WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioural neuroscience research

  1. The use of animal models in behavioural neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Kaldewaij, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are used in experiments in the behavioural neurosciences that aim to contribute to the prevention and treatment of cognitive and affective disorders in human beings, such as anxiety and depression. Ironically, those animals that are likely to be the best models for psychopathology are also likely to be considered the ones that are most morally problematic to use, if it seems probable that (and if indeed they are initially selected as models because) they have experiences that are similar to human experiences that we have strong reasons to avoid causing, and indeed aim to alleviate (such as pain, anxiety or sadness). In this paper, against the background of contemporary discussions in animal ethics and the philosophy of animal minds, we discuss the views that it is morally permissible to use animals in these kinds of experiments, and that it is better to use less cognitively complex animals (such as zebrafish) than more complex animals (such as dogs). First, we criticise some justifications for the claim that human beings and more complex animals have higher moral status. We argue that contemporary approaches that attribute equal moral status to all beings that are capable of conscious strivings strivings (e.g. avoiding pain and anxiety; aiming to eat and play) are based on more plausible assumptions. Second, we argue that it is problematic to assume that less cognitively complex animals have a lesser sensory and emotional experience than more complex beings across the board. In specific cases, there might be good reasons to assume that more complex beings would be harmed more by a specific physical or environmental intervention, but it might also be that they sometimes are harmed less because of a better ability to cope. Determining whether a specific experiment is justified is therefore a complex issue. Our aim in this chapter is to stimulate further reflection on these common assumptions behind the use of animal models for psychopathologies. In

  2. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L

    2016-12-01

    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses.

  3. Brain Chemistry and Behaviour: An Update on Neuroscience Research and Its Implications for Understanding Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emma S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as drug addiction represent one of the biggest challenges to society. This article reviews clinical and basic science research to illustrate how developments in research methodology have enabled neuroscientists to understand more about the brain mechanisms involved in addiction biology. Treating addiction represents a…

  4. Brain Chemistry and Behaviour: An Update on Neuroscience Research and Its Implications for Understanding Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emma S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as drug addiction represent one of the biggest challenges to society. This article reviews clinical and basic science research to illustrate how developments in research methodology have enabled neuroscientists to understand more about the brain mechanisms involved in addiction biology. Treating addiction represents a…

  5. Visual neuroscience research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Historically,vision research in China was one of a few distinct research programs within the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS).With improved funding opportunities and research environment in neuroscience,vision research at several research institutes within the academy has made significant progress not only in the quantity of publications,but also in the quality of the work.Based on our own expertise,this review is mainly focused on the findings that have advanced the understanding of visual processing in the central visual pathway,visual perceptual learning,visual development and eye diseases.

  6. How neuroscience can inform consumer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenning, Peter H; Plassmann, Hilke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a rapidly growing approach within consumer research has developed under the label of "consumer neuroscience." Its goal is to use insights and methods from neuroscience to enhance the understanding of consumer behavior. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of questions of interest to consumer researchers, to present initial research findings, and to outline potential implications for consumer research. In order to do so, we first discuss the term "consumer neuroscience" and give a brief description of recently discussed issues in consumer research. We then provide a review and short description of initial empirical evidence from past studies in consumer neuroscience. Next, we present an example of how consumer research or, more specifically, customer loyalty research, may benefit from the consumer neuroscience approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications and suggestions for future research in the nascent field of consumer neuroscience.

  7. Behavioural Economics, Neuroscience, and the Unfair Commercial Practises Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests how and to what extent insights from behavioural economics and neuroscience may be used for the interpretation of the 2005 Unfair Commercial Practices Directive. These disciplines provide useful insight in how the average consumer’s decisions are influenced by commercial...... information and conducts. As the Directive focuses on whether a commercial practise distorts the economic behaviour of consumers, arguments for whether a particular commercial practise should be considered unfair may be found within these disciplines. It is important to bear in mind that the assessment...... that courts are to make is normative, and that behavioural economics and neuroscience is of a more descriptive nature. Thus these disciplines may not help draw the fine line between the legitimate influence of commercial activities and the illegal distortion of the average consumer’s behaviour. However...

  8. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development.

  9. Virtual Reality for Research in Social Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2017-04-16

    The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Herein, we discuss the potential of virtual reality for enhancing ecological validity while maintaining experimental control in social neuroscience research. Virtual reality is a technology that allows for the creation of fully interactive, three-dimensional computerized models of social situations that can be fully controlled by the experimenter. Furthermore, the introduction of interactive virtual characters-either driven by a human or by a computer-allows the researcher to test, in a systematic and independent manner, the effects of various social cues. We first introduce key technical features and concepts related to virtual reality. Next, we discuss the potential of this technology for enhancing social neuroscience protocols, drawing on illustrative experiments from the literature.

  10. Virtual Reality for Research in Social Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D.; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of social neuroscience has significantly advanced our understanding of the relationship that exists between social processes and their neurobiological underpinnings. Social neuroscience research often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and social interactions. Whilst this research has merit, there is a growing interest in the presentation of dynamic stimuli in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Herein, we discuss the potential of virtual reality for enhancing ecological validity while maintaining experimental control in social neuroscience research. Virtual reality is a technology that allows for the creation of fully interactive, three-dimensional computerized models of social situations that can be fully controlled by the experimenter. Furthermore, the introduction of interactive virtual characters—either driven by a human or by a computer—allows the researcher to test, in a systematic and independent manner, the effects of various social cues. We first introduce key technical features and concepts related to virtual reality. Next, we discuss the potential of this technology for enhancing social neuroscience protocols, drawing on illustrative experiments from the literature. PMID:28420150

  11. [Food behaviour and obesity: insights from decision neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Olivia; Basso, Frédéric; Huguet, Pascal; Plassmann, Hilke; Oullier, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Neuroimaging allows to estimate brain activity when individuals are doing something. The location and intensity of this estimated activity provides information on the dynamics and processes that guide choice behaviour and associated actions that should be considered a complement to behavioural studies. Decision neuroscience therefore sheds new light on whether the brain evaluates and compares alternatives when decisions are made, or if other processes are at stake. This work helped to demonstrate that the situations faced by individuals (risky, uncertain, delayed in time) do not all have the same (behavioural) complexity, and are not underlined by activity in the cerebral networks. Taking into account brain dynamics of people (suffering from obesity or not) when making food consumption decisions might allow for improved strategies in public health prevention, far from the rational choice theory promoted by neoclassical economics. © 2011 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  12. The neurosciences research program at MIT and the beginning of the modern field of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, George

    2010-01-15

    The interdisciplinary field, "neuroscience," began at MIT in 1962 with the founding of the Neurosciences Research Program (NRP) by Francis O. Schmitt and a group of US and international scientists - physical, biological, medical, and behavioral - interested in understanding the brain basis of behavior and mind. They organized and held specialist meetings of basic topics in neuroscience, and the journal and book publications over the next 20 years, based on these meetings, helped establish the new field.

  13. Neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007456.htm Neurosciences To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurosciences refers to the branch of medicine that focuses ...

  14. Information Infrastructure for Cooperative Research in Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Durka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a framework for efficient sharing of knowledge between research groups, which have been working for several years without flaws. The obstacles in cooperation are connected primarily with the lack of platforms for effective exchange of experimental data, models, and algorithms. The solution to these problems is proposed by construction of the platform (EEG.pl with the semantic aware search scheme between portals. The above approach implanted in the international cooperative projects like NEUROMATH may bring the significant progress in designing efficient methods for neuroscience research.

  15. A new research trend in social neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2014-01-01

    in realistic social interactions—an approach termed “hyperscanning.” Although this approach offers important promise in unlocking the brain’s role in truly social situations, there are multiple procedural and theoretical questions that require review and analysis. In this paper we discuss this research trend......The ability to flexibly modulate our behaviors in social contexts and to successfully interact with other persons is a fundamental, but pivotal, requirement for human survival. Although previous social neuroscience research with single individuals has contributed greatly to our understanding...... of the basic mechanisms underlying social perception and social emotions, much of the dynamic nature of interactions between persons remains beyond the reach of single-brain studies. This has led to a growing argument for a shift to the simultaneous measurement of the brain activity of two or more individuals...

  16. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  17. Sex Bias in Neuroscience and Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Zucker, Irving

    2010-01-01

    Female mammals have long been neglected in biomedical research. The NIH mandated enrollment of women in human clinical trials in 1993, but no similar initiatives exist to foster research on female animals. We reviewed sex bias in research on mammals in 10 biological fields for 2009 and their historical precedents. Male bias was evident in 8 disciplines and most prominent in neuroscience, with single-sex studies of male animals outnumbering those of females 5.5 to 1. In the past half-century, male bias in non-human studies has increased while declining in human studies. Studies of both sexes frequently fail to analyze results by sex. Underrepresentation of females in animal models of disease is also commonplace, and our understanding of female biology is compromised by these deficiencies. The majority of articles in several journals are conducted on rats and mice to the exclusion of other useful animal models. The belief that non-human female mammals are intrinsically more variable than males and too troublesome for routine inclusion in research protocols is without foundation. We recommend that when only one sex is studied, this should be indicated in article titles, and that funding agencies favor proposals that investigate both sexes and analyze data by sex. PMID:20620164

  18. A behavioural neuroscience perspective on the aetiology and treatment of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Merel

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decades, behaviour and cognitive psychology have produced fruitful and mutually converging theories from which hypotheses could be derived on the nature and origin of fear and anxiety disorders. Notwithstanding the emergence of effective treatments, there are still many questions that remain to be answered. Here, I will argue that the burgeoning field of behavioural neuroscience may advance our understanding of fear, anxiety disorders and its treatments. Decades of fear-conditioning research across species have begun to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying associative fear learning and memory. The fear-conditioning paradigm provides a well-controlled and fine-grained research platform to examine these processes. Although the traditional fear conditioning paradigm was originally designed to unveil general principles of fear (un)learning, it is well-suited to understand the transition from normal fear to pathological fear and the mechanisms of change. This paper presents 1) a selection of fear conditioning studies on the generalization and persistence of associative fear memory as intermediate phenotypes of fear and anxiety disorders, and 2) insights from neuroscience on the malleability of fear memory with the potential to provide a long-term cure for anxiety and related disorders.

  19. Advances in microfluidics-based experimental methods for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Kim, Hyung Joon; Kang, Myeong Woo; Jeon, Noo Li

    2013-02-21

    The application of microfluidics to neuroscience applications has always appealed to neuroscientists because of the capability to control the cellular microenvironment in both a spatial and temporal manner. Recently, there has been rapid development of biological micro-electro-mechanical systems (BioMEMS) for both fundamental and applied neuroscience research. In this review, we will discuss the applications of BioMEMS to various topics in the field of neuroscience. The purpose of this review is to summarise recent advances in the components and design of the BioMEMS devices, in vitro disease models, electrophysiology and neural stem cell research. We envision that microfluidics will play a key role in future neuroscience research, both fundamental and applied research.

  20. Neuroscience research on aging and implications for counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen L; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The advances in neuroscience have led to an increase in scientific understanding of the aging process, and counseling psychologists can benefit from familiarity with the research on the neuroscience of aging. In this article, we have focused on the cognitive neuroscience of aging, and we describe the progression of healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease, given its high prevalence rate among older adults (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). Common techniques used to study the cognitive neuroscience of aging are explained in regards to measuring age-related changes in the brain and the role of biomarkers in identifying cognitive decline related to Alzheimer's disease. Using this information and in collaboration with cognitive neuroscientists, it is our hope that counseling psychologists may further pursue research areas on aging as well as design appropriate interventions for older individuals who may be experiencing cognitive impairment.

  1. Textpresso for neuroscience: searching the full text of thousands of neuroscience research papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Michael; Rangarajan, Arun; Teal, Tracy K; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-09-01

    Textpresso is a text-mining system for scientific literature. Its two major features are access to the full text of research papers and the development and use of categories of biological concepts as well as categories that describe or relate objects. A search engine enables the user to search for one or a combination of these categories and/or keywords within an entire literature. Here we describe Textpresso for Neuroscience, part of the core Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). The Textpresso site currently consists of 67,500 full text papers and 131,300 abstracts. We show that using categories in literature can make a pure keyword query more refined and meaningful. We also show how semantic queries can be formulated with categories only. We explain the build and content of the database and describe the main features of the web pages and the advanced search options. We also give detailed illustrations of the web service developed to provide programmatic access to Textpresso. This web service is used by the NIF interface to access Textpresso. The standalone website of Textpresso for Neuroscience can be accessed at http://www.textpresso.org/neuroscience/.

  2. From Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience: Encouraging Innovation in Undergraduate Neuroscience Education by Supporting Student Research and Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Jean C.; Kerchner, Michael; Lom, Barbara; Ramirez, Julio J.; Wiertelak, Eric P.

    2006-01-01

    This article features the organization Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience. FUN was established by a group of neuroscientists dedicated to innovation and excellence in undergraduate neuroscience education and research. In the years since its inception, FUN has grown into a dynamic organization making a significant impact on the quality of…

  3. From Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience: Encouraging Innovation in Undergraduate Neuroscience Education by Supporting Student Research and Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Jean C.; Kerchner, Michael; Lom, Barbara; Ramirez, Julio J.; Wiertelak, Eric P.

    2006-01-01

    This article features the organization Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience. FUN was established by a group of neuroscientists dedicated to innovation and excellence in undergraduate neuroscience education and research. In the years since its inception, FUN has grown into a dynamic organization making a significant impact on the quality of…

  4. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  5. Applying Cognitive Neuroscience Research to Education: The Case of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Tami; Pare-Blagoev, Juliana

    2006-01-01

    Neuroscience has provided fascinating glimpses into the brain's development and function. Despite remarkable progress, brain research has not yet been successfully brought to bear in many fields of educational psychology. In this article, work on literacy serves as a test case for an examination of potential future bridges linking mind, brain, and…

  6. Review of Research: Neuroscience and Reading--A Review for Reading Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G.; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we lay the groundwork for an interdisciplinary conversation between literacy education research and relevant neuroscience research. We review recent neuroscience research on correlates of proposed cognitive subprocesses in text decoding and reading comprehension and analyze some of the methodological and conceptual challenges of…

  7. Review of Research: Neuroscience and Reading--A Review for Reading Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G.; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we lay the groundwork for an interdisciplinary conversation between literacy education research and relevant neuroscience research. We review recent neuroscience research on correlates of proposed cognitive subprocesses in text decoding and reading comprehension and analyze some of the methodological and conceptual challenges of…

  8. Neurosciences research in space - Future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

  9. Neurogenomics: An opportunity to integrate neuroscience, genomics and bioinformatics research in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Karikari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern genomic approaches have made enormous contributions to improving our understanding of the function, development and evolution of the nervous system, and the diversity within and between species. However, most of these research advances have been recorded in countries with advanced scientific resources and funding support systems. On the contrary, little is known about, for example, the possible interplay between different genes, non-coding elements and environmental factors in modulating neurological diseases among populations in low-income countries, including many African countries. The unique ancestry of African populations suggests that improved inclusion of these populations in neuroscience-related genomic studies would significantly help to identify novel factors that might shape the future of neuroscience research and neurological healthcare. This perspective is strongly supported by the recent identification that diseased individuals and their kindred from specific sub-Saharan African populations lack common neurological disease-associated genetic mutations. This indicates that there may be population-specific causes of neurological diseases, necessitating further investigations into the contribution of additional, presently-unknown genomic factors. Here, we discuss how the development of neurogenomics research in Africa would help to elucidate disease-related genomic variants, and also provide a good basis to develop more effective therapies. Furthermore, neurogenomics would harness African scientists' expertise in neuroscience, genomics and bioinformatics to extend our understanding of the neural basis of behaviour, development and evolution.

  10. Mapping of Indian neuroscience research: A scientometric analysis of research output during 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Adarsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study analyses the research output in India in neurosciences during the period 1999-2008 and the analyses included research growth, rank, global publications′ share, citation impact, share of international collaborative papers and major collaborative partner countries and patterns of research communication in most productive journals. It also analyses the characteristics of most productive institutions, authors and high-cited papers. The publication output and impact of India is also compared with China, Brazil and South Korea. Materials and Method s: Scopus Citation database was used for retrieving the publications′ output of India and other countries in neurosciences during 1999-2008. Results : India′s global publications′ share in neurosciences during the study period was 0.99% (with 4503 papers and it ranked 21 st among the top 26 countries in neurosciences. The average annual publication growth rate was 11.37%, shared 17.34% of international collaborative papers and the average citation per paper was 4.21. India was far behind China, Brazil and South Korea in terms of publication output, citation quality and share of international collaborative papers in neurosciences. Conclusion : India is far behind in terms of publication output, citation quality and share of international collaborative papers in neurosciences when compared to other countries with an emerging economy. There is an urgent need to substantially increase the research activities in the field of neurosciences in India.

  11. Behavioural science at work for Canada: National Research Council laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jennifer A

    2007-03-01

    The National Research Council is Canada's principal research and development agency. Its 20 institutes are structured to address interdisciplinary problems for industrial sectors, and to provide the necessary scientific infrastructure, such as the national science library. Behavioural scientists are active in five institutes: Biological Sciences, Biodiagnostics, Aerospace, Information Technology, and Construction. Research topics include basic cellular neuroscience, brain function, human factors in the cockpit, human-computer interaction, emergency evacuation, and indoor environment effects on occupants. Working in collaboration with NRC colleagues and with researchers from universities and industry, NRC behavioural scientists develop knowledge, designs, and applications that put technology to work for people, designed with people in mind.

  12. Advances in the Use of Neuroscience Methods in Research on Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience offers a series of tools and methodologies that allow researchers in the field of learning and instruction to complement and extend the knowledge they have accumulated through decades of behavioral research. The appropriateness of these methods depends on the research question at hand. Cognitive neuroscience methods allow…

  13. A framework for streamlining research workflow in neuroscience and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eKubilius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful accumulation of knowledge is critically dependent on the ability to verify and replicate every part of scientific conduct. However, such principles are difficult to enact when researchers continue to resort on ad hoc workflows and with poorly maintained code base. In this paper I examine the needs of neuroscience and psychology community, and introduce psychopy_ext, a unifying framework that seamlessly integrates popular experiment building, analysis and manuscript preparation tools by choosing reasonable defaults and implementing relatively rigid patterns of workflow. This structure allows for automation of multiple tasks, such as generated user interfaces, unit testing, control analyses of stimuli, single-command access to descriptive statistics, and publication quality plotting. Taken together, psychopy_ext opens an exciting possibility for faster, more robust code development and collaboration for researchers.

  14. Brain-(Not) Based Education: Dangers of Misunderstanding and Misapplication of Neuroscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferink, Larry A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri

    2010-01-01

    Oversimplification or inappropriate interpretation of complex neuroscience research is widespread among curricula claiming that brain-based approaches are effective for improved learning and retention. We examine recent curricula claiming to be based on neuroscience research, discuss the implications of such misinterpretation for special…

  15. Brain-(Not) Based Education: Dangers of Misunderstanding and Misapplication of Neuroscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferink, Larry A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri

    2010-01-01

    Oversimplification or inappropriate interpretation of complex neuroscience research is widespread among curricula claiming that brain-based approaches are effective for improved learning and retention. We examine recent curricula claiming to be based on neuroscience research, discuss the implications of such misinterpretation for special…

  16. Basic neuroscience research with nonhuman primates : a small but indispensable component of biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R; Treue, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Research with nonhuman primates represents a small component of neuroscience with far-reaching relevance that is irreplaceable for essential insights into cognitive functions, brain disease, and therapy. Transparency and widespread information about this research and its importance is central to ens

  17. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research discip

  18. The Brown University Traumatic Brain Injury Research Consortium and the Norman Prince Neurosciences Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogg, Jeffrey; Spader, Heather; Wilcox, Bethany J; Ellermeier, Anna; Correira, Steven; Chodobski, Adam; Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna; Raukar, Neha; Machan, Jason T; Crisco, Joseph J; LaFrance, W Curt

    2014-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the Brown University Traumatic Brain Injury Research Consortium (TBIRC) and summarizes the multidisciplinary basic and clinical neuroscience work being conducted by investigators at Brown University and the affiliate hospitals in association with the Norman Prince Neurosciences Institute (NPNI).

  19. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroimaging and psychophysiological measurement in organizational research: an agenda for research in organizational cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-11-01

    Although organizational research has made tremendous strides in the last century, recent advances in neuroscience and the imaging of functional brain activity remain underused. In fact, even the use of well-established psychophysiological measurement tools is comparatively rare. Following the lead of social cognitive neuroscience, in this review, we conceptualize organizational cognitive neuroscience as a field dedicated to exploring the processes within the brain that underlie or influence human decisions, behaviors, and interactions either (a) within organizations or (b) in response to organizational manifestations or institutions. We discuss organizational cognitive neuroscience, bringing together work that may previously have been characterized rather atomistically, and provide a brief overview of individual methods that may be of use. Subsequently, we discuss the possible convergence and integration of the different neuroimaging and psychophysiological measurement modalities. A brief review of prior work in the field shows a significant need for a more coherent and theory-driven approach to organizational cognitive neuroscience. In response, we discuss a recent example of such work, along with three hypothetical case studies that exemplify the link between organizational and psychological theory and neuroscientific methods.

  1. Applying statistics in behavioural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Applying Statistics in Behavioural Research is written for undergraduate students in the behavioural sciences, such as Psychology, Pedagogy, Sociology and Ethology. The topics range from basic techniques, like correlation and t-tests, to moderately advanced analyses, like multiple regression and MAN

  2. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  3. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs......Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008). Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information...... are gaining terrain. Information seeking is still the major topic of interest. Important newer topics are studies focusing on users’ context and on special needs. Conclusion. Information behaviour research has evolved a great deal over the last years and has taken on new methods and new topics. A discussion...

  4. Point of View: The Importance of Teaching Neuroscience Research at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    This column shares reflections or thoughtful opinions on issues of broad interest to the community. This month's issue discusses the importance of the insights that are gained through neuroscience research.

  5. Research in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1988-01-01

    The present state of consumer behavior research is analysed here by Klaus Grunert, of the Aarhus Graduate School of Management, Denmark. Against the background of crisis in the existing research paradigm, he suggests a number of possible new directions in the field, at the same time emphasizing...

  6. Does the goal justify the methods? Harm and benefit in neuroscience research using animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Castro, Ana Catarina; Olsson, I Anna S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present chapter is to open up for discussion some of the major ethical issues involved in animal-based neuroscience research. We begin by approaching the question of the moral acceptability of the use of animals in research at all, exploring the implications of three different ethical theories: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights. In the rest of this chapter, we discuss more specific issues of neuroscience research within what we argue is the mainstream framework for research animal ethics, namely one based on harm-benefit analysis. We explore issues of harms and benefits and how to balance them as well as how to reduce harm and increase benefit within neuroscience research.

  7. Bridging the Gap: establishing the necessary infrastructure and knowledge for teaching and research in neuroscience in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Baden, Tom; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L

    2014-06-01

    Advances in neuroscience research over the last few decades have increased our understanding of how individual neurons acquire their specific properties and assemble into complex circuits, and how these circuits are affected in disease. One of the important motives driving neuroscience research is the development of new scientific techniques and interdisciplinary cooperation. Compared to developed countries, many countries on the African continent are confronted with poor facilities, lack of funding or career development programs for neuroscientists, all of which deter young scientists from taking up neuroscience as a career choice. This article highlights some steps that are being taken to promote neuroscience education and research in Africa.

  8. Connecting Neuroscience, Cognitive, and Educational Theories and Research to Practice: A Review of Mathematics Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…

  9. Connecting Neuroscience, Cognitive, and Educational Theories and Research to Practice: A Review of Mathematics Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…

  10. Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with social…

  11. Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with…

  12. Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with…

  13. Ethical considerations of neuroscience research: the perspectives on neuroethics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Tamami; Sakura, Osamu; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    Recent technologies and developments in neuroscience have contributed to remarkable scientific discoveries, and have also raised many new philosophical, ethical, legal, and social issues. Research in "neuroethics" has identified various ethical issues, which will be difficult for current biomedical ethics to resolve from both an experimental and a social perspective, such as criminal applications of brain scans, incidental findings during non-clinical brain imaging, and cognitive enhancement. Although American and European neuroscience societies have demonstrated immediate, concrete reactions to these ethical issues, including academic conferences, study programs, and publications, Japanese neuroscientists have so far produced little response. Ethics is tightly linked with one's religion, nationality, culture, and social background, whereas science is tightly linked with the demand, economics, and politics of the society to which individuals belong. Taken together, it is important and necessary for Japanese neuroscientists to consider the ethical problems in Japanese neuroscience. In this paper, we first review the history of neuroethics in the world, and then report the less-developed ethical issues in the Japanese neuroscience community, focusing on neuroimaging and manipulative neuroscience as a first step in discussing how to apply principles in neuroethics to this rapidly progressing field of research.

  14. From brain to neuro: the brain research association and the making of British neuroscience, 1965-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Rached, Joelle M

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the short history of "neuroscience" as a discipline in its own right as opposed to the much longer past of the brain sciences. It focuses on one historical moment, the formation of the first British "neuroscience" society, the Brain Research Association (BRA), renamed in 1996 to the British Neuroscience Association (BNA). It outlines the new thinking brought about by this new science of brain, mind, and behavior, it sketches the beginnings of the BRA and the institutionalization of neuroscience in the British context, and it further explores the ambiguous relation the association had towards some of the ethical, social, and political implications of this new area of research.

  15. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  16. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  17. Philosophical Challenges for Researchers at the Interface between Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how discussions around the new interdisciplinary research area combining neuroscience and education have brought into sharp relief differences in the philosophies of learning in these two areas. It considers the difficulties faced by those working at the interface between these two areas and, in particular, it focuses on the…

  18. Philosophical Challenges for Researchers at the Interface between Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how discussions around the new interdisciplinary research area combining neuroscience and education have brought into sharp relief differences in the philosophies of learning in these two areas. It considers the difficulties faced by those working at the interface between these two areas and, in particular, it focuses on the…

  19. Hypnosis, human nature, and complexity: integrating neuroscience approaches into hypnosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, Amanda J; McConkey, Kevin M

    2003-07-01

    Hypnosis research has contributed much to the understanding of human behavior and experience, both normal and abnormal. This paper considers ways in which neuroscience approaches may be integrated into hypnosis research to continue and enhance that contribution, as well as further reveal the nature of hypnosis itself. The authors review the influences on and advances in hypnosis research over the last century; illustrate the investigative value of hypnosis to selected phenomena across the areas of doing, feeling, believing, and remembering; and specify elements for the successful integration of neuroscience approaches into hypnosis research. The authors believe that hypnosis research offers powerful techniques to isolate psychological processes in ways that allow their neural bases to be mapped. Successful integration will be achieved when researchers add levels of explanation, rather than shift the emphasis from one level or feature to another.

  20. Critical ethnography: An under-used research methodology in neuroscience nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cheryl; Rogers, Cath; Duff, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Critical ethnography is a qualitative research method that endeavours to explore and understand dominant discourses that are seen as being the 'right' way to think, see, talk about or enact a particular 'action' or situation in society and recommend ways to re-dress social power inequities. In health care, vulnerable populations, including many individuals who have experienced neurological illnesses or injuries that leave them susceptible to the influence of others, would be suitable groups for study using critical ethnography methodology. Critical ethnography has also been used to study workplace culture. While ethnography has been effectively used to underpin other phenomena of interest to neuroscience nurses, only one example of the use of critical ethnography exists in the published literature related to neuroscience nursing. In our "Research Corner" in this issue of the Canadian Journal of Neuroscience Nursing (CJNN) our guest editors, Dr. Cheryl Ross and Dr. Cath Rogers will briefly highlight the origins of qualitative research, ethnography, and critical ethnography and describe how they are used and, as the third author, I will discuss the relevance of critical ethnography findings for neuroscience nurses.

  1. Neuroscience-related research in Ghana: a systematic evaluation of direction and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-02-01

    Neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases account for considerable healthcare, economic and social burdens in Ghana. In order to effectively address these burdens, appropriately-trained scientists who conduct high-impact neuroscience research will be needed. Additionally, research directions should be aligned with national research priorities. However, to provide information about current neuroscience research productivity and direction, the existing capacity and focus need to be identified. This would allow opportunities for collaborative research and training to be properly explored and developmental interventions to be better targeted. In this study, we sought to evaluate the existing capacity and direction of neuroscience-related research in Ghana. To do this, we examined publications reporting research investigations authored by scientists affiliated with Ghanaian institutions in specific areas of neuroscience over the last two decades (1995-2015). 127 articles that met our inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated in terms of research foci, annual publication trends and author affiliations. The most actively-researched areas identified include neurocognitive impairments in non-nervous system disorders, depression and suicide, epilepsy and seizures, neurological impact of substance misuse, and neurological disorders. These studies were mostly hospital and community-based surveys. About 60% of these articles were published in the last seven years, suggesting a recent increase in research productivity. However, data on experimental and clinical research outcomes were particularly lacking. We suggest that future investigations should focus on the following specific areas where information was lacking: large-scale disease epidemiology, effectiveness of diagnostic platforms and therapeutic treatments, and the genetic, genomic and molecular bases of diseases.

  2. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  3. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience.

  4. New directions in hypnosis research: strategies for advancing the cognitive and clinical neuroscience of hypnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Mark P; Jamieson, Graham A.; Lutz, Antoine; Mazzoni, Giuliana; McGeown, William J; Enrica L. Santarcangelo; Demertzi, Athina; De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Bányai, Éva I; Rominger, Christian; Vuilleumier, Patrik; FAYMONVILLE, Marie-Elisabeth; Terhune, Devin B.

    2017-01-01

    In August of 2015, the International Society of Hypnosis and Confederation Francophone d’hypnose et Therapies Breves co-sponsored a 1-day meeting among hypnosis researchers, just before the International Congress of Hypnosis in Paris, France. One of the goals of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the- science of hypnosis research from the purview of clinical and cognitive neuroscience. The purpose of this article is to summarize the key issues that were raised during the discussions, inc...

  5. The interface of self psychology, infant research, and neuroscience in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, Judith

    2009-04-01

    This article focuses on the integration of self psychology with findings from infant research and neuroscience. While Kohut's psychology of the self provides a useful theoretical model for psychoanalytic practice, aspects of infant research and neuroscience offer specificity and nuance to basic self-psychological concepts. Kohut proposed that self-psychological psychoanalysis ameliorates derailed development through patient-analyst interaction, while a listening stance of empathic immersion begins the curative process of derailed development and sets the stage for reparative psychoanalytic work. Findings from infant research delineate much more specifically the nature of attunement both in early mother-infant and analyst-patient interactions. Findings from neuroscientific research delineate how early mother-infant experiences are encoded in implicit memory and explicates the emotional substrate of affects and feelings. This emotional substrate exists at birth and provides a means of communication both in infancy and adulthood. Additionally, infant research delineates the mutuality of the interactive process. Thus, both infant research and neuroscience add subtlety and nuance to basic self-psychological concepts. This subtlety opens up new ways of understanding patients and expands the clinical repertoire. Three clinical vignettes demonstrate how this nuance and expansion of self-psychological concepts are applied in the context of an ongoing psychoanalytic treatment.

  6. The Changing Landscape of Neuroscience Research, 2006–2015: A Bibliometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Goto, Tazuko K.; Leung, W. Keung

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is beneficial to evaluate changes in neuroscience research field regarding research directions and topics over a defined period. Such information enables stakeholders to quickly identify the most influential research and incorporate latest evidence into research-informed education. To our knowledge, no study reported changes in neuroscience literature over the last decade. Therefore, the current study determined research terms with highest citation scores, compared publication shares of research areas and contributing countries in this field from 2006 to 2015 and identified the most productive journals. Methods: Data were extracted from Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Only articles and reviews published in journals classified under the JCR “Neurosciences” category over the period of interest were included. Title and abstract fields of each included publication were extracted and analyzed via VOSviewer to identify recurring terms with high relative citation scores. Two term maps were produced for publications over the study period to illustrate the extent of co-occurrence, and the impact of terms was evaluated based on their relative citation scores. To further describe the recent research priority or “hot spots,” 10 terms with the highest relative citation scores were identified annually. In addition, by applying Bradford's law, we identified 10 journals being the most productive journals per annum over the survey period and evaluated their bilbiometric performances. Results: From 2006 to 2015, there were 47 terms involved in the annual lists of top 10 terms with highest relative citation scores. The most frequently recurring terms were autism (8), meta-analysis (7), functional connectivity (6), default mode network (4) and neuroimaging (4). Neuroscience research related to psychology and behavioral sciences showed an increase in publication share over the survey period, and China has become one of the major contributors to

  7. Changing requirements and resulting needs for IT-infrastructure for longitudinal research in the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckow, Karoline; Quade, Matthias; Rienhoff, Otto; Nussbeck, Sara Y

    2016-01-01

    The observation of growing "difficulties" in IT-infrastructures in neuroscience research during the last years led to a search for reasons and an analysis on how this phenomenon is reflected in the scientific literature. With a retrospective analysis of nine examples of multicenter research projects in the neurosciences and a literature review the observation was systematically analyzed. Results show that the rise in complexity mainly stems from two reasons: (1) more and more need for information on quality and context of research data (metadata) and (2) long-term requirements to handle the consent and identity/pseudonyms of study participants and biomaterials in relation to legal requirements. The combination of these two aspects together with very long study times and data evaluation periods are components of the subjectively perceived "difficulties". A direct consequence of this result is that big multicenter trials are becoming part of integrated research data environments and are not standing alone for themselves anymore. This drives up the resource needs regarding the IT-infrastructure in neuroscience research. In contrast to these findings, literature on this development is scarce and the problem probably underestimated.

  8. The Mind Research Network - Mental Illness Neuroscience Discovery Grant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.; Calhoun, V.

    2013-12-17

    The scientific and technological programs of the Mind Research Network (MRN), reflect DOE missions in basic science and associated instrumentation, computational modeling, and experimental techniques. MRN's technical goals over the course of this project have been to develop and apply integrated, multi-modality functional imaging techniques derived from a decade of DOE-support research and technology development.

  9. The Emerging Neuroscience of Intrinsic Motivation: A New Frontier in Self-Determination Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Stefano I.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation refers to people’s spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation. In the present article, we trace the history of intrinsic motivation research, compare and contrast intrinsic motivation to closely related topics (flow, curiosity, trait plasticity), link intrinsic motivation to key findings in the comparative affective neurosciences, and review burgeoning neuroscience research on intrinsic motivation. We review converging evidence suggesting that intrinsically motivated exploratory and mastery behaviors are phylogenetically ancient tendencies that are subserved by dopaminergic systems. Studies also suggest that intrinsic motivation is associated with patterns of activity across large-scale neural networks, namely, those that support salience detection, attentional control and self-referential cognition. We suggest novel research directions and offer recommendations for the application of neuroscience methods in the study of intrinsic motivation. PMID:28392765

  10. Optogenetics in preclinical neuroscience and psychiatry research: recent insights and potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    McDevitt RA; Reed SJ; Britt JP

    2014-01-01

    Ross A McDevitt,1 Sean J Reed,2 Jonathan P Britt2,3 1Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Integrated Program in Neuroscience, Montreal Neurological Institute, 3Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: There have been significant advances in the treatment of psychiatric disease in the last half century, but it is still unclear which neural circuits are ultimately responsible for s...

  11. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues....

  12. Translational Research in Aphasia: From Neuroscience to Neurorehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Anastasia M.; Beeson, Pelagie; Holland, Audrey; Kendall, Diane; Maher, Lynn M.; Martin, Nadine; Murray, Laura; Rose, Miranda; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Turkstra, Lyn; Altmann, Lori; Boyle, Mary; Conway, Tim; Hula, William; Kearns, Kevin; Rapp, Brenda; Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors encapsulate discussions of the Language Work Group that took place as part of the Workshop in Plasticity/NeuroRehabilitation Research at the University of Florida in April 2005. Method: In this narrative review, they define neuroplasticity and review studies that demonstrate neural changes associated with…

  13. Neuroscience in ergonomics and human factors research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the possible application of neuroscientific knowledge in human factors research and pratice. Can this knowledge be implemented to improve the design and evaluation of systems and functional environments? Or - to take it one step further - could it bring about the integration of

  14. What We Know Now: Education, Neuroscience and Transdisciplinary Autism Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravet, Jackie; Williams, Justin H. G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the brain has been growing rapidly since the 1990s as a result of developments in neuroscientific research linked to improvements in functional neuroimaging and other brain imaging technologies. As the brain is the "principal organ involved in learning" (1), it would seem reasonable to assume that education…

  15. What We Know Now: Education, Neuroscience and Transdisciplinary Autism Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravet, Jackie; Williams, Justin H. G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the brain has been growing rapidly since the 1990s as a result of developments in neuroscientific research linked to improvements in functional neuroimaging and other brain imaging technologies. As the brain is the "principal organ involved in learning" (1), it would seem reasonable to assume that education…

  16. Neurolab - A Space Shuttle Mission Dedicated to Neuroscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session JA5 includes short reports concerning: (1) NASA/NIH Neurolab Collaborations; (2) Neurolab Mission: An Example of International Cooperation; (3) Neurolab: An Overview of the Planned Scientific Investigations; (4) EDEN: A Payload for NEUROLAB, dedicated to Neuro Vestibular Research; (5) Neurolab Experiments on the Role of Visual Cues in Microgravity Spatial Orientation; and (6) The Role of Space in the Exploration of the Mammalian Vestibular System.

  17. A behavioural neuroscience perspective on the aetiology and treatment of anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, behaviour and cognitive psychology have produced fruitful and mutually converging theories from which hypotheses could be derived on the nature and origin of fear and anxiety disorders. Notwithstanding the emergence of effective treatments, there are still many questions that

  18. A relational database application in support of integrated neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudowsky, Ira; Kulyba, Olga; Kunin, Mikhail; Ogarodnikov, Dmitri; Raphan, Theodore

    2004-12-01

    The development of relational databases has significantly improved the performance of storage, search, and retrieval functions and has made it possible for applications that perform real-time data acquisition and analysis to interact with these types of databases. The purpose of this research was to develop a user interface for interaction between a data acquisition and analysis application and a relational database using the Oracle9i system. The overall system was designed to have an indexing capability that threads into the data acquisition and analysis programs. Tables were designed and relations within the database for indexing the files and information contained within the files were established. The system provides retrieval capabilities over a broad range of media, including analog, event, and video data types. The system's ability to interact with a data capturing program at the time of the experiment to create both multimedia files as well as the meta-data entries in the relational database avoids manual entries in the database and ensures data integrity and completeness for further interaction with the data by analysis applications.

  19. Rodent models in neuroscience research: is it a rat race?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ellenbroek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodents (especially Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus have been the most widely used models in biomedical research for many years. A notable shift has taken place over the last two decades, with mice taking a more and more prominent role in biomedical science compared to rats. This shift was primarily instigated by the availability of a much larger genetic toolbox for mice, particularly embryonic-stem-cell-based targeting technology for gene disruption. With the recent emergence of tools for altering the rat genome, notably genome-editing technologies, the technological gap between the two organisms is closing, and it is becoming more important to consider the physiological, anatomical, biochemical and pharmacological differences between rats and mice when choosing the right model system for a specific biological question. The aim of this short review and accompanying poster is to highlight some of the most important differences, and to discuss their impact on studies of human diseases, with a special focus on neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Non-human primates in neuroscience research: The case against its scientific necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jarrod; Taylor, Kathy

    2016-03-01

    Public opposition to non-human primate (NHP) experiments is significant, yet those who defend them cite minimal harm to NHPs and substantial human benefit. Here we review these claims of benefit, specifically in neuroscience, and show that: a) there is a default assumption of their human relevance and benefit, rather than robust evidence; b) their human relevance and essential contribution and necessity are wholly overstated; c) the contribution and capacity of non-animal investigative methods are greatly understated; and d) confounding issues, such as species differences and the effects of stress and anaesthesia, are usually overlooked. This is the case in NHP research generally, but here we specifically focus on the development and interpretation of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), deep brain stimulation (DBS), the understanding of neural oscillations and memory, and investigation of the neural control of movement and of vision/binocular rivalry. The increasing power of human-specific methods, including advances in fMRI and invasive techniques such as electrocorticography and single-unit recordings, is discussed. These methods serve to render NHP approaches redundant. We conclude that the defence of NHP use is groundless, and that neuroscience would be more relevant and successful for humans, if it were conducted with a direct human focus. We have confidence in opposing NHP neuroscience, both on scientific as well as on ethical grounds.

  1. A room with a view of integrity and professionalism: personal reflections on teaching responsible conduct of research in the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emily

    2015-04-01

    Neuroscientists are increasingly put into situations which demand critical reflection about the ethical and appropriate use of research tools and scientific knowledge. Students or trainees also have to know how to navigate the ethical domains of this context. At a time when neuroscience is expected to advance policy and practice outcomes, in the face of academic pressures and complex environments, the importance of scientific integrity comes into focus and with it the need for training at the graduate level in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). I describe my experience teaching RCR in a graduate neuroscience program and identify three personal reflections where further dialogue could be warranted: (1) mobilizing a common set of competencies and virtues standing for professionalism in the neurosciences; (2) tailoring RCR for the neurosciences and empowering students through the active engagement of mentors; (3) soliciting shared responsibility for RCR training between disciplines, institutions and governmental or funding agencies.

  2. The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space: Results from the STS-90, Neurolab Spacelab Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckey, Jay C., Jr. (Editor); Homick, Jerry L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Neurolab (STS-90) represents a major scientific achievement that built upon the knowledge and capabilities developed during the preceding 15 successful Spacelab module missions. NASA proposed a dedicated neuroscience research flight in response to a Presidential declaration that the 1990's be the Decade of the Brain. Criteria were established for selecting research proposals in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NM), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and a number of the International Space Agencies. The resulting Announcement of Opportunity for Neurolab in 1993 resulted in 172 proposals from scientists worldwide. After an NIH-managed peer review, NASA ultimately selected 26 proposals for flight on the Neurolab mission.

  3. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and lo...... response rates, buying centres and product specific behaviour. At the end, the authors propose a descriptive research design that will try to take account of the mentioned issues.......This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...

  4. Neuroscience in recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Susan G; Grillner, Sten; Insel, Tom; Nutt, David; Tsumoto, Tadaharu

    2011-05-01

    As the global financial downturn continues, its impact on neuroscientists - both on an individual level and at the level of their research institute - becomes increasingly apparent. How is the economic crisis affecting neuroscience funding, career prospects, international collaborations and scientists' morale in different parts of the world? Nature Reviews Neuroscience gauged the opinions of a number of leading neuroscientists: the President of the Society for Neuroscience, the President Elect of the British Neuroscience Association, the former President of the Japan Neuroscience Society, the President of the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and the Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Their responses provide interesting and important insights into the regional impact of the global financial downturn, with some causes for optimism for the future of neuroscience research.

  5. Information Searching Behaviour of Young Slovenian Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Polona; Zumer, Maja

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of an empirical study of information behaviour of young Slovenian researchers. Design/methodology/approach: Built on some well-known models of scholarly information behaviour the study complements a previously conducted study of the same population, which focused on the aspects of user…

  6. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  7. Adolescent maturity and the brain: the promise and pitfalls of neuroscience research in adolescent health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B; Blum, Robert W; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-09-01

    Longitudinal neuroimaging studies demonstrate that the adolescent brain continues to mature well into the 20s. This has prompted intense interest in linking neuromaturation to maturity of judgment. Public policy is struggling to keep up with burgeoning interest in cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging. However, empirical evidence linking neurodevelopmental processes and adolescent real-world behavior remains sparse. Nonetheless, adolescent brain development research is already shaping public policy debates about when individuals should be considered mature for policy purposes. With this in mind, in this article we summarize what is known about adolescent brain development and what remains unknown, as well as what neuroscience can and cannot tell us about the adolescent brain and behavior. We suggest that a conceptual framework that situates brain science in the broader context of adolescent developmental research would help to facilitate research-to-policy translation. Furthermore, although contemporary discussions of adolescent maturity and the brain often use a deficit-based approach, there is enormous opportunity for brain science to illuminate the great strengths and potentialities of the adolescent brain. So, too, can this information inform policies that promote adolescent health and well-being.

  8. [From brain imaging to good teaching? implicating from neuroscience for research on learning and instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Christa; Krinzinger, Helga; Konrad, Kerstin

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence, in particular attention deficit disorder or specific learning disorders like developmental dyslexia and developmental dyscalculia, affect academic performance and learning at school. Recent advances in neuroscientific research have incited an intensive debate both in the general public and in the field of educational and instructional science as well as to whether and to what extent these new findings in the field of neuroscience might be of importance for school-related learning and instruction. In this review, we first summarize neuroscientific findings related to the development of attention, working memory and executive functions in typically developing children and then evaluate their relevance for school-related learning. We present an overview of neuroimaging studies of specific learning disabilities such as developmental dyslexia and developmental dyscalculia, and critically discuss their practical implications for educational and teaching practice, teacher training, early diagnosis as well as prevention and disorder-specific therapy. We conclude that the new interdisciplinary field of neuroeducation cannot be expected to provide direct innovative educational applications (e.g., teaching methods). Rather, the future potential of neuroscience lies in creating a deeper understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms and pathomechanisms of learning processes and learning disorders.

  9. Educational Neuroscience: Neuroethical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Helene; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Research design and methods in educational neuroscience involve using neuroscientific tools such as brain image technologies to investigate cognitive functions and inform educational practices. The ethical challenges raised by research in social neuroscience have become the focus of neuroethics, a sub-discipline of bioethics. More specifically…

  10. Integrating social neuroscience and social work: innovations for advancing practice-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly C; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica

    2010-04-01

    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is enthusiastic discussion of how to ensure that such capacity development helps the profession move forward in ways that make use of the biological sciences and that facilitate social work-specific contributions to the larger interdisciplinary scientific community. This article describes how the social work profession can make use of biomedical knowledge and technological advances from social neuroscience to inform psychosocial treatment development, and it illustrates an application to social work practice by giving an example of a substance abuse treatment development process built on social neuroscientific research.

  11. From Cognitive to Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several theoretical discussions as to the relationship between neuroscience and education have been held. Researchers have started to have cooperation over neuroscience and the interdisciplinary researches in which education is included. It was found that there were interactions between cognitive neuroscience and educational…

  12. Applying neuroscience to architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, John P

    2009-06-25

    Architectural practice and neuroscience research use our brains and minds in much the same way. However, the link between neuroscience knowledge and architectural design--with rare exceptions--has yet to be made. The concept of linking these two fields is a challenge worth considering.

  13. Characterizing Mystery Cell Lines: Student-driven Research Projects in an Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Michele L.

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based projects promote discovery and retention of key concepts, increase student engagement, and stimulate interest in research. Described here are a series of lab exercises within an undergraduate upper level neuroscience course that train students to design, execute and analyze their own hypothesis-driven research project. Prior to developing their own projects, students learn several research techniques including aseptic cell culture, cell line maintenance, immunocytochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. Working in groups, students choose how to use these techniques to characterize and identify a “mystery” cell line. Each lab group is given a unique cell line with either a neural, astrocyte, or Schwann cell origin. Working together, students plan and execute experiments to determine the cellular origin and other unique characteristics of their mystery cell line. Students generate testable hypotheses, design interpretable experiments, generate and analyze data, and report their findings in both oral and written formats. Students receive instructor and peer feedback throughout the entire project. In summary, these labs train students the process of scientific research. This series of lab exercises received very strong positive feedback from the students. Reflections on student feedback and plans for future improvements are discussed. PMID:23504583

  14. Characterizing Mystery Cell Lines: Student-driven Research Projects in an Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Michele L

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based projects promote discovery and retention of key concepts, increase student engagement, and stimulate interest in research. Described here are a series of lab exercises within an undergraduate upper level neuroscience course that train students to design, execute and analyze their own hypothesis-driven research project. Prior to developing their own projects, students learn several research techniques including aseptic cell culture, cell line maintenance, immunocytochemistry and fluorescent microscopy. Working in groups, students choose how to use these techniques to characterize and identify a "mystery" cell line. Each lab group is given a unique cell line with either a neural, astrocyte, or Schwann cell origin. Working together, students plan and execute experiments to determine the cellular origin and other unique characteristics of their mystery cell line. Students generate testable hypotheses, design interpretable experiments, generate and analyze data, and report their findings in both oral and written formats. Students receive instructor and peer feedback throughout the entire project. In summary, these labs train students the process of scientific research. This series of lab exercises received very strong positive feedback from the students. Reflections on student feedback and plans for future improvements are discussed.

  15. Optogenetics in preclinical neuroscience and psychiatry research: recent insights and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDevitt RA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ross A McDevitt,1 Sean J Reed,2 Jonathan P Britt2,3 1Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Integrated Program in Neuroscience, Montreal Neurological Institute, 3Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: There have been significant advances in the treatment of psychiatric disease in the last half century, but it is still unclear which neural circuits are ultimately responsible for specific disease states. Fortunately, technical limitations that have constrained this research have recently been mitigated by advances in research tools that facilitate circuit-based analyses. The most prominent of these tools is optogenetics, which refers to the use of genetically encoded, light-sensitive proteins that can be used to manipulate discrete neural circuits with temporal precision. Optogenetics has recently been used to examine the neural underpinnings of both psychiatric disease and symptom relief, and this research has rapidly identified novel therapeutic targets for what could be a new generation of rational drug development. As these and related methodologies for controlling neurons ultimately make their way into the clinic, circuit-based strategies for alleviating psychiatric symptoms could become a remarkably refined approach to disease treatment. Keywords: optogenetics, depression, anxiety, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder

  16. Pain Research Forum: Application of Scientific Social Media Frameworks in Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna eDas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social media has the potential to accelerate the pace of biomedical research through online collaboration, discussions and faster sharing of information. Focused web-based scientific social collaboratories such as the Alzheimer Research Forum have been successful in engaging scientists in open discussions of the latest research and identifying gaps in knowledge. However, until recently, tools to rapidly create such communities and provide high-bandwidth information exchange between collaboratories in related fields did not exist. Methods: We have addressed this need by constructing a reusable framework to build online biomedical communities, based on Drupal, an open-source content management system. The framework incorporates elements of Semantic Web technology combined with social media. Here we present, as an exemplar of a web community built on our framework, the Pain Research Forum (PRF. PRF is a community of chronic pain researchers, established with the goal of fostering collaboration and communication among pain researchers. Results: Launched in 2011, PRF has over 1,300 registered members with permission to submit content. It currently hosts over 150 topical news articles on research; more than 30 active or archived forum discussions and journal club features; a webinar series; an editor-curated weekly updated listing of relevant papers; and several other resources for the pain research community. All content is licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons license; the software is freely available. The framework was reused to develop other sites, notably the Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum and StemBook.Discussion: Web-based collaboratories are a crucial integrative tool supporting rapid information transmission and translation in several important research areas. In this article, we discuss the success factors, lessons learned and ongoing challenges in using PRF as a driving force to develop tools for online collaboration in

  17. Pain Research Forum: application of scientific social media frameworks in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; McCaffrey, Patricia G; Talkington, Megan W T; Andrews, Neil A; Corlosquet, Stéphane; Ivinson, Adrian J; Clark, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Social media has the potential to accelerate the pace of biomedical research through online collaboration, discussions, and faster sharing of information. Focused web-based scientific social collaboratories such as the Alzheimer Research Forum have been successful in engaging scientists in open discussions of the latest research and identifying gaps in knowledge. However, until recently, tools to rapidly create such communities and provide high-bandwidth information exchange between collaboratories in related fields did not exist. We have addressed this need by constructing a reusable framework to build online biomedical communities, based on Drupal, an open-source content management system. The framework incorporates elements of Semantic Web technology combined with social media. Here we present, as an exemplar of a web community built on our framework, the Pain Research Forum (PRF) (http://painresearchforum.org). PRF is a community of chronic pain researchers, established with the goal of fostering collaboration and communication among pain researchers. Launched in 2011, PRF has over 1300 registered members with permission to submit content. It currently hosts over 150 topical news articles on research; more than 30 active or archived forum discussions and journal club features; a webinar series; an editor-curated weekly updated listing of relevant papers; and several other resources for the pain research community. All content is licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons license; the software is freely available. The framework was reused to develop other sites, notably the Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum (http://msdiscovery.org) and StemBook (http://stembook.org). Web-based collaboratories are a crucial integrative tool supporting rapid information transmission and translation in several important research areas. In this article, we discuss the success factors, lessons learned, and ongoing challenges in using PRF as a driving force to develop tools for

  18. Position Statement on Motivations, Methodologies, and Practical Implications of Educational Neuroscience Research: fMRI Studies of the Neural Correlates of Creative Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geake, John

    2011-01-01

    In this position statement it is argued that educational neuroscience must necessarily be relevant to, and therefore have implications for, both educational theory and practice. Consequently, educational neuroscientific research necessarily must embrace educational research questions in its remit.

  19. Position Statement on Motivations, Methodologies, and Practical Implications of Educational Neuroscience Research: fMRI Studies of the Neural Correlates of Creative Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geake, John

    2011-01-01

    In this position statement it is argued that educational neuroscience must necessarily be relevant to, and therefore have implications for, both educational theory and practice. Consequently, educational neuroscientific research necessarily must embrace educational research questions in its remit.

  20. A repository based on a dynamically extensible data model supporting multidisciplinary research in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corradi Luca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust, extensible and distributed databases integrating clinical, imaging and molecular data represent a substantial challenge for modern neuroscience. It is even more difficult to provide extensible software environments able to effectively target the rapidly changing data requirements and structures of research experiments. There is an increasing request from the neuroscience community for software tools addressing technical challenges about: (i supporting researchers in the medical field to carry out data analysis using integrated bioinformatics services and tools; (ii handling multimodal/multiscale data and metadata, enabling the injection of several different data types according to structured schemas; (iii providing high extensibility, in order to address different requirements deriving from a large variety of applications simply through a user runtime configuration. Methods A dynamically extensible data structure supporting collaborative multidisciplinary research projects in neuroscience has been defined and implemented. We have considered extensibility issues from two different points of view. First, the improvement of data flexibility has been taken into account. This has been done through the development of a methodology for the dynamic creation and use of data types and related metadata, based on the definition of “meta” data model. This way, users are not constrainted to a set of predefined data and the model can be easily extensible and applicable to different contexts. Second, users have been enabled to easily customize and extend the experimental procedures in order to track each step of acquisition or analysis. This has been achieved through a process-event data structure, a multipurpose taxonomic schema composed by two generic main objects: events and processes. Then, a repository has been built based on such data model and structure, and deployed on distributed resources thanks to a Grid-based approach

  1. Bovine Brain: An in vitro Translational Model in Developmental Neuroscience and Neurodegenerative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Animal models provide convenient and clinically relevant tools in the research on neurodegenerative diseases. Studies on developmental disorders extensively rely on the use of laboratory rodents. The present mini-review proposes an alternative translational model based on the use of fetal bovine brain tissue. The bovine (Bos taurus) possesses a large and highly gyrencephalic brain and the long gestation period (41 weeks) is comparable to human pregnancy (38–40 weeks). Primary cultures obtained from fetal bovine brain constitute a validated in vitro model that allows examinations of neurons and/or glial cells under controlled and reproducible conditions. Physiological processes can be also studied on cultured bovine neural cells incubated with specific substrates or by electrically coupled electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor capacitors that permit direct recording from neuronal cells. Bovine neural cells and specific in vitro cell culture could be an alternative in comparative neuroscience and in neurodegenerative research, useful for studying development of normal and altered circuitry in a long gestation mammalian species. Use of bovine tissues would promote a substantial reduction in the use of laboratory animals. PMID:25072040

  2. The Muscle Sensor for on-site neuroscience lectures to pave the way for a better understanding of brain-machine-interface research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Amane; Nagata, Osamu; Togawa, Morio; Sazi, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an expanding field of science to investigate enigmas of brain and human body function. However, the majority of the public have never had the chance to learn the basics of neuroscience and new knowledge from advanced neuroscience research through hands-on experience. Here, we report that we produced the Muscle Sensor, a simplified electromyography, to promote educational understanding in neuroscience. The Muscle Sensor can detect myoelectric potentials which are filtered and processed as 3-V pulse signals to shine a light bulb and emit beep sounds. With this educational tool, we delivered "On-Site Neuroscience Lectures" in Japanese junior-high schools to facilitate hands-on experience of neuroscientific electrophysiology and to connect their text-book knowledge to advanced neuroscience researches. On-site neuroscience lectures with the Muscle Sensor pave the way for a better understanding of the basics of neuroscience and the latest topics such as how brain-machine-interface technology could help patients with disabilities such as spinal cord injuries.

  3. Culturing the adolescent brain: what can neuroscience learn from anthropology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is set to flourish in the next few years. As the field develops, it is necessary to reflect on what is meant by 'culture' and how this can be translated for the laboratory context. This article uses the example of the adolescent brain to discuss three aspects of culture that may help us to shape and reframe questions, interpretations and applications in cultural neuroscience: cultural contingencies of categories, cultural differences in experience and cultural context of neuroscience research. The last few years have seen a sudden increase in the study of adolescence as a period of both structural and functional plasticity, with new brain-based explanations of teenage behaviour being taken up in education, policy and medicine. However, the concept of adolescence, as an object of behavioural science, took shape relatively recently, not much more than a hundred years ago and was shaped by a number of cultural and historical factors. Moreover, research in anthropology and cross-cultural psychology has shown that the experience of adolescence, as a period of the lifespan, is variable and contingent upon culture. The emerging field of cultural neuroscience has begun to tackle the question of cultural differences in social cognitive processing in adults. In this article, I explore what a cultural neuroscience can mean in the case of adolescence. I consider how to integrate perspectives from social neuroscience and anthropology to conceptualize, and to empirically study, adolescence as a culturally variable phenomenon, which, itself, has been culturally constructed.

  4. Neuroscientific information bias in metacomprehension: the effect of brain images on metacomprehension judgment of neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Kitagami, Shinji; Takahashi, Tomoyo; Hattori, Yosuke; Ito, Yuichi

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated how brain images affect metacomprehension judgments of neuroscience research. Participants made a prereading judgment of comprehension of the text topic and then read a text about neuroimaging findings. In Experiment 1, participants read text only or text accompanying brain images. In Experiment 2, participants read text accompanying bar graphs or text accompanying brain images. Then participants were asked to rate their comprehension of the text. Finally, they completed comprehension tests. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the text accompanying brain images was associated with higher metacomprehension judgments than was the text only, whereas the performance of the comprehension test did not differ between each condition. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the text accompanying brain images was associated not only with credibility of the text, but also with higher metacomprehension judgments than was the text accompanying the bar graphs, whereas the performance of the comprehension test did not differ between each condition. The findings suggest that the readers' subjective judgments differ from actual comprehension.

  5. Redesigning a Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Multiple Sections: An Action Research Project to Engage Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Jones, Brett D

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of our action research project was to improve students' motivation in a multi-section introductory neuroscience laboratory course. In this paper, we present: (a) how we collected data related to students' motivation and engagement, (b) how we analyzed and used the data to make modifications to the courses, (c) the results of the course modifications, and (d) some possible explanations for our results. Our aim is not only to provide the results of our study, but also to explain the process that we used, with the hopes that other instructors can use similar approaches to improve students' motivation in their courses. Our attempts to improve students' motivation-related perceptions were successful in some instances, but not in others. Of particular note was our finding that some of the students' perceptions varied even though the course syllabus was the same across sections. We attributed this variation to the learning environment developed by the teaching assistants (TAs) who taught the different sections. We provide some strategies that faculty instructors can use to redesign courses with high enrollments and help TAs motivate their students.

  6. Human primary mixed brain cultures: preparation, differentiation, characterization and application to neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Balmiki; Chopra, Nipun; Long, Justin M; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2014-09-16

    Culturing primary cortical neurons is an essential neuroscience technique. However, most cultures are derived from rodent brains and standard protocols for human brain cultures are sparse. Herein, we describe preparation, maintenance and major characteristics of a primary human mixed brain culture, including neurons, obtained from legally aborted fetal brain tissue. This approach employs standard materials and techniques used in the preparation of rodent neuron cultures, with critical modifications. This culture has distinct differences from rodent cultures. Specifically, a significant numbers of cells in the human culture are derived from progenitor cells, and the yield and survival of the cells grossly depend on the presence of bFGF. In the presence of bFGF, this culture can be maintained for an extended period. Abundant productions of amyloid-β, tau and proteins make this a powerful model for Alzheimer's research. The culture also produces glia and different sub-types of neurons. We provide a well-characterized methodology for human mixed brain cultures useful to test therapeutic agents under various conditions, and to carry forward mechanistic and translational studies for several brain disorders.

  7. Ethical issues in the translation of social neuroscience: a policy analysis of current guidelines for public dialogue in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emma; Racine, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Social neuroscience and its potential implications create an interesting case study for examining human research ethics policies on the topic of public communication of research. We reviewed mainstream national and international human research ethics guidelines and policies on issues of public communication of research. Our analysis relied on five thematic nets to capture the interactions between research and the public: public understanding, knowledge translation, public participation, social outcomes, and dual use. Coverage of these topics is sparse and inconsistent in mainstream policies and guidelines. We identify three options to address these gaps and analyze their strengths and weaknesses.

  8. Interactionist Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badre, David; Frank, Michael J; Moore, Christopher I

    2015-12-02

    We argue that bidirectional interaction between animal and human studies is essential for understanding the human brain. The revolution in meso-scale study of circuits in non-human species provides a historical opportunity. However, to fully realize its potential requires integration with human neuroscience. We describe three strategies for successful interactionist neuroscience.

  9. A cage-based training, cognitive testing and enrichment system optimized for rhesus macaques in neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapai, A; Berger, M; Niessing, M; Heisig, K; Brockhausen, R; Treue, S; Gail, A

    2017-02-01

    In neurophysiological studies with awake non-human primates (NHP), it is typically necessary to train the animals over a prolonged period of time on a behavioral paradigm before the actual data collection takes place. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used primate animal models in system neuroscience. Inspired by existing joystick- or touch-screen-based systems designed for a variety of monkey species, we built and successfully employed a stand-alone cage-based training and testing system for rhesus monkeys (eXperimental Behavioral Intrument, XBI). The XBI is mobile and easy to handle by both experts and non-experts; animals can work with only minimal physical restraints, yet the ergonomic design successfully encourages stereotypical postures with a consistent positioning of the head relative to the screen. The XBI allows computer-controlled training of the monkeys with a large variety of behavioral tasks and reward protocols typically used in systems and cognitive neuroscience research.

  10. Robotics and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2014-09-22

    In the attempt to build adaptive and intelligent machines, roboticists have looked at neuroscience for more than half a century as a source of inspiration for perception and control. More recently, neuroscientists have resorted to robots for testing hypotheses and validating models of biological nervous systems. Here, we give an overview of the work at the intersection of robotics and neuroscience and highlight the most promising approaches and areas where interactions between the two fields have generated significant new insights. We articulate the work in three sections, invertebrate, vertebrate and primate neuroscience. We argue that robots generate valuable insight into the function of nervous systems, which is intimately linked to behaviour and embodiment, and that brain-inspired algorithms and devices give robots life-like capabilities.

  11. Plasticity as a Framing Concept Enabling Transdisciplinary Understanding and Research in Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Carrasco, Joaquín; Hernández Serrano, María Jose; Martín García, Antonio Victor

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the emerging literature on the need for a synergy between neuroscience and educational sciences, identifying several differences in approach and methods that hinder the connecting processes between these two disciplines. From this review a transdisciplinary framework is presented which is based on the systemic and lifelong…

  12. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  13. Public-private partnership: a new engine for translational research in neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G M; Goldman, Michel; Loth, Eva; Spooren, Will

    2014-11-05

    We have made little recent progress developing effective new treatments for neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Novel molecular mechanisms have been identified, but have not translated into the clinic. We suggest an alternative: combinations of treatments targeting different aspects of final common pathways in biologically defined clinical subgroups. This will require integrated translational neuroscience and international public-private partnerships.

  14. Plasticity as a Framing Concept Enabling Transdisciplinary Understanding and Research in Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Carrasco, Joaquín; Hernández Serrano, María Jose; Martín García, Antonio Victor

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the emerging literature on the need for a synergy between neuroscience and educational sciences, identifying several differences in approach and methods that hinder the connecting processes between these two disciplines. From this review a transdisciplinary framework is presented which is based on the systemic and lifelong…

  15. Behavioural psychology, marketing and consumer behaviour : a literature review and future research agenda.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Psychology, along with a wide range of other academic disciplines, has influenced research in both consumer behaviour and marketing. However, the influence of one area of psychology – namely, behaviourism – on research on consumers and marketing has been less prominent. Behaviourism has influenced consumer and marketing research through the application of classical and operant conditioning, matching and foraging theories, amongst other frameworks, during the past 50 years. This article provid...

  16. Behaviorism and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R F

    1994-04-01

    The influence of the methods and theories of behaviorism on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of Watson's (1913) original call-to-arms. Behaviorist approaches to animal behavior, particularly in the study of processes of learning and memory, have had a profound and continual influence in the area of neuroscience concerned with animal studies of brain substrates of behavior. Similarly, contemporary behaviorists have not been opposed to the study of neurobiological substrates of behavior. On the other hand, classical behaviorist views of thinking, that is, as reflex chains, have been largely discounted by developments in neuroscience. Classical behaviorism is viewed by many as being most at odds with the modern fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience, particularly regarding "mind" and "consciousness." A modest attempt at reconciliation is offered.

  17. Optimising, generalising and integrating educational practice using neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Practical collaboration at the intersection of education and neuroscience research is difficult because the combined discipline encompasses both the activity of microscopic neurons and the complex social interactions of teachers and students in a classroom. Taking a pragmatic view, this paper discusses three education objectives to which neuroscience can be effectively applied: optimising, generalising and integrating instructional techniques. These objectives are characterised by: (1) being of practical importance; (2) building on existing education and cognitive research; and (3) being infeasible to address based on behavioural experiments alone. The focus of the neuroscientific aspect of collaborative research should be on the activity of the brain before, during and after learning a task, as opposed to performance of a task. The objectives are informed by literature that highlights possible pitfalls with educational neuroscience research, and are described with respect to the static and dynamic aspects of brain physiology that can be measured by current technology.

  18. Meta-Synthesis of Research on Information Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Meta-synthesis methods may help to make more sense of information behaviour research evidence. Aims and objectives: The objectives are to: 1) identify and examine the theoretical research strategies commonly used in information behaviour research; 2) discuss meta-synthesis methods that might be appropriate to the type of research…

  19. Cognitive Neuroscience Meets Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Bert; Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Hannula, Minna M.; Schneider, Michael; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much theoretical debate concerning the relationship between neuroscience and education, researchers have started to collaborate across both disciplines, giving rise to the interdisciplinary research field of neuroscience and education. The present contribution tries to reflect on the challenges of this new field of empirical…

  20. Cognitive Neuroscience Meets Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Bert; Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Hannula, Minna M.; Schneider, Michael; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much theoretical debate concerning the relationship between neuroscience and education, researchers have started to collaborate across both disciplines, giving rise to the interdisciplinary research field of neuroscience and education. The present contribution tries to reflect on the challenges of this new field of empirical…

  1. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras, Harold; Faucherre, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  2. Editorial: Design Research for Sustainable Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.

    2012-01-01

    For better or worse, products contribute to shaping the behaviour of their users. Hence, designers have the opportunity, or if you are so inclined the responsibility, to take those potential behaviour changes into account in their design process. Through thoughtful design, they may aim to change use

  3. Introduction to Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium is an alliance of neuroscience journals that have agreed to accept manuscript reviews from other members of the Consortium.Its goals are to support efficient and thorough peer review of original research in neuroscience, speed the publication of research reports, and reduce the burden on peer reviewers.

  4. Computational neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Computational Neuroscience(CNS) is to use and develop mathematical models and approaches to elucidate brain functions.CNS is a young and highly multidisciplinary field.It heavily interacts with experimental neuroscience and such other research areas as artificial intelligence,robotics,computer vision,information science and machine learning.This paper reviews the history of CNS in China,its current status and the prospects for its future development.Examples of CNS research in China are also presented.

  5. Network neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system.

  6. Annual research review: Towards a developmental neuroscience of atypical social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, Francesca; Frith, Uta

    2014-06-01

    As a starting point for our review we use a developmental timeline, starting from birth and divided into major developmental epochs defined by key milestones of social cognition in typical development. For each epoch, we highlight those developmental disorders that diverge from the normal developmental pattern, what is known about these key milestones in the major disorders affecting social cognition, and any available research on the neural basis of these differences. We relate behavioural observations to four major networks of the social brain, that is, Amygdala, Mentalizing, Emotion and Mirror networks. We focus on those developmental disorders that are characterized primarily by social atypicality, such as autism spectrum disorder, social anxiety and a variety of genetically defined syndromes. The processes and aspects of social cognition we highlight are sketched in a putative network diagram, and include: agent identification, emotion processing and empathy, mental state attribution, self-processing and social hierarchy mapping involving social ‘policing’ and in-group/out-group categorization. Developmental disorders reveal some dissociable deficits in different components of this map of social cognition. This broad review across disorders, ages and aspects of social cognition leads us to some key questions: How can we best distinguish primary from secondary social disorders? Is social cognition especially vulnerable to developmental disorder, or surprisingly robust? Are cascading notions of social development, in which early functions are essential stepping stones or building bricks for later abilities, necessarily correct?

  7. Social neuroscience in psychiatry: unravelling the neural mechanisms of social dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, A K J; Shergill, S S; Krabbendam, L

    2015-04-01

    Social neuroscience is a flourishing, interdisciplinary field that investigates the underlying biological processes of social cognition and behaviour. The recent application of social neuroscience to psychiatric research advances our understanding of various psychiatric illnesses that are characterized by impairments in social cognition and social functioning. In addition, the upcoming line of social neuroscience research provides new techniques to design and evaluate treatment interventions that are aimed at improving patients' social lives. This review provides a contemporary overview of social neuroscience in psychiatry. We draw together the major findings about the neural mechanisms of social cognitive processes directed at understanding others and social interactions in psychiatric illnesses and discuss their implications for future research and clinical practice.

  8. The Impact of the 5E Teaching Model on Changes in Neuroscience, Drug Addiction, and Research Methods Knowledge of Science Teachers Attending California's ARISE Professional Development Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Rosa D.; Whent, Linda; Liets, Lauren; de la Torre, Adela; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how science teachers' knowledge of research methods, neuroscience and drug addiction changed through their participation in a 5-day summer science institute. The data for this study evolved from a four-year NIH funded science education project called Addiction Research and Investigation for Science Educators (ARISE). Findings…

  9. Can Neuroscience Construct a Literate Gendered Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, David

    2011-01-01

    The construction of boys as a gendered culture is not usually associated with neuroscience. Exceptions are publications and presentations by consultants on boys' education who adopt a "brain-based" perspective. From a neuroscience perspective, my analysis indicates the selective use of primary neuroscience research to construct and perpetuate…

  10. Optimally designing games for behavioural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Zaharia, Matei; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2014-07-08

    Computer games can be motivating and engaging experiences that facilitate learning, leading to their increasing use in education and behavioural experiments. For these applications, it is often important to make inferences about the knowledge and cognitive processes of players based on their behaviour. However, designing games that provide useful behavioural data are a difficult task that typically requires significant trial and error. We address this issue by creating a new formal framework that extends optimal experiment design, used in statistics, to apply to game design. In this framework, we use Markov decision processes to model players' actions within a game, and then make inferences about the parameters of a cognitive model from these actions. Using a variety of concept learning games, we show that in practice, this method can predict which games will result in better estimates of the parameters of interest. The best games require only half as many players to attain the same level of precision.

  11. [Neurosciences in Bordeaux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, Michel; Battin, Jacques; Bioulac, Bernard; Bourgeois, Marc Louis; Henry, Patrick; Vital, Claude; Vincent, Jean-Didier

    2008-04-01

    The Bordeaux Neuroscience Institute brings together all the disciplines that constitute the clinical and experimental neurosciences. Outside of the Paris region, the Institute represents the largest community of researchers working on the nervous system. The aim of this brief historical piece is to describe how neuroscientists in Bordeaux are the heirs to a long neuropsychiatric tradition established by pioneers of national and international renown. This tradition has been maintained, without interruption, through many generations. The careers and scientific work of these great neurologists and psychiatrists are briefly evoked, and particularly those of A. Pitres, E. Régis and E. Azam in the 19th century; and, in the 20th century, J. Abadie, H. Verger and R. Cruchet. The determining influence of P Delmas-Marsalet (1898-1977), Professor of Neuropsychiatry, on the development of modern neurosciences in Bordeaux is recalled through his work, his teachings, and his numerous students.

  12. Neuroscience and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Hans J

    2008-01-01

    Jurisprudence will profit considerably from methods and applications of the neurosciences. In fact, it is proposed that the neurosciences will provide unique possibilities and advantages in understanding motivations and causes for staying lawful or for becoming unlawful. Neuroscientific models on brain-behavior interactions have profited considerably from the advent of neuroimaging techniques and genetic analyses. Furthermore, advances in interdisciplinary investigations, which combine conventional psychological and sociological explorations with biological examinations, provide refined insights into the question 'What makes us tick?' (Weiskrantz, 1973, British Journal of Psychology, 64, 511-520). The search for such interactions from the time of the nineteenth century to the present is briefly surveyed and it is concluded that the interdisciplinary approaches within and across neuroscientific fields will lead and have already led to a considerable expansion of our knowledge. The articles in this issue devoted to highlighting the latest neuroscience research related to criminal behavior underline the power of this new approach.

  13. The Neuroscience of Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Andrew T.; Limb, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Current research in the neuroscience of musical creativity reveals promising implications for the value of learning to improvise. This article outlines the neuroscientific literature on musical improvisation and relates these findings to the benefits of musical creativity. We begin by describing the neural substrates of flow with respect to the…

  14. Neuroscience, Psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kelman, Mario Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect the differential clinical approach of psychoanalysis and neuroscience. The chosen method is the case-analysis and argumentation, that cames from the field of Law. Casuistry illustrates the obtained results. In conclusion, the concept of symptom is central to each clinical concept and it implies a differential that sets the field, structure and functions. The spread of science is a real difference, that does not figure, but it is capable of measuring. The sp...

  15. Progress in Documentation; Research in User Behaviour in University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Geoffrey

    1973-01-01

    Perhaps the most important finding of this review of research in user behaviour is that it has yet to be demonstrated that the use of lbiraries has any definite influence on anything else. (111 references) (Author/NH)

  16. Neuroscience of Ethics: The State of Art and the Promises for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Nahra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n1p109It is widely known that neuroscience research can lead humankind to understand and combat many illnesses or conditions that cause untold suffering around the world such as dementia, Alzheimer’s, depression or stress and can also lead us to achieve considerable improvements in memory, learning abilities, executive functions, moods and in many others areas related to cognition and emotion. In this article I will be focusing specifically on the research related to the neuroscience of ethics. The neuroscience of ethics is an area of neuroethics that is concerned with the understanding of the brains mechanism that are involved in moral cognition and in our ethical (or anti-ethical decisions, and I propose here to expand this concept a little further, defining neuroscience of ethics as the field concerned to the understanding of the brain mechanisms of all main behaviours related to ethics and morality. In this article I identify a set of neuroscience studies that have been published in the last 10 years and that are relevant for ethics, shedding light on behaviours such as altruism, generosity, selfconfidence, trust , altruistic punishment, violence, lying and prejudice, all of them connected somehow to morality. I then discuss how the understanding of each one of these behaviours can benefit society and how we can use this research to help humankind to improve moral standards and promote general happiness.

  17. Robot-assisted surgery: an emerging platform for human neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Michael Jarc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies in human sensorimotor control use simplified tasks to uncover fundamental control strategies employed by the nervous system. Such simple tasks are critical for isolating specific features of motor, sensory, or cognitive processes, and for inferring causality between these features and observed behavioral changes. However, it remains unclear how these theories translate to complex sensorimotor tasks or to natural behaviors. Part of the difficulty in performing such experiments has been the lack of appropriate tools for measuring complex motor skills in real-world contexts. Robot-assisted surgery (RAS provides an opportunity to overcome these challenges by enabling unobtrusive measurements of user behavior. In addition, a continuum of tasks with varying complexity – from simple tasks such as those in classic studies to highly complex tasks such as a surgical procedure – can be studied using RAS platforms. Finally, RAS includes a diverse participant population of inexperienced users all the way to expert surgeons. In this perspective, we illustrate how the characteristics of RAS systems make them compelling platforms to extend many theories in human neuroscience, as well as, to develop new theories altogether.

  18. Robot-assisted surgery: an emerging platform for human neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Anthony M; Nisky, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    Classic studies in human sensorimotor control use simplified tasks to uncover fundamental control strategies employed by the nervous system. Such simple tasks are critical for isolating specific features of motor, sensory, or cognitive processes, and for inferring causality between these features and observed behavioral changes. However, it remains unclear how these theories translate to complex sensorimotor tasks or to natural behaviors. Part of the difficulty in performing such experiments has been the lack of appropriate tools for measuring complex motor skills in real-world contexts. Robot-assisted surgery (RAS) provides an opportunity to overcome these challenges by enabling unobtrusive measurements of user behavior. In addition, a continuum of tasks with varying complexity-from simple tasks such as those in classic studies to highly complex tasks such as a surgical procedure-can be studied using RAS platforms. Finally, RAS includes a diverse participant population of inexperienced users all the way to expert surgeons. In this perspective, we illustrate how the characteristics of RAS systems make them compelling platforms to extend many theories in human neuroscience, as well as, to develop new theories altogether.

  19. Awareness of hormesis will enhance future research in basic and applied neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis is defined operationally as responses of cells or organisms to an exogenous or intrinsic factor (chemical, temperature, psychological challenge, etc.) in which the factor induces stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or adverse effects at high doses. The compendium of articles by Calabrese entitled "Neuroscience and Hormesis" provides a broad range of examples of neurobiological processes and responses to environmental factors that exhibit biphasic dose responses, the signature of hormesis. Nerve cell networks are the "first responders" to environmental challenges--they perceive the challenge and orchestrate coordinated adaptive responses that typically involve autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral changes. In addition to direct adaptive responses of neurons to environmental stressors, cells subjected to a stressor produce and release molecules such as growth factors, cytokines, and hormones that alert adjacent and even distant cells to impending danger. The discoveries that some molecules (e.g., carbon monoxide and nitric oxide) and elements (e.g., selenium and iron) that are toxic at high doses play fundamental roles in cellular signaling or metabolism suggest that during evolution, organisms (and their nervous systems) co-opted environmental toxins and used them to their advantage. Neurons also respond adaptively to everyday stressors, including physical exercise, cognitive challenges, and dietary energy restriction, each of which activates pathways linked to the production of neurotrophic factors and cellular stress resistance proteins. The development of interventions that activate hormetic signaling pathways in neurons is a promising new approach for the preventation and treatment of a range of neurological disorders.

  20. Integrated neuroscience program: an alternative approach to teaching neurosciences to chiropractic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaohua; La Rose, James; Zhang, Niu

    2009-01-01

    Most chiropractic colleges do not offer independent neuroscience courses because of an already crowded curriculum. The Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida has developed and implemented an integrated neuroscience program that incorporates neurosciences into different courses. The goals of the program have been to bring neurosciences to students, excite students about the interrelationship of neuroscience and chiropractic, improve students' understanding of neuroscience, and help the students understand the mechanisms underpinning the chiropractic practice. This study provides a descriptive analysis on how the integrated neuroscience program is taught via students' attitudes toward neuroscience and the comparison of students' perceptions of neuroscience content knowledge at different points in the program. A questionnaire consisting of 58 questions regarding the neuroscience courses was conducted among 339 students. The questionnaire was developed by faculty members who were involved in teaching neuroscience and administered in the classroom by faculty members who were not involved in the study. Student perceptions of their neuroscience knowledge, self-confidence, learning strategies, and knowledge application increased considerably through the quarters, especially among the 2nd-year students. The integrated neuroscience program achieved several of its goals, including an increase in students' confidence, positive attitude, ability to learn, and perception of neuroscience content knowledge. The authors believe that such gains can expand student ability to interpret clinical cases and inspire students to become excited about chiropractic research. The survey provides valuable information for teaching faculty to make the course content more relevant to chiropractic students.

  1. Contemporary neuroscience in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy

    2010-08-01

    Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine how different features of neuroscience are depicted in print media. We used the 'guided news' function of the LexisNexis Academic database with keyword searches to find news articles published between 1995 and 2004 in major U.S. and U.K. English-language news sources. We performed searches on headlines, lead paragraphs, and body terms to maximize search yields. All articles were coded for overall tone of coverage, details on reported studies, presence of ethical, legal, and social discussion as well as the emerging interpretations of neuroscience - in the form of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy. We found that print media coverage of the use of neurotechnology for diagnosis or therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders was generally optimistic. We also found that, even within articles that were identified as research reports, many did not provide details about research studies. We also gained additional insights into the previously identified phenomena of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy showing some profound impacts of neuroscience on personal identity and policy-making. Our results highlight the implications of transfer of neuroscience knowledge to society given the substantial and authoritative weight ascribed to neuroscience knowledge in defining who we are. We also discuss the impact of these findings on neuroscience and on the respective contributions of the social sciences and the biological sciences in contemporary psychiatry and mental

  2. Optogenetics enlightens neuroscience drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Optogenetics - the use of light and genetics to manipulate and monitor the activities of defined cell populations - has already had a transformative impact on basic neuroscience research. Now, the conceptual and methodological advances associated with optogenetic approaches are providing fresh momentum to neuroscience drug discovery, particularly in areas that are stalled on the concept of 'fixing the brain chemistry'. Optogenetics is beginning to translate and transit into drug discovery in several key domains, including target discovery, high-throughput screening and novel therapeutic approaches to disease states. Here, we discuss the exciting potential of optogenetic technologies to transform neuroscience drug discovery.

  3. Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-09-01

    Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB.

  4. Another Important News from the Neuronman: Malaysia's Neuroscience Group Moves upwards in Terms of Research, Creativity, and Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2015-12-01

    12 months ago the first Neuroscience special issue of the Malaysia Journal of Medical Sciences was born with the intention to increase the number of local publication dedicated to neurosciences. Since then many events happened in the neuroscience world of Malaysia, those considered major were the establishment of a Neurotechnology Foresight 2050 task force by the Academy of Medicine Malaysia as well as the launching of Malaysia as the 18th member to join the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility on the 9th October 2015 which was officiated by the Deputy Ministers of Higher Education, Datuk Mary Yap.

  5. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Cheon, Bobby K; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J; Blizinsky, Katherine D

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed.

  6. Faculty Research Behaviour and Career Incentives: The Case of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Flora F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring how faculty research behaviour changes before, during, and after promotion. Testing research hypotheses generated from behavioral reinforcement theory and an alternative claim on the learning effect of familiarity with publishing norms, the study collects career history data and longitudinal records on faculty research…

  7. Consumer Behaviour Research: Jacquard Weaving in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina GALALAE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization, neither the study of consumption, nor the study of consumer buying behaviour, can be explained as the mere interaction between a limited number of personal and impersonal (or external factors, but as an utterly complex and undoubtedly progressive process. Moreover, what today is often referred to as consumer behaviour research, represents the result of interweaving various and prolonged efforts coming from a wide spanning array of heterogeneous disciplines. Analysing consumers and their purchase decisions/ consumption patterns/ post-consumption attitudes etc. only from an economic or psychological perspective will lead to an over-constrained problem, for which the solution will be at the same time academically unsound, and practically infeasible. Sallying forth on the wings of this realisation, the present essay sheds some light on the significance of consumer behaviour research from a historical and multidisciplinary perspective, arguing against the isolation of the field within the narrow confines of a single discipline. The main objectives underpinning this work are the following: (1 to provide a straightforward conceptualization for consumer behaviour as a research domain; (2 to provide an extensive review of the main paradigms in the study of consumer behaviour; (3 to underline the importance of multidisciplinary approaches for a correct understanding of consumer behaviour. Even though this research represents a theoretical inquiry of previous literature, exhaustiveness is not one of its goals. Moreover, whilst they present evidence coming from previous works, the authors do not shy away from stating their own beliefs and ideas, thus imbuing the present work with an unmistakable subjective perspective.  Keywords: consumer behaviour research, the positivist-traditionalist paradigm, the interpretative paradigm.

  8. Another Important News from the Neuronman: Malaysia's Neuroscience Group Moves upwards in Terms of Research, Creativity, and Innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2015-01-01

    ...s. Since then many events happened in the neuroscience world of Malaysia, those considered major were the establishment of a Neurotechnology Foresight 2050 task force by the Academy of Medicine Malaysia...

  9. Leadership behaviours and healthcare research performance: prospective correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vanash M; Ashrafian, Hutan; Uzoho, Chukwudi; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Panzarasa, Pietro; Sevdalis, Nick; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2016-05-16

    The aims of the study were to determine whether differences in leadership self-perception/behaviour in healthcare researchers may influence research performance and to evaluate whether certain leadership characteristics are associated with enhanced leadership efficiency in terms of motivation, effectiveness and satisfaction. All Faculty of Medicine Professors at Imperial College London (n=215) were sent the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Self form as a means of evaluating self-perception of leadership behaviours. For each professor, we extracted objective research performance measures (total number of publications, total number of citations and h index) from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009. The MLQ measured three leadership outcomes, which included motivation, effectiveness and satisfaction. Regression analysis was used to determine associations. A total number of 90 responses were received, which equated to a 42% response rate. There were no significant correlations between transformational, transactional or passive/avoidant leadership behaviours and any of the research performance measures. The five transformational leadership behaviours (ie, idealised attributes (IA), idealised behaviours (IB), inspirational motivation (IM), intellectual stimulation (IS), individual consideration (IC)) were highly significant predictors of leadership outcomes, extra effort (all B>0.404, SE=0.093-0.146, p0.359, SE=0.093-0.146, p0.483, SE=0.086-0.139, pstudy demonstrates that transformational leadership and contingent reward positively influence leadership efficiency in healthcare researchers. Although we did not show an association between leadership behaviours and research performance metrics, further studies using contextual performance measures at team and organisational levels are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Building up careers in translational neuroscience and mental health research: Education and training in the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapado-Castro, Marta; Pazos, Ángel; Fañanás, Lourdes; Bernardo, Miquel; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Leza, Juan Carlos; Berrocoso, Esther; de Arriba, Jose; Roldán, Laura; Sanjuán, Julio; Pérez, Victor; Haro, Josep M; Palomo, Tomás; Valdizan, Elsa M; Micó, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2015-01-01

    The number of large collaborative research networks in mental health is increasing. Training programs are an essential part of them. We critically review the specific implementation of a research training program in a translational Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health in order to inform the strategic integration of basic research into clinical practice to have a positive impact in the mental health system and society. Description of training activities, specific educational programs developed by the research network, and challenges on its implementation are examined. The Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has focused on training through different activities which have led to the development of an interuniversity master's degree postgraduate program in mental health research, certified by the National Spanish Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation. Consolidation of training programs within the Centre for Biomedical Research in Mental Health has considerably advanced the training of researchers to meet competency standards on research. The master's degree constitutes a unique opportunity to accomplish neuroscience and mental health research career-building within the official framework of university programs in Spain.

  11. Genealogy of racial bias in terms of social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Kuran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination were in the past mostly dealt within the field of social psychology and sociology. In recent decades, some technological innovations enabled new research approaches, allowing illumination and explanation of cognitive mechanisms behind stereotypic behaviour. The author compares the new research work with the previous theoretical notion of prejudice and stereotyping behavior as well as critically evaluates the neuroscience contribution to the socio-psychological interpretation of prejudice. Special attention is paid to the question of whether prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination can together be considered as a complex multidisciplinary scientific phenomenon that manifests differently on different levels of scientific observation (neurology, psychology, sociology through the viewpoint of social neuroscience. The article concludes with the author's view on the future of psychological research on racial prejudice within the evolving cognitive sciences.

  12. Scientific research can be prone to bubbles too – neuroscience risks being the next one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2014-01-01

    Science, like any other field that attracts investment, is prone to bubbles. Overly optimistic investments in scientific fields, research methods and technologies generate episodes comparable to those experienced by financial markets prior to crashing. Assessing the toxic intellectual debt...... that builds up when too much liquidity is concentrated on too few assets is an important task if research funders want to avoid going short on overvalued research....

  13. Three Requirements for Justifying an Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to…

  14. Three Requirements for Justifying an Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to…

  15. Reconsidering the concept of 'dual-use' in the context of neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voarino, Nathalie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ‘dual-use’ research usually refers to research with both civilian (e.g., therapeutic and military applications. I argue here that this dichotomy can and should be reconsidered and thus that the concept of dual-use can be helpful in examining other potential misuses, such as neuroenhancement or neuromarketing.

  16. Neuroscience and Values: A Case Study Illustrating Developments in Policy, Training and Research in the UK and Internationally**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, K. W. M

    2011-01-01

    In the current climate of dramatic advances in the neurosciences, it has been widely assumed that the diagnosis of mental disorder is a matter exclusively for value-free science. Starting from a detailed case history, this paper describes how, to the contrary, values come into the diagnosis of mental disorders, directly through the criteria at the heart of psychiatry’s most scientifically grounded classification, the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual). Various possible interpretations of the prominence of values in psychiatric diagnosis are outlined. Drawing on work in the Oxford analytic tradition of philosophy, it is shown that, properly understood, the prominence of psychiatric diagnostic values reflects the necessary engagement of psychiatry with the diversity of individual human values. This interpretation opens up psychiatric diagnostic assessment to the resources of a new skills-based approach to working with complex and conflicting values (also derived from analytic philosophy) called ‘values-based practice.’ Developments in values-based practice in training, policy and research in mental health are briefly outlined. The paper concludes with an indication of how the integration of values-based with evidence-based approaches provides the basis for psychiatric practice in the twenty-first century that is both science-based and person-centred. PMID:21694963

  17. Neuroscience and values: A case study illustrating developments in policy, training and research in the UK and internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulford KWM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current climate of dramatic advances in the neurosciences, it has been widely assumed that the diagnosis of mental disorder is a matter exclusively for value-free science. Starting from a detailed case history, this paper describes how, to the contrary, values come into the diagnosis of mental disorders, directly through the criteria at the heart of psychiatry′s most scientifically grounded classification, the American Psychiatric Association′s DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Various possible interpretations of the prominence of values in psychiatric diagnosis are outlined. Drawing on work in the Oxford analytic tradition of philosophy, it is shown that, properly understood, the prominence of psychiatric diagnostic values reflects the necessary engagement of psychiatry with the diversity of individual human values. This interpretation opens up psychiatric diagnostic assessment to the resources of a new skills-based approach to working with complex and conflicting values (also derived from analytic philosophy called ′values-based practice.′ Developments in values-based practice in training, policy and research in mental health are briefly outlined. The paper concludes with an indication of how the integration of values-based with evidence-based approaches provides the basis for psychiatric practice in the twenty-first century that is both science-based and person-centred.

  18. Neuroscience and values: A case study illustrating developments in policy, training and research in the UK and internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. M. Fulford

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current climate of dramatic advances in the neurosciences, it has been widely assumed that the diagnosis of mental disorder is a matter exclusively for value-free science. Starting from a detailed case history, this paper describes how, to the contrary, values come into the diagnosis of mental disorders, directly through the criteria at the heart of psychiatry's most scientifically grounded classification, the American Psychiatric Association's DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Various possible interpretations of the prominence of values in psychiatric diagnosis are outlined. Drawing on work in the Oxford analytic tradition of philosophy, it is shown that, properly understood, the prominence of psychiatric diagnostic values reflects the necessary engagement of psychiatry with the diversity of individual human values. This interpretation opens up psychiatric diagnostic assessment to the resources of a new skills-based approach to working with complex and conflicting values (also derived from analytic philosophy called 'values-based practice.' Developments in values-based practice in training, policy and research in mental health are briefly outlined. The paper concludes with an indication of how the integration of values-based with evidence-based approaches provides the basis for psychiatric practice in the twenty-first century that is both science-based and person-centred.

  19. Scientific research can be prone to bubbles too – neuroscience risks being the next one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2014-01-01

    Science, like any other field that attracts investment, is prone to bubbles. Overly optimistic investments in scientific fields, research methods and technologies generate episodes comparable to those experienced by financial markets prior to crashing. Assessing the toxic intellectual debt...

  20. Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II: developing imaging biomarkers to enhance treatment development for schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Cameron S; Barch, Deanna M; Bullmore, Edward; Breiling, James; Buchanan, Robert W; Butler, Pamela; Cohen, Jonathan D; Geyer, Mark; Gollub, Randy; Green, Michael F; Jaeger, Judith; Krystal, John H; Moore, Holly; Nuechterlein, Keith; Robbins, Trevor; Silverstein, Steven; Smith, Edward E; Strauss, Milton; Wykes, Til

    2011-07-01

    The Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative, funded by an R13 from the National Institute of Mental Health, seeks to enhance translational research in treatment development for impaired cognition in schizophrenia by developing tools from cognitive neuroscience into useful measures of treatment effects on behavior and brain function. An initial series of meetings focused on the selection of a new set of tasks from cognitive neuroscience for the measurement of treatment effects on specific cognitive and neural systems. Subsequent validation and optimization studies are underway and a subset of validated measures with well-characterized psychometric properties will be generally available in 2011. This article describes results of the first meeting of the second phase of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia, which seeks to develop imaging biomarkers and improved animal models to enhance translational research. In this meeting, we considered issues related to the use of methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, and transcranial magnetic simulation as biomarkers for treatment development. We explored the biological nature of the signals measured by each method, their validity and reliability as measures of cognition-related neural activity, potential confounds related to drug effects on the signal of interest, and conceptual, methodological, and pragmatic issues related to their use in preclinical, first into human, and multicenter phase II and III studies. This overview article describes the background and goals of the meeting together with a summary of the major issues discussed in more detail in the accompanying articles appearing in this issue of Biological Psychiatry.

  1. Review of Research: Neuroscience and the Impact of Brain Plasticity on Braille Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Cheryl Kamei

    2006-01-01

    In this systematic review of research, the author analyzes studies of neural cortical activation, brain plasticity, and braille reading. The conclusions regarding the brain's plasticity and ability to reorganize are encouraging for individuals with degenerative eye conditions or late-onset blindness because they indicate that the brain can make…

  2. Neuroscience in the Capital: Linking Brain Research and Federal Early Childhood Programs and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Kam

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Each year the federal government disburses billions of dollars to support young children, with a particular focus on assisting families facing hardships. Policies for children revolve around several fundamental themes, including the promotion of physical health and high-quality environments, intellectual and language skills,…

  3. Integrating Social Neuroscience and Social Work: Innovations for Advancing Practice-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly C.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is…

  4. Integrating Social Neuroscience and Social Work: Innovations for Advancing Practice-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly C.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is…

  5. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  6. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Lyric A; Newsome, William T; Anderson, David J; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Brown, Emery N; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P; Hudson, Kathy L; Ling, Geoffrey S F; MacLeish, Peter R; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A; Sanes, Joshua R; Schnitzer, Mark J; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Tank, David W; Tsien, Roger Y; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C

    2015-05-19

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions.

  7. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Lyric A.; Newsome, William T.; Anderson, David J.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.; Brown, Emery N.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Hudson, Kathy L.; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; MacLeish, Peter R.; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A.; Sanes, Joshua R.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Tank, David W.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions. PMID:25823863

  8. Social-learning parenting intervention research in the era of translational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A; Skowron, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    In the decades since social learning parenting interventions emerged, many evidence-based programs have been implemented at scale in community settings, and much research is now focusing on ways to maintain fidelity and impact during the implementation process. Notably, a considerable amount of theoretical confluence has occurred in parenting interventions from social learning, attachment, and other theoretical perspectives, with parent coaching as an example of this new generation of relational interventions. In addition, research examining the neurobiological effects of early adverse experiences is providing insight into key mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of social learning parenting interventions, and new strategies for tailoring interventions to the needs of specific populations are being developed, making interventions more efficient, precise, and effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Octodon degus. A useful animal model for social-affective neuroscience research: basic description of separation distress, social attachments and play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnello, Valentina; Iacobucci, Paolo; Fuchs, Thomas; Newberry, Ruth C; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    A challenge for social-affective neuroscience programs is to identify simple and yet valid animal models for studying the expression of basic social emotions and their role during different developmental windows, from infancy to adulthood. For example, although laboratory rats are useful for studying juvenile social interactions, they are not ideal for studying infant attachment bonds. Here, we evaluate current understanding of the social behavior of Octodon degus, a diurnal precocial rodent, to elucidate the value of this species as a model for social-affective neuroscience research. After a synopsis of species-specific characteristics and brain susceptibility to changes of social environment, our behavioral findings on degu social proclivities are summarized. We then discuss why this pre-clinical model provides a valuable addition to the commonly available animal models for the study of human psychopathology.

  10. The neuroscience of social conformity: implications for fundamental and applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallen, Mirre; Sanfey, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    The development of closer ties between researchers and practitioners in the domain of behavior and behavioral change offers useful opportunities for better informing public policy campaigns via a deeper understanding of the psychological processes that operate in real-world decision-making. Here, we focus on the domain of social conformity, and suggest that the recent emergence of laboratory work using neuroscientific techniques to probe the brain basis of social influence can prove a useful source of data to better inform models of conformity. In particular, we argue that this work can have an important role to play in better understanding the specific mechanisms at work in social conformity, in both validating and extending current psychological theories of this process, and in assessing how behavioral change can take place as a result of exposure to the judgments of others. We conclude by outlining some promising future directions in this domain, and indicating how this research could potentially be usefully applied to policy issues.

  11. The neuroscience of social conformity: implications for fundamental and applied research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirre eStallen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of closer ties between researchers and practitioners in the domain of behavior and behavioral change offers useful opportunities for better informing public policy campaigns via a deeper understanding of the psychological processes that operate in real-world decision-making. Here, we focus on the domain of social conformity, and suggest that the recent emergence of laboratory work using neuroscientific techniques to probe the brain basis of social influence can prove a useful source of data to better inform models of conformity. In particular, we argue that this work can have an important role to play in better understanding the specific mechanisms at work in social conformity, in both validating and extending current psychological theories of this process, and in assessing how behavioral change can take place as a result of exposure to the judgments of others. We conclude by outlining some promising future directions in this domain, and indicating how this research could potentially be usefully applied to policy issues.

  12. Transplantation and stem cell research in neurosciences: where does India stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Prakash N

    2009-01-01

    The nearly absent ability of the neurons to regenerate or multiply has prompted neuroscientists to search for the mean to replace damaged or dead cells. The failed attempts using adult tissue, initiated nearly a century ago, ultimately brought rays of hope when developing fetal neurons were used for transplantation in 1970s. The initial excitement was tempered by limited success and ethical issues. But these efforts unequivocally established the feasibility of successful neural transplantation provided appropriate tissue was available. The ability to derive embryonic stem cells with their totipotent potential by Thomson in 1998 rekindled the interest in their use for replacement therapy for damaged brain tissue. The present review surveys the current status of this promising field of stem cell research especially in respect to their therapeutic potentials for purposes of neural transplantation. A brief account is provided of the ongoing Indian efforts in this direction.

  13. Theory and methods in cultural neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ahmad R.; Harada, Tokiko; Mano, Yoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Parrish, Todd B.; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics. Here, we review a set of core theoretical and methodological challenges facing researchers when planning and conducting cultural neuroscience studies, and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges. In particular, we focus on the problems of defining culture and culturally appropriate experimental tasks, comparing neuroimaging data acquired from different populations and scanner sites and identifying functional genetic polymorphisms relevant to culture. Implications of cultural neuroscience research for addressing current issues in population health disparities are discussed. PMID:20592044

  14. Tools of the trade: theory and method in mindfulness neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Posner, Michael I

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness neuroscience is an emerging research field that investigates the underlying mechanisms of different mindfulness practices, different stages and different states of practice as well as different effects of practice over the lifespan. Mindfulness neuroscience research integrates theory and methods from eastern contemplative traditions, western psychology and neuroscience, and from neuroimaging techniques, physiological measures and behavioral tests. We here review several key theoretical and methodological challenges in the empirical study of mindfulness neuroscience and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges.

  15. NRH Neuroscience Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    PRESENTATIONS: INTERNATIONAL STUDIES Stroke Rehabilitation Practice in New Zealand and the U.S. (H McNaughton) The European CERISE Study (K Putman ) A...National Rehabilitation Hospital on September 8-9, 2007 • Our project team hosted, Koen Putman , PT, PhD, a Fulbright Scholar from the Free...University of Brussels. The Project team worked with Dr. Putman in merging his data from a 5-center (from 4 countries) stroke rehabilitation outcomes study

  16. Advanced Neuroscience Interface Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Dr. Theodore Bernstein , Dr. Raymond Poelstra, and Dr. Gary Kraus. Our radiologists-Dr. John German, Dr. Ronald Faddel, Dr. Jerry Andrews, and Dr...grateful to have had his input while preparing this report. Mr. Basil Bakri, WKNI, for graphic and computer assistance. The MRI technologists at... Bernstein , Medical Director of the WKNI. Also participating were Dr Gary Krauss and Dr Raymond Poelstra, neurosurgeons from the WKNI. Software

  17. NRH Neuroscience Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    substance in question or a nonactive placebo sugar of psychoanalysis . Surgeons struggle with creating pill. The whole patient experience is rigorously...services, and they must do Medicare Reform and the American Devolution 13 so with low levels of financial literacy .’ AARP makes sentatives. Providers...placebo sugar of psychoanalysis . Surgeons struggle with creating pill. The whole patient experience is rigorously sham interventions,41" and a lot of

  18. NRH Neuroscience Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Stimulants: Adrenergics: Methylphenidate , Provigil (Modafinil), Dexedrine (Dextroamphetamine), Adderall, Cylert Dopaminergics: Amantadine, Sinemet...Damage 294.8; 294.9; 310 Substance Abuse 303, 304, 305 Reglession Analyses The team separated into different Breakout Groups on Friday morning to make...absence of social worker History of substance abuse and rec therapist and amount of Discharge disposition: intervention itime change from anticipated

  19. The behavioural research agenda in global health: an advocate's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, M C; Janes, C R

    2007-01-01

    Two of the disciplines that have come to infuse global health with some of its current vibrancy are epidemiology and anthropology, disciplines that focus, in one way or another, on the causal importance of human behaviour in socio-political, ecological, evolutionary, and cultural context. One of the little-known stories in the history of twentieth century global health involves the works of a number of pioneering interdisciplinary scholar-practitioners, who urged a synthesis of epidemiological and anthropological perspectives in what was then called 'tropical medicine'. One of these pioneers was Frederick L. Dunn, who forwarded lasting insights about the importance of human behavioural research in understanding infectious disease. This article provides a historical-biographical accounting of Dunn's contributions to public health in the second half of the twentieth century, arguing that his persistent advocacy of multi-level, social behavioural research and his notion of 'causal assemblages' were critical in the early development of the twentieth century discipline of global health.

  20. Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Researchers in a Basic Research Center the example of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sessano, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The study aims to identify whether researchers' entrepreneurial behaviour changed after the introduction of a formal technology transfer policy (TTP) within CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, a centre for fundamental research in particle physics. The chosen unit of analysis is the individual researcher with limited duration contract. An analysis of the background literature on entrepreneurial behaviour and factors affecting it was performed and parameters for analysis identified. A total of 103 responses to a specifically developed questionnaire were obtained and statistical analysis carried out to assess presence or absence of entrepreneurial behaviour and the factors affecting it. The theoretical framework was developed taking into account recognition by peers, network, character, prior knowledge, field of research and incentives and researchers and engineers were assessed for positive and negative correlations. One can conclude, in general, that the personnel shows a good degree of entre...

  1. Entrepreneurial Behaviour of Researchers in a Basic Research Center the example of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sessano, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The study aims to identify whether researchers' entrepreneurial behaviour changed after the introduction of a formal technology transfer policy (TTP) within CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, a centre for fundamental research in particle physics. The chosen unit of analysis is the individual researcher with limited duration contract. An analysis of the background literature on entrepreneurial behaviour and factors affecting it was performed and parameters for analysis identified. A total of 103 responses to a specifically developed questionnaire were obtained and statistical analysis carried out to assess presence or absence of entrepreneurial behaviour and the factors affecting it. The theoretical framework was developed taking into account recognition by peers, network, character, prior knowledge, field of research and incentives and researchers and engineers were assessed for positive and negative correlations. One can conclude, in general, that the personnel shows a good degree of entre...

  2. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Biological activities of ribosome-inactivating proteins and their possible applications as antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-pest agents and in neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkouh, Ouafae; Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Charlene Cheuk Wing; Sha, Ou; Shaw, Pang Chui; Chan, Wai Yee

    2015-12-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are enzymes which depurinate ribosomal RNA (rRNA), thus impeding the process of translation resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. They are produced by various organisms including plants, fungi and bacteria. RIPs from plants are linked to plant defense due to their antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal activities in which they can be applied in agriculture to combat microbial pathogens and pests. Their anticancer, antiviral, embryotoxic, and abortifacient properties may find medicinal applications. Besides, conjugation of RIPs with antibodies or other carriers to form immunotoxins has been found useful to research in neuroscience and anticancer therapy.

  4. Neuroscience in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-04-26

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Neuroscience Information Framework: A Data and Knowledge Environment for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Huda; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Bowden, Douglas M.; Bug, William; Donohue, Duncan E.; Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Halavi, Maryam; Kennedy, David N.; Marenco, Luis; Martone, Maryann E.; Miller, Perry L.; Müller, Hans-Michael; Robert, Adrian; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Van Essen, David C.; Williams, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    With support from the Institutes and Centers forming the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research, we have designed and implemented a new initiative for integrating access to and use of Web-based neuroscience resources: the Neuroscience Information Framework. The Framework arises from the expressed need of the neuroscience community for neuroinformatic tools and resources to aid scientific inquiry, builds upon prior development of neuroinformatics by the Human Brain Project and others, and directly derives from the Society for Neuroscience’s Neuroscience Database Gateway. Partnered with the Society, its Neuroinformatics Committee, and volunteer consultant-collaborators, our multi-site consortium has developed: (1) a comprehensive, dynamic, inventory of Web-accessible neuroscience resources, (2) an extended and integrated terminology describing resources and contents, and (3) a framework accepting and aiding concept-based queries. Evolving instantiations of the Framework may be viewed at http://nif.nih.gov, http://neurogateway.org, and other sites as they come on line. PMID:18946742

  6. Researching Entrepreneurship and Complimenting it with Entrepreneurial Behaviour Triggering Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Oganisjana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present the logics, course and outcomes of the analysis of the matter of entrepreneurship which was carried out within the doctoral research “The development of students’ enterprise in study process” conducted in the University of Latvia (2004-2009. The methodology comprises literature analysis and inductive qualitative content analysis of the text of fifty interpretations of the matter of entrepreneurship and enterprise by using Phillip Mayring’s ‘Step model of inductive category development’ (Mayring, 2000 and AQUAD 6.0 (Analysis of Qualitative Data software (Huber & Gürtler, 2004. The scientific aim is to analyze literature on entrepreneurship; classify the variety of approaches to the comprehension of entrepreneurship, admitted in different regions of the world; determine the structure of entrepreneurship and the components which have entrepreneurial behaviour triggering effect. The findings reveal a number of paradoxes and contradictions between different entrepreneurship schools and approaches, which are to be overcome by maximal integration of these positions into a holistic system. Concerning the structure of entrepreneurship, some components which previously haven’t been paid worthy attention to, were determined and analysed in the context of today’s topicality of developing students’ entrepreneurial mindsets and behaviours. Conclusions made concern the restrictions of the EU comprehension of entrepreneurship as one of the eight lifelong learning key competences consisting of knowledge, skills and attitudes. It was shown that the concept of entrepreneurship should be complemented with behavioural and motivational components, which play a crucial role as elements of an entrepreneurship triggering and developing mechanism. As for the content of entrepreneurial knowledge, it remains vague and still ought to be researched additionally.

  7. Research Analysis of Conflicting Behaviour Peculiarities Among Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Tamošauskas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost always there is a certain degree of tension, irritation, and conflicts among athletes of various types of sports. The objective of the research is to evaluate conflicting behaviour of student wrestlers in the public safety faculties (PSF at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU and Mykolas Romeris University (MRU. In the introduction of the research, conflict descriptions, types, criteria, solutions, and psychological climate factors as theorized by different authors are introduced. Survey data on student athletes is analyzed. In addition to this, psychological climate and predominant features among wrestling teams in higher education schools are assessed and emerging conflict types and solutions are determined. Finally, the differences in athletes and coaches‘ evaluation of psychological climate and indications are described.

  8. Critical neuroscience-or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline's actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some

  9. Critical neuroscience-or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline's actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some lea

  10. 认知神经科学研究范式的困境与出路%Difficulties and Solutions of Research Paradigms on Cognitive Neuroscience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道阳

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has been in vogue for merely less than twenty years, however, its research paradigms went thruugh from speculative philosophy to experimental psychology, from damage technology to imaging in vivo and then from scientific experiment to computer simulation. Though the research techniques and methods makes steady progress,with the rapid development of cognitive neuroscience that has been greatly promoted as a result of innovations of research paradigms, yet the current research level cannot reach the perfect objective which will use neural activities to interpret spiritual ones, present psychology phenomenon through physiology mechanism and make use of neural mcchanism to prove theoretical assumption. For this reason, key issues of further development of cognitive neuroscience demand the connection of separative and conformable research as well as the theoretical construction and neural mechanism, thus finally combined with a variety of brain imaging technology.%认知神经科学兴起不过20年,但其研究范式却经历了从哲学思辨到心理实验、从损伤技术到活体成像、从科学实验到计算模拟的转换.虽然研究技术和手段的进步,伴随着研究范式的革新大大推动了认知神经科学的发展,但当前研究水平却不能达到用神经活动解释精神活动、用生理机制还原心理现象、用神经机制印证理论假设的理想目标.因此,认知神经科学进一步发展需要分离性研究和整合性研究相结合、理论构建和神经机制印证相结合以及多种脑成像技术的融合.

  11. Meet the Fribbles: Novel stimuli for use within behavioural research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Joseph Barry

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical researchers make use of experimental models for mental disorders. In many cases, these models use stimuli that are relevant to the disorder under scrutiny, which allows one to experimentally investigate the factors that contribute to the development of the disorder. For example, one might use spiders or spider-like stimuli in the study of specific phobia. More broadly, researchers often make use of real-world stimuli such as images of animals, geometrical shapes or emotional words. However, these stimuli are often limited in their experimental controllability and their applicability to the disorder in question. We present a novel set of animal-like stimuli, called Fribbles, for use within behavioural research. Fribbles have desirable properties for use in research because they are similar to real-world stimuli, but due to their novelty, participants will not have had previous experience with them. They also have known properties that can be experimentally manipulated. We present an investigation into similarity between Fribbles in order to illustrate their utility in research that relies on comparisons between similar stimuli. Fribbles offer both experimental control and generalisability to the real world, although some consideration must be made concerning the properties that influence similarity between Fribbles when selecting them along a dimension of similarity.

  12. Jung's views on causes and treatments of schizophrenia in light of current trends in cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research I. Aetiology and phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2014-02-01

    Jung's writings on schizophrenia are almost completely ignored or forgotten today. The purpose of this paper, along with a follow-up article, is to review the primary themes found in Jung's writings on schizophrenia, and to assess the validity of his theories about the disorder in light of our current knowledge base in the fields of psychopathology, cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research. In this article, five themes related to the aetiology and phenomenology of schizophrenia from Jung's writings are discussed:1) abaissement du niveau mental; 2) the complex; 3) mandala imagery; 4) constellation of archetypes and 5) psychological versus toxic aetiology. Reviews of the above areas suggest three conclusions. First, in many ways, Jung's ideas on schizophrenia anticipated much current thinking and data about the disorder. Second, with the recent (re)convergence of psychological and biological approaches to understanding and treating schizophrenia, the pioneering ideas of Jung regarding the importance of both factors and their interaction remain a useful and rich, but still underutilized resource. Finally, a more concerted effort to understand and evaluate the validity of Jung's concepts in terms of evidence from neuroscience could lead both to important advances in analytical psychology and to developments in therapeutic approaches that would extend beyond the treatment of schizophrenia.

  13. Neuroethics: a modern context for ethics in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Judy; Bird, Stephanie J

    2006-09-01

    Neuroethics, a recently modernized field at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience, is founded on centuries of discussion of the ethical issues associated with mind and behavior. Broadly defined, neuroethics is concerned with ethical, legal and social policy implications of neuroscience, and with aspects of neuroscience research itself. Advances in neuroscience increasingly challenge long-held views of the self and the individual's relationship to society. Neuroscience also has led to innovations in clinical medicine that have not only therapeutic but also non-therapeutic dimensions that extend well beyond previously charted boundaries. The exponential increase in cross-disciplinary research, the commercialization of cognitive neuroscience, the impetus for training in ethics, and the increased attention being paid to public understanding of science all illuminate the important role of neuroethics in neuroscience.

  14. The neuroscience of psychological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, David H

    2014-11-01

    The series of articles in this issue of Behavior Research and Therapy presages a new field of translational research that could be called "the neuroscience of psychological treatments". After a brief retrospective on the origins and promise of this focus of study several cautions are adumbrated. As in any new field of scientific endeavor, close collaboration among stakeholders with interest in this field and the integration of a healthy scientific skepticism will best ensure the continued development of ever more powerful psychological treatments.

  15. Engaging high school students in neuroscience research -through an e-internship program [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim E Crusio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the design and implementation of an e-internship program that BioScience Project offers high school students over the summer. Project topics are in the areas of behavioral neuroscience and brain disorders. All research, teaching, and communication is done online using open access databases and webtools, a learning management system, and Google apps. Students conduct all aspects of a research project from formulating a question to collecting and analyzing the data, to presenting their results in the form of a scientific poster. Results from a pilot study involving fifteen students indicate that students are capable of successfully completing such a project, and benefit both intellectually and professionally from participating in the e-internship program.

  16. A Simple and Reliable PDMS and SU-8 Irreversible Bonding Method and Its Application on a Microfluidic-MEA Device for Neuroscience Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and SU-8 are currently two very commonly used polymeric materials in the microfluidics field for biological applications. However; there is a pressing need to find a simple, reliable, irreversible bonding method between these two materials for their combined use in innovative integrated microsystems. In this paper, we attempt to investigate the aminosilane-mediated irreversible bonding method for PDMS and SU-8 with X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS surface analysis and bonding strength tests. Additionally, the selected bonding method was applied in fabricating a microelectrode array (MEA device, including microfluidic features, which allows electrophysiological observations on compartmentalized neuronal cultures. As there is a growing trend towards microfluidic devices for neuroscience research, this type of integrated microdevice, which can observe functional alterations on compartmentalized neuronal culture, can potentially be used for neurodegenerative disease research and pharmaceutical development.

  17. Research on Consumer Behaviour in Bucharest Poultry Meat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Pirvutoiu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study consumer behaviour for poultry meat. In this purpose 100 individuals participated to a questionnaire based survey  in a supermarket of  Bucharest. Specific methods of marketing research in such a case assured the statistical processing of the respondents’ answers. The results pointed out an increased consumption of poultry meat,  a preference for fresh chicken meat which is daily bought  or 2-3 times a week in a varied amount ranging between 1-1.5 kg depending on consumer’s income for covering the family need. The main factors influencing consumer buying decision are the sensorial meat characteristics, meat quality, origin, price, prepaking grade. As a conclusion producers have to pay more attention to these aspects in their future strategy for producing and commercialising poultry meat.

  18. Practical and Scholarly Implications of Information Behaviour Research: A Pilot Study of Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon; Rubenstein, Ellen; White, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This pilot study examined how current information behaviour research addresses the implications and potential impacts of its findings. The goal was to understand what implications and contributions the field has made and how effectively authors communicate implications of their findings. Methods: We conducted a content analysis of 30…

  19. Prevention Neuroscience: A new frontier for preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Prevention neuroscience may be defined as follows: an interdisciplinary field concerned with the neurobiological factors that influence susceptibility to preventable disease, disability or mortality. It includes, but is not limited to: examination of brain health as an outcome, brain activity as a predictor of health outcomes, brain structures/systems as causal determinants of health outcomes (e.g., health behaviours), and the brain as a mediator of other causal influences (e.g., social conditions) on health outcomes. This commentary describes concepts, theory and research illustrating each of these scenarios using exercise, smoking cessation, dietary behaviour, and health disparities as examples. It is argued that neuroscience may provide both concepts and methods that may be possible (even fruitful) to incorporate into preventive medicine research and health promotion practise. Although public health practitioners and cognitive neuroscientists have not traditionally crossed paths outside of the context of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and other dementias, it is easy to envision a future where many common disease prevention activities involve collaboration between the two disciplines, and the cache of tools available to the preventive medicine expert includes neuroimaging and neuromodulation techniques.

  20. A survey of the neuroscience resource landscape: perspectives from the neuroscience information framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachat, Jonathan; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim; Imam, Fahim; Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E

    2012-01-01

    The number of available neuroscience resources (databases, tools, materials, and networks) available via the Web continues to expand, particularly in light of newly implemented data sharing policies required by funding agencies and journals. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of classic search engine systems make efficient, reliable, and relevant discovery of such resources a significant challenge. This challenge is especially pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is largely opaque to contemporary search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework was initiated to address this problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources. Since its first production release in 2008, NIF has been surveying the resource landscape for the neurosciences, identifying relevant resources and working to make them easily discoverable by the neuroscience community. In this chapter, we provide a survey of the resource landscape for neuroscience: what types of resources are available, how many there are, what they contain, and most importantly, ways in which these resources can be utilized by the research community to advance neuroscience research.

  1. Advancing consumer neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidts, A.; Hsu, M.; Sanfey, A.G.; Boksem, M.A.S.; Ebstein, R.P.; Huettel, S.A.; Kable, J.W.; Karmarkar, U.R.; Kitayama, S.; Knutson, B.; Liberzon, I.; Lohrenz, T.; Stallen, Mirre; Yoon, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the first decade of consumer neuroscience, strong progress has been made in understanding how neuroscience can inform consumer decision making. Here, we sketch the development of this discipline and compare it to that of the adjacent field of neuroeconomics. We describe three new frontiers for on

  2. Applications of neuroscience in criminal law: legal and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, John B

    2015-01-01

    The use of neuroscience in criminal law applications is an increasingly discussed topic among legal and psychological scholars. Over the past 5 years, several prominent federal criminal cases have referenced neuroscience studies and made admissibility determinations regarding neuroscience evidence. Despite this growth, the field is exceptionally young, and no one knows for sure how significant of a contribution neuroscience will make to criminal law. This article focuses on three major subfields: (1) neuroscience-based credibility assessment, which seeks to detect lies or knowledge associated with a crime; (2) application of neuroscience to aid in assessments of brain capacity for culpability, especially among adolescents; and (3) neuroscience-based prediction of future recidivism. The article briefly reviews these fields as applied to criminal law and makes recommendations for future research, calling for the increased use of individual-level data and increased realism in laboratory studies.

  3. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  4. Neuroscience: viable applications in education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonshire, Ian M; Dommett, Eleanor J

    2010-08-01

    As a relatively young science, neuroscience is still finding its feet in potential collaborations with other disciplines. One such discipline is education, with the field of neuroeducation being on the horizon since the 1960s. However, although its achievements are now growing, the partnership has not been as successful as first hopes suggested it should be. Here the authors discuss the theoretical barriers and potential solutions to this, which have been suggested previously, with particular focus on levels of research in neuroscience and their applicability to education. Moreover, they propose that these theoretical barriers are driven and maintained by practical barriers surrounding common language and research literacy. They propose that by overcoming these practical barriers through appropriate training and shared experience, neuroeducation can reach its full potential.

  5. Information Behaviour of Slovenian Researchers: Investigation of Activities, Preferences and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Polona; Juznic, Primoz; Bartol, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The paper presents one segment of the first comprehensive national study investigating information behaviour of Slovenian researchers in all research disciplines in relation to selected demographic variables. Research questions addressed various types of information behaviour, format preferences, use of different types of sources,…

  6. Neuroscience and humanistic psychiatry: a residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James L

    2014-04-01

    Psychiatry residencies with a commitment to humanism commonly prioritize training in psychotherapy, cultural psychiatry, mental health policy, promotion of human rights, and similar areas reliant upon dialogue and collaborative therapeutic relationships. The advent of neuroscience as a defining paradigm for psychiatry has challenged residencies with a humanistic focus due to common perceptions that it would entail constriction of psychiatric practice to diagnostic and psychopharmacology roles. The author describes a neuroscience curriculum that has taught psychopharmacology effectively, while also advancing effectiveness of language-based and relationship-based therapeutics. In 2000, the George Washington University psychiatry residency initiated a neuroscience curriculum consisting of (1) a foundational postgraduate year 2 seminar teaching cognitive and social neuroscience and its integration into clinical psychopharmacology, (2) advanced seminars that utilized a neuroscience perspective in teaching specific psychotherapeutic skill sets, and (3) case-based teaching in outpatient clinical supervisions that incorporated a neuroscience perspective into traditional psychotherapy supervisions. Curricular assessment was conducted by (1) RRC reaccreditation site visit feedback, (2) examining career trajectories of residency graduates, (3) comparing PRITE exam Somatic Treatments subscale scores for 2010-2012 residents with pre-implementation residents, and (4) postresidency survey assessment by 2010-2012 graduates. The 2011 RRC site visit report recommended a "notable practice" citation for "innovative neurosciences curriculum." Three of twenty 2010-2012 graduates entered neuroscience research fellowships, as compared to none before the new curriculum. PRITE Somatic Treatments subscale scores improved from the 23rd percentile to the 62nd percentile in pre- to post-implementation of curriculum (p neuroscience curriculum for a residency committed to humanistic psychiatry

  7. Education Research: An exploration of case-based learning in neuroscience grand rounds using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Heather; Schofield, Susie; Mann, Karen; Benstead, Timothy

    2012-07-17

    Neuroscience grand rounds (NSGR) is a key educational exercise in most academic medical centers. Despite its importance, there are few published studies evaluating the manner in which it is conducted. Our objective was to obtain consensus opinion from staff neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, and neuropathologists on the features that best characterize a highly educational NSGR. Using the Delphi technique, multiple rounds of questionnaires were presented to a panel of neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuropathologists, and neuroradiologists. The anonymous responses were analyzed and fed back to participants. Each round, the participants were given the opportunity to react to collective opinion by changing their response or by presenting arguments in favor or against the item in question. We found that support for NSGR in its present form is high and that particularly strong support exists for 1) case-based rounds, 2) high level of audience interaction, 3) resident participation in case presentation and analysis, 4) formal training for residents in leading case-based presentations, and 5) resident feedback and evaluation. Our results offer centers that use a case-based format for NSGR with guidance to maximize the important learning opportunity that it provides. We provide an organized evaluation of expert opinion on how this important educational exercise should be conducted. The results expose some fresh insights into traditional values in medical education.

  8. Implementation of an Integrated Neuroscience Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Rory P; Franker, Lauren; Sterchi, Suzanne; Sani, Sepehr

    2016-02-01

    Many challenges exist in today's health care delivery system, and much focus and research are invested into ways to improve care with cost-effective measures. Specialty-specific dedicated care units are one solution for inpatient hospital care because they improve outcomes and decrease mortality. The neuroscience population encompasses a wide variety of diagnoses of spinal to cranial issues with a wide spectrum of needs varying from one patient to the next. Neuroscience care must be patient-specific during the course of frequent acuity changes, and one way to achieve this is through a neuroscience-focused unit. Few resources are available on how to implement this type of unit. Advanced practice nurses are committed to providing high-quality, safe, and cost-effective care and are instrumental in the success of instituting a unit dedicated to the care of neuroscience patients.

  9. Neuroeconomics--from neural systems to economic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeutigam, Sven

    2005-11-15

    Neuroeconomics is a new and highly interdisciplinary field. Drawing from theories and methodologies employed in both economics and neuroscience, it aims at understanding the neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behaviour in real-life situations. Although incomplete, the evidence is beginning to clarify with the possibility that neuroeconomic methodology might eventually trace whole processes of economically relevant behaviour. This paper accompanies the author's ConNEcs 2004 keynote speech on applications of neuroeconomic research.

  10. Optical Approaches Used in Neuroscience Research%光学技术在神经科学中的应用及其进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巢乃健; 李胜天

    2012-01-01

    经过半个世纪的发展,一些基于光学方法的研究技术已成为神经科学领域的主要研究手段.这些技术包括实现了高分辨率三维成像的光学成像技术、可进行大范围神经信号记录的功能性成像技术,以及可运用光来精确控制神经功能的光遗传学技术.这些光学技术具有高空间分辨率、组织低损伤性和遗传特异性等优势,其应用使得神经科学领域的研究取得了一系列突破.尽管目前应用在神经科学研究中的光学技术还存在一些问题,但可以预见,光学技术在阐明和揭示复杂神经科学问题方面必将继续发挥重要作用.%A number of optics-based experimental techniques have now been used in neuroscience research, such as optical imaging which enables high spatio-resolution and 3D observation, functional imaging to perform large scale recording of neural activities, and optogenetic tools for precise control of neural functions via light and laser. These optical technologies have led to major technological advances such as high spatial resolution, lowered tissue damage, genetic specificity. Optical technologies could be further improved, to play significant roles in clarification and revelation of neuroscience-related complexities in the future.

  11. Directed information measures in neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Vicente, Raul; Lizier, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of information transfer has found rapid adoption in neuroscience, where a highly dynamic transfer of information continuously runs on top of the brain's slowly-changing anatomical connectivity. Measuring such transfer is crucial to understanding how flexible information routing and processing give rise to higher cognitive function. Directed Information Measures in Neuroscience reviews recent developments of concepts and tools for measuring information transfer, their application to neurophysiological recordings and analysis of interactions. Written by the most active researchers in the field the book discusses the state of the art, future prospects and challenges on the way to an efficient assessment of neuronal information transfer. Highlights include the theoretical quantification and practical estimation of information transfer, description of transfer locally in space and time, multivariate directed measures, information decomposition among a set of stimulus/responses variables, and the relation ...

  12. Herpes simplex virus type 1-based amplicon vectors for fundamental research in neurosciences and gene therapy of neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalinsky, Diana; Baez, María Verónica; Epstein, Alberto Luis

    2012-01-01

    Somatic manipulation of the nervous system without the involvement of the germinal line appears as a powerful counterpart of the transgenic strategy. The use of viral vectors to produce specific, transient and localized knockout, knockdown, ectopic expression or overexpression of a gene, leads to the possibility of analyzing both in vitro and in vivo molecular basis of neural function. In this approach, viral particles engineered to carry transgenic sequences are delivered into discrete brain regions, to transduce cells that will express the transgenic products. Amplicons are replication-incompetent helper-dependent vectors derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), with several advantages that potentiate their use in neurosciences: (1) minimal toxicity: amplicons do not encode any virus proteins, are neither toxic for the infected cells nor pathogenic for the inoculated animals and elicit low levels of adaptive immune responses; (2) extensive transgene capacity to carry up to 150-kb of foreign DNA; i.e., entire genes with regulatory sequences could be delivered; (3) widespread cellular tropism: amplicons can experimentally infect several cell types including glial cells, though naturally the virus infects mainly neurons and epithelial cells; (4) since the viral genome does not integrate into cellular chromosomes there is low probability to induce insertional mutagenesis. Recent investigations on gene transfer into the brain using these vectors, have focused on gene therapy of inherited genetic diseases affecting the nervous system, such as ataxias, or on neurodegenerative disorders using experimental models of Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. Another group of studies used amplicons to investigate complex neural functions such as neuroplasticity, anxiety, learning and memory. In this short review, we summarize recent data supporting the potential of HSV-1 based amplicon vector model for gene delivery and modulation of gene expression in primary cultures

  13. Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillis, Lauren; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner.......The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner....

  14. Juice and nectar consumer behaviour. Marketing research in cooperation with Pfanner, spol. s r. o.

    OpenAIRE

    Caisová, Alena

    2008-01-01

    In the theoretical part the thesis focus on consumer behavior and marketing research. Describes three models of buyer behaviour, main factors influencing the behaviour and the purchase decision-making proces. The second part of the thesis presents results of the primary marketing research.

  15. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    'Neuromarketing' is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods 'neuromarketing' and scientific ones 'consumer neuroscience'. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology:First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease.Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom.Third, trust research in the medical context lacks

  16. Security implications and governance of cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosal, Margaret E; Huang, Jonathan Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, significant efforts have been made toward elucidating the potential of the human brain. Spanning fields as disparate as psychology, biomedicine, computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, and chemistry, research venturing into the growing domains of cognitive neuroscience and brain research has become fundamentally interdisciplinary. Among the most interesting and consequential applications to international security are the military and defense community's interests in the potential of cognitive neuroscience findings and technologies. In the United States, multiple governmental agencies are actively pursuing such endeavors, including the Department of Defense, which has invested over $3 billion in the last decade to conduct research on defense-related innovations. This study explores governance and security issues surrounding cognitive neuroscience research with regard to potential security-related applications and reports scientists' views on the role of researchers in these areas through a survey of over 200 active cognitive neuroscientists.

  17. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  18. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  19. Telemedicine in neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, K; Ravindra, Aditi

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that in most countries, there is a perennial shortage of specialists in neurosciences. Even the few available neurologists and neurosurgeons are clustered in the metros and urban areas. Those living in suburban and rural areas have limited or no access to neurological care. At the same time there has been an unprecedented growth in ICT (Information and Communication Technology). In this article, the authors review the increasing use of telemedicine in neurosciences.

  20. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community.

  1. Proceedings of the 13. Annual meeting of the Federation of Societies on Experimental Biology; 23. Brazilian congress on biophysics; 30. Brazilian congress on pharmacology and experimental therapeutics; 33. Brazilian congress on physiology; 14. Brazilian congress on clinical research; 22. Brazilian congress on neuroscience and behaviour. Abstracts; Anais do 13. Reuniao anual da Federacao de Sociedades de Biologia Experimental; 23. Congresso brasileiro de biofisica; 30. Congresso brasileiro de farmacologia e terapeutica experimental; 33. Congresso brasileiro de fisiologia; 14. Congresso brasileiro de investigacao clinica; 22. Congresso brasileiro de neurociencias e comportamento. Resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Several aspects concerning neuroscience and behavior, compared physiology, endocrinology, pharmacology, molecular immunology and immuno diagnosis, biochemistry, genetic and toxicology of either animals, plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions, blood pressure regulation are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds, e.g. radioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, are the most applied techniques.

  2. The brain seduction: the public perception of neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Ramani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of magazine covers dedicated to brain studies and the success of magazines and scientific journals entirely dedicated to brain and mind indicate a strong interest on these themes. This interest is clearly surpassing the boundaries of scientific and medical researches and applications and underlines an engagement of the general public, too. This phenomenon appears to be enhanced by the increasing number of basic researches focusing on non-health-related fMRI studies, investigating aspects of personality as emotions, will, personal values and beliefs, self-identity and behaviour. The broad coverage by the media raises some central questions related to the complexity of researches, the intrinsic limits of these technologies, the results’ interpretative boundaries, factors which are crucial to properly understand the studies’ value. In case of an incomplete communication, if those fundamental interpretative elements are not well understood, we could register a misinterpretation in the public perception of the studies that opens new compelling questions. As already observed in the past debates on science and technologies applications, in this case, too, we assist to a communicative problem that set against scientific community on one side and media, on the other. Focusing our attention, in particular, on the debate on fMRI, taken as a good model, in the present letter we will investigate the most interesting aspects of the current discussion on neuroscience and neuroscience public perception. This analysis was performed as one of the bid - brains in dialogue - activities (www.neuromedia.eu. bid is a three year project supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Program and coordinated by Sissa, the International School for Advanced Studies of Trieste, aimed at fostering dialogue between science and society on the new challenges coming from neuroscience.

  3. Review on the research development of personality and cognitive neuroscience%发展认知神经科学的人格研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the development of the rise and progress of cognitive neuroscience, and the development method of cognitive neuroscience studies of personality was summarized, and the personality of developmental cognitive neuroscience is discussed.%本文介绍了发展认知神经科学的兴起和进展,并对于采用发展认知神经科学的方法研究人格的成果进行总结,并对发展认知神经科学的人格研究进行了展望。

  4. Three requirements for justifying an educational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G

    2012-03-01

    Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to generate both empirical research and theoretical syntheses of noteworthy promise. Nonetheless, thoughtful and critical scholars in education have expressed concern about both the intellectual coherence and ethical dangers of this new area. It is still an open question whether educational neuroscience is for some time yet to remain only a formative study area for adventurous scholars or is already a fully fledged field of educational scholarship. In this paper, I suggest that to be a worthy field of educational research, educational neuroscience will need to address three issues: intellectual coherence, mutually informing and respected scholarly expertise, and an ethical commitment to the moral implications and obligations shared within educational research generally. I shall set forth some examples of lapses in this regard, focusing primarily on work on reading development, as that is my area of expertise, and make recommendations for due diligence. Arguments. First, intellectual coherence requires both precision in definition of technical terms (so that diverse scholars and professionals may communicate findings and insights consistently across fields), and precision in the logical warrants by which educational implications are drawn from empirical data from the neurosciences. Both needs are facilitated by careful attention to categorical boundary and avoidance of category error. Second, educational neuroscientists require focused and broad expertise in both the neurosciences and educational scholarship on teaching and learning in classrooms (and/or ancillary fields). If history is our guide, neuroscience implications for practice will

  5. Motor cognition and neuroscience in sport psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Paul S; Wright, David J

    2017-08-01

    Advances in technology have allowed research in cognitive neuroscience to contribute significantly to the discipline of sport psychology. In most cases, the research has become more rigorous and has directed current thinking on the mechanisms subserving a number of psychological theories and models of practice. Currently, the three most common neuroscience techniques informing sport and exercise research are electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this review, we highlight and discuss the contributions to sport psychology that have been made in recent years by applying these techniques, with a focus on the development of expertise, motor cognition, motor imagery and action observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  7. Mapping the semantic structure of cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Elizabeth; Appelbaum, L Gregory; Jack, Jordynn; Moody, James; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive neuroscience, as a discipline, links the biological systems studied by neuroscience to the processing constructs studied by psychology. By mapping these relations throughout the literature of cognitive neuroscience, we visualize the semantic structure of the discipline and point to directions for future research that will advance its integrative goal. For this purpose, network text analyses were applied to an exhaustive corpus of abstracts collected from five major journals over a 30-month period, including every study that used fMRI to investigate psychological processes. From this, we generate network maps that illustrate the relationships among psychological and anatomical terms, along with centrality statistics that guide inferences about network structure. Three terms--prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex--dominate the network structure with their high frequency in the literature and the density of their connections with other neuroanatomical terms. From network statistics, we identify terms that are understudied compared with their importance in the network (e.g., insula and thalamus), are underspecified in the language of the discipline (e.g., terms associated with executive function), or are imperfectly integrated with other concepts (e.g., subdisciplines like decision neuroscience that are disconnected from the main network). Taking these results as the basis for prescriptive recommendations, we conclude that semantic analyses provide useful guidance for cognitive neuroscience as a discipline, both by illustrating systematic biases in the conduct and presentation of research and by identifying directions that may be most productive for future research.

  8. Progress in assessing animal welfare in relation to new legislation: opportunities for behavioural researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-08-30

    Recent revisions to international legislation and guidelines on the care and use of animals in research and testing emphasise the importance of minimising suffering and improving welfare. Achieving this requires effective systems for recognising, recording, analysing and assessing animal behaviour, in order to identify relevant indicators of pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm so that any suffering can be rapidly recognised and ameliorated. Behavioural researchers can assist by disseminating information on developments in techniques and approaches for recognising, observing, monitoring, analysing and interpreting behaviour, both within their own facilities and more widely. They can also help to facilitate better welfare assessment by continuing to develop systems for measuring behaviours - including indicators of positive welfare - while also ensuring that harms within behavioural research are minimised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The functional-cognitive framework as a tool for accelerating progress in cognitive neuroscience: On the benefits of bridging rather than reducing levels of analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahey, Nigel; Whelan, Robert

    2016-02-01

    The subject matter of neuroscience research is complex, and synthesising the wealth of data from this research to better understand mental processes is challenging. A useful strategy, therefore, may be to distinguish explicitly between the causal effects of the environment on behaviour (i.e. functional analyses) and the mental processes that mediate these effects (i.e. cognitive analyses). In this article, we describe how the functional-cognitive (F-C) framework can accelerate cognitive neuroscience and also advance a functional treatment of brain activity. We first highlight that cognitive neuroscience can particularly benefit from the F-C approach by providing an alternative to the problematic practice of reducing cognitive constructs to behavioural and/or neural proxies. Next, we outline how functional (behaviour-environment) relations can serve as a bridge between cognitive and neural processes by restoring mental constructs to their original role as heuristic tools. Finally, we give some examples of how both cognitive neuroscience and traditional functional approaches can mutually benefit from the F-C framework.

  10. Measuring behaviour in rodents: towards translational neuropsychiatric research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent behavioural tasks are indispensable to advance the understanding of gene x environment interactions in neuropsychiatric disorders and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Yet, the actual translation of rodent data to humans, and thereby the understanding of the pathophysiology of neur

  11. Neuroscience and the fallacies of functionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, William M

    2010-01-01

    Smail's "On Deep History and the Brain" is rightly critical of the functionalist fallacies that have plagued evolutionary theory, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology. However, his attempt to improve on these efforts relies on functional explanations that themselves oversimplify the lessons of neuroscience. In addition, like explanations in evolutionary psychology, they are highly speculative and cannot be confirmed or disproved by evidence. Neuroscience research is too diverse to yield a single picture of brain functioning. Some recent developments in neuroscience research, however, do suggest that cognitive processing provides a kind of “operating system” that can support a great diversity of cultural material. These developments include evidence of “top-down” processing in motor control, in visual processing, in speech recognition, and in “emotion regulation.” The constraints that such a system may place on cultural learning and transmission are worth investigating. At the same time, historians are well advised to remain wary of the pitfalls of functionalism.

  12. Embodied language in neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Jeanine M

    2009-12-01

    There have been relatively few discussions of systematic studies of language, including neuroscience studies, in the psychoanalytic literature. To address this dearth, a detailed review of research on embodied language in neuroscience and related disciplines is presented, after which their findings are considered in light of diverse views of language in psychoanalysis, specifically the models of the Boston Change Process Study Group, Wilma Bucci, Fonagy and Target, David Olds, and Hans Loewald. The juxtaposition of psychoanalytic models with the findings of research on embodied language shows that scientific studies can focus psychoanalytic understanding of verbal processes, and that integrations with neuroscience neither inherently threaten the traditional psychoanalytic focus on verbal meanings nor reduce the richness and complexity of psychoanalytic theory.

  13. Neuroscience and the Soul: Competing Explanations for the Human Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S.; Hepler, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul.…

  14. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  15. Neuroscience and the Soul: Competing Explanations for the Human Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S.; Hepler, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul.…

  16. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent—based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus–response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  17. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-05-05

    Human behaviour is context-dependent-based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus-response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world.

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. De la Torre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  19. Cognitive neuroscience in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Gabriel G

    2014-07-03

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  20. Going down to the Crossroads: Neuroendocrinology, Developmental Psychobiology, and Prospects for Research at the Intersection of Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2010-01-01

    The relation of stress hormones and activity in stress response systems to the development of aspects of cognition and behavior important for educational achievement and attainment is examined from the perspective of the developmental psychobiological model. It is proposed that research in neuroendocrinology supports three general conclusions,…

  1. Neuroscience, Magic, and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Presbury, Jack; Cowan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have identified principles, such as attention management and change blindness, which stage magicians exploit to create illusions. Neuroscientists have also revealed how mirror neurons and oxytocin enhance the impact of magic. In other words, magicians are just as much practitioners of sleight of mind as they are of…

  2. Neuroscience, Magic, and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Presbury, Jack; Cowan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have identified principles, such as attention management and change blindness, which stage magicians exploit to create illusions. Neuroscientists have also revealed how mirror neurons and oxytocin enhance the impact of magic. In other words, magicians are just as much practitioners of sleight of mind as they are of…

  3. The law and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2008-11-06

    Some of the implications for law of recent discoveries in neuroscience are considered in a new program established by the MacArthur Foundation. A group of neuroscientists, lawyers, philosophers, and jurists are examining issues in criminal law and, in particular, problems in responsibility and prediction and problems in legal decision making.

  4. Neuroanatomy and Global Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2017-07-05

    Our brains are like a dense forest-a complex, seemingly impenetrable terrain of interacting cells mediating cognition and behavior. However, we should view the challenge of understanding the brain with optimism, provided that we choose appropriate strategies for the development of global neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Linking Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    This review discusses the relationship between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and introduces a new scientific method called neuro-psychoanalysis, a combination of the two phenomena. A significant difference between the two is that psychoanalysis has not evolved scientifically since it has not developed objective methods for testing ideas that it…

  6. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanius, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) thought; (3) body; and (4) emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  7. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Lanius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015. This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1 those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2 those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC along four dimensions: (1 time; (2 thought; (3 body; and (4 emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  8. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Transition to the Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Transition to the Intelligence Community Kevin...Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A Computational Basis for ICArUS: Transition to the...Research Projects Activity) program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking) developed and tested brain

  9. History of neurosciences at the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Badrisyah; Sayuti, Sani; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2007-02-01

    Universiti Sains Malaysia is the only institution in Malaysia which incorporates all fields of the neurosciences under one roof. The integration of basic and clinical neurosciences has made it possible for this institution to become an excellent academic and research centre. This article describes the history, academic contributions and scientific progress of neurosciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia.

  10. Le débat démocratique en neurosciences : possible et nécessaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laliberté, Maude

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The neurosciences, a dynamic field of biomedical research, are a paradigmatic example to illustrate the responsibilities of researchers and their interactions with society. This comment highlights the importance of public debate in neurosciences.

  11. Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeCosta, Patricia Enebær Irene; Møller, Per; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2017-01-01

    programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear...... to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating...

  12. Teaching neuroscience at a religious institution: pedagogical models for handling neuroscience and theology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, William M

    2003-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience makes it one of the most fascinating and complex subjects to address in the classroom. This can be compounded, however, by the addition of theology or a faith-related context at a religious institution (RI). The addition of theology and faith can enrich student appreciation and understanding of neuroscience and stimulate discussion in the classroom. This provides a practical way to make the course content relevant to students who may see neuroscience as antagonistic towards their faith. Over the past century questions of human experience and personhood that were long held to be under the authority of religion now can be addressed from findings in neuroscience. While there has been debate on a variety of topics which range from positions on origins to ethical questions about the nature of research (i.e. stem cells, cloning), it is important that teaching faculty at RIs be prepared to deal with the hard questions faced by students of faith. Recommendations for faculty are given including: self assessment of personal position on matters of faith and science, framing a number of models for the integration of neuroscience and theology, 'Worldviews', and mentoring students who are struggling with reconciling their faith with neuroscience. While this paper is designed for teachers at RIs, it may also aid teaching faculty at other institutions who may benefit from an awareness of this framework and aid in teaching students of faith in a secular setting.

  13. Zebrafish embryos and larvae as a complementary model for behavioural research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, Farooq

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of the research that makes up this thesis was to translate rodent behavioural assays to larval zebrafish for better time and resource management in biomedical research, pharmaceutical research and development. •The larval zebrafish is a useful model in toxicology and drug discovery. H

  14. Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Unravelling the Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Morrison, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically examines the application of research into cognitive neuroscience to educational contexts. It first considers recent warnings from within the neuroscientific community itself about the limitations of current neuroscientific knowledge and the urgent need to dispel popular "neuromyths" which have become accepted in many…

  15. Educational Neuroscience: What Can We Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in interest, research, and publications exploring ways in which educational practices might be influenced by neuroscience. The idea that a greater understanding of how the brain works can improve teaching and learning is very seductive, but what can teachers and other professionals working in education learn from…

  16. Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Unravelling the Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Morrison, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically examines the application of research into cognitive neuroscience to educational contexts. It first considers recent warnings from within the neuroscientific community itself about the limitations of current neuroscientific knowledge and the urgent need to dispel popular "neuromyths" which have become accepted in…

  17. Educational Neuroscience: What Can We Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in interest, research, and publications exploring ways in which educational practices might be influenced by neuroscience. The idea that a greater understanding of how the brain works can improve teaching and learning is very seductive, but what can teachers and other professionals working in education learn from…

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Unravelling the Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Morrison, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically examines the application of research into cognitive neuroscience to educational contexts. It first considers recent warnings from within the neuroscientific community itself about the limitations of current neuroscientific knowledge and the urgent need to dispel popular "neuromyths" which have become accepted in…

  19. Critical Neuroscience – or Critical Science? A Perspective on the Perceived Normative Significance of Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSchleim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (immoral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system.

  20. Real-Time fMRI in Neuroscience Research and Its Use in Studying the Aging Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Mohit; Varan, Andrew Q.; Davoudi, Anis; Cohen, Ronald A.; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a major concern in the aging population. It is normative to experience some deterioration in cognitive abilities with advanced age such as related to memory performance, attention distraction to interference, task switching, and processing speed. However, intact cognitive functioning in old age is important for leading an independent day-to-day life. Thus, studying ways to counteract or delay the onset of cognitive decline in aging is crucial. The literature offers various explanations for the decline in cognitive performance in aging; among those are age-related gray and white matter atrophy, synaptic degeneration, blood flow reduction, neurochemical alterations, and change in connectivity patterns with advanced age. An emerging literature on neurofeedback and Brain Computer Interface (BCI) reports exciting results supporting the benefits of volitional modulation of brain activity on cognition and behavior. Neurofeedback studies based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) have shown behavioral changes in schizophrenia and behavioral benefits in nicotine addiction. This article integrates research on cognitive and brain aging with evidence of brain and behavioral modification due to rtfMRI neurofeedback. We offer a state-of-the-art description of the rtfMRI technique with an eye towards its application in aging. We present preliminary results of a feasibility study exploring the possibility of using rtfMRI to train older adults to volitionally control brain activity. Based on these first findings, we discuss possible implementations of rtfMRI neurofeedback as a novel technique to study and alleviate cognitive decline in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:27803662

  1. Real-time fMRI in neuroscience research and its use in studying the aging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Rana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline is a major concern in the aging population. It is normative to experience some deterioration in cognitive abilities with advanced age such as related to memory performance, attention distraction to interference, task switching, and processing speed. However, intact cognitive functioning in old age is important for leading an independent day-to-day life. Thus, studying ways to counteract or delay the onset of cognitive decline in aging is crucial. The literature offers various explanations for the decline in cognitive performance in aging; among those are age-related gray and white matter atrophy, synaptic degeneration, blood flow reduction, neurochemical alterations and change in connectivity patterns with advanced age. An emerging literature on neurofeedback and Brain Computer Interface (BCI reports exciting results supporting the benefits of volitional modulation of brain activity on cognition and behavior. Neurofeedback studies based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI have shown behavioral changes in schizophrenia and behavioral benefits in nicotine addiction. This article integrates research on cognitive and brain aging with evidence of brain and behavioral modification due to rtfMRI neurofeedback. We offer a state-of-the-art description of the rtfMRI technique with an eye towards its application in aging. We present preliminary results of a feasibility study exploring the possibility of using rtfMRI to train older adults to volitionally control brain activity. Based on these first findings, we discuss possible implementations of rtfMRI neurofeedback as a novel technique to study and alleviate cognitive decline in healthy and pathological aging.

  2. Neuroscience and education: prime time to build the bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Mariano; Peña, Marcela; Goldin, Andrea P; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-04-01

    As neuroscience gains social traction and entices media attention, the notion that education has much to benefit from brain research becomes increasingly popular. However, it has been argued that the fundamental bridge toward education is cognitive psychology, not neuroscience. We discuss four specific cases in which neuroscience synergizes with other disciplines to serve education, ranging from very general physiological aspects of human learning such as nutrition, exercise and sleep, to brain architectures that shape the way we acquire language and reading, and neuroscience tools that increasingly allow the early detection of cognitive deficits, especially in preverbal infants. Neuroscience methods, tools and theoretical frameworks have broadened our understanding of the mind in a way that is highly relevant to educational practice. Although the bridge's cement is still fresh, we argue why it is prime time to march over it.

  3. Self-esteem Research in Cognitive Neuroscience%认知神经科学领域的自尊研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琪; 李鹏; 张丽华

    2014-01-01

    认知神经科学是在综合心理学、神经学、社会学等学科基础上发展起来的一门交叉型学科。近年来认知神经科学领域的自尊研究是在自我评价神经机制研究的基础上对自尊的神经机制展开研究和探索的。核磁共振技术(FMRI)研究的证据表明:自我评价的神经表征主要涉及脑区中的内侧前额叶及周边区域,认知评价和情感效价分别对应于大脑中不同的脑区。事件相关电位技术(ERP)的研究结果表明:自我评价能够诱发更大的P300成分,并且自尊对记忆和注意都会产生认知加工偏向。目前自尊的认知神经科学研究还存在研究方向较为单一、与临床应用联系不紧密等问题。%Cognitive Neuroscience is the comprehensive of Psychology ,Neurology and Sociology .This pa-per reviews the research of self-esteem and the cognitive neural mechanisms based on self-appraisal .In re-cent years ,FMRI data showed that self-appraisal related to M PFC and surrounding areas .Cognitive ap-praisals and emotional valence are corresponding to brain areas respectively .ERP reveals that self-apprais-al may increase the P300 ,and self-esteem may cause cognitive processing bias of memory and attention .At present ,some problems still exist in the research ,for example ,the research direction is single ,and is not strongly linked to clinical application .

  4. Neuroscience and Global Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Michael G; Korey, Chris; Birck, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Traditional study abroad experiences take a variety of forms with most incorporating extensive cultural emersion and a focus on global learning skills. Here we ask the question: Can this type of experience co-exist with a quality scientific experience and continued progression through a typically rigorous undergraduate neuroscience curriculum? What are the potential costs and benefits of this approach? How do we increase student awareness of study abroad opportunities and inspire them to participate? We outline programs that have done this with some success and point out ways to cultivate this approach for future programs. These programs represent a variety of approaches in both their duration and role in a given curriculum. We discuss a one-week first year seminar program in Berlin, a summer study abroad course in Munich and Berlin, semester experiences and other options offered through the Danish Institute for Study Abroad in Copenhagen. Each of these experiences offers opportunities for interfacing global learning with neuroscience.

  5. The role of prediction in social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Clayton Brown

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that the brain is constantly making predictions about future events. Theories of prediction in perception, action and learning suggest that the brain serves to reduce the discrepancies between expectation and actual experience, i.e. by reducing the prediction error. Forward models of action and perception propose the generation of a predictive internal representation of the expected sensory outcome, which is matched to the actual sensory feedback. Shared neural representations have been found when experiencing one’s own and observing others’ actions, rewards, errors and emotions such as fear and pain. These general principles of the ‘predictive brain’ are well established and have already begun to be applied to social aspects of cognition. The application and relevance of these predictive principles to social cognition are discussed. Evidence is presented to argue that simple non-social cognitive processes can be extended to explain complex cognitive processes required for social interaction, with common neural activity seen for both social and non-social cognitions. A number of studies are included which demonstrate that bottom-up sensory input and top-down expectancies can be modulated by social information. The concept of competing social forward models and a partially distinct category of social prediction errors are introduced. The evolutionary implications of a ‘social predictive brain’ are also mentioned, along with the implications on psychopathology. The review presents a number of testable hypotheses and novel comparisons that aim to stimulate further discussion and integration between currently disparate fields of research, with regard to computational models, behavioural and neurophysiological data. This promotes a relatively new platform for inquiry in social neuroscience with implications in social learning, theory of mind, empathy, the evolution of the social brain and potential strategies for

  6. Neuroscience of Meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Vinod D.

    2006-01-01

    Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one’s being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, c...

  7. Investigation on the Recent Research Trend in the Corrosion Behaviour of Stainless Steel Weldment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwan Tae; Kil, Sang Cheol [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Woon Suk [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The research trend in the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel weldment has been reviewed. The welding technology plays an important role in the fabrication of structure such as chemical plant, power plant, because welding can influence various factors in the performance of plant and equipment. This has led to an increasing attention towards the corrosion behaviour of weldment which has been one of the major issues for both welding and corrosion research engineers. The aim of this paper is to give a short survey of the recent technical trends of welding and corrosion including the electrochemical corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue in connection with the welding materials, welding process, and welding fabrication. This study covers the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel weldment collected from the COMPENDEX DB analysis of published papers, research subject and research institutes.

  8. A Plea for Cross-species Social Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the question of how our brain makes us sensitive to the state of conspecifics and how that affects our behaviour has undergone a profound change. Twenty years ago what would now be called social neuroscience was focused on the visual processing of facial expressions and bo

  9. A Plea for Cross-species Social Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the question of how our brain makes us sensitive to the state of conspecifics and how that affects our behaviour has undergone a profound change. Twenty years ago what would now be called social neuroscience was focused on the visual processing of facial expressions and

  10. Varying Student Behaviours Observed in the Library Prompt the Need for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Melssen

    2014-03-01

    may have led the authors to mistake non-study behaviour for study behaviour. An additional limitation is the short duration of time spent observing the students as well as the proximity of the observer to the student. Observations lasting longer than 3 to 10 seconds and made at a closer range to the students could provide more accurate data regarding what type of behaviours students engage in and for how much time. In addition to the before mentioned limitations, the authors acknowledge that they had no way of knowing if the individuals being observed were actual students: the assumed students could have been faculty, staff, or visitors to the university. Due to the study’s limitations, further research is needed to determine in greater detail what students are doing while they are studying in the library. This data would allow librarians to justify the need to provide both study and non-study space to meet the diverse needs of students. Conducting a cohort study would allow researchers to observe student behaviour longitudinally. It would minimize the limitations of short-term student observation as well as the proximity of the observer to the student. Research on the use of mobile technologies by students, such as smart phones, to access study related material while they are in the library would also yield valuable data regarding student study behaviours.

  11. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  12. Learning from e-Family History: A Model of Online Family Historian Research Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on doctoral research which investigated the online research behaviour of family historians, from the overall perspective of local studies collections and developing online services for family historians. Method: A hybrid (primarily ethnographic) study was employed using qualitative diaries and shadowing, to examine…

  13. Understanding researchers’ strategic behaviour in knowledge production: a case of social science and nanotechnology researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewska-Kurek, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper seeks to understand the strategic behaviour of researchers when producing knowledge in two scientific fields – nanotechnology and social sciences. Design/methodology/approach The author conducted semi-structured interviews with 43 researchers to analyse the needs for strategic

  14. A structured review of reasons for ecstasy use and related behaviours: pointers for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the health risks of using ecstasy warrant intervention development, a recent meta-analysis of determinants of ecstasy use identified a number of lacunae in the literature. Specifically, no studies were included that address behaviours other than 'using ecstasy' (e.g. 'trying out ecstasy' or 'ceasing ecstasy use'. However, because meta-analyses aim to integrate study results quantitatively, the resulting rigid exclusion criteria cause many studies to be discarded on the basis of their qualitative methodology. Such qualitative studies may nonetheless provide valuable insights to guide future research. To provide an overview of these insights regarding ecstasy use, the current study summarizes and combines what is known from qualitative and exploratory quantitative literature on ecstasy use. Methods The databases PsycINFO and MedLine were searched for publications reporting reasons for ecstasy use and related behaviour, and the results were structured and discussed per behaviour and compared over behaviours. Results Two main categories of reasons were found. The first category comprised reasons to start using ecstasy, use ecstasy, use ecstasy more often, and refrain from ceasing ecstasy use. The second category comprised reasons to refrain from starting to use ecstasy, use less ecstasy, and cease using ecstasy. Reasons for related behaviours within each of these two categories appear to differ, but not as substantially as between the two categories. A large number of reasons that were not yet explored in quantitative research emerged. Conclusion The current summary and combination of exploratory studies yields useful lists of reasons for each behaviour. Before these lists can inform interventions, however, they beg quantitative verification. Also, similarity of determinant configurations of different behaviours can be assessed by addressing determinants of several behaviours in one study. Another important finding is that

  15. Alzheimer's disease drug development: translational neuroscience strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jeffrey L; Banks, Sarah J; Gary, Ronald K; Kinney, Jefferson W; Lombardo, Joseph M; Walsh, Ryan R; Zhong, Kate

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an urgent public health challenge that is rapidly approaching epidemic proportions. New therapies that defer or prevent the onset, delay the decline, or improve the symptoms are urgently needed. All phase 3 drug development programs for disease-modifying agents have failed thus far. New approaches to drug development are needed. Translational neuroscience focuses on the linkages between basic neuroscience and the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic products that will improve the lives of patients or prevent the occurrence of brain disorders. Translational neuroscience includes new preclinical models that may better predict human efficacy and safety, improved clinical trial designs and outcomes that will accelerate drug development, and the use of biomarkers to more rapidly provide information regarding the effects of drugs on the underlying disease biology. Early translational research is complemented by later stage translational approaches regarding how best to use evidence to impact clinical practice and to assess the influence of new treatments on the public health. Funding of translational research is evolving with an increased emphasis on academic and NIH involvement in drug development. Translational neuroscience provides a framework for advancing development of new therapies for AD patients.

  16. Epochal problems of philosophy of education, today. Technology, posthuman, neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cambi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents three crucial aspects of philosophical research in pedagogy: the role of technology, the post-human, the relation with neurosciences. These aspects should be rethought critically, always.

  17. Epochal problems of philosophy of education, today. Technology, posthuman, neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Cambi

    2014-01-01

    The article presents three crucial aspects of philosophical research in pedagogy: the role of technology, the post-human, the relation with neurosciences. These aspects should be rethought critically, always.

  18. Computational neuroscience a first course

    CERN Document Server

    Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2013-01-01

    Computational Neuroscience - A First Course provides an essential introduction to computational neuroscience and  equips readers with a fundamental understanding of modeling the nervous system at the membrane, cellular, and network level. The book, which grew out of a lecture series held regularly for more than ten years to graduate students in neuroscience with backgrounds in biology, psychology and medicine, takes its readers on a journey through three fundamental domains of computational neuroscience: membrane biophysics, systems theory and artificial neural networks. The required mathematical concepts are kept as intuitive and simple as possible throughout the book, making it fully accessible to readers who are less familiar with mathematics. Overall, Computational Neuroscience - A First Course represents an essential reference guide for all neuroscientists who use computational methods in their daily work, as well as for any theoretical scientist approaching the field of computational neuroscience.

  19. A targeted review of the neurobiology and genetics of behavioural addictions: an emerging area of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-05-01

    This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioural addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders, and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity, and family history and (or) genetic findings for behavioural addictions involving gambling, Internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania, and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioural addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and grey matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history and genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that people with behavioural addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic and family history findings in substance and nonsubstance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviours may constitute addictions. To date, findings are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania, and sexual behaviour. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered.

  20. Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James; O'Connor, Denise; Michie, Susan

    2012-04-24

    An integrative theoretical framework, developed for cross-disciplinary implementation and other behaviour change research, has been applied across a wide range of clinical situations. This study tests the validity of this framework. Validity was investigated by behavioural experts sorting 112 unique theoretical constructs using closed and open sort tasks. The extent of replication was tested by Discriminant Content Validation and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. There was good support for a refinement of the framework comprising 14 domains of theoretical constructs (average silhouette value 0.29): 'Knowledge', 'Skills', 'Social/Professional Role and Identity', 'Beliefs about Capabilities', 'Optimism', 'Beliefs about Consequences', 'Reinforcement', 'Intentions', 'Goals', 'Memory, Attention and Decision Processes', 'Environmental Context and Resources', 'Social Influences', 'Emotions', and 'Behavioural Regulation'. The refined Theoretical Domains Framework has a strengthened empirical base and provides a method for theoretically assessing implementation problems, as well as professional and other health-related behaviours as a basis for intervention development.

  1. A Plea for Cross-species Social Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the question of how our brain makes us sensitive to the state of conspecifics and how that affects our behaviour has undergone a profound change. Twenty years ago what would now be called social neuroscience was focused on the visual processing of facial expressions and body movements in temporal lobe structures of primates (Puce and Perrett 2003). With the discovery of mirror neurons, this changed rapidly towards the modern field of social neuroscience, in which high-level vision is but one of many focuses of interest. In this essay, we will argue that for the further progress of the field, the integration of animal neuroscience and human neuroscience is paramount. We will do so, by focusing on the field of embodied social cognition. We will first show how the combination of animal and human neuroscience was critical in how the discovery of mirror neurons placed the motor system on the map of social cognition. We will then argue why an integrated cross-species approach will be pivotal to our understanding of the neural basis of emotional empathy and its link to prosocial behaviour.

  2. What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Emily B.; Hyde, Luke W.; Mitchell, Colter; Faul, Jessica; Gonzalez, Richard; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Keating, Daniel P.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Martz, Meghan E.; Maslowsky, Julie; Morrison, Frederick J.; Noll, Douglas C.; Patrick, Megan E.; Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a new understanding of human behavior and promising interventions. However, a limitation of this fast moving research is that most findings are based ...

  3. Center for Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM) was established as a collaborative intramural federal program involving the U.S. Department of Defense...

  4. Neurogaming Technology Meets Neuroscience Education: A Cost-Effective, Scalable, and Highly Portable Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory for Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bianca; Badcock, Nicholas A; Grootswagers, Tijl; Hardwick, Katherine; Teichmann, Lina; Wehrman, Jordan; Williams, Mark; Kaplan, David Michael

    2017-01-01

    Active research-driven approaches that successfully incorporate new technology are known to catalyze student learning. Yet achieving these objectives in neuroscience education is especially challenging due to the prohibitive costs and technical demands of research-grade equipment. Here we describe a method that circumvents these factors by leveraging consumer EEG-based neurogaming technology to create an affordable, scalable, and highly portable teaching laboratory for undergraduate courses in neuroscience. This laboratory is designed to give students hands-on research experience, consolidate their understanding of key neuroscience concepts, and provide a unique real-time window into the working brain. Survey results demonstrate that students found the lab sessions engaging. Students also reported the labs enhanced their knowledge about EEG, their course material, and neuroscience research in general.

  5. The Neuroscience of Consumer Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Pirouz, Dante

    2004-01-01

    While there is an extensive history of neuroscience, only recently has the theory and the methods of this discipline been applied to answer questions about decision making, choice, preference, risk and happiness. This new area of research, coined neuroeconomics, seeks to reveal more about the neural functioning and associated implications for economic and consumer behavior. In this paper are some of the key developments in neuroeconomics research as they relate to consumer decision-making, cu...

  6. The promise of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-10-01

    Bowers (2016) argues that there are practical and principled problems with how educational neuroscience may contribute to education, including lack of direct influences on teaching in the classroom. Some of the arguments made are convincing, including the critique of unsubstantiated claims about the impact of educational neuroscience and the reminder that the primary outcomes of education are behavioral, such as skill in reading or mathematics. Bowers' analysis falls short in 3 major respects. First, educational neuroscience is a basic science that has made unique contributions to basic education research; it is not part of applied classroom instruction. Second, educational neuroscience contributes to ideas about education practices and policies beyond classroom curriculum that are important for helping vulnerable students. Third, educational neuroscience studies using neuroimaging have not only revealed for the first time the brain basis of neurodevelopmental differences that have profound influences on educational outcomes, but have also identified individual brain differences that predict which students learn more or learn less from various curricula. In several cases, the brain measures significantly improved or vastly outperformed conventional behavioral measures in predicting what works for individual children. These findings indicate that educational neuroscience, at a minimum, has provided novel insights into the possibilities of individualized education for students, rather than the current practice of learning through failure that a curriculum did not support a student. In the best approach to improving education, educational neuroscience ought to contribute to basic research addressing the needs of students and teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bug, William J.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R.; Larson, Stephen D.; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2009-01-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF. PMID:18975148

  8. Integrating translational neuroscience to improve drug abuse treatment for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is an exciting and challenging period of maturation, rapid brain development, and developmental changes in neurobiological, neurocognitive, and neurobehavioral processes. Although behavioral therapies available for adolescent substance abuse have increased, effectiveness research in this area lags considerably behind that of clinical research on treatment for drug-abusing adults. Behavioral treatment approaches show significant promise for treating drug-abusing adolescents, but many have not incorporated innovations in neuroscience on brain development, cognitive processes, and neuroimaging. Linking developmental neuroscience with behavioral treatments can create novel drug abuse interventions and increase the effectiveness of existing interventions for substance-abusing adolescents. Contemporary research on brain development, cognition, and neuroscience is ripe for translation to inform developmentally sensitive drug abuse treatments for adolescents. Neuroscientists and interventionists are challenged to build mutual collaborations for integration of neuroscience and drug abuse treatment for adolescents.

  9. Research of tare hydrodynamic behaviour at sterilization of canned fish

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to research on improving the equipment that ensures the absolute safety of mineral nutrients in the production of sterilized canned fish. The results of experimental study of hydrodynamic characteristics moving sterilized jars of canned fish of different sizes under the influence of circulating gas-liquid heat-carrying medium in the capacity have been presented. Some experimental setup with organized top-down and bottom-up flows in it modeling a sterilizer (autoclave) has...

  10. Research review: evaluating and reformulating the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Calder, Andrew J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    The developmental taxonomic theory proposes that there are two subtypes of antisocial behaviour. The first is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in early childhood and follows a life-course persistent course, whereas the second emerges in adolescence, remits in early adulthood and reflects peer processes such as mimicry of antisocial peers. The aim of this review was to evaluate the developmental taxonomic theory in the light of recent empirical research. We conducted a comprehensive literature review comparing these subtypes of antisocial behaviour based on searches on PubMed and other scientific databases covering the period from 1993 to 2013. We focused on research encompassing psychiatric epidemiology, personality assessment, neuropsychology, neuroendocrinology, genetics, and structural and functional neuroimaging. Sixty one empirical studies were identified that investigated one of these forms of antisocial behaviour separately or explicitly compared childhood-onset and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour. Empirical research provides support for the hypothesis that life-course persistent antisocial behaviour is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in the transactions between individual vulnerabilities and environmental adversity. In contrast to the developmental taxonomic theory, however, empirical findings suggest that severe antisocial behaviour that emerges in adolescence frequently has a negative prognosis and is rarely limited to the adolescent period. In addition, both forms of antisocial behaviour are associated with emotion processing deficits, changes in brain structure and function, alterations in cortisol secretion, and atypical personality traits (such as increased callous-unemotional traits). We conclude that the developmental taxonomic theory is in need of revision, as differences between life-course persistent and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour appear to be quantitative, rather than qualitative, in

  11. Research Review: Evaluating and reformulating the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Goozen, Stephanie HM; Calder, Andrew J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe developmental taxonomic theory proposes that there are two subtypes of antisocial behaviour. The first is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in early childhood and follows a life-course persistent course, whereas the second emerges in adolescence, remits in early adulthood and reflects peer processes such as mimicry of antisocial peers. The aim of this review was to evaluate the developmental taxonomic theory in the light of recent empirical research. MethodsWe conducted a comprehensive literature review comparing these subtypes of antisocial behaviour based on searches on PubMed and other scientific databases covering the period from 1993 to 2013. We focused on research encompassing psychiatric epidemiology, personality assessment, neuropsychology, neuroendocrinology, genetics, and structural and functional neuroimaging. Sixty one empirical studies were identified that investigated one of these forms of antisocial behaviour separately or explicitly compared childhood-onset and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour. ResultsEmpirical research provides support for the hypothesis that life-course persistent antisocial behaviour is a neurodevelopmental disorder which emerges in the transactions between individual vulnerabilities and environmental adversity. In contrast to the developmental taxonomic theory, however, empirical findings suggest that severe antisocial behaviour that emerges in adolescence frequently has a negative prognosis and is rarely limited to the adolescent period. In addition, both forms of antisocial behaviour are associated with emotion processing deficits, changes in brain structure and function, alterations in cortisol secretion, and atypical personality traits (such as increased callous-unemotional traits). ConclusionsWe conclude that the developmental taxonomic theory is in need of revision, as differences between life-course persistent and adolescence-onset forms of antisocial behaviour appear to be

  12. Application of Terahertz Technology for Neuroscience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zou; Jiang Li; Tu-Nan Chen; Kun Meng; Ze-Ren Li; Hua Feng; Jian-Heng Zhao; Li-Guo Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract⎯Brain is the most complex organ of human beings. The complete understanding of human brains’ functions is an ongoing challenge for neuroscience. Although there are many techniques used for brain research, neuroscientists, physicists, and engineers are still exploring other access of research for applications. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging may create such a space for brain research. THz spectroscopic technique, which is a novel medical imaging modality, attracts attention of biomedical applications due to its unique features including non-invasive, non-ionizing, and high sensitivity to biomolecules and tissues. In this article, we introduce our recent investigations on neuroscience using THz techniques, meanwhile, introduce other’s work in this field. Our and others’ investigations indicate that the THz spectroscopy and imaging technique can be useful for diagnosing brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. THz spectroscopy and imaging has the potential to become real-time in vivo diagnostic methods.

  13. Neuroscience of child and adolescent health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Sung, Connie

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in technology and neuroscience have increased our understanding of human neurodevelopment. In particular, research on neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics lends compelling support to a biopsychosocial perspective by elucidating mechanisms through which psychosocial forces and environments shape neurobiology. This article summarizes selected results from recent investigations of neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics, which demonstrate complex interaction between genes, epigenetic processes, and environmental experience that confers neural growth into adulthood. Counseling psychologists working with children and adolescents need to be familiar with recent literature to be more effective in their work so that they can provide developmentally appropriate counseling services. Social cognitive theory and resilience theory are introduced to illustrate how counseling psychologists can incorporate neuroscience research findings in a counseling context and hypotheses are proposed for future counseling psychology research.

  14. Forgetting the madeleine: Proust and the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Marcel Proust's famous madeleine experience, in which a man recalls his past through intense concentration after he tastes a cake dipped in tea, has been dubbed the "Proust Phenomenon" by researchers in the neurosciences. The passage in Proust's novel, however, has been systematically misread in the scientific literature due to the complexity and the ambiguity built into the text. A review of work by neuroscientists, popular science writers, and literature scholars suggests that the most productive interdisciplinary research occurs not where two disciplines converge (the madeleine as olfactory memory cue), but rather where they diverge (phenomenal description over quantitative analysis). This chapter argues that researchers in neuroscience and neuroaesthetics should forget the madeleine in Proust to investigate not only the other cognitive insights offered by Proust's vast novel, In Search of Lost Time, but also the ways in which Proust's novel seeks to bridge the distance between autobiographical experience and critical analysis.

  15. «Interventional Neuroradiology: a neuroscience sub-specialty?».

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodesch, Georges; Picard, Luc; Berenstein, Alex; Biondi, Alessandra; Bracard, Serge; Choi, In Sup; Feng, Ling; Hyogo, Toshio; Lefeuvre, David; Leonardi, Marco; Mayer, Thomas; Miyashi, Shigeru; Muto, Mario; Piske, Ronie; Pongpech, Sirintara; Reul, Jurgen; Soderman, Michael; Chuh, Dae Sul; Tampieri, Donatella; Taylor, Allan; Terbrugge, Karel; Valavanis, Anton; van den Berg, René

    2013-09-01

    Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) is not bound by the classical limits of a specialty, and is not restricted by standard formats of teaching and education. Open and naturally linked towards neurosciences, INR has become a unique source of novel ideas for research, development and progress allowing new and improved approaches to challenging pathologies resulting in better anatomo-clinical results. Opening INR to Neurosciences is the best way to keep it alive and growing. Anchored in Neuroradiology, at the crossroad of neurosciences, INR will further participate to progress and innovation as it has often been in the past.

  16. Evolutionary Theory in Cognitive Neuroscience: A 20-Year Quantitative Review of Publication Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Webster

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary cognitive neuroscience is an emerging and promising new scientific field that combines the meta-theoretical strengths of an evolutionary perspective with the methodological rigor of neuroscience. The purpose of the present research was to quantify and test evolution's influence in neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience journals over time (1987–2006. In Study 1, analyses from a convenience sample of 10 neuroscience journals revealed that the proportion of neuroscience articles mentioning evolution grew significantly over the last 20 years. Moreover, beginning as early as 1990, the average proportion of neuroscience articles mentioning evolution was significantly different from zero. These effects were not moderated by between-journals differences in impact factor (a citation rate index, suggesting that the observed growth was fairly consistent across journals. In Study 2, analyses from a convenience sample of 4 cognitive neuroscience journals revealed that the proportion of cognitive neuroscience articles mentioning evolution neither differed from zero nor grew significantly over time (1987–2006; however, the change-over-time effect size was large. Compared to other research areas, evolution's penetration into cognitive neuroscience articles grew faster than anthropology, economics, and sociology, but not psychology. The implications of evolutionary psychology's increasing role in science in general, and in cognitive neuroscience in particular, are discussed.

  17. Neuroscience study abroad: developing a short-term summer course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Michael G; Korey, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative and international scientific efforts continue to be of increasing importance in the development of successful educational and research programs. The goal of our study abroad program, Neuroscience Seminar in Germany, is to bring this fact to light for undergraduates and make them aware of the global opportunities that exist in the neurosciences and related biological sciences. Here we discuss our experience of conducting a four-week summer study abroad course in collaboration with two universities associated with the German Graduate Schools of Neuroscience: Munich Center for Neurosciences - Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (MCN-LMU) and Charité - Universitätsmedizin, Berlin (a joint institution of the Freie Universität and the Humboldt-Universität). This course combined the historical foundations of neuroscience in Germany with current research programs at these two prominent German research universities. Two weeks were spent at each location and faculty members from the participating universities provided seminars, laboratory exercises, demonstrations and tours. Students were presented with background reading and lecture material prior to the seminars and activities. Additionally, they were responsible for leading seminar-style class discussions through brief presentations and submitting written critical analyses of primary research papers associated with the laboratory exercises. These assignments provided a means to assess learning outcomes, coupled with course evaluations. Overall, this experience may serve as a template for those interested in study abroad course development and research opportunities in the neurosciences.

  18. USER AND SYSTEM PERSPECTIVE IN THE INFORMATION BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora González Teruel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main perspectives in the study of information behavior: a user perspective and system perspective. In the user´s perspective, we assume a global vision of information-seeking process and develop theoretical and methodological models to guide research in this field. Two theoretical proposals are Sense-Making theory of Brenda Dervin and the Information Search Process model of Carol Kuhlthau. The system´s perspective assumes a partial view of information-seeking process, focusing primarily on transactions between the user and the system or between the user and information. Three types of studies are described: studies of the use of information resources, demand studies and studies of the information use. Both perspectives are complementary and provide sufficient information for planning both for the evaluation of appropriate information systems.

  19. A Research to Determine Local Governors Motivating Behaviour Their Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kılıçlar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ranging from public management of administrative authority with conception measure they motivated to the extent that their subordinates and by identifying the factors that influence the motivation in this context, is intended to make proposals for the improvement of the activity.The population of the study comprise the district governors who are serving actively in all the districts of Turkey. The survey was administered by governors sent through all the governorates. As a result of the research, it is necessary to motivate the employees of almost all of the local administrative authority, and which you be lieve would be helpful at this point to use all the motivational tools have been identified. However, previous studies did not adequately reflect the thinking of application the motivation of managers. Suggestions on how to motivate their employees to engage officials in the civil service are presented

  20. Research of tare hydrodynamic behaviour at sterilization of canned fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeev G. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research on improving the equipment that ensures the absolute safety of mineral nutrients in the production of sterilized canned fish. The results of experimental study of hydrodynamic characteristics moving sterilized jars of canned fish of different sizes under the influence of circulating gas-liquid heat-carrying medium in the capacity have been presented. Some experimental setup with organized top-down and bottom-up flows in it modeling a sterilizer (autoclave has been proposed for the research. The experiments have been performed in the superficial gas velocity ranging from 0.03 m/s to 0.15 m/s corresponding to stable operation of the apparatus. Cans drag coefficient in the flow of heat-carrying medium has been determined by two methods for two heat-carrying media – pure glycerol and water solutions in experiments on precipitation and air – cans when blowing in the wind tunnel. The significant difference in the rates of cans upstream and downstream is reliably established, and therefore it has been proposed to use for the cans' motion characterization the indicator averaged over the two specified rates and called cans circulation speed. An empirical equation describing the dependence of the cans circulation rate from the superficial gas velocity has been obtained. Based on the analysis of studies some empirical dependencies on calculation of the drag coefficients of various types of packaging in the range of Reynolds criterion values from 1 to 4 000 have been offered. The necessity of using the qualifying factor for calculating the real drag on the results of the experiment has been determined.

  1. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maunsell John HR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

  2. Development and Use of an Adaptive Learning Environment to Research Online Study Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Anna Helga; Jakobsdottir, Audbjorg; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a system for research on the behaviour of students taking online drills. The system is accessible and free to use for anyone with web access. Based on open source software, the teaching material is licensed under a Creative Commons License. The system has been used for computer-assisted education in statistics, mathematics and…

  3. How Human Information Behaviour Researchers Use Each Other's Work: A Basic Citation Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Lynne E. F.; Goodall, George R.; Lajoie-Paquette, Darian; Julien, Heidi

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine if and how human information behaviour (HIB) research is used by others. Method: Using ISI Web of Knowledge, a citation analysis was conducted on 155 English-language HIB articles published from 1993 to 2000 in six prominent LIS journals. The bibliometric core of 12 papers was identified.…

  4. A physiological perspective on the neuroscience of eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Nori

    2014-09-01

    I present the thesis that 'being physiological,' i.e., analyzing eating under conditions that do not perturb, or minimally perturb, the organism's endogenous processes, should be a central goal of the neuroscience of eating. I describe my understanding of 'being physiological' based on [i] the central neural-network heuristic of CNS function that traces back to Cajal and Sherrington, [ii] research on one of the simpler problems in the neuroscience of eating, identification of endocrine signals that control eating. In this context I consider natural meals, physiological doses and ranges, and antagonist studies. Several examples involve CCK. Next I describe my view of the cutting edge in the molecular neuroscience of eating as it has evolved from the discovery of leptin signaling through the application of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods. Finally I describe some novel approaches that may advance the neuroscience of eating in the foreseeable future. I conclude that [i] the neuroscience of eating may soon be able to discern 'physiological' function in the operation of CNS networks mediating eating, [ii] the neuroscience of eating should capitalize on methods developed in other areas of neuroscience, e.g., improved methods to record and manipulate CNS function in behaving animals, identification of canonical regional circuits, use of population electrophysiology, etc., and [iii] subjective aspects of eating are crucial aspects of eating science, but remain beyond mechanistic understanding.

  5. Relating Psychology and Neuroscience: Taking Up the Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Advances in brain research have invigorated an ongoing debate about the relations between psychology and neuroscience. Cognitive science has historically neglected the study of neuroscience, although the influential subfield of cognitive neuroscience has since attempted to combine information processing approaches with an awareness of brain functioning. Although cognitive neuroscience does not necessarily support a reductionist approach, certain philosophers of mind have suggested that psychological constructs will eventually be replaced with descriptions of neurobiological processes. One implicitly popular response to this proposal is that neuroscience represents a level of implementation that is separate from a level of cognition. Although recent work in the philosophy of mind has gone some way to explicating the concept of psychological and neuroscience approaches as different levels, it is suggested here that a tidy framework of levels is somewhat tenuous. A particular challenge comes from the metatheoretical position of embodiment, which places the mind within the body and brain of an active organism which is deeply embedded in the world. In providing an integration of brain, body, mind, and culture, embodiment exemplifies an important line of defense against claims of the possible reduction of psychology by neuroscience.

  6. [Contributions of neuroscience to the diagnosis and educational treatment of developmental dyslexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escribano, C

    To examine the advances made in the fields of cognitive psychology, neuroscience and education and how they have contributed to each other. The paper offers a review of the current models of dyslexia and analyses the relation between these models and neuroimaging studies and educational intervention. The first model presented here is the 'phonological deficit' model, which is the most widely proven and accepted today. People with dyslexia have difficulty in completing tasks that involve segmenting language at a phonological level. Neuroimaging studies also reveal the existence of atypical brain activation in dyslexics while performing tasks that require phonological processing. Intervention programmes of a phonological nature have proved to be effective on both a behavioural and a neurophysiological level. Given the complexity of the reading process, further research is currently looking into other models. Although the 'temporal processing' deficit model is more controversial and not as widely accepted as the previous model, some reports provide both behavioural and neurophysiological evidence for the existence of differences in the visual and auditory processing of dyslexic and control subjects. Different educational approaches to put this temporal processing deficit to rights have been tested in dyslexic children with successful outcomes. Finally, the present status between neuroscience and education in the area of reading disorders is examined and future implications concerning the different approaches and methods used in current research are analysed. Although we are still a long way from understanding the causes of reading deficiencies, collaboration between neuroscience, psychology and education does help further our understanding of the psychology of reading, its diagnosis and its intervention.

  7. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  8. Cognitive Neuroscience of Self-Regulation Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherton, Todd F.; Wagner, Dylan D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulatory failure is a core feature of many social and mental health problems. Self-regulation can by undermined by failures to transcend overwhelming temptations, negative moods, resource depletion, and when minor lapses in self-control snowball into self-regulatory collapse. Cognitive neuroscience research suggests that successful self-regulation is dependent on top-down control from the prefrontal cortex over subcortical regions involved in reward and emotion. We highlight recent neuroimaging research on self-regulatory failure, the findings of which support a balance model of self-regulation whereby self-regulatory failure occurs whenever the balance is tipped in favor of subcortical areas, either due to particularly strong impulses, or when prefrontal function itself is impaired. Such a model is consistent with recent findings in the cognitive neuroscience of addictive behavior, emotion regulation, and decision making. PMID:21273114

  9. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN THE TOURIST SEGMENTATION PROCESS – A MARKETING RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu Luigi; Fuciu Mircea

    2015-01-01

    The study of consumer behaviour has become in recent decades increasingly important. Therefore, it is particularly important to understand what processes are acting in the black box of consumers of tourism services before taking any marketing decision. This paper presents a marketing research that aims to identify key dimensions of consumers of tourism services. The marketing research is based on online questionnaire sent by a representative sample shows a number of answers about consumers' p...

  10. Neuroscience in the era of functional genomics and systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Geschwind, Daniel H.; Konopka, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    Advances in genetics and genomics have fuelled a revolution in discovery-based, or hypothesis-generating, research that provides a powerful complement to the more directly hypothesis-driven molecular, cellular and systems neuroscience. Genetic and functional genomic studies have already yielded important insights into neuronal diversity and function, as well as disease. One of the most exciting and challenging frontiers in neuroscience involves harnessing the power of large-scale genetic, gen...

  11. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the field of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks.......Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...

  12. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the fi eld of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology...

  13. Emerging Architecture for Cognitive Neuroscience (CNS) Underwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-03

    and brain research that will be discussed in this article. Gazzaniga [9] expressed widely-held thoughts with these words: "At some point in the future...extensive compendium of papers is provided by Gazzaniga [9) in The Cognitive Neurosciences. Briefly, cognition is the process of perceiving and knowing...Beyond Computers to Create a Rival to the Human Brain, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1994. [9] M.S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences, The

  14. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Overview of Test and Evaluation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Overview of Test and Evaluation Materials Kevin...00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): A...14. ABSTRACT The IARPA (Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity) program ICArUS (Integrated Cognitive- neuroscience Architectures for

  15. Neuroscience, brains, and computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorno Maria Innocenti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of the neurosciences in establishing what the brain is and how states of the brain relate to states of the mind. The brain is viewed as a computational deviceperforming operations on symbols. However, the brain is a special purpose computational devicedesigned by evolution and development for survival and reproduction, in close interaction with theenvironment. The hardware of the brain (its structure is very different from that of man-made computers.The computational style of the brain is also very different from traditional computers: the computationalalgorithms, instead of being sets of external instructions, are embedded in brain structure. Concerningthe relationships between brain and mind a number of questions lie ahead. One of them is why andhow, only the human brain grasped the notion of God, probably only at the evolutionary stage attainedby Homo sapiens.

  16. Neuroscience is Bad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    The title is telling: I will argue first that ‘traditional’ cognitive neuroscience is conceptually flawed and secondly – as an open question – inquire whether theories of brain plasticity are scientifically more sound and more apt to enter into collaboration with the social sciences...... plasticity entails as a scientific hypothesis and (b) the inconsistencies between social science and theories of plasticity are (still) to grave....... the response that such talk is technical (Ullmann), merely ‘metaphorical’(Blakemore) or a flaw of ordinary language (the Churchlands). Conversely, theories of brain plasticity has been more welcomingly greeted by social scientists, because theories of plasticity do not seem to treat the brain as an isolated...

  17. Wavelets in neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Hramov, Alexander E; Makarov, Valeri A; Pavlov, Alexey N; Sitnikova, Evgenia

    2015-01-01

    This book examines theoretical and applied aspects of wavelet analysis in neurophysics, describing in detail different practical applications of the wavelet theory in the areas of neurodynamics and neurophysiology and providing a review of fundamental work that has been carried out in these fields over the last decade. Chapters 1 and 2 introduce and review the relevant foundations of neurophysics and wavelet theory, respectively, pointing on one hand to the various current challenges in neuroscience and introducing on the other the mathematical techniques of the wavelet transform in its two variants (discrete and continuous) as a powerful and versatile tool for investigating the relevant neuronal dynamics. Chapter 3 then analyzes results from examining individual neuron dynamics and intracellular processes. The principles for recognizing neuronal spikes from extracellular recordings and the advantages of using wavelets to address these issues are described and combined with approaches based on wavelet neural ...

  18. DREADDS: Use and application in behavioral neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Bucci, David J; Luikart, Bryan W; Mahler, Stephen V

    2016-04-01

    Technological advances over the last decade are changing the face of behavioral neuroscience research. Here we review recent work on the use of one such transformative tool in behavioral neuroscience research, chemogenetics (or Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs, DREADDS). As transformative technologies such as DREADDs are introduced, applied, and refined, their utility in addressing complex questions about behavior and cognition becomes clear and exciting. In the behavioral neuroscience field, remarkable new findings now regularly appear as a result of the ability to monitor and intervene in neural processes with high anatomical precision as animals behave in complex task environments. As these new tools are applied to behavioral questions, individualized procedures for their use find their way into diverse labs. Thus, "tips of the trade" become important for wide dissemination not only for laboratories that are using the tools but also for those who are interested in incorporating them into their own work. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date perspective on how the DREADD technique is being used for research on learning and memory, decision making, and goal-directed behavior, as well as to provide suggestions and considerations for current and future users based on our collective experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Computational and cognitive neuroscience of vision

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Despite a plethora of scientific literature devoted to vision research and the trend toward integrative research, the borders between disciplines remain a practical difficulty. To address this problem, this book provides a systematic and comprehensive overview of vision from various perspectives, ranging from neuroscience to cognition, and from computational principles to engineering developments. It is written by leading international researchers in the field, with an emphasis on linking multiple disciplines and the impact such synergy can lead to in terms of both scientific breakthroughs and technology innovations. It is aimed at active researchers and interested scientists and engineers in related fields.

  20. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to leveling the playing field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of socioeconomic status (SES and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.

  1. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may...... help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions...... of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective...

  2. Autobiographical Memory and Consumer Information Processing - What can Cognitive Neuroscience tell us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

      Recent findings in cognitive neuroscience have contributed to new knowledge in areas concerned with human behavior especially decision making and choice; within consumer research focus has primarily been directed at judgment and choice of brands and products. Research in consumer behavior has...... if neuroscience can enlighten consumer research concerning autobiographical memories and how?...

  3. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Educational neuroscience promises to incorporate emerging insights from neuroscience into education, and is an exiting renovation of cognitive science in education. But unlike cognitive neuroscience--which aims to explain how the mind is embodied--educational neuroscience necessarily incorporates values that reflect the kind of citizen and the…

  4. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Educational neuroscience promises to incorporate emerging insights from neuroscience into education, and is an exiting renovation of cognitive science in education. But unlike cognitive neuroscience--which aims to explain how the mind is embodied--educational neuroscience necessarily incorporates values that reflect the kind of citizen and the…

  5. Panic disorder with agoraphobia from a behavioral neuroscience perspective: Applying the research principles formulated by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Alfons O; Richter, Jan; Pané-Farré, Christiane; Westphal, Dorte; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna N; Gerlach, Alexander L; Gloster, Andrew T; Ströhle, Andreas; Lang, Thomas; Kircher, Tilo; Gerdes, Antje B M; Alpers, Georg W; Reif, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    In the current review, we reconceptualize a categorical diagnosis-panic disorder and agoraphobia-in terms of two constructs within the domain "negative valence systems" suggested by the Research Domain Criteria initiative. Panic attacks are considered as abrupt and intense fear responses to acute threat arising from inside the body, while anxious apprehension refers to anxiety responses to potential harm and more distant or uncertain threat. Taking a dimensional view, panic disorder with agoraphobia is defined with the threat-imminence model stating that defensive responses are dynamically organized along the dimension of the proximity of the threat. We tested this model within a large group of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia (N = 369 and N = 124 in a replication sample) and found evidence that panic attacks are indeed instances of circa strike defense. This component of the defensive reactivity was related to genetic modulators within the serotonergic system. In contrast, anxious apprehension-characterized by attentive freezing during postencounter defense-was related to general distress and depressive mood, as well as to genetic modulations within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Patients with a strong behavioral tendency for active and passive avoidance responded better to exposure treatment if the therapist guides the patient through the exposure exercises. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Jung's views on causes and treatments of schizophrenia in light of current trends in cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy research II: psychological research and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2014-04-01

    Jung was the first to emphasize the importance of psychological factors in the aetiology and treatment of schizophrenia. Despite this, and other seminal contributions, his work on schizophrenia is almost completely ignored or forgotten today. This paper, a follow-up to one on Jung's theories of aetiology and symptom formation in schizophrenia (Journal of Analytical Psychology, 59, 1) reviews Jung's views on psychological approaches to research on, and treatment of, the disorder. Five themes are covered: 1) experimental psychopathology; 2) attentional disturbance; 3) psychological treatment; 4) the relationship between the environment (including the psychiatric hospital) and symptom expression; and 5) heterogeneity and the schizophrenia spectrum. Review of these areas reveal that Jung's ideas about the kind of research that can elucidate psychological mechanisms in schizophrenia, and the importance of psychotherapy for people with this condition, are very much in line with contemporary paradigms. Moreover, further exploration of several points of convergence could lead to advances in both of these fields, as well as within analytical psychology.

  7. Reducing barriers to ethics in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Illes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is a growing interest for neuroscientists, but rather than signifying a commitment to the protection of human subjects, care of animals, and public understanding to which the professional community is engaged in a fundamental way, interest has been consumed by administrative overhead and the mission creep of institutional ethics reviews. Faculty, trainees, and staff (N=605 whose work involves brain imaging and brain stimulation completed an online survey about ethics in their research. Using factor analysis and linear regression, we found significant effects for invasiveness of imaging technique, professional position, gender, and local presence of bioethics centers. We propose strategies for improving communication between the neuroscience community and ethics review boards, collaborations between neuroscientists and biomedical ethicists, and ethics training in graduate neuroscience programs to revitalize mutual goals and interests.

  8. Neuroimmune pharmacology from a neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop, Nicole A; Northrup, Nicole A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2011-03-01

    The focus of this commentary is to describe how neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect and how interdisciplinary research involving these areas has expanded knowledge in the area of neuroscience, in particular. Examples are presented to illustrate that the brain can react to the peripheral immune system and possesses immune function and that resident immune molecules play a role in normal brain physiology. In addition, evidence is presented that the brain immune system plays an important role in mediating neurodegenerative diseases, the aging process, and neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity. The identification of these mechanisms has been facilitated by pharmacological studies and has opened new possibilities for pharmacotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of brain disorders. The emerging field of neuroimmune pharmacology exemplifies this interdisciplinary approach and has facilitated the study of basic cellular and molecular events and disease states and opens avenues for novel therapies.

  9. Neuroscience within companies: some case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emanuela Salati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to understand many crucial processes within organizations such as change planning and management, training, decision making and leadership thanks to organisational neuroscience. For example, poorly managed change can result in alarm messages within our brains. Managers must be aware of how their words, emotions and conduct have a significant impact on team mood and results. Another fast-growing area of research is neuromarketing, thanks to company investments. This article presents a success story: a company that, faced with the need to change its selling proposition, uses neurometric techniques to analyse possible resistance of the sales force and then acted accordingly. Even training can significantly improve company efficiency thanks to neuroscience. This article also discusses some experiments carried out by the Training Department of a large public transport company.

  10. The popularisation of Positive Psychology as a defence against behavioural complexity in research and organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Positive Psychology’s focus on positive behaviour has resulted in research and organisational consultants to focus relatively more on positive behaviour, thus avoiding negative and often unconscious behaviour and its manifestations.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the systems psychodynamic nature of the manifesting defensive structures operating in Positive Psychology.Motivation for the study: The study investigated the popularity of Positive Psychology amongst academics, students and organisational consultants and the tendency to avoid the complexity of the relatedness between positive and negative as part of the human condition.Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research by means of a Listening Post was used, consisting of six psychologists in their roles as lecturers and organisational consultants. Thematic analyses led to the formulation of various working hypotheses, integrated into a research hypothesis.Main findings: Four themes manifested – namely, the manifesting defence mechanisms, a reluctance to relinquish positive psychology as an object of hope, a need to guard against being too hasty in breaking down positive psychology and a need for a psychology that can engage us in a conversation about integrating the complexities of the human condition.Practical/managerial implications: The findings were linked to Deo Strümpfer’s work, indicating that Positive Psychology originated in early 20th century psychology, which is indeed not about simplification, but is imbedded in the complexity of various behavioural continua.Contribution/value-add: Academics, students and organisational consultants are encouraged to revisit Strümpfer’s work to ensure that this psychology is appreciated for its depth and quality.

  11. What The Cognitive Neurosciences Mean To Me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pereira Jr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary area of research that combines measurement of brain activity (mostly by means of neuroimaging with a simultaneous performance of cognitive tasks by human subjects. These investigations have been successful in the task of connecting the sciences of the brain (Neurosciences and the sciences of the mind (Cognitive Sciences. Advances on this kind of research provide a map of localization of cognitive functions in the human brain. Do these results help us to understand how mind relates to the brain? In my view, the results obtained by the Cognitive Neurosciences lead to new investigations in the domain of Molecular Neurobiology, aimed at discovering biophysical mechanisms that generate the activity measured by neuroimaging instruments. In this context, I argue that the understanding of how ionic/molecular processes support cognition and consciousness cannot be made by means of the standard reductionist explanations. Knowledge of ionic/molecular mechanisms can contribute to our understanding of the human mind as long as we assume an alternative form of explanation, based on psycho-physical similarities, together with an ontological view of mentality and spirituality as embedded in physical nature (and not outside nature, as frequently assumed in western culture.

  12. The neuroscience of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have recently begun to examine the neural basis of musical improvisation, one of the most complex forms of creative behavior. The emerging field of improvisation neuroscience has implications not only for the study of artistic expertise, but also for understanding the neural underpinnings of domain-general processes such as motor control and language production. This review synthesizes functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) studies of musical improvisation, including vocal and instrumental improvisation, with samples of jazz pianists, classical musicians, freestyle rap artists, and non-musicians. A network of prefrontal brain regions commonly linked to improvisatory behavior is highlighted, including the pre-supplementary motor area, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal premotor cortex. Activation of premotor and lateral prefrontal regions suggests that a seemingly unconstrained behavior may actually benefit from motor planning and cognitive control. Yet activation of cortical midline regions points to a role of spontaneous cognition characteristic of the default network. Together, such results may reflect cooperation between large-scale brain networks associated with cognitive control and spontaneous thought. The improvisation literature is integrated with Pressing's theoretical model, and discussed within the broader context of research on the brain basis of creative cognition.

  13. The experimental humanoid robot H7: a research platform for autonomous behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Koichi; Kuffner, James; Kagami, Satoshi; Inaba, Masayuki; Inoue, Hirochika

    2007-01-15

    This paper gives an overview of the humanoid robot 'H7', which was developed over several years as an experimental platform for walking, autonomous behaviour and human interaction research at the University of Tokyo. H7 was designed to be a human-sized robot capable of operating autonomously in indoor environments designed for humans. The hardware is relatively simple to operate and conduct research on, particularly with respect to the hierarchical design of its control architecture. We describe the overall design goals and methodology, along with a summary of its online walking capabilities, autonomous vision-based behaviours and automatic motion planning. We show experimental results obtained by implementations running within a simulation environment as well as on the actual robot hardware.

  14. [Neurosciences and philosophy of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.

  15. Life science-based neuroscience education at large Western Public Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Volkan; Carpenter, Ellen M

    2016-12-01

    The last 40 years have seen a remarkable increase in the teaching of neuroscience at the undergraduate level. From its origins as a component of anatomy or physiology departments to its current status as an independent interdisciplinary field, neuroscience has become the chosen field of study for many undergraduate students, particularly for those interested in medical school or graduate school in neuroscience or related fields. We examined how life science-based neuroscience education is offered at large public universities in the Western United States. By examining publicly available materials posted online, we found that neuroscience education may be offered as an independent program, or as a component of biological or physiological sciences at many institutions. Neuroscience programs offer a course of study involving a core series of courses and a collection of topical electives. Many programs provide the opportunity for independent research, or for laboratory-based training in neuroscience. Features of neuroscience programs at Western universities closely matched those seen at the top 25 public universities, as identified by U.S. News & World Report. While neuroscience programs were identified in many Western states, there were several states in which public universities appeared not to provide opportunities to major in neuroscience. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Opera and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries.

  17. Neuroscience of meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Vinod D

    2006-11-16

    Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one's being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence, sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain. A new hypothesis is proposed for a better understanding of the meditative mind. Meditation is an art of being serene and alert in the present moment, instead of constantly struggling to change or to become. It is an art of efficient management of attentional energy with total engagement (poornata, presence, mindfulness) or disengagement (shunyata, silence, emptiness). In both states, there is an experience of spontaneous unity with no sense of situational interactive self or personal time. It is a simultaneous, participatory consciousness rather than a dualistic, sequential attentiveness. There is a natural sense of well being with self-understanding, spontaneous joy, serenity, freedom, and self-fulfillment. It is where the ultimate pursuit of happiness and the search for meaning of life resolve. One realizes the truth of one's harmonious being in nature and nature in oneself. It is being alive at its fullest, when each conscious moment becomes a dynamic process of discovery and continuous learning of the ever-new unfolding reality.

  18. What event-related potentials (ERPs) bring to social neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Agustin; Melloni, Margherita; Huepe, David; Helgiu, Elena; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Baker, Phil; Moya, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a recent interdisciplinary field that studies the neural basis of the social mind. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide precise information about the time dynamics of the brain. In this study, we assess the role of ERPs in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in the emerging area of social neuroscience. First, we briefly introduce the technique of ERPs. Subsequently, we describe several ERP components (P1, N1, N170, vertex positive potential, early posterior negativity, N2, P2, P3, N400, N400-like, late positive complex, late positive potential, P600, error-related negativity, feedback error-related negativity, contingent negative variation, readiness potential, lateralized readiness potential, motor potential, re-afferent potential) that assess perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. Then, we introduce ERP studies in social neuroscience on contextual effects on speech, emotional processing, empathy, and decision making. We provide an outline of ERPs' relevance and applications in the field of social cognitive neuroscience. We also introduce important methodological issues that extend classical ERP research, such as intracranial recordings (iERP) and source location in dense arrays and simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings. Further, this review discusses possible caveats of the ERP question assessment on neuroanatomical areas, biophysical origin, and methodological problems, and their relevance to explanatory pluralism and multilevel, contextual, and situated approaches to social neuroscience.

  19. Community-based, Experiential Learning for Second Year Neuroscience Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Heather J; Ramos-Goyette, Sharon; McCoy, John G; Tirrell, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is becoming a keystone of the undergraduate learning experience. At Stonehill College, we implemented a service learning course, called a Learning Community, in Neuroscience. This course was created to complement the basic research available to Stonehill Neuroscience majors with experience in a more applied and "clinical" setting. The Neuroscience Learning Community is designed to promote a deep understanding of Neuroscience by combining traditional classroom instruction with clinical perspectives and real-life experiences. This Neuroscience Learning Community helps students translate abstract concepts within the context of neurodevelopment by providing students with contextual experience in a real-life, unscripted setting. The experiential learning outside of the classroom enabled students to participate in informed discussions in the classroom, especially with regard to neurodevelopmental disorders. We believe that all students taking this course gain an understanding of the importance of basic and applied Neuroscience as it relates to the individual and the community. Students also have used this concrete, learning-by-doing experience to make informed decisions about career paths and choice of major.

  20. The Neuroscience of Mathematical Cognition and Learning. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Chung Yen; Thompson, Jacqueline; Krause, Beatrix; Kadosh, Roi Cohen

    2016-01-01

    The synergistic potential of cognitive neuroscience and education for efficient learning has attracted considerable interest from the general public, teachers, parents, academics and policymakers alike. This review is aimed at providing 1) an accessible and general overview of the research progress made in cognitive neuroscience research in…

  1. The Neuroscience of Mathematical Cognition and Learning. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Chung Yen; Thompson, Jacqueline; Krause, Beatrix; Kadosh, Roi Cohen

    2016-01-01

    The synergistic potential of cognitive neuroscience and education for efficient learning has attracted considerable interest from the general public, teachers, parents, academics and policymakers alike. This review is aimed at providing 1) an accessible and general overview of the research progress made in cognitive neuroscience research in…

  2. Neuroscience, power and culture: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrecko, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In line with their vast expansion over the last few decades, the brain sciences -- including neurobiology, psychopharmacology, biological psychiatry, and brain imaging -- are becoming increasingly prominent in a variety of cultural formations, from self-help guides and the arts to advertising and public health programmes. This article, which introduces the special issue of "History of the Human Science" on "Neuroscience, Power and Culture," considers the ways that social and historical research can, through empirical investigations grounded in the observation of what is actually happening and has already happened in the sciences of mind and brain, complement speculative discussions of the possible social implications of neuroscience that now appear regularly in the media and in philosophical bioethics. It suggests that the neurosciences are best understood in terms of their lineage within the "psy"-disciplines, and that, accordingly, our analyses of them will be strengthened by drawing on existing literatures on the history and politics of psychology -- particularly those that analyze formations of knowledge, power and subjectivity associated with the discipline and its practical applications. Additionally, it argues against taking today's neuroscientific facts and brain-targetting technologies as starting points for analysis, and for greater recognition of the ways that these are shaped by historical, cultural and political-economic forces.

  3. Cyber-workstation for computational neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack DiGiovanna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Cyber-Workstation (CW to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor by specifying appropriate connection in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface.

  4. Consumer Behaviour in the Tourist Segmentation Process – a Marketing Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumer behaviour has become in recent decades increasingly important. Therefore, it is particularly important to understand what processes are acting in the black box of consumers of tourism services before taking any marketing decision. This paper presents a marketing research that aims to identify key dimensions of consumers of tourism services. The marketing research is based on online questionnaire sent by a representative sample shows a number of answers about consumers' purchasing intentions, the main influences on consumer attitudes, motives in choosing the holiday package, the main sources of information accessed in the process of choosing the tourism services, etc.

  5. Food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Paul A M; Charbonnier, Lisette; van Meer, Floor; van der Laan, Laura N; Spetter, Maartje S

    2012-11-01

    The brain governs food intake behaviour by integrating many different internal and external state and trait-related signals. Understanding how the decisions to start and to stop eating are made is crucial to our understanding of (maladaptive patterns of) eating behaviour. Here, we aim to (1) review the current state of the field of 'nutritional neuroscience' with a focus on the interplay between food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour and (2) highlight research needs and techniques that could be used to address these. The brain responses associated with sensory stimulation (sight, olfaction and taste), gastric distension, gut hormone administration and food consumption are the subject of increasing investigation. Nevertheless, only few studies have examined relations between brain responses and eating behaviour. However, the neural circuits underlying eating behaviour are to a large extent generic, including reward, self-control, learning and decision-making circuitry. These limbic and prefrontal circuits interact with the hypothalamus, a key homeostatic area. Target areas for further elucidating the regulation of food intake are: (eating) habit and food preference formation and modification, the neural correlates of self-control, nutrient sensing and dietary learning, and the regulation of body adiposity. Moreover, to foster significant progress, data from multiple studies need to be integrated. This requires standardisation of (neuroimaging) measures, data sharing and the application and development of existing advanced analysis and modelling techniques to nutritional neuroscience data. In the next 20 years, nutritional neuroscience will have to prove its potential for providing insights that can be used to tackle detrimental eating behaviour.

  6. Research on the mechanical behaviour of an airplane component made by selective laser melting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păcurar Răzvan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the presented research consists in the redesign of an airplane component to decrease its weight, without affecting the mechanical behaviour of the component, at the end. Femap NX Nastran and ANSYS FEA programs were used for the shape optimization and for the estimation of the mechanical behaviour of a fixing clamp that was used to sustain the hydraulic pipes that are passing through an airplane fuselage, taking into consideration two types of raw materials – Ti6Al4V and AlSi12 powder from which this component could be manufactured by using the selective laser melting (SLM technology. Based on the obtained results, the airplane component was finally manufactured from titanium alloy using the SLM 250 HL equipment that is available at SLM Solutions GmbH company from Luebeck, in Germany.

  7. Frontal alpha asymmetry as a pathway to behavioural withdrawal in depression: Research findings and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesulola, Emmanuel; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Wilson, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Depression has been described as a process of behavioural withdrawal from overwhelming aversive stressors, and which manifests itself in the diagnostic symptomatology for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The underlying neurobiological pathways to that behavioural withdrawal are suggested to include greater activation in the right vs the left frontal lobes, described as frontal EEG asymmetry. However, despite a previous meta-analysis that provided overall support for this EEG asymmetry hypothesis, inconsistencies and several methodological confounds exist. The current review examines the literature on this issue, identifies inconsistencies in findings and discusses several key research issues that require addressing for this field to move towards a defensible theoretical model of depression and EEG asymmetry. In particular, the position of EEG asymmetry in the brain, measurement of severity and symptoms profiles of depression, and the effects of gender are considered as potential avenues to more accurately define the specific nature of the depression-EEG asymmetry association.

  8. Neuroscience of Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod D. Deshmukh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one’s being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence, sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain. A new hypothesis is proposed for a better understanding of the meditative mind. Meditation is an art of being serene and alert in the present moment, instead of constantly struggling to change or to become. It is an art of efficient management of attentional energy with total engagement (poornata, presence, mindfulness or disengagement (shunyata, silence, emptiness. In both states, there is an experience of spontaneous unity with no sense of situational interactive self or personal time. It is a simultaneous, participatory consciousness rather than a dualistic, sequential attentiveness. There is a natural sense of well being with self-understanding, spontaneous joy, serenity, freedom, and self-fulfillment. It is where the ultimate pursuit of happiness and the search for meaning of life resolve. One realizes the truth of one’s harmonious being in nature and nature in oneself. It is being alive at its fullest, when each conscious moment becomes a dynamic process of discovery and continuous learning of the ever-new unfolding reality.

  9. EDITORIAL: Physical behaviour at the nanoscale: a model for fertile research Physical behaviour at the nanoscale: a model for fertile research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    increasing availability of nanomaterials provided a number of advantages for research in field emission for displays, microwave and x-ray generation, electron-beam lithography and photonic devices [5, 6]. However the results reported in these studies have often misapplied the Fowler-Nordheim theory for describing field-emission behaviour, as changes in scale alter the validity of the widely cited simplified equation. As Forbes at the University of Surrey points out, this equation over-predicts the large-area field-emission average current density by a large highly variable factor thought to usually lie between 103 and 109. In his paper he explains how to modify the Fowler-Nordheim type equations so that they can be applied to large-area field emitters with recommendations for improved practice in this area of research [7]. The unusual nuances of behaviour in electronic circuits at the nanoscale has piqued avid interest in 'the memristor', the fourth circuit element reported 'missing' by Leon Chua in 1971 [8] and 'found' by researchers at HP Labs in 2008 [9]. The past five years have seen intense research into the mechanisms governing memristor behaviour [10], as well as the potential to apply this behaviour in novel electronic devices capable of mimicking the biological synapses that implement human learning [11]. (Keep an eye out for Nanotechnology's special issue on synaptic electronics later this year.) However, as Di Ventra and Pershin point out, 'Although this whole field of research has been growing at a fast pace, there is still much confusion about the fundamental physical properties that realistic systems with memory (as opposed to ideal ones) satisfy'. In this issue they derive expressions for memristances, memcapacitances and meminductances from the Kubo response and microscopic theories and show that they are indeed simply response functions that satisfy well defined physical properties. In the midst of concrete facts, cutting edge research often exploits cracks

  10. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition’s impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition – from entire diets to specific nutrients – affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns, along with (ii modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging.

  11. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J.; Jorna, M.; Hume, C.; Arundell, L.; Chahine, N.; Tienstra, M.L.; Crawford, D.

    2011-01-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered

  12. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J.; Jorna, M.; Hume, C.; Arundell, L.; Chahine, N.; Tienstra, M.L.; Crawford, D.

    2011-01-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered

  13. Antisocial and callous behaviour in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; McCrory, Eamon J

    2014-01-01

    Antisocial behaviour is one of the most common reasons for a childhood referral to mental health and educational services and represents a substantial public health cost. Callous-unemotional traits can be used to distinguish children who are capable of pre-meditated antisocial behaviour and violence from those whose antisocial behaviour and violence are primarily impulsive and threat reactive. Decades of developmental psychopathology research have shown that children with antisocial behaviour are thus a heterogeneous group and, for interventions to be successful, it is critical that distinct subgroups of children receive services that best match their profile of vulnerabilities and strengths. Recent advances in genetic and brain imaging research in the field have made important contributions to our understanding of the developmental vulnerability that callous-unemotional traits represent. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current evidence base with regard to genetic and neuroscience findings of callous-unemotional traits and antisocial behaviour with callous-unemotional traits. We also discuss the implications of these findings for prevention and intervention, and finish by outlining what we consider are necessary directions for future research.

  14. What can neuroscience tell us about the potential of psychedelics in healthcare? How the neurophenomenology of psychedelics research could help us to flourish throughout our lives, as well as to enhance our dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Health-related psychedelic research should focus on helping us flourish, not just remedying ill-health or addiction. We don't know enough about how psychedelics could enhance human flourishing. Factors promoting health-through-flourishing include finding meaning in life, spiritual practices, comfortable levels of social bonds, emotionally/physically satisfying sex in a long-term monogamous relationship and control over one's daily life. Psychedelic research could find more. Neuroscience anchors psychedelic research into disease and disorder, e.g. addiction, PSTD, migraine, anxiety, pain etc. Neurophenomenological psychedelics research could illuminate relationships between health, ASC/NOSCs and cognitive liberty to promote human flourishing. If we accept the self as an epiphenomenon of subsystems within the brain, we 'know' 'unconsciously', but are not aware of, many things which affect our lives profoundly. These include control over identifying, remembering and forgetting our states of mind and how to move between them. A prerequisite for integrated investigations into ASC/NOSCs is the establishment of a taxonomic knowledge base which lists, categorises and characterises ASC/NOSCs to enable us to choose specific states of mind and move securely among them. Or, in other words, to enable us to exercise our cognitive liberty safely. I believe that human health and flourishing would be enhanced were we able to direct our states of being by consciously choosing them. Given the promise of mindfulness techniques to enhance our health, happiness and spiritual growth, constructing both personal and generic classifications of salient ASC/NOSCs makes sense. Laws need to change. The neuroscience of pleasure, love, spirituality, decision-making, pattern recognition and location of meaning should inform health-enhancing psychedelic research while promoting flourishing through cognitive liberty. As part of cognitive liberty, our end-of-life choices should include how we die. In

  15. Orientations and outcome of interdisciplinary research: the case of research behaviour in translational medical science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The importance of interdisciplinary research in accelerating the progress and commercialization of science is widely recognized, yet little is known about how academic research self-organizes towards interdisciplinarity. In this paper, we therefore explore the micro-level behavior of researchers ...

  16. On the Implications of Neuroscience Research for Science Teaching and Learning: Are There Any? A Skeptical Theme and Variations--The Primacy of Psychology in the Science of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruer, John T.

    2006-01-01

    The author is skeptical about the implications of neuroscience for education currently and into the near future. His skepticism derives from several concerns, but a common theme runs through all of them: attempts to link neuroscience with education pay insufficient attention to psychology. In this article, the author presents four variations on…

  17. Critical neuroscience meets medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This programmatic theory paper sketches a conceptual framework that might inspire work in critical Medical Humanities. For this purpose, Kaushik Sunder Rajan's account of biocapital is revisited and discussed in relation to the perspective of a critical neuroscience. Critical neuroscience is an encompassing positioning towards the recent public prominence of the brain and brain-related practices, tools and discourses. The proposed analytical scheme has five focal nodes: capital, life, technoscience, (neoliberal) politics and subjectivity. A special emphasis will be placed on contemporary framings of subjectivity, as it is here where deep-reaching entanglements of personhood with scientific practice and discourse, medical and informational technologies, and economic formations are most evident. Notably, the emerging subject position of the 'prospective health consumer' will be discussed as it figures prominently in the terrain between neuroscience and other medico-scientific disciplines.

  18. Anthropology and cultural neuroscience: creating productive intersections in parallel fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R A; Seligman, R

    2009-01-01

    Partly due to the failure of anthropology to productively engage the fields of psychology and neuroscience, investigations in cultural neuroscience have occurred largely without the active involvement of anthropologists or anthropological theory. Dramatic advances in the tools and findings of social neuroscience have emerged in parallel with significant advances in anthropology that connect social and political-economic processes with fine-grained descriptions of individual experience and behavior. We describe four domains of inquiry that follow from these recent developments, and provide suggestions for intersections between anthropological tools - such as social theory, ethnography, and quantitative modeling of cultural models - and cultural neuroscience. These domains are: the sociocultural construction of emotion, status and dominance, the embodiment of social information, and the dual social and biological nature of ritual. Anthropology can help locate unique or interesting populations and phenomena for cultural neuroscience research. Anthropological tools can also help "drill down" to investigate key socialization processes accountable for cross-group differences. Furthermore, anthropological research points at meaningful underlying complexity in assumed relationships between social forces and biological outcomes. Finally, ethnographic knowledge of cultural content can aid with the development of ecologically relevant stimuli for use in experimental protocols.

  19. From question-behaviour effects in trials to the social psychology of research participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The 'question-behaviour effect' (QBE) has attracted much recent attention within health psychology, where it has also been referred to as the 'mere measurement' effect. There are other conceptualisations of similar phenomena in related disciplines. This paper explores the implications of the QBE for the safety of inferences about intervention effectiveness within the context of randomised controlled trials evaluating health behaviour change interventions. It draws attention to poorly understood mechanisms by which bias is introduced with conventional thinking about trial design and analysis. The threat to valid inference on intervention effectiveness posed by the QBE applies even when its effects are small and regardless of the specific content of the QBE. The nature of the resulting bias does not fit well within existing bias classification schemes, such as that proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration. The QBE is one possible consequence of research participation and it is suggested that the social psychology of research participation is very much underdeveloped. Possible future directions for health psychology research in this area are considered.

  20. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental st...... studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the field of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks.......Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...

  1. Buildings, Beauty, and the Brain: A Neuroscience of Architectural Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Alex; Vartanian, Oshin; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2017-09-01

    A burgeoning interest in the intersection of neuroscience and architecture promises to offer biologically inspired insights into the design of spaces. The goal of such interdisciplinary approaches to architecture is to motivate construction of environments that would contribute to peoples' flourishing in behavior, health, and well-being. We suggest that this nascent field of neuroarchitecture is at a pivotal point in which neuroscience and architecture are poised to extend to a neuroscience of architecture. In such a research program, architectural experiences themselves are the target of neuroscientific inquiry. Here, we draw lessons from recent developments in neuroaesthetics to suggest how neuroarchitecture might mature into an experimental science. We review the extant literature and offer an initial framework from which to contextualize such research. Finally, we outline theoretical and technical challenges that lie ahead.

  2. Bridges over troubled waters: education and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Daniel; Coch, Donna

    2006-04-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in and debate about the relation between cognitive neuroscience and education. Our goal is to advance the debate beyond both recitation of potentially education-related cognitive neuroscience findings and the claim that a bridge between fields is chimerical. In an attempt to begin a dialogue about mechanisms among students, educators, researchers and practitioner-scientists, we propose that multiple bridges can be built to make connections between education and cognitive neuroscience, including teacher training, researcher training and collaboration. These bridges--concrete mechanisms that can advance the study of mind, brain and education--will benefit both educators and cognitive neuroscientists, who will gain new perspectives for posing and answering crucial questions about the learning brain.

  3. The significance of neuroscience for philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Patricia Smith; Phil, B

    2008-01-01

    The ground is shifting under the traditional approaches to problems in the philosophy of mind. Earlier doctrines concerning the independence of cognition from the brain now appear untenable. As neuroscience uncovers more about the organization and dynamics of the brain, it becomes increasingly evident that theories about our nature must be informed by neuroscientific data. Consistent with this progress, we may expect that philosophical problems about the mind will be productively addressed and perhaps radically transformed by a convergence of neuroscientific, psychological and computational research.

  4. Neuroscience and Education: How Best to Filter out the Neurononsense from Our Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which neuroscience is being applied to education, both on a classroom level and also on the level of curricular reform in Northern Ireland. The article reviews recent research in the area of neuroscience and education and examines a number of popular "neuromyths." It urges the educational world to take a more…

  5. The Brain Goes to School: Strengthening the Education-Neuroscience Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Investigations on the brain processes using a technology such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have led to the creation of a new field of research that bridges the gap between cognitive psychology and neuroscience: "cognitive neuroscience." Within this new field, studies examining the processes of learning and developing are…

  6. Neuroscience and Education: How Best to Filter out the Neurononsense from Our Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which neuroscience is being applied to education, both on a classroom level and also on the level of curricular reform in Northern Ireland. The article reviews recent research in the area of neuroscience and education and examines a number of popular "neuromyths." It urges the educational world to…

  7. Neuroscience & the Classroom: Making Connections. A Video Course for Grades K-12 Teachers and School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenberg Learner, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Exciting developments in the field of neuroscience are leading to a new understanding of how the brain works that is beginning to transform teaching in the classroom. "Neuroscience & the Classroom: Making Connections" brings together researchers and educators in a dialog about how insights into brain function can be harnessed by teachers for use…

  8. Boundary as Bridge: An Analysis of the Educational Neuroscience Literature from a Boundary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Catherine; Beauchamp, Miriam H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the emerging field of educational neuroscience, concerns exist that the impact of neuroscience research on education has been less effective than hoped. In seeking a way forward, it may be useful to consider the problems of integrating two complex fields in the context of disciplinary boundaries. Here, a boundary perspective is used as a…

  9. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  10. Neuroscience and "real world" practice: music as a therapeutic resource for children in zones of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nigel

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments in music neuroscience are considered a source for reflection on, and evaluation and development of, musical therapeutic practice in the field, in particular, in relation to traumatized children and postconflict societies. Music neuroscience research is related to practice within a broad biopsychosocial framework. Here, examples are detailed of work from North Uganda, Palestine, and South Thailand.

  11. Neuroscience & the Classroom: Making Connections. A Video Course for Grades K-12 Teachers and School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenberg Learner, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Exciting developments in the field of neuroscience are leading to a new understanding of how the brain works that is beginning to transform teaching in the classroom. "Neuroscience & the Classroom: Making Connections" brings together researchers and educators in a dialog about how insights into brain function can be harnessed by teachers for use…

  12. The Brain Goes to School: Strengthening the Education-Neuroscience Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Investigations on the brain processes using a technology such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have led to the creation of a new field of research that bridges the gap between cognitive psychology and neuroscience: "cognitive neuroscience." Within this new field, studies examining the processes of learning and developing are…

  13. Neuroscience and Education: How Best to Filter out the Neurononsense from Our Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which neuroscience is being applied to education, both on a classroom level and also on the level of curricular reform in Northern Ireland. The article reviews recent research in the area of neuroscience and education and examines a number of popular "neuromyths." It urges the educational world to…

  14. Boundary as Bridge: An Analysis of the Educational Neuroscience Literature from a Boundary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Catherine; Beauchamp, Miriam H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the emerging field of educational neuroscience, concerns exist that the impact of neuroscience research on education has been less effective than hoped. In seeking a way forward, it may be useful to consider the problems of integrating two complex fields in the context of disciplinary boundaries. Here, a boundary perspective is used as a…

  15. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  16. Explorations in Learning and the Brain. On the Potential of Cognitive Neuroscience for Educational Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J.M. de; Gog, T. van; Jenks, K.M.; Manlove, S.; Hell, J.G. van; Jolles, J.; Merrienboer, J.J.G. van; Leeuwen, T.H. van; Boschloo, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed efforts on the part of research, education and policy communities to create a dialogue about the potential relationship between cognitive neuroscience and the science and practice of education. The upsurge of interest in neuroscience in general has given rise to

  17. Principles of Curriculum Design and Construction Based on the Concepts of Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watagodakumbura, Chandana

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of a wealth of research-based information in the field of educational neuroscience, educators are now able to make more evidence-based decisions in the important area of curriculum design and construction. By viewing from the perspective of educational neuroscience, we can give a more meaningful and lasting purpose of leading to…

  18. Explorations in Learning and the Brain. On the Potential of Cognitive Neuroscience for Educational Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J.M. de; Gog, T. van; Jenks, K.M.; Manlove, S.; Hell, J.G. van; Jolles, J.; Merrienboer, J.J.G. van; Leeuwen, T.H. van; Boschloo, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed efforts on the part of research, education and policy communities to create a dialogue about the potential relationship between cognitive neuroscience and the science and practice of education. The upsurge of interest in neuroscience in general has given rise to increas

  19. Quantitative genetic studies of antisocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi; Larsson, Henrik; Jones, Alice P

    2008-08-12

    This paper will broadly review the currently available twin and adoption data on antisocial behaviour (AB). It is argued that quantitative genetic research can make a significant contribution to further the understanding of how AB develops. Genetically informative study designs are particularly useful for investigating several important questions such as whether: the heritability estimates vary as a function of assessment method or gender; the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences varies for different types of AB; the environmental risk factors are truly environmental; and genetic vulnerability influences susceptibility to environmental risk. While the current data are not yet directly translatable for prevention and treatment programmes, quantitative genetic research has concrete translational potential. Quantitative genetic research can supplement neuroscience research in informing about different subtypes of AB, such as AB coupled with callous-unemotional traits. Quantitative genetic research is also important in advancing the understanding of the mechanisms by which environmental risk operates.

  20. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscient...... of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself....

  1. Neuroscience, Sincerity, and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kahn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the United States to consider how recent developments in neuroscience, specifically in the ability of researchers to measure directly certain types of brain activity through technologies such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, might be used so as to render states of mind, such as sincerity, measurable as “objective facts” on a par with other observable phenomena for the purposes of resolving specific legal cases.  The primary focus will be on sincerity itself, particularly in relation to religious beliefs that are claimed as a basis for exemption for compliance with an existing statutory regime of general applicability.  Part One examines how the issue of sincerity has manifested in disputes concerning conscientious objections to participating in the military draft.  Part Two reviews the science of fMRI and consider issues raised by the use of fMRI scans as evidence in legal cases.  Part Three addresses these issues specifically as they might bear on considerations raised in the conscientious objector cases discussed in Part One.  It considers the challenges of applying fMRI technology to these sorts of cases.  Part Four considers the recent case of Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., where the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a closed corporation’s claim under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act to be exempt from complying with a provision of the Affordable Care Act concerning the provision of medical insurance to employees that covered certain forms of contraception because it substantially burdened the religious beliefs of its owners – effectively attributing their beliefs to the corporation.  The Court explicitly did not consider the sincerity of claims in this case, but this paper will explore how the adoption of fMRI technology could potentially change this approach.

  2. Health Neuroscience: Defining a New Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Creswell, J David; Verstynen, Timothy D; Gianaros, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Health neuroscience is a new field that is at the interface of health psychology and neuroscience. It is concerned with the interplay between the brain and physical health over the lifespan. This review provides a conceptual introduction to health neuroscience, focusing on its major themes, representative studies, methodologies, and future directions.

  3. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  4. A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-03-01

    Mindfulness meditation research mainly focuses on psychological outcomes such as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional functioning. However, the neuroscience literature on mindfulness meditation has grown in recent years. This paper provides an overview of relevant neuroscience and psychological research on the effects of mindfulness meditation. We propose a translational prevention framework of mindfulness and its effects. Drawing upon the principles of prevention science, this framework integrates neuroscience and prevention research and postulates underlying brain regulatory mechanisms that explain the impact of mindfulness on psychological outcomes via self-regulation mechanisms linked to underlying brain systems. We conclude by discussing potential clinical and practice implications of this model and directions for future research.

  5. Neuroscience Laboratory and Classroom Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Mary Louise Ed.; Frame, Kathy Ed.

    This publication is part of a larger project involving partnerships between high school biology teachers and neuroscientists. It contains neuroscience laboratories and classroom activities, most of which provide opportunities for students to design and conduct their own experiments. Each lab contains directions for both teachers and students and…

  6. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  7. Does Neuroscience Matter for Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In this review essay, Francis Schrag focuses on two recent anthologies dealing completely or in part with the role of neuroscience in learning and education: The "Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning", edited by Jossey-Bass Publishers, and "New Philosophies of Learning", edited by Ruth Cigman and Andrew Davis. Schrag argues that…

  8. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  9. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  10. Brain Matters: Neuroscience and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a relationship between neuroscience and creativity for the sake of religious education. Citing creativity as a process that involves both originality and value, the writing articulates Howard Gardner's interplay between the talent of the person, the internal demands of a discipline, and the quality judgment of the field.…

  11. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eBickle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this paper is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past sixty years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of higher cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics (and DREADDs. The two key metascientific concepts I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of Tool Development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions.

  12. Neuroscience challenges to philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Orantos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a possible framework to critically define the concept of human nature and person in dialogue with Neuroscience. He tries to help meet the challenge of the naturalism in the current thought.

  13. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  14. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  15. Does Neuroscience Matter for Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In this review essay, Francis Schrag focuses on two recent anthologies dealing completely or in part with the role of neuroscience in learning and education: The "Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning", edited by Jossey-Bass Publishers, and "New Philosophies of Learning", edited by Ruth Cigman and Andrew Davis. Schrag argues that…

  16. Brain Matters: Neuroscience and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a relationship between neuroscience and creativity for the sake of religious education. Citing creativity as a process that involves both originality and value, the writing articulates Howard Gardner's interplay between the talent of the person, the internal demands of a discipline, and the quality judgment of the field.…

  17. Neuroscience, Education and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha

    2004-01-01

    The discipline of neuroscience draws from the fields of neurology, psychology, physiology and biology, but is best understood in the wider world as brain science. Of particular interest for education is the development of techniques for imaging the brain as it performs different cognitive functions. Cognitive neuroimaging has already led to…

  18. Neuroscience, Education and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboccó de los Heros, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a series of investigations, reflections, and quotes about neuroscience, education, and psychology. Each area is specialized in some matters but at some point they share territory and mutually benefit one another, and help us to increasingly understand the complex world of learning, the brain, and human behavior. We…

  19. Neuroscience, Education and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha

    2004-01-01

    The discipline of neuroscience draws from the fields of neurology, psychology, physiology and biology, but is best understood in the wider world as brain science. Of particular interest for education is the development of techniques for imaging the brain as it performs different cognitive functions. Cognitive neuroimaging has already led to…

  20. What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Hyde, Luke W; Mitchell, Colter; Faul, Jessica; Gonzalez, Richard; Heitzeg, Mary M; Keating, Daniel P; Langa, Kenneth M; Martz, Meghan E; Maslowsky, Julie; Morrison, Frederick J; Noll, Douglas C; Patrick, Megan E; Pfeffer, Fabian T; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Thomason, Moriah E; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Monk, Christopher S; Schulenberg, John

    2013-10-29

    The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a new understanding of human behavior and promising interventions. However, a limitation of this fast moving research is that most findings are based on small samples of convenience. Furthermore, our understanding of individual differences may be distorted by unrepresentative samples, undermining findings regarding brain-behavior mechanisms. These limitations are issues that social demographers, epidemiologists, and other population scientists have tackled, with solutions that can be applied to neuroscience. By contrast, nearly all social science disciplines, including social demography, sociology, political science, economics, communication science, and psychology, make assumptions about processes that involve the brain, but have incorporated neural measures to differing, and often limited, degrees; many still treat the brain as a black box. In this article, we describe and promote a perspective--population neuroscience--that leverages interdisciplinary expertise to (i) emphasize the importance of sampling to more clearly define the relevant populations and sampling strategies needed when using neuroscience methods to address such questions; and (ii) deepen understanding of mechanisms within population science by providing insight regarding underlying neural mechanisms. Doing so will increase our confidence in the generalizability of the findings. We provide examples to illustrate the population neuroscience approach for specific types of research questions and discuss the potential for theoretical and applied advances from this approach across areas.

  1. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  2. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include: Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory) elevate...

  3. Neuroscience in the era of functional genomics and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Daniel H; Konopka, Genevieve

    2009-10-15

    Advances in genetics and genomics have fuelled a revolution in discovery-based, or hypothesis-generating, research that provides a powerful complement to the more directly hypothesis-driven molecular, cellular and systems neuroscience. Genetic and functional genomic studies have already yielded important insights into neuronal diversity and function, as well as disease. One of the most exciting and challenging frontiers in neuroscience involves harnessing the power of large-scale genetic, genomic and phenotypic data sets, and the development of tools for data integration and mining. Methods for network analysis and systems biology offer the promise of integrating these multiple levels of data, connecting molecular pathways to nervous system function.

  4. A brief review on current progress in neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Min; WU BeiBei; LIU Ying

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience has been undergoing a rapid development in China since the beginning of the 21 st century.Chinese scientists are working on neuroscience and getting more and more important results.As described by Poo Mu-ming [1],the increasing funding support,the flood of returning overseas researchers and numerous international conferences held in China give birth to the springtime of neuroscience in China.The development of nervous system and neural cells The nervous system is a complex network of axonal projections and synaptic connections [2].At the early stage of neural development,besides generation of neurons and glial cells,synapse formation is the foundation of neuronal circuits and the basis of functions of nervous system including learning and memory.

  5. Using Drawings of the Brain Cell to Exhibit Expertise in Neuroscience: Exploring the Boundaries of Experimental Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, David B.; Williams, Darren; Stahl, Daniel; Wingate, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the research perspective of neuroscience by documenting the brain cell (neuron) drawings of undergraduates, trainee scientists, and leading neuroscience researchers in a single research-intensive university. Qualitative analysis, drawing-sorting exercises, and hierarchical cluster analysis are used to answer two related…

  6. Using Drawings of the Brain Cell to Exhibit Expertise in Neuroscience: Exploring the Boundaries of Experimental Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, David B.; Williams, Darren; Stahl, Daniel; Wingate, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the research perspective of neuroscience by documenting the brain cell (neuron) drawings of undergraduates, trainee scientists, and leading neuroscience researchers in a single research-intensive university. Qualitative analysis, drawing-sorting exercises, and hierarchical cluster analysis are used to answer two related…

  7. DIALOGIC LEARNING: A SOCIAL COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an exploration of the educational value of dialogue as a teaching strategy in contemporary classrooms in light of recent evidences grounded in knowledge produced by social and cognitive neuroscience research. The relevant literature suggests that dialogue is a unique feature of humans and no other animal is able to dialogue as they do. Humans are biologically wired for dialogue and interaction with one another in socially and culturally shaped contexts. This dynamic interdependence of social and cognitive processes plays a critically important role in construction of knowledge and cognitive development. It is also well established that social processing in the brain is strongly interrelated with the processing of emotion. Children therefore, are social learners who actively construct meaning and knowledge as they interact with their cultural and social environment through dialogue. In conclusion, recent advance in cognitive and social neuroscience is providing a new basis for the communicative conception of learning in which authentic interaction and dialogue are key components. This suggests new avenues of research that need to empirically investigate the role of dialogue on students' mind and brain development.

  8. The ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics: a phenomenological-existential approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Christopher J; Lumia, Augustus R

    2012-09-01

    Advances in the neurosciences have many implications for a collective understanding of what it means to be human, in particular, notions of the self, the concept of volition or agency, questions of individual responsibility, and the phenomenology of consciousness. As the ability to peer directly into the brain is scientifically honed, and conscious states can be correlated with patterns of neural processing, an easy--but premature--leap is to postulate a one-way, brain-based determinism. That leap is problematic, however, and emerging findings in neuroscience can even be seen as compatible with some of the basic tenets of existentialism. Given the compelling authority of modern "science," it is especially important to question how the findings of neuroscience are framed, and how the articulation of research results challenge or change individuals' perceptions of themselves. Context plays an essential role in the emergence of human identity and in the sculpting of the human brain; for example, even a lack of stimuli ("nothing") can lead to substantial consequences for brain, behavior, and experience. Conversely, advances in understanding the brain might contribute to more precise definitions of what it means to be human, including definitions of appropriate social and moral behavior. Put another way, the issue is not simply the ethics involved in framing neurotechnology, but also the incorporation of neuroscientific findings into a richer understanding of human ethical (and existential) functioning.

  9. Counterpoint: clinical neuroscience is not ready for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Mark D

    2016-04-01

    Radical proposals are being made to change the practice, teaching and research basis of psychiatry to that of clinical neuroscience. Such changes would affect practice via what is studied, published, recommended as standard treatment and what is decided in medico-legal forums. These proposed changes are very premature and misguided. Here, I refute these proposals. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  10. Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be…

  11. Cognitive neuroscience of synesthesia: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This Special Issue of Cognitive Neuroscience showcases the latest theories and findings in research on synesthesia. The various contributions are discussed in relation to three broad themes: Models and neural mechanisms; new types of synesthesia; and cognitive profile and demographic characteristics.

  12. Pathological choice: The neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and "irrationality." Second, excessive gambling inv

  13. The RAVE-O Intervention: Connecting Neuroscience to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Maryanne; Barzillai, Mirit; Gottwald, Stephanie; Miller, Lynne; Spencer, Kathleen; Norton, Elizabeth; Lovett, Maureen; Morris, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which knowledge from the cognitive neurosciences, linguistics, and education interact to deepen our understanding of reading's complexity and to inform reading intervention. We first describe how research on brain abnormalities and naming speed processes has shaped both our conceptualization of reading…

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disordered eating behaviour: A systematic review and a framework for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF MDF DOOR FRAMES AFTER IMMERSION IN WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan CISMARU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the researchwork performed on the behaviour of the door framesmade of laminated MDF (cherry and walnut foil onimmersion in water. The MDF boards were purchasedfrom two different suppliers. The immersion wasmade untill the critical limit was reached, when thedimensional characteristics of the frame came out ofthe field of tolerances. The dimensionalmeasurements, together with the mass weights wereperformed at different times, finaly achieving differentcritical limits for the two types of materials. The finalconclusion of the research showed that, after a periodof 24 hours of immersion in water, both materialshave suffered major dimensional changes thataffected the use of the door frame. The paperprovides information on the relative and absolutevariations of sizes and mass, including percentagechanges.

  16. [The Murcia Twin Registry. A resource for research on health-related behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Carrillo, Eduvigis; González-Javier, Francisca; Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Morosoli-García, José J; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; Martínez-Selva, José M

    2017-03-08

    Genetically informative designs and, in particular, twin studies, are the most widely used methodology to analyse the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to inter-individual variability. These studies basically compare the degree of phenotypical similarity between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. In addition to the traditional estimate of heritability, this kind of registry enables a wide variety of analyses which are unique due to the characteristics of the sample. The Murcia Twin Registry is population-based and focused on the analysis of health-related behaviour. The observed prevalence of health problems is comparable to that of other regional and national reference samples, which guarantees its representativeness. Overall, the characteristics of the Registry facilitate developing various types of research as well as genetically informative designs, and collaboration with different initiatives and consortia. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovation behaviour and the use of research and extension services in small-scale agricultural holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmery Ramos-Sandoval

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ views on research and extension services (RES included in the Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System are rarely investigated. This study analyses the relationship between key factors of innovation behaviour (market orientation, learning orientation, and innovation attitude and the use of RES through structural equation modelling, focusing on small-scale agricultural holdings. Market orientation and learning orientation appear to be positively correlated, confirming that synergies between both factors provide a background for innovativeness. Learning orientation and farm-holders’ education level, improve knowledge exchange and make the agriculture innovation process more inclusive. However, farmers’ innovation attitude is not clearly correlated with the use of RES. Motivations about “the will to do innovations” are represented by a construct that does not appear to have a determinant effect as a mediator in farmer’s decisions about using RES.

  18. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas. T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway. PMID:26523124

  19. Best Practices: The Neuroscience Program at Central Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    The original design of our program at Central Michigan University (CMU) and its evolving curriculum were directly influenced by Faculty for Undergraduate (FUN) workshops at Davidson College, Oberlin College, Trinity College, and Macalester College. The course content, laboratory exercises, and pedagogy used were informed by excellent articles in the Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education (JUNE) and presentations at these FUN workshops and meetings over the years. Like the program at Baldwin-Wallace College, which was a previous winner of the Undergraduate Neuroscience Program of the Year Award, as selected by the Committee on Neuroscience Departments and Programs (CNDP) of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN, our program stresses the importance of inquiry-based, hands-on research experience for our undergraduates and utilizes a peer-mentoring system. A distinct advantage that is employed at CMU is the use of graduate student mentors, which allows us to expand our peer-mentorship to distinct research teams that are focused on a specific research project. Developing our program was not easy. The present manuscript reviews the long and arduous journey (including ways in which we navigated some difficult internal political issues) we made to build a strong program. Hopefully, this description may prove helpful for other evolving programs, in terms of avoiding certain pitfalls and overcoming obstacles, as well as selecting practices that have proven to be successful at our institution. PMID:26240523

  20. Ontologies for neuroscience: What are they and what are they good for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Larson

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Current information technology practices in neuroscience make it difficult to understand the organization of the brain across spatial scales. Subcellular junctional connectivity, cytoarchitectural local connectivity, and long-range topographical connectivity are just a few of the relevant data domains that must be synthesized in order to make sense of the brain. However, due to the heterogeneity of the data produced within these domains, the landscape of multiscale neuroscience data is fragmented. A standard framework for neuroscience data is needed to bridge existing digital data resources and to help in the conceptual unification of the multiple disciplines of neuroscience. Using our efforts in building ontologies for neuroscience as an example, we examine the benefits and limits of ontologies as a solution for this data integration problem. We provide several examples of their application to problems of image annotation, content-based retrieval of structural data, and integration of data across scales and researchers.

  1. Ontologies for Neuroscience: What are they and What are they Good for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2008-01-01

    Current information technology practices in neuroscience make it difficult to understand the organization of the brain across spatial scales. Subcellular junctional connectivity, cytoarchitectural local connectivity, and long-range topographical connectivity are just a few of the relevant data domains that must be synthesized in order to make sense of the brain. However, due to the heterogeneity of the data produced within these domains, the landscape of multiscale neuroscience data is fragmented. A standard framework for neuroscience data is needed to bridge existing digital data resources and to help in the conceptual unification of the multiple disciplines of neuroscience. Using our efforts in building ontologies for neuroscience as an example, we examine the benefits and limits of ontologies as a solution for this data integration problem. We provide several examples of their application to problems of image annotation, content-based retrieval of structural data, and integration of data across scales and researchers. PMID:19753098

  2. Neuroscience Needs Behavior: Correcting a Reductionist Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, John W; Ghazanfar, Asif A; Gomez-Marin, Alex; MacIver, Malcolm A; Poeppel, David

    2017-02-08

    There are ever more compelling tools available for neuroscience research, ranging from selective genetic targeting to optogenetic circuit control to mapping whole connectomes. These approaches are coupled with a deep-seated, often tacit, belief in the reductionist program for understanding the link between the brain and behavior. The aim of this program is causal explanation through neural manipulations that allow testing of necessity and sufficiency claims. We argue, however, that another equally important approach seeks an alternative form of understanding through careful theoretical and experimental decomposition of behavior. Specifically, the detailed analysis of tasks and of the behavior they elicit is best suited for discovering component processes and their underlying algorithms. In most cases, we argue that study of the neural implementation of behavior is best investigated after such behavioral work. Thus, we advocate a more pluralistic notion of neuroscience when it comes to the brain-behavior relationship: behavioral work provides understanding, whereas neural interventions test causality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bayesian networks in neuroscience: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks are a type of probabilistic graphical models lie at the intersection between statistics and machine learning. They have been shown to be powerful tools to encode dependence relationships among the variables of a domain under uncertainty. Thanks to their generality, Bayesian networks can accommodate continuous and discrete variables, as well as temporal processes. In this paper we review Bayesian networks and how they can be learned automatically from data by means of structure learning algorithms. Also, we examine how a user can take advantage of these networks for reasoning by exact or approximate inference algorithms that propagate the given evidence through the graphical structure. Despite their applicability in many fields, they have been little used in neuroscience, where they have focused on specific problems, like functional connectivity analysis from neuroimaging data. Here we survey key research in neuroscience where Bayesian networks have been used with different aims: discover associations between variables, perform probabilistic reasoning over the model, and classify new observations with and without supervision. The networks are learned from data of any kind-morphological, electrophysiological, -omics and neuroimaging-, thereby broadening the scope-molecular, cellular, structural, functional, cognitive and medical- of the brain aspects to be studied.

  4. Benjamin Franklin and the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), who is better known in other fields, especially colonial politics and international diplomacy, was an early, major contributor to the neurosciences from the New World. Among his accomplishments are: experiments on medical electricity as a possible cure for the palsies and hysteria; the first descriptions of how electricity affecting the brain can cause a specific type of amnesia; supporting the idea that cranial shocks might provide a cure for melancholia; showing that the cures performed by the Mesmerists to remove obstructions, including nerve blockages, rest on gullibility and suggestion, and recognizing the dangers, including those to the nerves, posed by exposure to lead. Franklin?s neuroscience was firmly based on experiments, careful observations, and hard data ? and finding clinical relevance for new discoveries was always on his mind.

  5. New techniques in systems neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the recent explosion of experimental tools in neuroscience that now make it possible to manipulate, record, and understand neuronal activity within the intact brain, and which are helping us to learn how the many neurons that comprise a network act together to control behavior. Leaders in the field discuss the latest developments in optogenetics, functional imaging, circuit mapping, and the application of these tools to complex biological problems. New Techniques in Systems Neuroscience Explores cutting-edge methodological developments and their biological motivations Covers state-of-the-art advances in optogenetics, imaging, circuit mapping, and the molecular characterization of individual neurons Describes key examples of how these methods have been applied in different model organisms Is appropriate for experts and those just entering the field alike.

  6. Beyond the DSM: development of a transdiagnostic psychiatric neuroscience course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkin, Amit; Cuthbert, Bruce

    2014-04-01

    Clinical and neurobiological data suggest that psychiatric disorders, as traditionally defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), are (1) more comorbid than expected by chance, (2) often share neurobiological signatures, and (3) reflect alterations across multiple brain systems that mediate particular mental processes. As such, emerging conceptualizations such at the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC) have suggested that a different way to understand psychopathology may be with respect to the degree of dysfunction in each of these brain systems, seen dimensionally, which both cross traditional diagnostic boundaries and extend to a healthy range of functioning. At present, however, this scientific perspective has not been incorporated into neuroscience education in psychiatry, nor has its relationship to clinical care been made clear. We describe the rationale and implementation of a reformulated neuroscience course given to psychiatric residents at Stanford University centered on the conceptual framework of RDoC. Data are presented on resident feedback before and after revision of the course. A clear motivation and rationale exists for teaching neuroscience in a transdiagnostic framework. This course was taken up well by the residents, with overall feedback significantly more positive than that prior to the course revision. This "proof of concept" neuroscience course illustrates a potential route for bridging between rapid advances in psychiatric neuroscience and the clinical education for trainees not otherwise versed in neuroscience but who are needed for scientific advances to translate to the clinic. The promise of this approach may be in part related to the similarity between this framework and problem-based approaches common in routine clinical care. In such approaches, clinicians focus on the expressed complaints of their individual patient and identify specific symptoms as the

  7. Psychiatry chief resident opinions toward basic and clinical neuroscience training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey I; Handa, Kamna; Mahajan, Aman; Deotale, Pravesh

    2014-04-01

    The authors queried attendees to a chief resident conference on whether program education and training in neuroscience or in translating neuroscience research into practice is sufficient and what changes are needed. The authors developed and administered a 26-item voluntary questionnaire to each attendee at the Chief Residents' Leadership Conference at the American Psychiatric Association 2013 annual meeting in San Francisco, CA. Out of 94 attendees, 55 completed and returned questionnaires (58.5%). A majority of respondents stated that their program provided adequate training in neuroscience (61.8%); opportunities for neuroscience research existed for them (78.2%), but that their program did not prepare them for translating future neuroscience research findings into clinical practice (78.9%) or educate them on the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (83.3%). A majority of respondents stated that the ACGME should require a specific neuroscience curriculum (79.6%). Chief residents believe that curricular and cultural change is needed in psychiatry residency neuroscience education.

  8. Neuroscience, Education and Metal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Arboccó de los Heros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents a series of investigations, reflections, and quotes about neuroscience, education, and psychology. Each area is specialized in some matters but at some point they share territory and mutually benefit one another, and help us to increasingly understand the complex world of learning, the brain, and human behavior. We hope them to be of interest and a promoter of new thoughts.

  9. [Neuroethics: ethical issues in neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    Neuroethics is a field of bioethics on the ethical challenges of advances in neuroscience. Born in the early 2000s, neuroethics is considering a number of issues raised by the opportunities created by advances in knowledge and techniques in the field of neurology and psychiatry. In fact, what we learn about brain functions allows us to potentially influence our behavior and our actions, and questions human nature, freedom and individual responsibility, and even the place of morality in our society.

  10. NSDF: Neuroscience Simulation Data Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Subhasis; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Bhalla, Upinder S; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2016-04-01

    Data interchange is emerging as an essential aspect of modern neuroscience. In the areas of computational neuroscience and systems biology there are multiple model definition formats, which have contributed strongly to the development of an ecosystem of simulation and analysis tools. Here we report the development of the Neuroscience Simulation Data Format (NSDF) which extends this ecosystem to the data generated in simulations. NSDF is designed to store simulator output across scales: from multiscale chemical and electrical signaling models, to detailed single-neuron and network models, to abstract neural nets. It is self-documenting, efficient, modular, and scalable, both in terms of novel data types and in terms of data volume. NSDF is simulator-independent, and can be used by a range of standalone analysis and visualization tools. It may also be used to store variety of experimental data. NSDF is based on the widely used HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format 5) specification and is open, platform-independent, and portable.

  11. Historiography, affect, and the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Larry S

    2017-05-01

    Recent historiography has put to rest debates over whether to address the neurosciences. The question is how? In this article, I stage a dialogue between neurohistory and the history of the emotions. My primary goal is to survey these two clusters and clarify their conceptual commitments. Both center on the role of affect in embodied subjectivity; but their accounts widely diverge. Whereas neurohistorians tend to treat affects as automatic bodily processes, historians of the emotions generally emphasize that affects are meaningful and volitional activities. This divergence entails contrasting understandings of selfhood, embodiment, and historical change. More importantly, I argue, it reflects a broader realm of disputes within the neurosciences. The divisions among methodologies and commitments testify to the importance of historians' selection of evidence as well as the critical perspectives they can bring to scientific debates. The neurosciences do not offer readymade theories. Secondarily, I take stock of the shared limitations of neurohistory and the history of the emotions. Both conceptualize the biological bases of affection as a universal ground for historical inquiry. By reexamining this transhistorical approach to neuroscientific evidence, I suggest that historiography might widen the horizon of interdisciplinary scholarship beyond the present options. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Poetry and Neuroscience:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, James; Scott, Sophie K

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dialogues and collaborations between scientists and non-scientists are now widely understood as important elements of scientific research and public engagement with science. In recognition of this, the authors, a neuroscientist and a poet, use a dialogical approach to extend questions and ideas first shared during a lab-based poetry residency. They recorded a conversation and then expanded it into an essayistic form, allowing divergent disciplinary understandings and uses of experiment, noise, voice and emotion to be articulated, shared and questioned. PMID:27885317

  13. A developmental social neuroscience model for understanding loneliness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nichol M L; Yeung, Patcy P S; Lee, Tatia M C

    2016-11-18

    Loneliness is prevalent in adolescents. Although it can be a normative experience, children and adolescents who experience loneliness are often at risk for anxiety, depression, and suicide. Research efforts have been made to identify the neurobiological basis of such distressful feelings in our social brain. In adolescents, the social brain is still undergoing significant development, which may contribute to their increased and differential sensitivity to the social environment. Many behavioral studies have shown the significance of attachment security and social skills in adolescents' interactions with the social world. In this review, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model that extends from the social neuroscience model of loneliness. In particular, we argue that the social brain and social skills are both important for the development of adolescents' perceived loneliness and that adolescents' familial attachment sets the baseline for neurobiological development. By reviewing the related behavioral and neuroimaging literature, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model to explain the heightened perception of loneliness in adolescents using social skills and attachment style as neurobiological moderators. We encourage future researchers to investigate adolescents' perceived social connectedness from the developmental neuroscience perspective.

  14. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas.

  15. The virtual supermarket: an innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Scarpa, Michael; Lentz, Daisy; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2011-07-25

    Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The application can be obtained via an URL

  16. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The

  17. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhuis Ingrid HM

    2011-07-01

    purchasing behaviour. The application can be obtained via an URL and is freely available for academic use. The unique features of the tool include the fact that it enables researchers to easily modify research conditions and in this way study different types of interventions in a retail environment without a complex implementation process. Finally, it also maintains researcher independence and avoids conflicts of interest that may arise from industry collaboration.

  18. The Multi-modal Australian ScienceS Imaging and Visualisation Environment (MASSIVE high performance computing infrastructure: applications in neuroscience and neuroinformatics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtek James eGoscinski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-modal Australian ScienceS Imaging and Visualisation Environment (MASSIVE is a national imaging and visualisation facility established by Monash University, the Australian Synchrotron, the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO, and the Victorian Partnership for Advanced Computing (VPAC, with funding from the National Computational Infrastructure and the Victorian Government. The MASSIVE facility provides hardware, software and expertise to drive research in the biomedical sciences, particularly advanced brain imaging research using synchrotron x-ray and infrared imaging, functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, x-ray computer tomography (CT, electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The development of MASSIVE has been based on best practice in system integration methodologies, frameworks, and architectures. The facility has: (i integrated multiple different neuroimaging analysis software components, (ii enabled cross-platform and cross-modality integration of neuroinformatics tools, and (iii brought together neuroimaging databases and analysis workflows. MASSIVE is now operational as a nationally distributed and integrated facility for neuroinfomatics and brain imaging research.

  19. An action research inquiry into a health visitor parenting programme for parents of pre-school children with behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, C; Fleming, V

    2000-09-01

    An action research inquiry into a health visitor parenting programme for parents of pre-school children with behaviour problems Parent education programmes have recently been given a high profile in this country, such provision deemed necessary because of the commonality of children's behaviour problems and because of their potentially far-reaching effects on the child, the family and society. This action research study, undertaken in Scotland, aims to explore a health visitor parenting programme for parents of pre-school children with behaviour problems. Within this study, children with behaviour problems were identified as those whose parents perceived them to have such problems, the children eliciting a wide range of behaviours and to varying degrees. Critical social science is the chosen methodology, since it allows exploration of how people comprehend their social reality. Group interactions were recorded on audio-tape and themes associated with the methodology of enlightenment, empowerment and emancipation were identified. The results of the study demonstrate how a liberating, collaborative approach to parental education can empower mothers, by increasing understanding and raising self-esteem.

  20. A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Leve, Leslie D.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation research mainly focuses on psychological outcomes such as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional functioning. However, the neuroscience literature on mindfulness meditation has grown in recent years. This paper provides an overview of relevant neuroscience and psychological research on the effects of mindfulness meditation. We propose a translational prevention framework of mindfulness and its effects. Drawing upon the principles of prevention science, this framework inte...

  1. Teaching undergraduate neuroscience with brain teaser experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldreich, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY Neuroscience knowledge is of fundamental importance to the occupational therapist and other health care professionals, but neuroscience courses are often viewed in schools of health sciences as among the most arduous of the curriculum. To enhance student learning, the author has developed a series of in-class activities, "brainteasers," that are integrated into each subject module of a semester-long undergraduate neuroscience course. In the brain teaser activities, students experience intriguing sensory and motor phenomena, then use inductive reasoning to generate plausible hypotheses concerning the underlying neural mechanisms. Students profit doubly from these activities, learning neuroscience while practicing critical thinking.

  2. Music therapy with disorders of consciousness and neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Kelly, Julian; Magee, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    research is scarce. Differences in paradigms persist in thinking about and describing clinical work with this population, where two contrasting approaches are found with humanist/ music centred and behavioural/pragmatic influences. Whilst standardised behavioural assessment techniques are being developed...

  3. Behaviour-Changing Ingredients in Soft Drinks: An Experiment Developed by School Children in Partnership with a Research Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Sarah; Delgaty, Laura; Broughton, Mark; Dyter, Laura; Grimes, Callum; Metcalf, James; Nicholson, Rose; Pennock, Erin; Jankowski, Karl

    2017-01-01

    A team of six children (13-14 years old) developed and conducted an experiment to assess the behaviour of the planarian flatworm, an invertebrate animal model, before, during and after exposure to chemicals. The aim of the project was to engage children in pharmacology and toxicology research. First, the concept that exposure to chemicals can…

  4. Behaviour-Changing Ingredients in Soft Drinks: An Experiment Developed by School Children in Partnership with a Research Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Sarah; Delgaty, Laura; Broughton, Mark; Dyter, Laura; Grimes, Callum; Metcalf, James; Nicholson, Rose; Pennock, Erin; Jankowski, Karl

    2017-01-01

    A team of six children (13-14 years old) developed and conducted an experiment to assess the behaviour of the planarian flatworm, an invertebrate animal model, before, during and after exposure to chemicals. The aim of the project was to engage children in pharmacology and toxicology research. First, the concept that exposure to chemicals can…

  5. Use of Structural Assessment of Knowledge for Outcomes Assessment in the Neuroscience Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Shah, Samir; Bish, Joel P

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes assessment of undergraduate neuroscience curricula should assess the ability to think integratively about basic neuroscience concepts based on two of the core competencies established by the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience. The current study investigated whether the structural assessment of knowledge (SAK) approach, which evaluates the organization of an individual's knowledge structures, is effective for demonstrating learning of basic neuroscience concepts. Students in an introductory psychology course (n = 29), an introductory neuroscience course (n = 19), or an advanced behavioral neuroscience course (n = 15) completed SAK before and after learning gross brain anatomy and neuronal physiology. All students showed improvements in their SAK after short-term dissemination for gross brain anatomy, but not for neuronal physiology, concepts. Therefore, research is needed to determine whether the effectiveness of SAK in outcomes assessment depends on the content or teaching style. Additional research using SAK should also explore effectiveness for learning over longer time frames and correlations with student performance in the course. However, the results suggest SAK is a promising technique for outcomes assessment of undergraduate neuroscience curricula.

  6. RNA interference in neuroscience: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victor M; Paulson, Henry L; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro

    2005-12-01

    1.RNA interference (RNAi) is a recently discovered biological pathway that mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing. The process of RNAi is orchestrated by an increasingly well-understood cellular machinery. 2. The common entry point for both natural and engineered RNAi are double stranded RNA molecules known as short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that mediate the sequence-specific identification and degradation of the targeted messenger RNA (mRNA). The study and manipulation of these siRNAs has recently revolutionized biomedical research. 3. In this review, we first provide a brief overview of the process of RNAi, focusing on its potential role in brain function and involvement in neurological disease. We then describe the methods developed to manipulate RNAi in the laboratory and its applications to neuroscience. Finally, we focus on the potential therapeutic application of RNAi to neurological disease.

  7. [Analgesic placebo effect: contribution of the neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, C; Cojan, Y; Vuilleumier, P; Desmeules, J

    2011-06-29

    Over the past twenty years, neuroscience has changed our understanding of placebo analgesia. Often perceived by researchers as a response bias adding noise to the assessment of efficacy, in the patients' view, it is associated with charlatanism. The origin of the word, qualifying a patient's response to "please" the doctor, did not help its rightful appreciation. However, today the placebo analgesia is considered as a psychobiological phenomenon. Thanks to pharmacological manipulations and the development of functional brain imaging, the neural circuitry involved in this effect as well as the role of endorphins and dopamine have been identified. This article describes our current knowledge about this fascinating phenomenon: a psychological modulation can lead to a biological effect.

  8. Interpreting BOLD: towards a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Catherine N; Howarth, Clare; Kurth-Nelson, Zebulun; Mishra, Anusha

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive neuroscience depends on the use of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe brain function. Although commonly used as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signals actually reflect changes in brain blood oxygenation. Understanding the mechanisms linking neuronal activity to vascular perfusion is, therefore, critical in interpreting BOLD. Advances in cellular neuroscience demonstrating differences in this neurovascular relationship in different brain regions, conditions or pathologies are often not accounted for when interpreting BOLD. Meanwhile, within cognitive neuroscience, the increasing use of high magnetic field strengths and the development of model-based tasks and analyses have broadened the capability of BOLD signals to inform us about the underlying neuronal activity, but these methods are less well understood by cellular neuroscientists. In 2016, a Royal Society Theo Murphy Meeting brought scientists from the two communities together to discuss these issues. Here, we consolidate the main conclusions arising from that meeting. We discuss areas of consensus about what BOLD fMRI can tell us about underlying neuronal activity, and how advanced modelling techniques have improved our ability to use and interpret BOLD. We also highlight areas of controversy in understanding BOLD and suggest research directions required to resolve these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  9. Using the theory of planned behaviour to predict nurses' intention to integrate research evidence into clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Françoise; Gagnon, Johanne; Houme, Philippe Kouffé; Abdeljelil, Anis Ben; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Using an extended theory of planned behaviour, this article is a report of a study to identify the factors that influence nurses' intention to integrate research evidence into their clinical decision-making. Health professionals are increasingly asked to adopt evidence-based practice. The integration of research evidence in nurses' clinical decision-making would have an important impact on the quality of care provided for patients. Despite evidence supporting this practice and the availability of high quality research in the field of nursing, the gap between research and practice is still present. A predictive correlational study. A total of 336 nurses working in a university hospital participated in this research. Data were collected in February and March 2008 by means of a questionnaire based on an extension of the theory of planned behaviour. Descriptive statistics of the model variables, Pearson correlations between all the variables and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. Nurses' intention to integrate research findings into clinical decision-making can be predicted by moral norm, normative beliefs, perceived behavioural control and past behaviour. The moral norm is the most important predictor. Overall, the final model explains 70% of the variance in nurses' intention. The present study supports the use of an extended psychosocial theory for identifying the determinants of nurses' intention to integrate research evidence into their clinical decision-making. Interventions that focus on increasing nurses' perceptions that using research is their responsibility for ensuring good patient care and providing a supportive environment could promote an evidence-based nursing practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Emerging perspectives in social neuroscience and neuroeconomics of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth; Mather, Mara

    2011-04-01

    This article introduces the special issue of 'Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience' on Aging Research, and offers a broad conceptual and methodological framework for considering advances in life course research in social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. The authors highlight key areas of inquiry where aging research is raising new insights about how to conceptualize and examine critical questions about the links between cognition, emotion and motivation in social and economic behavior, as well as challenges that need to be addressed when taking a life course perspective in these fields. They also point to several emerging approaches that hold the potential for addressing these challenges, through bridging approaches from laboratory and population-based science, bridging inquiry across life stages and expanding measurement of core psychological phenotypes.

  11. Introduction to The neurosciences and music IV: learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, E; Demorest, S M; Fujioka, T; Halpern, A R; Hannon, E E; Loui, P; Majno, M; Oechslin, M S; Osborne, N; Overy, K; Palmer, C; Peretz, I; Pfordresher, P Q; Särkämö, T; Wan, C Y; Zatorre, R J

    2012-04-01

    The conference entitled "The Neurosciences and Music-IV: Learning and Memory'' was held at the University of Edinburgh from June 9-12, 2011, jointly hosted by the Mariani Foundation and the Institute for Music in Human and Social Development, and involving nearly 500 international delegates. Two opening workshops, three large and vibrant poster sessions, and nine invited symposia introduced a diverse range of recent research findings and discussed current research directions. Here, the proceedings are introduced by the workshop and symposia leaders on topics including working with children, rhythm perception, language processing, cultural learning, memory, musical imagery, neural plasticity, stroke rehabilitation, autism, and amusia. The rich diversity of the interdisciplinary research presented suggests that the future of music neuroscience looks both exciting and promising, and that important implications for music rehabilitation and therapy are being discovered. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Editorial: «Interventional Neuroradiology: a Neuroscience sub-specialty?».

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodesch, Georges; Picard, Luc; Berenstein, Alex; Biondi, Alessandra; Bracard, Serge; Choi, In Sup; Feng, Ling; Hyogo, Toshio; Lefeuvre, David; Leonardi, Marco; Mayer, Thomas; Miyashi, Shigeru; Muto, Mario; Piske, Ronie; Pongpech, Sirintara; Reul, Jurgen; Söderman, Michael; Sul, Dae Chuh; Tampieri, Donatella; Taylor, Allan; Terbrugge, Karel; Valavanis, Anton; van den Berg, René

    2013-12-01

    Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) is not bound by the classical limits of a speciality, and is not restricted by standard formats of teaching and education. Open and naturally linked towards neurosciences, INR has become a unique source of novel ideas for research, development and progress allowing new and improved approaches to challenging pathologies resulting in better anatomo-clinical results. Opening INR to Neurosciences is the best way to keep it alive and growing. Anchored in Neuroradiology, at the crossroad of neurosciences, INR will further participate to progress and innovation as it has often been in the past.

  13. Meaning and authority: the social construction of an 'author' among information behaviour researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Olsson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The study explores the social processes that influence the construction by academic (information behaviour researchers of the meaning/s and significance/s of an author and her work prominent in the literature of their field (Brenda Dervin. Method. Semi-structured qualitative interviews, based in part on the 'Life-Line' and 'Time-line' techniques developed by Dervin and her collaborators. Participants were purposefully sampled to reflect a range of experience levels and conceptual approaches.. Analysis. The study adopted an inductive approach to data analysis, based on the 'constant comparison' approach of Glaser and Strauss. Feedback from participants was sought throughout the analysis process via email. Results. 'Interactions and Relationships' describes the social contacts involved in their construction of the author; 'The Role of Existing Constructions' deals with participants' existing knowledge and understandings; and 'Accepted and Contested Constructions' demonstrates how they drew on their existing constructions in order to accept or contest the constructions of the author conveyed to them Conclusion. Participants' constructive processes involved drawing on their previous experience ('existing constructions' in order to accept or contest the constructions of the author conveyed to them in each new encounter. Participants' constructive processes had two interdependent aspects: the construction of meaning and the construction of authority.

  14. Studying the role of vision in cycling: critique on restricting research to fixation behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J P; Den Brinker, B P L M; De Waard, D; Twisk, D A M; Schwab, A L; Smeets, J B J

    2013-10-01

    In a recent study published in Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vansteenkiste et al. (2013)--as one of the first in this field--investigated the visual control of bicycle steering. They undertook the interesting task of testing cyclists' eye fixation behaviour against Donges' two-level model of steering, i.e. the guidance level to anticipate alternations in the course of the road and the stabilization level for lane keeping. Although the laboratory experiment itself is well conducted, we believe that its results cannot be used to test the two-level model of steering as developed for driving. The test track was only 15m long, was completely straight and was known in advance. Accordingly, it did not provide adequate conditions for testing the guidance level. Furthermore, as the experimental lanes were much narrower than real-world cycling lanes, the stabilization level differed considerably from that in the real world. The study by Vansteenkiste et al. (2013) may provide valuable insight into the role of vision in 'precision steering', but, as we discuss in the paper, more elaborate research paradigms are needed to achieve more comprehensive knowledge of the role of vision in real-world cycling and cycling safety.

  15. [Forms of pathological gambling: empirical research on consumers behaviour of sport betting and lottery participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöntzke, Babett; Albrecht, Ulrike; Thalemann, Carolin; Grüsser, Sabine Miriam

    2004-08-01

    Gambling is one of the favourite leisure activities. 70-90 % of the grown-up population have gambled at least once in their life. Over the last few years, however, the variety of opportunities to gamble has changed. Decreasing numbers of casino visitors can be seen against an ever-increasing number of people using slot machines, and taking part in national lotteries and sport betting. Comprehensive empirical research regarding consumer behaviour and addiction potential involved in sport betting has been non-existent and only a few studies have dealt with lottery. In the present study, 108 subjects were questioned in Austrian betting offices. 33.3 % of the sample fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for pathological sport betting. Of the sport betting subjects who additionally play lottery, 22.92 % were diagnosed as being pathological lottery gamblers. Based on the criteria of substance addiction, the data demonstrate that sport betting and lottery have addiction potential and can therefore be seen as non-substance-related addiction.

  16. Human behavioural research applied to the leprosy control programme of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P C

    1986-09-01

    In 1984, in Sarawak, there were a total of 1,099 recorded cases of leprosy for a population of 1.3 million. However, for each case recorded, it is estimated that two others remain undiagnosed as a consequence of the stigmatization associated with leprosy. For the five year period, 1979-1983, an average of 29 new cases were detected each year of which 8.6 (30%) were deformed due to the late stages at which it was being reported. To increase the case-finding rate, human behavioural research was applied to the leprosy control programme so as to develop culture-specific health education packages aimed at self diagnosis and self referral in order to detect the large pool of undiagnosed cases hidden behind the veil of aversion, fear and ignorance. This was achieved through anthropological studies to identify how the various major ethnic groups perceived leprosy and their attitudes towards leprosy. Taking into account these findings, health education packages aimed at adults as well as children were developed for the Chinese as well as the non-Chinese, and consisted of newspaper articles, cartoon tape-slides, cartoon story books and posters.

  17. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M; Fuller, Mark R; Kie, John G; Bates, Kirk K

    2010-07-27

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  18. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  19. How can neuroscience help understand design and craft activity? The promise of cognitive neuroscience in design studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available  Designing and making crafts is a complex, multifaceted process that requires sophisticated, professional thinking and competence, described as reflection in action and as an embodied process in which the hand, eye and mind collaborate. This article discusses these cognitive and embodied aspects central to designing and making crafts in light of cognitive neuroscience. Understanding the specific cognitive processes and forms of knowledge used in creative practices is essential. In this article, we propose that cognitive neuroscience provides valuable tools for analysing thinking and acting processes relevant to designing and making. We discuss the challenges and opportunities that the use of brain imaging methods, in particular, provides for understanding design activities, skills and cognition. Additionally, we present two neuroscientific experimental settings from our empirical studies in which the methods of cognitive neuroscience are applied to study and detect the interrelations between drawing, forming, skill learning and the functional activities of the brain and its subareas. We argue that cognitive neuroscience provides valuable instruments and methods which complement traditional design research.

  20. Power-up: A Reanalysis of 'Power Failure' in Neuroscience Using Mixture Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Camilla L; Valton, Vincent; Wood, John; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2017-08-23

    Recently, evidence for endemically low statistical power has cast neuroscience findings into doubt. If low statistical power plagues neuroscience, then this reduces confidence in the reported effects. However, if statistical power is not uniformly low, then such blanket mistrust might not be warranted. Here, we provide a different perspective on this issue, analyzing data from an influential study reporting a median power of 21% across 49 meta-analyses (Button et al., 2013). We demonstrate, using Gaussian mixture modeling, that the sample of 730 studies included in that analysis comprises several subcomponents so the use of a single summary statistic is insufficient to characterize the nature of the distribution. We find that statistical power is extremely low for studies included in meta-analyses that reported a null result and that it varies substantially across subfields of neuroscience, with particularly low power in candidate gene association studies. Therefore, whereas power in neuroscience remains a critical issue, the notion that studies are systematically underpowered is not the full story: low power is far from a universal problem.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recently, researchers across the biomedical and psychological sciences have become concerned with the reliability of results. One marker for reliability is statistical power: the probability of finding a statistically significant result given that the effect exists. Previous evidence suggests that statistical power is low across the field of neuroscience. Our results present a more comprehensive picture of statistical power in neuroscience: on average, studies are indeed underpowered-some very seriously so-but many studies show acceptable or even exemplary statistical power. We show that this heterogeneity in statistical power is common across most subfields in neuroscience. This new, more nuanced picture of statistical power in neuroscience could affect not only scientific understanding, but potentially

  1. Annual Research Review: Transdiagnostic neuroscience of child and adolescent mental disorders--differentiating decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Cortese, Samuele; Fairchild, Graeme; Stringaris, Argyris

    2016-03-01

    alternatives). In CD, it is reckless and insensitive to negative consequences. In depression, it is disengaged, perseverative, and pessimistic, while in anxiety, it is hesitant, risk-averse, and self-deprecating. A survey of current empirical indications related to these disorder-specific hypotheses highlights the limited and fragmentary nature of the evidence base and illustrates the need for a major research initiative in decision making in childhood disorders. The final section highlights a number of important additional general themes that need to be considered in future research. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Educational Neuroscience: Its Position, Aims and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Anna; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Ruyter, Doret

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the discussion on educational neuroscience is the transfer of thought and findings between neuroscience and education. In addition to factual confusions in this transfer in the form of neuromyths, logical confusions, or neuro-misconceptions, can be identified. We consider these transfer difficulties in light of the way…

  3. Neuroscience and Special Education. inForum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief overview of how links are being developed between the rapidly expanding field of neuroscience and the practice of special education. The first part of the document introduces definitions and terminology, provides an overview of how findings from neuroscience are being applied to the field of…

  4. Teaching undergraduate neuroscience in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korey, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is enhancing and challenging traditional approaches to teaching undergraduate neuroscience. In addition to the new FUN-supported development of a Society for Neuroscience Portal for higher education, there is a wealth of available teaching resources currently housed on the web. This article discusses the current state of digital libraries and introduces a series of exemplary web-based classroom resources.

  5. Neuroscience and Special Education. inForum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief overview of how links are being developed between the rapidly expanding field of neuroscience and the practice of special education. The first part of the document introduces definitions and terminology, provides an overview of how findings from neuroscience are being applied to the field of…

  6. Educational Neuroscience: Its Position, Aims and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Anna; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Ruyter, Doret

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the discussion on educational neuroscience is the transfer of thought and findings between neuroscience and education. In addition to factual confusions in this transfer in the form of neuromyths, logical confusions, or neuro-misconceptions, can be identified. We consider these transfer difficulties in light of the way…

  7. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  8. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  9. Application of Linear Mixed-Effects Models in Human Neuroscience Research: A Comparison with Pearson Correlation in Two Auditory Electrophysiology Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Tess K; Zhang, Yang

    2017-02-27

    Neurophysiological studies are often designed to examine relationships between measures from different testing conditions, time points, or analysis techniques within the same group of participants. Appropriate statistical techniques that can take into account repeated measures and multivariate predictor variables are integral and essential to successful data analysis and interpretation. This work implements and compares conventional Pearson correlations and linear mixed-effects (LME) regression models using data from two recently published auditory electrophysiology studies. For the specific research questions in both studies, the Pearson correlation test is inappropriate for determining strengths between the behavioral responses for speech-in-noise recognition and the multiple neurophysiological measures as the neural responses across listening conditions were simply treated as independent measures. In contrast, the LME models allow a systematic approach to incorporate both fixed-effect and random-effect terms to deal with the categorical grouping factor of listening conditions, between-subject baseline differences in the multiple measures, and the correlational structure among the predictor variables. Together, the comparative data demonstrate the advantages as well as the necessity to apply mixed-effects models to properly account for the built-in relationships among the multiple predictor variables, which has important implications for proper statistical modeling and interpretation of human behavior in terms of neural correlates and biomarkers.

  10. Brain literate: making neuroscience accessible to a wider audience of undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Danielle; Martin-Harris, Laurel; Mullen, Brian; Odegaard, Brian; Zvinyatskovskiy, Aleksey; Chandler, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    The ability to critically evaluate neuroscientific findings is a skill that is rapidly becoming important in non-science professions. As neuroscience research is increasingly being used in law, business, education, and politics, it becomes imperative to educate future leaders in all areas of society about the brain. Undergraduate general education courses are an ideal way to expose students to issues of critical importance, but non-science students may avoid taking a neuroscience course because of the perception that neuroscience is more challenging than other science courses. A recently developed general education cluster course at UCLA aims to make neuroscience more palatable to undergraduates by pairing neuroscientific concepts with philosophy and history, and by building a learning community that supports the development of core academic skills and intellectual growth over the course of a year. This study examined the extent to which the course was successful in delivering neuroscience education to a broader undergraduate community. The results indicate that a majority of students in the course mastered the basics of the discipline regardless of their major. Furthermore, 77% of the non-life science majors (approximately two-thirds of students in the course) indicated that they would not have taken an undergraduate neuroscience course if this one was not offered. The findings also demonstrate that the course helped students develop core academic skills and improved their ability to think critically about current events in neuroscience. Faculty reported that teaching the course was highly rewarding and did not require an inordinate amount of time.

  11. New perspectives on forced migration in the history of twentieth-century neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W; Russell, Gül

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, comprised of six articles and one commentary, reflects on the multifold dimensions of intellectual migration in the neurosciences and illustrates them by relevant case studies, biographies, and surveys from twentieth-century history of science and medicine perspectives. The special issue as a whole strives to emphasize the impact of forced migration in the neurosciences and psychiatry from an interdisciplinary perspective by, first, describing the general research topic, second, by showing how new models can be applied to the historiography and social studies of twentieth-century neuroscience, and, third, by providing a deeper understanding of the impact of European émigré researchers on emerging allied fields, such as neurogenetics, biological psychiatry, psychosomatics, and public mental health, etc. as resulting from this process at large.

  12. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience.

  13. Building sustainable neuroscience capacity in Africa: the role of non-profit organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Thomas K; Cobham, Ansa E; Ndams, Iliya S

    2016-02-01

    While advances in neuroscience are helping to improve many aspects of human life, inequalities exist in this field between Africa and more scientifically-advanced continents. Many African countries lack the infrastructure and appropriately-trained scientists for neuroscience education and research. Addressing these challenges would require the development of innovative approaches to help improve scientific competence for neuroscience across the continent. In recent years, science-based non-profit organisations (NPOs) have been supporting the African neuroscience community to build state-of-the-art scientific capacity for sustainable education and research. Some of these contributions have included: the establishment of training courses and workshops to introduce African scientists to powerful-yet-cost-effective experimental model systems; research infrastructural support and assistance to establish research institutes. Other contributions have come in the form of the promotion of scientific networking, public engagement and advocacy for improved neuroscience funding. Here, we discuss the contributions of NPOs to the development of neuroscience in Africa.

  14. The heterogeneity of disruptive behaviour disorders – implications for neurobiological research and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Stadler

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive behaviour disorders are reflected by a great variety of symptoms ranging from impulsive-hot tempered quarrels to purposeful and goal directed acts of cruelty. A growing body of data indicates that there are neurobiological factors that increase the risk for developing disruptive behaviour disorders. In this review, we give a broad overview of recent studies investigating physiological, neural, genetic factors, and specific neurotransmitter systems. We also discuss the impact of psychosocial risk and consider the effects of gene-environment interactions. Due to the heterogeneity of disruptive behaviour disorders, it is concluded that specific subtypes of disruptive behaviour should be considered both in terms their biological basis and in regard to specific treatment needs.

  15. Sports teams as superorganisms: implications of sociobiological models of behaviour for research and practice in team sports performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ricardo; Araújo, Duarte; Correia, Vanda; Davids, Keith

    2012-08-01

    Significant criticisms have emerged on the way that collective behaviours in team sports have been traditionally evaluated. A major recommendation has been for future research and practice to focus on the interpersonal relationships developed between team players during performance. Most research has typically investigated team game performance in subunits (attack or defence), rather than considering the interactions of performers within the whole team. In this paper, we offer the view that team performance analysis could benefit from the adoption of biological models used to explain how repeated interactions between grouping individuals scale to emergent social collective behaviours. We highlight the advantages of conceptualizing sports teams as functional integrated 'super-organisms' and discuss innovative measurement tools, which might be used to capture the superorganismic properties of sports teams. These tools are suitable for revealing the idiosyncratic collective behaviours underlying the cooperative and competitive tendencies of different sports teams, particularly their coordination of labour and the most frequent channels of communication and patterns of interaction between team players. The principles and tools presented here can serve as the basis for novel approaches and applications of performance analysis devoted to understanding sports teams as cohesive, functioning, high-order organisms exhibiting their own peculiar behavioural patterns.

  16. Evidence for attitudinal-behaviour consistency:Implications for consumer research paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    1983-01-01

    Evidence is presented in this paper to show that the view ofmarketing communications effects promulgated by numerous marketing, advertising and consumer behaviour texts and journals should be questioned. This is the portrayal of advertising, in particular, as strongly persuasive, a pre-purchase influence which acts upon purchase behaviour by first operating upon and modifying mental attitudes. The latent process conception of attitude upon which this perspective is founded lacks convincing em...

  17. Genome engineering with TALE and CRISPR systems in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han B Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR associated (Cas systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience.

  18. New frontiers in the neuroscience of the sense of agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eDavid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense that I am the author of my own actions, including the ability to distinguish my own from other people’s actions, is a fundamental building block of our sense of self, on the one hand, and successful social interactions, on the other. Using cognitive neuroscience techniques, researchers have attempted to elucidate the functional basis of this intriguing phenomenon, also trying to explain pathological abnormalities of action awareness in certain psychiatric and neurological disturbances. Recent conceptual, technological and methodological advances suggest several interesting and necessary new leads for future research on the neuroscience of agency. Here I will describe new frontiers for the field such as the need for novel and multifactorial paradigms, anatomically plausible network models for the sense of agency, investigations of the temporal dynamics during agentic processing and ecologically valid virtual reality applications.

  19. Genome Engineering with TALE and CRISPR Systems in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han B.; Sundberg, Brynn N.; Sigafoos, Ashley N.; Clark, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs) such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience. PMID:27092173

  20. Genome Engineering with TALE and CRISPR Systems in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han B; Sundberg, Brynn N; Sigafoos, Ashley N; Clark, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs) such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience.

  1. Can simply answering research questions change behaviour? Systematic review and meta analyses of brief alcohol intervention trials.

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    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (-0.17 to 27.6 grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9 in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report.

  2. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity.

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    Salmon, Jo; Jorna, Michelle; Hume, Clare; Arundell, Lauren; Chahine, Natalie; Tienstra, Myrthe; Crawford, David

    2011-09-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered by teachers targeting children's television viewing, computer use, physical activity and potential mediators of behaviour change. Fifteen schools from disadvantaged areas in Melbourne, Australia agreed to participate in the study (43% school-level response rate). Out of the 1566 Grades 5 and 6 (9-12 year old) children invited to take part in the study, 1048 (67% response rate) provided informed consent. Schools were randomized to either an intervention or wait-list control condition. Teachers delivered six lessons, which included strategies such as self-monitoring, behavioural contracting and budgeting of screen time. Children completed a self-report survey at baseline and post-intervention examining screen-based behaviours, physical activity, self-efficacy and behavioural capability. Teachers reported implementation of and attitudes to the programme. Seventy-one per cent of teachers delivered at least four of the six lessons. Most teachers reported that the materials were easy to follow and deliver; however, many teachers reported modifying the materials in some way. Among boys, there were favourable small intervention effects on weekend screen time [(coefficient = -0.62, 95% 95% confidence interval: -1.15, -0.10, p = 0.020)]. The intervention also had significant positive effects on children's self-efficacy for reducing television viewing and on behavioural capability (television viewing styles). Future studies that assess the translation of efficacious programmes and that test whether such programmes are equally effective in different settings (e.g. in the family setting) are urgently required.

  3. Neuroscience of Exercise: Association Among Neurobiological Mechanisms and Mental Health.

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    Machado, Sergio; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscience is an emergent research field that comprises many multidisciplinary investigations, searches for explanations about the relationship between the body and the brain. Here, we will give a little summary of this field showing the main current findings. We discuss the lack of consistent data about the relationship among exercise for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, sports performance and rehabilitation, and therefore, the difficult to describe cause-effect associations or to describe in detail the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations.

  4. Soul, butterfly, mythological nymph: psyche in philosophy and neuroscience.

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    Antonakou, Elena I; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2017-03-01

    The term "psyche" and its derivatives - including "Psychology" and "Psychiatry" - are rooted in classical philosophy and in mythology. Over the centuries, psyche has been the subject of discourse and contemplation, and of fable; it has also come to signify, in entomology, the order of Lepidoptera. In the current surge of research on brain and mind, there is a gradual transition from the psyche (or the "soul") to the specified descriptors defined by the fields of Behavioral, Cognitive and Integrative Neuroscience.

  5. Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

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    Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  6. The neuroscience of remote memory

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    Squire, Larry R; Bayley, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in the organization and neurobiology of remote memory, and the pace of work in this area has accelerated. Yet the recent literature does not suggest that a consensus is developing, and there is disagreement about both facts and their interpretation. This article undertakes a comprehensive review of the three kinds of evidence that have been most prominent in recent discussion: studies of retrograde amnesia in memory-impaired patients who have well-characterized lesions, neuroimaging of healthy volunteers, and work with experimental animals including lesion studies, imaging and mouse genetics. The available evidence tells a coherent story and leads to some straightforward conclusions about the neuroscience of remote memory. PMID:17336513

  7. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators' complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a "functional MI" theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers' concerns about teaching and learning.

  8. Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó, José M; Small, Michael

    2017-06-28

    The application of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering to medicine is gaining momentum as the mutual benefits of this collaboration become increasingly obvious. This theme issue is intended to highlight the trend in the case of mathematics. Specifically, the scope of this theme issue is to give a general view of the current research in the application of mathematical methods to medicine, as well as to show how mathematics can help in such important aspects as understanding, prediction, treatment and data processing. To this end, three representative specialties have been selected: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology. Concerning the topics, the 12 research papers and one review included in this issue cover biofluids, cardiac and virus dynamics, computational neuroscience, functional magnetic resonance imaging data processing, neural networks, optimization of treatment strategies, time-series analysis and tumour growth. In conclusion, this theme issue contains a collection of fine contributions at the intersection of mathematics and medicine, not as an exercise in applied mathematics but as a multidisciplinary research effort that interests both communities and our society in general.This article is part of the themed issue 'Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. The neuroscience of prejudice and stereotyping.

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    Amodio, David M

    2014-10-01

    Despite global increases in diversity, social prejudices continue to fuel intergroup conflict, disparities and discrimination. Moreover, as norms have become more egalitarian, prejudices seem to have 'gone underground', operating covertly and often unconsciously, such that they are difficult to detect and control. Neuroscientists have recently begun to probe the neural basis of prejudice and stereotyping in an effort to identify the processes through which these biases form, influence behaviour and are regulated. This research aims to elucidate basic mechanisms of the social brain while advancing our understanding of intergroup bias in social behaviour.

  10. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: a neurophysical model of mind-brain interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey M; Stapp, Henry P; Beauregard, Mario

    2005-06-29

    Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behaviour generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore be formulated solely in terms of properties of these elements. Thus, terms having intrinsic mentalistic and/or experiential content (e.g. 'feeling', 'knowing' and 'effort') are not included as primary causal factors. This theoretical restriction is motivated primarily by ideas about the natural world that have been known to be fundamentally incorrect for more than three-quarters of a century. Contemporary basic physical theory differs profoundly from classic physics on the important matter of how the consciousness of human agents enters into the structure of empirical phenomena. The new principles contradict the older idea that local mechanical processes alone can account for the structure of all observed empirical data. Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human agents about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual framework for describing neural processes. Indeed, owing to certain structural features of ion channels critical to synaptic function, contemporary physical theory must in principle be used when analysing human brain dynamics. The new framework, unlike its classic-physics-based predecessor, is erected directly upon, and is compatible with, the prevailing principles of physics. It is able to represent more adequately than classic concepts the neuroplastic mechanisms relevant to the growing number of empirical studies of the capacity of directed attention and mental

  11. Computational neuroscience approach to biomarkers and treatments for mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Noriaki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2017-04-01

    Psychiatry research has long experienced a stagnation stemming from a lack of understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of phenomenologically defined mental disorders. Recently, the application of computational neuroscience to psychiatry research has shown great promise in establishing a link between phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of mental disorders, thereby recasting current nosology in more biologically meaningful dimensions. In this review, we highlight recent investigations into computational neuroscience that have undertaken either theory- or data-driven approaches to quantitatively delineate the mechanisms of mental disorders. The theory-driven approach, including reinforcement learning models, plays an integrative role in this process by enabling correspondence between behavior and disorder-specific alterations at multiple levels of brain organization, ranging from molecules to cells to circuits. Previous studies have explicated a plethora of defining symptoms of mental disorders, including anhedonia, inattention, and poor executive function. The data-driven approach, on the other hand, is an emerging field in computational neuroscience seeking to identify disorder-specific features among high-dimensional big data. Remarkably, various machine-learning techniques have been applied to neuroimaging data, and the extracted disorder-specific features have been used for automatic case-control classification. For many disorders, the reported accuracies have reached 90% or more. However, we note that rigorous tests on independent cohorts are critically required to translate this research into clinical applications. Finally, we discuss the utility of the disorder-specific features found by the data-driven approach to psychiatric therapies, including neurofeedback. Such developments will allow simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders using neuroimaging, thereby establishing 'theranostics' for the first time in clinical

  12. The Social Neuroscience of Interpersonal Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören; Krämer, Ulrike M; Paulus, Frieder M

    2017-01-01

    In our daily lives, we constantly engage in reciprocal interactions with other individuals and represent ourselves in the context of our surrounding social world. Within social interactions, humans often experience interpersonal emotions such as embarrassment, shame, guilt, or pride. How interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level is of major interest for social neuroscience research. While the configuration of laboratory settings in general is constraining for emotion research, recent neuroimaging investigations came up with new approaches to implement socially interactive and immersive scenarios for the real-life investigation of interpersonal emotions. These studies could show that among other brain regions the so-called mentalizing network, which is typically involved when we represent and make sense of others' states of mind, is associated with interpersonal emotions. The anterior insula/anterior cingulate cortex network at the same time processes one's own bodily arousal during such interpersonal emotional experiences. Current research aimed to explore how we make sense of others' emotional states during social interactions and investigates the modulating factors of our emotional experiences during social interactions. Understanding how interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level may yield significant implications for neuropsychiatric disorders that affect social behavior such as social anxiety disorders or autism.

  13. The principles and practices of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Varma, Sashank; Ansari, Daniel; Butterworth, Brian; De Smedt, Bert; Goswami, Usha; Laurillard, Diana; Thomas, Michael S C

    2016-10-01

    In his recent critique of Educational Neuroscience, Bowers argues that neuroscience has no role to play in informing education, which he equates with classroom teaching. Neuroscience, he suggests, adds nothing to what we can learn from psychology. In this commentary, we argue that Bowers' assertions misrepresent the nature and aims of the work in this new field. We suggest that, by contrast, psychological and neural levels of explanation complement rather than compete with each other. Bowers' analysis also fails to include a role for educational expertise-a guiding principle of our new field. On this basis, we conclude that his critique is potentially misleading. We set out the well-documented goals of research in Educational Neuroscience, and show how, in collaboration with educators, significant progress has already been achieved, with the prospect of even greater progress in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Dutch Research into User Behaviour in Relation to Energy Use of Residences

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    De Groot, E.; Spiekman, M. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Opstelten, I.J. [ECN ECN Efficiency en Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    The results of a literature review into user behaviour characteristics in relation to Dutch household energy use are reported. In succession, an extended probabilistic parameter study into the influence of variation of user related parameters on energy use has been executed. The probabilistic tool developed for the study will deliver characteristics of four fixed behavioural profiles which can be implemented in the energy performance calculations. Further, the probabilistic tool will be used to evaluate consequences of various user behaviour related to room ventilation and heating. The insight gained with this probabilistic study is used to define an approach to improve the interface of several building related energy devices in such a way that the user is challenged to behave more energy efficiently. Starting point for this approach has been knowledge on human technology interaction in the field of domestic appliances.

  15. Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Janet M; Roehrig, Gillian; Varma, Sashank

    2015-01-01

    Bruer (1997) advocated connecting neuroscience and education indirectly through the intermediate discipline of psychology. We argue for a parallel route: the neurobiology of learning, and in particular the core concept of plasticity, have the potential to directly transform teacher preparation and professional development, and ultimately to affect how students think about their own learning. We present a case study of how the core concepts of neuroscience can be brought to in-service teachers – the BrainU workshops. We then discuss how neuroscience can be meaningfully integrated into pre-service teacher preparation, focusing on institutional and cultural barriers. PMID:26139861

  16. Challenges and opportunities in social neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Decety, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Social species are so characterized because they form organizations that extend beyond the individual. The goal of social neuroscience is to investigate the biological mechanisms that underlie these social structures, processes, and behavior and the influences between social and neural structures and processes. Such an endeavor is challenging because it necessitates the integration of multiple levels. Mapping across systems and levels (from genome to social groups and cultures) requires interdisciplinary expertise, comparative studies, innovative methods, and integrative conceptual analysis. Examples of how social neuroscience is contributing to our understanding of the functions of the brain and nervous system are described, and societal implications of social neuroscience are considered. PMID:21251011

  17. Laughter as a scientific problem: An adventure in sidewalk neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provine, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Laughter is a stereotyped, innate, human play vocalization that provides an ideal simple system for neurobehavioral analyses of the sort usually associated with such animal models as walking, wing-flapping, and bird song. Laughter research is in its early stages, where the frontiers are near and accessible to simple observational procedures termed "sidewalk neuroscience." The basic, nontechnical approach of describing the act of laughter and when humans do it has revealed a variety of phenomena of social and neurological significance. Findings include the acoustic structure of laughter, the minimal voluntary control of laughter, contagiousness, the "punctuation effect" that describes the placement of laughter in conversation, the dominance of speech over laughter, the role of breath control in the evolution of speech, the evolutionary trajectory of laughter in primates, and the role of laughter in human matching and mating. If one knows where to look and how to see, advances in neuroscience are accessible to anyone and require minimal resources.

  18. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A new ethics of psychiatry: neuroethics, neuroscience, and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Erick H

    2009-09-01

    Neuroethics is a new subset of bioethics that addresses ethical issues pertaining to the brain, primarily in the fields of neuroscience, cognitive science, and neuroradiology. Research in brain science is progressing at a phenomenal rate and, as a result, the acquisition and application of knowledge and technology raises ethical questions of a practical and philosophical nature. While neuroethics is developing as a distinct field of study, one area that should be addressed in greater depth is the relevance and potential impact of neurotechnology in psychiatry. New knowledge in the mind-brain conundrum and increasingly sophisticated techniques for imaging and intervening in human cognition, emotion, and behavior pose ethical issues at the intersection of technology and psychiatry. This article presents a broad survey of the new directions in neuroethics, neuroscience, and technology and considers the implications of technological advances for the practice of psychiatry in the new millennium. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2009;15:391-401).

  20. Statistical learning analysis in neuroscience: aiming for transparency

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    Michael Hanke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by a rise of reciprocal interest between the machine learning and neuroscience communities, several recent studies have demonstrated the explanatory power of statistical learning techniques for the analysis of neural data. In order to facilitate a wider adoption of these methods neuroscientific research needs to ensure a maximum of transparency to allow for comprehensive evaluation of the employed procedures. We argue that such transparency requires ``neuroscience-aware'' technology for the performance of multivariate pattern analyses of neural data that can be documented in a comprehensive, yet comprehensible way. Recently, we introduced PyMVPA, a specialized Python framework for machine learning based data analysis that addresses this demand. Here we review its features and applicability to various neural data modalities.