatorial barrier and of discontinuous and seasonal aspects of stratosphere-troposphere transfers. The role is shown of precipitations and dry auto-filtration in the lower atmosphere cleaning processes. This work makes it possible to describe the general behaviour of dust from the stratosphere, and to improve the total radioactive contamination of the globe. (author) [fr

  5. TRANSLATION PROCESS AND THE USE OF COMPUTER A REPORT ON PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOUR DURING TRANSLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engliana Engliana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Emphasising on translation process including pre- and post-editing task using a text taken randomly from news on the Internet, this paper attempts to illustrate the behaviour patterns of some students currently studying English language at the university level in Jakarta. The students received texts to be translated using the computer equipped with screen recording software aimed to record all related activities during the translation process, including the pre- and post-editing. The method involves observing the participants‘ behaviour during translating focusing on the actions performed before and after using translation tool(s. The purposes of this investigation are to determine if the students: 1 use any software and the Internet to help them; 2 use the information in the translation process; 3 apply the translation theories. The results indicates that no pre-editing task was performed prior to translation

  6. Attachment security representations in institutionalized children and children living with their families: links to problem behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Nuno; Maia, Joana; Veríssimo, Manuela; Fernandes, Marilia; Silva, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    The present work analyses differences in the attachment representations of institutionalized children as compared with children from low and high educational level living with their natural families. Participants were 91 Portuguese children, 52% girls, aged 48-96 months. There were three different groups: 19 institutionalized children, 16 low educational level families' children and 56 from high educational level families'. Attachment representations were assessed for Security of the narratives of the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist for parents and caretakers. Verbal skills were assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Revised. Results show that institutionalized children have significantly lower security of attachment representations, less verbal skills and higher aggressive behaviour than the other two groups. Attachment representations were associated with social/withdrawal and aggression, independently of age, verbal skills and parents' education. The main effect of institutionalization on externalizing aggressive behaviour was completely mediated by the security of attachment representations.  Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. How illustrations influence performance and eye movement behaviour when solving problems in vector calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ögren, Magnus; Nyström, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical formulas in vector calculus often have direct visual representations, which in form of illustrations are used extensively during teaching and when assessing students’ levels of understanding. However, there is very little, if any, empirical evidence of how the illustrations...... are utilized during problem solving and whether they are beneficial to comprehension. In this paper we collect eye movements and performance scores (true or false answers) from students while solving eight problems in vector calculus; 20 students solve illustrated problems whereas 16 students solve the same...... problems, but without the illustrations. Results show no overall performance benefit for illustrated problems even though they are clearly visually attended. Surprisingly, we found a significant effect of whether the answer to the problem was true of false; students were more likely to answer...

  8. Investigating Ongoing Strategic Behaviour of Students with Mild Mental Retardation: Implementation and Relations to Performance in a Problem-Solving Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Bandi, Maria; Nisiotou, Ioulia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent students with mild mental retardation exhibit strategic behaviour during problem solving and to investigate the relationships between the ongoing behaviours examined and the students' respective performance. Eleven students with non-organic mild mental retardation participated in the study.…

  9. Do risk factors for problem behaviour act in a cumulative manner? An examination of ethnic minority and majority children through an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2004-05-01

    Extensive research has identified risk factors for problem behaviour in childhood. However, most of this research has focused on isolated variables, ignoring possible additive influences. The purpose of this study was to examine whether risk factors for problem behaviour act in a cumulative manner, and to investigate whether cumulative risk stemming from distinct ecological levels (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) differentially influences the manifestation of problem behaviours in middle childhood. In addition, ethnic differences between minority (i.e., Indian) and majority (i.e., English) families were examined. The sample consisted of 125 children (59 English and 66 of Indian origin) between the ages of 7 and 9.6 (M = 8.51, SD = 0.62) and their parents. Both mothers and fathers completed questionnaires regarding the children's problem behaviour and provided reports of the children's characteristics and environment. Children were also assessed and provided reports about themselves and their relationships. Finally, parent-child mutuality and parenting behaviour were coded from a videotaped parent-child interaction task. Risk factors acted in a cumulative manner - the more risk children experienced, the more problem behaviour they exhibited. Total problem behaviour was predicted by all three levels: individual, microsystem and exosystem. However, externalising problems were mainly predicted by microsystem-level cumulative risk, whereas internalising problems were predicted by both individual-level cumulative risk and exosystem-level cumulative risk. These results were similar for both ethnic groups. The support for the cumulative hypothesis highlights the importance of having a broad picture of children's characteristics and environmental components when analysing children's adjustment. The distinct influence of risk stemming from the different ecological levels suggests that the trajectories of internalising, externalising and total problem behaviour may be different.

  10. Studying the effects of operators' problem solving behaviour when using a diagnostic expert system developed for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, C.B.O.; Volden, F.S.; Endestad, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment with the purpose to also illustrate and discuss some of the methodological problems when empirically studying problem solving. The experiment which was the second in a series, conducted at the OECD Halden Reactor Project, aimed to assess the effect on nuclear power plant operators diagnostic behaviour when using a rule-based diagnostic expert system. The rule-based expert system used in the experiment is called DISKET (Diagnosis System Using Knowledge Engineering Technique) and was originally developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The experiment was performed in the Halden man-machine laboratory using a full scope pressurized water reactor simulator. Existing data collection methods and experimental design principles includes possibilities but also limitations. This is discussed and experiences are presented. Operator performance in terms of quality of diagnosis is improved by the use of DISKET. The use of the DISKET system also influences operators problem solving behaviour. The main difference between the two experimental conditions can be characterized as while the DISKET users during the diagnosis process are following a strategy which is direct and narrowed, the non-DISKET users are using a much broader and less focused search when trying to diagnose a disturbance. (author)

  11. Adverse life events as risk factors for behavioural and emotional problems in a 7-year follow-up of a population-based child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Cathrine Skovmand; Nielsen, Louise Gramstrup; Petersen, Dorthe Janne; Christiansen, Erik; Bilenberg, Niels

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for significant changes in emotional and behavioural problem load in a community-based cohort of Danish children aged 9-16 years, the risk factors being seven parental and two child-related adverse life events. Data on emotional and behavioural problems was obtained from parents filling in the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) when the child was 8-9 and again when 15 years old. Data on risk factors was drawn from Danish registers. Analysis used was logistic regression for crude and adjusted change. Parental divorce significantly raised the odds ratio of an increase in emotional and behavioural problems; furthermore, the risk of deterioration in problem behaviour rose significantly with increasing number of adverse life events. By dividing the children into four groups based on the pathway in problem load (increasers, decreasers, high persisters and low persisters), we found that children with a consistently high level of behavioural problems also had the highest number of adverse life events compared with any other group. Family break-up was found to be a significant risk factor. This supports findings in previous studies. The fact that no other risk factor proved to be of significance might be due to lack of power in the study. Children experiencing high levels of adverse life events are at high risk of chronic problem behaviour. Thus these risk factors should be assessed in daily clinical practice.

  12. Data, model, conclusion, doing it again

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the robustness of conclusions from a statistical model against variations in model choice (rather than variations in random sampling and random assignment to treatments, which are the usual variations covered by inferential statistics). After the problem formulation in section 1,

  13. Effect of antenatal exposure to maternal smoking on behavioural problems and academic achievement in childhood : prospective evidence from a Dutch birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, L; Hadders-Algra, M; Neeleman, J

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To examine effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on academic achievement and emotional and behavioural problems during childhood. Methods: Least squares regression was used to examine associations between maternal smoking prior to delivery and subsequent academic performance and

  14. Play therapy for a boy with emotional/behavioural problems: the therapist’s working experience with the child

    OpenAIRE

    Salles, Andréia Mansk Boone; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo

    2015-01-01

    Play therapy offers children the opportunity to “play out” their intensive feelings, conflicts and issues in a constructive atmosphere, and with a sense of safety and acceptance given to them by the play therapist. Bering this in mind, the therapist employed Non-Directive Play Therapy approach during 31 sessions of 45 minutes each with a nine-years-old boy who was exhibiting emotional/behavioural problems at school. The client’s psychotherapeutic process is presented divided in three stages: ...

  15. Against All Odds: Problem-Solving Strategies and Behavioural Characteristics of Novice Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Lin, Miao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates problem-solving difficulties of novices in a classroom setting, using a German instructional tool, the Fischertechnik kit of approximately 400 parts. In order to analyse the students' thinking processes as they solved the problems, verbal protocol analysis (VPA) was used to record the students'' thinking processes and…

  16. The role of family difficulties in adolescent depression, drug-taking and other problem behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, I; Rob, M I

    1988-09-05

    A comprehensive self-report questionnaire that covered many aspects of adolescents' lives was administered to 1270 students in Years 7, 10 and 11 who attended seven State high schools in Sydney. The prevalences of unhealthy and acting-out behaviours increased significantly between the ages of 12 and 15 years (Years 7 and 10) and then levelled out. By the age of 15 years, 15% of adolescents were drinking alcohol at least three times a week; 30% of adolescents smoked cigarettes; 15% of adolescents had used marijuana in the past week; and 18% of adolescents had had previous sexual experience. Nine per cent of all adolescents often felt "so down or low that life has lost its meaning". The quality of the family relationship was found to be associated closely with the presence or absence of adolescent depression and unhealthy or acting-out behaviours. Where the family relationship was not close or loving, the prevalence of depression was three times as high and the prevalences of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use and early sexual activity were about twice as high as among adolescents who perceived that their families were close and loving. The majority of adolescents with poor family relationships felt that their parents could do more to help them. Help in the form of more understanding, support, trust, time, interest and freedom was wanted much more frequently than was help in the form of material items such as pocket-money. Parental divorce or separation and having a mother who was working full-time were also associated with a perceived lack of family closeness and love. The implications of these findings for the prevention of the establishment of health-threatening behavioural patterns and suicide among adolescents are discussed.

  17. Ethnicity, socioeconomic position and severity of problems as predictors of mental health care use in 5- to 8-year-old children with problem behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevaart, Floor; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Wierdsma, André; Donker, Marianne C H; Jansen, Wilma; Raat, Hein; Verhulst, Frank C; van Oort, Floor V A

    2014-05-01

    Empirical research on mental health care use and its determinants in young school-aged children is still scarce. In this study, we investigated the role of ethnicity, socioeconomic position (SEP) and perceived severity by both parents and teachers on mental health care use in 5- to 8-year old children with emotional and/or behavioural problems. Data from 1,269 children with a high score([P90) on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the school year 2008–2009 were linked to psychiatric case register data over the years 2010–2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to predict mental health care use from ethnicity, SEP and perceived severity of the child's problems. During the follow-up period, 117 children with high SDQ scores (9.2 %) had used mental health care for the first time. Ethnic minority children were less likely to receive care than Dutch children (HR Moroccan/Turkish:0.26; 95 % CI 0.13-0.54, HR other ethnicity: 0.26; 95 %CI 0.12-0.58). No socioeconomic differences were found.After correction for previous care use, ethnicity and parental perceived severity, impact score as reported by teachers was significantly associated with mental healthcare use (HR 1.58; 95 % CI 1.01–2.46). Ethnicity is an important predictor of mental health care use in young children. Already in the youngest school-aged children, ethnic differences in the use of mental health care are present.A distinct predictor of care use in this age group is severity of emotional and behavioural problems as perceived by teachers. Therefore, teachers may be especially helpful in the process of identifying young children who need specialist mental health care.

  18. Music in mind, a randomized controlled trial of music therapy for young people with behavioural and emotional problems: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam; Holmes, Valerie; McLaughlin, Katrina; Lynn, Fiona; Cardwell, Chris; Braiden, Hannah-Jane; Doran, Jackie; Rogan, Sheelagh

    2012-10-01

    This article is a report of a trial protocol to determine if improvizational music therapy leads to clinically significant improvement in communication and interaction skills for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural problems. Music therapy is often considered an effective intervention for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties. However, this assumption lacks empirical evidence. Music in mind is a multi-centred single-blind randomized controlled trial involving 200 young people (aged 8-16 years) and their parents. Eligible participants will have a working diagnosis within the ambit of international classification of disease 10 mental and behavioural disorders and will be recruited over 15 months from six centres within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services of a large health and social care trust in Northern Ireland. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard care alone or standard care plus 12 weekly music therapy sessions delivered by the Northern Ireland Music Therapy Trust. Baseline data will be collected from young people and their parents using standardized outcome measures for communicative and interaction skills (primary endpoint), self-esteem, social functioning, depression and family functioning. Follow-up data will be collected 1 and 13 weeks after the final music therapy session. A cost-effectiveness analysis will also be carried out. This study will be the largest trial to date examining the effect of music therapy on young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties and will provide empirical evidence for the use of music therapy among this population. Trial registration. This study is registered in the ISRCTN Register, ISRCTN96352204. Ethical approval was gained in October 2010. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Impact of a family-oriented rehabilitation programme on behavioural and emotional problems in healthy siblings of chronically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, T; Hölling, H; Schlack, R; West, C; Goldbeck, L

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of a family-oriented inpatient rehabilitation programme on behavioural and emotional problems in healthy siblings of chronically ill children and to assess the association between these problems and quality of life. A total of 259 healthy children (4-16 years, M = 8.6 years, SD = 3.3) with a chronically ill sibling were enrolled in the study. Parents filled in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, while the children answered a self-report quality of life instrument (LQ-KID) at the time of admission and discharge from the clinic and at a 6-month follow-up. Comparisons were performed with a matched control group from the German general population (n= 777). Significant behavioural or emotional symptoms were found in 30.5% of the healthy siblings, the relative risk of having elevated scores being 2.2 compared with the control group. Symptoms were inversely correlated with quality of life (r=-0.42). During the inpatient rehabilitation, symptoms decreased significantly to a normal level. Similarly, quality of life significantly improved, except in the dimension family relations. Family-oriented inpatient rehabilitation is a promising approach to improve the mental health of children with a chronically ill sibling.

  20. The relationship between physical activity and self-image and problem behaviour among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Shephard, R J; Siefen, R G

    2002-11-01

    Although there are a vast array of studies which have demonstrated the psychological and physical health benefits of regular aerobic exercise for adults, few studies have focussed on children and adolescents. The current study examined associations between the extent of participation in endurance sport, and self-report data on self-image, physical and psychological health and overall lifestyle in a large representative sample of German high-school students. Almost 1000 German adolescents (aged 14-18 years) were administered a comprehensive series of questionnaires aimed at assessing anxiety-depression, trait addiction, smoking and drinking behaviour, physical ill-health reports, and self-perception of self-image, parental acceptance and educational attainment. Regular practice of endurance exercise was related to a more favourable self-image. There was a strong association between participation in sports and the type of personality that tends to be resistant to drug and alcohol addiction. Physical exercise was further significantly related to scores for physical and psychological well-being. Adolescents who engaged regularly in physical activity were characterised by lower anxiety-depression scores, and displayed much less social behavioural inhibition than their less active counterparts. It is likely that discussion of recreational or exercise involvement may provide a useful point of entry for facilitating dialogue among adolescents about concerns relating to body image and self-esteem. In terms of psychotherapeutic applications, physical activity has many additional rewards for adolescents. It is probable that by promoting physical fitness, increased physical performance, lessening body mass and promoting a more favourable body shape and structure, exercise will provide more positive social feedback and recognition from peer groups, and this will subsequently lead to improvement in an individual's self-image.

  1. ‘If you have a problem with your heart, you have a problem with your life’: Self-perception and behaviour in relation to the risk of ischaemic heart disease in people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Roos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD is a global health problem and specifically relevant in the African context, as the presence of risk factors for IHD is increasing. People living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (PLWHA are at increased risk for IHD due to increased longevity, treatment-specific causes and viral effects. Aim: To determine the self-perception and behaviour in relation to risk for IHD in a cohort of South African PLWHA.Methods:A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with a card-sort technique was used to gather data from 30 individuals at an HIV clinic in Johannesburg. Descriptive analysis and conventional content analysis were done to generate the findings. Results: The median age of the cohort was 36.5 (31.8–45.0 years and they were mostly women (n = 25; 83.3% who were employed (n = 17; 56.7% and supporting dependents (n = 26; 86.7%. Fifteen (50% participants did not perceive themselves at risk of IHD and reported having adequate coping behaviour, living a healthy lifestyle and being healthy since initiating therapy. Twelve (40% did feel at risk because they experienced physical symptoms and had poor behaviour. Knowledge and understanding related to IHD, insight into own risk for IHD and health character in a context of HIV infection were three themes. Conclusion: This study highlights that participants did not perceive themselves to be at risk of IHD due to their HIV status or antiretroviral management. Education strategies are required in PLWHA to inform their personal risk perception for IHD.

  2. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  3. Gender-related effects of contemporary math instruction for low performers on problem solving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.E.; van Lieshout, E.C.D.M.; Verhoeven, L.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of guided (GI) and direct instruction (DI) in solving subtraction problems for mathematically low performers in regular schools were compared. In the GI condition, self-development of solution procedures was encouraged whereas in the DI condition one prescribed strategy was to be used. Forty

  4. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with Visual Impairment, Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimovic, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with multiple impairments have more complex developmental problems than children with a single impairment. Method: We compared children, aged 4 to 11 years, with intellectual disability (ID) and visual impairment to children with single ID, single visual impairment and typical development on "Child Behavior Check…

  5. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna J Olsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. RESULTS: A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score (β = 0.021, p = 0.11. Having an SDQ-TD score above the 90(th percentile was associated with BMI z-score (β = 0.36, p = 0.05. PSB score was not associated with BMI z-score. Analyses were adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, parental BMI, family structure, dietary factors, physical activity, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found.

  6. The effect of a music programme during lunchtime on the problem behaviour of the older residents with dementia at an institution in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Yu; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lin, Li-Chan

    2010-04-01

    To study the effect of a music programme during lunchtime on problem behaviour among institutionalised older residents with dementia. Symptoms of dementia among older people include depression, problems with memory, insomnia and problem behaviours. Problem behaviour has been identified by families and nurses as the greatest challenge that needs to be addressed. Several studies have found that music therapy can reduce problem behaviours among dementia sufferers and, based on this finding, music has been recommended for incorporation as part of dementia management. This study used a quasi-experimental design with an eight-week time series follow-up. The intervention was background music when residents had their lunch meal. A purposive sampling technique was used. Forty-one participants were selected from an institution housing residents with dementia located in a city in Taiwan. The mean age of participants was 81.68 (SD 6.39) years old. The mean score for Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was 10.66 (SD 6.85). The mean of Barthel Activity of Daily Living score was 56.83 (SD 38.12). The results showed that the music programme reduced, significantly, physical and verbal aggressive behaviour among the older residents with dementia. The study identified that there was a one-week time lag between the implementation of the music programme and a significant effect on the residents. The results from this study suggested that music is able to reduce the degree of problem behaviours among the older residents with dementia and this helps to ease work-load of nurse aides and nurses during meal times. The results may serve as a reference for the future treatment of problem behaviour among the older with dementia.

  7. The use of equipment and training practices and the prevalence of owner-reported ridden behaviour problems in UK leisure horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenhull, J; Creighton, E

    2013-01-01

    UK leisure horses are owned primarily for riding. Ridden behaviour problems may compromise the use of the horse in this role and lead to harsh redress or relinquishment of the horse. Despite the consequences of these problems little is known about their prevalence or the working lives of UK leisure horses. To generate data on the work undertaken by leisure horses, the equipment and training practices used with them and prevalence of ridden behaviour problems. An internet survey was used to generate horse-level data from a convenience sample of leisure horse carers. Respondents were asked to report on their practices in the week prior to the survey's completion to minimise recall bias. The survey was online for one year to allow for seasonal variation in practices. Data were collected on the tack and equipment used on the horse, the regularity that professional services (e.g. farriers) were used, type of training employed and frequency the owner reported that horse displayed 15 ridden behaviour problems. The survey generated data on 1326 individual horses. Data describing practices relating to the horse's working life are presented. Ridden behaviour problems were reported in 91% of horses in the week preceding data collection. Descriptive data on the working lives of UK leisure horses provides valuable baseline statistics for this largest section of the UK horse population. High prevalence of owner-reported ridden behaviour problems represents a concern in such leisure horses and may indicate significant rider safety and horse welfare concerns. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  8. A pilot effectiveness study of the Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme for parents of children with behaviour problems: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margiad Elen; Hutchings, Judy

    2015-05-20

    The Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme is a home-based, health visitor-delivered parenting support programme for parents of children with identified behaviour problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPaS 2014 programme compared to a waiting-list treatment as usual control group. This is a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Sixty health visitors will each be asked to identify two families that have a child scoring above the clinical cut-off for behaviour problems using the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory (ECBI). Families recruited to the trial will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio into an intervention or waiting-list control group. Randomisation will occur within health visitor to ensure that each health visitor has one intervention family and one control family. The primary outcome is change in child behaviour problems as measured by the parent-reported ECBI. Secondary outcomes include other measures of child behaviour, parent behaviour, and parental depression as measured by parent-reports and an independent observation of parent and child behaviour. Follow-up measures will be collected 6-months after the collection of baseline measures. This is the first rigorous evaluation of the EPaS 2014 programme. The trial will provide important information on the effectiveness of a one-to-one home-based intervention, delivered by health visitors, for pre-school children with behaviour problems. It will also examine potential mediating (improved parent behaviour and/or improved parental depression) and moderating (single parent, teenage parent, poverty, low education level) factors. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN06867279 (18 June 2014).

  9. Smoking behaviour in youth: the problem of low self-esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, A; Inglis, D

    1999-10-01

    The study considers the relationship between self-esteem and smoking in youth. Research has emphasized the need for ecological perspectives on health behaviours, for example, the context and meaning of cigarette smoking in young people's lives. Recent Scottish research, utilizing a range of methodologies, has examined the peer group context and smoking. The convergence of findings is striking. It would appear that different social groupings exist within the peer context, where these are tied to peer status and associated with distinctive lifestyle practices, and dispositions, including smoking. In the case of self-esteem and smoking the results from conventional, survey-based research have often been inconclusive, the suggestion being that global measures of self-esteem are insufficient, since feelings of self-esteem are domain or context specific. However, the present study analyses survey data from two Scottish samples of 13-14-year-olds, conducted some 10 years apart, one national (n=2100, 1987) and the other rural (n=800, 1996) to show that even with the bluntest of research instruments, i.e. self-report questionnaire survey data and general measures, it is possible to elaborate on the relationship between self-esteem and cigarette smoking in youth. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  10. Effects of cancer rehabilitation on problem-solving, anxiety and depression : a RCT comparing physical and cognitive-behavioural training versus physical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstjens, Irene; Mesters, Ilse; May, Anne M; van Weert, Ellen; van den Hout, Johanna H C; Ros, Wynand; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M; van der Schans, Cees; van den Borne, Bart

    2011-01-01

    We tested the effects on problem-solving, anxiety and depression of 12-week group-based self-management cancer rehabilitation, combining comprehensive physical training (PT) and cognitive-behavioural problem-solving training (CBT), compared with PT. We expected that PT + CBT would outperform PT in

  11. Effects of cancer rehabilitation on problem-solving, anxiety and depression : A RCT comparing physical and cognitive-behavioural training versus physical training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstjens, Irene; Mesters, Ilse; May, Anne M.; van Weert, Ellen; van den Hout, Johanna H. C.; Ros, Wynand; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; van der Schans, Cees P.; van den Borne, Bart

    2011-01-01

    We tested the effects on problem-solving, anxiety and depression of 12-week group-based self-management cancer rehabilitation, combining comprehensive physical training (PT) and cognitive-behavioural problem-solving training (CBT), compared with PT. We expected that PT + CBT would outperform PT in

  12. Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.E. Flink (Ilse); P.W. Jansen (Pauline); T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); H. Raat (Hein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem

  13. Direct Tests on Individual Behaviour in Small Decision-Making Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemi Fujikawa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an empirical and experimental analysis of individual decision making in small decision-making problems with a series of laboratory experiments. Two experimental treatments with binary small decision-making problems are implemented: (1 the search treatment with the unknown payoff distribution to the decision makers and (2 the choice treatment with the known payoff distribution. A first observation is that in the search treatment the tendency to select best reply to the past performances, and misestimation of the payoff distribution can lead to robust deviations from expected value maximisation. A second observation is concerned with choice problems with two options with the same expected value: one option is more risky with larger payoff variability; the other option is moderate with less payoff variability. Experimental results show that it is likely that the more the decision makers choose a risky option, the higher they can achieve high points, ex post. Finally, I investigate the exploration tendency. Comparison of results between the search treatment and the choice treatment reveals that the additional information to the decision makers enhances expected value maximisation.

  14. Simulation of International Standard Problem No. 44 'KAEVER' experiments on aerosol behaviour with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aerosol behavior in a vapor-saturated atmosphere, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility and proposed for the OECD International Standard Problem No. 44, were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. The purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the CONTAIN code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in a containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations are presented and analyzed.(author)

  15. The intertemporal choice behaviour. The role of emotions in a multi-agent decision problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelarosa Longo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision Neuroscience has shown positive and negative side of emotions in intertemporal choices. Psychological evidences, indeed, point out anomalies (impulsivity modifies the discount function of each individual and the false consensus effect which increases the degree of consensus in a multi-agent decision problem. An experiment (Engelmann and Strobel 2004 demonstrates that the relevance of the false consensus effect depends on the difficulty of the information retrieval, so the underlying mechanism is an information processing deficiency rather than egocentricity. We demonstrate that emotions can not cause anomalies in a cooperative strategic interaction because information is explicit.

  16. On the solutions of the dKP equation: the nonlinear Riemann Hilbert problem, longtime behaviour, implicit solutions and wave breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manakov, S V; Santini, P M

    2008-01-01

    We have recently solved the inverse scattering problem for one-parameter families of vector fields, and used this result to construct the formal solution of the Cauchy problem for a class of integrable nonlinear partial differential equations in multidimensions, including the second heavenly equation of Plebanski and the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (dKP) equation. We showed, in particular, that the associated inverse problems can be expressed in terms of nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problems on the real axis. In this paper, we make use of the nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problem of dKP (i) to construct the longtime behaviour of the solutions of its Cauchy problem; (ii) to characterize a class of implicit solutions; (iii) to elucidate the spectral mechanism causing the gradient catastrophe of localized solutions of dKP, at finite time as well as in the longtime regime, and the corresponding universal behaviours near breaking

  17. On the solutions of the dKP equation: the nonlinear Riemann Hilbert problem, longtime behaviour, implicit solutions and wave breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manakov, S V [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Santini, P M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma 1, Piazz.le Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2008-02-08

    We have recently solved the inverse scattering problem for one-parameter families of vector fields, and used this result to construct the formal solution of the Cauchy problem for a class of integrable nonlinear partial differential equations in multidimensions, including the second heavenly equation of Plebanski and the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (dKP) equation. We showed, in particular, that the associated inverse problems can be expressed in terms of nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problems on the real axis. In this paper, we make use of the nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problem of dKP (i) to construct the longtime behaviour of the solutions of its Cauchy problem; (ii) to characterize a class of implicit solutions; (iii) to elucidate the spectral mechanism causing the gradient catastrophe of localized solutions of dKP, at finite time as well as in the longtime regime, and the corresponding universal behaviours near breaking.

  18. Music therapy for children and adolescents with behavioural and emotional problems: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam; McConnell, Tracey; McLaughlin, Katrina; Lynn, Fiona; Cardwell, Christopher; Braiden, Hannah-Jane; Boylan, Jackie; Holmes, Valerie

    2017-05-01

    Although music therapy (MT) is considered an effective intervention for young people with mental health needs, its efficacy in clinical settings is unclear. We therefore examined the efficacy of MT in clinical practice. Two hundred and fifty-one child (8-16 years, with social, emotional, behavioural and developmental difficulties) and parent dyads from six Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service community care facilities in Northern Ireland were randomised to 12 weekly sessions of MT plus usual care [n = 123; 76 in final analyses] or usual care alone [n = 128; 105 in final analyses]. Follow-up occurred at 13 weeks and 26 weeks postrandomisation. Primary outcome was improvement in communication (Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales) (SSIS) at 13 weeks. Secondary outcomes included social functioning, self-esteem, depression and family functioning. There was no significant difference for the child SSIS at week 13 (adjusted difference in mean 2.4; 95% CI -1.2 to 6.1; p = .19) or for the guardian SSIS (0.5; 95% CI -2.9 to 3.8; p = .78). However, for participants aged 13 and over in the intervention group, the child SSIS communication was significantly improved (6.1, 95% CI 1.6 to 10.5; p = .007) but not the guardian SSIS (1.1; 95% CI -2.9 to 5.2; p = .59). Overall, self-esteem was significantly improved and depression scores were significantly lower at week 13. There was no significant difference in family or social functioning at week 13. While the findings provide some evidence for the integration of music therapy into clinical practice, differences relating to subgroups and secondary outcomes indicate the need for further study. ISRCTN Register; ISRCTN96352204. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Exploration of predictors, moderators and mediators of change in parent skills training programmes for externalising behaviour problems in children – who benefits most and how do they work?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Background: A key driver for early years strategies is the reduction of oppositional and defiant behaviour in childhood to prevent a negative life course of poor educational attainment and criminality. Despite a robust evidence base, manualised parent skills training programmes (PT) for externalising behaviour problems are only effective for approximately two-thirds of families. A limited number of variables that account for variance in outcome have been discovered. Finding fur...

  20. Parent interactions in mediating behaviour problems of school-aged students: A case study set in a small BC Coastal community

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Marian Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In the process of parents’ interactions with principals and teachers to resolve behaviour problems, what happens that is likely to create positive outcomes for children in school? Research literature establishes that parent interactions, whether for behaviour or academic reasons, are directed by subtly defined or invisible parameters that provide inherent institutional influence to outcomes. Bourdieu’s social reproduction theory, which relates to the influence of cultural, social, and symbo...

  1. The effect of training and breed group on problem-solving behaviours in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Frazzi, Chiara; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Dogs have become the focus of cognitive studies looking at both their physical and social problem-solving abilities (Bensky et al. in Adv Stud Behav, 45:209-387, 2013), but very little is known about the environmental and inherited factors that may affect these abilities. In the current study, we presented a manipulation task (a puzzle box) and a spatial task (the detour) to 128 dogs belonging to four different breed groups: Herding, Mastiff-like, Working and Retrievers (von Holdt et al. in Nature 464:898-902, 2010). Within each group, we tested highly trained and non-trained dogs. Results showed that trained dogs were faster at obtaining the reward in the detour task. In the manipulation task, trained dogs approached the apparatus sooner in the first familiarization trial, but no effect of breed emerged on this variable. Furthermore, regardless of breed, dogs in the trained group spent proportionally more time interacting with the apparatus and were more likely to succeed in the test trial than dogs in the non-trained group, whereas regardless of training, dogs in the working breed group were more likely to succeed than dogs in the retriever and herding breed groups (but not the mastiff-like group). Finally, trained dogs were less likely to look at a person than non-trained dogs during testing, but dogs in the herding group more likely to do so than dogs in the retriever and working but not the mastiff-like breed groups. Overall, results reveal a strong influence of training experience but less consistent differences between breed groups on different components thought to affect problem solving.

  2. Perceived child behaviour problems, parenting stress, and marital satisfaction: comparison of new arrival and local parents of preschool children in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shirley S L; Leung, Cynthia; Chan, Ruth

    2007-10-01

    To compare parental perception of child behaviour problems, parenting stress, and marital satisfaction in new arrival and local parents. Cross-sectional survey; semi-structured interview. Maternal and Child Health Centres, social service centres, preschools. Parents of preschool children, including new arrival parents and local parents. Child behaviour problems, parenting stress, and marital satisfaction. After controlling for socio-economic factors, new arrival parents were more troubled by their children's behaviour problems and their parent-child interactions were more dysfunctional than those of local parents. There were no differences in parent-reported severity of child behaviour problems, parental distress, and marital satisfaction. New arrival parents reported difficulties in adapting to the new living environment and lack of social support. New arrival parents were more troubled by their children's behaviour, and their parent-child interactions were more dysfunctional than those of local parents. These might in part be related to their settlement difficulties. Parenting programmes should address their specific settlement needs.

  3. Harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana among lifetime problem gamblers and the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Public health research has pointed to alcohol and substance abuse as the most significant public health challenges in Greenland with the negative impact on families and communities that entail, but few studies have investigated the role of problem gambling as addictive behaviour among Inuit. The ....... The objectives of the present study were to investigate (a) the association between lifetime problem gambling and harmful alcohol use as well as frequent use of marijuana and (b) the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit....

  4. Family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behavioural problems, socio-economic disadvantage and fruit and vegetable consumption among 4-12 year-old Victorians, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, A M N; Kumanyika, S; Tucker, K L

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this analysis was to assess relationships between family functioning, parental psychological distress, child behaviour difficulties and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among 4-12-year-old children in Victoria, Australia. We used the 2006 Victorian Child's Health and wellbeing data set that included 3370 randomly selected primary caregivers of 4-12-year-old children interviewed between October 2005 and March 2006. Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; level of family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device-General Functioning Scale and parental psychological distress was measured using the Kessler-6 scale. The mean number of servings consumed per day was 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1, 2.3) for fruit and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.1) for vegetables. The proportion of children meeting the minimum daily age-specific recommendation was 87.8% (95% CI: 86.4, 89.1%) for fruit and 36.5% (95% CI: 34.5, 38.5) for vegetables. Children with behaviour difficulties, low levels of prosocial behaviours and from poorly functioning households consumed fewer servings of F&V than children who did not experience any environment stressors or behavioural problems. Although parental psychological distress was not associated with fruit intake, daughters of parents who reported higher levels of psychological distress consumed fewer servings of vegetables than daughters of parents who reported lower levels of psychological distress. Child behavioural problems and family functioning and to some extent parental psychological distress were associated with F&V consumption. Programmes aimed at promoting F&V consumption in children should target those families with children experiencing behavioural problems or poorly functioning households.

  5. Social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with emotional and behavioural problems at 3 and 5 years: the Eden mother-child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Thorr, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine how social withdrawal in infants aged 12 months predicted emotional and behavioural problems at ages 3 and 5 years. The sample included 1,586 infants from the French Eden Mother-Child Cohort Study who had a measure of social withdrawal with the Alarm Distress BaBy scale at age 1 year; among these children, emotional and behavioural difficulties were rated by mothers using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) at 3 years for 1,257 (79 %) children and at 5 years for 1,123 (72 %) children. Social withdrawal behaviour at age 1 year was significantly associated with the SDQ behavioural disorder scale at 3 years, independently of a host of familial and child temperament confounders. The association with the relational disorder, prosocial and total difficulty scales was close to significance at 3 years after taking into account familial and temperament confounders. Social withdrawal significantly predicted the three aforementioned scales when measured at 5 years. No significant predictivity of the emotional scale and hyperactivity scale was detected at any age. This study made with a large longitudinal sample confirms the negative effects on development of social withdrawal behaviour, shedding light on the unfolding of behavioural disorders and relational difficulties in children; this calls for early detection of sustained social withdrawal behaviour, as it seems to hamper emotional development.

  6. Associations between parental feeding practices, problem food behaviours and dietary intake in New Zealand overweight children aged 4-8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszard, Jillian J; Skidmore, Paula M L; Williams, Sheila M; Taylor, Rachael W

    2015-04-01

    Parents report that children's eating behaviours are a major barrier to providing them with a healthy diet. Links between problem eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are not well established and have not previously been examined in overweight children. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between problem food behaviours, dietary intake and parental feeding practices of overweight children aged 4-8 years. Participants were recruited for a lifestyle intervention (n 203). At baseline, children's BMI was measured and parents completed comprehensive questionnaires about the feeding practices they used, the problem food behaviours their children exhibited and the foods their child consumed. A fussy eating scale was developed and associations were determined using correlations and regression analysis, including interactions. Dunedin, New Zealand. Overweight children aged 4-8 years. Healthy eating guidance and monitoring by parents were related to the consumption of fewer unhealthy foods (B=-0·4, P=0·001 and B=-0·4, Pfoods (B = 0·5, Pfood intake less (Pfood-restrictive parents ate more fruit and vegetables (B=2·9, Pfood environment might be beneficial for the diet and food behaviours of young overweight children.

  7. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  8. What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

  9. Ethnic identity, externalizing problem behaviour and the mediating role of self-esteem among Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, I.B.; Deković, M.; Yağmur, S.; Stams, G.J.; de Haan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between two aspects of ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment-affirmation) and externalizing problem behaviour in Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents living in the

  10. Ethnic Identity, Externalizing Problem Behaviour and the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem among Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Yagmur, Sengul; Stams, Geert Jan; de Haan, Mariette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between two aspects of ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment-affirmation) and externalizing problem behaviour in Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents living in the Netherlands. A total number of 345 adolescents (115…

  11. Behavioural, emotional, and post-traumatic stress problems in children and adolescents, long term after septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, L. C. A. C.; Buysse, C. M. P.; Joosten, K. F. M.; Hazelzet, J. A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Utens, E. M. W. J.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the occurrence of a wide range of behavioural, emotional, and post-traumatic stress problems in children and adolescents, long term after septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis (MSS). This study included 6- to 17-year-old patients who survived MSS and were admitted to the PICU of

  12. BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS IN CHILDRE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various other estimates have been advanced. Scrivener3 ... Jnd 13% of the women) had suffered from definite and disabling .... In the majority of cases such difficulties arise out.of ... hygiene programme to alleviate the position would still be.

  13. Does perinatal exposure to exogenous oxytocin influence child behavioural problems and autistic-like behaviours to 20 years of age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastella, A J; Cooper, M N; White, C R H; White, M K; Pennell, C E; Whitehouse, A J O

    2018-04-27

    The neuropeptide and hormone oxytocin is known to have a significant impact on social cognition and behaviour in humans. There is growing concern regarding the influence of exogenous oxytocin (OT) administration in early life on later social and emotional development, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). No study has examined offspring development in relation to the dose of exogenous oxytocin administered during labour. Between 1989 and 1992, 2,900 mothers were recruited prior to the 18th week of pregnancy, delivering 2,868 live offspring. The Child Behaviour Checklist was used to measure offspring behavioural difficulties at ages 5, 8, 10, 14 and 17 years. Autism spectrum disorder was formally diagnosed by consensus of a team of specialists. At 20 years, offspring completed a measure of autistic-like traits, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Oxytocin exposure prior to birth was analysed using categorical and continuous approaches (maternal oxytocin dose) with univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Categorical analyses of oxytocin exposure prior to birth demonstrated no group differences in any measures of child behaviour. A small in magnitude dose-response association was observed for clinically significant total behaviour symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, p Exogenous oxytocin administration prior to birth was not associated with ASD (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.15-2.12, p = .46) or high levels of autistic-like traits (p = .93), as assessed by the AQ. This study is the first to investigate longitudinal mental health outcomes associated with the use of oxytocin-based medications during labour. The results do not provide evidence to support the theory that exogenous OT has a clinically significant negative impact on the long-term mental health of children. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Associations between school difficulties and health-related problems and risky behaviours in early adolescence: A cross-sectional study in middle-school adolescents in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Causin-Brice, Odile; Delacour, Yves; Richoux-Picard, Catherine; Verdin, Monique; Armand, Isabelle; Chau, Nearkasen

    2016-10-30

    Health-related problems and risky behaviours (substance use) are frequent in adolescents, may alter their physical and mental capabilities, and may thus generate school absenteeism, low academic performance, and school dropout ideation. This study assessed their associations and the contribution of socioeconomic factors among 1559 middle-school adolescents (mean age 13.5+1.3) from north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics, health-related problems (poor physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment) assessed with the World Health Organization's quality of life measure (scoreschool absences during the present school year, last-trimester academic performance, and school dropout ideation. Data were analysed using logistic regression models. School absenteeism was frequent (12.6% of subjects for 8-14 days, and 6.0% for ≥15 days); 8.2% of subjects had low academic performance (average school-mark school dropout ideation. All school difficulties were strongly associated with all health-related problems (gender-age-school-level-adjusted odds ratios gasOR between 1.5 and 4.2), and with risky behaviours (gasOR between 1.4 and 14). Socioeconomic factors differently contributed to these associations (contribution reaching 77%). Policy makers, schools, physicians and parents should be more aware of the problems and help adolescents to reduce health-related problems and risky behaviours and to increase resilience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Family poverty and trajectories of children's emotional and behavioural problems: the moderating roles of self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Joshi, Heather

    2014-08-01

    Socio-economic disadvantage is strongly associated with children's emotional (internalising) and behavioural (externalising) problems. Self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability have been related to children's emotional and behavioural resilience to socio-economic disadvantage. Despite being inter-related, self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability have not been examined jointly as promoting resilience in young children. This study investigated the roles of self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability in children's emotional and behavioural resilience to family socio-economic disadvantage from early to middle childhood (ages 3, 5, and 7 years; N = 16,916; 49 % girls). Using multivariate response growth curve modelling, we found that the relationship between socio-economic disadvantage and internalising problems was stronger for children with lower verbal cognitive ability. Also, poor children with high and low levels of self-regulation showed a widening gap in both emotional and behavioural problems over time. Poor and non-poor children alike benefited from self-regulation, but poor children appeared to be more vulnerable to low self-regulation. Self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability seem to be important protective factors for young children growing up in poor families.

  16. Does Your Library Have an Attitude Problem towards "Marketing"? Revealing Inter-Relationship between Marketing Attitudes and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behaviour of librarians in thirty-three different libraries of Finland. Based on market-oriented behaviour, three kinds of libraries were found: "strong," "medium" and "weak." The findings indicate a positive relation between…

  17. Environmental determinants of celeration behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    af Wåhlberg, Anders E

    2015-01-01

    Celeration (speed change) behaviour of drivers has been posited to be the best predictor of their traffic accident involvement. The origins of this behaviour, however, have not been specified. A model is therefore introduced, where celeration is partly due to the individual disposition of the driver (i.e., driving style), and partly to the environment (road layout, rules and traffic density). Three measurement problems for celeration were studied; the effect of traffic density, of regular versus irregular routes, and weight of the vehicle (loaded/unloaded) on celeration behaviour. Two small samples of truck drivers in Sweden were measured for several months each. There was a strong effect of vehicle load, with behaviour being more cautious with increased weight. Driving on different roads also yielded differences in behaviour, although the design used did not permit conclusions about what caused these. Traffic volume was not found to have any reliable effect on celeration.

  18. Hydro mechanical coupling for non linear behaviour laws. Application to petroleum problems; Couplage hydromecanique pour des lois de comportement non lineaires Application a des problemes petroliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longuemare, P.

    1996-11-28

    The aim of this study is to provide a better description of the rock contribution to fluid flows in sedimentary basins and petroleum reservoirs. After a study of the mechanical behaviour of high porosity chalks and shales, we present the elaboration of an elastoplastic constitutive model for the description of their behaviour under various strain and stress paths. This model is introduced in a coupled poro-mechanical approach and used to study the advantages of a good description of strain and stress paths in petroleum reservoirs and sedimentary basins studies. Hydro-mechanical modelling of the behaviour of petroleum reservoir allowed us to analyse the influence of boundary limit conditions on stress paths recovery rates. The study of sedimentary basins showed the importance of the consideration of the evolution of the porosity with time due to the time-scale difference between the laboratory and the field data. (author) 58 refs.

  19. Dogs with separation-related problems show a "less pessimistic" cognitive bias during treatment with fluoxetine (Reconcile™) and a behaviour modification plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Christos I; Burman, Oliver Hp; Mills, Daniel S

    2015-03-28

    Canine separation-related problems (SRP) (also described as "separation anxiety" or "separation distress") are among the most common behavioural complaints of dog owners. Treatment with psychoactive medication in parallel with a behaviour modification plan is well documented in the literature, but it is unknown if this is associated with an improvement in underlying affective state (emotion and mood) or simply an inhibition of the behaviour. Cognitive judgement bias tasks have been proposed as a method for assessing underlying affective state and so we used this approach to identify if any change in clinical signs during treatment was associated with a consistent change in cognitive bias (affective state). Five dogs showing signs of SRP (vocalising - e.g. barking, howling-, destruction of property, and toileting - urination or defecation- when alone) were treated with fluoxetine chewable tablets (Reconcile™) and set on a standard behaviour modification plan for two months. Questionnaires and interviews of the owners were used to monitor the clinical progress of the dogs. Subjects were also evaluated using a spatial cognitive bias test to infer changes in underlying affect prior to, and during, treatment. Concurrently, seven other dogs without signs of SRP were tested in the same way to act as controls. Furthermore, possible correlations between cognitive bias and clinical measures were also assessed for dogs with SRP. Prior to treatment, the dogs with SRP responded to ambiguous positions in the cognitive bias test negatively (i.e. with slower running speeds) compared to control dogs (p 0.05). Questionnaire based clinical measures were significantly correlated among themselves and with performance in the cognitive bias test. These results demonstrate for the first time that the clinical treatment of a negative affective state and associated behaviours in a non-human species can produce a shift in cognitive bias. These findings demonstrate how the outcome of an

  20. Awareness, understanding, and help seeking for behaviour problems by parents of primary school age children in Central Jakarta: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjhin Wiguna

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion This study emphasizes the need to increase parents’ awareness and understanding and helping agencies so they can recognize the problems accurately and overcome the barriers appropriately. [Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:18-25].

  1. Neighbourhood human capital and the development of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems: the mediating role of parenting and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Kuang, Ye; Flouri, Eirini

    2014-05-01

    This study examined how low neighbourhood human capital (measured by percentage of residents with no qualifications) may be related to trajectories of children׳s emotional and behavioural problems from early-to-middle childhood. It also assessed whether effects of neighbourhood human capital or its pathways were moderated by child nonverbal cognitive ability. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that, after adjusting for key child and family background characteristics, the adverse effects of low neighbourhood human capital on hyperactivity and peer problems remained, and were fully attenuated by the achievement level of children׳s schools. The effect of low neighbourhood human capital on the change in conduct problems over time was robust. Moreover, higher nonverbal ability did not dampen the adverse impact of low neighbourhood human capital on the trajectory of conduct problems or that of low performing schools on hyperactivity and peer problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Voskuijl, Wieger; Chidzalo, Kate; Kerac, Marko; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bandsma, Robert; Gladstone, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe

  3. Developmental and behavioural problems in children with severe acute malnutrition in Malawi: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Voskuijl, Wieger; Chidzalo, Kate; Kerac, Marko; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bandsma, Robert; Gladstone, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Background Early childhood development provides an important foundation for the development of human capital. Although there is a clear relation between stunting and child development outcomes, less information is available about the developmental and behavioural outcomes of children with severe

  4. Psychological well-being of parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment in south India: influence of behavioural problems in children and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu

    2014-08-01

    Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.

  5. A pilot effectiveness study of the Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme for parents of children with behaviour problems: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Margiad Elen; Hutchings, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Background The Enhancing Parenting Skills (EPaS) 2014 programme is a home-based, health visitor-delivered parenting support programme for parents of children with identified behaviour problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPaS 2014 programme compared to a waiting-list treatment as usual control group. Methods/Design This is a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial. Sixty health visitors will each be asked to identify two families that have a child scoring ...

  6. Effects of Aggression Replacement Training on Problem Solving, Anger and Aggressive Behaviour among Adolescents with Criminal Attempts in Turkey: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Fadime; Buzlu, Sevim

    2016-12-01

    The research was conducted by a pretest and post-test conducted in a quasi-experimental design which aimed to determine effectiveness of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) on problem solving, anger and aggressive behaviour among adolescents with criminal attempts in Turkey. The study included 65 adolescents with criminal attempts (32 intervention, 33 control). There was no difference between the groups in terms of average age (16.13±1.10 in the experimental group and 16.21±0.89 in the control group). After the intervention, the experimental group showed significantly decreased Trait Anger levels (t=1.906; P=0.033), increased Anger Control scores (t=2.522; P=0.008), decreased Physical Aggression scores (t=1.925; P=0.031), decreased Hostility scores (t=2.496; P=0.009), increased Social Problem Solving total scores (t=2.937; P=0.005). Increased Anger Control scores were found to be significant when compared with the control group (t=2.273, P=0.026). These results showed that ART was effective on problem solving, anger and aggressive behaviour and can be used to develop positive behaviours among adolescents with criminal attempts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards an understanding of Internet-based problem shopping behaviour: The concept of online shopping addiction and its proposed predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan; Dhandayudham, Arun

    2014-06-01

    Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science - Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA.

  8. Global Advisory Group: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    The conclusions and recommendations formulated for the global program by the 8th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group, which took place during November 1985, are summarized. The Global Advisory Group recommends that, in furtherance of the Five-Point Action Program endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 1983, 3 general and 4 specific actions be taken by national immunization programs with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO) to accelerate EPI progress. These recommendations reflect optimism that the 1990 goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization for all children of the world can be realized but also acknowledge that many fundamental problems of national program management remain to be resolved. The general actions are: to promote the achievement of the 1990 immunization goal at national and international levels through collaboration among ministries, organizations, and individuals in both the public and private sectors; to adopt a mix of complementary strategies for program acceleration; and to ensure that rapid increases in coverage can be sustained through mechanisms which strengthen th delivery of other primary health care interventions. The specific actions are as follows: to provide immunization at every contact point; to reduce dropout rates between 1st and last immunizations; to improve immunization services to the disadvantaged in urban areas; and to increase priority for the control of measles, poliomyelitis, and neonatal tetanus. The WHO and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) have collaborated in support of the EPI since the early days of the program. The acceleration of national efforts heightens the importance of this collaboration, particularly at the national level. It may be further facilitated by the provision of policy guidance from global and regional levels, by WHO and UNICEF collaborative agreements at the regional level, and by country agreements

  9. Association between competing interests and authors' conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, Lise L; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials.......To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials....

  10. PARENTING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON CHILD BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Mary Antony

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Parenting is the process of giving care to the young and preparing them to face the challenges of life. Diana Baumrind introduced the models of parenting, authoritative, authoritarian and permissive depending on the level of demandingness and responsiveness. Defective parenting is associated with problem behaviours in children. This study was undertaken to find out which parenting style is least associated with behavioural problems and what are the problems associated with the different parenting style. MATERIALS AND METHODS 46 children who were admitted with minor illness at the institute of Child Health, Kottayam from January 2017 to Oct 2017 were enrolled after getting informed consent and IRB clearance. Purposive sampling method were used for the study. Demographic data was entered into a proforma. The PSDQ and CBCL 1½ -5 questionnaire was given to mothers to assess the parenting style and behavioural problems in their children. Data was analysed with statistical tests. The t test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analyses were used for the analyses. RESULTS The parenting styles of the mothers and the behavioural problems seen in their children were studied in this research. There was no significant difference in behavioural problems between the different age group studied and there was no difference in problem behaviours between male children and female children. Authoritative parenting style was least associated with problem behaviour. Authoritarian parenting style is associated with internalizing problems and permissive parenting is associated with externalizing problems. CONCLUSION Since the behaviour problems tends to linger through adolescence and adulthood, parental education regarding the positive parenting style and interventions can be given from early childhood during routine child care and structured programs.

  11. Asymptotic behaviour around a boundary point of the q-Painlevé VI equation and its connection problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We study analytic properties of solutions to the q-Painlevé VI equation (q-P VI ), which was derived by Jimbo and Sakai as the compatibility condition for a connection preserving deformation (CPD) of a linear q-difference equation. We investigate local behaviours of solutions to q-P VI around a boundary point making use of the structure of the CPD. We also give a formula connecting the local behaviours of a solution around two boundary points. The results in this paper should be useful in future for studying more detailed global properties of solutions to q-P VI or exploring new special solutions with remarkable analytic properties

  12. Polygenic scores for schizophrenia and educational attainment are associated with behavioural problems in early childhood in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Philip R; Polderman, Tinca J C; Bolhuis, Koen; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Posthuma, Danielle; Tiemeier, Henning

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies in adults have identified numerous genetic variants related to psychiatric disorders and related traits, such as schizophrenia and educational attainment. However, the effects of these genetic variants on behaviour in the general population remain to be

  13. Web-assisted assessment of professional behaviour in problem-based learning: more feedback, yet no qualitative improvement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Muijtjens, A.M.M.; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    Although other web-based approaches to assessment of professional behaviour have been studied, no publications studying the potential advantages of a web-based instrument versus a classic, paper-based method have been published to date. This study has two research goals: it focuses on the quantity

  14. Mediated Pathways from Maternal Depression and Early Parenting to Children's Executive Function and Externalizing Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire; Kuhn, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Structural equation models were used to examine pathways from maternal depression and early parenting to children's executive function (EF) and externalizing behaviours in the first nationally representative study to obtain direct assessments of children's kindergarten EF skills (i.e., the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of…

  15. Validation of the Ford Score as a Measure for Predicting the Level of Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Ford, Tamsin

    2008-01-01

    Emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) are common in children, and forecasting their prevalence in schools is of interest to both academic researchers and local authorities. Percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals is one measure often used for this purpose. The article presents the first independent validation of a simple…

  16. Parents and teachers reporting on a child's emotional and behavioural problems following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI): the moderating effect of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Tamar; Tal-Jacobi, Dana; Levav, Miriam; Brezner, Amichai; Rassovsky, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Gathering information from parents and teachers following paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has substantial clinical value for diagnostic decisions. Yet, a multi-informant approach has rarely been addressed when evaluating children at the chronic stage post-injury. In the current study, the goals were to examine (1) differences between parents' and teachers' reports on a child's emotional and behavioural problems and (2) the effect of time elapsed since injury on each rater's report. A sample of 42 parents and 42 teachers of children following severe TBI completed two standard rating scales. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine whether time elapsed since injury reliably distinguished children falling above and below clinical levels. Emotional-behavioural scores of children following severe TBI fell within normal range, according to both teachers and parents. Significant differences were found between parents' reports relatively close to the time of injury and 2 years post-injury. However, no such differences were observed in teachers' ratings. Parents and teachers of children following severe TBI differ in their reports on a child's emotional and behavioural problems. The present study not only underscores the importance of multiple informants, but also highlights, for the first time, the possibility that informants' perceptions may vary across time.

  17. Behaviour planning and problem solving deficiencies in children with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from the Balobedu culture, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila-Nemutandani, Refilwe Gloria; Meyer, Anneke

    2016-07-01

    To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the Balobedu culture (Limpopo province, South Africa), aged 7-13 years, participated in the study. The performance of the two groups was compared on a test of planning and problem solving, the Tower of London (ToL) task. The results were analysed as a function of gender and ADHD subtype. The Finger Tapping test (testing fine motor skills) was used as a control test to verify that the expected differences were not due to poor motor skills. The children with ADHD symptoms scored significantly lower than the non-ADHD comparison group which indicated deficiency in frontal lobe functioning (p = 0.00). The difference in performance was not due to poor motor control (p = 0.70). Children with ADHD symptoms show deficits in behavioural planning which indicates impairment of functions of the frontal areas supplied by the mesocortical dopamine branch. More so than others, the ADHD Inattentive and Combined subtypes showed poor performance in the Tower of London task, indicating poor organisational and planning skills in these groups. The results also did show that the difference was not due to problems with motor control and that the ToL task is a culture-fair instrument for testing planning behaviour.

  18. The Relationship between Mathematical Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Regulated Learning through Homework Behaviours, Motivation, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Zeynep Çigdem

    2016-01-01

    Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving…

  19. Calculation and word problem-solving skills in primary grades - Impact of cognitive abilities and longitudinal interrelations with task-persistent behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-06-01

    Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and task-persistent behaviour in Grade 1 and Grade 3, and the effect of non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning on math skills and task persistence. Participants were 864 students (52.3% boys) from 33 different schools in Estonia. Students were tested twice - at the end of Grade1 and at the end of Grade 3. Calculation and problem-solving skills, and teacher-rated task-persistent behaviour were measured at both time points. Non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning were measured in Grade 1. Cross-lagged structural equation modelling indicated that calculation skills depend on previous math skills and linguistic abilities, while problem-solving skills require also non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, and task persistence. Task-persistent behaviour in Grade 3 was predicted by previous problem-solving skills, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning. Gender and mother's educational level were added as covariates. The findings indicate that math skills and self-regulation are strongly related in primary grades and that solving complex tasks requires executive functioning and task persistence from children. Findings support the idea that instructional practices might benefit from supporting self-regulation in order to gain domain-specific, complex skill achievement. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Psychosocial interventions for disruptive behavioural problems in children living in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Matthew D; Hosein, Megan; Purgato, Marianna; Adi, Ahmad; Morton, Isabella; Kohrt, Brandon A; Tol, Wietse A

    2015-05-20

    Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) are among the most common forms of child psychopathology and have serious long-term academic, social, and mental health consequences worldwide. Psychosocial treatments are the first line of evidence-based treatments for DBDs, yet their effectiveness often varies according to patient sociodemographic characteristics, practice setting, and implementation procedures. While a large majority of the world's children live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), most studies have evaluated psychosocial treatments for DBDs in high-income Anglo countries. The primary objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of psychosocial treatments for DBDs in children and adolescents (under age 18) diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, or other disruptive behavioural problems living in LMIC. The secondary objectives are to: (1) describe the range and types of psychosocial treatments used to address DBDs in LMIC and (2) identify key dissemination and implementation factors (adaptation processes, training/supervision processes, and financial costs). All controlled trials comparing psychosocial treatments versus waiting list, no treatment, or treatment as usual in children living in LMIC will be included. Studies will be identified using the methods outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines without restrictions on language, publication type, status, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be disruptive behavioural problems (eg, oppositionality, defiance, aggression or deceit). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (eg, prosocial behaviour), function impairment, institutionalisation (or hospitalisation), academic outcomes and caregiver outcomes. This study uses data from published studies; therefore ethical review is not required. Findings will be presented in a published manuscript. PROSPERO CRD42014015334

  1. Service use by Australian children for emotional and behavioural problems: Findings from the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Hafekost, Jennifer; Saw, Suzy; Buckingham, William J; Sawyer, Michael; Ainley, John; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2016-09-01

    To identify the proportion of children and adolescents in Australia and the proportion of those with mental disorders who used services for emotional and behavioural problems, the type of services used and what characteristics were associated with service use. During 2013-2014, a national face-to-face household survey of mental health and wellbeing (Young Minds Matter) was conducted, involving 6310 parents and carers of 4- to 17-year-olds (55% of eligible households) and self-report surveys from 2967 11- to 17-year-olds in these households (89% of eligible youth). The survey identified 12-month mental disorders based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version IV and asked about service use for emotional or behavioural problems in the previous 12 months. Overall, 17.0% of all 4- to 17-year-olds used services for emotional or behavioural problems in the previous 12 months. Of those with mental disorders, 56.0% used services (48.9% of 4- to 11-year-olds; 65.1% of 12- to 17-year-olds). Service use was highest among 4- to 17-year-olds with major depressive disorder (79.6%) and lowest for those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (52.7%). Two-fifths (41.2%), 72.5% and 87.6% of those with mild, moderate and severe disorders used services. General practitioners, psychologists, paediatricians and counsellors/family therapists were the most commonly accessed health service providers. Two-fifths with mental disorders had attended school services. About 5% of adolescents reported use of online personal support or counselling for help with their problems. From multivariate models, service use was higher in sole carer families, but also among those living in the least socially and economically disadvantaged compared to the most disadvantaged areas. Rates of service use for mental disorders in Australia's children and adolescents appear to have increased substantially. Health services and schools are the major providers of services for emotional and

  2. Matching consumer feeding behaviours and resource traits: a fourth-corner problem in food-web theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Angelo Barbosa; Faria, Lucas Del Bianco

    2018-06-06

    For decades, food web theory has proposed phenomenological models for the underlying structure of ecological networks. Generally, these models rely on latent niche variables that match the feeding behaviour of consumers with their resource traits. In this paper, we used a comprehensive database to evaluate different hypotheses on the best dependency structure of trait-matching patterns between consumers and resource traits. We found that consumer feeding behaviours had complex interactions with resource traits; however, few dimensions (i.e. latent variables) could reproduce the trait-matching patterns. We discuss our findings in the light of three food web models designed to reproduce the multidimensionality of food web data; additionally, we discuss how using species traits clarify food webs beyond species pairwise interactions and enable studies to infer ecological generality at larger scales, despite potential taxonomic differences, variations in ecological conditions and differences in species abundance between communities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the first boundary-value problem for strongly hyperbolic systems near a conical point at the boundary of the domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Nguyen M

    1999-01-01

    An existence and uniqueness theorem for generalized solutions of the first initial-boundary-value problem for strongly hyperbolic systems in bounded domains is established. The question of estimates in Sobolev spaces of the derivatives with respect to time of the generalized solution is discussed. It is shown that the smoothness of generalized solutions with respect to time is independent of the structure of the boundary of the domain but depends on the coefficients of the right-hand side. Results on the smoothness of the generalized solution and its asymptotic behaviour in a neighbourhood of a conical boundary point are also obtained

  4. Dyadic Flexibility in Early Parent-Child Interactions: Relations with Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negativity and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Albrecht, Erin C.; Kemp, Christine J.

    2013-01-01

    Lower levels of parent-child affective flexibility indicate risk for children's problem outcomes. This short-term longitudinal study examined whether maternal depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of dyadic affective flexibility and positive affective content in mother-child problem-solving interactions at age 3.5?years…

  5. Behaviour Problems in the Siblings of Children with Down Syndrome: Associations with Family Responsibilities and Parental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskelly, Monica; Hayes, Alan; Chant, David

    1998-01-01

    Forty-five Australian families with children with Down syndrome and 88 comparison families provided information about their children's behavior problems and involvement in household tasks. For the brothers of children with Down syndrome, significant negative correlations between household tasks and behavior problems were found on fathers' reports.…

  6. The Pharmacological Management of Oppositional Behaviour, Conduct Problems, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Part 2: Antipsychotics and Traditional Mood Stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses in childhood. Aggression and conduct problems are a major source of disability and a risk factor for poor long-term outcomes. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotics, lithium, and anticonvulsants for aggression and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. Each medication was given an overall quality of evidence rating based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results: Eleven RCTs of antipsychotics and 7 RCTs of lithium and anticonvulsants were included. There is moderate-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate-to-large effect on conduct problems and aggression in youth with subaverage IQ and ODD, CD, or disruptive behaviour disorder not otherwise specified, with and without ADHD, and high-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate effect on disruptive and aggressive behaviour in youth with average IQ and ODD or CD, with and without ADHD. Evidence supporting the use of haloperidol, thioridazine, quetiapine, and lithium in aggressive youth with CD is of low or very-low quality, and evidence supporting the use of divalproex in aggressive youth with ODD or CD is of low quality. There is very-low-quality evidence that carbamazepine is no different from placebo for the management of aggression in youth with CD. Conclusion: With the exception of risperidone, the evidence to support the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers is of low quality. PMID:25886656

  7. Seismic monitoring of the Creys-Malville plant - Problems raised by the seismic behaviour of a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descleve, P.; Barrau, P.

    1988-01-01

    CREYS-MALVILLE reached full power in December 1986 and is presently the largest sodium cooled reactor in operation. Well established procedures of safety evaluation have been used for the design but for a large size reactor special attention must be paid to the effects of seismic disturbances. This paper describes the seismic protection and monitoring system of the plant, the core behaviour which is specific to fast reactors and the test performed to verify the analyses. Finally the seismic impact on the construction can be established as an indication for future plants. (author)

  8. Problems to be solved about inelastic behaviour of materials and inelastic analysis of structures at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, P.; Escatha, Y. d'.

    1981-01-01

    At elevated temperature, ASME CODE CASE N 47 demands, in its design and analysis part to demonstrate that none of eight damages, related to the monotonic and cyclic inelastic behaviour of the material and structure, will happen during the whole life of the reactor. However this demonstration, for strain limits and creep fatigue failure, using a purely elastic analysis as in the ASME CODE Section III, is usually impossible. Inelastic analysis is then necessary. We review some of the research work (theorical and experimental) which is being done to qualify methods for an inelastic analysis of structures at elevated temperature [fr

  9. Relationship between perceived limit-setting abilities, autism spectrum disorder severity, behaviour problems and parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Howse, Jessie; Ho, Ben; Osborne, Lisa A

    2017-11-01

    Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips of parenting behaviours. Mothers of 93 children with autism spectrum disorder completed an online survey regarding the severity of their own child's autism spectrum disorder (Social Communication Questionnaire), their child's behaviour problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and their own levels of parenting stress (Questionnaire on Resources and Stress). They were shown five videos of other parents interacting with children with autism spectrum disorder and were asked to rate the limit-setting abilities observed in each video using the Parent-Child Relationship Inventory. Higher parenting stress negatively related to judgements about others' limit-setting skills. This mirrors the literature regarding the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and rating child behaviour more negatively. It suggests that stress negatively impacts a wide range of judgements and implies that caution may be required when interpreting the results of studies in which parenting skills are assessed by self-report.

  10. Fun Seeking and Reward Responsiveness Moderate the Effect of the Behavioural Inhibition System on Coping-Motivated Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Matthew T; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Hendershot, Christian S; Bagby, R Michael; Quilty, Lena C

    2017-09-01

    Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) predicts that the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) may relate to coping-motivated problem gambling, given its central role in anxiety. Studies examining the BIS-problem gambling association, however, are mixed. The revised RST posits that the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) may moderate the effect of the BIS on coping-motivated problem gambling. A concurrently strong BAS may highlight the negatively reinforcing effects of gambling, which may strengthen coping motives and increase gambling-related harms. We examined these interactive effects to clarify the moderators and mediators of the negative reinforcement pathway to problem gambling. Data came from a larger investigation of problem gambling among individuals with mood disorders. All participants (N = 275) met criteria for a lifetime depressive or bipolar disorder. During a two-day assessment, participants completed a diagnostic assessment and self-reports. Mediated moderation path analysis showed positive indirect effects from the BIS to problem gambling via coping motives at high, but not at low, levels of BAS-Reward Responsiveness and BAS-Fun Seeking. Enhancement motives were also found to mediate the associations of BAS-Fun Seeking and BAS-Drive with problem gambling. Reward Responsiveness and Fun Seeking facets of the BAS may strengthen coping gambling motives within the mood disorders.

  11. Asymptotic behaviour and stability of solutions of a singularly perturbed elliptic problem with a triple root of the degenerate equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butuzov, V. F.

    2017-06-01

    We construct and justify asymptotic expansions of solutions of a singularly perturbed elliptic problem with Dirichlet boundary conditions in the case when the corresponding degenerate equation has a triple root. In contrast to the case of a simple root, the expansion is with respect to fractional (non-integral) powers of the small parameter, the boundary-layer variables have another scaling, and the boundary layer has three zones. This gives rise to essential modifications in the algorithm for constructing the boundary functions. Solutions of the elliptic problem are stationary solutions of the corresponding parabolic problem. We prove that such a stationary solution is asymptotically stable and find its global domain of attraction.

  12. Data, Model, Conclusions, Doing It Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Ivo W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the robustness of conclusions from a statistical model against variations in model choice with an illustration from G. Box and G. Tiao (1973). Suggests that simultaneous consideration of a class of models for the same data is sometimes superior to analyzing the data under one model and demonstrates advantages to Adaptive Bayesian…

  13. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dr Cuijpers and Colleagues Reply To the Editor: We thank Dr Gaudiano and colleagues for their contribution to the discussion about psychotherapy for dysthymia. We agree very much with Gaudiano et al that we should be careful about drawing definite conclusions about the comparative efficacy of

  14. Results and conclusion; Resultados e conclusoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter shows the results and conclusions of the ordered studies by the Science and Technology Ministry from Brazil to the Center of Management and Strategic Studies (CGEE), executed by a multidisciplinary team, most of UNICAMP - State University of Campinas, SP - for evaluation of Brazilian capacity and potential in the production of fuel bioethanol.

  15. Effects of phone versus mail survey methods on the measurement of health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravens-Sieberer Ulrike

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telephone interviews have become established as an alternative to traditional mail surveys for collecting epidemiological data in public health research. However, the use of telephone and mail surveys raises the question of to what extent the results of different data collection methods deviate from one another. We therefore set out to study possible differences in using telephone and mail survey methods to measure health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. Methods A total of 1700 German children aged 8-18 years and their parents were interviewed randomly either by telephone or by mail. Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL and mental health problems (MHP were assessed using the KINDL-R Quality of Life instrument and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ children's self-report and parent proxy report versions. Mean Differences ("d" effect size and differences in Cronbach alpha were examined across modes of administration. Pearson correlation between children's and parents' scores was calculated within a multi-trait-multi-method (MTMM analysis and compared across survey modes using Fisher-Z transformation. Results Telephone and mail survey methods resulted in similar completion rates and similar socio-demographic and socio-economic makeups of the samples. Telephone methods resulted in more positive self- and parent proxy reports of children's HRQoL (SMD ≤ 0.27 and MHP (SMD ≤ 0.32 on many scales. For the phone administered KINDL, lower Cronbach alpha values (self/proxy Total: 0.79/0.84 were observed (mail survey self/proxy Total: 0.84/0.87. KINDL MTMM results were weaker for the phone surveys: mono-trait-multi-method mean r = 0.31 (mail: r = 0.45; multi-trait-mono-method mean (self/parents r = 0.29/0.36 (mail: r = 0.34/0.40; multi-trait-multi-method mean r = 0.14 (mail: r = 0.21. Weaker MTMM results were also observed for the phone administered SDQ: mono

  16. When dogs look back: inhibition of independent problem-solving behaviour in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) compared with wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A R

    2015-09-01

    Domestic dogs have been recognized for their social sensitivity and aptitude in human-guided tasks. For example, prior studies have demonstrated that dogs look to humans when confronted with an unsolvable task; an action often interpreted as soliciting necessary help. Conversely, wolves persist on such tasks. While dogs' 'looking back' behaviour has been used as an example of socio-cognitive advancement, an alternative explanation is that pet dogs show less persistence on independent tasks more generally. In this study, pet dogs, shelter dogs and wolves were given up to three opportunities to open a solvable puzzle box: when subjects were with a neutral human caretaker, alone and when encouraged by the human. Wolves were more persistent and more successful on this task than dogs, with 80% average success rate for wolves versus a 5% average success rate for dogs in both the human-in and alone conditions. Dogs showed increased contact with the puzzle box during the encouragement condition, but only a moderate increase in problem-solving success. Social sensitivity appears to play an important role in pet and shelter dogs' willingness to engage in problem-solving behaviour, which could suggest generalized dependence on, or deference to, human action. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Conclusions and recommendations based on interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This memorandum discusses five key issues that initial interviews have brought into focus: The preoccupation of the public with nuclear waste disposal, the credibility of public opinion polls addressing nuclear power, the unlikelihood of dramatic change in opinion by nuclear critics, difficulties in communicating technical concepts, and the problem of focussing narrowly or broadly on policy issues

  18. Power and Democracy in Denmark. Conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does......, and the political institutions show considerable democratic robustness. However, not everything has gone or is going well. There are still pronounced social divisions in Danish society, although their nature has changed somewhat. The ideal of an informed public debate does not always enjoy the best conditions...

  19. Paternal Postnatal and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms and Child Socio-Emotional and Behavioural Problems at School Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hannah R.; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effect of paternal mental health problems, particularly on young children, is based predominantly on clinical levels of depression. Furthermore, potential mediators such as marital discord have often been overlooked. This longitudinal community study assessed the association between paternal mental health symptoms in a community…

  20. Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…

  1. Superiority in value and the repugnant conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    superiority does not amount to a radical value difference at all. I then spell out the consequences of these results for different interpretations of Griffin's suggestion regarding population ethics. None of them comes out very successful, but perhaps they nevertheless retain some interest.......James Griffin has considered a weak form of superiority in value a possible remedy to the Repugnant Conclusion. In this paper, I demonstrate that, in a context where value is additive, this weaker form collapses into a stronger form of superiority. And in a context where value is non-additive, weak...

  2. Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for concerned significant others of people with problem gambling: study protocol for a randomised wait-list controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Anders; Hellner Gumpert, Clara; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2015-12-09

    About 2.3% of the adult population in Sweden are considered to suffer from problem gambling, and it is estimated that only 5% of those seek treatment. Problem gambling can have devastating effects on the economy, health and relationship, both for the individual who gambles and their concerned significant other (CSO). No empirically supported treatment exists for the CSOs of people with problem gambling. Consequently, the aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a programme aimed at CSOs of treatment-refusing problem gamblers. The programme will be based on principles from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing. To benefit as many CSOs as possible, the programme will be delivered via the internet with therapist support via encrypted email and short weekly conversations via telephone. This will be a randomised wait-list controlled internet-delivered treatment trial. A CBT programme for the CSOs of people with problem gambling will be developed and evaluated. The participants will work through nine modules over 10 weeks in a secure online environment, and receive support via secure emails and over the telephone. A total of 150 CSOs over 18 years of age will be included. Measures will be taken at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes concern gambling-related harm. Secondary outcomes include the treatment entry of the individual who gambles, the CSO's levels of depression, anxiety, as well as relationship satisfaction and quality of life. The protocol has been approved by the regional ethics board of Stockholm, Sweden. This study will add to the body of knowledge on how to protect CSOs from gambling-related harm, and how to motivate treatment-refusing individuals to seek professional help for problem gambling. NCT02250586. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Johor Bahru District school children--comparing three geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y C; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S

    1997-06-01

    This is a cross sectional community study in Johor Bahru District. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of emotional and behavioural deviance among the school children in three different geographical areas, and to identify their correlates. This paper presents the findings of phase one of a two-stage procedure involving a total of 589 children aged 10-12 years. Using the cut-off point validated locally, the prevalence of deviance on the parental scale was 40% in the rural school, 30.2% in the agricultural resettlement (Felda) school and 32.3% in the urban school. On the teachers' assessment, the prevalence of deviance was 40.8% in the rural school, 10.8% in the Felda School and 8.9% in the urban school. There was significantly higher prevalence of deviance in the rural school on the teachers' scale. In the rural school, significantly higher prevalence of deviance was found among boys.

  4. Internet use and electronic gaming by children and adolescents with emotional and behavioural problems in Australia - results from the second Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikkers, Wavne; Lawrence, David; Hafekost, Jennifer; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2016-05-13

    Concerns have been raised of a potential connection between excessive online activity outside the academic realm and increased levels of psychological distress in young people. Young Minds Matter: the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing provides estimates of the prevalence of online activity and allows an exploration of associations between this activity, a range of mental disorders, socio-demographic characteristics and risk taking behaviour. Based on a randomized nationally representative sample, a household survey of mental health and wellbeing (Young Minds Matter) was conducted in 2013-14. Interviews were conducted with 6,310 parents and carers of 4-17 year-olds (55 % response rate), together with self-report questionnaires completed by 2,967 11-17 year-olds in these households (89 % response rate). The survey identified a range of mental disorders and emotional problems using a variety of diagnostic tools, with the self-report including questions about use of the Internet and electronic games. Five behaviours were measured related to this activity, with 'problem behaviour' being defined as exhibiting at least four out of five behaviours. Levels of Internet use (98.9 %, CI 98.5-99.3 %) and electronic gaming (85.3 %, CI 83.9-86.6 %) were high, and 3.9 % (CI 3.2-4.6 %) of young people reported problem behaviour. The proportion of girls with very high levels of psychological distress and problem behaviour (41.8 %,CI 28.8-54.9 %) was twice that for boys (19.4 %, CI 7.7-31.1 %). Those engaging with a range of risk factors reported higher prevalence of problem behaviour than others. Youth who suffered from emotional problems or high levels of psychological distress spent the most time online or playing games. Multivariate analysis showed associations with problem behaviour and having attempted suicide, experiencing high to very high levels of psychological distress, using alcohol, and living in a poorly functioning

  5. Review of health and risk-behaviours, mental health problems and suicidal behaviours in young Europeans on the basis of the results from the EU-funded Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-12-23

    An estimated 800 000 suicide deaths occur worldwide. The global suicide rate is 11.4 per 100 000 population; 15.0/100 000 for males and 8.0/100 000 for females. Globally, suicide is the second leading cause of death in 15-29 year olds. In a collaborative effort to reduce the high rates of suicide and mental health problems among youth across Europe, the European Union 7th Framework funded the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project. SEYLE is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to promote mental health and healthy lifestyles, while preventing psychopathology and suicidal behaviours among adolescents. The epidemiological data on 11,110 pupils in the age group 14-16 years, with a mean age of 14.8 years (SD ± 0.8), who were recruited from 168 schools across 10 European Union countries: Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain, with Sweden as the coordinating centre showed the following prevalences: alcohol use (13.4%), smoking (30.9%), physical inactivity (32.8%), pathological Internet use (4.4%) and sleeping on average 7.7 hours per night. In terms of reproductive health, the prevalence of sexual debut was 18.8% for the total sample. Pupils aged .16 years had a higher prevalence (38%) of sexual debut compared to those aged .15 years (13.2%). Males had a higher prevalence (21.3%) than females (16.9%). Three clusters of adolescents were identified: 57.8% with low frequency of all risk-behaviours; 13.2% with high frequency of all risk behaviours; and 29% so-called 'invisible' risk group, which did not show any striking externalised riskbehaviours, but scored positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames, sedentary behaviour and reduced sleep. When comparing pupils in the "invisible" risk group with those in the high-risk group, similar prevalence rates of anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%), depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%) and suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%) were

  6. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N; Stougaard, Maria; Mortensen, Erik L; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop overweight. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess child stress by the SDQ Total Difficulties (SDQ-TD) score and the Prosocial Behavior (PSB) score. Height and weight were measured, and BMI z-scores were calculated. A direct, but non-significant linear trend was found between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score (β = 0.021, p = 0.11). Having an SDQ-TD score above the 90(th) percentile was associated with BMI z-score (β = 0.36, p = 0.05). PSB score was not associated with BMI z-score. Analyses were adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, parental BMI, family structure, dietary factors, physical activity, and family stress level. The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found.

  7. Only one simple conclusion about the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-07-24

    Findings concerning climate change, by a three-man team of scientists from the North Dakota Geological Survey, which were presented in a paper read at the Eight International Williston Basin Horizontal Well Workshop, are discussed. The survey by the three scientists covered more than 6,000 scholarly publications. It reported that while the rise in the Earth's temperature is beyond argument, there is anything but agreement as to the causes, or whether the trend is unusual enough to justify concerted and costly actions to change lifestyles. It is shown by direct instrumental measurements that the average temperature at the Earth's surface increased about 0.8 degree Celsius between 1866 and 1998. During that time the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increased from 280 to 353 parts per million. While it is generally assumed that the global warming was caused by human activities, new techniques of measurement such as glacier ice coring, dendrochronology (tree-growth rings), lichenometry (measuring the diameter of lichens) and counting concentrations of oxygen 18 and 16 (isotopes whose presence in marine fossils varies depending on temperature) suggest that most of the global warming took place before the increase in carbon dioxide concentration occurred, raising the possibility that the increase in average temperature had causes other than the increase in greenhouse gases. Some of the studies reviewed by the group show that in Europe between ice ages during the Eemian period, some 135,000 to 110,000 years ago, temperature variations of seven degrees Celsius took place; they dropped from two degree Celsius warmer than today to five degree Celsius colder than today. Based on these findings the group's only firm conclusion was that climate is in a continual flux.

  8. [A PhD completed 7. Just add positivity? Dental caries, obesity and problem behaviour in children: the role of parents and family -relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong-Lenters, M

    2016-11-01

    In this doctoral research project the relationship between, on the one hand, parenting and the functioning of families, and, on the other, child dental health were measured on the basis of interviews, questionnaires and observations of parent-child interaction. The groups studied consisted of children with and without caries and a variety of socio-economic backgrounds. The analyses revealed a distinct and significant difference between children with and children without caries with respect to parenting style and parent-child interaction. Positive parenting skills, such as positive involvement, positive reinforcement and problem-solving ability, correlate less often with children with caries. The study also revealed that children of parents with a parenting style that involved coercion and strict type of discipline, combined with the expression of little warmth, had a greater likelihood of developing caries. No relationship was found between an unhealthy high Body Mass Index (BMI) and the presence of dental caries. There was a significant relationship between behavioural problems and the presence of dental caries, which may be explained by an underlying influence of the family factors that were measured.

  9. Workshop on large molten pool heat transfer summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The CSNI Workshop on Large Molten Heat Transfer held at Grenoble (France) in March 1994 was organised by CSNI's Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4) with the cooperation of the Principal Working Group on Coolant System Behaviour (FWG2) and in collaboration with the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Conclusions and recommendations are given for each of the five sessions of the workshops: Feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling through external cooling of the vessel; Experiments on molten pool heat transfer; Calculational efforts on molten pool convection; Heat transfer to the surrounding water - experimental techniques; Future experiments and ex-vessel studies (open forum discussion)

  10. Health service utilization for mental, behavioural and emotional problems among conflict-affected population in Georgia: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivdity Chikovani

    Full Text Available There is large gap in mental illness treatment globally and potentially especially so in war-affected populations. The study aim was to examine health care utilization patterns for mental, behavioural and emotional problems among the war-affected adult population in the Republic of Georgia.A cross-sectional household survey was conducted among 3600 adults affected by 1990s and 2008 armed conflicts in Georgia. Service use was measured for the last 12 months for any mental, emotional or behavioural problems. TSQ, PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were used to measure current symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Descriptive and regression analyses were used.Respondents were predominantly female (65.0%, 35.8% were unemployed, and 56.0% covered by the government insurance scheme. From the total sample, 30.5% had symptoms of at least one current mental disorder. Among them, 39.0% sought care for mental problems, while 33.1% expressed facing barriers to accessing care and so did not seek care. General practitioners (29% and neurologists (26% were consulted by the majority of those with a current mental disorder who accessed services, while use of psychiatric services was far more limited. Pharmacotherapy was the predominant type of care (90%. Female gender (OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.80, middle-age (OR 1.83, 95% CI: 1.48, 2.26 and older-age (OR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.21, possession of the state insurance coverage (OR 1.55, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.86, current PTSD symptoms (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.90 and depression (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.70, 2.65 were associated with higher rates of health service utilization, while employed were less likely to use services (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.89.Reducing financial access barriers and increasing awareness and access to local care required to help reduce the burden of mental disorders among conflict-affected persons in Georgia.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Integrated Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention (CBI) Model for Male Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong: A Matched-Pair Comparison Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Ng, Ting Kin; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming

    2018-01-22

    Very few clinical cognitive-behavioural intervention (CBI) studies were conducted with the Chinese gamblers. There is a lack of attention paid to intervening in negative emotions that may also adversely affect PGs in current CBI treatment modality. This study is the first attempt to systematically and rigorously evaluate both the short-term and longer-term effects of a culturally-attuned CBI group treatment with an emotion regulation component for a group of Chinese PGs in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental matched-pairs design was adopted and 84 participants were allocated to the CBI (N = 42) and social activity groups (N = 42). There are 3 assessment points in the study: baseline at recruitment, post-intervention at the end of CBI and social activity groups, and at 6-month follow-up. When compared to the social activity group and after controlling for general group effects, there were significantly greater decreases in the severity of gambling, gambling-related cognitions (i.e. interpretive bias), negative psychological states (i.e. stress) and money spent on gambling in the past month in the CBI group between pre- and post-intervention and between pre-intervention and 6-month follow-up. Results also indicated that both reduction in gambling-related cognitions and negative psychological states could mediate the treatment effect of the CBI on the reduction of problematic gambling behaviours. The culturally attuned integrated CBI group treatment with an emotional regulation component appeared to be effective in treating Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong and the effects could be sustained at 6-month follow-up.

  12. The Children and Parents in Focus project: a population-based cluster-randomised controlled trial to prevent behavioural and emotional problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Fabian, Helena; Prinz, Ron; Lucas, Steven; Feldman, Inna; Fairchild, Amanda; Sarkadi, Anna

    2013-10-16

    There is large body of knowledge to support the importance of early interventions to improve child health and development. Nonetheless, it is important to identify cost-effective blends of preventive interventions with adequate coverage and feasible delivery modes. The aim of the Children and Parents in Focus trial is to compare two levels of parenting programme intensity and rate of exposure, with a control condition to address impact and cost-effectiveness of a universally offered evidence-based parenting programme in the Swedish context. The trial has a cluster randomised controlled design comprising three arms: Universal arm (with access to participation in Triple P - Positive Parenting Program, level 2); Universal Plus arm (with access to participation in Triple P - Positive Parenting Program, level 2 as well as level 3, and level 4 group); and Services as Usual arm. The sampling frame is Uppsala municipality in Sweden. Child health centres consecutively recruit parents of children aged 3 to 5 years before their yearly check-ups (during the years 2013-2017). Outcomes will be measured annually. The primary outcome will be children's behavioural and emotional problems as rated by three informants: fathers, mothers and preschool teachers. The other outcomes will be parents' behaviour and parents' general health. Health economic evaluations will analyse cost-effectiveness of the interventions versus care as usual by comparing the costs and consequences in terms of impact on children's mental health, parent's mental health and health-related quality of life. This study addresses the need for comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects, costs and benefits of early parenting interventions embedded within existing systems. In addition, the study will generate population-based data on the mental health and well-being of preschool aged children in Sweden. ISRCTN16513449.

  13. Assessing Diabetes Self-Management with the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ Can Help Analyse Behavioural Problems Related to Reduced Glycaemic Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt

    Full Text Available To appraise the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ's measurement of diabetes self-management as a statistical predictor of glycaemic control relative to the widely used SDSCA.248 patients with type 1 diabetes and 182 patients with type 2 diabetes were cross-sectionally assessed using the two self-report measures of diabetes self-management DSMQ and SDSCA; the scales were used as competing predictors of HbA1c. We developed a structural equation model of self-management as measured by the DSMQ and analysed the amount of variation explained in HbA1c; an analogue model was developed for the SDSCA.The structural equation models of self-management and glycaemic control showed very good fit to the data. The DSMQ's measurement of self-management showed associations with HbA1c of -0.53 for type 1 and -0.46 for type 2 diabetes (both P < 0.001, explaining 21% and 28% of variation in glycaemic control, respectively. The SDSCA's measurement showed associations with HbA1c of -0.14 (P = 0.030 for type 1 and -0.31 (P = 0.003 for type 2 diabetes, explaining 2% and 10% of glycaemic variation. Predictive power for glycaemic control was significantly higher for the DSMQ (P < 0.001.This study supports the DSMQ as the preferred tool when analysing self-reported behavioural problems related to reduced glycaemic control. The scale may be useful for clinical assessments of patients with suboptimal diabetes outcomes or research on factors affecting associations between self-management behaviours and glycaemic control.

  14. Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…

  15. CSNI/NEA Rasplav seminar 2000. Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the RASPLAV Project was to provide data on the behaviour of molten core materials on the RPV lower head under severe accident conditions, and to assess the possible physicochemical interactions between molten corium and the vessel wall. Data were also obtained to confirm heat transfer modelling for a large convective corium pool within the lower head. The project consisted of the following components: - To provide data from large-scale integral experiments on the behaviour and interactions of prototypic core-melt materials within the lower head; - To perform small-scale corium experiments to measure the thermophysical properties (density, electrical and thermal conductivity, viscosity, etc.) required for performing and interpreting the integral (large-scale) tests; - To determine the uncertainties introduced by using non-prototypic conditions and materials by means of the small-scale corium experiments; - To carry out the molten-salt experiments with the following objectives: - To study heat transfer processes in the melt; - To justify the choice of procedures for large-scale experiments, such as the heating method; To develop an understanding of relevant phenomena, such as crust formation, and non-eutectic materials behaviour; - To develop computer tools and models for analysis of results from the large-scale integral tests and the supporting small-scale experiments. During the first phase of the RASPLAV Project (1994-97) the large-scale experiments demonstrated clearly that behaviour of corium melts differed from that of simulant materials. Under certain conditions, the corium would separate into two layers that were enriched in zirconium or in uranium. The second phase of the RASPLAV Project started in July 1997 and concentrated on exploring the physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a convective molten pool. The effect of different corium compositions, the potential for and the effects of material stratification and the influence of

  16. CSNI/NEA Rasplav seminar 2000. Summary and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-15

    The objective of the RASPLAV Project was to provide data on the behaviour of molten core materials on the RPV lower head under severe accident conditions, and to assess the possible physicochemical interactions between molten corium and the vessel wall. Data were also obtained to confirm heat transfer modelling for a large convective corium pool within the lower head. The project consisted of the following components: - To provide data from large-scale integral experiments on the behaviour and interactions of prototypic core-melt materials within the lower head; - To perform small-scale corium experiments to measure the thermophysical properties (density, electrical and thermal conductivity, viscosity, etc.) required for performing and interpreting the integral (large-scale) tests; - To determine the uncertainties introduced by using non-prototypic conditions and materials by means of the small-scale corium experiments; - To carry out the molten-salt experiments with the following objectives: - To study heat transfer processes in the melt; - To justify the choice of procedures for large-scale experiments, such as the heating method; To develop an understanding of relevant phenomena, such as crust formation, and non-eutectic materials behaviour; - To develop computer tools and models for analysis of results from the large-scale integral tests and the supporting small-scale experiments. During the first phase of the RASPLAV Project (1994-97) the large-scale experiments demonstrated clearly that behaviour of corium melts differed from that of simulant materials. Under certain conditions, the corium would separate into two layers that were enriched in zirconium or in uranium. The second phase of the RASPLAV Project started in July 1997 and concentrated on exploring the physical and chemical phenomena occurring in a convective molten pool. The effect of different corium compositions, the potential for and the effects of material stratification and the influence of

  17. Effects of phone versus mail survey methods on the measurement of health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Michael; Wetzel, Ralf M; Krügel, André; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2009-12-30

    Telephone interviews have become established as an alternative to traditional mail surveys for collecting epidemiological data in public health research. However, the use of telephone and mail surveys raises the question of to what extent the results of different data collection methods deviate from one another. We therefore set out to study possible differences in using telephone and mail survey methods to measure health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioural problems in children and adolescents. A total of 1700 German children aged 8-18 years and their parents were interviewed randomly either by telephone or by mail. Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and mental health problems (MHP) were assessed using the KINDL-R Quality of Life instrument and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) children's self-report and parent proxy report versions. Mean Differences ("d" effect size) and differences in Cronbach alpha were examined across modes of administration. Pearson correlation between children's and parents' scores was calculated within a multi-trait-multi-method (MTMM) analysis and compared across survey modes using Fisher-Z transformation. Telephone and mail survey methods resulted in similar completion rates and similar socio-demographic and socio-economic makeups of the samples. Telephone methods resulted in more positive self- and parent proxy reports of children's HRQoL (SMD survey self/proxy Total: 0.84/0.87). KINDL MTMM results were weaker for the phone surveys: mono-trait-multi-method mean r = 0.31 (mail: r = 0.45); multi-trait-mono-method mean (self/parents) r = 0.29/0.36 (mail: r = 0.34/0.40); multi-trait-multi-method mean r = 0.14 (mail: r = 0.21). Weaker MTMM results were also observed for the phone administered SDQ: mono-trait-multi-method mean r = 0.32 (mail: r = 0.40); multi-trait-mono-method mean (self/parents) r = 0.24/0.30 (mail: r = 0.20/0.32); multi-trait-multi-method mean r = 0.14 (mail = 0.14). The SDQ

  18. Abuses, resilience, behavioural problems and post-traumatic stress symptoms among unaccompanied migrant minors: an Italian cross-sectional exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Longobardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to explore the type and prevalence of pre-/peri-migratory trauma experiences in unaccompanied minors and the prevalence of mental health problems and resilience. The study included 19 unaccompanied migrant minors aged 16–17 years coming from Egypt, Albania, Senegal, Bangladesh, Gambia, Morocco and Mali. The participants completed self-report questionnaires on emotional and behavioural problems, post-traumatic stress symptoms, abuse and resilience. All the unaccompanied migrant minors in our study were physically and psychologically abused at least once in their life and more than half were sexually abused before or during their migration. The most frequent abuses were: being hit with an object, being punished at school and at home with torture and infliction of pain, being forced to do something dangerous, being insulted, undergoing theft or damage of personal objects, being forced to look at sexual photos or videos and being sexually abused. The scores on post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety and dissociation are above the clinical cut-off point. Mean scores in the scales of resilience are generally in line with normative data. These scores show that despite their traumatic pre-migratory and peri-migratory experiences of abuse and the clinical psychopathological effects, the minors interviewed proved to have good sources of resilience. Immigration policies however should be based not only on admittance to emergency refuge centres but also on assessing the subjects and providing them with psychological support for the traumas experienced in order to achieve a successful integration process in the host society

  19. FOSTERING ADOLESCENTS' INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. ..... communication problems (Akinade, 1988, Aremu, 1998, Ojekunle, 1999, .... Restructuring on the Enhancement of Self Esteem of Visually Impaired.

  20. Implementation of severe accident management measures - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    implemented in various ways in many plants, but not yet in all plants. A systematic approach, which is based upon a clearly defined decision-making process, is one of the features implemented in many cases. Available means are determined and priorities are set. This approach is made up of strategies intended to become an optimum approach to prevent or mitigate the consequences of beyond-design basis accidents. It is based upon a prepared information package about plant-specific behaviour to be expected in beyond design scenarios. The approaches followed in the different countries do not fit one single pattern. Harmonization, to the extent it is desirable, does not seem feasible at this stage. As a rule, the responsibility of the plant owner for the safety of his plant remains untouched. Also, safety goals may vary between countries. This report presents the general conclusion and recommendations of the workshop and the summaries of the sessions

  1. Commentary: Increased Risk of Later Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with SLI -- Reflections on Yew and O'Kearney (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) find it effortful to learn to talk and these difficulties can be persistent. Given the importance of language to human behaviour, it is not surprising to find that language difficulties are a risk factor for associated difficulties in other aspects of children's development. This article asks…

  2. Melatonin versus Placebo in Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions and Severe Sleep Problems Not Amenable to Behaviour Management Strategies: A Randomised Controlled Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Sims, David; Smart, Siobhan; Alwazeer, Ahmed; Alderson-Day, Ben; Allgar, Victoria; Whitton, Clare; Tomlinson, Heather; Bennett, Sophie; Jardine, Jenni; McCaffrey, Nicola; Leyland, Charlotte; Jakeman, Christine; Miles, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two children with autism spectrum disorders who had not responded to supported behaviour management strategies for severe dysomnias entered a double blind, randomised, controlled crossover trial involving 3 months of placebo versus 3 months of melatonin to a maximum dose of 10 mg. 17 children completed the study. There were no significant…

  3. Early Detection of Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Preschool Children: : The use of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment in preventive child health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Kruizinga (Ingrid)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Psychosocial problems are already prevalent in very young children. Early detection of such problems is important because it improves the prognosis. One instrument that is developed for the early detection of psychosocial problems and delay in competencies is the

  4. Behaviour of polar crystals at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozhdin, S.N.; Novik, V.K.; Gavrilova, N.D.; Koptsik, V.A.; Popova, T.V.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature dependencies of pyrocoefficient for a wide class of various pyroactive crystals in the temperature range from 4,2 to 300 deg K were investigated. The problems to be solved were: to confirm a conclusion on the pyrocoefficient γsup(sigma) tending to zero at T → 0; to compare experimental data with conclusions of existing theories; to reveal specific features in the behaviour of both linear pyroelectrics and segnetoelectrics at low temperatures. The behaviour of the total pyrocoefficient for all crystals obeys the regularity γsup(sigma) → 0 at T → O. In the range of low temperatures the pyrocoefficient varies by the power law: γsup(sigma) approximately Tsup(α). For the majority of crystals studied α is close to 3. CdS, BeO, ZiNbO 3 and other crystals were studied

  5. Comparison of problem behaviours in atypically developing infants and toddlers as assessed with the baby and infant screen for children with aUtIsm traits (BISCUIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Rojahn, Johannes; Turygin, Nicole; Matson, Johnny L; Tureck, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Compares infants and toddlers with intellectual and developmental conditions in regard to the presence of challenging behaviour. Parents and caregivers to 140 children ranging from 17-35 months with five different conditions (Down syndrome (n = 23), developmental delay (n = 18), prematurity (n = 56), Cerebral Palsy (n = 15) and Seizure disorder (n = 28)) were administered the BISCUIT-Part 3. An ANOVA on overall scores and a MANOVA on the sub-scale scores were conducted to determine if groups differed significantly. Results found no significant differences on total scores or differences on the sub-scales of the BISCUIT-Part 3: Aggressive/Destructive, Stereotypic and Self-Injurious. Some trends in individual item endorsement were found. It is possible that differences among individuals with these disorders are not apparent until later in life. These results emphasize the importance of monitoring challenging behaviours in all at-risk infants and toddlers to ensure that early interventions to treat these challenging behaviours are possible.

  6. Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aase Heidi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behaviour of children with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder is often described as highly variable, in addition to being hyperactive, impulsive and inattentive. One reason might be that they do not acquire complete and functional sequences of behaviour. The dynamic developmental theory of ADHD proposes that reinforcement and extinction processes are inefficient because of hypofunctioning dopamine systems, resulting in a narrower time window for associating antecedent stimuli and behaviour with its consequences. One effect of this may be that the learning of behavioural sequences is delayed, and that only short behavioural sequences are acquired in ADHD. The present study investigated acquisition of response sequences in the behaviour of children with ADHD. Methods Fifteen boys with ADHD and thirteen boys without, all aged between 6–9 yr, completed a computerized task presented as a game with two squares on the screen. One square was associated with reinforcement. The task required responses by the computer mouse under reinforcement contingencies of variable interval schedules. Reinforcers were cartoon pictures and small trinkets. Measures related to response location (spatial dimension and to response timing (temporal dimension were analyzed by autocorrelations of consecutive responses across five lags. Acquired response sequences were defined as predictable responding shown by high explained variance. Results Children with ADHD acquired shorter response sequences than comparison children on the measures related to response location. None of the groups showed any predictability in response timing. Response sequencing on the measure related to the discriminative stimulus was highly related to parent scores on a rating scale for ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The findings suggest that children with ADHD have problems with learning long sequences of behaviour, particularly related to response location. Problems with

  7. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodeur Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  8. Managing Behaviour of Retail Trade Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Maryna M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of management of behaviour of retail trade consumers. It shows importance of this topic at the stage of market changes in economic and social spheres. Generalising theoretical provisions about models of consumer behaviour, the article marks out three main groups of factors that influence them: external, internal and situational. The authors offer to allocate sensor forms of communications into a separate group of factors due to a distinctive property of their impact – orientation at subconsciousness of consumers. The article analyses a psychological process of making a decision on purchase of a commodity and draws a conclusion about necessity of exerting subconsciousness influence upon consumer behaviour using the modern marketing instruments. It develops an improved model of consumer behaviour, which takes into account innovation means of impact on the buyer. The prospect of further development of this direction in science is creation of theoretical methods of managing consumer behaviour on the basis of co-operation of specialists in the field of economy, management, marketing, sociology and psychology, which would be applied in practice of management of trade enterprises.

  9. Childhood aggression and the co-occurrence of behavioural and emotional problems: results across ages 3-16 years from multiple raters in six cohorts in the EU-ACTION project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Meike; Hendriks, Anne; Mauri, Matteo; Krapohl, Eva; Whipp, Alyce; Bolhuis, Koen; Conde, Lucia Colodro; Luningham, Justin; Fung Ip, Hill; Hagenbeek, Fiona; Roetman, Peter; Gatej, Raluca; Lamers, Audri; Nivard, Michel; van Dongen, Jenny; Lu, Yi; Middeldorp, Christel; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Vermeiren, Robert; Hankemeijer, Thomas; Kluft, Cees; Medland, Sarah; Lundström, Sebastian; Rose, Richard; Pulkkinen, Lea; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Korhonen, Tellervo; Martin, Nicholas G; Lubke, Gitta; Finkenauer, Catrin; Fanos, Vassilios; Tiemeier, Henning; Lichtenstein, Paul; Plomin, Robert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2018-05-29

    Childhood aggression and its resulting consequences inflict a huge burden on affected children, their relatives, teachers, peers and society as a whole. Aggression during childhood rarely occurs in isolation and is correlated with other symptoms of childhood psychopathology. In this paper, we aim to describe and improve the understanding of the co-occurrence of aggression with other forms of childhood psychopathology. We focus on the co-occurrence of aggression and other childhood behavioural and emotional problems, including other externalising problems, attention problems and anxiety-depression. The data were brought together within the EU-ACTION (Aggression in Children: unravelling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies) project. We analysed the co-occurrence of aggression and other childhood behavioural and emotional problems as a function of the child's age (ages 3 through 16 years), gender, the person rating the behaviour (father, mother or self) and assessment instrument. The data came from six large population-based European cohort studies from the Netherlands (2x), the UK, Finland and Sweden (2x). Multiple assessment instruments, including the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Multidimensional Peer Nomination Inventory (MPNI), were used. There was a good representation of boys and girls in each age category, with data for 30,523 3- to 4-year-olds (49.5% boys), 20,958 5- to 6-year-olds (49.6% boys), 18,291 7- to 8-year-olds (49.0% boys), 27,218 9- to 10-year-olds (49.4% boys), 18,543 12- to 13-year-olds (48.9% boys) and 10,088 15- to 16-year-olds (46.6% boys). We replicated the well-established gender differences in average aggression scores at most ages for parental ratings. The gender differences decreased with age and were not present for self-reports. Aggression co-occurred with the majority of other behavioural and social problems, from both externalising and

  10. Number of objectives and conclusions in dissertations and thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebano Richard Eloin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the number of objectives and conclusions presented in dissertations and thesis defended at Federal University of São Paulo - Paulista School of Medicine (UNIFESP - EPM. METHODS: It was realized a search in the master degree dissertations and doctor degree thesis defended at Federal University of São Paulo - Paulista School of Medicine in the years 2002 and 2003 that were found available in the central library of this university. RESULTS: From 723 master dissertations analyzed, 62 (8,57% presented only one objective and one conclusion, 134 (18,53% presented one objective and more than one conclusion and 527 (72,89% had more than one objective and more than one conclusion. From 502 doctor thesis analyzed, 23 (4,58% presented only one objective and one conclusion, 123 (24,50% presented one objective and more than one conclusion and 376 (74,90% had more than one objective and more than one conclusion.. CONCLUSIONS: It wasn't found in researched literature the number of objectives and conclusions a scientific work must have. A highest number of thesis and dissertations presented more than one objective and more than one conclusion.

  11. Young People with Intellectual Disability Transitioning to Adulthood: Do Behaviour Trajectories Differ in Those with and without Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Taffe, John; Bourke, Jenny; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Trollor, Julian; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background Young people with intellectual disability exhibit substantial and persistent problem behaviours compared with their non-disabled peers. The aim of this study was to compare changes in emotional and behavioural problems for young people with intellectual disability with and without Down syndrome as they transition into adulthood in two different Australian cohorts. Methods Emotional and behavioural problems were measured over three time points using the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) for those with Down syndrome (n = 323 at wave one) and compared to those with intellectual disability of another cause (n = 466 at wave one). Outcome scores were modelled using random effects regression as linear functions of age, Down syndrome status, ability to speak and gender. Results DBC scores of those with Down syndrome were lower than those of people without Down syndrome indicating fewer behavioural problems on all scales except communication disturbance. For both groups disruptive, communication disturbance, anxiety and self-absorbed DBC subscales all declined on average over time. There were two important differences between changes in behaviours for these two cohorts. Depressive symptoms did not significantly decline for those with Down syndrome compared to those without Down syndrome. The trajectory of the social relating behaviours subscale differed between these two cohorts, where those with Down syndrome remained relatively steady and, for those with intellectual disability from another cause, the behaviours increased over time. Conclusions These results have implications for needed supports and opportunities for engagement in society to buffer against these emotional and behavioural challenges. PMID:27391326

  12. The Effects of Two Strategic and Meta-Cognitive Questioning Approaches on Children's Explanatory Behaviour, Problem-Solving, and Learning during Cooperative, Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Haynes, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Teaching students to ask and answer questions is critically important if they are to engage in reasoned argumentation, problem-solving, and learning. This study involved 35 groups of grade 6 children from 18 classrooms in three conditions (cognitive questioning condition, community of inquiry condition, and the comparison condition) who were…

  13. Calculation and Word Problem-Solving Skills in Primary Grades--Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Longitudinal Interrelations with Task-persistent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…

  14. Study of the behaviour of artificial radioactive aerosols. Applications to some problems of atmospheric circulation (1963); Etude du comportement dcs aerosols radioactifs artificiels. Applications a quelques problemes de circulation atmospherique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-11-15

    The aim of this work, consists in the examination of the behaviour of radioactive aerosols produced in the atmosphere by nuclear explosions, in order to deduce the most general laws governing atmospheric circulation and diffusion. After having given a general table of the radioactive aerosols present the authors consider the validity and the precision of the measurement methods and the concentration of the aerosols at ground level and in the upper atmosphere, as well as their deposition on the ground. The existence is thus demonstrated of a tropospheric equatorial barrier and of discontinuous and seasonal aspects of stratosphere-troposphere transfers. The role is shown of precipitations and dry auto-filtration in the lower atmosphere cleaning processes. This work makes it possible to describe the general behaviour of dust from the stratosphere, and to improve the total radioactive contamination of the globe. (author) [French] L'objectif de ce travail consiste a examiner le comportement des aerosols radioactifs introduits dans l'atmosphere par les explosions nucleaires, pour en deduire les lois les plus generals de la circulation et diffusion atmospheriques. Apres avoir dresse un tableau d'ensemble des aerosols radioactifs presents, on examine la validite et la precision des methodes de mesure de leur concentration, au niveau du sol et en haute atmosphere, ainsi que de leur depot a la surface du sol. On met ainsi en evidence l'existence d'une barriere equatoriale tropospherique; l'aspect discontinu et saisonnier des transferts stratosphere-troposphere; le role des precipitations et de l'auto-filtration seche, dans les processus de nettoyage de la basse atmosphere. Ces etudes permettent de decrire le comportement general des poussieres d'origine stratospherique et d'ameliorer le bilan de la contamination radioactive du globe. (auteur)

  15. Study of the behaviour of artificial radioactive aerosols. Applications to some problems of atmospheric circulation (1963); Etude du comportement dcs aerosols radioactifs artificiels. Applications a quelques problemes de circulation atmospherique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-11-15

    The aim of this work, consists in the examination of the behaviour of radioactive aerosols produced in the atmosphere by nuclear explosions, in order to deduce the most general laws governing atmospheric circulation and diffusion. After having given a general table of the radioactive aerosols present the authors consider the validity and the precision of the measurement methods and the concentration of the aerosols at ground level and in the upper atmosphere, as well as their deposition on the ground. The existence is thus demonstrated of a tropospheric equatorial barrier and of discontinuous and seasonal aspects of stratosphere-troposphere transfers. The role is shown of precipitations and dry auto-filtration in the lower atmosphere cleaning processes. This work makes it possible to describe the general behaviour of dust from the stratosphere, and to improve the total radioactive contamination of the globe. (author) [French] L'objectif de ce travail consiste a examiner le comportement des aerosols radioactifs introduits dans l'atmosphere par les explosions nucleaires, pour en deduire les lois les plus generals de la circulation et diffusion atmospheriques. Apres avoir dresse un tableau d'ensemble des aerosols radioactifs presents, on examine la validite et la precision des methodes de mesure de leur concentration, au niveau du sol et en haute atmosphere, ainsi que de leur depot a la surface du sol. On met ainsi en evidence l'existence d'une barriere equatoriale tropospherique; l'aspect discontinu et saisonnier des transferts stratosphere-troposphere; le role des precipitations et de l'auto-filtration seche, dans les processus de nettoyage de la basse atmosphere. Ces etudes permettent de decrire le comportement general des poussieres d'origine stratospherique et d'ameliorer le bilan de la contamination radioactive du globe. (auteur)

  16. Predictive value of general movements' quality in low-risk infants for minor neurological dysfunction and behavioural problems at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennema, Anne N; Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2016-03-01

    General movement (GM) assessment is a well-established tool to predict cerebral palsy in high-risk infants. Little is known on the predictive value of GM assessment in low-risk populations. To assess the predictive value of GM quality in early infancy for the development of the clinically relevant form of minor neurological dysfunction (complex MND) and behavioral problems at preschool age. Prospective cohort study. A total of 216 members of the prospective Groningen Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) cohort study were included in this study. ART did not affect neurodevelopmental outcome of these relatively low-risk infants born to subfertile parents. GM quality was determined at 2 weeks and 3 months. At 18 months and 4 years, the Hempel neurological examination was used to assess MND. At 4 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist; this resulted in the total problem score (TPS), internalizing problem score (IPS), and externalizing problem score (EPS). Predictive values of definitely (DA) and mildly (MA) abnormal GMs were calculated. DA GMs at 2 weeks were associated with complex MND at 18 months and atypical TPS and IPS at 4 years (all ppredictive value of DA GMs at 2 weeks were rather low (13%-60%); specificity and negative predictive value were excellent (92%-99%). DA GMs at 3 months occurred too infrequently to calculate prediction. MA GMs were not associated with outcome. GM quality as a single predictor for complex MND and behavioral problems at preschool age has limited clinical value in children at low risk for developmental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 2: antipsychotics and traditional mood stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-02-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses in childhood. Aggression and conduct problems are a major source of disability and a risk factor for poor long-term outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotics, lithium, and anticonvulsants for aggression and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. Each medication was given an overall quality of evidence rating based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Eleven RCTs of antipsychotics and 7 RCTs of lithium and anticonvulsants were included. There is moderate-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate-to-large effect on conduct problems and aggression in youth with subaverage IQ and ODD, CD, or disruptive behaviour disorder not otherwise specified, with and without ADHD, and high-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate effect on disruptive and aggressive behaviour in youth with average IQ and ODD or CD, with and without ADHD. Evidence supporting the use of haloperidol, thioridazine, quetiapine, and lithium in aggressive youth with CD is of low or very-low quality, and evidence supporting the use of divalproex in aggressive youth with ODD or CD is of low quality. There is very-low-quality evidence that carbamazepine is no different from placebo for the management of aggression in youth with CD. With the exception of risperidone, the evidence to support the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers is of low quality.

  18. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour

    KAUST Repository

    Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Schofield, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. © 2015 Springer Science

  19. Debris impact on emergency coolant recirculation - summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Bhagwat; Hsia, Anthony; Armand, Yves; Mattei, Jean-Marie; Hyvaerinen, Juhani; Maqua, Michael; Puetter, Bernhard; Sandervaag, Oddbjoern; Vandewalle, Andre; Tombuyses, Beatrice; Pyy, Pekka; Royen, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    to two orders of magnitude because of strainer clogging. Consequently, the CSNI decided to continue its previous efforts in the area. The overall purpose of the 2004 Workshop was to discuss the impact of new information made available since 1996 and to promote consensus among member countries on identification of remaining technical issues important to safety, and on possible paths for their resolution. The specific purposes of the Workshop were: a. To review the knowledge base and in particular information developed after 1999, and to consider the validity of the conclusions drawn. b. To exchange information on the current status of research related to debris generation, debris transportation, and sump strainer clogging and penetration phenomena, in particular for PWRs, and to assess uncertainties. c. To exchange and disseminate information on recent and current activities and practices in these areas. d. To identify and discuss differences between approaches relevant to reactor safety. e. To identify technical issues and programs of interest for international collaborative research and develop an Action Plan outlining activities that CSNI should undertake in the area of strainer or sump screen clogging during the next few years. Summary of the main findings: a. The safety significance of the sump strainer clogging depends on the plant design (e.g. sump strainer, ECCS) and backfitting measures performed. b. The following are examples of PWR design features that could influence the debris impact on the ECCS sump performance: - Type of insulation (material, combination of materials, protection). - Break size to be postulated. - Transport in containment with or without containment spray system (CSS). - Degree of turbulence and flow velocities in the sump influenced by CSS, water level, break flow location and sump geometry. - Redundancy of sumps and residual heat removal system (RHRS). - Strainer design (area, mesh size). - Positioning of recirculation pumps and vortex

  20. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be

  1. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  2. Voting Behaviour in the 2009 South African Election

    OpenAIRE

    Norbert Kersting

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses voting behaviour in the South African election of 2009 and draws conclusions regarding the significance of party affiliation and issue-based voting in South Africa. It demonstrates the low level of voter registration and voter turnout. In the 2009 election the Independent Electoral Commission had problems with electoral management for the first time; however, it was able to prevent electoral violence. During the campaign the newly founded COPE focused on institutional re...

  3. Voting behaviour in the 2009 South African election

    OpenAIRE

    Kersting, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses voting behaviour in the South African election of 2009 and draws conclusions regarding the significance of party affiliation and issue-based voting in South Africa. It demonstrates the low level of voter registration and voter turnout. In the 2009 election the Independent Electoral Commission had problems with electoral management for the first time; however, it was able to prevent electoral violence. During the campaign the newly founded COPE focused on institutional re...

  4. Hypothesis, Prediction, and Conclusion: Using Nature of Science Terminology Correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…

  5. Conclusion Chapters in Doctoral Theses: Some International Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafford, Vernon; Leshem, Shosh; Bitzer, Eli

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how candidates claimed to have made an original contribution to knowledge in the conclusion chapters of 100 PhD theses. Documentary analysis was used to discover how this was explained within theses at selected universities in three countries. No other documents were accessed and neither were candidates, supervisors or…

  6. Overview of human health in the Arctic: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Shawn; Adlard, Bryan; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to provide an overview of the key conclusions, knowledge gaps and key recommendations based on the recent 2015 Arctic human health assessment under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. This assessment was based primarily on data from human health monitoring and research studies and peer-reviewed literature published since the last assessment in 2009.

  7. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Law Judge, before making his/her decision, shall give the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48 Section 901.48 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE...

  8. N Reactor Production Assurance Program blance of plant evaluation: report of findings and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, E.N.; Bitten, E.J.

    1985-03-01

    Fourteen tasks were identified by UNC Nuclear Industries for evaluating the life expectancy of N Reactor structures, systems and components in the Balance of Plant portion of the Production Assurance Program. A Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) evaluation team was assigned to each of these fourteen tasks. A uniform set of criteria was used by all teams in evaluating the problems that may be encountered during the extended plant operating lifetime. The overall conclusion is that extended life to those Balance of Plant components and systems studied can be achieved. Problems with the potential for compromising that conclusion are identified, and feasible solutions are provided

  9. Hyperons, charm and beauty hadrons: Conclusion and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, Jose

    2001-01-01

    In this concluding talk, the advances in the Flavour Problem studies are discussed, following the structure of the presentations in the Conference. The subjects touched are organized as follows: Baryons, K-physics, Charm and Beauty production, Charm and Beauty decays, B-Mixing and CP-Violation, Heavy Quarkonium

  10. Behavioural model in social psychology: Model development and model studies on the behavioral intentions of individuals and groups in energy policy problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergius, R; Engemann, A; Guenther, R; Kimmelmann, G; Radtke, M; Sachs, S; Schmidt, F

    1982-10-01

    We describe a model which allows to simulate inference and evaluation processes and also the resulting behavioral intentions. The model is the base of the program REASON. The program needs as input knowledge about the part of the world which is to be evaluated and values and criteria which are used to judge the conclusions of the inference process. The program provides as output the scores of the various criteria and accumulated evaluations of the options. Also if desired a protocol of the inference process is available. The program is demonstrated by examples showing support in generating concepts. A detailed concept was developed for the installation of the heating system in a new home. REASON is applied together with this concept to simulate the behavioral intentions of the home owners towards the installation of the various heating systems.

  11. Impact of disease, cognitive and behavioural factors on caregiver outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Tamlyn J; Brown, Richard G; Sidle, Katie C L; Oliver, David J; Allen, Christopher; Karlsson, Joanna; Ellis, Cathy; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Goldstein, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show mild to moderate cognitive-behavioural change alongside their progressive functional impairment. This study examines the relative impact of patients' disease symptoms, behavioural change and current executive function and social cognition abilities on psychosocial outcomes in spouse caregivers of people with ALS. Thirty-five spouse caregivers rated their own levels of depression and anxiety, subjective burden and marital satisfaction. Caregivers also rated their partner's everyday behaviour. The patients were assessed for disease severity and cognitive function, with composite scores derived for executive function and social cognition. Regression analyses revealed that caregiver burden was predicted by the severity of patients' limb involvement and behavioural problems. Depression was predicted by patients' limb involvement, while behavioural problems and patient age predicted caregiver anxiety. Current marital satisfaction was predicted by patient behavioural problems beyond the level of pre-illness marital satisfaction. In conclusion, the study highlights the potential impact of ALS patients' functional impairment and behavioural change on ALS caregivers' psychosocial functioning. Clinical communication with ALS families should emphasise both physical and psychological challenges presented by the disease.

  12. Conclusion: imaging in strategy of endocrine diagnosis and therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, R.

    1995-01-01

    Images in medicine have to help the doctor in a diagnostic or therapeutic aim. The choice must be made in function of pathology or organ as known (it is not necessary to ask for a computed tomography where we know that only an echography can give the answer to the question we ask ), the criteria must stay the best performance for the cheapest price, but the quality of interpretation is a more important thing. It is important to avoid a lot of examinations which do not give better informations but are heavy to endure for the patients. In conclusion, the aim of this kind of proceedings is to assure to the patients who come confidently to us, the best service at the less constraints price without forgetting that a conclusion depends on a given methodological situation and reminding of beside machines we have not to forget the men

  13. Conclusive identification of quantum channels via monogamy of quantum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Asutosh; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Pal, Amit Kumar; Prabhu, R.; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the action of global noise and local channels, namely, amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels, on monogamy of quantum correlations, such as negativity and quantum discord, in three-qubit systems. We discuss the monotonic and non-monotonic variation, and robustness of the monogamy scores. By using monogamy scores, we propose a two-step protocol to conclusively identify the noise applied to the quantum system, by using generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger and generalized W states as resource states. We discuss a possible generalization of the results to higher number of parties. - Highlights: • Monogamy score monotonically decays with noise for generalized GHZ state as input. • Non-monotonically decaying monogamy score with noise for generalized W state as input. • Characterizing the dynamics of monogamy score. • Dynamics terminal quantifying robustness of monogamy score against noise. • Conclusively identifying the type of noise using monogamy score.

  14. Conclusive identification of quantum channels via monogamy of quantum correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Asutosh; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Pal, Amit Kumar [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Prabhu, R. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta 801103, Bihar (India); Sen, Aditi, E-mail: aditi@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Sen, Ujjwal [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-10-23

    We investigate the action of global noise and local channels, namely, amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels, on monogamy of quantum correlations, such as negativity and quantum discord, in three-qubit systems. We discuss the monotonic and non-monotonic variation, and robustness of the monogamy scores. By using monogamy scores, we propose a two-step protocol to conclusively identify the noise applied to the quantum system, by using generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger and generalized W states as resource states. We discuss a possible generalization of the results to higher number of parties. - Highlights: • Monogamy score monotonically decays with noise for generalized GHZ state as input. • Non-monotonically decaying monogamy score with noise for generalized W state as input. • Characterizing the dynamics of monogamy score. • Dynamics terminal quantifying robustness of monogamy score against noise. • Conclusively identifying the type of noise using monogamy score.

  15. Biogeochemistry of uranium mill wastes program overview and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.

    1981-05-01

    The major findings and conclusions are summarized for research on uranium mill tailings for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. An overview of results and interpretations is presented for investigations of 222 Rn emissions, revegetation of tailings and mine spoils, and trace element enrichment, mobility, and bioavailability. A brief discussion addresses the implications of these findings in relation to tailings disposal technology and proposed uranium recovery processes

  16. Summary and Conclusions. Final chapter of Scholarly Communication for Librarians.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions of Scholarly Communication for Librarians, a book designed to provide librarians at all levels with the basics of how scholarly communication works, an understanding of the academic library as an essential support for scholarly communication, the impact of the decisions librarians make, and emerging roles for libraries and librarians in scholarly communication. Includes major points from all chapters, on: scholarship, scholarly journals, the scholarly publishing indus...

  17. Review conclusions by Ernst and Canter regarding spinal manipulation refuted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Roni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the April 2006 issue of the Journal of Royal Society of Medicine, Ernst and Canter authored a review of the most recent systematic reviews on the effectiveness of spinal manipulation for any condition. The authors concluded that, except for back pain, spinal manipulation is not an effective intervention for any condition and, because of potential side effects, cannot be recommended for use at all in clinical practice. Based on a critical appraisal of their review, the authors of this commentary seriously challenge the conclusions by Ernst and Canter, who did not adhere to standard systematic review methodology, thus threatening the validity of their conclusions. There was no systematic assessment of the literature pertaining to the hazards of manipulation, including comparison to other therapies. Hence, their claim that the risks of manipulation outweigh the benefits, and thus spinal manipulation cannot be recommended as treatment for any condition, was not supported by the data analyzed. Their conclusions are misleading and not based on evidence that allow discrediting of a large body of professionals using spinal manipulation.

  18. Conclusions and Recommendations, 17. Congress of WEC, Houston 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    It is necessary to help energy industry searching for better solutions of economic and financial problems. Also is very important role of new technologies in the world. Energy technologies should: - accelerate energy supply in countries without commercial energy services; - increase efficiency in resources and using of energy; - decrease local and regional pollution applying new technologies for transfer and production of energy; - be use without climate changes

  19. Building a foundation to study distributed information behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. von Thaden

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this research is to assess information behaviour as it pertains to operational teams in dynamic safety critical operations. Method. In this paper, I describe some of the problems faced by crews on modern flight decks and suggest a framework modelled on Information Science, Human Factors, and Activity Theory research to assess the distribution of information actions, namely information identification, gathering and use, by teams of users in a dynamic, safety critical environment. Analysis. By analysing the information behaviour of crews who have accidents and those who do not, researchers may be able to ascertain how they (fail to make use of essential, safety critical information in their information environment. The ultimate goal of this research is to differentiate information behaviour among the distinct outcomes. Results. This research affords the possibility to discern differences in distributed information behaviour illustrating that crews who err to the point of an accident appear to practice different distributed information behaviour than those who do not. This foundation serves to operationalise team sense-making through illustrating the social practice of information structuring within the activity of the work environment. Conclusion. . The distributed information behaviour framework provides a useful structure to study the patterning and organization of information distributed over space and time, to reach a common goal. This framework may allow researchers and investigators alike to identify critical information activity in the negotiation of meaning in high reliability safety critical work, eventually informing safer practice. This framework is applicable to other domains.

  20. Explaining gender differences in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among adolescents: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Jeanette

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people in most industrial countries, non-fatal suicidal behaviour is also a very important public health concern among adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in prevalence and emotional and behavioural correlates of suicidal behaviour in a representative school-based sample of adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to assess suicidal behaviour and various areas of emotional and behavioural problems by using a self-report booklet including the Youth Self-Report. One hundred sixteen schools in a region of Southern Germany agreed to participate. A representative sample of 5,512 ninth-grade students was studied. Mean age was 14.8 years (SD 0.73; 49.8% were female. Results Serious suicidal thoughts were reported by 19.8% of the female students and 10.8% of the females had ever attempted suicide. In the male group, 9.3% had a history of suicidal thoughts and 4.9% had previously attempted suicide. Internalizing emotional and behavioural problems were shown to be higher in the female group (difference of the group means 4.41 while externalizing emotional and behavioural problems slightly predominated in male students (difference of the group means -0.65. However, the total rate of emotional and behavioural problems was significantly higher in the adolescent female group (difference of the group means 4.98. Using logistic regression models with suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide as dependent variables, the pseudo-R2 of gender alone was only 2.7% or 2.3%, while it was 30% or 23.2% for emotional and behavioural problems measured by the YSR syndrome scales. By adding gender to the emotional and behavioural problems only an additional 0.3% of information could be explained. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among adolescents can to a large extent be explained by the

  1. Physics conclusions in support of ITER W divertor monoblock shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Pitts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The key remaining physics design issue for the ITER tungsten (W divertor is the question of monoblock (MB front surface shaping in the high heat flux target areas of the actively cooled targets. Engineering tolerance specifications impose a challenging maximum radial step between toroidally adjacent MBs of 0.3mm. Assuming optical projection of the parallel heat loads, magnetic shadowing of these edges is required if quasi-steady state melting is to be avoided under certain conditions during burning plasma operation and transiently during edge localized mode (ELM or disruption induced power loading. An experiment on JET in 2013 designed to investigate the consequences of transient W edge melting on ITER, found significant deficits in the edge power loads expected on the basis of simple geometric arguments, throwing doubt on the understanding of edge loading at glancing field line angles. As a result, a coordinated multi-experiment and simulation effort was initiated via the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA and through ITER contracts, aimed at improving the physics basis supporting a MB shaping decision from the point of view both of edge power loading and melt dynamics. This paper reports on the outcome of this activity, concluding first that the geometrical approximation for leading edge power loading on radially misaligned poloidal leading edges is indeed valid. On this basis, the behaviour of shaped and unshaped monoblock surfaces under stationary and transient loads, with and without melting, is compared in order to examine the consequences of melting, or power overload in context of the benefit, or not, of shaping. The paper concludes that MB top surface shaping is recommended to shadow poloidal gap edges in the high heat flux areas of the ITER divertor targets.

  2. Oklo: The fossil nuclear reactors. Physics study - Translation of chapters 6, 13 and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, R [CEA, Paris (France)

    1996-09-01

    Three parts of the 1991 book `Oklo: reacteurs nucleaires fossiles. Etude physique` have been translated in this report. The chapters bear the titles `Study of criticality`(45 p.), `Some problems with the overall functioning of the reactor zones`(45 p.) and `Conclusions` (15 p.), respectively.

  3. Oklo: The fossil nuclear reactors. Physics study - Translation of chapters 6, 13 and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, R.

    1996-09-01

    Three parts of the 1991 book 'Oklo: reacteurs nucleaires fossiles. Etude physique' have been translated in this report. The chapters bear the titles 'Study of criticality'(45 p.), 'Some problems with the overall functioning of the reactor zones'(45 p.) and 'Conclusions' (15 p.), respectively

  4. Identification of a rare 17p13.3 duplication including the BHLHA9 and YWHAE genes in a family with developmental delay and behavioural problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capra Valeria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deletions and duplications of the PAFAH1B1 and YWHAE genes in 17p13.3 are associated with different clinical phenotypes. In particular, deletion of PAFAH1B1 causes isolated lissencephaly while deletions involving both PAFAH1B1 and YWHAE cause Miller-Dieker syndrome. Isolated duplications of PAFAH1B1 have been associated with mild developmental delay and hypotonia, while isolated duplications of YWHAE have been associated with autism. In particular, different dysmorphic features associated with PAFAH1B1 or YWHAE duplication have suggested the need to classify the patient clinical features in two groups according to which gene is involved in the chromosomal duplication. Methods We analyze the proband and his family by classical cytogenetic and array-CGH analyses. The putative rearrangement was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results We have identified a family segregating a 17p13.3 duplication extending 329.5 kilobases by FISH and array-CGH involving the YWHAE gene, but not PAFAH1B1, affected by a mild dysmorphic phenotype with associated autism and mental retardation. We propose that BHLHA9, YWHAE, and CRK genes contribute to the phenotype of our patient. The small chromosomal duplication was inherited from his mother who was affected by a bipolar and borderline disorder and was alcohol addicted. Conclusions We report an additional familial case of small 17p13.3 chromosomal duplication including only BHLHA9, YWHAE, and CRK genes. Our observation and further cases with similar microduplications are expected to be diagnosed, and will help better characterise the clinical spectrum of phenotypes associated with 17p13.3 microduplications.

  5. Workshop observations, conclusions, and recommendations for moving forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok currently has enormous numbers of motorised vehicles. The number of motor vehicles registered in Bangkok in 1993 was about 2.6 million of which over 1 million were cars and around 1.1 million were motorcycles. The vehicle population is noticeably increasing at about 12% over the previous year, despite the traffic congestion which is nearly at gridlock. Overall average traffic speed in the Bangkok metropolitan area is around 10 km/h. However, during peak hours on some main roads in the central business area, the crawl rate is at 1-2 km/h, or only half walking pace. There are, however, several circumstances to be addressed before Bangkok can begin to overcome its air quality and congestion problems. The first is that many of the city`s transport planners that design transport projects, and the policymakers with investment authority appear to be caught in the same conventional transport planning paradigm as many other industrializing and industrialized countries. That paradigm, pioneered in the United States and exported to much of the world, defines the problems as a shortage of road space to meet demand for, private, vehicular mobility. The investment focus is almost exclusively on the construction of large road-based infrastructure to machines instead of people, while de-emphasizing other forms of transport such as rail, water, and non-motorized transport - even if they are a less expensive investment that can meet demand. The predominance of this paradigm results in a persistent myth held by many of Bangkok`s policymakers, transport and urban planners, financiers, and citizens. The myth is that the city does not have enough kilometers of roadways per person, and should focus on road and highway investment in order to solve their air quality and congestion problems.

  6. It pays to be green. A premature conclusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle, K.

    2006-01-01

    It has been claimed that good environmental performance can improve firms' economic performance. However, because of e.g. data limitations, the methods applied in most previous quantitative empirical studies on effects of environmental performance on economic performance of firms suffer from several shortcomings. We discuss these shortcomings and conclude that previously applied methods are unsatisfactory as support for a conclusion that it pays for firms to be green. Then we illustrate the consequences of these shortcomings by performing several regression analyses of the effect of environmental performance on economic performance using a panel data set of Norwegian plants. A pooled regression where observable firm characteristics like e.g. size or industry are controlled for, confirms a positive effect of environmental performance on economic performance. However, the estimated positive effect could be due to omitted unobserved variables like management or technology. When the regression model controls for unobserved plant heterogeneity, the effect is generally no longer statistically significant. Hence, although greener plants tend to perform economically better, the analysis provides little support for the claim that it is because they are greener. These empirical findings further indicate that a conclusion that it pays to be green is premature

  7. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  8. The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 1: psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A

    2015-02-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit.

  9. Conclusion of the I.C.T. benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometti, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ICT Benchmark exercise made within the RIV working group of ESARDA on reprocessing data supplied by COGEMA for 53 routines reprocessing input batches made of 110 irradiated fuel assemblies from KWO Nuclear Power Plant was finally evaluated. The conclusions are: all seven different ICT methods applied verified the operator data on plutonium within about one percent; anomalies intentionally introduced to the operator data were detected in 90% of the cases; the nature of the introduced anomalies, which were unknown to the participants, was completely resolved for the safeguards relevant cases; the false alarm rate was in a few percent range. The ICT Benchmark results shows that this technique is capable of detecting and resolving anomalies in the reprocessing input data to the order of a percent

  10. The no conclusion intervention for couples in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migerode, Lieven

    2014-07-01

    Dealing with difference is central to all couple therapy. This article presents an intervention designed to assist couples in handling conflict. Central to this approach is the acceptance that most conflicts cannot be solved. Couples are in need of a different understanding of couples conflict. This understanding is found in the analysis of love in context and in relational dialectics. Couples are guided through different steps: deciding on the valence of the issue as individuals, helping them decide which differences can be resolved and which issues demand new ways of living with the inevitable, and the introduction in the suggested no conclusion dialogue. This article briefly describes the five day intensive couple therapy program, in which the no intervention is embedded. The theoretical foundation of the intervention, followed by the step by step description of the intervention forms the major part of the article. A case vignette illustrates this approach. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  11. The European Food Consumption Validation Project: conclusions and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Boer, E. J.; Slimani, N.; van 't Veer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To outline and discuss the main results and conclusions of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project. Subjects/Methods: The EFCOVAL Project was carried out within the EU Sixth Framework Program by researchers in 11 EU countries. The activities focused on (1...... showed that two non-consecutive EPIC-Soft 24-HDRs are suitable to estimate the usual intake distributions of protein and potassium of European adult populations. The 2-day non-consecutive 24-HDRs in combination with a food propensity questionnaire also appeared to be appropriate to rank individuals...... according to their fish and fruit and vegetable intake in a comparable way in five European centers. Dietary intake of (young) children can be assessed by the combination of EPIC-Soft 24-HDRs and food recording booklets. The EPIC-Soft-standardized method of describing foods is useful to estimate dietary...

  12. The accident at the Harrisburg nuclear reactor - Interim conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.

    1979-07-01

    This work describes the first minutes, first day and first week following the Three Mile Island accident. It shows the failures that occurred and the lessons which should be derived. It is pointed out that the doses of radiation that escaped from the TMI plant were at no time large enough to have had any effect on the 2 million people living on a radius of 80 km from the plant. Although no casualties occurred the Harrisburg accident will create an impulse for a new study and understanding of the nuclear plant safety and might serve as a live safety laboratory. After the TMI accident nuclear plants are already safer, one of the conclusions being that a new planning of the operation room is required, with the operators acquiring a better understanding of what is going on during a nuclear reactor accident. (B.G.)

  13. Jumping to conclusions and the continuum of delusional beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Martin, Joel M; Davis, Louanne; Haudenschield, Samantha L

    2007-06-01

    The present study examined the jumping to conclusions reasoning bias across the continuum of delusional ideation by investigating individuals with active delusions, delusion prone individuals, and non-delusion prone individuals. Neutral and highly self-referent probabilistic reasoning tasks were employed. Results indicated that individuals with delusions gathered significantly less information than delusion prone and non-delusion prone participants on both the neutral and self-referent tasks, (preferent task (p=.002). Those with delusions and those who were delusion prone reported higher confidence in their performance on the self-referent task than they did the neutral task (p=.02), indicating that high self-reference impacted information processing for individuals in both of these groups. The results are discussed in relation to previous research in the area of probabilistic reasoning and delusions.

  14. Snakebites in French Guiana: Conclusions of an international symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, Hatem; Hommel, Didier; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Megarbane, Bruno; Resiere, Dabor

    2018-05-01

    A workshop on epidemiology and management of snakebites in French Guiana was performed at Cayenne, French Guiana from September 15 to September 16, 2017, under the auspices of the French Regional Health Agency (ARS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The activity was attended by experts from France (Angers, Martinique, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Paris), Costa Rica, Brazil, Saint Lucia, and Surinam. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, clinical grading and the management of snakebite in French Guiana were discussed. The conclusions of this symposium illustrated the urgent need to ensure accessibility of effective and safe polyvalent viperid antivenom in French Guiana. Finally, the results of this symposium have forged ties based on mutual goals and objectives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conclusions regarding geotechnical acceptability of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was authorized by Congress in 1980 as an unlicensed research and development (R and D) facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes arising from the defense activities and programs of the United States. WIPP is now being constructed in southeast New Mexico, using salt beds about 655 m below the surface of the ground. Construction of the full WIPP facility will not commence until a preliminary underground excavation phase, called Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV), is satisfactorily concluded in the summer of 1983. This SPDV program permits confirmation of subsurface geology, in drifts at planned facility depth that extend for 1555 m in a north-south direction, and in the two vertical shafts that provide access to these drifts. The subsurface studies are nearing completion, and it is therefore appropriate to draw conclusions regarding the geotechnical acceptability of the WIPP site. Four geotechnical elements are discussed: dissolution, deformation, hydrologic regime, and natural resources

  16. OECD/SERENA Project Report. Summary and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    The OECD/SERENA Project Integration Report summarises the outcome of a broad range of activities conducted in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications Project (OECD/SERENA) to address remaining issues on fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) mechanisms and their effect on ex-vessel steam explosion energetics. The scope the OECD/SERENA project was to resolve uncertainties in the remaining issues and to bring the code capabilities to an adequate level for use in reactor safety applications. This scope was accomplished with the completion of three major tasks: (1) an experimental programme consisting of two sets of steam explosion experiments in two different facilities; (2) an analytical programme consisting of pre-test calculations in support of test specifications and post-test calculations in support of data analysis and code assessment, and also a code benchmark exercise; and (3) a reactor calculation exercise repeating the one performed in the framework of the CSNI/WGAMA SERENA activity performed from 2001 to 2006 (also referred to as SERENA Phase I, published as CSNI/R(2007)/11). The objectives of the experimental programme were to provide data: (1) to clarify the explosion behaviour of prototypic corium melts and for validation of steam explosion models for prototypic materials; and (2) for steam explosion behaviour in two different geometries to verify the geometrical extrapolation capabilities of the codes. These objectives were to be accomplished by conducting complementary sets of six experiments each at two different facilities: KROTOS at the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) in Cadarache, France, representing one-dimensional FCI configuration involving nominally 5 kilograms of prototypic corium melt, and TROI at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejeon, Korea, representing multi-dimensional FCI configuration

  17. Jumping to the wrong conclusions? An investigation of the mechanisms of reasoning errors in delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Suzanne; Thompson, Claire; Hurley, James; Medin, Evelina; Butler, Lucy; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa

    2014-10-30

    Understanding how people with delusions arrive at false conclusions is central to the refinement of cognitive behavioural interventions. Making hasty decisions based on limited data ('jumping to conclusions', JTC) is one potential causal mechanism, but reasoning errors may also result from other processes. In this study, we investigated the correlates of reasoning errors under differing task conditions in 204 participants with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis who completed three probabilistic reasoning tasks. Psychotic symptoms, affect, and IQ were also evaluated. We found that hasty decision makers were more likely to draw false conclusions, but only 37% of their reasoning errors were consistent with the limited data they had gathered. The remainder directly contradicted all the presented evidence. Reasoning errors showed task-dependent associations with IQ, affect, and psychotic symptoms. We conclude that limited data-gathering contributes to false conclusions but is not the only mechanism involved. Delusions may also be maintained by a tendency to disregard evidence. Low IQ and emotional biases may contribute to reasoning errors in more complex situations. Cognitive strategies to reduce reasoning errors should therefore extend beyond encouragement to gather more data, and incorporate interventions focused directly on these difficulties. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Situating interventions to bridge the intention-behaviour gap: A framework for recruiting nonconscious processes for behaviour change

    OpenAIRE

    Papies, Esther K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a situated cognition framework for creating social psychological interventions to bridge the intention–behaviour gap and illustrates this framework by reviewing examples from the domains of health behaviour, environmental behaviour, stereotyping, and aggression. A recurrent problem in behaviour change is the fact that often, intentions are not translated into behaviour, causing the so-called intention–behaviour gap. Here, it is argued that this happens when situational cue...

  19. Summary of the discussion, Conclusion of the meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion was organised in three major periods corresponding to the main themes developed by the programme of the meeting: the qualification approaches, the qualification experience accumulated so far, one particular frame or motivation of the ISI qualification: the risk based (or informed) ISI. The qualification approaches presented by national representatives raised few questions. More discussion was induced on the qualification concepts, responsibilities, need and writing of the technical justification, motivation for the open trials, similitude between concepts, benefit deriving from the qualification of inspection procedures and further motivation. the conclusion could be as the following: the evolution of qualification applications, even if issued from harmonised concepts, appears to be nationalistically based. It is a thought that emulation and harmonisation could actually produce both savings and improvements in this area. 'The wheel does not have to be re-invented in each country' and it is the declared objective of ENIQ. There seems to be a need for some international agreement in the setting of standards for qualification. One area which seems to continue to be of underlying concern is in the characterisation of defects. There seems to be a need for appropriate 'defected blocks' satisfying the criteria of representativeness, quality, low cost, reproducibility, etc. More specific cases of Technical Justification development are needed to serve as examples and incentive for the case of this element of inspection qualification

  20. Financial Literacy of Latvian Citizens: Findings and Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guna Ciemleja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis and financial stability issues of the Eurozone countries have demonstrated that the total of financial knowledge and skills of the population that lets people make informed and efficient decisions is of utmost importance. Considering high social importance of financial education, it is necessary to develop a knowledge platform to increase the level of financial literacy. The results obtained in the process of assessment of the level of individual's financial literacy provide information on the factors, which reduce financial efficiency and cause unnecessary costs. Despite a vast body of international experience in the field of financial literacy assessment, one of the main problems is to develop a measuring instrument, which can ensure valid results and can be adapted to the socio-economic and demographic conditions of a definite country. Therefore, in 2015, academic personnel of the Department of Finance, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management of Riga Technical University conducted research within the project «Enhancing Latvian Citizens' Securitability through Development of the Financial Literacy» and developed an instrument for assessment of the level of financial literacy, which can be used to evaluate financial knowledge of the Latvian citizens taking into consideration all components of financial literacy. The results are briefly described in the current paper.